WorldWideScience
1

Financial subsidies to the Australian fossil fuel industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A common claim during international greenhouse gas reduction negotiations has been that domestic emissions cuts will harm national economies. This argument fails to consider the distorting effect of existing financial subsidies and associated incentives to fossil fuel production and consumption provided by governments in most developed countries. These subsidies support a fossil fuel energy sector that is the major contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions and conflict with attempts to expand the role of sustainable energy technologies. Reform of these types of subsidies has the potential to provide substantial gains in economic efficiency as well as reductions in carbon dioxide emissions--a 'no regrets' outcome for the economy and the environment. This paper examines financial subsidies to fossil fuel production and consumption in Australia and estimates the magnitude of the subsidies. Subsidies and associated incentives to fossil fuel production and consumption in Australia are similar to those in the United States and the other countries that have pushed for increased 'flexibility' during international negotiations

2

ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS: FOSSIL FUEL, STEAM ELECTRIC GENERATING INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

The report addresses the energy requirements for environmental control in the fossil fuel, steam electric industry. These requirements arise through a number of mechanisms, including: direct fuel or electricity requirements for operating pollution control equipment, including pro...

3

Biotechnology for the mining, metal refining, and fossil fuel processing industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents the papers given at a conference on the biochemical processing of fossil fuels. Topics considered at the conference included the acid leaching of uranium ore materials with microbial catalysis, the biocatalytic production of sulfur from process waste streams, the microbiological desulfurization of coal and its increased monetary value, the microbial desulfurization of fossil fuels, microorganisms, and potential impact of biotechnology on the mining industry

4

Fossil fuels -- future fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

NONE

1998-03-01

5

Sustainability of Fossil Fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

For a sustainable world economy, energy is a bottleneck. Energy is at the basis of a modern, technological society, but unlike materials it cannot be recycled. Energy or more precisely "negentropy" (the opposite of entropy) is always consumed. Thus, one either accepts the use of large but finite resources or must stay within the limits imposed by dilute but self-renewing resources like sunlight. The challenge of sustainable energy is exacerbated by likely growth in world energy demand due to increased population and increased wealth. Most of the world still has to undergo the transition to a wealthy, stable society with the near zero population growth that characterizes a modern industrial society. This represents a huge unmet demand. If ten billion people were to consume energy like North Americans do today, world energy demand would be ten times higher. In addition, technological advances while often improving energy efficiency tend to raise energy demand by offering more opportunity for consumption. Energy consumption still increases at close to the 2.3% per year that would lead to a tenfold increase over the course of the next century. Meeting future energy demands while phasing out fossil fuels appears extremely difficult. Instead, the world needs sustainable or nearly sustainable fossil fuels. I propose the following definition of sustainable under which fossil fuels would well qualify: The use of a technology or resource is sustainable if the intended and unintended consequences will not force its abandonment within a reasonable planning horizon. Of course sustainable technologies must not be limited by resource depletion but this is only one of many concerns. Environmental impacts, excessive land use, and other constraints can equally limit the use of a technology and thus render it unsustainable. In the foreseeable future, fossil fuels are not limited by resource depletion. However, environmental concerns based on climate change and other environmental effects of injecting excess carbon into the environment need to be eliminated before fossil fuels can be considered sustainable. Sustainable fossil fuel use would likely rely on abundant, low-grade hydrocarbons like coal, tar, and shale. It would require a closed cycle approach in which carbon is extracted from the ground, processed for its energy content, and returned into safe and stable sinks for permanent disposal. Such sequestration technologies already exist and more advanced approaches that could maintain access to fossil energy for centuries are on the drawing boards. I will review these options and outline a pathway towards a zero emission fossil fuel based economy that could provide energy at prices comparable to those of today for several centuries. A successful implementation will depend not only on technological advances but also on the development of economic institutions that allow one to pay for the required carbon management. If done correctly the markets will decide whether renewable energy, or sustainable fossil energy provides a better choice.

Lackner, K. S.

2002-05-01

6

Nuclear Energy R&D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, entitled “Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors”, addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R&D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: • Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, • Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and • Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation’s energy security through more effective utilization of our country’s resources while simultaneously providing economic stability and growth (through predictable energy prices and high value jobs), in an environmentally sustainable and secure manner (through lower land and water use, and decreased byproduct emissions). The reduction in imported oil will also increase the retention of wealth within the U.S. economy while still supporting economic growth. Nuclear energy is the only non-fossil fuel that has been demonstrated to reliably supply energy for a growing industrial economy.

David Petti; J. Stephen Herring

2010-03-01

7

Nuclear Energy R and D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Nuclear Energy R and D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R and D Roadmap, entitled 'Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors', addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R and D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: (1) Gerial and transportation sectors to: (1) Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, (2) Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and (3) Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation's energy security through more effective utilization of our country's resources while simultaneously providing economic stability and growth (through predictable energy prices and high value jobs), in an environmentally sustainable and secure manner (through lower land and water use, and decreased byproduct emissions). The reduction in imported oil will also increase the retention of wealth within the U.S. economy while still supporting economic growth. Nuclear energy is the only non-fossil fuel that has been demonstrated to reliably supply energy for a growing industrial economy.

8

Supply of fossil heating and motor fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This comprehensive study made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) within the framework of the Energy Economics Fundamentals research programme examines if it can be guaranteed that Swiss industry can be supplied with fossil fuels for heating and transport purposes over the next few decades. The results of a comprehensive survey of literature on the subject are presented, with a major focus being placed on oil. The study examines both pessimistic and optimistic views and also presents an overview of fossil energy carriers and the possibilities of substituting them. Scenarios and prognoses on the availability of fossil fuels and their reserves for the future are presented. Also, new technologies for exploration and the extraction of fossil fuels are discussed, as are international interdependencies that influence supply. Market and price scenarios are presented that take account of a possible increasing scarcity of fossil fuels. The implications for industry and investment planning are examined

9

Design, quality, and quality assurance of solid recovered fuels for the substitution of fossil feedstock in the cement industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the requirements for the production, quality, and quality assurance of solid recovered fuels (SRF) that are increasingly used in the cement industry. Different aspects have to be considered before using SRF as an alternative fuel. Here, a study on the quality of SRF used in the cement industry is presented. This overview is completed by an investigation of type and properties of input materials used at waste splitting and SRF production plants in Austria. As a simplified classification, SRF can be divided into two classes: a fine, high-calorific SRF for the main burner, or coarser SRF material with low calorific value for secondary firing systems, such as precombustion chambers or similar systems. In the present study, SRFs coming from various sources that fall under these two different waste fuel classes are discussed. Both SRFs are actually fired in the grey clinker kiln of the Holcim (Slovensko) plant in Rohožnik (Slovakia). The fine premium-quality material is used in the main burner and the coarse regular-quality material is fed to a FLS Hotdisc combustion device. In general, the alternative fuels are used instead of their substituted fossil fuels. For this, chemical compositions and other properties of SRF were compared to hard coal as one of the most common conventional fuels in Europe. This approach allows to compare the heavy metal input from traditional and alternative fuels and to comment on the legal requirements on SRF that, at the moment, are under development in Europe. PMID:24942836

Sarc, R; Lorber, Ke; Pomberger, R; Rogetzer, M; Sipple, Em

2014-06-18

10

Fossil fuel emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An objective of environmental costing is to arrive at a social cost figure expressed in cents per kilowatt hour for each type of electric generation option. This figure can then be applied to incorporate environmental costs in utility planning and resource acquisition procedures to permit selection of the options that are of least cost to society. To arrive at externality costs expressed in cents per kilowatt hour, the analyst must first ascertain the pounds of each pollutant of concern emitted per kilowatt hour for each technology. This chapter addresses air pollutant emissions for fossil fuel-fired power plants. Chapter 5 A.-E. treats the costs to society of each major fossil fuel plant air pollutant in dollars per pound. Then, Chapter 6 A.-C. combines the air emissions figures of this chapter with the cost figures from Chapter 5 to arrive at the cents per kilowatt hour figures that can be used by utilities and regulators. All the above emissions and valuation figures are derived from identified studies reviewed

11

The legacy of fossil fuels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30?Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production. PMID:21290608

Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

2011-03-01

12

The legacy of fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production.

Armaroli, N.; Balzani, V. [CNR, Bologna (Italy)

2011-03-01

13

Status of fossil fuel reserves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

14

Fossil fuel usage and the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Greenhouse Effect and global warming, ozone formation in the troposphere, ozone destruction in the stratosphere, and acid rain are important environmental issues. The relationship of fossil fuel usage to some of these issues is discussed. Data on fossil fuel consumption and the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, and ozone indicate that natural gas provides lower emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen and sulfur oxides than other fossil fuels. Global emissions of methane from the gas industry are significantly less than those from other anthropogenic activities and natural sources, and methane plays an important role along with carbon monoxide and nitric oxide in tropospheric ozone formation. Reductions in any or all of these air pollutants would reduce ozone in the lower atmosphere. Several remedial measures have been or are being implemented in certain countries to reduce fossil fuel emissions. These include removal of emissions from the atmosphere by new biomass growth, fuel substitution by use of cleaner burning fuels for stationary and mobile sources, and fossil fuel combustion at higher efficiencies. It is unlikely that concerted environmental action by all governments of the world will occur soon, but much progress has been made to achieve clean air

15

Pipeline transport of fossile fuels.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Praha : Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics AS CR, 2003, s. -. [Engineering mechanics 2003 : national conference with international participation. Svratka (CZ), 12.05.2003-15.05.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IBS2060007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Keywords : pipeline transport * fossile fuel s * analysis Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

Vlasák, Pavel; Berman, V.; Chára, Zden?k

16

News technology utilization fossil fuel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fossil fuel ? ?alternative energy? is coal, petroleum, natural gas. Petroleum and natural gas are scarce resources, but they are delimited. Reserves petroleum will be depleted after 39 years and reserves natural gas after 60 years.World reserves coal are good for another 240 years. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel. It is the least expensive energy source for generating electricity. Many environmental problems associated with use of coal:in coal production, mining creates environmental problems.On Slovakia representative coal only important internal fuel ? power of source and coal is produced in 5 locality. Nowadays, oneself invest to new technology on utilization coal. Perspective solution onself shows UCG, IGCC.

Bli?ťanová Monika

2004-09-01

17

Sanitary effects of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

18

On Prediction of Depreciation Time of Fossil Fuel in Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The fossil fuels play a crucial role in the world energy markets. Demand for fossil fuels become increasingly high and worrisome, because of fossil fuels will be significantly reduced and ultimately exhausted. This study was conducted to predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels in Malaysia and estimate the time remaining before the fossil fuels will finish. Approach: To predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels, the reserves, consumption and prices of fossil fuel will be used. The prediction of fossil fuel reserves were estimated using ratio of fossil fuel reserve versus consumption, Klass Model and Modified Klass Model. The prediction time will give us the opportunity to prepare for the coming energy crisis and discover new energy sources. The results from the analysis will be concluded alongside with the Olduvai Theory and Hubbert Peak Theory. Both of the theories are highly related to the energy crisis. The Olduvai Theory states that the industrial civilization will last for approximately 100 year: circa 1930-2030. As for Hubbert Peak Theory, it can estimate the total amount of fossil fuels available based on the production rate from time to time. Results: Due to the vast usage of petroleum, it will be depleted faster than natural gas and coal. After 14 years, natural gas and coal will replace petroleum as a fossil fuel and coal would then be the major fossil fuels. Based on the results from Hubbert Peak Theory, the rate of production of petroleum has reached the maximum level in 2004 and started to decline since that time; while in the Olduvai theory, it has explained that the life expectancy of the industrial civilization was found to be ended in 2030. Petroleum will be spent over in 2020, followed by natural gas in 2058 and coal around the year 2066. Conclusion: So far, Malaysia has not facing disconnection of electricity as other developed countries. When this happens, it gives the meaning of the end of the industrial civilization where the electric power grids go down and never come back up. If there is no substance that can replace fossil fuels to continue in the industrial civilization, human civilization will be facing the fate of collapse.

Tey Jin Pin

2012-01-01

19

Fuel choice in new fossil fuel electric power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The long-run choice of fuels in new fossil fuel electric power plants in the U.S. during 1955-1979 is analyzed. Econometric analyses are conducted of whether a plant is capable of using a particular fossil fuel, whether the fuel is actually used, and the input share of the fuel (given that the plant is capable of burning the fuel). Estimates of fuel substitution and price elasticities are presented. 16 refs. (A.V.)

Seifi, A. (Ministry of Energy, Teheran (Iran)); McDonald, J.F.

1986-03-01

20

Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 14C-free fossil carbon added to atmospheric CO2 by combustion dilutes the atmospheric 14C/C ratio (?14C, potentially providing a means to verify fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. However, sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract this dilution and may bias 14C/C-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 if these nuclear influences are not correctly accounted for. Previous studies have examined nuclear influences on local scales, but the potential for continental-scale influences on ?14C has not yet been explored. We estimate annual 14C emissions from each nuclear site in the world and conduct an Eulerian transport modeling study to investigate the continental-scale, steady-state gradients of ?14C caused by nuclear activities and fossil fuel combustion. Over large regions of Europe, North America and East Asia, nuclear enrichment may offset at least 20% of the fossil fuel dilution in ?14C, corresponding to potential biases of more than ?0.25 ppm in the CO2 attributed to fossil fuel emissions, larger than the bias from plant and soil respiration in some areas. Model grid cells including high 14C-release reactors or fuel reprocessing sites showed much larger nuclear enrichment, despite the coarse model resolution of 1.8°×1.8°. The recent growth of nuclear 14C emissions increased the potential nuclear bias over 1985–2005, suggesting that changing nuclear activities may complicate the use of ?14C observations to identify trends in fossil fuel emissions. The magnitude of the potential nuclear bias is largely independent of the choice of reference station in the context of continental-scale Eulerian transport and inversion studies, but could potentially be reduced by an appropriate choice of reference station in the context of local-scale assessments.

N. Gruber

2011-12-01

21

Nuclear heat for fossil fuel processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papers presented at a recent conference on possible application of the HTR organised by the Nuclear Special Interest Group of the London and Home Counties section of the Institute of Energy are summarised. The subjects dealt with in the papers included; the case for considering the use of nuclear energy for high temperature fossil fuel processing, the history of the Dragon project and the current state of development of HTRs, coal gasification technology, the utilisation of nuclear energy for coal gasification, and the hydrogen economy. An insert in the article discusses the experimental Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor which ceased electricity production on 3 April 1981 after 18 years provision of essential research and development information for use in the British nuclear industry. (U.K.)

22

Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x108 ha in the case of biofuels from sugarcane or oil palm, and at least 1.8-3.6x109 ha in the case of ethanol from wheat, corn or sugar beet, as produced in industrialized countries. Biofuels from microalgae which are commercially produced with current technologies do not appear to outperform terrestrial plants such as sugarcane in their ability to displace fossil fuels. Whether they will able to do so on a commercial scale in the future, is uncertain.

Lucas Reijnders

2009-02-01

23

Constraints of fossil fuels depletion on global warming projections  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A scientific debate is in progress about the intersection of climate change with the new field of fossil fuels depletion geology. Here, new projections of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and global-mean temperature change are presented, should fossil fuels be exploited at a rate limited by geological availability only. The present work starts from the projections of fossil energy use, as obtained from ten independent sources. From such projections an upper bound, a lower bound and an ensemble mean profile for fossil CO{sub 2} emissions until 2200 are derived. Using the coupled gas-cycle/climate model MAGICC, the corresponding climatic projections out to 2200 are obtained. We find that CO{sub 2} concentration might increase up to about 480 ppm (445-540 ppm), while the global-mean temperature increase w.r.t. 2000 might reach 1.2 deg. C (0.9-1.6 deg. C). However, future improvements of fossil fuels recovery and discoveries of new resources might lead to higher emissions; hence our climatic projections are likely to be underestimated. In the absence of actions of emissions reduction, a level of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system might be already experienced toward the middle of the 21st century, despite the constraints imposed by the exhaustion of fossil fuels. - Highlights: > CO{sub 2} and global temperature are projected under fossil fuels exhaustion scenarios. > Temperature is projected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. C above pre-industrial. > Temperature projections are possibly lower than the IPCC ones. > Fossil fuels exhaustion will not avoid dangerous global warming.

Chiari, Luca, E-mail: chiari@science.unitn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo (Italy); Zecca, Antonio, E-mail: zecca@science.unitn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo (Italy)

2011-09-15

24

Constraints of fossil fuels depletion on global warming projections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A scientific debate is in progress about the intersection of climate change with the new field of fossil fuels depletion geology. Here, new projections of atmospheric CO2 concentration and global-mean temperature change are presented, should fossil fuels be exploited at a rate limited by geological availability only. The present work starts from the projections of fossil energy use, as obtained from ten independent sources. From such projections an upper bound, a lower bound and an ensemble mean profile for fossil CO2 emissions until 2200 are derived. Using the coupled gas-cycle/climate model MAGICC, the corresponding climatic projections out to 2200 are obtained. We find that CO2 concentration might increase up to about 480 ppm (445-540 ppm), while the global-mean temperature increase w.r.t. 2000 might reach 1.2 deg. C (0.9-1.6 deg. C). However, future improvements of fossil fuels recovery and discoveries of new resources might lead to higher emissions; hence our climatic projections are likely to be underestimated. In the absence of actions of emissions reduction, a level of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system might be already experienced toward the middle of the 21st century, despite the constraints imposed by the exhaustion of fossil fuels. - Highlights: ? CO2 and global temperature are projected under fossil fuels exhaustion scenarios. ? Temperature is projected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. rojected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. C above pre-industrial. ? Temperature projections are possibly lower than the IPCC ones. ? Fossil fuels exhaustion will not avoid dangerous global warming.

25

Environmental damage caused by fossil fuels consumption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that the objectives of this study is to identify the negative effects of the fossil fuels use and to evaluate their economic significance. An economic value of the damage for each of the analyzed effects has been estimated in US dollars per unit energy of the fuel used ($/GJ). This external costs of fossil fuel use should be added to their existing market price, and such real costs should be compared with the real costs of other, environmentally acceptable, energy alternatives, such as hydrogen

26

Steam generation: fossil-fired systems: utility boilers; industrial boilers; boiler auxillaries; nuclear systems: boiling water; pressurized water; in-core fuel management; steam-cycle systems: condensate/feedwater; circulating water; water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of development in steam generation is presented. First, fossil-fired systems are described. Progress in the design of utility and industrial boilers as well as in boiler auxiliaries is traced. Improvements in coal pulverizers, burners that cut pollution and improve efficiency, fans, air heaters and economisers are noted. Nuclear systems are then described, including the BWR and PWR reactors, in-core fuel management techniques are described. Finally, steam-cycle systems for fossil-fired and nuclear power plants are reviewed. Condensate/feedwater systems, circulating water systems, cooling towers, and water treatment systems are discussed

27

Options for decarbonising fossil fuel energy supplies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measures to mitigate anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels are examined. Among these measures, capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide is one of the most significant (i.e. next to using fuels with lower carbon content and increasing the efficiency of energy conversion and use). It is suggested that in coal and gas-fired power plants, separation of carbon dioxide is possible now with available technology which would add about two cents per kWh to the cost of generating electricity and a loss of about 10 per cent of the overall efficiency of the plant. Separation of the carbon from the fossil fuel before combustion is a recently identified alternative. Cost and performance implications of this approach and a number of its variants are reviewed. Fossil fuels burnt in small, distributed appliances could also achieve significant reductions in emissions by being supplied with a decarbonised energy carrier, such as hydrogen. Hydrogen could be manufactured from fossil fuels and the carbon dioxide removed from any of these processes sequestered in deep underground saline reservoirs, in unused oil or natural gas fields, or in unmineable coal seams. Another technically feasible option would be sequestration in the deep ocean, the eventual natural destination of most atmospheric carbon dioxide. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs. (Figures captioned but not supplied)

28

Fossil-fuel constraints on global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2008 and 2009 two papers by Kharecha and Hansen and by Nel and Cooper examined possible fossil energy availability and energy consumption scenarios and consequences for future climate. The papers yield somewhat similar results regarding atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, but they reach substantially different conclusions regarding future climate change. Here, we compare their methods and results. Our work shows that Nel and Cooper's paper significantly underestimates future warming. Nel and Cooper conclude that even if all the available fossil fuels would be burned at the maximum possible rate during this century, the consequent warming would cap at less than 1 C above the 2000 level. We find that - under Nel and Cooper's assumption of an intensive exploitation of fossil fuels - the global temperature in 2100 will likely reach levels which would lead to severely damaging long-term impacts. (author)

Zecca, Antonio; Chiari, Luca [Physics Department, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo TN (Italy)

2010-01-15

29

Fossil-fuel constraints on global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2008 and 2009 two papers by Kharecha and Hansen and by Nel and Cooper examined possible fossil energy availability and energy consumption scenarios and consequences for future climate. The papers yield somewhat similar results regarding atmospheric CO2 levels, but they reach substantially different conclusions regarding future climate change. Here, we compare their methods and results. Our work shows that Nel and Cooper's paper significantly underestimates future warming. Nel and Cooper conclude that even if all the available fossil fuels would be burned at the maximum possible rate during this century, the consequent warming would cap at less than 1 deg. C above the 2000 level. We find that - under Nel and Cooper's assumption of an intensive exploitation of fossil fuels - the global temperature in 2100 will likely reach levels which would lead to severely damaging long-term impacts.

30

Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fossil fuel supplies modeling and research effort focuses on models for US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) planning and management. Topics covered included new SPR oil valuation models, updating models for SPR risk analysis, and fill-draw planning. Another task in this program area is the development of advanced computational tools for three-dimensional seismic analysis.

Leiby, P.N.

1996-06-01

31

When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude oil, coal and gas are the main resources for world energy supply. The size of fossil fuel reserves and the dilemma that 'when non-renewable energy will be diminished' is a fundamental and doubtful question that needs to be answered. This paper presents a new formula for calculating when fossil fuel reserves are likely to be depleted and develops an econometrics model to demonstrate the relationship between fossil fuel reserves and some main variables. The new formula is modified from the Klass model and thus assumes a continuous compound rate and computes fossil fuel reserve depletion times for oil, coal and gas of approximately 35, 107 and 37 years, respectively. This means that coal reserves are available up to 2112, and will be the only fossil fuel remaining after 2042. In the Econometrics model, the main exogenous variables affecting oil, coal and gas reserve trends are their consumption and respective prices between 1980 and 2006. The models for oil and gas reserves unexpectedly show a positive and significant relationship with consumption, while presenting a negative and significant relationship with price. The econometrics model for coal reserves, however, expectedly illustrates a negative and significant relationship with consumption and a positive and significant relationship with price. Consequently, huge reserves of coal and low-level coal prices in comparison to oil and gas make coal one of the main energy substitutions for oil and gas in the future,bstitutions for oil and gas in the future, under the assumption of coal as a clean energy source

32

When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude oil, coal and gas are the main resources for world energy supply. The size of fossil fuel reserves and the dilemma that 'when non-renewable energy will be diminished' is a fundamental and doubtful question that needs to be answered. This paper presents a new formula for calculating when fossil fuel reserves are likely to be depleted and develops an econometrics model to demonstrate the relationship between fossil fuel reserves and some main variables. The new formula is modified from the Klass model and thus assumes a continuous compound rate and computes fossil fuel reserve depletion times for oil, coal and gas of approximately 35, 107 and 37 years, respectively. This means that coal reserves are available up to 2112, and will be the only fossil fuel remaining after 2042. In the Econometrics model, the main exogenous variables affecting oil, coal and gas reserve trends are their consumption and respective prices between 1980 and 2006. The models for oil and gas reserves unexpectedly show a positive and significant relationship with consumption, while presenting a negative and significant relationship with price. The econometrics model for coal reserves, however, expectedly illustrates a negative and significant relationship with consumption and a positive and significant relationship with price. Consequently, huge reserves of coal and low-level coal prices in comparison to oil and gas make coal one of the main energy substitutions for oil and gas in the future,bstitutions for oil and gas in the future, under the assumption of coal as a clean energy source. (author)

33

Emissions Scenarios and Fossil-fuel Peaking  

Science.gov (United States)

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emissions scenarios are based on detailed energy system models in which demographics, technology and economics are used to generate projections of future world energy consumption, and therefore, of greenhouse gas emissions. Built into the assumptions for these scenarios are estimates for ultimately recoverable resources of various fossil fuels. There is a growing chorus of critics who believe that the true extent of recoverable fossil resources is much smaller than the amounts taken as a baseline for the IPCC scenarios. In a climate optimist camp are those who contend that "peak oil" will lead to a switch to renewable energy sources, while others point out that high prices for oil caused by supply limitations could very well lead to a transition to liquid fuels that actually increase total carbon emissions. We examine a third scenario in which high energy prices, which are correlated with increasing infrastructure, exploration and development costs, conspire to limit the potential for making a switch to coal or natural gas for liquid fuels. In addition, the same increasing costs limit the potential for expansion of tar sand and shale oil recovery. In our qualitative model of the energy system, backed by data from short- and medium-term trends, we have a useful way to gain a sense of potential carbon emission bounds. A bound for 21st century emissions is investigated based on two assumptions: first, that extractable fossil-fuel resources follow the trends assumed by "peak oil" adherents, and second, that little is done in the way of climate mitigation policies. If resources, and perhaps more importantly, extraction rates, of fossil fuels are limited compared to assumptions in the emissions scenarios, a situation can arise in which emissions are supply-driven. However, we show that even in this "peak fossil-fuel" limit, carbon emissions are high enough to surpass 550 ppm or 2°C climate protection guardrails. Some indicators are presented that the scenario presented here should not be disregarded, and comparisons are made to the outputs of emission scenarios used for the IPCC reports.

Brecha, R.

2008-12-01

34

The Government’s financial support for fossil fuel companies is being overlooked  

OpenAIRE

Bob Ward explores the subsidies currently doled out by the government to fossil fuel companies and asks why it has not attracted the same degree of criticism as subsidies for the renewable energy industry.

Ward, Bob

2012-01-01

35

The environmental dilemma of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide poses an environmental dilemma for fossil fuel energy generation that, unlike other related emissions, cannot be resolved by control technologies alone. Although fossil fuels presently provide the most cost-effective global energy source, and model projections suggest that their use is initiating climatic changes which, while quite uncertain, may induce significant, counter-balancing impacts to water resources, coastal resources, ecological systems, and possibly agricultural production. The climate model indicate that the warming should have begun, and there is some evidence for this occurring, but at a less rapid and more uneven rate than projected. In addition, different climate models are not yet in agreement in their latitudinal or regional predictions, and it will likely require a decade or more for such agreement to develop as high performance computers become available for addressing this ''grand challenge'' problem. Thus, in addition to the prospect for climatic change, the uncertainties of the changes and associated impacts contribute to the dilemma of dealing with the issue. Further, the problem is pervasive and international scope, with different countries and peoples having differing perspectives of technology, development, and environmental responsibility. Dealing with this issue will thus require creativity, commitment, and flexibility

36

Traversing the mountaintop: world fossil fuel production to 2050  

OpenAIRE

During the past century, fossil fuels—petroleum liquids, natural gas and coal—were the dominant source of world energy production. From 1950 to 2005, fossil fuels provided 85–93% of all energy production. All fossil fuels grew substantially during this period, their combined growth exceeding the increase in world population. This growth, however, was irregular, providing for rapidly growing per capita production from 1950 to 1980, stable per capita production from 1980 to 2000 and risin...

Nehring, Richard

2009-01-01

37

Depletion of fossil fuels and anthropogenic climate change : a review  

OpenAIRE

Future scenarios with significant anthropogenic climate change also display large increases in world production of fossil fuels, the principal CO2 emission source. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has also been identified as a future challenge. This chapter reviews the connection between these two issues and concludes that limits to availability of fossil fuels will set a limit for mankind’s ability to affect the climate. However, this limit is unclear as various studies have reached quite ...

Ho?o?k, Mikael; Tang, Xu

2013-01-01

38

MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT: FOSSIL FUEL CO-FIRING  

Science.gov (United States)

The report identifies refuse derived fuel (RDF) processing operations and various RDF types; describes such fossil fuel co-firing techniques as coal fired spreader stokers, pulverized coal wall fired boilers, pulverized coal tangentially fired boilers, and cyclone fired boilers; ...

39

API focuses on cleanliness, economics of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fossil fuels, consumed in free markets, are playing positive economic and environmental roles as the world economy becomes integrated, industry leader said last week. Environmental zealots threaten to force conversion from gasoline as a motor fuel in the U.S. and oppose the growing integration of the world economy. Fossil fuels, free markets, human creativity, and entrepreneurial spirit--not government intervention--are the keys to a clean environment, said API pres. Charles J. DiBona and outgoing Chairman C.J. (Pete) Silas, chairman and chief executive officer of Phillips Petroleum Co. DiBona said proponents of the BTU tax defeated earlier this year used erroneous assumptions to make a case against oil use in an effort to replace the efficiency of the marketplace with the inefficiency of bureaucracy. The government's role is to set tough standards and avoid dictating the way environmental standards are met, they said. Other speakers warned that voluntary measures put forward by the Clinton administration of address global climate change issues likely will fall short

40

Environmental effects of fossil fuel combustion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fossil fuel which include natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen are the main source of heat and electrical energy. All these fuels contain beside major constituents (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) other materials as metal, sulfur and nitrogen compounds. During the combustion process different pollutants as fly ash, sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3), nitrogen oxides (NOx NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds are emitted. Fly ash contain different trace elements (heavy metals). Gross emission of pollutants is tremendous all over the world. These pollutants are present in the atmosphere in such conditions that they can affect man and his environment. Air pollution caused by the particulate matter and other pollutants not only acts directly on environment but by contamination of water and soil leads to their degradation. Wet and dry deposition of inorganic pollutants leads to acidification of environment. These phenomena affect health of the people, increase corrosion, destroy cultivated soil and forests. Most of the plants, especially coniferous trees are not resistant to sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Following longer exposure leaves wither and fall. Widespread forest damage has been reported in Europe and North America regions. Many cultivated plants are not resistant to these pollutants either especially in the early period vegetation. The mechanisms of pollutants transformation in atmosphere are described by environmental chemistry. An important role in these transformations plays photochemistry. SO2 and NOx are oxidized and sulfuric and nitric acids are formed in presence of water vapours, fog and droplets. Other problem discussed connected with human activities is emission of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere. These emissions cause stratospheric ozone depletion, ground level photochemical ozone formation, toxic or carcinogenic human health effects, enhancing the global greenhouse effect, accumulation and persistence in environment. Wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) can be applied for flue gas treatment and SO2 and NOx emission control. (author)

41

Status of fossil fuel reserves; Etat des reserves des combustibles fossiles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

Laherrere, J

2005-07-01

42

Fossil fuels. Commercializing clean coal technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal, an abundant domestic energy source, provides 25 percent of the nation's energy needs, but its use contributes to various types of pollution, including acid rain. The Department of Energy (DOE) has a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program whose goal is to expand the use of coal in an environmentally safe manner by contributing to the cost of projects demonstrating the commercial applications of emerging clean coal technologies. Concerned about the implementation of the CCT program, the Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy and Power, House Committee on Energy and Commerce, requested GAO to report on (1) DOE's process of negotiating cooperative agreements with project sponsors, (2) changes DOE has made to the program, (3) the status of funded projects, and (4) the interrelationship between acid rain control proposals and the potential commercialization of clean coal technologies. Under the CCT program, DOE funds up to 50 percent of the cost of financing projects that demonstrate commercial applications of emerging clean coal technologies. DOE has conducted two solicitations for demonstration project proposals and is planning a third solicitation by May 1989. The Congress has appropriated $400 million for the first solicitation, or round one of the program, $575 million for round two, and $575 million for round three, for a total of $1.55 billion. For the round-one solicitation, DOE received 51 proposals from project sponsors. As of December 31, 1988, DOE had funded nine projects and was in the process of negotiating cooperative financial assistance agreements with sponsors of four projects. In September 1988, DOE selected 16 round-two projects from 55 proposals submitted and began the process of negotiating cooperative agreements with the project sponsors. The Congress has debated the need to reduce acid rain-causing emissions associated with fossil fuel combustion. The 100th Congress considered but did not enact about 20 acid rain control bills. On February 9, 1989, President Bush told the Congress that he plans to propose legislation for a new, more effective Clean Air Act, which will include a plan to reduce, by a specific date, the emissions that cause acid rain. DOE experienced difficulties in negotiating cooperative agreements with round-one project sponsors, which delayed completing agreements for five projects and resulted in the termination of negotiations for three projects. One of the main problems was that project sponsors had difficulty in completing financial and other business arrangements to fund their share of project costs. Negotiations were also delayed because of (1) sponsors' reluctance to agree to repay the federal share of project costs should the technology become commercialized and (2) sponsors' and other project participants' reluctance to release proprietary data to DOE. Further, DOE headquarters review and approval process to ensure negotiation consistency added time to the agreement formalization process. Although DOE made changes for round two of the program, federal repayment requirements and proprietary data rights could continue to cause delays in completing agreements with project sponsors. Seven of the nine funded round-one projects are not progressing as planned because of equipment failure, delays in obtaining equipment, project financing problems, and delays in obtaining permits. DOE said it is too early to tell whether the slippage will affect the timing of the commercial availability of the clean coal technologies. The CCT program can play an important role in reducing emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants. The new administration has indicated its commitment to full funding of the program. Enactment of legislation that prescribes stringent deadlines and/or reduced levels of emissions to control acid rain could affect the program's potential effectiveness by diverting investment from emerging clean coal technologies into available conventional technologies. On the other hand, enactment of legislation that allows for development of emerging technologies while also requiring some

43

Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the `Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.` Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the `low emission sources` and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1995-11-01

44

Development of an atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 monitoring station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. The aim of the project supported by Hungarian NSF (ref No. F69029) is determination of atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 concentration in major cities or average industrial regions in Hungary using together measurement of CO2 mixing ratio and radiocarbon (14C) content of the air. For this aim we developed a high precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station in ATOMKI (Figure 1.). The station's measuring system is based on an Ultramat 6F (Siemens) infrared gas analyser. To help continuous, unattended run and autocalibration we built up an automatic gas handling line for the analyzer. For radiocarbon measurements we applied an integrating sampling system. One was installed in Debrecen station and two independent 14CO2 sampling line were installed 400 km far from Debrecen at Hegyhatsal station as background references. During several tests of the measuring and sampling systems we demonstrated that uncertainty of individual CO2 mixing ratio results is less than 0.5 ppm and the applied radiocarbon sampling system developed by ATOMKI works with good reproducibility. In September and October of 2008 we measured the mixing ratio and radiocarbon content of atmospheric CO2 at Debrecen and the far rural reference station (Hegyhatsal) simultaneously. It was concluded that trends in CO2 mixing ratio variations in time are very similar at the three diffen time are very similar at the three different sampling points (2 m above ground in Debrecen, 10 m and 115 m above ground in Hegyhatsal). Air quality in Debrecen during September of 2008 seemed to be relatively clear from the point of view of its CO2 content at least. When winter came in October, with lower outside temperature and less sunshine hours the CO2 content of air was increased in general at all the three sampling points, but this effect was more intensive closer to the ground level. According our radiocarbon observations it was clearly indicated that there was not significant amount of fossil fuel CO2 in the air of Debrecen during September in 2008. But in October of 2008 the ?14C value of atmospheric CO2 of Debrecen decreased with more than 40 h relative to September's results, and according our calculations it was caused by about 20 ppm fossil fuel CO2 which appeared as a surplus amount in the air above the previous months carbon dioxide level. Using the developed mobile and high precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station we plan to determine the atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 trend in the whole 2008/2009 winter in Debrecen

45

Reliability estimation for multiunit nuclear and fossil-fired industrial energy systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As petroleum-based fuels grow increasingly scarce and costly, nuclear energy may become an important alternative source of industrial energy. Initial applications would most likely include a mix of fossil-fired and nuclear sources of process energy. A means for determining the overall reliability of these mixed systems is a fundamental aspect of demonstrating their feasibility to potential industrial users. Reliability data from nuclear and fossil-fired plants are presented, and several methods of applying these data for calculating the reliability of reasonably complex industrial energy supply systems are given. Reliability estimates made under a number of simplifying assumptions indicate that multiple nuclear units or a combination of nuclear and fossil-fired plants could provide adequate reliability to meet industrial requirements for continuity of service

46

75 FR 66008 - Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EERE-2010-BT-STD-0031] RIN 1904-AB96 Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction...NOPR) regarding the fossil fuel- generated energy consumption [[Page 66009...comments regarding the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption...

2010-10-27

47

Fossil fuels in a sustainable energy future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The coal industry in the United States has become a world leader in safety, productivity, and environmental protection in the mining of coal. The {open_quotes}pick-and-shovel{close_quotes} miner with mangled limbs and black lung disease has been replaced by the highly skilled technicians that lead the world in tons per man-hour. The gob piles, polluted streams, and scared land are a thing of the past. The complementary efforts of the DOE and EPRI-funded programs in coal utilization R&D and the Clean Coal Technology Program commercial demonstrations, have positioned the power generation industry to utilize coal in a way that doesn`t pollute the air or water, keeps electrical power costs low, and avoids the mountains of waste material. This paper reviews the potential for advanced coal utilization technologies in new power generation applications as well as the repowering of existing plants to increase their output, raise their efficiency, and reduce pollution. It demonstrates the potential for these advanced coal-fueled plants to play a complementary role in future planning with the natural gas and oil fired units currently favored in the market place. The status of the US program to demonstrate these technologies at commercial scale is reviewed in some detail.

Bechtel, T.F. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

1995-12-01

48

Hydrogen production econometric studies. [hydrogen and fossil fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

The current assessments of fossil fuel resources in the United States were examined, and predictions of the maximum and minimum lifetimes of recoverable resources according to these assessments are presented. In addition, current rates of production in quads/year for the fossil fuels were determined from the literature. Where possible, costs of energy, location of reserves, and remaining time before these reserves are exhausted are given. Limitations that appear to hinder complete development of each energy source are outlined.

Howell, J. R.; Bannerot, R. B.

1975-01-01

49

A long-term view of worldwide fossil fuel prices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews a long-term trend of worldwide fossil fuel prices in the future by introducing a new method to forecast oil, natural gas and coal prices. The first section of this study analyses the global fossil fuel market and the historical trend of real and nominal fossil fuel prices from 1950 to 2008. Historical fossil fuel price analysis shows that coal prices are decreasing, while natural gas prices are increasing. The second section reviews previously available price modelling techniques and proposes a new comprehensive version of the long-term trend reverting jump and dip diffusion model. The third section uses the new model to forecast fossil fuel prices in nominal and real terms from 2009 to 2018. The new model follows the extrapolation of the historical sinusoidal trend of nominal and real fossil fuel prices. The historical trends show an increase in nominal/real oil and natural gas prices plus nominal coal prices, as well as a decrease in real coal prices. Furthermore, the new model forecasts that oil, natural gas and coal will stay in jump for the next couple of years and after that they will revert back to the long-term trend until 2018. (author)

50

Too much petroleum. Fossil fuels and climatic change; Trop de petrole. Energie fossile et rechauffement climatique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the framework of the global warming, the author forecasts on the consequences of fossil fuels use, taking into account that the problem of the fossil energies is not a problem of shortage but a problem of environmental pollution. He proposes then radical and original solutions where a change of life attitudes, the necessity of the nuclear energy and a beginning of actions even without a world cooperation. (A.L.B.)

Prevot, H

2007-01-15

51

Hydrogen Separation Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eltron Research and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. By appropriately changing the catalysts coupled with the membrane, essentially the same system can be used to facilitate alkane dehydrogenation and coupling, aromatics processing, and hydrogen sulfide decomposition.

Roark, Shane E.; Mackay, Richard; Sammells, Anthony F.

2001-11-06

52

ADVANCED FOSSIL FUEL AND THE ENVIRONMENT: AN EXECUTIVE REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

This executive-level report gives an overview of some of the more advanced fossil fuel technologies, including several Chemical Coal Cleaning and Liquid Fuels Cleaning methods. Synthetic fuels, Chemically Active Fluid Beds, and Oil Shale are also considered as viable advanced pro...

53

Soviet steam generator technology: fossil fuel and nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Soviet Union, particular operational requirements, coupled with a centralized planning system adopted in the 1920s, have led to a current technology which differs in significant ways from its counterparts elsewhere in the would and particularly in the United States. However, the monograph has a broader value in that it traces the development of steam generators in response to the industrial requirements of a major nation dealing with the global energy situation. Specifically, it shows how Soviet steam generator technology evolved as a result of changing industrial requirements, fuel availability, and national fuel utilization policy. The monograph begins with a brief technical introduction focusing on steam-turbine power plants, and includes a discussion of the Soviet Union's regional power supply (GRES) networks and heat and power plant (TETs) systems. TETs may be described as large central co-generating stations which, in addition to electricity, provide heat in the form of steam and hot water. Plants of this type are a common feature of the USSR today. The adoption of these cogeneration units as a matter of national policy has had a central influence on Soviet steam generator technology which can be traced throughout the monograph. The six chapters contain: a short history of steam generators in the USSR; steam generator design and manufacture in the USSR; boiler and furnace assemblies for fossil fuel-fired power stations; auxiliary components; steam generattions; auxiliary components; steam generators in nuclear power plants; and the current status of the Soviet steam generator industry. Chapters have been abstracted separately. A glossary is included containing abbreviations and acronyms of USSR organizations. 26 references

54

Biomass gasification - a substitute to fossil fuel for heat application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper addresses case studies of a low temperature and a high temperature industrial heat requirement being met using biomass gasification. The gasification system for these applications consists of an open top down draft reburn reactor lined with ceramic. Necessary cooling and cleaning systems are incorporated in the package to meet the end use requirements. The other elements included are the fuel conveyor, water treatment plant for recirculating the cooling water and adequate automation to start, shut down and control the operations of the gasifier system. Drying of marigold flower, a low temperature application is considered to replace diesel fuel in the range of 125-150 lh{sup -1}. Gas from the 500 kgh{sup -1}, gasifier system is piped into the producer gas burners fixed in the combustion chamber with the downstream process similar to the diesel burner. The high temperature application is for a heat treatment furnace in the temperature range of 873-1200 K. A 300 kgh{sup -1} of biomass gasifier replaces 2000 l of diesel or LDO per day completely. The novelty of this package is the use of one gasifier to energize 16 burners in the 8 furnaces with different temperature requirements. The system operates over 140 h per week on a nearly nonstop mode and over 4000 h of operation replacing fossil fuel completely. The advantage of bioenergy package towards the economic and environmental considerations is presented. (author)

Dasappa, S.; Sridhar, H.V.; Sridhar, G.; Paul, P.J.; Mukunda, H.S. [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India). Center for ASTRA

2003-12-01

55

Methane from fuel combustion and industrial processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview is given of current estimates of global methane emissions from fuel combustion, including non-commercial fuels, and industrial non-combustion sources (so-called industrial processes). The largest contributions appear to be from the combustion of fuelwood and crop residues, with also large uncertainty ranges. On a global basis, road transport and residential coal combustion are relatively minor sources, when compared to fuelwood and crop residues. Of the other sources stationary combustion, other transport and industrial processes, in particular coal combustion and iron and steel manufacturing are of some importance. Based on detailed emission factors for CH4 by fuel type or industrial process and associated activity levels a bottom-up estimate of global source strengths has been prepared and compared with some other recent estimates. Fossil fuel production and transmission, landfills and other waste treatment processes are not considered here. 27 refs., 7 tabs

56

Criteria for solid recovered fuels as a substitute for fossil fuels--a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The waste treatment, particularly the thermal treatment of waste has changed fundamentally in the last 20 years, i.e. from facilities solely dedicated to the thermal treatment of waste to facilities, which in addition to that ensure the safe plant operation and fulfill very ambitious criteria regarding emission reduction, resource recovery and energy efficiency as well. Therefore this contributes to the economic use of raw materials and due to the energy recovered from waste also to the energy provision. The development described had the consequence that waste and solid recovered fuels (SRF) has to be evaluated based on fuel criteria as well. Fossil fuels - coal, crude oil, natural gas etc. have been extensively investigated due to their application in plants for energy conversion and also due to their use in the primary industry. Thereby depending on the respective processes, criteria on fuel technical properties can be derived. The methods for engineering analysis of regular fuels (fossil fuels) can be transferred only partially to SRF. For this reason methods are being developed or adapted to current analytical methods for the characterization of SRF. In this paper the possibilities of the energetic utilization of SRF and the characterization of SRF before and during the energetic utilization will be discussed. PMID:22467662

Beckmann, Michael; Pohl, Martin; Bernhardt, Daniel; Gebauer, Kathrin

2012-04-01

57

Too much petroleum. Fossil fuels and climatic change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of the global warming, the author forecasts on the consequences of fossil fuels use, taking into account that the problem of the fossil energies is not a problem of shortage but a problem of environmental pollution. He proposes then radical and original solutions where a change of life attitudes, the necessity of the nuclear energy and a beginning of actions even without a world cooperation. (A.L.B.)

58

Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels  

OpenAIRE

Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x10(8) ha in t...

Lucas Reijnders

2009-01-01

59

The future of oil: unconventional fossil fuels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unconventional fossil hydrocarbons fall into two categories: resource plays and conversion-sourced hydrocarbons. Resource plays involve the production of accumulations of solid, liquid or gaseous hydro-carbons that have been generated over geological time from organic matter in source rocks. The character of these hydrocarbons may have been modified subsequently, especially in the case of solids and extra-heavy liquids. These unconventional hydrocarbons therefore comprise accumulations of hydrocarbons that are trapped in an unconventional manner and/or whose economic exploitation requires complex and technically advanced production methods. This review focuses primarily on unconventional liquid hydro-carbons. The future potential of unconventional gas, especially shale gas, is also discussed, as it is revolutionizing the energy outlook in North America and elsewhere. PMID:24298078

Chew, Kenneth J

2014-01-13

60

Total energy analysis of nuclear and fossil fueled power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall thermal efficiencies of electrical power generation were determined for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder, High Temperature Gas Cooled, Boiling Water, and Pressurized Water Reactors and for coal-, oil-, and gas-fired systems. All important energy consuming steps from mining through processing, transporting, and reprocessing the fuels were included in the energy balance along with electrical transmission and thermal losses and energy expenditures for pollution abatement. The results of these studies show that the overall fuel cycle efficiency of the light water nuclear fueled reactors is less than the efficiency of modern fossil fuel cycles. However, the nuclear fuel cycle based on the fast breeder reactors should produce power more efficiently than the most modern supercritical fossil fuel cycles. The high temperature gas cooled reactor has a cycle efficiency comparable to the supercritical coal fuel cycle

61

Refractory failure in IGCC fossil fuel power systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current generation refractory materials used in slagging gasifiers employed in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) fossil fuel power systems have unacceptably short service lives, limiting the reliability and cost effectiveness of gasification as a means to generate power. The short service life of the refractory lining results from exposure to the extreme environment inside the operating gasifier, where the materials challenges include temperatures to 1650 C, thermal cycling, alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions, and the presence of corrosive slags and gases. Compounding these challenges is the current push within the industry for fuel flexibility, which results in slag chemistries and operating conditions that can vary widely as the feedstock for the gasifier is supplemented with alternative sources of carbon, such as petroleum coke and biomass. As a step toward our goal of developing improved refractory materials for this application, we have characterized refractory-slag interactions, under a variety of simulated gasifier conditions, utilizing laboratory exposure tests such as the static cup test and a gravimetric test. Combining this information with that gained from the post-mortem analyses of spent refractories removed from working gasifiers, we have developed a better understanding of refractory failure in gasifier environments. In this paper, we discuss refractory failures in slagging gasifiers and possible strategies to reduce them. Emphasis focuses on the refractories employed in gasifier systems which utilize coal as the primary feedstock.

Dogan, Cynthia P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.

2001-01-01

62

Alternative fuels in cement industry; Alternativa braenslen i cementindustrin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this project the cement industry`s possibilities to replace half of the fossil fuels with waste derived fuels are investigated. Bench-scale experiments, pilot plant tests and full scale tests have been done with used tires and plastics wastes

Nyman, K.E.; Ek, R. [Finnsementti Oy, Parainen (Finland); Maekelae, K. [Finreci Oy (Finland)

1997-10-01

63

Modeling CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion using the logistic equation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion have been known to contribute to the greenhouse effect. Research on emission trends and further forecasting their further values is important for adjusting energy policies, particularly those relative to low carbon. Except for a few countries, the main figures of CO2 emission from fossil fuel combustion in other countries are S-shaped curves. The logistic function is selected to simulate the S-shaped curve, and to improve the goodness of fit, three algorithms were provided to estimate its parameters. Considering the different emission characteristics of different industries, the three algorithms estimated the parameters of CO2 emission in each industry separately. The most suitable parameters for each industry are selected based on the criterion of Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE). With the combined simulation values of the selected models, the estimate of total CO2 emission from fossil fuel combustion is obtained. The empirical analysis of China shows that our method is better than the linear model in terms of goodness of fit and simulation risk. -- Highlights: ? Figures of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion in most countries are S-shape curves. ? Using the logistic function to model the S-shape curve. ? Three algorithms are offered to estimate the parameters of the logistic function. ? The empirical analysis from China shows that the logistic equation has satisfactory simulation results.

64

Fossil fuels without CO2 emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The climatic impact of fossil energy can be reduced by separating the resulting carbon and sequestering it away from the atmosphere. Recent work in carbon management (CM) - the linked processes of separating and collecting carbon and sequestering it in the ocean or ground - has shown substantial progress in developing the necessary technologies and in understanding the potential for sequestration. One large-scale project for sequestering CO2 is operational. Statoil in Norway separates 300 ktC of CO2 per year from a natural gas field and injects it into an aquifer in the North Sea. Other projects are planned. A pilot plant in Alberta, Canada aims to develop a zero-emission electric plant by exploring the technology of injecting CO2 to displace methane from coal beds. However, CM's technical progress is outpacing consideration of its limitations and potential risks. The article sketches recent technical developments in CM and discusses its implications for the policy and politics of global climate change. CM's near-term potential is seen as being at least as great as that of nonfossil energy. 19 refs

65

Political determinants of fossil fuel pricing:  

OpenAIRE

This paper provides an empirical analysis of economic and political determinants of gasoline and diesel prices for about 200 countries over the period 1991–2010. A range of both political and economic variables are found to systematically influence fuel prices, and in ways that differ systematically with countries’ per-capita income levels. For democracies, the analysis finds that fuel prices correlate positively with both duration of democracy and tenure of democratic leaders. In non-dem...

Beers, C. P.; Strand, J.

2013-01-01

66

Application of genetic algorithm (GA) technique on demand estimation of fossil fuels in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective is to investigate Turkey's fossil fuels demand, projection and supplies by using the structure of the Turkish industry and economic conditions. This study develops scenarios to analyze fossil fuels consumption and makes future projections based on a genetic algorithm (GA). The models developed in the nonlinear form are applied to the coal, oil and natural gas demand of Turkey. Genetic algorithm demand estimation models (GA-DEM) are developed to estimate the future coal, oil and natural gas demand values based on population, gross national product, import and export figures. It may be concluded that the proposed models can be used as alternative solutions and estimation techniques for the future fossil fuel utilization values of any country. In the study, coal, oil and natural gas consumption of Turkey are projected. Turkish fossil fuel demand is increased dramatically. Especially, coal, oil and natural gas consumption values are estimated to increase almost 2.82, 1.73 and 4.83 times between 2000 and 2020. In the figures GA-DEM results are compared with World Energy Council Turkish National Committee (WECTNC) projections. The observed results indicate that WECTNC overestimates the fossil fuel consumptions. (author)

67

Application of genetic algorithm (GA) technique on demand estimation of fossil fuels in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective is to investigate Turkey's fossil fuels demand, projection and supplies by using the structure of the Turkish industry and economic conditions. This study develops scenarios to analyze fossil fuels consumption and makes future projections based on a genetic algorithm (GA). The models developed in the nonlinear form are applied to the coal, oil and natural gas demand of Turkey. Genetic algorithm demand estimation models (GA-DEM) are developed to estimate the future coal, oil and natural gas demand values based on population, gross national product, import and export figures. It may be concluded that the proposed models can be used as alternative solutions and estimation techniques for the future fossil fuel utilization values of any country. In the study, coal, oil and natural gas consumption of Turkey are projected. Turkish fossil fuel demand is increased dramatically. Especially, coal, oil and natural gas consumption values are estimated to increase almost 2.82, 1.73 and 4.83 times between 2000 and 2020. In the figures GA-DEM results are compared with World Energy Council Turkish National Committee (WECTNC) projections. The observed results indicate that WECTNC overestimates the fossil fuel consumptions. (author)

Canyurt, Olcay Ersel; Ozturk, Harun Kemal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Pamukkale University, 20070 Kinikli, Denizli (Turkey)

2008-07-15

68

Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides

69

Fossil fuel combined cycle power generation method  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for converting fuel energy to electricity includes the steps of converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one mixed gas stream of lower average molecular weight including at least a first lower molecular weight gas and a second gas, the first and second gases being different gases, wherein the first lower molecular weight gas comprises H.sub.2 and the second gas comprises CO. The mixed gas is supplied to at least one turbine to produce electricity. The mixed gas stream is divided after the turbine into a first gas stream mainly comprising H.sub.2 and a second gas stream mainly comprising CO. The first and second gas streams are then electrochemically oxidized in separate fuel cells to produce electricity. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

Labinov, Solomon D [Knoxville, TN; Armstrong, Timothy R [Clinton, TN; Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN

2008-10-21

70

HEAT PUMPS: SUBSTITUTES FOR OUTMODED FOSSIL-FUELED SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report reviews the state-of-the-art relative to development, capacity, and adequacy of the heat pump as a potential replacement for outmoded fossil-fueled heating and cooling systems in the residential and commercial sector. Projections are made of the rate at which heat pump...

71

Separation enhanced reactors for de-carbonisation of fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the form of overhead sheets insight is given into the title process, focusing on research and development at ECN with respect to membrane reactors and sorbent reactors (sorption enhanced reforming process or SERP) for the de-carbonisation of fossil fuels (conversion of natural gas and coal into hydrogen)

Jansen, D.; Alderliesten, P.T. [ECN Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)

2005-02-01

72

Prospects of fossil-fuel electric power plants development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data characterizing the state and prospects of fossil-fuel electric power plants development are presented. Comparative analysis of economical indices for power plants with coal gasification of various types is carried out. The potential prospects for long-term application of such plants are proved

73

Energy 4: Fossil Fuels and the Greenhouse Gas Effect  

Science.gov (United States)

This video describes in detail the greenhouse effect and how recovery from energy from fossile fuels results in green house gases. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.

2012-12-19

74

A world-wide strategy for conserving fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with the fact that fossil fuels are capable technologies for savings energy in order to prevent the global warning. It gives some general principles of energy saving such as: Improvement of energy conversion rate; Lowering of burden; Use of natural energy; Storage of heat. (TEC)

75

PERSPECTIVE: Keeping a closer eye on fossil fuel CO2  

Science.gov (United States)

Peter F Nelson The world is watching expectantly as the clock winds down towards the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP15; http://en.cop15.dk/) to be held 7-18 December 2009 in Copenhagen. While most are now convinced of the need for a strong and concerted response to the climate challenge, the exact nature and extent of that response remains uncertain. There is evidence (Barnett 2009) that current estimates of emissions now exceed all but the most extreme emission scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). If that increase in emissions persists then temperature increases of 4 °C by 2060 have been predicted (Barnett 2009). An inevitable result of the potential for such extreme climate change is to advance the need for multiple adaptation strategies to decision making about, for example, infrastructure, urban planning and forest management. These strategies need to do more than incremental adaptation (Barnett 2009); instead transformative approaches may be required to adapt. The timing of the response is also proving to be a critical determining factor in the effectiveness of global actions. Using a simple conceptual model of emissions, Vaughan and co-workers (Vaughan et al 2009) show that avoiding dangerous climate change is more effective if such action begins early. Early action is also more effective than acting more aggressively later (Vaughan et al 2009). Uncertainties, although reduced, are still significant in the science of climate change. The interactions between control of particulate air pollutants and climate change are particularly challenging (Arneth et al 2009, Shindell et al 2009) but many other uncertainties require continuing research. The scientific uncertainties are only one aspect of an intense interdisciplinary, political, economic and cultural dialogue. It is clear that political will, economic interest, target setting for emissions reductions, adaptation, technology and financing (Pan 2009) will all have a major influence on progress to an international agreement. It is important that the political challenges are not underestimated. Long-term observers of the negotiations necessary for global agreements (Inman 2009) are pessimistic about the chances for success at COP15, and argue that agreements between smaller groups of countries may be more effective. China and other developing countries clearly expect greater emission cuts by developed nations as a condition for a successful deal (Pan 2009). Conversely, the constraints on US climate policies are considerable, notably those imposed by fears that an international agreement that does not include equitable emission control measures for developing countries like China and India, will compromise the agreement and reduce its effectiveness (Skodvin and Andresen 2009). In this context the need for earlier, and more reliable, information on emissions is a high priority. Myhre and coworkers (Myhre et al 2009) provide an efficient method for calculating global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion by combining industry statistics with data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC; http://cdiac.ornl.gov/). Recent analyses of carbon dioxide emission data show a worrying acceleration in emissions, beyond even the most extreme IPCC projections, but are based largely on the CDIAC which gives information about emissions released two to three years before real time (Canadell et al 2007, Raupach et al 2007). The approach used by Myhre et al (2009) uses BP annual statistics of fossil fuel consumption and has a much shorter lag, of the order of six months. Of significant concern is that their analysis of the data also reveals that the recent strong increase in fossil fuel CO2 is largely driven by an increase in emissions from coal, most significantly in China. By contrast, emissions from oil and gas continue to follow longer-term historical trends. Earlier and accurate data on CO2 emissions is important for a range of reasons. It allows comparison with the scenarios developed by the IPCC

Nelson, Peter F.

2009-12-01

76

US fossil fuel technologies for Thailand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy has been encouraging other countries to consider US coal and coal technologies in meeting their future energy needs. Thailand is one of three developing countries determined to be a potentially favorable market for such exports. This report briefly profiles Thailand with respect to population, employment, energy infrastructure and policies, as well as financial, economic, and trade issues. Thailand is shifting from a traditionally agrarian economy to one based more strongly on light manufacturing and will therefore require increased energy resources that are reliable and flexible in responding to anticipated growth. Thailand has extensive lignite deposits that could fuel a variety of coal-based technologies. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors could utilize this resource and still permit Thailand to meet emission standards for sulfur dioxide. This option also lends itself to small-scale applications suitable for private-sector power generation. Slagging combustors and coal-water mixtures also appear to have potential. Both new construction and refurbishment of existing plants are planned. 18 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

Buehring, W.A.; Dials, G.E.; Gillette, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.; Traczyk, P.A.

1990-10-01

77

Renewable hydrogen production for fossil fuel processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the fundamental biological process of photosynthesis, atmospheric carbon dioxide is reduced to carbohydrate using water as the source of electrons with simultaneous evolution of molecular oxygen: H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + light {yields} O{sub 2} + (CH{sub 2}O). It is well established that two light reactions, Photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) working in series, are required to perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Experimental data supporting the two-light reaction model are based on the quantum requirement for complete photosynthesis, spectroscopy, and direct biochemical analysis. Some algae also have the capability to evolve molecular hydrogen in a reaction energized by the light reactions of photosynthesis. This process, now known as biophotolysis, can use water as the electron donor and lead to simultaneous evolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen. In green algae, hydrogen evolution requires prior incubation under anaerobic conditions. Atmospheric oxygen inhibits hydrogen evolution and also represses the synthesis of hydrogenase enzyme. CO{sub 2} fixation competes with proton reduction for electrons relased from the photosystems. Interest in biophotolysis arises from both the questions that it raises concerning photosynthesis and its potential practical application as a process for converting solar energy to a non-carbon-based fuel. Prior data supported the requirement for both Photosystem I and Photosystem II in spanning the energy gap necessary for biophotolysis of water to oxygen and hydrogen. In this paper we report the at PSII alone is capable of driving sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen in an anaerobically adapted PSI-deficient strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, mutant B4, and that CO{sub 2} competes as an electron acceptor.

Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.; Tevault, C.V. [and others

1995-06-01

78

Origin and monitoring of pollutants in fossil-fuel flames  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is given of the origin of pollutants in fossil-fuel flames. Burning of fossil fuels is the major cause of air pollution and significant reductions in levels of environmental pollution can be achieved by more effective control of combustion systems. The chemical kinetics of formation of unburned hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide and particulate matter are described, as well as the reactions which can lead to oxidation and destruction of these pollutants within the flame. The important influence of mixing and aerodynamics is discussed, together with methods of mathematical modelling and prediction methods. Practical problems arising in gas turbine engines, spark ignition engines and diesel engines are investigated in order to minimize the emission of pollutants while preserving fuel economy. (author)

79

Fossil-Fuel C02 Emissions Database and Exploration System  

Science.gov (United States)

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) quantifies the release of carbon from fossil-fuel use and cement production at global, regional, and national spatial scales. The CDIAC emission time series estimates are based largely on annual energy statistics published at the national level by the United Nations (UN). CDIAC has developed a relational database to house collected data and information and a web-based interface to help users worldwide identify, explore and download desired emission data. The available information is divided in two major group: time series and gridded data. The time series data is offered for global, regional and national scales. Publications containing historical energy statistics make it possible to estimate fossil fuel CO2 emissions back to 1751. Etemad et al. (1991) published a summary compilation that tabulates coal, brown coal, peat, and crude oil production by nation and year. Footnotes in the Etemad et al.(1991) publication extend the energy statistics time series back to 1751. Summary compilations of fossil fuel trade were published by Mitchell (1983, 1992, 1993, 1995). Mitchell's work tabulates solid and liquid fuel imports and exports by nation and year. These pre-1950 production and trade data were digitized and CO2 emission calculations were made following the procedures discussed in Marland and Rotty (1984) and Boden et al. (1995). The gridded data presents annual and monthly estimates. Annual data presents a time series recording 1° latitude by 1° longitude CO2 emissions in units of million metric tons of carbon per year from anthropogenic sources for 1751-2008. The monthly, fossil-fuel CO2 emissions estimates from 1950-2008 provided in this database are derived from time series of global, regional, and national fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (Boden et al. 2011), the references therein, and the methodology described in Andres et al. (2011). The data accessible here take these tabular, national, mass-emissions data and distribute them spatially on a one degree latitude by one degree longitude grid. The within-country spatial distribution is achieved through a fixed population distribution as reported in Andres et al. (1996). This presentation introduces newly build database and web interface, reflects the present state and functionality of the Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Database and Exploration System as well as future plans for expansion.

Krassovski, M.; Boden, T.; Andres, R. J.; Blasing, T. J.

2012-12-01

80

Global exergetic dimension of hydrogen use in reducing fossil fuel consumption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for minimizing the fossil fuel based-global irreversibility coefficient of global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions such as global waste exergy factor, global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based-global exergetic indicator. In order to investigate the role of hydrogen use at minimizing the fossil fuel based global irreversibility, the actual fossil fuel consumption data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases, the fossil fuel based-global irreversibility coefficient will decrease. (author)

81

Fossil fuels: Kyoto initiatives and opportunities. Part 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

GHG emission in the upstream step of fossil fuel chains could give an environmental as well as economic opportunity for traditional sectors. This study deepens the matter showing an increasing number of initiative over the last few years taken both the involved sectors and by various stake holders (public and private subjects) within the Kyoto flexible mechanism (CDM and JI) or linked to voluntary national or at a global level actions. The above undertakings give evidence for an increased interest and an actual activity dealing with GHG reduction whose results play an evident and positive role for the environment too. Part 1. of this study deals with fossil fuel actions within the Kyoto protocol mechanism. Part 2. will show international and national voluntary initiative

82

13C values of grasses as a novel indicator of pollution by fossil-fuel-derived greenhouse gas CO2 in urban areas  

OpenAIRE

A novel fossil-fuel pollution indicator based on the 13C/12C isotopic composition of plants has been designed. This bioindicator is a promising tool for future mapping of the sequestration of fossil-fuel CO2 into urban vegetation. Theoretically, plants growing in fossil-fuel CO2 contaminated areas such as major cities, industrial centers, and highway borders, should assimilate a mixture of global atmospheric CO2 of ?13C value of - 8.02‰ and of fossil-fuel CO2 of average ?13C value of 27.2...

Lichtfouse, Eric; Lichtfouse, Michel; Jaffre?zic, Anne

2003-01-01

83

Approaches and potentials for reducing greenhouse effects from fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of energy consumption in 1989, an inventory was made for the original Federal Republic of Germany ('Western Germany') of the carbon dioxide and methane emissions involved in the greenhouse effect for the fossil fuels crude oil, natural gas, coal and lignite. After assessing the various parameters, the report indicates possible approaches to and technical potentials for reducing greenhouse emissions due to use of energy. (orig.) With 70 figs., 144 tabs., 181 refs

84

Hydrogen as a renewable and sustainable solution in reducing global fossil fuel consumption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for reducing global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions are derived depending primarily upon the exergetic utilization ratios of fossil fuels and hydrogen: the fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency, fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator. These relations incorporate predicted exergetic utilization ratios for hydrogen energy from non-fossil fuel resources such as water, etc., and are used to investigate whether or not exergetic utilization of hydrogen can significantly reduce the fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient (ranging from 1 to +?) indicating the fossil fuel consumption and contribute to increase the hydrogen based global exergetic indicator (ranging from 0 to 1) indicating the hydrogen utilization at a certain ratio of fossil fuel utilization. In order to verify all these exergetic expressions, the actual fossil fuel consumption and production data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. For the verifie ranged between 0 and 1. For the verification of these parameters, the variations of fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator as the functions of fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency and exergetic utilization of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels are analyzed and discussed in detail. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases, the fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient will decrease and the hydrogen based global exergetic indicator will increase. (author)

85

Reduction in fossil fuels by using renewable biomass fuel (rice husk)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author proposes the use of rice husk as a replacement for fossil fuels. It would save 13 million tons of coal annually together with the costs of mining and transportation and give a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. (uk)

86

The geographical distribution of fossil fuels unused when limiting global warming to 2 °C  

Science.gov (United States)

Policy makers have generally agreed that the average global temperature rise caused by greenhouse gas emissions should not exceed 2 °C above the average global temperature of pre-industrial times. It has been estimated that to have at least a 50 per cent chance of keeping warming below 2 °C throughout the twenty-first century, the cumulative carbon emissions between 2011 and 2050 need to be limited to around 1,100 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (Gt CO2). However, the greenhouse gas emissions contained in present estimates of global fossil fuel reserves are around three times higher than this, and so the unabated use of all current fossil fuel reserves is incompatible with a warming limit of 2 °C. Here we use a single integrated assessment model that contains estimates of the quantities, locations and nature of the world's oil, gas and coal reserves and resources, and which is shown to be consistent with a wide variety of modelling approaches with different assumptions, to explore the implications of this emissions limit for fossil fuel production in different regions. Our results suggest that, globally, a third of oil reserves, half of gas reserves and over 80 per cent of current coal reserves should remain unused from 2010 to 2050 in order to meet the target of 2 °C. We show that development of resources in the Arctic and any increase in unconventional oil production are incommensurate with efforts to limit average global warming to 2 °C. Our results show that policy makers' instincts to exploit rapidly and completely their territorial fossil fuels are, in aggregate, inconsistent with their commitments to this temperature limit. Implementation of this policy commitment would also render unnecessary continued substantial expenditure on fossil fuel exploration, because any new discoveries could not lead to increased aggregate production.

McGlade, Christophe; Ekins, Paul

2015-01-01

87

Fossils  

Science.gov (United States)

Fossils is an activity for grades 1-2 that enables students to apply their interest in dinosaurs to discovering how fossils tell us about our past. As a result of this activity, the students will be able to: tell a friend or parent who a paleontologist is and what he does; explain what a fossil is; explain how we use fossils to learn about the past; and make a fossil using clay, plaster of paris, and some sort of molding object such as a shell, leaf, bone, etc. A suggested extension of this activity is turning it into an archaeological "dig" by burying objects in plaster of paris and then using dull instruments to dig for the "fossils."

1998-01-01

88

Synergistic production of hydrogen using fossil fuels and nuclear energy application of nuclear-heated membrane reformer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Processes and technologies to produce hydrogen synergistically by the steam reforming reaction using fossil fuels and nuclear heat are reviewed. Formulas of chemical reactions, required heats for reactions, saving of fuel consumption or reduction of carbon dioxide emission, possible processes and other prospects are examined for such fossil fuels as natural gas, petroleum and coal. The 'membrane reformer' steam reforming with recirculation of reaction products in a closed loop configuration is considered to be the most advantageous among various synergistic hydrogen production methods. Typical merits of this method are: nuclear heat supply at medium temperature below 600 deg. C, compact plant size and membrane area for hydrogen production, efficient conversion of feed fuel, appreciable reduction of carbon dioxide emission, high purity hydrogen without any additional process, and ease of separating carbon dioxide for future sequestration requirements. With all these benefits, the synergistic production of hydrogen by membrane reformer using fossil fuels and nuclear energy can be an effective solution in this century for the world which has to use. fossil fuels any way to some extent while reducing carbon dioxide emission. For both the fossil fuels industry and the nuclear industry, which are under constraint of resource, environment and economy, this production method will be a viable symbiosis strategy for the coming hydrogen economy era. (author)economy era. (author)

89

CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN JAPAN: A MULTIVARIATE APPROACH  

OpenAIRE

This paper explores whether Japanese economy can continue to grow without extensive dependence on fossil fuels. The paper conducts time series analysis using a multivariate model of fossil fuels, non-fossil energy, labor, stock and GDP to investigate the relationship between fossil fuel consumption and economic growth in Japan. The results of cointegration tests indicate long-run relationships among the variables. Using a vector error-correction model, the study reveals bidirectional causalit...

Hazuki Ishida

2013-01-01

90

How do the stock prices of new energy and fossil fuel companies correlate? Evidence from China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study documents the return and volatility spillover effect between the stock prices of Chinese new energy and fossil fuel companies using the asymmetric BEKK model. Based on daily samples taken from August 30, 2006 to September 11, 2012, the dynamics of new energy/fossil fuel stock spillover are found to be significant and asymmetric. Compared with positive news, negative news about new energy and fossil fuel stock returns leads to larger return changes in their counter assets. News about both new energy and fossil fuel stock returns spills over into variances of their counter assets, and the volatility spillovers depend complexly on the respective signs of the return shocks of each asset. The empirical results demonstrate that new energy and fossil fuel stocks are generally viewed as competing assets, that positive news about new energy stocks could affect the attractiveness of fossil fuel stocks and that new energy stock investment is more speculative and riskier than fossil fuel stock investment. These results have potential implications for asset allocation, financial risk management and energy policymaking. - Highlights: • The dynamics of Chinese new energy/fossil fuel stock spillover are significant and asymmetric. • New energy and fossil fuel stocks are generally viewed as competing assets. • Positive news about new energy stocks affects the attractiveness of fossil fuel stocks. • New energy stock investment is more speculative and riskier than fossil fuel stock investment

91

Fossils  

Science.gov (United States)

This Topic in Depth begins with a Web site from the Royal Ontario Museum called Fossils!-Behind the Scenes at the Museum (1). It gives a light-hearted but informative introduction to what fossils are and how they're formed, collected, and identified. Next, the University of California Museum of Paleontology offers the Web site Learning From the Fossil Record (2), which contains several learning resources and lesson plans. Topics covered include Determining Age of Rocks and Fossils, Fossilization and Adaptation: Activities in Paleontology, and Microfossils. The third site is a US Geological Survey publication entitled Fossils, Rocks, and Time (3). Visitors can learn about succession, geologic time, and other relevant facts about how fossils are studied. The University of Arizona Department of Geosciences maintains the next site, which is entitled Petrified Wood (4). It provides information on Petrified Forest National Park, an interactive look at the process of petrification, and more. Offered by the Museum Victoria, the fifth site, Dating Rocks and Fossils (5), explains the difference between relative and absolute (radiometric) dating. It also includes a chart that gives the various isotopes used, their half-life, daughter isotope, and geologic application. The next site, provided by the BBC and their Walking With Dinosaurs series, is called Fossil Detectives (6). The site describes why dinosaur fossils are so rare, where the best place to find them is, how their age is estimated, and other interesting information that can be found on this page and the rest of the site. Next, from the Florida Museum of Natural History comes the Fossil Preparation and Conservation (7) Web site. A more in-depth and technical description of fossil preparation is presented, including the use of cosolidants, adhesives, and various tools. The last site is from the University of Kentucky Paleontological Society called Photographs of Fossils Found on KPS Fieldtrips (8). As you would expect, the site contains a large categorized list of fossils, each briefly described and linked to its respective photograph.

2002-01-01

92

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, mixed proton/electron conductivity and hydrogen transport was measured as a function of metal phase content for a range of ceramic/metal (cermet) compositions. It was found that optimum performance occurred at 44 wt.% metal content for all compositions tested. Although each cermet appeared to have a continuous metal phase, it is believed that hydrogen transport increased with increasing metal content partially due to beneficial surface catalyst characteristics resulting from the metal phase. Beyond 44 wt.% there was a reduction in hydrogen transport most likely due to dilution of the proton conducting ceramic phase. Hydrogen separation rates for 1-mm thick cermet membranes were in excess of 0.1 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, which corresponded to ambipolar conductivities between 1 x 10{sup -3} and 8 x 10{sup -3} S/cm. Similar results were obtained for multiphase ceramic membranes comprised of a proton-conducting perovskite and electron conducting metal oxide. These multi-phase ceramic membranes showed only a slight improvement in hydrogen transport upon addition of a metal phase. The highest hydrogen separation rates observed this quarter were for a cermet membrane containing a hydrogen transport metal. A 1-mm thick membrane of this material achieved a hydrogen separation rate of 0.3 mL/min/cm{sup 2} at only 700 C, which increased to 0.6 mL/min/cm{sup 2} at 950 C.

Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Alexandra Z. LaGuardia; Tom F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Mike J. Holmes; Aaron L. Wagner

2001-10-30

93

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, mixed proton/electron conductivity and hydrogen transport was measured as a function of metal phase content for a range of ceramic/metal (cermet) compositions. It was found that optimum performance occurred at 44 wt.% metal content for all compositions tested. Although each cermet appeared to have a continuous metal phase, it is beliehave a continuous metal phase, it is believed that hydrogen transport increased with increasing metal content partially due to beneficial surface catalyst characteristics resulting from the metal phase. Beyond 44 wt.% there was a reduction in hydrogen transport most likely due to dilution of the proton conducting ceramic phase. Hydrogen separation rates for 1-mm thick cermet membranes were in excess of 0.1 mL/min/cm(sup 2), which corresponded to ambipolar conductivities between 1 x 10(sup -3) and 8 x 10(sup -3) S/cm. Similar results were obtained for multiphase ceramic membranes comprised of a proton-conducting perovskite and electron conducting metal oxide. These multi-phase ceramic membranes showed only a slight improvement in hydrogen transport upon addition of a metal phase. The highest hydrogen separation rates observed this quarter were for a cermet membrane containing a hydrogen transport metal. A 1-mm thick membrane of this material achieved a hydrogen separation rate of 0.3 mL/min/cm(sup 2) at only 700 C, which increased to 0.6 mL/min/cm(sup 2) at 950 C

94

New fossil fuel energy technology in the USA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview is given of the American governmental programmes to improve the technology to generate energy by means of fossil fuels (natural gas, oil and coal). It appears that budgets for energy technology are rising again, partly used for the improvement of existing power plants and for the marketing and commercialization of new technology, e.g. advanced gas turbines and fuel cell technology for electricity production. In particular, attention is paid to the hybrid fuel cell gas turbine and cogeneration systems. The contents of the Vision-21 programme of the US Department of Energy is summarized. Vision 21 must form the basis of the future (after 2015) energy supply in the USA. 6 ref

95

Power generation by fossil fuels: prospects and problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As fossil fuels are non-renewable energy sources, efficient management of thermal power stations of India is of prime importance in the overall management of available power. The areas which required to be managed are: quality of coal, fuel combustion, heat loss, quality of water and steam, steam consumption, load control, and energy consumption by power station auxiliaries. An energy audit is an essential part of energy management. To reduce period of outages, proper inventory levels of fuel and spares must be maintained. Life of power stations can be extended by renovation and replacement of worn-out parts with high-tech components. Proper management leads to optimum utilization of available resources and this is of economic importance. (M.G.B.). tabs., 7 annexures

96

Fossil fuels: Kyoto initiatives and opportunities. Part 2.: International scenario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

GHG emission reduction in the upstream step of fossil fuel chains could give an environmental as well as economic opportunity for traditional energy sectors. This study deepens the matter showing an increasing numbers of initiatives over the last few years taken both by the involved sectors and by various stake holders (public and private subjects) within the Kyoto flexible mechanism (CDM and JI) or linked to voluntary national or at a global level actions. The above undertakings give evidence for an increased interest and an actual activity dealing with GHG reduction whose results play an evident and positive role for the environment too

97

Water treatment for fossil fuel power generation - technology status report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This technology status report focuses on the use of water treatment technology in fossil fuel power plants. The use of polymeric ion exchange resins for deionization of water, the currently preferred use of ion exchange for economically treating water containing low dissolved salts, the use of low pressure high-flux membranes, membrane microfiltration, and reverse osmosis are discussed. Details are given of the benefits of the technologies, water use at power plants, the current status of water treatment technologies, and the potential for future developments, along with power plant market trends and potentials, worldwide developments, and UK capabilities in water treatment plant design and manufacturing

98

Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vortex has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation'' program with the Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and will not leach to the environment--as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC system design. This topical report will present a summary of the activities conducted during Phase 1 of the ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation'' program. The report includes the detail technical data generated during the experimental program and the design and cost data for the preliminary Phase 2 plant

99

Health effects of fossil-fuel combustion products: needed research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An examination is made of the research needed to expand and clarify the understanding of the products of fossil-fuel combustion, chiefly that taking place in stationary sources of power. One of the specific objectives that guided the study on which this report is based was to identify the pollutants potentially hazardous to man that are released into the environment in the course of the combustion of fossil fuels. The hazards of principal concern are those which could cause deleterious, long-term somatic and genetic effects. Another objective was to specify the nature of the research needed to determine the health effects of these pollutants on the general population. Special attention was paid to the interaction of pollutants; the meteorologic and climatic factors that affect the transport, diffusion, and transformation of pollutants; the effects of concentrations of aerosol, particulate, and thermal loads on biologic systems; and the susceptibility of some portions of the population to the effects of pollutants on the skin and cardiovascular, pulmonary, and urinary systems. Other objectives were to evaluate the methods of the proposed research, including analytic and interpretation techniques, to identify fields in which the available scientific information is inadequate for regulatory decision-making and to recommend a research program to meet those deficiencies, and to provide a logical framework within which the necessary information can be developed (the proposed program is presented in terms of subject, methods, and priorities).

1980-01-01

100

Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/02  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985, 2000, and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands and impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration are forecast using a set of energy technology assumptions. (DMC)

1980-06-01

101

Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/01  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985 and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands are forecast as well as the impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration using a set of energy technology assumptions. (DMC)

1980-06-01

102

Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/03  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985, 2000, and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands and impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration are forecast using a set of energy technology assumptions.

1980-06-01

103

South Korea's nuclear fuel industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

March 1990 marked a major milestone for South Korea's nuclear power program, as the country became self-sufficient in nuclear fuel fabrication. The reconversion line (UF6 to UO2) came into full operation at the Korea Nuclear Fuel Company's fabrication plant, as the last step in South Korea's program, initiated in the mid-1970s, to localize fuel fabrication. Thus, South Korea now has the capability to produce both CANDU and pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. This article covers the nuclear fuel industry in South Korea-how it is structures, its current capabilities, and its outlook for the future

104

Evaluation of conventional power systems. [emphasizing fossil fuels and nuclear energy  

Science.gov (United States)

The technical, economic, and environmental characteristics of (thermal, nonsolar) electric power plants are reviewed. The fuel cycle, from extraction of new fuel to final waste management, is included. Emphasis is placed on the fossil fuel and nuclear technologies.

Smith, K. R.; Weyant, J.; Holdren, J. P.

1975-01-01

105

Regulatory taxation of fossil fuels. Theory and policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research on energy taxation is often based on purely theoretical deductions. This paper stays closer to the real world, using empirical data and interpreting results in a political-economic setting of risk and uncertainty. Economic growth in developing countries will boost energy demand, increasing the risk of shortages of oil and natural gas half-way through the next century, and of coal towards the year 2100. Furthermore, there is mounting evidence that emissions of CO2 trigger harmful climate changes. A timely introduction of regulatory taxes will reduce demand for fossil fuels and accelerate the introduction of sustainable technology. The empirical results presented show, moreover, that such taxes may claim a substantial part of the rent on energy extraction for the energy-importing countries. It is argued that optimal control and the avoidance of displacement effects require a tax affecting marginal use, with exceptions to safeguard competitive positions. Exceptions may be scaled down as the jurisdiction is enlarged

106

Intermediate fossil fueled units for variable pressure operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intermediate load, fossil-fueled units for variable pressure operation have been highlighted recently as large capacity nuclear power plants play the role of shouldering basic electrical load. The variable pressure operation has the special features of the improvements of thermal efficiency in midnight, follow-up characteristics at load transient and start-up property. The steam turbine is usual one, and the boiler is spiral Benson type being enable to reduce pressure from supercritical region. The features of variable pressure operation, the comparison of the types of variable pressure operation, and the factors contributing to the improvement of thermal efficiency are described, and the variable pressure operation plant with supercritical pressure is explained in this report. (Nakai, Y.)

107

New Optimal Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accomplishments during Phase II of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring. During this program work period, major progress has been experienced in the development of the sensor hardware, and the planning of the system installation and operation. The major focus of the next work period will be the installation of sensors in the Hamilton, Ohio power plant, and demonstration of high-temperature strain gages during mechanical testing of SOFC components.

John Coggin; Jonas Ivasauskas; Russell G. May; Michael B. Miller; Rena Wilson

2006-09-30

108

Progress performance report of clean uses of fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A one-year USDOE/EPSCOR Traineeship Grant, entitled ``Clean Uses of Fossil Fuels.`` was awarded to the Kentucky EPSCoR Committee in September 1991 and administered through the the DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee. Ten Traineeships were awarded to doctoral students who are enrolled or accepted into Graduate Programs at either the University of Kentucky or the University of Louisville. The disciplines of these students include Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Physics. The methods used for a statewide proposal solicitation and to award the Traineeships are presented. The review panel and Kentucky DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee involved in awarding the Traineeships are described. A summary of the proposed research to be performed within these awards is presented, along with a description of the qualifications of the faculty and students who proposed projects. Future efforts to increase participation in Traineeship proposals for the succeeding funding period are outlined.

1992-09-01

109

Progress performance report of clean uses of fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A one-year USDOE/EPSCOR Traineeship Grant, entitled Clean Uses of Fossil Fuels.'' was awarded to the Kentucky EPSCoR Committee in September 1991 and administered through the the DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee. Ten Traineeships were awarded to doctoral students who are enrolled or accepted into Graduate Programs at either the University of Kentucky or the University of Louisville. The disciplines of these students include Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Physics. The methods used for a statewide proposal solicitation and to award the Traineeships are presented. The review panel and Kentucky DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee involved in awarding the Traineeships are described. A summary of the proposed research to be performed within these awards is presented, along with a description of the qualifications of the faculty and students who proposed projects. Future efforts to increase participation in Traineeship proposals for the succeeding funding period are outlined.

1992-01-01

110

Nuclear power as a substitute for fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The challenge in energy policy is to reduce CO2 emissions and the worlds dependence on oil while satisfying a substantially increased demand for energy. Putting aside the still-speculative possibility of sequestering carbon dioxide, this challenge reduces to that of using energy more efficiently and finding substitutes for fossil fuels. Alternatives to fossil fuels fall into two broad categories: Renewable sources. Most of these sources-including hydroelectric power, wind power, direct solar heating, photovoltaic power, and biomass-derive their energy ultimately from the Sun and will not be exhausted during the next billion years. Geothermal energy and tidal energy are also renewable, in this sense, although they do not rely on the sun. However, there is almost an inverse correlation between the extent to which the source b now being used and the size of the potentially trap able resource. Thus, expansion of hydroelectric power (which is substantially used) is constricted by limited sites and environmental objections, whereas wind (for which the resource is large) is as yet less used and thus is not fully proven as a large-scale contributor. Nuclear sources. The two nuclear possibilities are fission and fusion. The latter would be inexhaustible for all practical purposes, but developing an effective fusion system remains an uncertain hope. Fission energy would also have an extremely long time span if breeder reactors arc employed, but with present-day reacts arc employed, but with present-day reactors limits on uranium (or thorium) resources could be an eventual problem. At present, fission power faces problems of public acceptance and economic competitiveness. The broad alternatives of renewable energy and nuclear energy can be considered as being in competition, with one or the other to be the dominant choice, or complementary, with both being extensively employed

111

Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency  

OpenAIRE

Modern food production depends on limited natural resources for providing energy and fertilisers. We assess the fossil fuel dependency for the Danish food production system by means of Food Energy Returned on fossil Energy Invested (Food-EROI) and by the use of energy intensive nutrients from imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing a...

Hanne Řstergĺrd; Markussen, Mads V.

2013-01-01

112

An econometrics view of worldwide fossil fuel consumption and the role of US  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude oil, coal and gas, known as fossil fuels, play a crucial role in the global economy. This paper proposes new econometrics modelling to demonstrate the trend of fossil fuels consumption. The main variables affecting consumption trends are: world reserves, the price of fossil fuels, US production and US net imports. All variables have been analysed individually for more than half a century. The research found that while the consumption of fossil fuels worldwide has increased trends in the US production and net imports have been dependent on the type of fossil fuels. Most of the US coal and gas production has been for domestic use, which is why it does not have a strong influence on worldwide fossil fuel prices. Moreover, the reserves of fossil fuels have not shown any diminution during the last couple of decades and predictions that they were about to run out are not substantiated. The nominal and real price of fossil fuels was found to change depending on the type. Finally, estimates of three econometric models for the consumption of fossil fuels from 1949 to 2006 are presented which identify the effects of significant variables

113

Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950–2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models.

Andres, R.J.; Gregg, Jay Sterling

2011-01-01

114

High-resolution global fossil fuel CO2 emissions for 1992 to 2010 using integrated in-situ and remotely sensed data in a fossil fuel data assimilation system  

Science.gov (United States)

The largest single net source of CO2 into the Earth's atmosphere is due to the combustion of fossil fuel and an accurate quantification of the fossil fuel flux is needed to better address the concern of rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. In the last decade, there has been a growing need, from both the science and policymaking communities for quantification of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions at finer space and time scales. Motivated by this concern, we have built a global fossil fuel CO2 emission inventory at 0.25° and 0.1° resolutions for the years of 1992 - 2010 using a combination of in situ and remotely sensed data in a fossil fuel data assimilation system (FFDAS). A suite of observations which include nightlights, population, sectoral national emissions and power plant stations are used to constrain the FFDAS model. FFDAS is based on a modified Kaya identity which expresses emissions as the product of areal population density, per capita economic activity, energy intensity of economic activity, and carbon intensity of energy consumption. Nightlights has been shown to correlate well with national and regional GDP and its relationship with population has been used as an initial means of downscaling fossil fuel emissions. However nightlights data are subject to instrumental saturation, causing areas of bright nightlights, such as urban cores, to be truncated. To address the saturation problem during several time periods, the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) has requested and received data collected at multiple fixed gain settings to observe the bright areas with no saturation. However, this dataset is limited to only four years (1999, 2002, 2006 and 2010). We have applied a numerical technique to these four years of data to estimate the unsaturated values for all years from 1992 to 2010. The corrected nightlights time series is then used in FFDAS to generate a multiyear fossil fuel CO2 emissions data product. Nightlights and population provide an approximate location and magnitude for fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Some emitting sectors, such as power plant emissions and heavy industry, are not coincident with where people live or lights are on. Therefore, for better accuracy, we used direct emissions information from power stations as a constraint to the FFDAS estimation. We present this new high resolution, multiyear emissions data product with analysis of the space/time patterns, trends and posterior uncertainty. We also compare the FFDAS results to the "bottom-up" high resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions estimation generated by the Vulcan Project in the United States. Finally, we examine the sensitivity of the results to differences in the procedures used to generate the improved multiyear nightlights time series.

Asefi-Najafabady, S.; Gurney, K. R.; Rayner, P.; Huang, J.; Song, Y.

2012-12-01

115

Preparation and Characterization of Bio Fuel from Industrial Waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Disposal of biomass becomes often an environmental issue. A novel method has been developed to convert biomass into solid bio-fuel. Experiments were carried out on preparation of solid fuel pellet from industrial biomass wastes. A maximum calorific value of 22,593KJ/kg has been obtained for the bio-fuel prepared in the present investigation and compared with the fossil fuel coal. The bio-fuel pellets were burnt and the emitted green house gases were critically analyzed.

M.N Abinayah Shree

2009-02-01

116

Prevent the risk of climate change by taxing fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of all the greenhouse gases, it is emissions of CO2 which most urgently require reduction. On the one hand, given the very long lifetime of this gas, its emissions are almost irreversible in character. On the other hand, the measures to be taken concern technological choices, and choices in matters of planning and land use, which are not easily reversible either. It would be very costly, later on, to go back on decisions we make in the coming years without taking into account the risk of climate change. We will only be able to stabilize the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere if we are able to reduce present emissions by 60 per cent. The challenge to humanity is considerable, since this reduction in emissions has to be achieved despite the forecast doubling of the world's population. We must organize ourselves both to stabilize the world's forests (reforestation in certain regions compensating for the inevitable deforestation elsewhere), and to reduce by 25 per cent the average consumption of fossil fuel per inhabitant. Such a radical reorientation of our habits in the consumption of fossil energy does not seem to me technically unreachable, and it will not cause widespread ruin if we manage to optimize its organization. Preventive work will only be effective if it is made on a planetary scale. It will only be undertaken if we are able to share the burden fairly between the various countries; and it will not be ruinous if we manage to decentrall not be ruinous if we manage to decentralize necessary initiatives, so that the least costly methods are undertaken everywhere from the outset. (author)

117

GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM FOSSIL FUELS AND BIOMASS COMBUSTION IN SMALL HEATING APPLIANCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The importance of emission control has increased sharply due to the increased need of energy from combustion. However, biomass utilization in energy production is not free from problems because of physical and chemical characteristics which are substantially different from conventional energy sources. In this situation, the quantity and quality of emissions as well as used renewable sources as wood or corn grain are often unknown. To assess this problem the paper addresses the objectives to quantify the amount of greenhouse gases during the combustion of corn as compared to the emissions in fossil combustion (natural gas, LPG and diesel boiler. The test was carried out in Friuli Venezia Giulia in 2006-2008 to determine the air pollution (CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2 and CO2 from fuel combustion in family boilers with a power between 20-30 kWt. The flue gas emission was measured with a professional semi-continuous multi-gas analyzer, (Vario plus industrial, MRU air Neckarsulm-Obereisesheim. Data showed a lower emission of fossil fuel compared to corn in family boilers in reference to pollutants in the flue gas (NOx, SO2 and CO. In a particular way the biomass combustion makes a higher concentration of carbon monoxide (for an incomplete combustion because there is not a good mixing between fuel and air and nitrogen oxides (in relation at a higher content of nitrogen in herbaceous biomass in comparison to another fuel.

Gianfranco Pergher

2010-12-01

118

Environmental impacts and costs of nuclear and fossil fuel cycles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rational management of the environment requires knowledge of the costs of environmental impacts, as well as the extent to which these costs have not yet been internalized by market forces or by Government regulations. In recent years several estimates for the environmental costs of power generation have been published. The results of such studies show a wide divergence, often differing by several orders of magnitude for the same impacts. The reason lies not only in the uncertainties, but more importantly in the lack of uniformity of the hypotheses and methodologies. To give a firmer and more consistant basis to such studies, the Commission of the European Communities, in a cooperative program with the US Department of Energy is developing an accounting framework for the external costs of fuel cycles [ORNL/RFF 1994, EC 1995]. This program is based on the methodology of impact pathway analysis [also called damage function approach] applied with a common set of clearly stated assumptions. One traces the impact pathway for each pollutant or other burden, from the source to the receptor, and evaluates the damage both in physical and monetary units. This paper presents results for the production of electricity by the nuclear and fossil fuel cycles in France. The results are, however, indicative of other sites as well. This paper is a brief summary; details can be found in the full report. This field is rapidly evolving, and the reader who wants more complete information is advised to consult also the other studies of this type. (author)

Curtiss, P.S. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States); Dreicer, M. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Assessments; Rabl, A. [Ecole des Mines, Paris (France)

1996-09-01

119

Replacing fossil diesel by biodiesel fuel: expected impact on health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biofuels have become an alternative to fossil fuel, but consequences on human health from changes to emissions compositions are not well understood. By combining information on composition of vehicle exhaust, dispersion models, and relationship between exposure to air contaminants and health, the authors determined expected mortality outcomes in 2 scenarios: a blend of 10% biodiesel and 90% standard diesel (B10) and biodiesel only (B100), for a rural and an urban environment. Vehicle exhaust for both fuel compositions contained lower fine particle mass but higher NO2 levels. Ambient air concentrations in scenario B10 were almost unchanged. In scenario B100, PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 ?m) levels decreased by 4-8% and NO2 levels increased 7-11%. Reduction of PM2.5 is expected to reduce mortality rate by 5 × 10(-6) and 31 × 10(-6) per year, whereas NO2 increase adds 17 × 10(-6) and 30 × 10(-6) to mortality rate for B10 and B100, respectively. Since effects of PM2.5 and NO2 are not independent, a positive net effect is possible. PMID:24965323

Hutter, Hans-Peter; Kundi, Michael; Moshammer, Hanns; Shelton, Janie; Krüger, Bernd; Schicker, Irene; Wallner, Peter

2015-01-01

120

Comparative life cycle assessment of biodiesel and fossil diesel fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biofuels offer clear advantages in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, but do they perform better when we look at all the environmental impacts from a life cycle perspective. In the context of a demonstration project at the Flemish Institute for Technology Research (VITO) on the use of rapeseed methyl ester (RME) or biodiesel as automotive fuel, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of biodiesel and diesel was made. The primary concern was the question as to whether or not the biodiesel chain was comparable to the conventional diesel chain, from an environmental point of view, taking into account all stages of the life cycle of the two products. Additionally, environmental damage costs were calculated, using an impact pathway analysis. This paper presents the results of the two methods for evaluation of environmental impacts of RME and conventional diesel. Both methods are complementary and share the conclusion that although biodiesel has much lower greenhouse gas emissions, it still has significant impacts on other impact categories. The external costs of biodiesel are a bit lower compared to fossil diesel. For both fuels, external costs are significantly higher than the private production cost. (Author)

121

Renewable and nuclear sources of energy reduce the share of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper author presents a statistical data use of nuclear energy, renewable sources and fossil fuels in the share of energy production in the Slovak Republic. It is stated that use of nuclear energy and renewable sources reduce the share of fossil fuels.

122

Forecasting production of fossil fuel sources in Turkey using a comparative regression and ARIMA model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aims at forecasting the most possible curve for domestic fossil fuel production of Turkey to help policy makers to develop policy implications for rapidly growing dependency problem on imported fossil fuels. The fossil fuel dependency problem is international in scope and context and Turkey is a typical example for emerging energy markets of the developing world. We developed a decision support system for forecasting fossil fuel production by applying a regression, ARIMA and SARIMA method to the historical data from 1950 to 2003 in a comparative manner. The method integrates each model by using some decision parameters related to goodness-of-fit and confidence interval, behavior of the curve, and reserves. Different forecasting models are proposed for different fossil fuel types. The best result is obtained for oil since the reserve classifications used it is much better defined them for the others. Our findings show that the fossil fuel production peak has already been reached; indicating the total fossil fuel production of the country will diminish and theoretically will end in 2038. However, production is expected to end in 2019 for hard coal, in 2024 for natural gas, in 2029 for oil and 2031 for asphaltite. The gap between the fossil fuel consumption and production is growing enormously and it reaches in 2030 to approximately twice of what it is in 2000

123

The LPG-fuel industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LPG-fuel industry comprises several professionals from various domains such as assembly shops for vehicles transformation, materials manufacturers for public distribution stations and companies which produce and commercialize the LPG-fuel. This paper summarizes the administrative and technical liabilities of these professionals, with the technical qualification required, the regulations concerning the official approval of transformation kits and pressure tanks. The French network of public distribution stations for LPG-fuel is shared between five independent dispensers with their own economic policy which represents about 700 LPG-stations. However, the safety regulations concerning LPG-fuels considerably limit the installation of LPG facilities in urban areas. A cost-benefit comparison between LPG and other liquid fuels is given in inset and takes into account the transformation costs of the vehicle. (J.S.)

124

Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India: I—Fossil fuel combustion  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive, spatially resolved (0.25°×0.25°) fossil fuel consumption database and emissions inventory was constructed, for India, for the first time. Emissions of sulphur dioxide and aerosol chemical constituents were estimated for 1996-1997 and extrapolated to the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) study period (1998-1999). District level consumption of coal/lignite, petroleum and natural gas in power plants, industrial, transportation and domestic sectors was 9411 PJ, with major contributions from coal (54%) followed by diesel (18%). Emission factors for various pollutants were derived using India specific fuel characteristics and information on combustion/air pollution control technologies for the power and industrial sectors. Domestic and transportation emission factors, appropriate for Indian source characteristics, were compiled from literature. SO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion for 1996-1997 were 4.0 Tg SO 2 yr -1, with 756 large point sources (e.g. utilities, iron and steel, fertilisers, cement, refineries and petrochemicals and non-ferrous metals), accounting for 62%. PM 2.5 emitted was 0.5 and 2.0 Tg yr -1 for the 100% and the 50% control scenario, respectively, applied to coal burning in the power and industrial sectors. Coal combustion was the major source of PM 2.5 (92%) primarily consisting of fly ash, accounting for 98% of the "inorganic fraction" emissions (difference between PM 2.5 and black carbon+organic matter) of 1.6 Tg yr -1. Black carbon emissions were estimated at 0.1 Tg yr -1, with 58% from diesel transport, and organic matter emissions at 0.3 Tg yr -1, with 48% from brick-kilns. Fossil fuel consumption and emissions peaked at the large point industrial sources and 22 cities, with elevated area fluxes in northern and western India. The spatial resolution of this inventory makes it suitable for regional-scale aerosol-climate studies. These results are compared to previous studies and differences discussed. Measurements of emission factors for Indian sources are needed to further refine these estimates.

Reddy, M. Shekar; Venkataraman, Chandra

125

Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India. Part 1 - Fossil fuel combustion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comprehensive, spatially resolved (0.25o x 0.25o) fossil fuel consumption database and emissions inventory was constructed, for India, for the first time. Emissions of sulphur dioxide and aerosol chemical constituents were estimated for 1996-1997 and extrapolated to the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) study period (1998-1999). District level consumption of coal/lignite, petroleum and natural gas in power plants, industrial, transportation and domestic sectors was 9411 PJ, with major contributions from coal (54%) followed by diesel (18%). Emission factors for various pollutants were derived using India specific fuel characteristics and information on combustion/air pollution control technologies for the power and industrial sectors. Domestic and transportation emission factors, appropriate for Indian source characteristics, were compiled from literature. SO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion for 1996-1997 were 4.0Tg SO2yr-1, with 756 large point sources (e.g. utilities, iron and steel, fertilisers, cement, refineries and petrochemicals and non-ferrous metals), accounting for 62%. PM2.5 emitted was 0.5 and 2.0Tgyr-1 for the 100% and the 50% control scenario, respectively, applied to coal burning in the power and industrial sectors. Coal combustion was the major source of PM2.5 (92%) primarily consisting of fly ash, accounting for 98% of the 'inorganic fraction' emissions (difff the 'inorganic fraction' emissions (difference between PM2.5 and black carbon + organic matter) of 1.6Tgyr-1. Black carbon emissions were estimated at 0.1Tgyr-1, with 58% from diesel transport, and organic matter emissions at 0.3Tgyr-1, with 48% from brick-kilns. Fossil fuel consumption and emissions peaked at the large point industrial sources and 22 cities, with elevated area fluxes in northern and western India. The spatial resolution of this inventory makes it suitable for regional-scale aerosol-climate studies. These results are compared to previous studies and differences discussed. Measurements of emission factors for Indian sources are needed to further refine these estimates. (Author)

126

Environmental benchmarking of the largest fossil-fueled electricity generating plants in the U.S  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental management, to be effective, requires performance evaluation and process improvement. This is especially the case in fossil-fueled electricity generating plants. Although eco-efficient management of these types of organizations are critical to local, national and global environmental issues, few studies have focused on performance measurement and eco-efficiency improvements in this industry. This study evaluates the eco-efficiencies of the top 100 major U.S. fossil-fueled electricity generating plants from 1998 data. Using a multi-criteria non-parametric productivity model (data envelopment analysis) efficiency scores are determined. These efficiency scores are treated by a clustering method in identifying benchmarks for improving poorly performing plants. Efficiency measures are based on three resource input measures including boiler generating capacity, total fuel heat used, and total generator capacity, and four output measures including actual energy generated, SO2, NOx, and CO2 emissions. The purpose of this paper is two-fold, to introduce the methodology"s application to eco-efficiency performance measurement and show some characteristics of the benchmarked plants and groups.

Sarkis, Joseph

2004-02-01

127

Depletion of fossil fuels and anthropogenic climate change—A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Future scenarios with significant anthropogenic climate change also display large increases in world production of fossil fuels, the principal CO2 emission source. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has also been identified as a future challenge. This chapter reviews the connection between these two issues and concludes that limits to availability of fossil fuels will set a limit for mankind's ability to affect the climate. However, this limit is unclear as various studies have reached quite different conclusions regarding future atmospheric CO2 concentrations caused by fossil fuel limitations. It is concluded that the current set of emission scenarios used by the IPCC and others is perforated by optimistic expectations on future fossil fuel production that are improbable or even unrealistic. The current situation, where climate models largely rely on emission scenarios detached from the reality of supply and its inherent problems are problematic. In fact, it may even mislead planners and politicians into making decisions that mitigate one problem but make the other one worse. It is important to understand that the fossil energy problem and the anthropogenic climate change problem are tightly connected and need to be treated as two interwoven challenges necessitating a holistic solution. - Highlights: ? Review of the development of emission scenarios. ? Survey of future fossil fuel trajectories used by the IPCC emission scenarios. ? DiscussioIPCC emission scenarios. ? Discussions on energy transitions in the light of oil depletion. ? Review of earlier studies of future climate change and fossil fuel limitations.

128

The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy Stationary Fuel Cell Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy's (FE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), in partnership with private industries, is leading a program for the development and demonstration of high efficiency solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and fuel cell/turbine hybrid power generation systems for near-term distributed generation markets, with emphasis on premium power and high reliability. NETL is partnering with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in developing new directions for research under the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) initiative to develop and commercialize modular, low cost, and fuel flexible SOFC systems. Through advanced materials, processing and system integration research and development (R&D), the SECA initiative will reduce the fuel cell cost to $400 kW -1 for stationary and auxiliary power unit markets. The SECA industry teams and core program have made significant progress in scale-up and performance. Presidential initiatives are focusing research toward a new hydrogen economy. The movement to a hydrogen economy would accomplish several strategic goals, namely that SOFCs have no emissions, and hence figure significantly in DOE strategies. The SOFC hybrid is a key part of the FutureGen plant, a major new DOE FE initiative to produce hydrogen from coal. The highly efficient SOFC hybrid plant will produce electric power while other parts of the plant could produce hydrogen and sequester CO 2. The produced hydrogen can be used in fuel cell cars and for SOFC distributed generation applications.

Williams, Mark C.; Strakey, Joseph P.; Surdoval, Wayne A.

129

Disaggregating Fossil Fuel Emissions from Biospheric Fluxes: Methodological Improvements for Inverse Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

The accurate spatio-temporal quantification of fossil fuel emissions is a scientific challenge. Atmospheric inverse models have the capability to overcome this challenge and provide estimates of fossil fuel emissions. Observational and computational limitations limit current analyses to the estimations of a combined "biospheric flux and fossil-fuel emissions" carbon dioxide (CO2) signal, at coarse spatial and temporal resolution. Even in these coarse resolution inverse models, the disaggregation of a strong biospheric signal form a weaker fossil-fuel signal has proven difficult. The use of multiple tracers (delta 14C, CO, CH4, etc.) has provided a potential path forward, but challenges remain. In this study, we attempt to disaggregate biospheric fluxes and fossil-fuel emissions on the basis of error covariance models rather through tracer based CO2 inversions. The goal is to more accurately define the underlying structure of the two processes by using a stationary exponential covariance model for the biospheric fluxes, in conjunction with a semi-stationary covariance model derived from nightlights for fossil fuel emissions. A non-negativity constraint on fossil fuel emissions is imposed using a data transformation approach embedded in an iterative quasi-linear inverse modeling algorithm. The study is performed for January and June 2008, using the ground-based CO2 measurement network over North America. The quality of disaggregation is examined by comparing the inferred spatial distribution of biospheric fluxes and fossil-fuel emissions in a synthetic-data inversion. In addition to disaggregation of fluxes, the ability of the covariance models derived from nightlights to explain the fossil-fuel emissions over North America is also examined. The simple covariance model proposed in this study is found to improve estimation and disaggregation of fossil-fuel emissions from biospheric fluxes in the tracer-based inverse models.

Yadav, V.; Shiga, Y. P.; Michalak, A. M.

2012-12-01

130

Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vortec has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation'' program. The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment-as confirmed by both ANS 16.1 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and did not leach to the environment as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC subsystem design

131

Engineering a Sustainable and Economically Active Future without Fossil Fuels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The need for mankind to make the transition from a global civilisation powered by fossil fuels, to one powered by non-polluting sources of energy, is at last beginning to impinge on public awareness, now that the science of climate change is becoming established. Unfortunately, obfuscation and procrastination still exists, impeding progress to sustainability as vested interests are increasingly ‘muddying the waters’ by choosing to support technical ‘solutions/fixes’ of doubtful effectiveness. Among these technical fixes, considered in the paper, are carbon capture and storage, nuclear power and hydrogen. Given that the ‘window of opportunity’ to seriously address the carbon emissions problem is arguably just a few years, rather than a few decades, the only sensible, technically sound, and sustainable solution is a rapid and massive adoption of renewables. The key criterion of balancing the growing global demand for power, when the supply emanates from diverse, varied and widespread generation schemes, is examined in this paper, and is shown to be feasible.

A.J. Sangster

2014-11-01

132

Mapping Biomass Availability to Decrease the Dependency on Fossil Fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

To decrease the dependency on fossil fuels, more renewable energy sources need to be explored. Over the last years, the consumption of biomass has risen steadily and it has become a major source for re-growing energy. Besides the most common sources of biomass (forests, agriculture etc.) there are smaller supplies available in mostly unused areas like hedges, vegetation along streets, railways, rivers and field margins. However, these sources are not mapped and in order to obtain their potential for usage as a renewable energy, a method to quickly assess their spatial distribution and their volume is needed. We use a range of data sets including satellite imagery, GIS and elevation data to evaluate these parameters. With the upcoming Sentinel missions, our satellite data is chosen to match the spatial resolution of Sentinel-2 (10-20 m) as well as its spectral characteristics. To obtain sub-pixel information from the satellite data, we use a spectral unmixing approach. Additional GIS data is provided by the German Digital Landscape Model (ATKIS Base-DLM). To estimate the height (and derive the volume) of the vegetation, we use LIDAR data to produce a digital surface model. These data sets allow us to map the extent of previously unused biomass sources. This map can then be used as a starting point for further analyses about the feasibility of the biomass extraction and their usage as a renewable energy source.

Steensen, T.; Müller, S.; Jandewerth, M.; Büscher, O.

2014-09-01

133

Environmental impacts and costs of nuclear and fossil fuel cycles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rational management of the environment requires knowledge of the costs of environmental impacts, as well as the extent to which these costs have not yet been internalized by market forces or by Government regulations. In recent years several estimates for the environmental costs of power generation have been published. The results of such studies show a wide divergence, often differing by several orders of magnitude for the same impacts. The reason lies not only in the uncertainties, but more importantly in the lack of uniformity of the hypotheses and methodologies. To give a firmer and more consistant basis to such studies, the Commission of the European Communities, in a cooperative program with the US Department of Energy is developing an accounting framework for the external costs of fuel cycles [ORNL/RFF 1994, EC 1995]. This program is based on the methodology of impact pathway analysis [also called damage function approach] applied with a common set of clearly stated assumptions. One traces the impact pathway for each pollutant or other burden, from the source to the receptor, and evaluates the damage both in physical and monetary units. This paper presents results for the production of electricity by the nuclear and fossil fuel cycles in France. The results are, however, indicative of other sites as well. This paper is a brief summary; details can be found in the full report. This field is rapidly evolving, and the reader who wants more complete information is er who wants more complete information is advised to consult also the other studies of this type. (author)

134

Tracing fossil fuel CO2 using ?14C in Xi'an City, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiocarbon can be used to trace fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) in the atmosphere, because radiocarbon has been depleted in fossil fuels. Here we present our study on the spatial distribution and temporal variations of CO2ff in Xi'an City, China using ?14C of both green foxtail (Setaria viridis, L. Beauv.) leaf samples and urban air samples collected in the recent years. Our results show that the CO2ff indicated by green foxtail ranged from 14.7 ± 1.7 to 52.6 ± 1.7 ppm, reflecting high CO2ff mole fractions in downtown, industrial areas, and at road sites, and low CO2ff mole fractions in public parks. Meanwhile, the monthly CO2ff reflected by air samples showed higher value in winter (57.8 ± 17.1 ppm) than that in summer (20.2 ± 9.8 ppm) due to the enhancement usage of coal burning and the poor dispersion condition of atmosphere. This study displays that the increased fossil fuel emission is associated with the fast development of Xi'an City in China. It is worth mentioning that the green foxtail samples can be used to map out the CO2ff spatial distribution on large scale quickly and conveniently, while the air samples can be used to trace the CO2ff temporal variations with high resolution effectively. Therefore the ?14C of both green foxtail and air samples is a good indicator of CO2ff emission.

Zhou, Weijian; Wu, Shugang; Huo, Wenwen; Xiong, Xiaohu; Cheng, Peng; Lu, Xuefeng; Niu, Zhenchuan

2014-09-01

135

Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 4: Energy from fossil fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

The conversion of fossil-fired power plants now burning oil or gas to burn coal is discussed along with the relaxation of air quality standards and the development of coal gasification processes to insure a continued supply of gas from coal. The location of oil fields, refining areas, natural gas fields, and pipelines in the U.S. is shown. The technologies of modern fossil-fired boilers and gas turbines are defined along with the new technologies of fluid-bed boilers and MHD generators.

Williams, J. R.

1974-01-01

136

Forecasting Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption for Power Generation Using QHSA-Based LSSVM Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accurate forecasting of fossil fuel energy consumption for power generation is important and fundamental for rational power energy planning in the electricity industry. The least squares support vector machine (LSSVM is a powerful methodology for solving nonlinear forecasting issues with small samples. The key point is how to determine the appropriate parameters which have great effect on the performance of LSSVM model. In this paper, a novel hybrid quantum harmony search algorithm-based LSSVM (QHSA-LSSVM energy forecasting model is proposed. The QHSA which combines the quantum computation theory and harmony search algorithm is applied to searching the optimal values of and C in LSSVM model to enhance the learning and generalization ability. The case study on annual fossil fuel energy consumption for power generation in China shows that the proposed model outperforms other four comparative models, namely regression, grey model (1, 1 (GM (1, 1, back propagation (BP and LSSVM, in terms of prediction accuracy and forecasting risk.

Wei Sun

2015-01-01

137

INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem.

J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

2001-07-13

138

INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology.

J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

2001-10-31

139

Fossil fuels and clean, plentiful energy in the 21st century: The example of coal  

OpenAIRE

Many people believe we must quickly wean ourselves from fossil fuels to save the planet from environmental catastrophe, wars and economic collapse. However, we have the technological capability to use fossil fuels without emitting climate-threatening greenhouse gases or other pollutants. The natural transition from conventional oil and gas to unconventional oil, unconventional gas and coal for producing electricity, hydrogen and cleaner-burning fuels will decrease energy dependence on politic...

Jaccard, Mark

2007-01-01

140

Acute toxicity evaluation of several compounds involved in fossil fuels biodesulphurisation studies  

OpenAIRE

The increasing use of fossil fuels has led to increased emissions of sulphur oxides into the air, which is a major cause of acid rain. Legislation already adopted in 2009 stipulates that the maximum level of sulphur allowed in fuels is only 10 ppm. The process of hydrodesulphurization (HDS) used in refineries is based on very expensive physico-chemical techniques, and has limitations in the removal of organic sulphur. As for stricter legislation on the maximum levels of sulphur in fossil fuel...

Alves, Lui?s Manuel; Paixa?o, Susana M.; Gi?rio, Francisco M.

2009-01-01

141

Climate agreements: Optimal taxation of fossil fuels and the distribution of costs and benefits across countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report analyses the response of governments to a climate agreement that commits them to reduce their CO{sub 2} emissions. It develops a formula for optimal taxation of fossil fuels in open economies subject both to an emission constraint and a public budget constraint. The theory captures how national governments` behaviours are sensitive to the size of the benefits from revenue recycling and how these benefits adjust the distribution of abatement costs. The empirical part of the report illustrates the significance of the participating countries` current and potential fossil fuel taxation schemes and their roles in the fossil fuel markets. 23 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Holtsmark, Bjart

1997-12-31

142

Effects of New Fossil Fuel Developments on the Possibilities of Meeting 2C Scenarios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent years have seen an increasing activity in developing new fossil fuel production capacity. This includes unconventional fossil fuels, such as tar sands and shale gas, fossil fuels from remote locations, and fossil fuels with a very large increase in production in the near future. In this report, the impact of such developments on our ability to mitigate climate change is investigated. Our inventory shows that the new fossil fuel developments currently underway consist of 29,400 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 260,000 million barrels of oil and 49,600 million tonnes of coal. The development of these new fossil fuels would result in emissions of 300 billion tonnes of CO2 -equivalent (CO2e) from 2012 until 2050. Until 2050, a 'carbon budget' of 1550 billion tonnes CO2e is still available if we want to of keep global warming below 2C with a 50% probability. For a 75% probability to stay below 2C this budget is only 1050 billion tonnes CO2e. So, the new fossil fuel developments identified in this report consume 20-33% of the remaining carbon budget until 2050. In a scenario where the new fossil fuels are developed, we need to embark on a rapid emission reductions pathway at the latest in 2019 in order to meet the 50% probability carbon budget. Avoiding the development of new fossil fuels will give us until 2025 to start further rapid emission reductions. These calculations are based on the assumption that the maximum emission reduction rate is 4% per year and that the maximum change in emission trend is 0.5 percentage point per year. The starting year for rapid emission reductions depends on the choice of these parameters. A sensitivity analysis shows that, in all cases, refraining from new fossil fuel development allows for a delay of 5 to 8 years before we should embark on a rapid emission reduction pathway. The high investments required for developing new fossil fuels lead to a lock in effect; once developed, these fossil fuels need to be exploited for several decades in order to recuperate investment costs. Since emission reductions need to start soon, i.e. within the next decade, recuperating these costs will be difficult. This will either lead to destruction of capital or not staying within the carbon budget.

Meindertsma, W.; Blok, K.

2012-12-15

143

Fossil and nuclear fuels. Future supply situation; Fossile und Nukleare Brennstoffe. Die kuenftige Versorgungssituation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy watch group is an international network of scientists and politicians providing studies concerning the shortage of fossil and nuclear energy carriers, scenarios for regenerative energy installation and strategies for assuring a long-term stable energy supply for acceptable prices. The study covers the topics crude oil (oil production, potentials for unconventional oil production, future oil supply), natural gas (USA, Europe, Russia, Middle East), coal, uranium and nuclear power.

Zittel, Werner; Zerhausen, Jan; Zerta, Martin [Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik GmbH, Ottobrunn (Germany); Arnold, Nikolaus [Univ. fuer Bodenkultur, Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Sicherheits- und Risikowissenschaften

2013-03-15

144

Reduction of energy shortages through cleaner fossil fuel systems in Latin America and the Caribbean  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reproduces the talk presented on the reduction of energy shortages through the use of clean-burning fossil fuel systems in Latin America, as seen from the perspective of brazilian economic development.

Leite, Antonio Dias

2001-07-01

145

Modelling renewable supply chain for electricity generation with forest, fossil, and wood-waste fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a multiple objective model to large-scale and long-term industrial energy supply chain scheduling problems is considered. The problems include the allocation of a number of fossil, peat, and wood-waste fuel procurement chains to an energy plant during different periods. This decision environment is further complicated by sequence-dependent procurement chains for forest fuels. A dynamic linear programming model can be efficiently used for modelling energy flows in fuel procurement planning. However, due to the complex nature of the problem, the resulting model cannot be directly used to solve the combined heat and electricity production problem in a manner that is relevant to the energy industry. Therefore, this approach was used with a multiple objective programming model to better describe the combinatorial complexity of the scheduling task. The properties of this methodology are discussed and four examples of how the model works based on real-world data and optional peat fuel tax, feed-in tariff of electricity and energy efficiency constraints are presented. The energy industry as a whole is subject to policy decisions regarding renewable energy production and energy efficiency regulation. These decisions should be made on the basis of comprehensive techno-economic analysis using local energy supply chain models. -- Highlights: ? The energy policy decisions are made using comprehensive techno-economic analysis. ? Peat tax, feed-in tariff and energy efficiency increases renewable energy production. ? The potential of peat procurement deviates from the current assumptions of managers. ? The dynamic MOLP model could easily be adapted to a changing decision environment.

146

Destabilizing Investment in the Americas. Public Funding for Fossil Fuels After Rio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary is given of ongoing research by the Sustainable Energy and Economy Network into the financing of fossil fuel and renewables/energy efficiency by U.S. institutions and multilateral development banks in the Americas since 1992, the year of the last Earth Summit. These institutions have been key financers of many of the region's most destructive fossil fuel projects over the past decade

147

A revisit of fossil-fuel subsidies in China: Challenges and opportunities for energy price reform  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • We measure fossil-fuel subsidies and effects of subsidy removal in a systematic fashion during 2006–2010. • Fossil-fuel subsidies scale of China was CNY 881.94 billion in 2010, equivalent to 2.59% of GDP. • Impacts of removing subsidies on macroeconomic variables are examined by the CGE model. • Future policy should focus on designing transparent, targeted and efficient energy subsidies. - Abstract: Fossil-fuel subsidies contribute to the extensive growth of energy demand and the related carbon dioxide emissions in China. However, the process of energy price reform is slow, even though China faces increasing problems of energy scarcity and environmental deterioration. This paper focuses on analyzing fossil fuel subsidies in China by estimating subsidies scale and the implications for future reform. We begin by measuring fossil-fuel subsidies and the effects of subsidy removal in a systematic fashion during 2006–2010 using a price-gap approach. Results indicate that the oil price reform in 2009 significantly reduced China’s fossil-fuel subsidies and modified the subsidy structure. Fossil-fuel subsidies scale in China was 881.94 billion CNY in 2010, which was lower than the amount in 2006, equivalent to 2.59% of the GDP. The macro-economic impacts of removing fossil-fuel subsidies are then evaluated by the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. Results demonstrate that the economic growth and employment will be negatively affected as well as energy demand, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions. Finally, policy implications are suggested: first, risks of government pricing of energy are far from negligible; second, an acceptable macroeconomic impact is a criterion for energy price reform in China; third, the future energy policy should focus on designing transparent, targeted and efficient energy subsidies

148

Low energy buildings – the basis for realizing the strategy for independency of fossil fuels in 2050  

OpenAIRE

The paper introduces how low energy buildings can be developed, designed, optimized, constructed and operated in the future and thereby make a significant contribution to the realization of aim of the energy policy of EU: to become independent of fossil fuels in 2050. The paper describes how low energy buildings can become independent of fossil fuels in 2020 based on the following activities. Innovation of building components and systems with improved energy performance. Heating o...

Svendsen, Svend

2012-01-01

149

A technological strategy for making fossil fuels environment- and climate-friendly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuel cell technology could make possible the economic use of fossil fuels with near zero emissions of local and regional air pollutants and greenhouse gases. It is argued that the successful commercialisation of fuel cells would help to propel a shift to hydrogen as an energy carrier. The plausibility of transportation power units, stationary power generation and combined heat and power employing fuel cells using hydrogen obtained from the decarbonisation of fossil fuels is discussed. Storage of the separated CO2 in geological repositories is envisaged and the possibilities for this are examined. (UK)

150

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps; how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% confidence interval. Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50%. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

R. J. Andres

2012-01-01

151

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e., maps; how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10 % uncertainty (95 % confidence interval. Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. This manuscript concludes that carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion continue to increase with time and that while much is known about the overall characteristics of these emissions, much is still to be learned about the detailed characteristics of these emissions.

R. J. Andres

2012-05-01

152

Material flow analysis of fossil fuels in China during 2000-2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the relationship between the supply and demand of fossil fuels is on edge in the long run, the contradiction between the economic growth and limited resources will hinder the sustainable development of the Chinese society. This paper aims to analyze the input of fossil fuels in China during 2000-2010 via the material flow analysis (MFA) that takes hidden flows into account. With coal, oil, and natural gas quantified by MFA, three indexes, consumption and supply ratio (C/S ratio), resource consumption intensity (RCI), and fossil fuels productivity (FFP), are proposed to reflect the interactions between population, GDP, and fossil fuels. The results indicated that in the past 11 years, China's requirement for fossil fuels has been increasing continuously because of the growing mine productivity in domestic areas, which also leads to a single energy consumption structure as well as excessive dependence on the domestic exploitation. It is advisable to control the fossil fuels consumption by energy recycling and new energy facilities' popularization in order to lead a sustainable access to nonrenewable resources and decrease the soaring carbon emissions. PMID:23365525

Wang, Sheng; Dai, Jing; Su, Meirong

2012-01-01

153

Impact on food productivity by fossil fuel independence - A case study of a Swedish small-scale integrated organic farm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The large-scale industrial agriculture that provides the majority of food at present is dependent upon fossil fuels in the form of tractor fuel, mineral fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation. Yet, the age of cheap and abundant fossil fuels will likely come to an end within the coming decades. In this case study, the productivity of a small-scale farm (8 ha arable land, 5.5 ha meadow, 3.5 ha pasture and 18 ha forest) independent on fossil fuels by using organic methods and draught horse power was investigated. The aim was to quantify its productivity when the animal composition and possible alternatives to tractive power were varied. After an analysis of possible solutions, three scenarios for tractive power were selected: draught horse power, diesel tractor, and combination of draught horse power and rapeseed oil fueled tractor. A model that calculates the amount of food available at the farm in terms of meat, milk egg, and crops, converts it into energy units and calculates how many people can be supplied from the farm was developed. The most reasonable of the scenarios studied was when draught horse power was combined with tractor (and combine harvester) driven on locally produced rapeseed oil. Then the farm will have access to all advantages with the tractor and harvester, e.g., timeliness in harvest and lifting heavy loads, and the renewability and efficiency of draught horse power on smaller fields, and lighter operations. This system was able to support between 66 and 82 persons depending on crop yields, milk yields, meat production, fuel demand for the tractor, and availability of forest grazing. Most likely the production capacity lands on ability to support approximately 68 - 70 persons, and the farm may require fossil fuels to support more than 80 persons. If all farmland globally was to be operated with the same productivity, this would be enough for supplying the global population with food at present.

Johansson, Sheshti [Dept. of Energy and Technology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Belfrage, Kristina [Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Olsson, Mats [Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

2013-02-15

154

Cost and performance of fossil fuel power plants with CO2 capture and storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CO2 capture and storage (CCS) is receiving considerable attention as a potential greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation option for fossil fuel power plants. Cost and performance estimates for CCS are critical factors in energy and policy analysis. CCS cost studies necessarily employ a host of technical and economic assumptions that can dramatically affect results. Thus, particular studies often are of limited value to analysts, researchers, and industry personnel seeking results for alternative cases. In this paper, we use a generalized modeling tool to estimate and compare the emissions, efficiency, resource requirements and current costs of fossil fuel power plants with CCS on a systematic basis. This plant-level analysis explores a broader range of key assumptions than found in recent studies we reviewed for three major plant types: pulverized coal (PC) plants, natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants, and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems using coal. In particular, we examine the effects of recent increases in capital costs and natural gas prices, as well as effects of differential plant utilization rates, IGCC financing and operating assumptions, variations in plant size, and differences in fuel quality, including bituminous, sub-bituminous and lignite coals. Our results show higher power plant and CCS costs than prior studies as a consequence of recent escalations in capital and operating costs. The broader range of cases also reveals difhe broader range of cases also reveals differences not previously reported in the relative costs of PC, NGCC and IGCC plants with and without CCS. While CCS can significantly reduce power plant emissions of CO2 (typically by 85-90%), the impacts of CCS energy requirements on plant-level resource requirements and multi-media environmental emissions also are found to be significant, with increases of approximately 15-30% for current CCS systems. To characterize such impacts, an alternative definition of the 'energy penalty' is proposed in lieu of the prevailing use of this term

155

Fuel cells - an attractive option for use in industry. Brennstoffzellen - eine attraktive Option fuer Anwendungen in der Industrie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In energy generation, environmental loads caused by fossil fuels are one of the motivations for the development of effective processes, including new technologies. According to a present assessment, fuel cell engineering can reserve some niches in this decade from the point of view of costs. Technically almost mature is especially the phosphoric acid fuel cell. Its use may make sense in the industrial range, if as an industrial by-product hydrogen-rich gases are available, which can be used as fuel for the fuel cell. In the present contribution, an applied case is described and some statements on the engineering and cost-effectiveness are made. (orig.)

Drenckhahn, W. (Siemens AG Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Erlangen (Germany)); Hassmann, K. (Siemens AG Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Erlangen (Germany)); Lezuo, A. (Siemens AG Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Erlangen (Germany))

1994-09-01

156

Biomass gasification--a substitute to fossil fuel for heat application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper addresses case studies of a low temperature and a high temperature industrial heat requirement being met using biomass gasification. The gasification system for these applications consists of an open top down draft reburn reactor lined with ceramic. Necessary cooling and cleaning systems are incorporated in the package to meet the end use requirements. The other elements included are the fuel conveyor, water treatment plant for recirculating the cooling water and adequate automation to start, shut down and control the operations of the gasifier system. Drying of marigold flower, a low temperature application is considered to replace diesel fuel in the range of 125-150 l h{sup -1}. Gas from the 500 kg h{sup -1}, gasifier system is piped into the producer gas burners fixed in the combustion chamber with the downstream process similar to the diesel burner. The high temperature application is for a heat treatment furnace in the temperature range of 873-1200 K. A 300 kg h{sup -1} of biomass gasifier replaces 2000 l of diesel or LDO per day completely. The novelty of this package is the use of one gasifier to energize 16 burners in the 8 furnaces with different temperature requirements. The system operates over 140 h per week on a nearly nonstop mode and over 4000 h of operation replacing fossil fuel completely. The advantage of bioenergy package towards the economic and environmental considerations is presented.

Dasappa, S.; Sridhar, H.V.; Sridhar, G.; Paul, P.J.; Mukunda, H.S

2003-12-01

157

Biomass gasification--a substitute to fossil fuel for heat application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper addresses case studies of a low temperature and a high temperature industrial heat requirement being met using biomass gasification. The gasification system for these applications consists of an open top down draft reburn reactor lined with ceramic. Necessary cooling and cleaning systems are incorporated in the package to meet the end use requirements. The other elements included are the fuel conveyor, water treatment plant for recirculating the cooling water and adequate automation to start, shut down and control the operations of the gasifier system. Drying of marigold flower, a low temperature application is considered to replace diesel fuel in the range of 125-150 l h-1. Gas from the 500 kg h-1, gasifier system is piped into the producer gas burners fixed in the combustion chamber with the downstream process similar to the diesel burner. The high temperature application is for a heat treatment furnace in the temperature range of 873-1200 K. A 300 kg h-1 of biomass gasifier replaces 2000 l of diesel or LDO per day completely. The novelty of this package is the use of one gasifier to energize 16 burners in the 8 furnaces with different temperature requirements. The system operates over 140 h per week on a nearly nonstop mode and over 4000 h of operation replacing fossil fuel completely. The advantage of bioenergy package towards the economic and environmental considerations is presentednted

158

Compound-specific hydrogen isotope composition of n-alkanes in combustion residuals of fossil fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

The hydrogen isotope compositions (?D) of n-alkanes present in the combustion residuals of fossil fuels (coal, gasoline, and diesel) were measured using GC-IRMS to distinguish between coal soot and vehicle exhaust. The n-alkane ?D values of industrial and domestic coal soot ranged from -95.3‰ to -219.6‰ and -128.1‰ to -188.6‰, respectively, exhibiting similar tendencies. The ?D values of the C15-C18n-alkanes in both types of coal soot were nearly consistent, and the ?D values of the C19-C24n-alkanes exhibited a zigzag profile. The ?D values of C16-C22n-alkanes in gasoline exhaust exhibited a saw-tooth distribution, decreased with the carbon number, and were more positive than the ?D values of C16-C22n-alkanes in diesel exhaust, which increased with the carbon number. However, the ?D values of the C23-C29n-alkanes in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust were mostly consistent. The weighted average ?D values of the C16-C19n-alkanes in industrial and domestic coal soot were similar to the average ?D values in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhausts; however, the average ?D values of the C21-C29n-alkanes in vehicle exhausts were richer in D than those in coal soot.

Bai, Huiling; Peng, Lin; Li, Zhongping; Liu, Xiaofeng; Song, Chongfang; Mu, Ling

2014-11-01

159

Poly(3-hydroxypropionate): a promising alternative to fossil fuel-based materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are storage compounds synthesized by numerous microorganisms and have attracted the interest of industry since they are biobased and biodegradable alternatives to fossil fuel-derived plastics. Among PHAs, poly(3-hydroxypropionate) [poly(3HP)] has outstanding material characteristics and exhibits a large variety of applications. As it is not brittle like, e.g., the best-studied PHA, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [poly(3HB)], it can be used as a plasticizer in blends to improve their properties. Furthermore, 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) is considered likely to become one of the new industrial building blocks, and it can be obtained from poly(3HP) by simple hydrolysis. Unfortunately, no natural organism is known to accumulate poly(3HP) so far. Thus, several efforts have been made to engineer genetically modified organisms capable of synthesizing the homopolymer or copolymers containing 3HP. In this review, the achievements made so far in efforts to obtain biomass which has accumulated poly(3HP) or 3HP-containing copolymers, as well as the properties of these polyesters and their applications, are compiled and evaluated. PMID:25149521

Andreessen, Björn; Taylor, Nicolas; Steinbüchel, Alexander

2014-11-01

160

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e., maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossilfuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. This manuscript concludes that carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion continue to increase with time and that while much is known about the overall characteristics of these emissions, much is still to be learned about the detailed characteristics of these emissions.

Andres, R.J.; Boden, T.A.

2012-01-01

161

Trends in research and development of advanced fossil fuel technologies for electric power generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the end of World War II, electrical generation has increased dramatically worldwide. Fossil fuels account presently for over 70% of the energy input for US electricity generation. Coal provides about three-fourths of the fossil fuel contribution. If no energy policy changes occur, by the year 2010 in the USA over three-fourths of all electricity generation will be fuelled by fossil fuels. As a corrective measure, a National Energy Strategy (NES) has been proposed that will change US energy policies by reducing the expected annual electricity requirements. The NES also forecasts a larger role for nuclear energy and for renewables for power generation needs, with less emphasis on the use of fossil fuels because expected growth in the use of fossil fuels raises concerns about possible health and environmental effects. The switch to new efficient and environmentally superior electricity generating technologies will permit growth while ensuring that the environment is protected. This paper provides an overview of the new advanced technologies for power generation. 10 figs

162

Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises.  

Science.gov (United States)

The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues. PMID:21942396

Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha

2011-01-01

163

BIOMASS AND FOSSIL FUEL TO METHANOL AND CARBON VIA THE HYDROCARB PROCESS  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discusses the production of methanol and carbon from biomass and fossil fuels, utilizing the Hydrocarbon process. This process has the potential to minimize dependence on imported fuels for the transportation and utility sectors by increasing the yield and reducing the ...

164

The change from fossil fuel dependence to sustainable energy sources in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nigeria faces a serious energy crisis due to declining electricity generation from domestic power plants. Although the country is highly dependent on fossil fuel resources, Nigeria has a range of unexploited biomass and hydro power resources, as well as extensive solar energy potential. This paper presented a current energy balance of Nigeria and examined ways of reaching an environmentally sustainable energy balance through the use of a mix of renewable resources. Supply and consumption details of domestic, industrial and transportation sectors as well as electricity production statistics were presented. Total hydropower potential based on the country's river system was estimated to be 10,000 MW. It was estimated that Nigeria has an average of 1.804 x 1015 of incident solar energy annually, which is 27 times the nation's total conventional energy resources in energy units. It was noted that Nigeria also possesses a significant amount of biomass resources from several large forests that may be used to supply domestic cooking and heating needs as well as for ethanol production. It was noted that wind energy may not be a viable alternative for large scale electricity production in Nigeria. Recommendations to promote the use of renewable resources in the national energy mix included encouraging the decentralization of energy supplies; discouraging the use of wood as fuel; promoting efficient methods in the use of biomass energy resources; private sector particss energy resources; private sector participation; and global partnerships. 15 refs., 7 tabs

165

What will happen to the producer prices for fossil fuels if Kyoto is implemented  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Implementation of the Kyoto commitments will result in lesser global fossil fuel consumption in 2010 than would occur in the absence of climate policy. The paper explores how the consumption change resulting from climate policy implementation could affect the producer prices of fossil fuels. The conclusion is that the price impact will be insignificant if the climate policy goals are established credibly and in the near future, for that will give rationally behaving fossil fuel producers ample time to adjust production capacity to the changed outlook for future demand. It is argued that as long as capacity develops in line with demand, prices should remain the same, irrespective of the speed and direction of demand change. (author)

166

Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modern food production depends on limited natural resources for providing energy and fertilisers. We assess the fossil fuel dependency for the Danish food production system by means of Food Energy Returned on fossil Energy Invested (Food-EROI and by the use of energy intensive nutrients from imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing and transportation, 0.25 J of food energy is produced; 0.28 when crediting for produced bioenergy. Furthermore, nutrients in commercial fertiliser and imported feed account for 84%, 90% and 90% of total supply of N, P and K, respectively. We conclude that the system is unsustainable because it is embedded in a highly fossil fuel dependent system based on a non-circular flow of nutrients. As energy and thus nutrient constraints may develop in the coming decades, the current system may need to adapt by reducing use of fossil energy at the farm and for transportation of food and feed. An operational strategy may be to relocalise the supply of energy, nutrients, feed and food.

Hanne Řstergĺrd

2013-08-01

167

Fossil fuel and biomass burning effect on climate - heating or cooling?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Emission from burning of fossil fuels and biomass (associated with deforestation) generates a radiative forcing on the atmosphere and a possible climate change. Emitted trace gases heat the atmosphere through their greenhouse effect, while particulates formed from emitted SO2 cause cooling by increasing cloud albedos through alteration of droplet size distributions. This paper reviews the characteristics of the cooling effect and applies Twomey's theory to check whether the radiative balance favours heating or cooling for the cases of fossil fuel and biomass burning. It is also shown that although coal and oil emit 120 times as many CO2 molecules as SO2 molecules, each SO2 molecule is 50-1100 times more effective in cooling the atmosphere (through the effect of aerosol particles on cloud albedo) than a CO2 molecule is in heating it. Note that this ratio accounts for the large difference in the aerosol (3-10 days) and CO2 (7-100 years) lifetimes. It is concluded, that the cooling effect from coal and oil burning may presently range from 0.4 to 8 times the heating effect. Within this large uncertainty, it is presently more likely that fossil fuel burning causes cooling of the atmosphere rather than heating. Biomass burning associated with deforestation, on the other hand, is more likely to cause heating of the atmosphere than cooling since its aerosol cooling effect is only half that from fossil fuel burnct is only half that from fossil fuel burning and its heating effect is twice as large. Future increases in coal and oil burning, and the resultant increase in concentration of cloud condensation nuclei, may saturate the cooling effect, allowing the heating effect to dominate. For a doubling in the CO2 concentration due to fossil fuel burning, the cooling effect is expected to be 0.1 to 0.3 of the heating effect. 75 refs., 8 tabs

168

Importance of hydrogen fuels as sustainable alternative energy for domestic and industrial applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy demand is increasing continuously due to rapid growth in population and industrialization development. As a result greenhouse gases especially CO2 produced by the combustion of fossil fuels cause depletion of fossil fuels and deterioration of environmental conditions worldwide. The goal of global energy sustainability implies the replacement of all fossil fuels by renewable energy sources . Hydrogen fuel is one of the sustainable energy sources can be available by conversion of biomass into biological hydrogen gas and ethanol. Rate of biomass generation in domestic wastes in Iranian culture is high. Therefore there is suitable potential for hydrogen generation in rural and urban areas of Iran. On the other hand energy extraction from these fossil fuels causes pollution and diseases. Globally, hydrogen is already produced in significant quantities (around 5 billion cubic metres per annum). It is mainly used to produce ammonia for fertiliser (about 50%), for oil refining (37%), methanol production (8%) and in the chemical and metallurgical industries (4%). On the other hand, increase in emissions rates of greenhouse gases, i.e., CO2 present a threat to the world climate. Also new legislation of Iran has been approved the higher costs of conventional fuels for consuming in vehicles for reduction of greenhouse gases reduction as environmental policies. Demand is rising in all cities of Iran for cleaner fuels such as mixed fuels and natural gas fuels such as mixed fuels and natural gas, but unfortunately they are exporting to foreign countries or the required technologies are not available and economically option. Nuclear industries in Iran are also small and expanding only slowly. So importance of alternative energies as hydrogen powers are increasing daily. Presently both major consumers of domestic and industrial such as plants and manufacturers are using fossil fuels for their process that consequently contribute to the global warming and climate change. This paper reviews these options, with reference not only to greenhouse gases but also to welfare increasing. (author)

169

Co-combustion of Fossil Fuels and Waste  

OpenAIRE

The Ph.D. thesis deals with the alternative and high efficiency methods of using waste-derived fuels in heat and power production. The focus is on the following subjects: 1) co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel (SRF) under pulverized fuel combustion conditions; 2) dust-firing of straw and the utilization of a waste-derived material as an additive; 3) the combustion of a biomass residue rich in phosphorus. Co-combustion of coal and SRF was conducted in an entrained flow reactor...

Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-johansen, Kim; Frandsen, Flemming

2011-01-01

170

High-Temperature Corrosion in Fossil Fuel Power Generation: Present and Future  

Science.gov (United States)

Fossil fuels have historically represented two-thirds of all electricity generation in the United States and are projected to continue to play a similar role despite historically low projected growth rates in electricity demand and the recent dramatic shift from coal to more natural gas usage. Economic and environmental drivers will require more reliable and efficient fossil fuel generation systems in the future, likely with new system designs, higher operating temperatures, and more aggressive environments. Some of the current corrosion issues in power plants are reviewed along with research on materials solutions for systems envisioned for the near future, such as coal gasification and oxy-fired coal boilers.

Pint, B. A.

2013-08-01

171

Interaction of carbon reduction and green energy promotion in a small fossil-fuel importing economy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the incidence of carbon-reduction and green-energy promotion policies in an open fossil-fuel importing general equilibrium economy. The focus is on mixed price-based or quantity-based policies. Instruments directed toward promoting green energy are shown to reduce also carbon emissions and vice versa. Their direct effects are stronger than their side effects, the more so, the greater is the elasticity of substitution in consumption between energy and the consumption good. We calculate the effects of variations in individual policy parameters, especially on energy prices and welfare costs, and determine the impact of exogenous fossil-fuel price shocks on the economy. (orig.)

172

Material Flow Analysis of Fossil Fuels in China during 2000–2010  

OpenAIRE

Since the relationship between the supply and demand of fossil fuels is on edge in the long run, the contradiction between the economic growth and limited resources will hinder the sustainable development of the Chinese society. This paper aims to analyze the input of fossil fuels in China during 2000–2010 via the material flow analysis (MFA) that takes hidden flows into account. With coal, oil, and natural gas quantified by MFA, three indexes, consumption and supply ratio (C/S ratio), reso...

Wang, Sheng; Dai, Jing; Su, Meirong

2012-01-01

173

Social cost pricing of fossil fuels used in the production of electricity: implications to biomass feasibility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary objective of this study is to investigate full social pricing for fossil fuels and the subsequent effect on biomass quantities in the state of Tennessee. The first step is to estimate the full social costs and then to estimate the effects of their internalization. Other objectives are (1) investigate whether or not market imperfections exist, (2) if they exist, how should full social cost pricing be estimated, (3) what other barriers help fossil fuels stay economically attractive and prevent biomass from competing, (4) estimating the demand for biomass, and (5) given this demand for biomass, what are the implications for farmers and producers in Tennessee. (author)

174

If Fossil and Fissile Fuels Falter, We've Got. . .  

Science.gov (United States)

Alternative energy sources and the new systems and techniques required for their development are described: fuel cells, magnetohydrodynamics, thermionics, geothermal, wind, tides, waste consersion, biomass, and ocean thermal energy conversion. (MF)

Klaus, Robert L.

1977-01-01

175

Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model's parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed

176

Critical analysis on hydrogen as an alternative to fossil fuels and biofuels for vehicles in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent times, the global debate on the environment has been centered on CO2 emissions. This gas is the major cause of the ''greenhouse effect'' and people are more concerned with the idea that the emissions of this gas should be minimized. As a result of this concern, the Kyoto Protocol was enacted and subscribed to by many countries, setting the maximum gas emissions for them. Fossil fuels are a major source of CO2 emissions. For some years now The European Union has been seeking to promote some years now the use of biofuels as substitutes for diesel or petrol for transport purposes. As a result of this policy, in 2003 the European Union (EU) Directive 2003/30/EC was developed with the aim of promoting the use of biofuels as a substitute for diesel or gasoline among European Union countries as well as to contribute to fulfilling the commitments acquired on climate change, security of supply in environmentally friendly conditions and the promotion of renewable energy sources. In order to achieve these goals, the directive forces all EU members to ensure that before December 31 of 2010 at least 5.75% of all gasoline and diesel fuels sold for transport purposes are biofuels. European Union countries have social and economic characteristics unique to themselves. The energy dependence on foreign sources, the features of the agricultural sector or the degree of industrialization varies greatly from one country to another. In this context, it is quetry to another. In this context, it is questionable whether the obligation imposed by this directive is actually achieving in its application uniform and/or identical goals in each of the countries involved and whether the actions of the various governments are also aligned with these goals. All these ideas were developed in a previous report (Sobrino and Monroy (2009)). This report examines the possibility of using hydrogen as an alternative to fossil fuels and biofuels from a technical, economic and environmental point of view in the specific case of a European Union country: Spain. (author)

177

Assessing European potential for geological storage of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion. The Gestco Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total EU (and Norway) emissions of CO2 from thermal power generation were some 950 million tonnes in 1990, the Kyoto agreement reference level. An ongoing research project, the GESTCO project, will provide the first documentation that, for the emission sources within the selected key areas, sufficient geological storage capacity is available for at least 30 years and possibly much longer. Cost of energy will obviously increase, but it is anticipated that electricity production cost price will be comparable to that of renewables. It would further have major implications for the European power generating industry which today is totally dominated by fossil fuel combustion with enormous emissions problems. The identification and siting of subsurface CO2 storage capability can be expected to have considerable effect on the planning for and future siting of fossil fuel plants. In Norway there are plans to build several major, coastally sited, natural gas-fed electricity generating plants. It is obvious that their siting should be, in part, based on the availability of a suitable subsurface CO2 storage facility. Hydrogen power plants, using natural gas as a feed stock, are being considered as a viable future option in a number of countries with natural gas supply systems. In such plants separation of the natural gas into hydrogen and CO2 will take place prior to combustion of the hydrogen. Emissions will be water vapour and the conEmissions will be water vapour and the concept includes geological storage of the considerable volumes of clean, separated CO2 in saline aquifers or in (heavy) oil fields, using the CO2 to enhance oil recovery. Such power plants would also be able to supply hydrogen or methanol for automotive transport powered by fuels cells. The siting of such plants will again be dependent on the availability of subsurface CO2 storage facilities. As the search for oil and gas proceeds into geographically more remote areas the widespread transport of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) will become commonplace. In order to produce LNG the gas first has to be cleansed of CO2, and it is essential that the siting of such cleansing plants are seen in relation to suitable subsurface CO2 storage facilities. Storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is technically feasible as demonstrated at the Sleipner gas field in the Norwegian North Sea. Since 1996, 1 million tonnes of CO2 has annually been injected into saltwater saturated sands at depths below 800 m. The CO2 at Sleipner occurs as a natural constituent in the hydrocarbon gas and is separated from the sales gas prior to pipeline export

178

Co-combustion of Fossil Fuels and Waste  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Ph.D. thesis deals with the alternative and high efficiency methods of using waste-derived fuels in heat and power production. The focus is on the following subjects: 1) co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel (SRF) under pulverized fuel combustion conditions; 2) dust-firing of straw and the utilization of a waste-derived material as an additive; 3) the combustion of a biomass residue rich in phosphorus. Co-combustion of coal and SRF was conducted in an entrained flow reactor (EFR). The work revealed that when coal was co-fired with up to 25 wt% SRF, the burnout and the emissions of SO2 and NO were decreased with increasing share of SRF, probably due to the combustion characteristics of the SRF and/or the interactions between the SRF and the coal in co-combustion. The Cl content in the fly ash was very low (

Wu, Hao

2011-01-01

179

Timing is everything : along the fossil fuel transition pathway.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

People save for retirement throughout their career because it is virtually impossible to save all you'll need in retirement the year before you retire. Similarly, without installing incremental amounts of clean fossil, renewable or transformative energy technologies throughout the coming decades, a radical and immediate change will be near impossible the year before a policy goal is set to be in place. Therefore, our research question is,To meet our desired technical and policy goals, what are the factors that affect the rate we must install technology to achieve these goals in the coming decades?' Existing models do not include full regulatory constraints due to their often complex, and inflexible approaches to solve foroptimal' engineering instead ofrobust' and multidisciplinary solutions. This project outlines the theory and then develops an applied software tool to model the laboratory-to-market transition using the traditional technology readiness level (TRL) framework, but develops subsequent and a novel regulatory readiness level (RRL) and market readiness level (MRL). This tool uses the ideally-suited system dynamics framework to incorporate feedbacks and time delays. Future energy-economic-environment models, regardless of their programming platform, may adapt this software model component framework ormodule' to further vet the likelihood of new or innovative technology moving through the laboratory, regulatory and market space. The prototype analytical framework and tool, called the Technology, Regulatory and Market Readiness Level simulation model (TRMsim) illustrates the interaction between technology research, application, policy and market dynamics as they relate to a new or innovative technology moving from the theoretical stage to full market deployment. The initial results that illustrate the model's capabilities indicate for a hypothetical technology, that increasing the key driver behind each of the TRL, RRL and MRL components individually decreases the time required for the technology to progress through each component by 63, 68 and 64%, respectively. Therefore, under the current working assumptions, to decrease the time it may take for a technology to move from the conceptual stage to full scale market adoption one might consider expending additional effort to secure regulatory approval and reducing the uncertainty of the technology's demand in the marketplace.

Kobos, Peter Holmes; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Malczynski, Leonard A.

2013-10-01

180

The fossil-fuels and the global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The earth is heated by solar radiation. One is the most important questions is the effect of the human industry. A simple model used, this gives a good result of the phenomena than difficult expressions of numerical applications. The calculation assigns a small number of parameters to the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. It is most important parameter which is changing. If decrease the atmospheric CO2 concentration on 500 ppm, the surface temperature would rise less 1 oC. The CO2 concentraton is a sensitive criterion, but not so much then we found by other models.

Remenyi, Karoly

2010-09-15

181

Some aspects of the destructive impact of fossil fuel combustion and mining on the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Poland, over 80% of the power is generated by combustion of coal and lignite. In the process of coal fired power generation, SO2, NOx, heavy elements and trace elements are emitted into the air, and the water is contaminated by saline water discharged from mines. During combustion, significant quantities of natural radioactive elements are mobilized and emitted into the environment together with gases, ash and water. Large emissions of radioactive elements were found. Combustion of coal in power stations of 1000 MW(e) causes emissions of 138 x 103 t SO2 and 20.9 x 103 t NOx per year. New technologies for removal of gas pollutants were developed. A pilot plant based on the electron beam technology for simultaneous SO2 and NOx removal was constructed and tested. Over the last years, many nuclear devices for quality control of coal and lignite have been developed. Devices have been constructed for measuring the ash contents, dust concentration, and sulphur and moisture contents of fossil fuel both for laboratory and industrial applications. The opponents of nuclear power generation in Poland argue that a nuclear power plant emits significant quantities of radioactive gases to atmosphere and produces liquid and solid radioactive wastes. It is pointed out that power production based on coal combustion generates amounts of radioactive materials comparable with those of nuclear power ps comparable with those of nuclear power plants and, in addition, large quantities of gases (SO2, NOx, CO2), dust and ash. 11 refs, 2 tabs

182

High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quantification of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO{sub 2} measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of {approx}100 km{sup 2} and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the 'Vulcan' inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km{sup 2} and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product, completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions. Comparison to the global 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach.

Gurney, Kevin R.; Mendoza, Daniel L.; Zhou, Yuyu; Fischer, Marc L.; Miller, Chris C.; Geethakumar, Sarath; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2009-03-19

183

Comprehensive exergetic and economic comparison of PWR and hybrid fossil fuel-PWR power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A typical 1000 MW Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant and two similar hybrid 1000 MW PWR plants operate with natural gas and coal fired fossil fuel superheater-economizers (Hybrid PWR-Fossil fuel plants) are compared exergetically and economically. Comparison is performed based on energetic and economic features of three systems. In order to compare system at their optimum operating point, three workable base case systems including the conventional PWR, and gas and coal fired hybrid PWR-Fossil fuel power plants considered and optimized in exergetic and exergoeconomic optimization scenarios, separately. The thermodynamic modeling of three systems is performed based on energy and exergy analyses, while an economic model is developed according to the exergoeconomic analysis and Total Revenue Requirement (TRR) method. The objective functions based on exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses are developed. The exergetic and exergoeconomic optimizations are performed using the Genetic Algorithm (GA). Energetic and economic features of exergetic and exergoeconomic optimized conventional PWR and gas and coal fired Hybrid PWR-Fossil fuel power plants are compared and discussed comprehensively.

184

Comprehensive exergetic and economic comparison of PWR and hybrid fossil fuel-PWR power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A typical 1000 MW Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant and two similar hybrid 1000 MW PWR plants operate with natural gas and coal fired fossil fuel superheater-economizers (Hybrid PWR-Fossil fuel plants) are compared exergetically and economically. Comparison is performed based on energetic and economic features of three systems. In order to compare system at their optimum operating point, three workable base case systems including the conventional PWR, and gas and coal fired hybrid PWR-Fossil fuel power plants considered and optimized in exergetic and exergoeconomic optimization scenarios, separately. The thermodynamic modeling of three systems is performed based on energy and exergy analyses, while an economic model is developed according to the exergoeconomic analysis and Total Revenue Requirement (TRR) method. The objective functions based on exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses are developed. The exergetic and exergoeconomic optimizations are performed using the Genetic Algorithm (GA). Energetic and economic features of exergetic and exergoeconomic optimized conventional PWR and gas and coal fired Hybrid PWR-Fossil fuel power plants are compared and discussed comprehensively. (author)

Sayyaadi, Hoseyn; Sabzaligol, Tooraj [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Division, K.N. Toosi University of Technology P.O. Box: 19395-1999, No. 15-19, Pardis Str., Mollasadra Ave., Vanak Sq., Tehran 1999 143344 (Iran)

2010-07-15

185

Impacts of Wind and Solar on Fossil-Fueled Generators: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High penetrations of wind and solar power will impact the operations of the remaining generators on the power system. Regional integration studies have shown that wind and solar may cause fossil-fueled generators to cycle on and off and ramp down to part load more frequently and potentially more rapidly. Increased cycling, deeper load following, and rapid ramping may result in wear-and-tear impacts on fossil-fueled generators that lead to increased capital and maintenance costs, increased equivalent forced outage rates, and degraded performance over time. Heat rates and emissions from fossil-fueled generators may be higher during cycling and ramping than during steady-state operation. Many wind and solar integration studies have not taken these increased cost and emissions impacts into account because data have not been available. This analysis considers the cost and emissions impacts of cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generation to refine assessments of wind and solar impacts on the power system.

Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Agan, D.; Lefton, S.

2012-08-01

186

EPA/IFP EUROPEAN WORKSHOP ON THE EMISSION ON NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION  

Science.gov (United States)

The report summarizes the proceedings of an EPA/Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) cosponsored workshop addressing direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from fossil fuel combustion. The third in a series, it was held at the IFP in Rueil-Malmaison, France, on June 1-2, 1988. Increas...

187

Energy 3: Fossil Fuel Use and its Consequences - The Carbon Cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

This video goes through the carbon cycle and describes how using fossil fuels threatens the foundation of the aquatic global food chain. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.

2012-12-19

188

A new evaluation of the uncertainty associated with CDIAC estimates of fossil fuel carbon dioxide emission  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three uncertainty assessments associated with the global total of carbon dioxide emitted from fossil fuel use and cement production are presented. Each assessment has its own strengths and weaknesses and none give a full uncertainty assessment of the emission estimates. This approach grew out of the lack of independent measurements at the spatial and temporal scales of interest. Issues of dependent and independent data are considered as well as the temporal and spatial relationships of the data. The result is a multifaceted examination of the uncertainty associated with fossil fuel carbon dioxide emission estimates. The three assessments collectively give a range that spans from 1.0 to 13% (2 ?. Greatly simplifying the assessments give a global fossil fuel carbon dioxide uncertainty value of 8.4% (2 ?. In the largest context presented, the determination of fossil fuel emission uncertainty is important for a better understanding of the global carbon cycle and its implications for the physical, economic and political world.

Robert J. Andres

2014-07-01

189

Regional variations in spatial structure of nightlights, population density and fossil-fuel CO2 emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluate the joint use of satellite-observed intensity of urban nightlights and census-based population density data as constraints on the spatial structure of CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. Findings are: (1) the probability that population density exceeds a given value follows a power-law distribution over two orders of magnitude of population density, encompassing the 40% of the global population at the highest densities. (2) The corresponding probability distribution for nightlights intensity also follows a power-law, departing near instrumental saturation. (3) Assuming that the true nightlights intensity distribution follows the power-law above instrumental saturation, we obtain a correction for saturation errors in the nightlights data. The amplification of nightlights intensity required to correct for saturation errors is estimated to be a factor of 1.15-1.23 globally and much greater in regions with high nightlights intensities. (4) Correcting for saturation, we observe clear empirical relationships between nightlights intensity and areal densities of energy consumption, fossil-fuel emissions and economic activity, holding throughout the development spectrum. (5) We indicate how these relationships underpin a fossil-fuel data assimilation system (FFDAS) for estimating fossil-fuel CO2 emissions.

190

Fossil fuel gasification: Technological developments - processes and materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gasification technology has long played an important role in the process industries and the concept of the environmentally clean Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant has been around for many years. Several coal gasification technologies have been demonstrated at commercial or near-to-commercial scale and there are planned international IGCC power plant projects. The technologies have a few critical areas, particularly, in the field of materials. Research is aiming at a 'simplified' IGCC concept which features two developments which could lead to lower cost plants with efficiencies of 42%: air gasification and hot gas clean-up. New hypotheses of 'hybrid' processes and projects involving heavy oil gasification are being developed. The gasification advanced research activities of ENEL's (Italian National Electricity Board) Research and Development Department are reported in this paper

191

Economic value of U.S. fossil fuel electricity health impacts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fossil fuel energy has several externalities not accounted for in the retail price, including associated adverse human health impacts, future costs from climate change, and other environmental damages. Here, we quantify the economic value of health impacts associated with PM(2.5) and PM(2.5) precursors (NO(x) and SO(2)) on a per kilowatt hour basis. We provide figures based on state electricity profiles, national averages and fossil fuel type. We find that the economic value of improved human health associated with avoiding emissions from fossil fuel electricity in the United States ranges from a low of $0.005-$0.013/kWh in California to a high of $0.41-$1.01/kWh in Maryland. When accounting for the adverse health impacts of imported electricity, the California figure increases to $0.03-$0.07/kWh. Nationally, the average economic value of health impacts associated with fossil fuel usage is $0.14-$0.35/kWh. For coal, oil, and natural gas, respectively, associated economic values of health impacts are $0.19-$0.45/kWh, $0.08-$0.19/kWh, and $0.01-$0.02/kWh. For coal and oil, these costs are larger than the typical retail price of electricity, demonstrating the magnitude of the externality. When the economic value of health impacts resulting from air emissions is considered, our analysis suggests that on average, U.S. consumers of electricity should be willing to pay $0.24-$0.45/kWh for alternatives such as energy efficiency investments or emission-free renewable sources that avoid fossil fuel combustion. The economic value of health impacts is approximately an order of magnitude larger than estimates of the social cost of carbon for fossil fuel electricity. In total, we estimate that the economic value of health impacts from fossil fuel electricity in the United States is $361.7-886.5 billion annually, representing 2.5-6.0% of the national GDP. PMID:23246069

Machol, Ben; Rizk, Sarah

2013-02-01

192

Co-combustion for fossil fuel replacement and better environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The growing demand for energy and the requirements regarding CO{sub 2} emissions to comply with the Kyoto targets, together with crisis associated with the fuel supply, can be, to some degree, met by the use of renewable fuel sources, such as biomass. Although the use of biomass, originating from forests, could be beneficial, particularly in preventing fires, there are obstacles to achieve a sustainable supply of biomass in most European countries. In addition, there are also technical barriers as biomass combustion conditions may differ from those of coal, which could mean significant retrofitting of existing installations. The significance of this problem was recognized in the EU and a Project is being financed by the 6th Framework Programme, INETI from Portugal being the coordinator. Five EU countries plus Turkey participate in the project which aims at evaluating both the sustainable chain supply in the several countries, taking profit of the experience of northern European countries and the technical issues related with the co-combustion process, pollutant emission control and operational problems, such as fouling and slagging inside the boilers. At INETI, experimental work is being carried out, involving the characterization of several types of biomass and non-toxic residues. These materials are being burned on a pilot fluidized bed combustor, in order to evaluate combustion performance and improve conditions and synergies of fuel blends to control pollutant emissions and slagging tendency. Ashes produced are also being characterized, for composition and leachability, in order to evaluate possibilities of reutilization and compliance with landfilling regulations. In this paper a description of the project is presented, along with some of the results already obtained.

Lopes, M. Helena; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Abelha, Pedro; Teixeira, P.; Crujeira, Teresa; Boavida, Dulce; Marques, F.; Cabrita, Isabel [INETI/DER, Lisboa (Portugal)

2006-07-01

193

Firing of boilers and furnaces with non-fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Case studies were carried out at 10 sites using wood or straw fired furnaces on horticultural and agricultural applications (greenhouse, livestock housing or domestic heating, grain drying). Furnace reliability was good. Refuelling was the limiting factor for unattended operation and to extend this time, burning of wood, automatic firing, and use in conjunction with conventional oil fired heating equipment was practiced. Straw fuel was usually kept dry, with typical moisture contents of 13-15%. Wood moisture contents were greater than 20%. Combustion efficiencies mainly of the order of 40-60% were measured with simple furnaces. With automatic fired plant, mean combustion efficiencies of 71-73% were achieved.

Metcalfe, J.P.

1986-01-01

194

Emission of sulphur dioxide during thermal treatment of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dynamics of SO2 emission during thermooxidation of Estonian oil shale, its semicoke, different samples of coal and their mixtures, as well as the influence of Estonian oil shale ash addition (for modelling the CFBC process) on the dynamics were studied. The experiments were carried out with thermogravimetric equipment under dynamic heating conditions (5 K min-1) in the atmosphere of dried air, with simultaneous gastitrimetric EGA. It was established that SO2 emission from the fuels started at 200-320 deg C. Depending on the form of sulphur (organic, pyritic, sulphate), the emission took place in two or three steps, and continued up to 580-650 deg C, during which 35-75% of the total sulphur was emitted into the gaseous phase. Regulating the mole ratio of free CaO/S in the mixtures of fuels with oil shake ash addition the emission of SO2 ceased abruptly at 460-540 deg C and it was limited to the level of 7-30%. (author)

195

A Survey on the Role of System Dynamics Methodology on Fossil Fuel Resources Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} In today’s world, fossil fuel resources are still the main source for energy supply. Many attempts have been done in order to develop alternative sources of energy, since fossil fuel resources are limited and will be depleted soon or late. Despite these efforts, as international energy organizations declare, fossil fuel resources have the largest share in the world’s energy supply. Therefore, the study of exploration, production, and exploitation dynamics of these resources, have been considered a significant topic for many researchers. System dynamics, which is an appropriate method for dynamic studies and policy analysis, has been used as one of the most impressive methodologies in systemic research and application in this area. Besides the illustration of the role of system dynamics in fossil fuel resources analysis, this paper reviews the pioneering system dynamics models in this field. The results of this work would be helpful for researchers who are interested in the dynamic studies of fossil fuel resources’ systems.

Behdad Kiani

2010-06-01

196

Nuclear activation methods for the characterization of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented on the use of neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the analyses of coal, oil shale, tar sands and petroleum. Fast NAA has been widely used for the determination of oxygen, and to a limited extent, of other elements such as nitrogen and silicon. Reactor NAA followed by instrumental counting, and in specific cases, after radiochemical separations is discussed. Thermal and epithermal neutrons are both used. Limited use of the 252Cf source has been made in fuel analysis. A complementary technique to NAA is the photon activation analysis with linear accelerator. It can determine over thirty elements, many of them not possible to do by NAA. Round-robin analyses of standard coal, fly ash, or oil shale samples indicate that nuclear activation methods are comparable in accuracy and precision to X-ray fluorescence or atomic spectrometric methods for most elements. (author)

197

Applications of biotechnology in the fossil fuel sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented of the effects of micoorganisms on petroleum industry operations and on the potentially significant applications of biotechnology in that sector. Detrimental aspects of microbial activity include the biodegradation of petroleum products and petrochemical products, microbially influenced corrosion, and microbial souring of oil reservoirs by sulfate reducing bacteria. Beneficial aspects include microbially enhanced oil recovery, the mapping of the presence of ethane oxidizing bacteria as an exploration tool, the use of bacterial systems for plugging during hydraulic fracturing, microbially stimulated oil production, microbial dewaxing, use of biopolymers such as xanthan in drilling muds, microbial surfactants and emulsifiers for use in pipelining of viscous oils, microbial upgrading of oil, manufacture of biodegradable products, and bioremediation of contaminated sites. Microbially enhanced oil recovery technologies, well and tank cleaning operations based on microbial formulations, and microbial-based well stimulation and cleaning operations have already reached field trial success, with commercial success in several cases. The hottest area of application in the 1990s will undoubtedly be in the area of biological remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites and emissions. 39 refs

198

More diesel generation could further fossil fuel economy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following the introduction last year of their Seahorse medium-speed diesel engine, the manufacturers, Hawthorn Leslie (Engineers) Ltd., of Newcastle upon Tyne, have made an extensive analysis of the resource effectiveness of diesel-driven generating sets. Though directed towards the raising of funds to construct a demonstration power plant in the UK, the analysis is relevant elsewhere. In addition, the firm has now developed an energy recovery package for use with the basic engine to further improve the overall thermal efficiency of the system. Looked at in a British context, the basis of Hawthorn Leslie's case is this. The importance of coal in electicity generation is evidence of its value as a national resource. Now that North Sea oil has emerged as a national energy resource, it must be used to the greatest effect; this means building diesel power stations to take over the mid-load cycle of utility operations. The analysis compares five prime movers: gas turbines, diesel engines, and steam turbines powered by oil- or coal-fired boilers, or thermal reactors. Capital and fixed running costs are shown. The diesel engine is the most efficient prime mover for electricity generation. With this novel energy recovery principle, greater utilization of fuel energy can be realized if direct heating is not required. (MCW)

Jeffs, E.

1976-05-01

199

Co-combustion of fossil fuels and waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Ph.D. thesis deals with the alternative and high efficiency methods of using waste-derived fuels in heat and power production. The focus is on the following subjects: 1) co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel (SRF) under pulverized fuel combustion conditions; 2) dust-firing of straw and the utilization of a waste-derived material as an additive; 3) the combustion of a biomass residue rich in phosphorus. Co-combustion of coal and SRF was conducted in an entrained flow reactor (EFR). The work revealed that when coal was co-fired with up to 25 wt% SRF, the burnout and the emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO were decreased with increasing share of SRF. The Cl content in the fly ash was very low (<0.07 wt%) when coal was co-fired up to 25 wt% SRF, indicating that the majority of the Cl in the SRF were released to gas phase during cocombustion. The formation of fouling deposits on a probe was reduced with increasing share of SRF and the resulting deposits had a very small Cl content (<0.01 wt%). On the other hand, when NaCl or PVC was added to the mixture of coal and SRF, the formation of alkali chlorides was significantly promoted. The partitioning of trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Sb and Zn) during co-combustion of coal and SRF was investigated through the experiments in the EFR. They revealed that As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn were highly volatile during combustion, while the volatility of Cr was relatively low. The volatility of Cd, Pb and Zn increased significantly with the injection of Cl based additives such as PVC and NaCl, while the addition of ammonium sulphate generally decreased the volatility of trace elements. The addition of kaolinite reduced the volatility of Pb, while the effect on other trace elements was insignificant. Full-scale tests on co-combustion of coal and SRF were carried out in a pulverized coal-fired power plant, and the formation of fine particles was evaluated by applying a low-pressure cascade impactor. Compared to dedicated coal combustion, co-combustion of coal and SRF (up to 10% thermal share) generally promoted the formation of ultrafine particles with a concentration peak around 0.1 {mu}m, while the total concentration of PM{sub 2.5} decreased. Composition analyses showed that the Ca, S and P were significantly enriched in the ultrafine particles, indicating a high volatility of these elements in pulverized coal combustion. Compared to dedicated coal combustion, the content of the Ca, P and K was larger in the fine particles generated from co-combustion, whereas the S content was slightly smaller. During the full-scale tests, the dust emission appeared to be significantly increased during co-combustion of coal and SRF, which was presumably related to a reduction of the collection efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Dust-firing of straw was performed in an entrained flow reactor, and the feasibility of utilizing spent bleaching earth (SBE) as an additive was investigated through a comparison with kaolinite. It was found that about 70% of the K in the fly ash from straw-dust firing was water soluble, and the KCl contributed more than 40% of the water soluble K. With the addition of 10-20 wt% of SBE, the Cl retention in ash was decreased, the SO{sub 2} emission was increased, and the formation of water soluble alkali species was reduced. Compared to kaolinite, the inhibiting effect of SBE on the formation of alkali chlorides was slightly smaller when the molar ratio of K/(Al+Si) was similar in the fuel mixture. The addition of SBE significantly reduced the Cl content of the deposits collected on a probe. The release and transformation of inorganic elements during the combustion of a residual bran was studied through experiments and equilibrium modeling. The work revealed that the major inorganic elements released during bran combustion were K, P and S. The S was almost fully vaporized during pyrolysis at temperatures below 700 deg. C, whereas about 60-70 % of the K and P in the bran were released during combustion in a temperature range of 900-1100 deg. C. Additives such

Wu, Hao

2011-05-15

200

Technical considerations in repowering a nuclear plant for fossil fueled operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Repowering involves replacement of the reactor by a fossil fuel source of steam. This source can be a conventional fossil fueled boiler or the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) on a gas turbine exhaust. The existing steam turbine plant is used to the extent possible. Alternative fuels for repowering a nuclear plant are coal, natural gas and oil. In today's world oil is not usually an alternative. Selection of coal or natural gas is largely a matter of availability of the fuel near the location of the plant. Both the fossil boiler and the HRSG produce steam at higher pressures and temperatures than the throttle conditions for a saturated steam nuclear turbine. It is necessary to match the steam conditions from the new source to the existing turbine as closely as possible. Technical approaches to achieve a match range from using a topping turbine at the front end of the cycle to attemperation of the throttle steam with feedwater. The electrical output from the repowered plant is usually greater than that of the original nuclear fueled design. This requires consideration of the ability to use the excess electricity. Interfacing of the new facility with the existing turbine plant requires consideration of facility layout and design. Site factors must also be considered, especially for a coal fired boiler, since rail and coal handling facilities must be added to a site for which these were not considered. Additional site factors that require consideration are ash handling and disposal

201

Assessment of industrial applications for fuel cell cogeneration systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The fuel cell energy systems are designed with and without a utility connection for emergency back-up power. Sale of electricity to the utility during periods of low plant demand is not considered. For each of the three industrial applications, conceptual designs were also developed for conventional utility systems relying on purchased electric power and fossil-fired boilers for steam/hot water. The capital investment for each energy system is estimated. Annual operating costs are also determined for each system. These cost estimates are converted to levelized annual costs by applying appropriate economic factors. The breakeven electricity price that would make fuel cell systems competitive with the conventional systems is plotted as a function of naphtha price. The sensitivity of the breakeven point to capital investment and coal price is also evaluated.

Stickles, R. P.; Oneill, J. K.; Smith, E. H.

1978-01-01

202

N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship, on a global basis, between the amount of N fixed by chemical, biological or atmospheric processes entering the terrestrial biosphere, and the total emission of nitrous oxide (N2O, has been re-examined, using known global atmospheric removal rates and concentration growth of N2O as a proxy for overall emissions. The relationship, in both the pre-industrial period and in recent times, after taking into account the large-scale changes in synthetic N fertiliser production and deforestation, is consistent, showing an overall conversion factor of 3–5%. This factor is covered only in part by the ~1% of "direct" emissions from agricultural crop lands estimated by IPCC (2006, or the "indirect" emissions cited therein. This means that the extra N2O entering the atmosphere as a result of using N to produce crops for biofuels will also be correspondingly greater than that estimated just on the basis of IPCC (2006. When the extra N2O emission from biofuel production is calculated in "CO2-equivalent" global warming terms, and compared with the quasi-cooling effect of "saving" emissions of fossil fuel derived CO2, the outcome is that the production of commonly used biofuels, such as biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from corn (maize, can contribute as much or more to global warming by N2O emissions than cooling by fossil fuel savings. Crops with less N demand, such as grasses and woody coppice species have more favourable climate impacts. This analysis only considers the conversion of biomass to biofuel. It does not take into account the use of fossil fuel on the farms and for fertilizer and pesticide production, but it also neglects the production of useful co-products. Both factors partially compensate each other. This needs to be analyzed in a full life cycle assessment.

A. R. Mosier

2007-08-01

203

A comparative study of dynamic changes in CO2 emission performance of fossil fuel power plants in China and Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper aims to conduct a comparative study of the changes in CO2 emission performance of state-owned fossil fuel power plants between China and Korea. For this purpose, we combine the concept of the metafrontier Malmquist productivity index and the non-radial directional distance function to develop a new index called the non-radial metafrontier Malmquist CO2 emission performance index (NMMCPI). This new methodology allows for the incorporation of technological heterogeneities and slack variables into the previously introduced Malmquist CO2 emission performance index (MCPI). The NMMCPI can be derived by solving several non-radial data envelopment analysis (DEA) models. The NMMCPI can be decomposed into an efficiency change (EC) index, a best-practice gap change (BPC) index, and a technology gap change (TGC) index. By fixing the non-energy inputs, we measure the pure CO2 emission performance change. Based on the proposed indices, the comparative study between Chinese and Korean fossil fuel power industries is conducted for the 2005–2010 period. Empirical results indicate significant differences in terms of various decomposed CO2 emission performance changes between China and Korea. Korean power plants demonstrate improvements in innovation, while Chinese power plants demonstrate a higher ability for technological leadership. Some related policy implications are also proposed based on the empirical results. -- Highlights: •The non-radial metafrontier Malmquist CO2 emission performance index (NMMCPI) is proposed. •It allows for the incorporation of group heterogeneity and non-radial slack. •The changes in CO2 emission performance and its decomposition of fossil fuel power plants in China and Korea are compared

204

Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

Levi, M. P.; O& #x27; Grady, M. J.

1980-02-01

205

Clean uses of fossil fuels. Progress performance report, September 29, 1991--January 25, 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Science and engineering doctoral students performing energy related research were supported by a USDOE/ESPCoR Traineeship grant awarded to the Kentucky EPSCoR Committee. The grant, administered by the KY DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee, focused on research having the general description of {open_quotes}Clean Uses of Fossil Fuels{close_quotes}. The value of the grant was $500,000 for three years duration, beginning September 30, 1991 and ending September 29, 1994. Ten PhD students were selected for support during the first year of the Traineeship. Upon reviewing coursework and research progress of the students at the end of the first year, the KY DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee awarded a second year of support at the same $25,000/year funding level. A total of 12 students will have been supported during the duration of the grant as a consequence of one student completing his degree during the support period and of one student deciding that she wanted to complete only a Masters rather than a PhD degree. The students supported were at either the University of Kentucky or the University of Louisville - the two PhD, science and engineering granting universities within the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The disciplines of these students included Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Physics. The methods used for the initial statewide solicitation for student support, the annual review of the students progress for support renewal, and a summary of progress and impact of the awards after two years are presented. It is shown that the Traineeships presented opportunities to: perform high quality research; initiate interactions between different scientific disciplines and departments; develop collaborations at national DOE laboratories, universities outside of Kentucky and industries; and establish research ideas for submittal to funding agencies.

Stencel, J.M.

1994-01-25

206

The Future of Fossil Fuels: A Century of Abundance or a Century of Decline?  

Science.gov (United States)

Horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and other advanced technologies have spawned a host of new euphoric forecasts of hydrocarbon abundance. Yet although the world's remaining oil and gas resources are enormous, most of them are destined to stay in the ground due to real-world constraints on price, flow rates, investor appetite, supply chain security, resource quality, and global economic conditions. While laboring under the mistaken belief that it sits atop a 100-year supply of natural gas, the U.S. is contemplating exporting nearly all of its shale gas production even as that production is already flattening due to poor economics. Instead of bringing "energy independence" to the U.S. and making it the top oil exporter, unrestricted drilling for tight oil and in the federal outer continental shelf would cut the lifespan of U.S. oil production in half and make it the world's most desperate oil importer by mid-century. And current forecasts for Canadian tar sands production are as unrealistic as their failed predecessors. Over the past century, world energy production has moved progressively from high quality resources with high production rates and low costs to lower quality resources with lower production rates and higher costs, and that progression is accelerating. Soon we will discover the limits of practical extraction, as production costs exceed consumer price tolerance. Oil and gas from tight formations, shale, bitumen, kerogen, coalbeds, deepwater, and the Arctic are not the stuff of new abundance, but the oil junkie's last dirty fix. This session will highlight the gap between the story the industry tells about our energy future, and the story the data tells about resource size, production rates, costs, and consumer price tolerance. It will show why it's time to put aside unrealistic visions of continued dependence on fossil fuels, face up to a century of decline, and commit ourselves to energy and transportation transition.

Nelder, C.

2012-12-01

207

Fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Support for East European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 required the Secretary of Energy to cooperate with Polish officials to retrofit a coal-fired powerplant in Poland with advanced clean coal technology that has been successfully demonstrated in the United States. The project's goal is to demonstrate a cost-effective technique to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions that can be used at other powerplants in Poland. The act required that the retrofit be carried out by United States companies using United States technology and equipment manufactured in the United States. Questions were raised about changes the Department of Energy (DOE) made to its original definition of a United States firm, and about reductions DOE made to its original SO2 emission requirements for the project. Such changes might result in foreign-owned rather than American-owned firms providing the technology and that the technology might not be the best this country could offer to the Polish people. This paper reviews the reasons for these changes

208

Diagnosis of Heat Exchanger Tube Failure in Fossil Fuel Boilers Through Estimation of Steady State Operating Conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimation of operating conditions for fossil fuel boiler heat exchangers is often required due to changes in working conditions, design modifications and especially for monitoring performance and failure diagnosis. Regular heat exchangers in fossil fuel boilers are composed of tube banks through which water or steam flow, while hot combustion (flue) gases flow outside the tubes. This work presents a top-down approach to operating conditions estimation based on field measurements. An example for a 350 MW unit superheater is thoroughly discussed. Integral calculations based on measurements for all unit heat exchangers (reheaters, superheaters) were performed first. Based on these calculations a scheme of integral conservation equations (lumped parameter) was then formulated at the single tube level. Steady state temperatures of superheater tube walls were obtained as a main output, and were compared to the maximum allowable operating temperatures of the tubes material. A combined lumped parameter - CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics, FLUENT code) approach constitutes an efficient tool in certain cases. A brief report of such a case is given for another unit superheater. We conclude that steady state evaluations based on both integral and detailed simulations are a valuable monitoring and diagnosis tool for the power generation industry

209

Fossil fuels in a changing climate: how to protect the world's climate by ending the use of coal, oil and gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of analysis conducted for Greenpeace reported in this document show that contrary to the message from the fossil fuel industries and some governments, that future energy security is dependent on a continuing increase in the use of oil, coal, gas and nuclear energy, it is not only possible to phase out the use of fossil fuels but this is also achievable in a relatively short timescale. The analysis was based on the computer modelling of energy technologies and policies, linked to the related impact on the world's climate. In the analysis, global carbon dioxide emissions from world fossil fuel use fall by more than 50% within 40 years, and 100% by the year 2100. The phase-out of fossil fuels is made possible by the rapid implementation of energy efficiency, together with extensive use of clean renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass, small-scale hydro and geothermal power. Renewable energy currently delivering 14% of global energy supply, could provide more than 60% by 2030, and all the world's energy needs by 2100. Nuclear power could be phased out by 2100. Greenpeace believes that new policies are needed to see the world on the path of a cleaner energy future. Strong protocols are needed to the international climate convention to set targets on energy efficiency and reneable energy for signatory countries as well as providing funding to allow the south to participate effectively

210

A multiyear, global gridded fossil fuel CO2 emission data product: Evaluation and analysis of results  

Science.gov (United States)

High-resolution, global quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle science and climate policy. We build upon a previously developed fossil fuel data assimilation system (FFDAS) for estimating global high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions. We have improved the underlying observationally based data sources, expanded the approach through treatment of separate emitting sectors including a new pointwise database of global power plants, and extended the results to cover a 1997 to 2010 time series at a spatial resolution of 0.1°. Long-term trend analysis of the resulting global emissions shows subnational spatial structure in large active economies such as the United States, China, and India. These three countries, in particular, show different long-term trends and exploration of the trends in nighttime lights, and population reveal a decoupling of population and emissions at the subnational level. Analysis of shorter-term variations reveals the impact of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis with widespread negative emission anomalies across the U.S. and Europe. We have used a center of mass (CM) calculation as a compact metric to express the time evolution of spatial patterns in fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The global emission CM has moved toward the east and somewhat south between 1997 and 2010, driven by the increase in emissions in China and South Asia over this time period. Analysis at the level of individual countries reveals per capita CO2 emission migration in both Russia and India. The per capita emission CM holds potential as a way to succinctly analyze subnational shifts in carbon intensity over time. Uncertainties are generally lower than the previous version of FFDAS due mainly to an improved nightlight data set.

Asefi-Najafabady, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Gurney, K. R.; McRobert, A.; Song, Y.; Coltin, K.; Huang, J.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.

2014-09-01

211

Impact of reactive nitrogen emissions from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning on atmospheric chemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, using a Lagrangian chemical-transport-deposition model adapted to the nitrogen cycle, we will look at all of the known sources of nitrogen oxides, both natural and man-made. We will attempt to quantify the relative affect that man made sources including fossil fuel and biomass burning have had on the nitrogen cycle and the chemistry of the atmosphere throughout the globe. (JL)

Dignon, J.; Penner, J.E.; Atherton, C.S.; Walton, J.J.

1991-09-01

212

Nitrogen compounds in pressurised fluidised bed gasification of biomass and fossil fuels:  

OpenAIRE

Fossil fuels still dominate the energy supply in modern societies. The resources, however, are depleting. Therefore, other energy sources are to be exploited further within this century. Biomass is one of the practically CO2 neutral, renewable contributors to the future energy production. Nowadays many modern, high efficiency (combined) power and heat producing systems using biomass are or become commercially available. One promising route to efficient power and heat supply is the Integrated ...

Jong, W.

2005-01-01

213

Public money for fossil fuels in the EU and in three EU member states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research report aims to provide an overview of all forms of public money spent on the production and primary processing of fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) in France, the Netherlands, United Kingdom and the European Union since early 2004. Public money includes R and D subsidies, investment and other subsidies; export credits and guarantees; tax rebates and reductions; bilateral development aid and other forms of financial incentives.

214

Interaction of carbon reduction and green energy promotion in a small fossil-fuel importing economy  

OpenAIRE

We study the incidence of carbon-reduction and green-energy promotion policies in a general equilibrium small open economy that depends on imports of fossil fuels. The focus is on mixed policies that are either price based (emissions taxes and producer price subsidies for green energy) or quantity based (schemes of trading emissions and green certificates). Policy instruments directed head-on toward promoting green energy are shown to also reduce carbon emissions and vice versa but the direct...

Pethig, Ru?diger; Wittlich, Christian

2009-01-01

215

Efficient management of insecure fossil fuel Imports through taxing (!) domestic green energy?  

OpenAIRE

A small open economy produces a consumer good, green and black energy, and imports fossil fuel at an uncertain price. Unregulated competitive markets are shown to be inefficient. The implied market failures are due to the agents' attitudes toward risk, to risk shifting and the uniform price for both types of energy. Under the plausible assumptions that consumers are prudent and at least as risk averse as the producers of black energy, the risk can be efficiently managed by taxing emissions an...

Eichner, Thomas; Pethig, Ru?diger

2010-01-01

216

The influence of economic growth, population, and fossil fuel scarcity on energy investments  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the dynamics of energy investments and clean energy Research and Development (R&D) using a scenario-based modeling approach. Starting from the global scenarios proposed in the RoSE model ensemble experiment, we analyze the dynamics of investments under different assumptions regarding economic and population growth as well as availability of fossil fuel resources, in the absence of a climate policy. Our analysis indicates that economic growth and the speed of income converg...

Cian, Enrica; Sferra, Fabio; Tavoni, Massimo

2013-01-01

217

Potential high temperature corrosion problems due to co-firing of biomass and fossil fuels  

OpenAIRE

Over the past few years, considerable high temperature corrosion problems have been encountered when firing biomass in power plants due to the high content of potassium chloride in the deposits. Therefore, to combat chloride corrosion problems cofiring of biomass with a fossil fuel has been undertaken. This results in potassium chloride being converted to potassium sulphate in the combustion chamber and it is sulphate rich deposits that are deposited on the vulnerable metallic surfaces suc...

Montgomery, Melanie; Vilhelmsen, T.; Jensen, S. A.

2008-01-01

218

Social Costs of Air Pollution and Fossil Fuel Use – A Macroeconomic Approach  

OpenAIRE

Economic activity and environmental conditions are related to each other in several ways. Production and consumption may pollute the environment, and at the same time the state of the environment may affect the production capacity of the economy. Thus, it follows that studying social costs of air pollution should be handled within an integrated model. Moreover, air pollution mostly stems from the use of fossil fuels, which also brings about other non-environmental externalities, particularly ...

Rosendahl, Knut Einar

1998-01-01

219

Model calculations of competing climatic effects of SO2 and CO2 in fossil fuel combustion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fossil fuel combustion has two competing effects on the climate system, a warming due to the emission of CO2 and other trace gases and a cooling due to sulphate particles formed from the SO2 emission. A detailed parameterization of the relationship between fossil fuel burning and the SO2 effect on backscattering and cloud albedo is implemented in a one-dimensional radiative-convective model for assessing the climatic impact. The results show that at present the cooling induced by the combined effect of SO2 completely counteracts the CO2 greenhouse warming. The model predicts that by the year 2060 the SO2-induced cooling reduces warming due to CO2 by 66% in the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) scenario Business-as-Usual (BAU) and by 27% in the IPCC scenario D. Attempts to slow-pace the fossil fuel burning will decrease the SO2 concentration, which could further increase global warming. (author). 26 refs., 7 figs

220

A fast method for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions - article no. 034012  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We provide a fast and efficient method for calculating global annual mean carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels by combining data from an established data set with BP annual statistics. Using this method it is possible to retrieve an updated estimate of global CO{sub 2} emissions six months after the actual emissions occurred. Using this data set we find that atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions have increased by over 40% from 1990 to 2008 with an annual average increase of 3.7% over the five-year period 2003-2007. In 2008 the growth rate in the fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions was smaller than in the preceding five years, but it was still over 2%. Global mean carbon dioxide emissions in 2008 were 8.8 GtC yr{sup -1}. For the latter part of the last century emissions of carbon dioxide have been greater from oil than from coal. However during the last few years this situation has changed. The recent strong increase in fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions is mainly driven by an increase in emissions from coal, whereas emissions from oil and gas to a large degree follow the trend from the 1990s.

Myhre, G.; Alterskjaer, K.; Lowe, D. [CICERO, Oslo (Norway)

2009-07-15

221

A fast method for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We provide a fast and efficient method for calculating global annual mean carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels by combining data from an established data set with BP annual statistics. Using this method it is possible to retrieve an updated estimate of global CO2 emissions six months after the actual emissions occurred. Using this data set we find that atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions have increased by over 40% from 1990 to 2008 with an annual average increase of 3.7% over the five-year period 2003-2007. In 2008 the growth rate in the fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions was smaller than in the preceding five years, but it was still over 2%. Global mean carbon dioxide emissions in 2008 were 8.8 GtC yr-1. For the latter part of the last century emissions of carbon dioxide have been greater from oil than from coal. However during the last few years this situation has changed. The recent strong increase in fossil fuel CO2 emissions is mainly driven by an increase in emissions from coal, whereas emissions from oil and gas to a large degree follow the trend from the 1990s.

222

A fast method for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We provide a fast and efficient method for calculating global annual mean carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels by combining data from an established data set with BP annual statistics. Using this method it is possible to retrieve an updated estimate of global CO{sub 2} emissions six months after the actual emissions occurred. Using this data set we find that atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions have increased by over 40% from 1990 to 2008 with an annual average increase of 3.7% over the five-year period 2003-2007. In 2008 the growth rate in the fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions was smaller than in the preceding five years, but it was still over 2%. Global mean carbon dioxide emissions in 2008 were 8.8 GtC yr{sup -1}. For the latter part of the last century emissions of carbon dioxide have been greater from oil than from coal. However during the last few years this situation has changed. The recent strong increase in fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions is mainly driven by an increase in emissions from coal, whereas emissions from oil and gas to a large degree follow the trend from the 1990s.

Myhre, G; Alterskjaer, K [Centre for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo (CICERO), Oslo (Norway); Lowe, D [National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington (New Zealand)

2009-09-15

223

Environmental impact of fossil fuel utilization in the thermal power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon dioxide causes green house effect, has been considered as a pollutant source of our safe environment. Since combustion of fossil fuel may create tremendous amount of carbon dioxide, detecting any pollutant sources would be important to eliminate the pollution sources. Evaluation of smoke dispersion that has been generated by a power plant utilizing fossil fuel is the objective of this paper. The concentration of NO, and SO, in the soil, have been analyzed from a distance of 3 to 4 km far from power plant. The experimental results shown. that the concentration of toxic gases was a little above the international standards. Replacement of fossil fuel by natural gas caused NO, concentration to be developed in the atmosphere, therefore usage of natural gas is limited by environmental protection agencies. Beside the nuclear power plant, the power generated by other sources. are limited. Electric power generated by water dam is not a major contribution of electric power demand. Therefore generation of electricity by any other energy sources, which are friendly to the environment, is recommended. Other sources of energy, such as wind power, solar energy, geothermal, ocean thennal and renewable source of energy can be considered safe for the environment. The goal of environmental management system would be to meet the minimum requirements were established and demanded by the local environmental protection agency or international standard organization (ISO-14000). (Autho standard organization (ISO-14000). (Author)

224

The influence of constrained fossil fuel emissions scenarios on climate and water resource projections  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water resources planning requires long-term projections of the impact of climate change on freshwater resources. In addition to intrinsic uncertainty associated with the natural climate, projections of climate change are subject to the combined uncertainties associated with selection of emissions scenarios, GCM ensembles and downscaling techniques. In particular, unknown future greenhouse gas emissions contribute substantially to the overall uncertainty. We contend that a reduction in uncertainty is possible by refining emissions scenarios. We present a comprehensive review of the growing body of literature that challenges the assumptions underlying the high-growth emissions scenarios (widely used in climate change impact studies, and instead points to a peak and decline in fossil fuel production occurring in the 21st century. We find that the IPCC's new RCP 4.5 scenario (low-medium emissions, as well as the B1 and A1T (low emissions marker scenarios from the IPCC's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios are broadly consistent with the majority of recent fossil fuel production forecasts, whereas the medium to high emissions scenarios generally depend upon unrealistic assumptions of future fossil fuel production. We use a simple case study of projected climate change in 2070 for the Scott Creek catchment in South Australia to demonstrate that even with the current suite of climate models, by limiting projections to the B1 scenario, both the median change and the spread of model results are reduced relative to equivalent projections under an unrealistic high emissions scenario (A1FI.

J. D. Ward

2011-03-01

225

Estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels combustion in the main sectors of selected countries 1971-1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculations of sectoral CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning in the period 1971-1990 were done for the 15 countries at the top of the list of nations ordered by decreasing contribution to global emissions, namely: United States of America, Soviet Union, People's Republic of China, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom, India, Poland, Canada, France, Italy, German Democratic Republic, South Africa, Mexico and Czechoslovakia. In addition, the CO2 emission of two groups of industrialized countries, namely the OECD and the European Economic Community (EEC) were calculated. The main recommendations of the IPCC/OECD current methodology have been adopted for the calculations, with the principal exception that CO2 emissions from the use of bunker fuels have not been included in the national estimates. The sectors are: 1. Transformations. Total emissions and the part stemming from power plants 2. Industry (excluding Feedstocks) 3. Transportation 4. Agriculture 5. Residential 6. Commerce and Public Services 7. Non-specified Other 8. Non-Energy Use 9. Feedstocks (in Industry). Data are presented in tables and diagrams. (orig./KW)

226

Cleaner fossil fuel technologies for Africa's sustainable development. Status of World Energy Council Cleaner Fossil Fuels Systems Committee Action Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We know that access to electricity would improve the quality of life of most Africans. The people of sub-Saharan Africa need clean, affordable energy to help free them from abject poverty. And we know we can't necessarily try to resolve one societal problem without simultaneously attending to others. Providing electricity to the many underdeveloped regions is good for Africa because it is good for Africans. The poorest people need it most. What can electricity do for the people? Electricity, giving light and power, begets industry and agriculture, which beget jobs, which in turn enhance purchasing power, all of which improves the quality of life. Clean and cost-effective energy must be made available at the grassroots level. The more assess to clean energy that African nations have, the more they can sustain themselves and their sovereignty. African nations can benefit from more advanced nations who have already got past the learning curve and incurred the research and development costs. The technologies and insight are available now. It is vital for world stability that 'globalisation' does not leave the poorest behind. We must take the necessary steps to eliminate the 'digital divide,' so Africans have access to the world of information available on the internet. But concrete actions must be taken to activate plans after we lay out what needs to be done at conferences like this. This conference gives us the space and time to talk freely and make some serious decisions on how to move forward in Africa. But we need to think outside the box, so to speak. We need to be creative. We need some new approaches. Questions still remain unanswered. That's why we're here today. What is the most costeffective method for improving accessibility to electricity for the masses of Africans still deprived of this essential service? How can we ensure a win-win result? Work will be needed to answer this question, which must be addressed, to ensure sustainable development. Among other viable technologies, cleaner fossil fuel technologies have a place in the solutions to improve sustainable development in Africa. Again, we need to focus not just on 'action plants' but also on really taking action. We must see that the actions needed are interconnected. We all have a role. And giant steps need to be taken by all of us. I know we can start a few initiatives that will further problem resolution after this meeting. Let us be ready to face the challenges of the coming millennium, however great they may be. I hope our actions here can help lift the shroud of poverty and the yoke of conflict in much of Africa. And we can measure our success by how much the quality of life has improved for the people of the African continent. (au)

McKee, B.N. [US Department of Energy (United States)

2001-07-01

227

Being more flexible and efficient in use. Future requirements to fossil-fueled power plants; Flexibler und effizienter im Einsatz. Zukuenftige Anforderungen an fossile Kraftwerke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to the energy policy turnaround, the requirements to fossil-fueled power plants vary considerably. Increasingly enhanced demands especially are made on the operating flexibility in order to balance the fluctuating supply of renewable energies. But also the improvement of the efficiency is on the agenda in order to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide.

Balling, Lothar [Siemens Energy, Erlangen (Germany)

2012-07-01

228

Fossil fuel consumption and heavy metal emissions into the atmosphere in Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent decades more and more attention has been paid to the problem of ecosystem pollution by heavy metals. Many trace elements are registered now as a global pollutant due to their toxic nature. Their negative influence on the environment is caused by accumulation in different ecosystem components and increased involvement in biochemical cycles. The atmosphere is the main medium through which pollutants transported from emission sources to background territories where heavy metals are deposited into water and on plants. Heavy metal emissions into the atmosphere cause certain global environmental problems due to their long lifetime and the long-term transport of these elements in the atmosphere, as well as the increasing rate of their accumulation in the environment even at most remote territories. Moreover, heavy metals have evidently entered human food chains. The influence of global ecosystem pollution by heavy metals on human health is not well known as yet. Most trace elements comes into the atmosphere with natural and man-made aerosols. The main sources of natural aerosols in the atmosphere are soil erosion and weathering of mountain rocks, volcanic and space dust, forest firing smoke, and others. Major anthropogenic sources of toxic elements are fossil fuel combustion, mining, industrial processes, and waste incineration. The anthropogenic flow of heavy metals to the atmosphere is about 94-97 per cent of the total. An inventory of emission sources should be n inventory of emission sources should be the first step in developing a control strategy and modelling global and regional cycles of trace elements. In this article the situation with lead, cadmium and mercury emissions from coal combustion of power plants and gasoline combustion by road transport is discussed. Pollutant amounts released into the atmosphere in industrial regions induce not only local deterioration of air, but they also affect on remote areas, and areas sensitive to contamination, such as the Arctic region. Problems on the uncertainty of emission inventory and, as a consequence, long range transport and deposition of air pollution into ecosystems of remote lands are also discussed

229

Bio-fuels: the rush to industrialization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ambitious goals of the French government fire with enthusiasm the bio-fuel sector which is in the fair way to become an industry at a whole. However, in order to build in time the requested ethanol and bio-diesel units the government will have to speed up the approval procedures and to maintain the financial incentive policy. (J.S.)

230

Comparison of electricity production from fossil fuels. Consistent and realistic simulation models for modern power plant processes with coal and gas; Fossile Stromproduktion im Vergleich. Einheitliche und realitaetsnahe Simulationsmodelle fuer moderne Kraftwerksprozesse mit Kohle und Gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

If industrial production requires electricity on a windless winter morning, solar energy systems and wind turbines reach their limits. Then, power plants which can convert fossil fuels into electricity no matter what the time, provide the electricity quantities required. Power plant technologies are under development for coal and gas, which can generate electricity more efficient and with lower emissions than previously. A realistic comparison of the efficiencies of modern power plant processes helps in decisions on the role of coal and gas in the future energy mix. (orig.)

Horenburg, Peter

2011-07-01

231

Deep ocean experiments with fossil fuel carbon dioxide: creation and sensing of a controlled plume at 4 km depth  

OpenAIRE

The rapidly rising levels of atmospheric and oceanic CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels has lead to well-established international concerns over dangerous anthropogenic interference with climate. Disposal of captured fossil fuel CO2 either underground, or in the deep ocean, has been suggested as one means of ameliorating this problem. While the basic thermodynamic properties of both CO2 and seawater are well known, the problem of interaction of the two fluids in motion to create a plume of ...

Brewer, Peter G.; Peltzer, Edward T.; Walz, Peter; Aya, Izuo; Yamane, Kenji; Kojima, Ryuji; Nakajima, Yasuharu; Nakayama, Noriko; Haugan, Peter Mosby; Johannessen, Truls

2005-01-01

232

Deep ocean experiments with fossil fuel carbon dioxide:creation and sensing of a controlled plume at 4 km depth  

OpenAIRE

The rapidly rising levels of atmospheric and oceanic CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels has lead to well-established international concerns over dangerous anthropogenic interference with climate. Disposal of captured fossil fuel CO2 either underground, or in the deep ocean, has been suggested as one means of ameliorating this problem. While the basic thermodynamic properties of both CO2 and seawater are well known, the problem of interaction of the two fluids in motion to create a plume of ...

Brewer, Peter G.; Peltzer, Edward T.; Walz, Peter; Aya, Izuo; Yamane, Kenji; Kojima, Ryuji; Nakajima, Yasuharu; Nakayama, Noriko; Haugan, Peter Mosby; Johannessen, Truls

2005-01-01

233

A novel approach for independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO2 over Europe by 14CO2 observations  

OpenAIRE

Long-term atmospheric 14CO2 observations are deployed to quantify fossil fuel derived CO2 concentrations at a regional polluted site, and at a continental mountain station in south-west Germany. Fossil fuel CO2 emission rates for the relevant catchment areas are obtained by applying the Radon-Tracer-Method. They are shown to compare well with statistical emissions inventories but reveal a larger seasonality than assumed earlier, thus contributing significantly to the observed CO2 seasonal cyc...

Levin, Ingeborg; Kromer, Bernd; Schmidt, Martina; Sartorius, Hartmut

2003-01-01

234

Potential high temperature corrosion problems due to co-firing of biomass and fossil fuels  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Over the past few years, considerable high temperature corrosion problems have been encountered when firing biomass in power plants due to the high content of potassium chloride in the deposits. Therefore, to combat chloride corrosion problems cofiring of biomass with a fossil fuel has been undertaken. This results in potassium chloride being converted to potassium sulphate in the combustion chamber and it is sulphate rich deposits that are deposited on the vulnerable metallic surfaces such as high temperature superheaters. Although this removes the problem of chloride corrosion, other corrosion mechanisms appear such as sulphidation and hot corrosion due to sulphate deposits. At Studstrup power plant Unit 4, based on trials with exposure times of 3000 h using 0–20% straw co-firing with coal, the plant now runs with a fuel mix of 10% strawţcoal. Based on results from a 3 years exposure in this environment, the internal sulphidation is much more significant than that revealed in the demonstration project. Avedřre 2 main boiler is fuelled with wood pelletsţheavy fuel oilţgas. Some reaction products resulting from the presence of vanadium compounds in the heavy oil were detected, i.e. iron vanadates. However, the most significant corrosion attack was sulphidation attack at the grain boundaries of 18-8 steel after 3 years exposure. The corrosion mechanisms and corrosion rates are compared with biomass firing and coal firing. Potential corrosion problems due to co-firing biomass and fossil fuels are discussed.

Montgomery, Melanie; Vilhelmsen, T.

2008-01-01

235

Reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells  

Science.gov (United States)

PEM fuel cell systems are considered as a sustainable option for the future transport sector in the future. There is great interest in converting current hydrocarbon based transportation fuels into hydrogen rich gases acceptable by PEM fuel cells on-board of vehicles. In this paper, we compare the results of our simulation studies for 100 kW PEM fuel cell systems utilizing three different major reforming technologies, namely steam reforming (SREF), partial oxidation (POX) and autothermal reforming (ATR). Natural gas, gasoline and diesel are the selected hydrocarbon fuels. It is desired to investigate the effect of the selected fuel reforming options on the overall fuel cell system efficiency, which depends on the fuel processing, PEM fuel cell and auxiliary system efficiencies. The Aspen-HYSYS 3.1 code has been used for simulation purposes. Process parameters of fuel preparation steps have been determined considering the limitations set by the catalysts and hydrocarbons involved. Results indicate that fuel properties, fuel processing system and its operation parameters, and PEM fuel cell characteristics all affect the overall system efficiencies. Steam reforming appears as the most efficient fuel preparation option for all investigated fuels. Natural gas with steam reforming shows the highest fuel cell system efficiency. Good heat integration within the fuel cell system is absolutely necessary to achieve acceptable overall system efficiencies.

Ersoz, Atilla; Olgun, Hayati; Ozdogan, Sibel

236

Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 at the building/street level for large US cities  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in emerging plans on a global, integrated, carbon monitoring system (CMS). A space/time explicit emissions data product can act as both a verification and planning system. It can verify atmospheric CO2 measurements (in situ and remote) and offer detailed mitigation information to management authorities in order to optimize the mix of mitigation efforts. Here, we present the Hestia Project, an effort aimed at building a high resolution (eg. building and road link-specific, hourly) fossil fuel CO2 emissions data product for the urban domain as a pilot effort to a CMS. A complete data product has been built for the city of Indianapolis and preliminary quantification has been completed for Los Angeles and Phoenix (see figure). The effort in Indianapolis is now part of a larger effort aimed at a convergent top-down/bottom-up assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, called INFLUX. Our urban-level quantification relies on a mixture of data and modeling structures. We start with the sector-specific Vulcan Project estimate at the mix of geocoded and county-wide levels. The Hestia aim is to distribute the Vulcan result in space and time. Two components take the majority of effort: buildings and onroad emissions. In collaboration with our INFLUX colleagues, we are transporting these high resolution emissions through an atmospheric transport model for a forward comparison of the Hestia data product with atmospheric measurements, collected on aircraft and cell towers. In preparation for a formal urban-scale inversion, these forward comparisons offer insights into both improving our emissions data product and measurement strategies. A key benefit of the approach taken in this study is the tracking and archiving of fuel and process-level detail (eg. combustion process, other pollutants), allowing for a more thorough understanding and analysis of energy throughputs in the urban environment. Quantification of fossil fuel emissions, however, is one piece in a larger conception of cities as complex dynamic socio-technological systems and the Hestia effort is at the very beginning stages of connecting to the large community of research approaching cities from other perspectives and utilizing other tools. Through analysis of the three cities for which we have quantified fossil fuel CO2 emissions and recognition of the current threads emerging in urban research, we are attempting to offer insight into understanding cities via the mechanistic quantification of energy and CO2 emissions.

Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Song, Y.

2012-12-01

237

Life cycle inventories for bioenergy and fossil-fuel fired cogeneration plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Life-cycle inventories for heat production from forest fuel, Salix, coal and oil are presented. Data from the Oerebro cogeneration plant are used for the bioenergy and coal cycles, whereas the oil-fired cycle is based on a fictive plant producing 53 MW electricity and 106 MW heat, also located in the town of Oerebro. This life cycle analysis only covers the inventory stage. A complete life cycle analysis also includes an environmental impact assessment. The methods for assessing environmental impact are still being developed and thus this phase has been omitted here. The intention is, instead, to provide an overall perspective of where in the chain the greatest environmental load for each fuel can be found. Production and energy conversion of fuel requires energy, which is often obtained from fossil fuel. This input energy corresponds to about 11% of the extracted amount of energy for oil, 9% for coal, 6% for Salix, whereas it is about 4% for forest fuel. Utilization of fossil fuel in the coal cycle amounts to production of electricity using coal condensation intended for train transports within Poland. In a life cycle perspective, biofuels show 20-30 times lower emissions of greenhouse gases in comparison with fossil fuels. The chains for biofuels also give considerably lower SO2 emissions than the chains for coal and oil. The coal chain shows about 50% higher NOx emission than the other fuels. Finally, the study illustrates that emission of parthe study illustrates that emission of particles are similar for all sources of energy. The biofuel cycle is assessed to be generally applicable to plants of similar type and size and with similar transport distances. The oil cycle is probably applicable to small-scale cogeneration plants. However, at present there are no cogeneration plants in Sweden that are solely fired with oil. In the case of the coal cycle, deep mining and a relatively long transport distance within Poland have been assumed. If the coal mining had been from open-cast mines, and if the subsequent transports had been from port to port, some of the results would have been affected markedly, including the input energy 17 refs, 17 figs, 7 tabs, appendices

238

Problems of attracting nuclear energy resources in order to provide economical and rational consumption of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solution of problems related to increasing costs of fossil fuels and application of nuclear energy in the industrial sector could be the development and commercialization of high temperature nuclear reactors, as the majority of power consuming industrial processes demand that the temperature of heat carrier generated to be in the range from 900-1000 deg. C. In the Soviet Union the strategy adopted for solving energy supply problems was named 'nuclear-hydrogen power engineering and technologies'. Based on analytic research and taking into account the present state of the art, the new alternative energy sources, e.g. nuclear ones, should be introduced into the industry by the following steps: development and mastering of stable operation of high-temperature nuclear reactors; search of rational technical solutions for heat discharge from nuclear reactors; utilisation of meet the power demand of existing production plants; complete substitution of organic raw materials burned now with nuclear energy; review the conditions and development of organizational and engineering solutions acceptable for implementing the nuclear energy in commercial processes

239

Reducing global warming through the provision of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concern has increased in recent years regarding the rising atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and its potential effect on future global climate. One element of strategies for the reduction of CO2 emissions would be to increase the proportion of energy derived from non-fossil energy sources. This option has led to renewed interest in the use of hydrogen as an energy vector which could facilitate the transfer of non-fossil energy into a wider range of end-use sectors. To assess, in this context, the potential role of non-fossil-fuel hydrogen (NFFH), published information on the costs and performance of technologies for the production, storage, distribution and utilisation of hydrogen has been reviewed in this study. These data have been used in a model of the UK energy system to investigate the potential contributions of the various hydrogen technologies, over a 50 year timeframe, and with different levels of constraint imposed on the rate of CO2 release. Finally, to set these reduced CO2 release rates in the context of the resultant reduction in global warming commitment, a further modelling study has been made to estimate the residual transient warming to 2050, assuming the world as a whole follows the same CO2 emission profiles as modelled for the UK. This 259 page report of the study contains extensive tables of data and references, and a glossary of terms, units and conversion factors. (author)

240

Sensitivity of simulated CO2 concentration to regridding of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Errors in the specification or utilization of fossil fuel CO2 emissions within carbon budget or atmospheric CO2 inverse studies can alias the estimation of biospheric and oceanic carbon exchange. A key component in the simulation of CO2 concentrations arising from fossil fuel emissions is the spatial distribution of the emission near coastlines. Finite grid resolution can give rise to mismatches between the emissions and simulated atmospheric dynamics which differ over land or water. We test these mismatches by examining simulated global atmospheric CO2 concentration driven by two different approaches to regridding fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The two approaches are: (1 a commonly-used method that allocates emissions to gridcells with no attempt to ensure dynamical consistency with atmospheric transport; (2 an improved method that reallocates emissions to gridcells to ensure dynamically consistent results. Results show large spatial and temporal differences in the simulated CO2 concentration when comparing these two approaches. The emissions difference ranges from ?30.3 Tg C gridcell?1 yr?1 (?3.39 kg C m?2 yr?1 to +30.0 Tg C gridcell?1 yr?1 (+2.6 kg C m?2 yr?1 along coastal margins. Maximum simulated annual mean CO2 concentration differences at the surface exceed ±6 ppm at various locations and times. Examination of the current CO2 monitoring locations during the local afternoon, consistent with inversion modeling system sampling and measurement protocols, finds maximum hourly differences at 38 stations exceed ±0.10 ppm with individual station differences exceeding ?32 ppm. The differences implied by not accounting for this dynamical consistency problem are largest at monitoring sites proximal to large coastal urban areas and point sources. These results suggest that studies comparing simulated to observed atmospheric CO2 concentration, such as atmospheric CO2 inversions, must take measures to correct for this potential problem and ensure flux and dynamical consistency.

X. Zhang

2014-06-01

241

SOME POSSIBILITIES OF USING BIOGAS AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO FOSSIL FUELS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In present time, the global energy production is mostly dependant on the fossil sources of energy (oil, natural gases and coals. Compared to classic fuels, biogas resulted from anaerobe digestion is permanently renewable, because it is obtained  of biomass. As a result, the biogas produced through anaerobe digestion will not only improve the energetic balance of one country, but it will bring an important contribution on preserving natural resources and improving the environmental conditions, through reducing emissions with green house effect and reducing the global warming. The paper wants to reveal some of the advantages of using biogas, the most important being that  biogas is a flexible source of energy, suitable for many applications, especially as fuel for vehicles or in the electric piles  technologies. In order to be used as fuel for vehicle, biogas must be improved and transformed in bio-methane. The paper also presents a small biogas  plant, which can be used by farmers. 

Mariana Dumitru

2013-05-01

242

Ongoing studies on the evaluation of the impact of fossil fuels power plants in Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Italy studies are in progress to evaluate the impact of oil and coal fired power plants on the environment and on the population health. In this paper the preliminar results obtained for toxic trace elements are reported. It is, in fact, not clearly assessed the relative importance of the various groups of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere by fossil fueled power plants (i.e. Sulphur Oxides, Carbon Oxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Toxic Trace Elements, Organic Compounds). Joint epidemiological and statistical works have not clearly indicated significant correlation between health effects and environmental pollutant levels, while some significant results have been gathered when two or more pollutants have been considered. Therefore it has been deviced to include toxic trace metals in the impact evaluation of the coal fuel cycle. Coal and ash samples have been analyzed for their content of about 30 elements, by means of different analytical procedures (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analaysis, Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Gamma Spectrometry and Fluorimetry). On the basis of estimated releases and of the site characteristics, the potential impact has to be estimated and compared with that attributable to the other pollutants (SOx, NOx, TSP etc.). Fossil fuel power plants impact is also being studied in order to evaluate potential advantage of long range health transport for urban heating in terms of urban air pollution abatement and of consequent population risk reductt and of consequent population risk reduction

243

Industrial trends in the fuel cycle towards fuel cost reduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to remain competitive, the challenge to electrical generating nuclear utilities is to reduce their kWh costs through an optimization of their fuel management: - The front-end of the fuel cycle: Natural Uranium, conversion, enrichment and fabrication is under a severe international competition. - For the back-end, long term views of countries volontarily committed to a strong nuclear program made them to select the closed cycle option including recycling of extracted fissile materials and saving Natural Uranium and enrichment services. The once-through scheme is being studied in countries not resolutely engaged toward Nuclear Energy, but industrial stages for that option are not yet presently reached. - R. and D. programs under progress in a number of countries and dealing with major segments of fuel cycle, show fuel costs decreasing trends, in particular in enrichment and reprocessing services

244

Importance of fossil fuel emission uncertainties over Europe for CO2 modeling: model intercomparison  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inverse modeling techniques used to quantify surface carbon fluxes commonly assume that the uncertainty of fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2 emissions is negligible and that intra-annual variations can be neglected. To investigate these assumptions, we analyzed the differences between four fossil fuel emission maps with spatial and temporal differences over Europe and their impact on the model simulated CO2 concentration. Large temporal flux variations characterize the hourly fields (~40% and ~80% for the seasonal and diurnal cycles, peak-to-peak and annual country totals differ by 10% on average and up to 40% for some countries (i.e., The Netherlands. These emissions have been prescribed to seven different transport models, resulting in 28 different FFCO2 concentrations fields. The modeled FFCO2 concentration time series at surface sites using time-varying emissions show larger seasonal cycles (+2 ppm at the Hungarian tall tower (HUN and smaller diurnal cycles in summer (?1 ppm at HUN than when using constant emissions. The concentration range spanned by all simulations varies between stations, and is generally larger in winter (up to ~10 ppm peak-to-peak at HUN than in summer (~5 ppm. The contribution of transport model differences to the simulated concentration std-dev is 2–3 times larger than the contribution of emission differences only, at typical European sites used in global inversions. These contributions to the hourly (monthly std-dev's amount to ~1.2 (0.8 ppm and ~0.4 (0.3 ppm for transport and emissions, respectively. First comparisons of the modeled concentrations with 14C-based fossil fuel CO2 observations show that the large transport differences still hamper a quantitative evaluation/validation of the emission inventories. Changes in the estimated monthly biosphere flux (Fbio over Europe, using two inverse modeling approaches, are relatively small (less that 5% while changes in annual Fbio (up to ~0.15 Gt C/yr are only slightly smaller than the differences in annual emission totals and around 30% of the mean European ecosystem carbon sink. These results point to an urgent need to improve not only the transport models but also the assumed spatial and temporal distribution of fossil fuel emission maps.

F. Delage

2009-03-01

245

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1983  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accomplishments for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. Feature articles for this quarter are: (1) abandoned oil field reports issued; (2) oilfield water data bank report published; (3) microbial enhanced recovery report issued; (4) polymer-augmented project could be economic today; (5) carbon dioxide EOR estimates given; (6) BETC passes 65th milestone; and (7) fifty achievements for fifty years (1918-1968). BETC publications are also listed. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1983-07-01

246

Challenges of efficient and clean use of fossil fuels for power production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Constantly increasing resource efficiency together with the broad introduction of CCS technologies is fundamental for a continuous use of fossil fuels in power generation against the background of up-coming requirements for CO2 emission reduction. In principle, CCS means up-grading conventional power plant technology with proven CO2 removal processes. However, this leads to additional losses, auxiliary power demand and cost. System integration, development or at least adaption of components and processes are the main requirements in this context. Different technology solutions and recent developments will be addressed as well as challenges when implementing in demonstration projects.

Vortmeyer, Nicolas; Zimmermann, Gerhard

2010-09-15

247

Importance of fossil fuel emission uncertainties over Europe for CO2 modeling. Model intercomparison  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inverse modeling techniques used to quantify surface carbon fluxes commonly assume that the uncertainty of fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions is negligible and that intraannual variations can be neglected. To investigate these assumptions, we analyzed the differences between four fossil fuel emission maps with spatial and temporal differences over Europe and their impact on the model simulated CO2 concentration. Large temporal flux variations characterize the hourly fields (40% and 80% for the seasonal and diurnal cycles, peak-to-peak) and annual country totals differ by 10% on average and up to 40% for some countries (i.e., The Netherlands). These emissions have been prescribed to seven different transport models, resulting in 28 different FFCO2 concentrations fields. The modeled FFCO2 concentration time series at surface sites using time-varying emissions show larger seasonal cycles (+2 ppm at the Hungarian tall tower (HUN)) and smaller diurnal cycles in summer (-1 ppm at HUN) than when using constant emissions. The concentration range spanned by all simulations varies between stations, and is generally larger in winter (up to 10 ppm peak-to-peak at HUN) than in summer (5 ppm). The contribution of transport model differences to the simulated concentration std-dev is 2-3 times larger than the contribution of emission differences only, at typical European sites used in global inversions. These contributions to the hourly (monns. These contributions to the hourly (monthly) std-dev's amount to 1.2 (0.8) ppm and 0.4 (0.3) ppm for transport and emissions, respectively. First comparisons of the modeled concentrations with 14C-based fossil fuel CO2 observations show that the large transport differences still hamper a quantitative evaluation/validation of the emission inventories. Changes in the estimated monthly biosphere flux (Fbio) over Europe, using two inverse modeling approaches, are relatively small (less that 5%) while changes in annual Fbio (up to 0.15 Gt C/yr) are only slightly smaller than the differences in annual emission totals and around 30% of the mean European ecosystem carbon sink. These results point to an urgent need to improve not only the transport models but also the assumed spatial and temporal distribution of fossil fuel emission maps

248

Fossil fuel produced radioactivities and their effect on the food chain (II)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of radioactivities released from fossil fuel burning are examined. Main radioactivities are 210Pb and 210Po. Revised values of the dose due to the intake of leafy vegetables and seafoods are presented. The dose from natural gas from the Northern Sea is shown to be much lower than the dose from coal. This conclusion can probably apply to other natural gas except for that from the North American continent. The dose due to coal burning is found to be much higher than that due to marine disposal of nuclear waste

249

Sensitivity of simulated CO2 concentration to regridding of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

Errors in the specification or utilization of fossil fuel CO2 emissions within carbon budget or atmospheric CO2 inverse studies can alias the estimation of biospheric and oceanic carbon exchange. A key component in the simulation of CO2 concentrations arising from fossil fuel emissions is the spatial distribution of the emission near coastlines. Regridding of fossil fuel CO2 emissions (FFCO2) from fine to coarse grids to enable atmospheric transport simulations can give rise to mismatches between the emissions and simulated atmospheric dynamics which differ over land or water. For example, emissions originally emanating from the land are emitted from a grid cell for which the vertical mixing reflects the roughness and/or surface energy exchange of an ocean surface. We test this potential "dynamical inconsistency" by examining simulated global atmospheric CO2 concentration driven by two different approaches to regridding fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The two approaches are as follows: (1) a commonly used method that allocates emissions to grid cells with no attempt to ensure dynamical consistency with atmospheric transport and (2) an improved method that reallocates emissions to grid cells to ensure dynamically consistent results. Results show large spatial and temporal differences in the simulated CO2 concentration when comparing these two approaches. The emissions difference ranges from -30.3 TgC grid cell-1 yr-1 (-3.39 kgC m-2 yr-1) to +30.0 TgC grid cell-1 yr-1 (+2.6 kgC m-2 yr-1) along coastal margins. Maximum simulated annual mean CO2 concentration differences at the surface exceed ±6 ppm at various locations and times. Examination of the current CO2 monitoring locations during the local afternoon, consistent with inversion modeling system sampling and measurement protocols, finds maximum hourly differences at 38 stations exceed ±0.10 ppm with individual station differences exceeding -32 ppm. The differences implied by not accounting for this dynamical consistency problem are largest at monitoring sites proximal to large coastal urban areas and point sources. These results suggest that studies comparing simulated to observed atmospheric CO2 concentration, such as atmospheric CO2 inversions, must take measures to correct for this potential problem and ensure flux and dynamical consistency.

Zhang, X.; Gurney, K. R.; Rayner, P.; Liu, Y.; Asefi-Najafabady, S.

2014-12-01

250

Long term worldwide environmental effects caused by acid rain from fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acid rain is regarded as an environmental problem of growing importance in many parts of the world; it is one of the adverse effects of air pollution. This paper presents data on emissions of air pollutants from combustion of fossil fuels and discusses atmospheric processes that act on these emissions, various effects of air pollution and acid deposition, and some of the aspects of regulation of these pollutants. Evidence of worldwide concern is shown by contrasting the perceived adverse effects of air pollution with ambient levels and the status of regulation. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

251

Carbon sequestration from fossil fuels and biomass - long-term potentials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon sequestration and disposal from fossil fuels combustion is gaining attraction as a means to deal with climate change. However, CO2 emissions from biomass combustion can also be sequestered. If that is done, biomass energy with carbon sequestration (BECS) would become a net negative carbon sink that would at the same time deliver carbon free energy (heat, electricity or hydrogen) to society. Here we estimate some global technoeconomical potentials for BECS, and we also present some rough economics of electricity generation with carbon sequestration

252

Comparing the social costs of biofuels and fossil fuels: A case study of Vietnam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biofuel substitution for fossil fuels has been recommended in the literature and promoted in many countries; however, there are concerns about its economic viability. In this paper we focus on the cost-effectiveness of fuels, i.e., we compare the social costs of biofuels and fossil fuels for a functional unit defined as 1 km of vehicle transportation. We base our empirical results on a case study in Vietnam and compare two biofuels and their alternative fossil fuels: ethanol and gasoline, and biodiesel and diesel with a focus on the blends of E5 and E10 for ethanol, and B5 and B10 for biodiesel. At the discount rate of 4%, ethanol substitution for gasoline in form of E5 or E10 saves 33% of the social cost of gasoline if the fuel consumption of E5 and E10 is the same as gasoline. The ethanol substitution will be cost-effective if the fuel consumption of E5 and E10, in terms of L km?1, is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline by more than 1.7% and 3.5% for E5 and E10 respectively. The biodiesel substitution would be cost-effective if the fuel consumption of B5 and B10, in terms of L km?1 compared to diesel, would decrease by more than 1.4% and 2.8% for B5 and B10 respectively at the discount rate of 4%. -- Highlights: •We examine cost-effectiveness of biofuels under efficiency levels of blends. •Cassava-based ethanol used as E5 saves 33% of social cost compared to gasoline. •Ethanol is cost-effective if E5 consumption per km is less than 1.017 times gasoline consumption. •Jatropha-based biodiesel used as B5 or B10 is currently not cost-effective in comparison to diesel. •Biodiesel would be cost-effective if B5 consumption per km would be less than 0.986 times diesel consumption

253

MOX fuel fabrication: Technical and industrial developments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The plutonium available in the near future is generally estimated rather precisely on the basis of the reprocessing contracts and the performance of the reprocessing plants. A few years ago, decision makers were convinced that a significant share of this fissile material would be used as the feed material for fast breeder reactors (FBRs) or other advanced reactors. The facts today are that large reprocessing plants are coming into commercial operations: UP3 and soon UP2-800 and THORP, but that FBR deployment is delayed worldwide. As a consequence, large quantities of plutonium will be recycled in light water reactors as mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. MOX fuel technology has been properly demonstrated in the past 25 years. All specific problems have been addressed, efficient fabrication processes and engineering background have been implemented to a level of maturity which makes MOX fuel behaving as well as Uranium fuel. The paper concentrates on todays MOX fabrication expertise and presents the technical and industrial developments prepared by the MOX fuel fabrication industry for this last decade of the century

254

N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship, on a global basis, between the amount of N fixed by chemical, biological or atmospheric processes entering the terrestrial biosphere, and the total emission of nitrous oxide (N2O, has been re-examined, using known global atmospheric removal rates and concentration growth of N2O as a proxy for overall emissions. For both the pre-industrial period and in recent times, after taking into account the large-scale changes in synthetic N fertiliser production, we find an overall conversion factor of 3–5% from newly fixed N to N2O-N. We assume the same factor to be valid for biofuel production systems. It is covered only in part by the default conversion factor for "direct" emissions from agricultural crop lands (1% estimated by IPCC (2006, and the default factors for the "indirect" emissions (following volatilization/deposition and leaching/runoff of N: 0.35–0.45% cited therein. However, as we show in the paper, when additional emissions included in the IPCC methodology, e.g. those from livestock production, are included, the total may not be inconsistent with that given by our "top-down" method. When the extra N2O emission from biofuel production is calculated in "CO2-equivalent" global warming terms, and compared with the quasi-cooling effect of "saving" emissions of fossil fuel derived CO2, the outcome is that the production of commonly used biofuels, such as biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from corn (maize, depending on N fertilizer uptake efficiency by the plants, can contribute as much or more to global warming by N2O emissions than cooling by fossil fuel savings. Crops with less N demand, such as grasses and woody coppice species, have more favourable climate impacts. This analysis only considers the conversion of biomass to biofuel. It does not take into account the use of fossil fuel on the farms and for fertilizer and pesticide production, but it also neglects the production of useful co-products. Both factors partially compensate each other. This needs to be analyzed in a full life cycle assessment.

A. R. Mosier

2008-01-01

255

N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship, on a global basis, between the amount of N fixed by chemical, biological or atmospheric processes entering the terrestrial biosphere, and the total emission of nitrous oxide (N2O), has been re-examined, using known global atmospheric removal rates and concentration growth of N2O as a proxy for overall emissions. For both the pre-industrial period and in recent times, after taking into account the large-scale changes in synthetic N fertiliser production, we find an overall conversion factor of 3-5% from newly fixed N to N2O-N. We assume the same factor to be valid for biofuel production systems. It is covered only in part by the default conversion factor for "direct" emissions from agricultural crop lands (1%) estimated by IPCC (2006), and the default factors for the "indirect" emissions (following volatilization/deposition and leaching/runoff of N: 0.35-0.45%) cited therein. However, as we show in the paper, when additional emissions included in the IPCC methodology, e.g. those from livestock production, are included, the total may not be inconsistent with that given by our "top-down" method. When the extra N2O emission from biofuel production is calculated in "CO2-equivalent" global warming terms, and compared with the quasi-cooling effect of "saving" emissions of fossil fuel derived CO2, the outcome is that the production of commonly used biofuels, such as biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from corn (maize), depending on N fertilizer uptake efficiency by the plants, can contribute as much or more to global warming by N2O emissions than cooling by fossil fuel savings. Crops with less N demand, such as grasses and woody coppice species, have more favourable climate impacts. This analysis only considers the conversion of biomass to biofuel. It does not take into account the use of fossil fuel on the farms and for fertilizer and pesticide production, but it also neglects the production of useful co-products. Both factors partially compensate each other. This needs to be analyzed in a full life cycle assessment.

Crutzen, P. J.; Mosier, A. R.; Smith, K. A.; Winiwarter, W.

2008-01-01

256

Fuel Cells in the Coal Energy Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In march 1998 at the conference ?Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems? in Clearwater, USA representatives of U.S. Department of Energy presented the vision 21 focused on the electricity generation from coal for 21st century. The goal is a powerplant with the ability to produce the electricity from coal with the efficiency approaching 60% (higher heating value and emission levels of one-tenth of today´s technologies, The CO2 capture and permanent sequestration at the cost of $15/ton of CO2, and a cost of electricity of 3 cents per kilowatt-hour. The goal is believed to be achievable by the first quarter of the next century. The vision 21 is presented with several possible concepts. One of them is based on coal gasification with following hydrogen separation. The obtained hydrogen is used as a fuel for the cogeneration unit with fuel cells. The remaining gas can be liquefied and utilised as a fuel in the automotive industry or further chemically processed. The concept has several important features. Firstly, a very clean low cost electricity production. Secondly, it is comprised of fuel processing section and power processing section. The two sections need not to be co-located. In the world of the deregulated electricity generation this offers a major advantage. The technologies of fuel processing section ? coal gasification and hydrogen separation have been successfully developed in the last two decades. A specificity of the fuel processing section of this concept is to obtain hydrogen rich gas with very low concentrations of substances, as CO, which cause a poisoning of electrodes of fuel cells leading to the decreasing fuel cells efficiency. Fuel cells, specially highly efficient coal-gas SOFC and MCFC, are expected to be commercially available by 2020. The natural-gas MCFC and SOFC plants should enter the commercial marketplace by the year 2002.

Kolat Peter

1998-09-01

257

The potential of wind energy to largely displace existing Canadian fossil fuel and nuclear electricity generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential of wind-generated electricity to displace existing fossil fuel and nuclear generation in Canada is assessed by combining wind turbine power curves with data from the Canadian Wind Energy Atlas. There are many widely-scattered regions with capacity factors (average power output as a fraction of the rated output) greater than 0.4, and some greater than 0.5, that could supply many times the current electricity production from fossil fuel and nuclear powerplants in Canada. By linking multiple high-wind regions to the major demand centres with high voltage direct current transmission lines, the variation in the aggregate electricity output at time scales of one week or less would be greatly reduced, while variations at longer time scales can be largely offset through anti-phase operation of hydro-electric reservoirs. Assuming onshore and offshore wind farm capital costs of about $2000/kW and $3000/kW, respectively, onshore and offshore transmission line costs of $0.5/kW/km and $0.75/kW/km, respectively, and terminal costs of $250/kW, the cost of electricity (financed at a real interest rate of 3%/yr) is 5–7 cents/kWh, which is less than the likely cost of electricity from new coal powerplants equipped to capture CO2 (at least 9 cents/kWh) or from new nuclear powerplants (10–23 cents/kWh). - Highlights: ? Regions of strong wind are widely distributed across Canada. ? Wind combined with hydropower could displace fossil and nuclear. ? Costs including HVDC transmission would be 5–7 cents/kWh at 3% financing

258

Implications of fossil fuel constraints on economic growth and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy Security and Global Warming are analysed as 21st century sustainability threats. Best estimates of future energy availability are derived as an Energy Reference Case (ERC). An explicit economic growth model is used to interpret the impact of the ERC on economic growth. The model predicts a divergence from 20th century equilibrium conditions in economic growth and socio-economic welfare is only stabilised under optimistic assumptions that demands a paradigm shift in contemporary economic thought and focused attention from policy makers. Fossil fuel depletion also constrains the maximum extent of Global Warming. Carbon emissions from the ERC comply nominally with the B1 scenario, which is the lowest emissions case considered by the IPCC. The IPCC predicts a temperature response within acceptance limits of the Global Warming debate for the B1 scenario. The carbon feedback cycle, used in the IPCC models, is shown as invalid for low-emissions scenarios and an alternative carbon cycle reduces the temperature response for the ERC considerably compared to the IPCC predictions. Our analysis proposes that the extent of Global Warming may be acceptable and preferable compared to the socio-economic consequences of not exploiting fossil fuel reserves to their full technical potential. (author)

259

Is there a future for UK power generation without fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been said that the world's only truly inexhaustible energy sources are solar and nuclear. This is a key factor directing attention towards the day when fossil fuels will have been eliminated for all practical purposes from the electrical generation scene. Such a statement raises many issues but, in the end, a balance has to be struck so that environmental, social and commercial factors are optimised in an acceptable manner. The nuclear debate will doubtless continue until technological advances permit effective decoupling of power generation and weapons manufacture. However, one thing is virtually certain and that is that world and UK electrical demands will increase at the expense of other energy forms. Whilst it is true that solar and nuclear sources are virtually inexhaustible there are practical difficulties, mainly concerned with management and control of a generation mix to which the suppliers of commercial electricity are at present unaccustomed. Storage on a greatly increased scale will be required and nuclear power plants may have to be operated at lower load factors. It is concluded that there is a future for electricity generation in the UK without fossil fuels. (U.K.)

260

The effect of retrofitting Portuguese fossil fuel power plants with CCS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A map of mainland Portugal with potential CO2 source-sink matching was created. ? Four existing Portuguese power plants were simulated with and without CCS. ? Effect of CCS retrofit on performance and costs at each power plant was studied. ? The incremental COE was estimated at around 46 $/MW h for NGCC plants. ? The incremental COE was estimated at around 61 $/MW h for PC plants. -- Abstract: This work assesses the retrofit potential of existing Portuguese fossil fuel power plants with post-combustion CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology. The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was used to provide a systematic techno-economic analysis of the cost of emission control equipment, the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and other key parameters which may change when CCS is implemented at a fossil fuel power plant. The results indicate that CCS requires a large capital investment and significantly increases the levelized cost of electricity. However, the economic viability of CCS increases with higher CO2 prices. The breakeven CO2 price for plants with and without CCS was estimated at $85–$140/t of CO2 depending on the technical parameters of the individual plants.

261

Implications of fossil fuel constraints on economic growth and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy Security and Global Warming are analysed as 21st century sustainability threats. Best estimates of future energy availability are derived as an Energy Reference Case (ERC). An explicit economic growth model is used to interpret the impact of the ERC on economic growth. The model predicts a divergence from 20th century equilibrium conditions in economic growth and socio-economic welfare is only stabilised under optimistic assumptions that demands a paradigm shift in contemporary economic thought and focused attention from policy makers. Fossil fuel depletion also constrains the maximum extent of Global Warming. Carbon emissions from the ERC comply nominally with the B1 scenario, which is the lowest emissions case considered by the IPCC. The IPCC predicts a temperature response within acceptance limits of the Global Warming debate for the B1 scenario. The carbon feedback cycle, used in the IPCC models, is shown as invalid for low-emissions scenarios and an alternative carbon cycle reduces the temperature response for the ERC considerably compared to the IPCC predictions. Our analysis proposes that the extent of Global Warming may be acceptable and preferable compared to the socio-economic consequences of not exploiting fossil fuel reserves to their full technical potential

262

Soot in Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary clays worldwide: is it really derived from fossil fuel beds close to Chicxulub?  

Science.gov (United States)

High soot contents have been reported in Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (KPB) clays worldwide. One of the interpretations suggests this material comes from combustion of fossil fuels such as crude oil, coal or oil shales near the Chicxulub impact site. Combustion was triggered by the KPB impactor. In this Note, I show that the estimated mass of crude oil (or fossil hydrocarbons in general) burned (ca. 1017-1019 g), based on the average amount of soot (0.0022-0.012 g cm-2) or elemental carbon (0.011 g cm-2) found at the marine KPB sites, contradicts the fossil hydrocarbons hypothesis.

Premovi?, Pavle

2012-09-01

263

Experimental Study of the Combustion Dynamics of Renewable & Fossil Fuel Co-Fire in Swirling Flame  

Science.gov (United States)

The complex experimental research into the combustion dynamics of rene-wable (wood biomass) and fossil (propane) fuel co-fire in a swirling flame flow has been carried out with the aim to achieve clean and effective heat production with reduced carbon emissions. The effect of propane co-fire on the formation of the swirling flame velocity, temperature and composition fields as well as on the combustion efficiency and heat output has been analysed. The results of experimental study show that the propane supply into the wood biomass gasifier provides faster wood fuel gasification with active release of volatiles at the primary stage of swirling flame flow formation, while the swirl-induced recirculation with enhanced mixing of the flame components results in a more complete burnout of wood volatiles downstream of the combustor with reduced mass fraction of polluting impurities in the emissions.

Za?e, M.; Barmina, I.; Kriško, V.; Gedrovi?s, M.; Desc?ickis, A.

2009-01-01

264

Modern approach to the problem of fossil gas fuels replacement by alternative fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New scientific and engineering fundamentals of fuels substitution have been developed instead of obsolete methodology “Interchangeability of Fuel Gases” developed in USA and existing from the middle of XXth century. To perform the complex prediction of total or partial substitution of given flow rate of natural gas NG for alternative gases AG the following parameters are to be predicted: plant utilization efficiencies – regarding fuel and energy utilization, the last in form of heat ?H and exergy ?eff efficiencies, saving or overexpenditure of the NG flow rate in the gas mixture with AG, specific fuel consumption b f and specific issue of harmful substances Ct – pollutants in the combustion products (CNOx ) and greenhouse gases (C CO2 ). Certification of alternative gas fuels and fuel mixtures as a commodity products is carried out in frame of our approach with necessary set of characteristics, similar to those accepted in the world practice. Key words: alternative fuel, fuel replacement (substitution), natural gas, process gases, theoretical combustion temperature, thermodynamic equilibrium computations, total enthalpy

265

Building-specific quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions in an urban domain: the case of Indianapolis, US  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in interpreting atmospheric CO2 measurements in addition to providing critical emissions mitigation information. Recent research and decision-support has placed emphasis on quantification of emissions for urban domes with sector specificity. Here we present results of the Hestia Project, an effort aimed at quantifying fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the building and road segment scale for the city of Indianapolis as part of the INFLUX experiment. To calculate CO2 emissions for buildings, we use a combination of county-level estimation from the Vulcan Project and distribute those emissions via an allocation method that utilizes a building energy simulation tool - eQuest (DOE). eQUEST is based on a series of building typologies and has a large number of input variables in order to quantify energy consumption. The simulation process uses default values when the actual data are inaccessible or non-existent. Our method is based on the construction of 22 commercial, 18 industrial, and 8 residential building types. This classification requires specification of building vintages and sizes. To calculate the total floor area of buildings from building heights, remote sensing data are used. The DOEs regional energy surveys, CBECS, RECS and MECS data for the East North Central Census Division, are used to calibrate hourly profiles for different building types. Previous published results for Indianapolis have been substantially updated by using additional data on natural gas pipelines. A more accurate, statistically-based building height assessment has been made using improved lidar data. The reclassification procedure converting Assessor's parcel types into Hestia prototypes, has been revised and improved. More accurate statistics have been calculated and corresponding diagrams and thematic maps have been prepared. Development of a powerful user-friendly information system for decision-makers is in process. That system will allow city environmental managers and regional planning agencies to make analyses of CO2 emissions for inquired sector and period. Of the townships in Indianapolis, Central Township has the largest emissions through the whole year while Wayne is the largest Industrial emitter. The commercial sector building emissions peak during at 7:30 am and 5 pm while the residential sector has peaks at 6 am and 6 pm. The Industrial sector has one peak at 1:30 pm. The relative proportions of those peaks vary with seasons of year. In contrast, their positions in monthly and diurnal profiles appear stable.

Razlivanov, I.; Gurney, K. R.; Zhou, Y.; Turnbull, J. C.; Sweeney, C.; Guenther, D.; Karion, A.; Davis, K. J.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Shepson, P. B.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Lehman, S. J.; Tans, P. P.

2011-12-01

266

Survey of population health in towns with nuclear and fossil fuel power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Comparative assessment of population health in Sosnovy Bor with nuclear power plant and Kirovsk with fossil fuel power station was made for public and administration information. Both towns are located in Leningrad administrative region at 150 km distance from each other. In nuclear power town radiological situation was assessed as normal and in Kirovsk up to 1995 yr. with coal fuel, maximum permissible levels of suspended particle of sulfur oxide in atmosphere were exceeded in 6-9% of samples. After 1995 yr. the natural gas was used as fuel. Demographic data for 1991-2000 yrs indicate that mortality including infants mortality and stillborns was lower in Sosnovy Bor (NOS) then in Kirovsk (fossil fuel) and on average Leningrad administrative region. Birth rate and population growth was higher in Sosnovy Bor at the same time surprisingly the recorded morbidity was higher in Sosnovy Bor which might be explained by extensive medical supervision and improved diagnostics. However, cancer and tuberculosis morbidity was lower in Sosnovy Bor. In Kirovsk in 1997-2000 yrs. oncological morbidity was higher on average comparing to Leningrad administrative region. Oncological mortality in Sosnovy Bor in 1997-2000 yrs. was lower than in Kirovsk and Leningrad region Standardized annual mortality in Sosnovy Bor, Kirovsk and Leningrad administrative region was 128.3, 209.6 and 211.7 on 100 000 respectively. Health state of pregnant women, deliveries, new-born condition were all in normal range in Sosnovy Bor, contrary to higher increased abortion rate and pregnancy complications in Kirovsk. These findings need further studies. (Author)

Ivanov, E.; Shubik, V. M.

2004-07-01

267

Numerical analysis of injector flow and spray characteristics from diesel injectors using fossil and biodiesel fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Fluid-dynamic simulation of injection process with biodiesel and diesel fuel. ? Coupling of Eulerian and Lagrangian spray CFD simulations. ? Effects of hole shaping: conical versus cylindrical and edge rounding effects. ? Prediction of spray characteristics improved using inner nozzle flow data. ? Explanation of mass flow differences depending on hole shape and fuel type. -- Abstract: The aim of the paper is the comparison of the injection process with two fuels, a standard diesel fuel and a pure biodiesel, methyl ester of soybean oil. Multiphase cavitating flows inside injector nozzles are calculated by means of unsteady CFD simulations on moving grids from needle opening to closure, using an Eulerian–Eulerian two-fluid approach which takes into account bubble dynamics. Afterward, spray evolutions are also evaluated in a Lagrangian framework using results of the first computing step, mapped onto the hole exit area, for the initialization of the primary breakup model. Two nozzles with cylindrical and conical holes are studied and their behaviors are discussed in relation to fuel properties. Nozzle flow simulations highlighted that the extent of cavitation regions is not much affected by the fuel type, whereas it is strongly dependent on the nozzle shape. Biodiesel provides a slightly higher mass flow in highly cavitating nozzles. On the contrary using hole shaped nozzles (to reduce cavitation) diesel provides similar or slightly higher mass flow. Comparing the two fuels, the effects of different viscosities and densities play main role which explains these behaviors. Simulations of the spray evolution are also discussed highlighting the differences between the use of fossil and biodiesel fuels in terms of spray penetration, atomization and cone-angle. Usage of diesel fuel in the conical convergent nozzle gives higher liquid penetration.

268

Exploring the Ability of Inverse Methods to Isolate the Fossil Fuel Emission Signal from Atmospheric CO2 Measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Inverse methods to estimate carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes utilize atmospheric measurements of CO2 concentrations coupled with an atmospheric transport model to trace sources and sinks to upwind locations. Atmospheric measurements integrate all processes, both biospheric and anthropogenic, and thus inverse methods offer a complete picture in terms of estimating CO2 flux budgets. Separating these signals into their respective components has been done in the past by assuming the fossil fuel component to be perfectly known from bottom-up inventories and solving for the remaining natural flux. Because fossil fuels emissions are not perfectly known everywhere, errors can accumulate and fluxes can be incorrectly aliased onto the biospheric component. The use of co-emitted tracers such as CO, CH4, and 14C have also been used to parse out the fossil fuel component; however, challenges remain in accurately determining corresponding emissions factors. Recently, inverse methods have been offered as a tool to separate anthropogenic CO2 emissions from the natural CO2 flux signal. The feasibility of this approach is investigated through an examination of the information content provided by atmospheric measurements. The goals of this study are to answer the following questions: (1) From atmospheric CO2 measurements, can we independently identify the fossil fuel signal for different seasons and regions? (2) How does an expanded measurement network help to better isolate the fossil fuel emissions signal? The analysis uses a geostatistical inverse modeling scheme and a variable selection procedure to assess the feasibility of using inverse methods to separate the fossil fuel emissions signal from the biospheric signal. The focus of this study is not on estimating biospheric and fossil fuel fluxes per se, but rather exploring whether the atmospheric measurements currently provide sufficient information to pursue such a goal. The variable selection procedure uses the Bayesian Information Criteria to determine the best subset of explanatory variables that help to inform the spatial and temporal distribution of CO2 fluxes. The superset of candidate variables includes a suite of biospheric variables (evapotranspiration, specific humidity, temperature, etc…) and fossil fuel inventories disaggregated by region and month. The ability to isolate the fossil fuel emission signal from the atmospheric CO2 measurements is assessed by examining whether the fossil fuel inventory information is selected as being relevant for inferring the flux signal in specific regions and months. The study uses a spatial domain of North America with a 1 by 1 degree spatial resolution and a period of one year with a 3-hourly temporal resolution. Analyses using both real and synthetic data cases are carried out using monitoring networks with 9 and 35 towers with continuous observations of CO2 (representative of the 2004 and 2008 networks). While an expanded measurement network is shown to help separate the fossil fuel signature, isolating the fossil fuel signal in the summer months remains a challenge for all regions within North America. This work highlights the need both for methodological advancement in inversion studies when trying to isolate the fossil fuel component from the biospheric component as well as improved data coverage by in-situ or remote observations.

Shiga, Y. P.; Michalak, A. M.; Yadav, V.; Gourdji, S. M.

2012-12-01

269

Theoretical studies of oxides relevant to the combustion of fossil fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthropogenic pollution has greatly increased since the industrial revolution and continues to increase as more of the world becomes dependent upon fossil fuels for important applications like transportation and power production. In a general case, whenever a fossil fuel is consumed, a primary product of a complete combustion reaction is carbon dioxide. In a more specific case, the collection, processing and combustion of coal for power production are one of the primary ways by which trace elements, such as arsenic and selenium, are released into the environment. All of these pollutants are known to have harmful effects, whether on the environment, human health or power production itself. Because of this there has been an increasing interest in studies related to combating these pollutants. Concerning CO2 emissions, recently there has been a significant amount of work related to CO2 capture. A promising method involves the encapsulation of CO2 into isoreticular metal-organic frameworks (IRMOFs). The effectiveness of IMROFs greatly depends on the choice of both metal and organic parts. Molecular simulations have been used in the past to aid in the design and characterization of new MOFs, in particular by generating an adsorption isotherm. However, these traditional simulation methods have several drawbacks. The method used in this thesis, namely expanded Wang-Landau, not only overcomes these drawbacks but provides access to all the thermodynamic properties relevant to the adsorption process through a solution thermodynamics approach. This is greatly beneficial, since an excellent way to characterize the performance of various MOFs is by comparing their desorption free energy, i.e., the energy it takes to regenerate a saturated MOF to prepare it for the next adsorption cycle. Expanded WL was used in the study of CO 2 adsorption into IRMOF-1, 8 and 10 at eight temperatures, spanning both the subcritical and supercritical regimes and the following were obtained: adsorption isotherms, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, entropy and desorption free energy. It was found that, when the maximum loading was compared to the regeneration costs, IRMOF-10 had the best performance, followed by IRMOF-8 then IRMOF-1. During the combustion of coal, not only is CO2 produced, but also the trace elements of arsenic and selenium escape into the environment though this process. Both arsenic and selenium are known to have a harmful effects on the environment and human health. Arsenic is also known to poison the catalytic converter used in selective catalytic reduction of NOx . These trace elements have been found on fly ash or in the hot flue gases released into the atmosphere. In flue gases they most often exist as oxides. There have been many experimental and a few theoretical studies on the monomeric oxides, AsOx and SeOx, where x = 1, 2, or 3. However, little is known concerning the corresponding dimeric oxides, As2Ox and Se2Ox, where x = 3 or 5, though these compounds are expected from their similarities to nitrogen and sulfur chemistry, respectively. From an experimental perspective, they are very challenging to study due to the high temperatures, complex environments and low concentrations needed for a direct study of the form and structures of the dimeric oxides. From a theoretical perspective, they can be challenging to study due to their multireference character and the need for both dynamic and non-dynamic electron correlation due to bonds forming and breaking during isomerization. However, high level multireference ab initio methods which account for both dynamic and non-dynamic electron correlation can be used. In the work contained in this thesis, GVVPT2 and CR-CC(2,3) were used to study the relative stabilities of all relevant isomers and transition states of As2Ox and Se2Ox. The structures used where generated through DFT using the B3LYP functional. Not only were plausible stationary points located for all species, it was further confirmed that GVVPT2, though with lower computational cost than CR-CC(2,3), can accurately predict such co

Hicks, Jason Michael

270

Comparative analysis of structural concrete Quality Assurance practices on nine nuclear and three fossil fuel power plant construction projects. Final summary report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A summary of two reports, COO/4120-1 and COO/4120-2, is given. A comparative analysis was made of the Quality Assurance practices related to the structural concrete phase on nine nuclear and three fossil fuel power plant projects which are (or have been) under construction in the United States in the past ten years. For the nuclear projects the analysis identified the response of each Quality Assurance program to the applicable criteria of 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix B as well as to the pertinent regulatory requirements and industry standards. For the fossil projects the analysis identified the response of each Quality Assurance program to criteria similar to those which were applicable in the nuclear situation. The major emphasis was placed on the construction aspects of the structural concrete phase of each project. The engineering and design aspects were examined whenever they interfaced with the construction aspects.

Willenbrock, J.H.; Thomas, H.R. Jr.; Burati, J.J. Jr.

1978-12-01

271

Comparative analysis of structural concrete Quality Assurance practices on nine nuclear and three fossil fuel power plant construction projects. Final summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary of two reports, COO/4120-1 and COO/4120-2, is given. A comparative analysis was made of the Quality Assurance practices related to the structural concrete phase on nine nuclear and three fossil fuel power plant projects which are (or have been) under construction in the United States in the past ten years. For the nuclear projects the analysis identified the response of each Quality Assurance program to the applicable criteria of 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix B as well as to the pertinent regulatory requirements and industry standards. For the fossil projects the analysis identified the response of each Quality Assurance program to criteria similar to those which were applicable in the nuclear situation. The major emphasis was placed on the construction aspects of the structural concrete phase of each project. The engineering and design aspects were examined whenever they interfaced with the construction aspects

272

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1751-1991; and an estimate of their isotopic composition and latitudinal distribution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work briefly discusses four of the current research emphases at Oak Ridge National Laboratory regarding the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from fossil fuel consumption, natural gas flaring and cement manufacture. These emphases include: (1) updating the 1950 to present time series of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, (2) extending this time series back to 1751, (3) gridding the data at 1{sup 0} by 1{sup 0} resolution, and (4) estimating the isotopic signature of these emissions. In 1991, global emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel and cement increased 1.5% over 1990 levels to 6188 {times} 10{sup 6} metric tonnes C. The Kuwaiti oil fires can account for all of the increase. Recently published energy data (Etemad et al., 1991) allow extension of the CO emissions time series back to 1751. Preliminary examination shows good agreement with two other, but shorter, energy time series. A latitudinal distribution of carbon emissions is being completed. A southward shift in the major mass of CO{sub 2} emissions is occurring from European-North American latitudes towards central-southeast Asian latitudes, reflecting the growth of population and industrialization at these lower latitudes. The carbon isotopic signature of these emissions has been re-examined. The emissions of the last two decades are approximately 1{per_thousand} lighter than previously reported (Tans, 1981). This lightening of the emissions signature is due to fossil fuel gases and liquids, including a revision of their {delta}{sup 13}C isotopic signature and an increased production rate.

Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T.; Bischof, S.

1994-10-01

273

Health effects and related standards for fossil-fuel and geothermal power plants. Volume 6 of health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. [In California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report reviews health effects and related standards for fossil-fuel and geothermal power plants, emphasizing impacts which may occur through emissions into the atmosphere, and treating other impacts briefly. Federal regulations as well as California state and local regulations are reviewed. Emissions are characterized by power plant type, including: coal-fired, oil-fired, gas-fired, combined cycle and advanced fossil-fuel plants; and liquid and vapor geothermal systems. Dispersion and transformation of emissions are treated. The state of knowledge of health effects, based on epidemiological, physiological, and biomedical studies, is reviewed.

Case, G.D.; Bertolli, T.A.; Bodington, J.C.; Choy, T.A.; Nero, A.V.

1977-01-01

274

Towards space/time resolved uncertainty quantification of urban fossil fuel CO2 emissions (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in emerging plans on a global, integrated, carbon monitoring system (CMS). A space/time explicit emissions data product can act as both a verification and planning system. It can verify atmospheric CO2 measurements (in situ and remote) and offer detailed mitigation information to management authorities in order to optimize the mix of mitigation efforts. Quantification of the uncertainty associated with bottom-up emission data products remains a challenging endeavor. There are a number of reasons for this. First, bottom-up source data is often produced by a regulatory agency, which has strict legal limits to the amount and type of information available. Even in cases where legal limitations are not at work, there is no standard for uncertainty reporting and hence, little reliable uncertainty estimation is made. The Hestia Project is an effort aimed at building high-resolution (eg. building and road link-specific, hourly) fossil fuel CO2 emissions data products at the scale of buildings/street segments for entire urban domains. A complete data product has been built for the city of Indianapolis and preliminary quantification has been completed for Los Angeles and Salt Lake City. The effort in Indianapolis is now part of a larger effort aimed at a convergent top-down/bottom-up assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, called INFLUX. In the course of this work, we have attempted to quantify uncertainty. In some cases, this is driven by parameter sensitivity, in other cases through the comparison of independent datasets reporting on the same entity. Expert judgment is also deployed where no alternative exists. Here, I will provide a review of some of these techniques with examples from our urban case studies. Total fossil fuel CO2 emissions for Marion County, IN, for the year 2002: (a) top view with numbered zones and (b) blowups of the numbered zones. Color units: log10 kg C/yr. Box height units: linear.

Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Patarasuk, R.; Song, Y.; O'Keeffe, D.; Huang, J.

2013-12-01

275

Comparison of solar-thermal and fossil total-energy systems for selected industrial applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Economic analyses of a conventional system and total energy systems based on phosphoric acid fuel cells, diesel piston engines, and central receiver solar thermal systems were performed for each of four industrial applications; a concrete block plant in Arizona, a fluid milk processing plant in California, a sugar beet processing plant in Colorado, and a meat packing plant in Texas. A series of sensitivity analyses was performed to show the effects of variations in fuel price, system size, cost of capital, and system initial cost. Solar total energy systems (STES) are more capital intensive than the other systems, and significant economies of scale are associated with the STES. If DOE solar system cost goals are met, STES can compete with the other systems for facilities with electrical demands greater than two or three megawatts, but STES are not competitive for smaller facilities. Significant energy resource savings, especially of oil and gas, resulted from STES implementation in the four industries.

Pine, G. D.

1980-06-01

276

Test equipment for the fuel cell industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The evolution of hardware and software to measure fuel cell and battery performance is reviewed. To illustrate the state-of-the-art, characteristic features and applications of QUICKCELL (TM) QC 200, TL5 TEST LOAD and TESTMASTER (TM), tools developed by Astri Laboratories for use by the fuel cell industry, are highlighted. The QC 200 is a test bed for performing quick tests on electrodes, membranes and electrolytes for a variety of electrochemical experiments and quality assurance tasks. The TL5 TEST LOAD is a passive electronic load which has the ability to briefly interrupt the current and take resistance-free cell potential readings with programmable delay. TESTMASTER (TM) is an integrated PC-based software suite running in a Windows environment, performing monitoring, control, data collection and storage, and graphical data representation functions. 6 figs.

Nor, P.; Soltys, J.; Sinkner, P.; Marinescu, M.

2004-07-01

277

Global Partitioning of NOx Sources Using Satellite Observations: Relative Roles of Fossil Fuel Combustion, Biomass Burning and Soil Emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains the following abstract for the paper "Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: Relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and soil emissions." Satellite observations have been used to provide important new information about emissions of nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are significant in atmospheric chemistry, having a role in ozone air pollution, acid deposition and climate change. We know that human activities have led to a three- to six-fold increase in NOx emissions since pre-industrial times, and that there are three main surface sources of NOx: fuel combustion, large-scale fires, and microbial soil processes. How each of these sources contributes to the total NOx emissions is subject to some doubt, however. The problem is that current NOx emission inventories rely on bottom-up approaches, compiling large quantities of statistical information from diverse sources such as fuel and land use, agricultural data, and estimates of burned areas. This results in inherently large uncertainties. To overcome this, Lyatt Jaegle and colleagues from the University of Washington, USA, used new satellite observations from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. As the spatial and seasonal distribution of each of the sources of NOx can be clearly mapped from space, the team could provide independent topdown constraints on the individual strengths of NOx sources, and thus help resolve discrepancies in existing inventories. Jaegle's analysis of the satellite observations, presented at the recent Faraday Discussion on "Atmospheric Chemistry", shows that fuel combustion dominates emissions at northern mid-latitudes, while fires are a significant source in the Tropics. Additionally, she discovered a larger than expected role for soil emissions, especially over agricultural regions with heavy fertilizer use. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

Jaegle, Lyatt; Steinberger, Linda; Martin, Randall V.; Chance, Kelly

2005-01-01

278

A comparative study among fossil fuel power plants in PJM and California ISO by DEA environmental assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study compares among fossil fuel power plants in PJM and California ISO by their unified (operational and environmental) performance. DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) is used as a methodology. For comparative analysis, DEA incorporates strategic concepts such as natural and managerial disposability into the computational process. This study explores both how to measure Returns to Scale (RTS) under natural disposability and how to measure Damages to Scale (DTS) under managerial disposability. This empirical study obtains two implications on US energy policy. One of the two policy implications is that California ISO outperforms PJM in terms of the three unified efficiency measures. The result implies that strict regulation on undesirable outputs, as found in California, is important in enhancing the performance of US fossil fuel power plants. Thus, it is necessary for federal and local governments to regulate the fossil fuel power plants under the strict implementation of environmental protection. Under such a policy direction, it is possible for US fossil fuel power plants to attain economic prosperity (by enhancing their operational efficiencies) and to satisfy environmental regulation (by enhancing their environmental efficiencies). The other policy implication is that coal-fired and gas-fired power plants in PJM and California ISO need to reduce their operational sizes or introduce technology innovation on desirable and undesirable outputs and/or new management for environmental protection within their operations. Meanwhile, oil-fired power plants may increase their operational sizes if they can introduce technology innovation and new management on undesirable outputs. - Highlights: • This study compares fossil fuel power plants in PJM and California ISO. • California ISO outperforms PJM in terms of their unified efficiency measures. • Regulation by Clean Air Act is important for environmental protection. • Fossil fuel power plants need technology innovation for environmental protection

279

ORSIM, Nuclear Fuel, Fossil Fuel Hydroelectric Power Plant Cost and Economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of problem or function: ORSIM is an electric power generating system integration model which simulates the multi-year operation of a mixed power system consisting of fossil, nuclear, hydroelectric, and pumped-storage units. For any specified refueling schedule for nuclear units and future load forecast, the model determines a plan of operation for the system which attempts to minimize the total discounted operating cost over a specified study period. The analysis considers the effects of forced outages, spinning reserve operating constraints, and scheduled introduction and retirement of generating stations. The model determines a maintenance schedule for the non-nuclear stations (nuclear stations are maintained during refueling outages) and the optimum allocation of energy-fixed nuclear and hydroelectric resources. It calculates the expected energy generated by each station in the system, by period over the planning horizon, based on input or calculated incremental operating cost. It also calculates the expected loss-of- load probability and un-served energy demand for each period in the planning horizon. An optimum operating plan, designed to minimize the discounted total production cost, is then calculated, as are the costs of operating each station in the system and the discounted total production cost for the derived plan of operation. 2 - Method of solution: ORSIM searches for a particular mode of operation which, over a multi-year planning horizon which, over a multi-year planning horizon, will minimize the total system operating cost of a particular electric power generation system discounted to the beginning of the planning horizon. It does this by: (a) calculating the planned maintenance outages for all units; (b) estimating the incremental discounted cost of energy produced by each station in the system for every subinterval of the planning horizon; (c) utilizing the incremental discounted costs of energy generation to calculate, via probabilistic simulation, the economic optimum energies generated by each station in the system in each subinterval of the planning horizon; (d) utilizing these expected energies in a feedback loop to calculate the total discounted operation cost and to produce a new set of incremental discounted costs, thereby setting the stage for the next iteration. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of: 90 nuclear stations, 90 must-run stations (i.e., stations which must operate at a specified capacity level when available), 90 two-piece stations (i.e., stations considered to be divided into two capacity blocks in the loading order calculation), 90 stations per system, 90 maintenance seasons

280

Climate policy and the optimal extraction of high- and low-carbon fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study how restricting CO2 emissions affects resource prices and depletion over time. We use a Hotelling-style model with two non- renewable fossil fuels that differ in their carbon content (e.g. coal and natural gas) and that are imperfect substitutes in final good production. We study both an unexpected constraint and an anticipated constraint. Both shocks induce intertemporal substitution of resource use. When emissions are unexpectedly restricted, it is cost-effective to use high-carbon resources relatively more (less) intensively on impact if this resource is relatively scarce (abundant). If the emission constraint is anticipated, it is cost-effective to use relatively more (less) of the low-carbon input before the constraint becomes binding, in order to conserve relatively more (less) of the high-carbon input for the period when climate policy is active in case the high-carbon resource is relatively scarce (abundant)

281

Solid fossil-fuel recovery by electrical induction heating in situ - A proposal  

Science.gov (United States)

A technique, termed electrical induction heating, is proposed for in situ processes of energy production from solid fossil fuels, such as bitumen production from underground distillation of oil sand; oil by underground distillation of oil shale; petroleum from heavy oil by underground mobilization of heavy oil, from either residues of conventional liquid petroleum deposits or new deposits of viscous oil; methane and coal tar from lignite and coal deposits by underground distillation of coal; and generation of electricity by surface combustion of low calorific-value gas from underground coke gasification by combustion of the organic residue left from the underground distillation of coal by induction heating. A method of surface distillation of mined coking coal by induction heating to produce coke, methane, and coal tar is also proposed.

Fisher, S.

1980-04-01

282

Effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil-fuel processing technologies on aquatic systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress is reported for the second year of this project to evaluate the effects of aqueous effluents from in-situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic biota. The project objectives for Year 2 were pursued through five tasks: literature reviews on process water constituents, possible environmental impacts and potential control technologies; toxicity bioassays on the effects of coal gasification and oil shale retorting process waters and six process water constituents on aquatic biota; biodegradation studies on process water constituents; bioaccumulation factor estimation for the compounds tested in the toxicity bioassays; and recommendations on maximum exposure concentrations for process water constituents based on data from the project and from the literature. Results in each of the five areas of research are reported.

Bergman, H.L.

1978-12-01

283

Device for separating CO2 from fossil-fueled power plant emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

A gas separation device includes an inner conduit, and a concentric outer conduit. An electrically conductive filter media, preferably a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve, is provided in the annular space between the inner conduit and the outer conduit. Gas flows through the inner conduit and the annular space between the inner conduit and the outer conduit, so as to contact the filter media. The filter media preferentially adsorbs at least one constituent of the gas stream. The filter media is regenerated by causing an electric current to flow through the filter media. The inner conduit and outer conduit are preferably electrically conductive whereby the regeneration of the filter media can be electrically stimulated. The invention is particularly useful for the removal of CO.sub.2 from the exhaust gases of fossil-fueled power plants.

Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN); Wilson, Kirk A. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-04-23

284

Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); Summers, Cathy A. (Albany, OR); Gerdemann, Steve (Albany, OR); Oryshchyn, Danylo B. (Philomath, OR); Turner, Paul (Independence, OR); Patrick, Brian R. (Chicago, IL)

2011-10-18

285

Options for the Swedish steel industry - Energy efficiency measures and fuel conversion  

OpenAIRE

The processes of iron and steel making are energy intensive and consume large quantities of electricity and fossil fuels. In order to meet future climate targets and energy prices, the iron and steel industry has to improve its energy and resource efficiency. For the iron and steel industry to utilize its energy resources more efficiently and at the same time reduce its CO2 emissions a number of options are available. In this paper, opportunities for both integrated and scrap-based steel plan...

Johansson, Maria; So?derstro?m, Mats

2011-01-01

286

Costs and CO{sub 2} benefits of recovering, refining and transporting logging residues for fossil fuel replacement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are many possible systems for recovering, refining, and transporting logging residues for use as fuel. Here we analyse costs, primary energy and CO{sub 2} benefits of various systems for using logging residues locally, nationally or internationally. The recovery systems we consider are a bundle system and a traditional chip system in a Nordic context. We also consider various transport modes and distances, refining the residues into pellets, and replacing different fossil fuels. Compressing of bundles entails costs, but the cost of chipping is greatly reduced if chipping is done on a large scale, providing an overall cost-effective system. The bundle system entails greater primary energy use, but its lower dry-matter losses mean that more biomass per hectare can be extracted from the harvest site. Thus, the potential replacement of fossil fuels per hectare of harvest area is greater with the bundle system than with the chip system. The fuel-cycle reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions per harvest area when logging residues replace fossil fuels depends more on the type of fossil fuel replaced, the logging residues recovery system used and the refining of the residues, than on whether the residues are transported to local, national or international end-users. The mode and distance of the transport system has a minor impact on the CO{sub 2} emission balance. (author)

Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, 83125 Oestersund (Sweden); Linnaeus University, 35195 Vaexjoe (Sweden); Eriksson, Lisa; Sathre, Roger [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, 83125 Oestersund (Sweden)

2011-01-15

287

Are forestation, bio-char and landfilled biomass adequate offsets for the climate effects of burning fossil fuels?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forestation and landfilling purpose-grown biomass are not adequate offsets for the CO2 emission from burning fossil fuels. Their permanence is insufficiently guaranteed and landfilling purpose-grown biomass may even be counterproductive. As to permanence, bio-char may do better than forests or landfilled biomass, but there are major uncertainties about net greenhouse gas emissions linked to the bio-char life cycle, which necessitate suspension of judgement about the adequacy of bio-char addition to soils as an offset for CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels.

288

The feasibility and implications for conventional liquid fossil fuel of the Indonesian biofuel target in 2025  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper identifies conventional liquid fossil fuels that can be replaced or blended with biofuel and quantifies the biofuels required to meet the Indonesian biofuel target of at least 5% of the total primary energy mix in 2025. The analysis was conducted using the Long range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) system with an energy elasticity of 1 and maximum allowable biofuel blending ratios according to the current best practices. The results show that the target could be achieved with the maximum blending alternative based on constant energy demand growth of 6%. The target requires a total contribution from biofuel of about 8–27 GL in 2025 depending on blending ratios. In energy terms, these are equivalent to 232–782 PJ or about 40–135 million barrels crude oil, which constitute roughly around 3.3–11.0% of the estimated liquid fossil fuel oil annual consumption in that year. The results imply that it may have detrimental environmental impact, as it requires 5.2 million ha of palm oil and sugar cane plantations. On the positive side, achieving the target offers potential new employment opportunities of about 3.4 million jobs, particularly in the agricultural sector relevant to liquid biofuel production. - Highlights: • Indonesian energy demand in 2025 was forecasted by using LEAP. • The biofuel target (5% of the total energy mix in 2025) requires 782 PJ of biofuel. • The target can be achieved under the scenario of maximum blending alternative. • The target requires up to 5.2 million ha of palm oil and sugar cane plantation area. • It may offer potential new employment for about 3.4 million people

289

Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled â??Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels.â?ť Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

Michael Petrik; Robert Ruhl

2012-03-31

290

Fossil fuel subsidy removal and inadequate public power supply: Implications for businesses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We briefly consider the impact of fossil fuel subsidy removal policies in the context of inadequate power supply, with a focus on the implications for businesses. In doing so, we utilize the case of the early 2012 fuel subsidy removal in Nigeria. The rationale for such subsidy-removal policies is typically informed by analysis showing that they lead to an economically inefficient allocation of resources and market distortions, while often failing to meet intended objectives. However, often the realities of infrastructural and institutional deficiencies are not appropriately factored into the decision-making process. Businesses in many developing countries, already impaired by the high cost of power supply deficiencies, become even less competitive on an unsubsidized basis. We find that justifications for removal often do not adequately reflect the specific environments of developing country economies, resulting in poor recommendations – or ineffective policy. - Highlights: ? We consider the impact of fuel subsidy removal in the context of energy poverty. ? Calls for subsidy removal often do not reflect the developing country realities. ? Businesses impaired by power supply deficiencies, become even less competitive.

291

Options for the Swedish steel industry - Energy efficiency measures and fuel conversion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The processes of iron and steel making are energy intensive and consume large quantities of electricity and fossil fuels. In order to meet future climate targets and energy prices, the iron and steel industry has to improve its energy and resource efficiency. For the iron and steel industry to utilize its energy resources more efficiently and at the same time reduce its CO2 emissions a number of options are available. In this paper, opportunities for both integrated and scrap-based steel plants are presented and some of the options are electricity production, fuel conversion, methane reforming of coke oven gas and partnership in industrial symbiosis. The options are evaluated from a system perspective and more specific measures are reported for two Swedish case companies: SSAB Strip Products and Sandvik AB. The survey shows that both case companies have great potentials to reduce their CO2 emissions. -- Research highlights: ? Steel plants have several opportunities to utilize excess energy flows. ? Industrial symbiosis and TES can enhance the utilization of excess energy. ? Options to produce electricity from low-grade heat and heat radiation. ? Options to substitute fossil fuels with biomass. ? The case companies have great potentials to reduce their CO2 emissions.

292

Technological research and development of fossil fuels; Ricerca e sviluppo tecnologico per lo sfruttamento ottimale dei combustibili fossili  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the present document is to supply general information concerning fossil fuels that represent, today and for the near future, the main energy source of our planet. New fossil fuel technologies are in continual development with two principal goals: to decrease environmental impact and increase transformation process efficiency. Examples of this effort are: (1) gas-steam combined cycles integrated with coal gasification plants, or with pressurized-fluidized-bed combustors; (2) new cycles with humid air or coal direct fired turbine, now under development. In the first part of this document the international and national energy situations and trends are shown. After some brief notes on environment problems and alternative fuels, such as biomasses and municipal wastes, technological aspects, mainly relevant to increasing fossil-fueled power plant performances, are examined in greater depth. Finally the research and technological development activities of ENEA (National Agency for New technologies, Energy and the Environment) Engineering Branch in order to improve fossil fuels energy and environmental use are presented.

Minghetti, E.; Palazzi, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

1995-05-01

293

Proceedings of the APEC seventh technical seminar on clean fossil energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papers are presented under the following session headings: application and development of clean fossil energy alternative fuels; application and development of clean fossil energy for power generation; application and development of clean fossil energy in the industrial sectors; market opportunities for clean fossil energy in the APEC region; and the role of clean fossil energy in addressing global climate change. A list of participants, with their addresses, is included.

NONE

2000-08-01

294

Comparative analysis of structural concrete quality assurance practices on three fossil fuel power plant construction projects. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The basic objective of this research effort was to perform a comparative analysis of the Quality Assurance practices related to the structural concrete phase on three fossil fuel power plant projects which are (or have been) under construction in the United States in the past ten years. This analysis identified the response of each Quality Assurance program to criteria similar to those which apply on nuclear power plant projects. The major emphasis was placed on the construction aspects of the structural concrete phase of each project. The engineering and design aspects were examined whenever they interfaced with the construction aspects. For those aspects of the Quality Assurance system which can be considered managerial in nature (i.e., organizational relationships, types of Quality Assurance programs, corrective action procedures, etc.) an attempt has been made to present the alternative approaches that were identified. For those aspects of the Quality Assurance system which are technical in nature (i.e., the frequency of testing for slump, compressive strength, etc.) an attempt has been made to present a comparative analysis between projects and in relation to the recommended or mandated practices presented in the appropriate industry codes and standards.

Willenbrock, J.H.; Thomas, H.R. Jr.; Burati, J.L. Jr.

1978-06-01

295

Transforming fossil fuel energy to electricity using MHD with a rare-gas working fluid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The combination of a source of combustion products and a closed cycle containing a rare gas is a very attractive idea since, to the extent that the problem of the heat transfer from the combustion products to the rare gas is solved, it is possible to enjoy the particular advantages of the open or the closed cycle while avoiding their disadvantages. It is not difficult to produce thermal energy at high temperatures in an open cycle. On the other hand, the design of ducts for operation over long periods of time and the treatment of the combustion products in the medium-temperature heat exchangers and at the seed removal stage pose difficult technological problems for which it may not be possible to find economic solutions. In the closed cycle, on the other hand, the technological problems do not seem to be crucial since the operating temperatures are lower and the gases are far less corrosive. Problems arise when one attempts to link a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor to an MHD system as system pressures are incompatible. However, the existence of a heat exchanger capable of transferring to a rare gas, at about 2000°C, thermal energy obtained by the combustion at atmospheric pressure of fossil fuels with air would: (a) Solve the problem of increasing the efficiency with which the energy released by the combustion of the fossil substances is converted into electricity, a problem which research workers are trying to tackle using Open-cycle systems; (b) Permit the study of closed-cycle problems at full scale before a series of high- temperature converters is launched. In the first part of the paper the authors examine a heat exchanger design that meets these requirements. In the second part they consider the general characteristics of power plants built around such heat exchangers and assess their conversion efficiency. In the third part they study in detail a specific commercial power station project. (author)

296

Atmospheric observations of carbon monoxide and fossil fuel CO2 emissions from East Asia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Flask samples from two sites in East Asia, Tae-Ahn Peninsula, Korea (TAP), and Shangdianzi, China (SDZ), were measured for trace gases including CO2, CO and fossil fuel CO2(CO(2)ff, derived from Delta(CO2)-C-14 observations). The five-year TAP record shows high CO(2)ff when local air comes from the Korean Peninsula. Most samples, however, reflect air masses from Northeastern China with lower CO(2)ff. Our small set of SDZ samples from winter 2009/2010 have strongly elevated CO(2)ff. Biospheric CO2 contributes substantially to total CO2 variability at both sites, even in winter when non-fossil CO2 sources (including photosynthesis, respiration, biomass burning and biofuel use) contribute 20-30% of the total CO2 enhancement. Carbon monoxide (CO) correlates strongly with CO(2)ff. The SDZ and TAP far-field (China influenced) samples have CO: CO(2)ff ratios (R-CO:CO2ff) of 47 +/- 2 and 44 +/- 3 ppb/ppm respectively, consistent with recent bottom-up inventory estimates and other observational studies. Locally influenced TAP samples fall into two distinct data sets, ascribed to air sourced from South Korea and North Korea. The South Korea samples have low R-CO:CO2ff of 13 +/- 3 ppb/ppm, slightly higher than bottom-up inventories, but consistent with emission ratios for other developed nations. We compare our CO(2)ff observations with modeled CO(2)ff using the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model convolved with a bottom-up CO(2)ff emission inventories. The modeled annual mean CO(2)ff mole fractions are consistent with our observations when the model inventory includes the reported 63% increase in Chinese emissions from 2004 to 2010, whereas a model version which holds Chinese emissions flat is unable to replicate the observations.

Turnbull, Jocelyn C.; Tans, Pieter P.

2011-01-01

297

Substitution of fossil fuel with wood biomass in mountain tourist centres in Serbia mountain Goc example  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Serbia has five National Parks and they are relatively big tourist centres. beside that, Serbia has more or less developed mountain tourism on over 30 mountains. Most of these centres in Serbia are using fossil fuels or electricity for heating, while wood biomass from local forests is partly used and mostly collapsing in forest. Using wood biomass from forest as a fuel in tourist facilities on mountains has ecological and economical benefits. Pilot project, whose initiator is Faculty of Forestry from University of Belgrade should confirm, on existent example in their scientific base on mountain Goc, correctness of theory for economical, technical and ecological adequacy for production of thermal and electrical energy from wood biomass. Building a new boiler and extension existing heating system have to ensure enough thermal energy for productive, and tourist facilities on 'Dobre vode' and 'Gvozdac' on mountain Goc. It is in total of 10,000 m2 of covered space of facilities of Faculty of Forestry, hotel 'Dobre vode' with 100 beds, alpine house 'Dobre vode' with 60 beds, children roost 'Goc' with 146 beds and others objects. Present demands for thermal energy, which comes from existing boiler, are app. 3,000,000 kWh and for that purpose it is used 3,000 m3 of stack wood. Addition of new users of thermal energy consumption would be growing up for app. 2.000 kWh or it would spend 2.000 m2 more of stack wood and this amount would replace usage of 300 tons og fossil fuels. All stated amounts of wood biomass would be ensuring from economy forests of Faculty of Forestry. All facilities are supplying with electric energy from nearby city of Kraljevo with frequent discontinuity and unstable main voltage. To provide less dependency from present suppliers, it is calculated in project goals installation of CHP for parallel production of thermal and electric energy. If this idea is proved to be good and feasible this program would, with the help of the National Investment Programme, expand on other tourist centres on mountains in Serbia. (orig.)

Furtula, M.; Danon, G.; Bajic, V. (Univ. of Belgrade (Serbia). Faculty of Forestry), Email: mladen.furtula@sfb.bg.ac.rs

2009-07-01

298

Control of SO2 and NOx emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants: Research and practice of TPRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The generation of electric power in China has been dominated by coal for many years. By the end of 1990, total installed generating capacity reached 135 GW, of which fossil fuel-fired plants accounted for 74 percent. The total electricity generated reached 615 TWh, with fossil fuels accounting for 80.5 percent. About 276 million tons of raw coal are consumed in these fossil fuel-burning units per year, accounting for about 25 percent of the total output of the country. According to the government, by the year 2000, the total installed capacity of Chinese power systems should be at least 240 GW, of which fossil fuels will account for about 77 percent. The coal required for power generation will increase to about 530 million tons per year, accounting for about 38 percent of the total coal output. So, it is obvious that coal consumed in coal-fired power plants occupies a very important place in the national fuel balance. The current environmental protection standards, which are based on ground-level concentrations of pollutants, do not effectively lead to the control of pollution emission concentrations or total SO2 emissions. Due to the practical limitations of the Chinese economy, there is a limited capability to introduce advanced sulfur emission control technologies. Thus, except for the two 360 MW units imported from Japan for the Luohuang Power Plant in Shichuan province, all the other fossil fuel-fired units have not yet adopted any kind of SO22 removal measures. The Luohuang units are equipped with Mitsubishi limestone flue gas desulfurization systems. Because of the lack of effective pollution control technologies, large areas of the country have been seriously polluted by SO2, and some of them even by acid rain

299

An assessment of econometric models applied to fossil fuel power generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main purpose of this report is to provide a general view of those studies, in which the econometric approach is applied to the selection of fuel in fossil fired power generation, focusing the attention to the key role played by the fuel prices. The report consists of a methodological analysis and a survey of the studies available in literature. The methodological analysis allows to assess the adequateness of the econometric approach, in the electrical power utilities policy. With this purpose, the fundamentals of microeconomics, which are the basis of the econometric models, are pointed out and discussed, and then the hypotheses, which are needed to be assumed for complying the economic theory, are verified in their actual implementation in the power generation sector. The survey of the available studies provides a detailed description of the Translog and Logit models, and the results achieved with their application. From these results, the estimated models show to fit the data with good approximation, a certain degree of interfuel substitution and a meaningful reaction to prices on demand side

300

Regional variations in spatial structure of nightlights, population density and fossil-fuel CO{sub 2} emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We evaluate the joint use of satellite-observed intensity of urban nightlights and census-based population density data as constraints on the spatial structure of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels. Findings are: (1) the probability that population density exceeds a given value follows a power-law distribution over two orders of magnitude of population density, encompassing the 40% of the global population at the highest densities. (2) The corresponding probability distribution for nightlights intensity also follows a power-law, departing near instrumental saturation. (3) Assuming that the true nightlights intensity distribution follows the power-law above instrumental saturation, we obtain a correction for saturation errors in the nightlights data. The amplification of nightlights intensity required to correct for saturation errors is estimated to be a factor of 1.15-1.23 globally and much greater in regions with high nightlights intensities. (4) Correcting for saturation, we observe clear empirical relationships between nightlights intensity and areal densities of energy consumption, fossil-fuel emissions and economic activity, holding throughout the development spectrum. (5) We indicate how these relationships underpin a fossil-fuel data assimilation system (FFDAS) for estimating fossil-fuel CO{sub 2} emissions. (author)

Raupach, M.R.; Paget, M. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, ACT 2601 (Australia); Rayner, P.J. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, CEA CNRS UVSQ, 4 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

2010-09-15

301

DEVELOPMENT OF SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION SOURCES  

Science.gov (United States)

The report documents the technical approach and results achieved while developing a grab sampling method and an automated, on-line gas chromatography method suitable to characterize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fossil fuel combustion sources. he two methods developed have b...

302

The promise of carbon capture and storage: evaluating the capture-readiness of new EU fossil fuel power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To what degree are recently built and planned power plants in the EU 'capture-ready' for carbon capture and storage (CCS)? Survey results show that most recently built fossil fuel power plants have not been designed as capture-ready. For 20 planned coal-fired plants, 13 were said to be capture-ready (65%). For 31 planned gas-fired power plants, only 2 were indicated to be capture-ready (6%). Recently built or planned power plants are expected to cover a large share of fossil fuel capacity by 2030 and thereby have a large impact on the possibility to implement CCS after 2020. It is estimated that around 15-30% of fossil fuel capacity by 2030 can be capture-ready or have CO{sub 2} capture implemented from the start. If CCS is implemented at these plants, 14-28% of baseline CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel power generation in 2030 could be mitigated, equivalent to 220-410 MtCO{sub 2}. A key reason indicated by utilities for building a capture-ready plant is (expected) national or EU policies. In addition, financial incentives and expected high CO{sub 2} prices are important. The implementation of a long-term regulatory framework for CCS with clear definitions of 'capture-readiness' and policy requirements will be important challenges.

Graus, W.; Roglieri, M.; Jaworski, P.; Alberio, L.; Worrell, E. [University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2011-01-15

303

Contextualizing avian mortality. A preliminary appraisal of bird and bat fatalities from wind, fossil-fuel, and nuclear electricity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article explores the threats that wind farms pose to birds and bats before briefly surveying the recent literature on avian mortality and summarizing some of the problems with it. Based on operating performance in the United States and Europe, this study offers an approximate calculation for the number of birds killed per kWh generated for wind electricity, fossil-fuel, and nuclear power systems. The study estimates that wind farms and nuclear power stations are responsible each for between 0.3 and 0.4 fatalities per gigawatt-hour (GWh) of electricity while fossil-fueled power stations are responsible for about 5.2 fatalities per GWh. While this paper should be respected as a preliminary assessment, the estimate means that wind farms killed approximately seven thousand birds in the United States in 2006 but nuclear plants killed about 327,000 and fossil-fueled power plants 14.5 million. The paper concludes that further study is needed, but also that fossil-fueled power stations appear to pose a much greater threat to avian wildlife than wind and nuclear power technologies. (author)

Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

2009-06-15

304

Inferring high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 records at continental sites from combined 14CO2 and CO observations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An uncertainty estimate of a purely observational approach to derive hourly regional fossil fuel CO2 offsets ((delta)CO2(foss)) at continental CO2 monitoring sites is presented. Weekly mean 14C-based fossil fuel CO2 mixing ratios and corresponding regional CO offsets ((delta)CO) are proposed to determine weekly mean (delta)CO/(delta)CO2(foss) ratios in order to derive hourly (delta)CO2(foss) mixing ratios from hourly (delta)CO measurements. Respective regional model estimates of CO and CO2(foss) are applied to test this approach and obtain root mean square errors of the correspondingly determined regional hourly fossil fuel CO2 component. The method is further validated with campaign-based observations in Heidelberg. The uncertainty of the proposed method turns out to increase with decreasing fossil fuel CO2 fraction ranging from about 15% up to 40% for continental Europe. Together with the uncertainty of the (delta)CO/(delta)CO2(foss) ratio, which is determined by the precision of the 14CO2 measurement, this method is still more accurate and precise than any model-based approach

305

FEASIBILITY OF PRODUCING AND MARKETING BYPRODUCT GYPSUM FROM SO2 EMISSION CONTROL AT FOSSIL-FUEL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study to identify fossil-fuel-fired power plants that might, in competition with existing crude gypsum sources and other power plants, lower the cost of compliance with SO2 regulations by producing and marketing abatement gypsum. In the Eastern U.S.,...

306

Fossil fuels and the global carbon dioxide problem. Disposal and recycling of carbon dioxide may reduce the greenhouse effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greenhouse gas reduction was defined as a global concern at the Kyoto conference of 1997. The emission reduction goals can be reached only if all options for energy saving and emission reduction are used, including disposal or recycling of carbon dioxide in fossil fuel combustion processes

307

An overview of alternative fossil fuel price and carbon regulation scenarios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The benefits of the Department of Energy's research and development (R&D) efforts have historically been estimated under business-as-usual market and policy conditions. In recognition of the insurance value of R&D, however, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) have been exploring options for evaluating the benefits of their R&D programs under an array of alternative futures. More specifically, an FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group (the Working Group) has proposed to EERE and FE staff the application of an initial set of three scenarios for use in the Working Group's upcoming analyses: (1) a Reference Case Scenario, (2) a High Fuel Price Scenario, which includes heightened natural gas and oil prices, and (3) a Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario. The immediate goal is to use these scenarios to conduct a pilot analysis of the benefits of EERE and FE R&D efforts. In this report, the two alternative scenarios being considered by EERE and FE staff--carbon cap-and-trade and high fuel prices--are compared to other scenarios used by energy analysts and utility planners. The report also briefly evaluates the past accuracy of fossil fuel price forecasts. We find that the natural gas prices through 2025 proposed in the FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group's High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable based on current natural gas prices and other externally generated gas price forecasts and scenarios. If anything, an even more extreme gas price scenario might be considered. The price escalation from 2025 to 2050 within the proposed High Fuel Price Scenario is harder to evaluate, primarily because few existing forecasts or scenarios extend beyond 2025, but, at first blush, it also appears reasonable. Similarly, we find that the oil prices originally proposed by the Working Group in the High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable, if not conservative, based on: (1) the current forward market for oil, (2) current oil prices, (3) externally generated oil price forecasts, and (4) the historical difficulty in accurately forecasting oil prices. Overall, a spread between the FE-EERE High Oil Price and Reference scenarios of well over $8/bbl is supported by the literature. We conclude that a wide range of carbon regulation scenarios are possible, especially within the time frame considered by EERE and FE (through 2050). The Working Group's Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario is found to be less aggressive than many Kyoto-style targets that have been analyzed, and similar in magnitude to the proposed Climate Stewardship Act. The proposed scenario is more aggressive than some other scenarios found in the literature, however, and ignores carbon banking and offsets and does not allow nuclear power to expand. We are therefore somewhat concerned that the stringency of the proposed carbon regulation scenario in the 2010 to 2025 period will lead to a particularly high estimated cost of carbon reduction. As described in more detail later, we encourage some flexibility in the Working Group's ultimate implementation of the Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario. We conclude by identifying additional scenarios that might be considered in future analyses, describing a concern with the proposed specification of the High Fuel Price Scenario, and highlighting the possible difficulty of implementing extreme scenarios with current energy modeling tools.

Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2004-10-01

308

Measurement of fossil fuel carbon dioxide and other anthropogenic trace gases from MEGAPOLI intensive campaign in Paris during winter 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

The Paris agglomeration is the third biggest megacity in Europe (12 million inhabitants) and according to national emission inventories, is responsible for 15 % of the French anthropogenic CO2 emissions mainly originating from road transport, residential and industrial energy consumption. The objective of our feasibility study was to design an efficient monitoring strategy in order to quantify future trends in anthropogenic CO2 emission in Paris area. During the winter campaign of the European project MEGAPOLI and French project CO2-MEGAPARIS, we performed measurements of CO2 and related trace gases from January to February 2010. The RAMCES (Atmospheric Network for Greenhouse Gases Monitoring) team at LSCE monitored CO2 and CO mixing ratio with high temporal resolution using instruments based on Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) in the thirteenth arrondissement of Paris (south). We also sampled air in more than fifty flasks covering three full days at the same place. Flasks were analysed in the RAMCES central laboratory with a Gas Chromatograph system for CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, SF6 and H2 mixing ratios and also by Mass Spectroscopy for CO2 isotopic ratios (?13C and ?18O). In order to quantify the fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) most flasks were analysed at INSTAAR for ?14C in CO2. In addition, 13CO2 isotopic ratio and total CO2 concentration were measured at high temporal resolution (< 1 min) over three days at Paris with Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscope developed at LPMAA. In parallel with the Paris measurements, in-situ CO2, CO and other trace gases were monitored at Gif-sur-Yvette, a semi urban station 20km south west of Paris. Similar synoptic variations of CO2 and CO mixing ratios were found in Paris and Gif with maximum mixing ratio up to 495 ppm CO2 and 1000 ppb CO downtown Paris. The mean diurnal variation during this winter period shows peak to peak amplitude of 15 ppm CO2 and 150 ppb CO at Paris and 10 ppm CO2 and 40 CO ppb at Gif station. We focused on CO and NOx as tracer of fossil fuel emission to estimate CO2ff. We calibrated these tracers against CO2ff estimates based on ?14C. Moreover, ?13C measurements were used to quantify the contribution of the different combustion sources for CO2 emission. Finally, we compared our results to the emission inventories from EDGAR 4.2 (global inventories), IER (European inventory) and the national ones from CITEPA and AirParif.

Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Delmotte, M.; Gros, V.; Mondelain, D.; Lehman, S.; Ramonet, M.; Vuillemin, C.; Xueref-remy, I. C.

2012-12-01

309

Fossil fuels: technical, economical and political challenges for 2030-2050; Combustibles fossiles: enjeux techniques, economiques et politiques a l'horizon 2030-2050  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This panorama takes stock on the international energy actuality in 2003 and discusses the instability of the geo-political context of the energy and the part of the fossil fuels for the future years 2030-2050. The following topics were presented: activities and market for the exploration-production, refining and petrochemistry, the world gas trade situation, the petroleum supply and demand, the Iraq, the diesel in the USA, the investments and the depletion, long-dated evolutions of motors and fuels, implementing of the european directive concerning the market of tradable permits of CO{sub 2}, the carbon sequestration, hydrogen the energy of the future and the biofuels in Europe. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2004-07-01

310

Cost and prices of electricity. Fossil fuels, nuclear power and renewable energy sources in comparison; Kosten und Preise fuer Strom. Fossile, Atomstrom und Erneuerbare Energien im Vergleich  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Consumers of electricity pay for production, transport and distribution as well as for taxes and dues. Electricity rates depend on various influencing factors, e.g. different fuel and capital cost of the power plants and the ratio of supply and demand in the electricity stock markets. End user electricity rats also include taxes and dues as well as the cost of power transmission. The publication presents background information on the formation of electricity rates in Germany. In a second step, the different cost factors of fossil fuels, nuclear power and renewable energy sources are compared. In particular, the external cost is gone into which often tends to be neglected in the electricity markets.

Muehlenhoff, Joerg

2011-09-15

311

Determination of heating value of industrial waste for the formulation of alternative fuels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of alternative fuels has become increasingly widespread. They are basically designed based on industrial waste so that they can substitute fossil fuels which start to become scarce. Alternative fuels must meet some criteria, namely an important calorific content, minimum humidity and ash content. When it comes to combustion, the most interesting parameter is the calorific value which represents the thermal energy released during combustion. The experiments that were conducted showed that the calorific value is influenced by other parameters namely moisture and ash content. It was therefore necessary to study the behavior of the heating value in terms of these two parameters in order to establish a relationship that is used to describe the behavior. This is expected to allow a simulation of the calorific value of a mixture of various industrial waste.

Bouabid G.

2013-09-01

312

Towards Robust Energy Systems Modeling: Examinging Uncertainty in Fossil Fuel-Based Life Cycle Assessment Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing concerns about the environmental impacts of fossil fuels used in the U.S. transportation and electricity sectors have spurred interest in alternate energy sources, such as natural gas and biofuels. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methods can be used to estimate the environmental impacts of incumbent energy sources and potential impact reductions achievable through the use of alternate energy sources. Some recent U.S. climate policies have used the results of LCAs to encourage the use of low carbon fuels to meet future energy demands in the U.S. However, the LCA methods used to estimate potential reductions in environmental impact have some drawbacks. First, the LCAs are predominantly based on deterministic approaches that do not account for any uncertainty inherent in life cycle data and methods. Such methods overstate the accuracy of the point estimate results, which could in turn lead to incorrect and (consequent) expensive decision-making. Second, system boundaries considered by most LCA studies tend to be limited (considered a manifestation of uncertainty in LCA). Although LCAs can estimate the benefits of transitioning to energy systems of lower environmental impact, they may not be able to characterize real world systems perfectly. Improved modeling of energy systems mechanisms can provide more accurate representations of reality and define more likely limits on potential environmental impact reductions. This dissertation quantitatively and qualitatively examines the limitations in LCA studies outlined previously. The first three research chapters address the uncertainty in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with petroleum-based fuels, natural gas and coal consumed in the U.S. The uncertainty in life cycle GHG emissions from fossil fuels was found to range between 13 and 18% of their respective mean values. For instance, the 90% confidence interval of the life cycle GHG emissions of average natural gas consumed in the U.S was found to range between -8 to 9% (17%) of the mean value of 66 g CO2e/MJ. Results indicate that uncertainty affects the conclusions of comparative life cycle assessments, especially when differences in average environmental impacts between two competing fuels/products are small. In the final two research chapters of this thesis, system boundary limitations in LCA are addressed. Simplified economic dispatch models for are developed to examine changes in regional power plant dispatch that occur when coal power plants are retired and when natural gas prices drop. These models better reflect reality by estimating the order in which existing power plants are dispatched to meet electricity demand based on short-run marginal costs. Results indicate that the reduction in air emissions are lower than suggested by LCA studies, since they generally do not include the complexity of regional electricity grids, predominantly driven by comparative fuel prices. For instance, comparison, this study estimates 7-15% reductions in emissions with low natural gas prices. Although this is a significant reduction in itself, it is still lower than the benefits reported in traditional life cycle comparisons of coal and natural gas-based power (close to 50%), mainly due to the effects of plant dispatch.

Venkatesh, Aranya

313

Creating a Global Grid of Distributed Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions from Nighttime Satellite Imagery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The potential use of satellite observed nighttime lights for estimating carbon-dioxide (CO2 emissions has been demonstrated in several previous studies. However, the procedures for a moderate resolution (1 km2 grid cells global map of fossil fuel CO2 emissions based on nighttime lights are still in the developmental phase. We report on the development of a method for mapping distributed fossil fuel CO2 emissions (excluding electric power utilities at 30 arc-seconds or approximately 1 km2 resolution using nighttime lights data collected by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS. A regression model, Model 1, was initially developed based on carbon emissions from five sectors of the Vulcan data produced by the Purdue University and a nighttime satellite image of the U.S. The coefficient derived through Model 1 was applied to the global nighttime image but it resulted in underestimation of CO2 emissions for most of the world’s countries, and the states of the U.S. Thus, a second model, Model 2 was developed by allocating the distributed CO2 emissions (excluding emissions from utilities using a combination of DMSP-OLS nighttime image and population count data from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE LandScan grid. The CO2 emissions were distributed in proportion to the brightness of the DMSP nighttime lights in areas where lighting was detected. In areas with no DMSP detected lighting, the CO2 emissions were distributed based on population count, with the assumption that people who live in these areas emit half as much CO2 as people who live in the areas with DMSP detected lighting. The results indicate that the relationship between satellite observed nighttime lights and CO2 emissions is complex, with differences between sectors and variations in lighting practices between countries. As a result it is not possible to make independent estimates of CO2 emissions with currently available coarse resolution panchromatic satellite observed nighttime lights. However, the nighttime lights image in conjunction with the population grid can help in more accurate disaggregation of national CO2 emissions to a moderate resolution spatial grid.

Benjamin T. Tuttle

2010-12-01

314

A numerical analysis of worldwide CO{sub 2} emissions based on fossil fuels and effects on atmospheric warming in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The climate system of the earth, globally and locally, obviously has been changed from pre-industrial period to present. Some of the changes are due to human activities where the vital role has been played by the emission. Fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, oil), the raw materials for energy, play an effective and determining role in the development and sustenance of industrial development, as well as in the energy planning in all major countries. When global and regional geographies are evaluated from the geo-strategic and geo-political points of view, it is clearly seen that among all fossil fuels, coal is distributed more 'equally' in ratio than oil and natural gas reserves. Coal is gradually gaining importance for countries that do not have energy resources, have limited ones, or have resources on the verge of exhaustion. With the latest environmentally-friendly technological innovations in the field of burning-storing CO2 emissions in thermal power plants and given today's emphasis on the principle of 'sustainable development,' it is an undeniable fact that coal will continue to be a significant primary energy resource in the future, both in Turkey and around the world. In this study, in order to numerically calculate the impact of CO2 from fossil fuel consumption on global warming and the process of climate change, a global scale numerical evaluation has been constructed. The evaluation utilizes the 'total primary energy supply (TPES) - CO2 emission' from 136 countries in 2004 together with such basic indicators as 'TPES/capita' and 'ton CO2/capita'. The potential CO2 emission for the year 2030 has also been estimated. Moreover, to maintain the integrity of the subject under study, the distribution of thermal power plants utilizing fossil fuels among the differing geographical regions of Turkey, the relationship between forests (F) in these regions, and the average annual increase in temperature ({delta}T) between 1975-92 and 1993-2006 have also been examined. Data was taken from 133 macro-climatic meteorological stations within the scope of this study.

Tokgoz, Nuray

2007-07-01

315

The implication for climate change and peak fossil fuel of the continuation of the current trend in wind and solar energy production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Climate change, and more recently, the risk of fossil fuel production being unable to keep pace with demand (peak fossil fuel) are both considered as risks to civilisation, or global risks. In an initial empirical analysis, this paper attempts to answer the following questions, which have often been posed but have not, to our knowledge, been answered empirically at global level. At which date, if unaddressed, will the risks become critical? Given that the substitution of fossil fuels by wind and solar energy is often proposed as a solution to these problems, what is its current aggregate growth rate and is there a plausible future growth rate which would substitute it for fossil fuels before the risks become critical? The study finds that the peak fossil fuel risk will start to be critical by 2020. If however the future growth rate of wind and solar energy production follows that already achieved for the world mobile phone system or the Chinese National Expressway Network the peak fossil fuel risk can be prevented completely. For global warming, the same growth rate provides significant mitigation by reducing carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels to zero by the early 2030s. - Highlights: ? Converging studies show the peak fossil fuel risk likely to be critical by 2020. ? We model the future growth rate of wind and solar energy based on analogous precedents. ? These are the growth rates already achieved by the world mobile phone system and the Chinese Nation phone system and the Chinese National Expressway Network. ? We show that wind and solar energy growth at these rates averts the peak fossil fuel risk. ? For global warming, the scenarios make fossil-fuel CO2 emissions zero by 2030.

316

Enhancement of carburization/oxidation resistance in fossil fuel environments through alloy compositional optimization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carburization resistance of numerous heat resistant alloys has been evaluated in equilibrated atmospheres having a wide range of oxygen potentials. This paper attempts to characterize and explain alloy performance in these simulated fossil fuel environments on the basis of alloy content and scale characteristics and discusses means of further improvements in performance. A survey of current information regarding scale characteristics of wrought nickel-base alloys is also presented. Typical carburizing service environments contain at least some level of oxygen. Such applications include heat treating, ethylene pyrolysis, coal conversion, activated carbon production and steam hydrocarbon reforming. Carburization usually plays some role in the ultimate failure of an alloy; it often compromises creep and fatigue life and/or ductility. Conversely, creep, fatigue and thermal cycling can cause protective scales to crack and spall, thereby compromising carburization resistance. To maximize carburization resistance in future alloys, attention must be paid not only to corrosion performance in static environments but also to scale-alloy compatibility, growth stresses, creep and thermal gradient stresses, and inward and outward diffusion coefficients, and scale repairability.

Baker, B.A.; Smith, G.D.; Tassen, C.S. [INCO Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV (United States)

1996-08-01

317

On-line monitoring of the thermal power plant using fossil fuel by personal computer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increasing demand for electric power in combination with the environmental concern, requires better utilisation of the thermal power plants using fossil fuel. In this respect, to improve the utilisation it is no longer sufficient to rely on conventional technique. Improved utilisation requires more information that is reliable, structured and available to the user. This can be achieved with on-line monitoring as a part of a complex automation dedicated to control the plant. On-line monitoring improves better overview of the process and functionality of the obtained information. For the complete list of monitored variables it is necessary to develop software functions with an efficient and user- friendly tools, running on a standard PC. However, such a task is a challenge for a thermal power plants in use for 15-20 years. where the compromise between the equipment and required monitoring functions has to be considered. In this paper a practical approach in monitoring of the most important process variables in TPP Negotino (Macedonia) is proposed. The object oriented presentation (apparatus) in Windows environment enables multi-media process presentation by PC. Trends and reports are also defined by a simple selection of the values to be included. Since, the software enables analysis for a severe contingency, it can be also used for a training. (Author)

318

Response of the global climate to changes in atmospheric chemical composition due to fossil fuel burning  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent modeling of atmospheric chemical processes (Logan et al, 1978; Hameed et al, 1979) suggests that tropospheric ozone and methane might significantly increase in the future as the result of increasing anthropogenic emissions of CO, NO(x), and CH4 due to fossil fuel burning. Since O3 and CH4 are both greenhouse gases, increases in their concentrations could augment global warming due to larger future amounts of atmospheric CO2. To test the possible climatic impact of changes in tropospheric chemical composition, a zonal energy-balance climate model has been combined with a vertically averaged tropospheric chemical model. The latter model includes all relevant chemical reactions which affect species derived from H2O, O2, CH4, and NO(x). The climate model correspondingly incorporates changes in the infrared heating of the surface-troposphere system resulting from chemically induced changes in tropospheric ozone and methane. This coupled climate-chemical model indicates that global climate is sensitive to changes in emissions of CO, NO(x) and CH4, and that future increases in these emissions could augment global warming due to increasing atmospheric CO2.

Hameed, S.; Cess, R. D.; Hogan, J. S.

1980-01-01

319

INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION. SUMMARY REPORT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem

320

Life cycle GHG assessment of fossil fuel power plants with carbon capture and storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evaluation of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a critical factor in energy and policy analysis. The current paper examines life cycle emissions from three types of fossil-fuel-based power plants, namely supercritical pulverized coal (super-PC), natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), with and without CCS. Results show that, for a 90% CO2 capture efficiency, life cycle GHG emissions are reduced by 75-84% depending on what technology is used. With GHG emissions less than 170 g/kWh, IGCC technology is found to be favorable to NGCC with CCS. Sensitivity analysis reveals that, for coal power plants, varying the CO2 capture efficiency and the coal transport distance has a more pronounced effect on life cycle GHG emissions than changing the length of CO2 transport pipeline. Finally, it is concluded from the current study that while the global warming potential is reduced when MEA-based CO2 capture is employed, the increase in other air pollutants such as NOx and NH3 leads to higher eutrophication and acidification potentials

321

The Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power Plant - from vision to reality.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sufficient supply of energy without fossil fuels is not possible the next fifty years. Thus, we must find a solution to use coal, without endangering the environment. Carbon Capture and Storage, CCS, might be the answer. At a cost of about 20 Euro/ton CO{sub 2}, there exist technologies, which can be ready for commercial application in 2020. After that, even more cost effective technologies will be developed. To reduce emissions by more than half until 2050, cannot be reached without CCS. However, CCS is very powerful, but not the only tool. All ways to reduce emissions, including renewables and nuclear must be used. To put emphasis behind the words, Vattenfall has started an R and D program to develop technology for CCS in a ten year program. As part of that, Vattenfall is building a Pilot Plant including all process steps from coal input to liquid CO{sub 2}. It will be ready in 2008. In parallel, preparations for a demonstration plant are ongoing. It will be a coal fired full size plant with storage on shore. That will be ready for operation in 2015. (auth)

Stroemberg, L.; Sauthoff, M.

2007-07-01

322

Impact of reactive nitrogen emissions from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning on atmospheric chemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increasing desire for energy in our society has caused changes in our environment. One of the byproducts of energy consumption is the emission of nitrogen oxides from combustion processes. Nitrogen oxides play an important role in atmospheric chemistry on local, regional, and global scales. They are considered primary pollutants which can chemically react and contribute to photochemical smog. They are also precursors to the chemical formation of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). Nitric acid is a major contributor to acidic deposition, more commonly referred to as acid rain.'' Reactive nitrogen is also a major limiting nutrient in some soil and ocean ecosystems. NO{sub x} is also important because it interacts with other trace gases in the atmosphere. In this study, using a Lagrangian chemical-transport-deposition model adapted to the nitrogen cycle, we will look at all of the known sources, both natural and man-made. We will attempt to quantify the relative affect that man-made sources including fossil fuel and biomass burning have had on the nitrogen cycle and the chemistry of the atmosphere throughout the globe. 50 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Dignon, J.; Penner, J.E.; Atherton, C.S.; Walton, J.J.

1991-07-01

323

Accumulation of fossil fuels and metallic minerals in active and ancient rift lakes  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of active and ancient rift systems around the world suggests that accumulations of fossil fuels and metallic minerals are related to the interactions of processes that form rift valleys with those that take place in and around rift lakes. The deposition of the precursors of petroleum, gas, oil shale, coal, phosphate, barite, Cu-Pb-Zn sulfides, and uranium begins with erosion of uplifted areas, and the consequent input of abundant nutrients and solute loads into swamps and tectonic lakes. Hot springs and volcanism add other nutrients and solutes. The resulting high biological productivity creates oxidized/reduced interfaces, and anoxic and H 2S-rich bottom waters which preserves metal-bearing organic tissues and horizons. In the depositional phases, the fine-grained lake deposits are in contact with coarse-grained beach, delta, river, talus, and alluvial fan deposits. Earthquake-induced turbidites also are common coarse-grained deposits of rift lakes. Postdepositional processes in rifts include high heat flow and a resulting concentration of the organic and metallic components that were dispersed throughout the lakebeds. Postdepositional faulting brings organic- and metal-rich sourcebeds in contact with coarse-grained host and reservoir rocks. A suite of potentially economic deposits is therefore a characteristic of rift valleys.

Robbins, Eleanora Iberall

1983-05-01

324

On-line elemental analysis of fossil fuel process streams by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

METC is continuing development of a real-time, multi-element plasma based spectrometer system for application to high temperature and high pressure fossil fuel process streams. Two versions are under consideration for development. One is an Inductively Coupled Plasma system that has been described previously, and the other is a high power microwave system. The ICP torch operates on a mixture of argon and helium with a conventional annular swirl flow plasma gas, no auxiliary gas, and a conventional sample stream injection through the base of the plasma plume. A new, demountable torch design comprising three ceramic sections allows bolts passing the length of the torch to compress a double O-ring seal. This improves the reliability of the torch. The microwave system will use the same data acquisition and reduction components as the ICP system; only the plasma source itself is different. It will operate with a 750-Watt, 2.45 gigahertz microwave generator. The plasma discharge will be contained within a narrow quartz tube one quarter wavelength from a shorted waveguide termination. The plasma source will be observed via fiber optics and a battery of computer controlled monochromators. To extract more information from the raw spectral data, a neural net computer program is being developed. This program will calculate analyte concentrations from data that includes analyte and interferant spectral emission intensity. Matrix effects and spectral overlaps can be treated more effectively by this method than by conventional spectral analysis.

Chisholm, W.P.

1995-06-01

325

Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Phase 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vortec has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment-as confirmed by both ANS 16.1 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and did not leach to the environment as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC subsystem design.

1994-01-01

326

Electrical discharge phenomena application for solid fossil fuels in-situ conversion  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of high voltage to oil shale initiates partial discharges (PDs) with the following treeing like in insulating dielectrics. Critical PDs and treeing with a high propagation rate occur under the low electrical intensity ~102 V/cm due to oil shale's high porosity, heterogeneity and anisotropy. The completed discharge occurs as a result of these phenomena. Carbonization is initiated around a plasma channel at the treeing stage and extended during electromagnetic action time. Carbonized rock electrical resistance decreases by 8÷10 degrees to 10 ohm·cm, and shale and coal could be heated by Joule heat in carbonized volume and discharge plasma. A high-current supply is necessary for this heating stage. Also, a high- voltage supply with steep-grade characteristics can be used for PDs and treeing initiating and heating the carbonized rock with low resistance. Thus, these phenomena allow in-situ processing in order to produce a flammable gas and synthetic oil from inferior solid fossil fuels by pyrolytic conversion. Computations show that the ratio between energy derived from gas flaming and energy for shale conversion is more than fifty. Therefore, oil shale conversion with the help of electrical discharge phenomena application can be very efficient, as it needs little energy.

Bukharkin, A. A.; Lopatin, V. V.; Martemyanov, S. M.; Koryashov, I. A.

2014-11-01

327

Efficacy of monitoring in situ bioremediation of fossil fuel using the Mesocosm system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With in situ bioremediation applications being recommended frequently out of practical and economic necessity, cost-efficient and effective implementation strategies need to be developed and/or refined. At the same time, unequivocal approaches for demonstrating in situ bioremediation of target contaminants need to be established. Toward this end, the authors have developed and refined innovative in situ soil and groundwater bioremediation strategies on a pilot and full-scale, including monitoring approaches using stable carbon isotope biogeochemistry to assess progress during in situ bioremediation of fossil fuels (more specifically PAHs and BTEX). To evaluate rigorously and assess these technologies, the authors have initiated mesocosm studies. The Mesocosm system is installed at the Process Engineering Facility, US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. This system integrates two technologies: a modification of the proven UVB technology, which creates a vertical groundwater circulation, and an in situ bioreactor. Incorporated into this system are four soil columns of approximately two meter height with a diameter of 60 cm, allowing them to model and test the efficacy of monitoring and biodegradation in a controlled environment. Parallel field studies currently at two sites will comparatively define the fate and effect of parent compounds and biotransformation products for mass balances (by monitoring natural abundance stable carbon isotope ratios 13C/13C/12C using a GC/IRMS, the fate of organic compounds can be measured)

328

Efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation: Data selection and trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper studies patenting dynamics in efficiency improving electricity generation technologies as an important indicator of innovation activity. We build a novel database of worldwide patent applications in efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation and then analyse patenting trends over time and across countries. We find that patenting has mostly been stable over time, with a recent decreasing trend. OECD countries represent the top innovators and the top markets for technology. Some non-OECD countries, and particularly China, are also very active in terms of patenting activity in this sector. The majority of patents are first filed in OECD countries and only then in BRIC and other non-OECD countries. BRIC and other non-OECD countries apply for patents that are mostly marketed domestically, but BRIC countries represent important markets for patent duplication of OECD inventions. These results are indicative of significant technology transfer in the field of efficiency-improving technologies for electricity production. - Highlights: ? We study innovation in efficiency-improving electricity generation technologies. ? Relevant patents are identified and used as an indicator of innovation. ? We show that there is significant technology transfer in this field. ? Most patents are first filed in OECD countries and then in non-OECD countries. ? Patents in non-OECD countries are mostly marketed domestically.cally.

329

Contamination of seafood by radioactivity produced from burning of coal and other fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The environmental impact of radioactivity produced from fossil fuel combustion is investigated. A brief review is given of previous work. The latest calculation of the Oak Ridge group shows that a power plant using coal, which contains 1 ppm of U and 2 ppm of Th, gives a radioactive dose comparable to, or greater than that of a nuclear reactor, even if the dust is removed by up to 99%. A review of the experimental data is given. It is emphasized that 210Pb and 210Po, because of their volatility, are expected to be released at much higher rates than other radioactivities and that they are strongly concentrated in marine organisms so that their effect on the Japanese living on seafood may be considerable. An estimate is made for the hazard of 210Po through the foodchain of marine organisms. Although the uncertainties are still very large, the effect of 210Po on the Japanese is found to be significant. The collective dose of a 1,000 MW coal-fired power plant in Japan is estimated to be 320 - 16,000 man-rem/year, which should be compared with 20 man-rem/year in the results of the Oak Ridge group, which do not include this foodchain. Comparison with nuclear energy is made. Although the absolute value of the coal-fired power plant is still much smaller than the natural background, its maximum value is three times as large as the total fuel cycle of the full-scale nuclear electricity generation, so its social implications cannot betion, so its social implications cannot be overlooked. (author)

330

Approach for Emissions Compliance in the Fossil-Fuel Based Energy Sector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most of today's air pollution legislation varies from country to country depending on factors such as the economy, fuel supply, fuel dependency and specific local pollution problems. At the same time, in a growing number of countries, the energy sector is going through privatisation, deregulation and globalisation process which is affecting energy demand and fuel selection, driving gradual integration of energy markets and requiring new solutions. Today it is also well recognized that pollution is often not a localized problem and that gaseous air pollutants can cross great distances. This has led to the cooperation between countries to control transboundary pollution, under bilateral or multilateral agreements. Similarly as for the energy sector, countries are not only becoming increasingly linked to each other in political, economic and social terms but also in environmental terms. Power generators and equipment manufacturers have been developing technologies and business agreements in countries with respective legislation constraints over many years and take this trend of interdependence into account. The equipment manufacturers and global solution providers such as Alstom have become the focal point driving the development of new environmental compliance products and solutions within the fossil fuel based energy sector. Technological progress achieved in many fields over recent years in different areas of the world according to the different legislations allows the power generators to meet these increasingly stringent emissions reduction requirements while extending the plant lifetime of existing power plants, and keeping them competitive. This paper gives an overview and outlook of environmental regulations, air pollution control technologies and some experience in pioneering environmental long-term service agreements. Obviously, the most immediately effective way to ensure emissions compliance of existing power plant is to professionally maintain and upgrade the plant in order to guarantee high availability and operating reliability. The second option is to take advantage of monitoring and control systems for continuous process supervision and optimisation. Regular monitoring and fine-tuning of the plant by an expert team using state of the art technology indeed guarantees the lowest possible emissions and energy consumption. Finally a long-term service partnership can secure, for the power generator, plant availability and full environmental compliance. (auth)

Alain, Bill; Bitran, Guillaume; Basler, Benno; Hess, Stephan

2007-07-01

331

Charging tires in the EAF as a fossil fuel substitute to carbon; Utilisation de pneus au four electrique comme energie fossile en substitution du carbone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Complete text of publication follows: Shredded old tires can replace coke in the Electric Arc Furnace, if some simple rules, which make it possible to avoid the immediate combustion of the rubber and the dispersal of the heat into the fumes, are followed to charge and use them. Experimental runs were carried out in two French steel-shops for longer and longer periods of time and the substitution rate of carbon by tires was determined. Environmental measurements were also made in order to check omissions in the smokestack and inside the shop. Waste is thus transformed into a secondary raw material. On the one hand, this should help solve the problem of disposal of old tires and, on the other hand, make a new kind of fossil fuel available to the steel-shop operator, at a lower cost than conventional carbon. (authors)

Birat, J.P.; Grisvard, C.; Huber, J.C. [IRSID, Institut de Recherches Siderurgie, 78 - Saint-Germain-en-Laye (France); Gros, B. [USINOR, 92 - Puteaux (France); Almon, J.J. [Michelin (France)

2001-11-01

332

Creation of industrial-scale MOX fuel fabrication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Rosatom Corporation's innovative development plans the high-density fuel development projects are combined with industrial-scale development and introduction of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The need for the MOX fuel fabrication to be created is further dictated by the treaty between Russia and the United States calling for 34 tonnes of weapon-grade plutonium to be disposed. The vibration compaction technology to create the fuel stacks for rods to be used in fast reactors is described. The industrial-scale MOX fuel fabrication is set at the MCC. The core of the under-construction BN-800 reactor unit at Beloyarsk will include MOX fuel assemblies.

333

Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program: plan for use and disposition of industrial fuel gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The IFG plant will convert 3160 tons per day of high-sulfur coal to produce 175 million cubic feet of medium-Btu gas daily, which is the equivalent of 50 billion Btu's per day of natural gas. The plant will provide an assurance of supply and reliability of IFG to potential customers by using a credit generating unit that methanates and injects a small portion of gas into the natural gas pipeline. The gas is credited to the IFG customers and is supplied to them during periods when the IFG plant is shut down. We have identified 25 prospective customers, which include existing industrial customers and Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA's) Allen Generating Station who provide a large market potential for IFG. Industrial fuel gas has a heating value of approximately 300 Btu's per standard cubic foot, which is one-third that of natural gas; therefore, it is transported to the industrial customers through a separate distribution pipeline. Combustion trials with IFG were conducted in equipment similar to the identified customers' boilers to provide information on its utilization. The study also considered the cost of converting existing equipment to use IFG and concluded that most of the customers' equipment does not require major changes. Several conclusions may be drawn from the market survey and the plan contained in this report. The IFG is viewed as a crucial step toward providing supplemental energy for MLGW's industrial customers. A large immediate market exists for the total output of IFG. Letters of intent to negotiate to purchase about 100% of the plant output have been obtained, thus meeting the contractual requirements. Combustion tests show the feasibility of using IFG in the customers' existing equipment. The IFG distribution system, including the credit system and underground gas storage, will provide a 365-day/yr assured and reliable fuel supply to the customers.

1979-01-01

334

The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 7: Nonreplenishable natural resources: Minerals, fossil fuels and geothermal energy sources  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of remotely-sensed information to the mineral, fossil fuel, and geothermal energy extraction industry is investigated. Public and private cost savings are documented in geologic mapping activities. Benefits and capabilities accruing to the ERS system are assessed. It is shown that remote sensing aids in resource extraction, as well as the monitoring of several dynamic phenomena, including disturbed lands, reclamation, erosion, glaciation, and volcanic and seismic activity.

Lietzke, K. R.

1974-01-01

335

Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimates of US and world conventional fossil fuel and uranium proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources are updated. The survey provides data on current and cumulative production of these nonrenewable energy sources and their life expectancies at selected annual consumption growth rates. Conservation would help to preserve fossil fuel resources, although some complex problems must be solved to avoid a simultaneous reduction in the rate of growth of the economy. The continual increase in world oil prices should encourage commercialization of the vast oil shale and tar sands resources if environmental problems can be solved. Efforts must be made to improve safety, efficiency, and public acceptance of nuclear power and to minimize storage problems of radioactive materials. 115 references, 18 figures, 62 tables

336

Postponed Leap in Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Impacts of Energy Efficiency, Fuel Choices and Industrial Structure on the Finnish Energy Economy, 1800 - 2005  

OpenAIRE

This study examines the growth and composition of energy consumption in Finland in the 19th and 20th centuries, focusing on energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. It argues that among European countries, Finland was an 'odd-man out' because it industrialized by means of renewable, indigenous energy sources. Only in the 1960s in the mature phase of industrialization, the country switched from indigenous energy sources, fuel wood, wood refuse and hydropower, to imported fossil fuels. The reas...

Kunnas, Jan; Myllyntaus, Timo

2009-01-01

337

INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION. FINAL REPORT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology

338

Comparison of AB2588 multipathway risk factors for California fossil-fuel power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Substances released from power plants may travel through various exposure pathways resulting in human health and environmental risks. The stack air emission's primary pathway is inhalation from the ambient air. Multipathway factors (adjustment factors to the inhalation risk) are used to evaluate the importance of non-inhalation pathways (such as ingestion and dermal contact). The multipathway factor for a specific substance is the health risk by all pathways divided by the inhalation health risk for that substance. These factors are compared for fossil fuel power stations that submitted regulatory risk assessments in compliance with California Toxic Hot Spots Act (AB2588). Substances representing the largest contributions to the cancer risk are of primary concern: arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium (+6), formaldehyde, nickel, lead, selenium, and PAHs. Comparisons of the chemical-specific multipathway factors show the impacts of regulatory policy decisions on the estimated health risk for trace substances. As an example, point estimates of the soil mixing depth, varying from 1 cm to 15 cm, relate to the relative importance of the pathway. For the deeper mixing depths, the root-zone uptake by homegrown tomato plants (for assumed consumption rate of 15% for San Diego) may result in high multipathway factors for several trace metals. For shallower mixing depths, soil ingestion may become the dominant non-inhalation pathway. These differences may lead to significantly dse differences may lead to significantly different risk estimates for similar facilities located at different California locations such as to be under local regulatory authorities. The overall multipathway factor for the total cancer risk is about 2, much smaller than some of the chemical-specific factors. Science-based multipathway analysis should reduce much of the concern that may be due to policy-based decisions on pathway selection and high-value point-estimates of the parameters

339

Impact of reactive nitrogen emissions from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning on atmospheric chemistry. Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, using a Lagrangian chemical-transport-deposition model adapted to the nitrogen cycle, we will look at all of the known sources of nitrogen oxides, both natural and man-made. We will attempt to quantify the relative affect that man made sources including fossil fuel and biomass burning have had on the nitrogen cycle and the chemistry of the atmosphere throughout the globe. (JL)

Dignon, J.; Penner, J.E.; Atherton, C.S.; Walton, J.J.

1991-09-01

340

A multiresolution spatial parameterization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The characterization of fossil-fuel CO2 (ffCO2 emissions is paramount to carbon cycle studies, but the use of atmospheric inverse modeling approaches for this purpose has been limited by the highly heterogeneous and non-Gaussian spatiotemporal variability of emissions. Here we explore the feasibility of capturing this variability using a low-dimensional parameterization that can be implemented within the context of atmospheric CO2 inverse problems aimed at constraining regional-scale emissions. We construct a multiresolution (i.e., wavelet-based spatial parameterization for ffCO2 emissions using the Vulcan inventory, and examine whether such a~parameterization can capture a realistic representation of the expected spatial variability of actual emissions. We then explore whether sub-selecting wavelets using two easily available proxies of human activity (images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas yields a low-dimensional alternative. We finally implement this low-dimensional parameterization within an idealized inversion, where a sparse reconstruction algorithm, an extension of stagewise orthogonal matching pursuit (StOMP, is used to identify the wavelet coefficients. We find that (i the spatial variability of fossil-fuel emission can indeed be represented using a low-dimensional wavelet-based parameterization, (ii that images of lights at night can be used as a proxy for sub-selecting wavelets for such analysis, and (iii that implementing this parameterization within the described inversion framework makes it possible to quantify fossil-fuel emissions at regional scales if fossil-fuel-only CO2 observations are available.

J. Ray

2014-09-01

341

Documented international enquiry on solid sedimentary fossil fuels; Coal: definitions, classifications, reserves-resources and energy potential  

OpenAIRE

This paper deals with all solid sedimentary fossil fuels, i.e. coal, the main one for geological reserves and resources, peat, and oil shales. Definitions of coal ( < 50% ash) and coal seam (thickness and depth limits) are examined in view of an international agreement regarding new concepts for a common reserves and resources evaluation using the same nomenclature. The 50% ash limit, already adopted by UN-ECE for coal definition, allows the creation of a new category—the organic ...

Alpern, B.; Lemos Sousa, M. J.

2002-01-01

342

Industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

2007-12-01

343

Hybrid nuclear-fossil systems for low-emission production of synthetic fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Producing synthetic hydrocarbon vehicle fuels requires the input of carbon and hydrogen to make the desired molecule and the input of energy to be stored in the molecule's bonds for recovery during its eventual combustion. For traditional fuels all three of these inputs have come from the same source, petroleum, although there is no requirement that this must be the case. In particular, the energy needed for upgrading a feedstock to a fuel does not have to come from combusting part of the feedstock. Recognizing this allows reductions in both feedstock use and, increasingly importantly, carbon dioxide emissions. The forms in which this added energy is delivered can be quite varied: heat, compressor work, chemical energy in the form of hydrogen, or thermodynamic work in the form of pure oxygen separated from air. While renewable energy can be used for at least part of the energy demand, nuclear energy is particularly useful because of its large scale and ability to operate for long periods at full rates. Using materials such as oil sands, oil shale, coal, or biomass as carbon sources, water as the source of hydrogen, and nuclear energy converted into the necessary forms for chemical process use, hybrid processes can make vehicle fuels while generating very low levels of byproduct emissions. These concepts can be readily extended into the commodity chemical industry. The opportunities for doing this are particularly good in the western regions of Canada and the US where estern regions of Canada and the US where these inputs are, or can be, located near each other. This leads to the long term prospect of developing a major finished fuels production and distribution locus similar to the US Gulf coast or the Middle East. (author)

344

Three accounts for regional carbon emissions from both fossil energy consumption and industrial process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we classify the carbon emission inventories into three perspectives through a case study in Beijing: territory account (TA), production account (PA) and consumption account (CA). A single-regional–input–output (SRIO) method was used to calculate production account and consumption account with a traditional competitive input–output (IO) table. Results show that both TA and PA have the same final values, but disparity exists at the sectoral distribution level. Both PA and CA increased from 2000 to 2007, but CA was bigger than PA and increased faster than PA. This indicates that Beijing was a carbon importer with an increasing trend. Sectoral analysis shows that “melting and pressing of metals (14)”, “Nonmetal mineral products (13)” and “Petroleum processing, coking, and nuclear fuel processing (11)” have higher direct carbon emissions from production perspective (TA), whilst “Construction” and “Service” sectors have higher emissions from consumption perspective (PA and TA). High embodied emission sectors in PA/TA, particularly the “Construction” sector, deserve more attentions for carbon emission mitigation. - Highlights: • We evaluated regional carbon emissions from three accounts perspective. • Three accounts were discussed and compared by taking Beijing as a case study. • Production account was different with territory account in sectoral distribution. • Iron and steel industries were high emission sectors from territory account. • Construction sector deserved more attentions from consumption perspective

345

The physico-chemistry of SO2 in the smoke plumes of fossil-fueled power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental determination was made of the type and speed of chemical-physical transformations occurring in the stack effluents of fossil-fueled power-plants, from their emission into the atmosphere. The homogeneous chemical reactions were taken into consideration, as well as the heterogeneous reactions in the presence of a metal, oxide aerosol or water droplets owed to condensation. The results gave a general indication that the quantitatively important transformations of SO2, in a stack plume produced by fuel combustion, took place at the moment of water-vapor condensation; in these conditions the oxidising role of NO2 became prevailing. (author)

346

Analysis of fuel shares in the industrial sector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These studies describe how fuel shares have changed over time; determine what factors are important in promoting fuel share changes; and project fuel shares to the year 1995 in the industrial sector. A general characterization of changes in fuel shares of four fuel types - coal, natural gas, oil and electricity - for the industrial sector is as follows. Coal as a major fuel source declined rapidly from 1958 to the early 1970s, with oil and natural gas substituting for coal. Coal's share of total fuels stabilized after the oil price shock of 1972-1973, and increased after the 1979 price shock. In the period since 1973, most industries and the industrial sector as a whole appear to freely substitute natural gas for oil, and vice versa. Throughout the period 1958-1981, the share of electricity as a fuel increased. These observations are derived from analyzing the fuel share patterns of more than 20 industries over the 24-year period 1958 to 1981.

Roop, J.M.; Belzer, D.B.

1986-06-01

347

Overall intelligent hybrid control system for a fossil-fuel power unit  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to the multiple and tighter operation requirements already placed on power plants, and anticipating everyday variations on their quantity and relevance due to competition on deregulated energy markets, this dissertation contributes the Intelligent Coordinated Control System (ICCS) paradigm that establishes a reference framework for the design of overall control systems for fossil-fuel power units, and develops a minimum prototype (ICCS-MP) to show its feasibility. The ICCS consists of a multiagent system organization structured as an open set of functionally grouped agent clusters in a two-level hierarchy. The upper level performs the supervisory functions needed to produce self-governing system behavior, while the lower level performs the fast reactive functions necessary for real-time control and protection. The ICCS-MP greatly extends the concept of current coordinated control schemes and embraces a minimum set of ICCS functions for the power unit to participate in load-frequency control in deregulated power systems; provides the means to achieve optimal wide-range load-tracking in multiobjective operating scenarios. The ICCS-MP preserves the ICCS structure. Supervisory functions include optimization and command generation, learning and control tuning, and performance and state monitoring. Direct level control functions realize a nonlinear multivariable feedforward-feedback scheme. These functions are implemented in three modules: reference governor, feedforward control processor (FFCP), and feedback control processor (FBCP). The reference governor provides set-point trajectories for the control loops by solving a multiobjective optimization problem that accommodates the operating scenario at hand. The FFCP facilitates achievement of wide-range operation; it is implemented as a fuzzy system that emulates the inverse static behavior of the power unit, and it is designed using neural networks. The FBCP provides disturbance and uncertainty compensation along the set-point trajectories; it includes fuzzy-PID controllers in a multiloop configuration and a multivariable feedforward interaction compensator, both scheduled in two-dimensions. Controllers are tuned using a genetic algorithm based procedure, and the compensator is designed using the relative gain array method. Simulation results show that the proposed ICCS paradigm provides a suitable conceptual framework to manage the complexity and to integrate either algorithmic or heuristic techniques into a control system that provides high maneuverability and optimized unit operation.

Garduno-Ramirez, Raul

2000-10-01

348

Field Observations of Methane Emissions from Unconventional and Conventional Fossil Fuel Exploration  

Science.gov (United States)

Energy from methane (CH4) has lower carbon dioxide and air pollutant emissions per unit energy produced than coal or oil making it a desirable fossil fuel. Hydraulic fracturing is allowing United States to harvest the nation's abundant domestic shale gas reservoirs to achieve energy independence. However, CH4 is a gas that is hard to contain during mining, processing, transport and end-use. Therefore fugitive CH4 leaks occur that are reported in bottom up inventories by the EPA. Recent targeted field observations at selected plays have provided top down CH4 leak estimates that are larger than the reported EPA inventories. Furthermore, no long-term regional baselines are available to delineate leaks from unconventional mining operations from historical conventional mining. We will report and compare observations of fugitive CH4 leaks from conventional and unconventional mining to understand changes from technology shifts. We will report in situ and regional column measurements of CH4, its isotopologue 13CH4 and ethane (C2H6) at our Four Corners site near Farmington, NM. The region has substantial coal bed methane, conventional oil and gas production, processing and distribution with minimal hydraulic fracturing activity. We observe large enhancements in in situ and regional column CH4 with distinct time dependence. Our in situ 13CH4 observations and remote C2H6/CH4 provide strong evidence of thermogenic sources. Comparisons of WRF-simulations with emissions inventory (Edgar) with our observations show that the fugitive CH4 leaks from conventional mining are 3 times greater than reported. We also compare in situ mobile surveys of fugitive CH4 and 13CH4 leak signals in basins with conventional (San Juan) mining and unconventional (Permian and Powder River) mining. A large number of active and closed wells were sampled in these regions. Furthermore, play scale surveys on public roads allowed us to gain a regional perspective. The composition of atmospheric 13CH4 observed in the Powder River basin was lighter than the Permian and San Juan basins indicating a higher microbial generated fraction. More extensive and larger CH4 enhancements were measured in the Permian basin that could be a result of the large expansion of unconventional oil and gas production in this region. However, there are variations amongst wells and plays suggesting that operator practices and reservoir formation play a role in determining the fugitive leaks.

Dubey, M.; Lindenmaier, R.; Arata, C.; Costigan, K. R.; Frankenberg, C.; Kort, E. A.; Rahn, T. A.; Henderson, B. G.; Love, S. P.; Aubrey, A. D.

2013-12-01

349

Analysis of possible future atmospheric retention of fossil fuel CO/sub 2/  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report investigates the likely rates and the potential range of future CO/sub 2/ emissions, combined with knowledge of the global cycle of carbon, to estimate a possible range of future atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations through the year 2075. Historic fossil fuel usage to the present, growing at a rate of 4.5% per year until 1973 and at a slower rate of 1.9% after 1973, was combined with three scenarios of projected emissions growth ranging from approximately 0.2 to 2.8% per year to provide annual CO/sub 2/ emissions data for two different carbon cycle models. The emissions scenarios were constructed using an energy-economic model and by varying key parameters within the bounds of currently expected future values. The extreme values for CO/sub 2/ emissions in the year 2075 are 6.8 x 10/sup 15/ and 91 x 10/sup 15/ g C year/sup -1/. Carbon cycle model simulations used a range of year - 1800 preindustrial atmospheric concentrations of 245 to 292 ppM CO/sub 2/ and three scenarios of bioshere conversion as additional atmospheric CO/sub 2/ source terms. These simulations yield a range of possible atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations in year 2075 of approximately 500 to 1500 ppM, with a median of about 700 ppM. The time at which atmospheric CO/sub 2/ would potentially double from the preindustrial level ranges from year 2025 to >2075. The practical, programmatic value of this forecast exercise is that it forces quantitative definition of the assumptions, and the uncertainties therein, which form the basis of our understanding of the natural biogeochemical cycle of carbon and both historic and future human influences on the dynamics of the global cycle. Assumptions about the possible range of future atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels provide a basis on which to evaluate the implications of these changes on climate and the biosphere. 44 references, 17 figures, 21 tables.

Edmonds, J.A.; Reilly, J.; Trabalka, J.R.; Reichle, D.E.

1984-09-01

350

Summary of research on hydrogen production from fossil fuels conducted at NETL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this presentation we will summarize the work performed at NETL on the production of hydrogen via partial oxidation/dry reforming of methane and catalytic decomposition of hydrogen sulfide. We have determined that high pressure resulted in greater carbon formation on the reforming catalysts, lower methane and CO2 conversions, as well as a H2/CO ratio. The results also showed that Rh/alumina catalyst is the most resistant toward carbon deposition both at lower and at higher pressures. We studied the catalytic partial oxidation of methane over Ni-MgO solid solutions supported on metal foams and the results showed that the foam-supported catalysts reach near-equilibrium conversions of methane and H2/CO selectivities. The rates of carbon deposition differ greatly among the catalysts, varying from 0.24 mg C/g cat h for the dipped foams to 7.0 mg C/g cat h for the powder-coated foams, suggesting that the exposed Cr on all of the foam samples may interact with the Ni-MgO catalyst to kinetically limit carbon formation. Effects of sulfur poisoning on reforming catalysts were studies and pulse sulfidation of catalyst appeared to be reversible for some of the catalysts but not for all. Under pulse sulfidation conditions, the 0.5%Rh/alumina and NiMg2Ox-1100şC (solid solution) catalysts were fully regenerated after reduction with hydrogen. Rh catalyst showed the best overall activity, less carbon deposition, both fresh and when it was exposed to pulses of H2S. Sulfidation under steady state conditions significantly reduced catalyst activity. Decomposition of hydrogen sulfide into hydrogen and sulfur was studied over several supported metal oxides and metal oxide catalysts at a temperature range of 650-850°C. H2S conversions and effective activation energies were estimated using Arrhenius plots. The results of these studies will further our understanding of catalytic reactions and may help in developing better and robust catalysts for the production of hydrogen from fossil fuels

Shamsi, Abolghasem

2008-03-30

351

Wavelet-based reconstruction of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from sparse measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a method to estimate spatially resolved fossil-fuel CO2 (ffCO2) emissions from sparse measurements of time-varying CO2 concentrations. It is based on the wavelet-modeling of the strongly non-stationary spatial distribution of ffCO2 emissions. The dimensionality of the wavelet model is first reduced using images of nightlights, which identify regions of human habitation. Since wavelets are a multiresolution basis set, most of the reduction is accomplished by removing fine-scale wavelets, in the regions with low nightlight radiances. The (reduced) wavelet model of emissions is propagated through an atmospheric transport model (WRF) to predict CO2 concentrations at a handful of measurement sites. The estimation of the wavelet model of emissions i.e., inferring the wavelet weights, is performed by fitting to observations at the measurement sites. This is done using Staggered Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (StOMP), which first identifies (and sets to zero) the wavelet coefficients that cannot be estimated from the observations, before estimating the remaining coefficients. This model sparsification and fitting is performed simultaneously, allowing us to explore multiple wavelet-models of differing complexity. This technique is borrowed from the field of compressive sensing, and is generally used in image and video processing. We test this approach using synthetic observations generated from emissions from the Vulcan database. 35 sensor sites are chosen over the USA. FfCO2 emissions, averaged over 8-day periods, are estimated, at a 1 degree spatial resolutions. We find that only about 40% of the wavelets in emission model can be estimated from the data; however the mix of coefficients that are estimated changes with time. Total US emission can be reconstructed with about ~5% errors. The inferred emissions, if aggregated monthly, have a correlation of 0.9 with Vulcan fluxes. We find that the estimated emissions in the Northeast US are the most accurate. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

McKenna, S. A.; Ray, J.; Yadav, V.; Van Bloemen Waanders, B.; Michalak, A. M.

2012-12-01

352

Relative and absolute emissions of anthropogenic trace gases around the US based on paired atmospheric observations of fossil fuel CO2 from 14C  

Science.gov (United States)

The small radiocarbon fraction of atmospheric CO2 (~1:10^12 14C:C) has proven to be an ideal tracer for the fossil fuel derived component of observed CO2 (Cff) over large industrialized land areas. A growing number of 14CO2 measurements are now being made in air sampled from a network of tall towers and airborne profiling sites around the US alongside measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, SF6, and a large suite of halo- and hydro-carbons. Cff paired with boundary-layer enhancements of more than 20 other anthropogenic gases measured in the same samples allow us to determine apparent emissions ratios for each gas with respect to Cff (where apparent ratios refer to those at the time of observation rather than at the time of emission). Here we compare seasonal and spatial variability of apparent emissions ratios for regions of significant urban and industrial emissions around the US, including sites in California, Texas, the mid-west, south-east and north-east . Statistically significant and coherent spatial and seasonal patterns in apparent emissions ratios are determined for many gases over multiple years. These can in turn be combined with appropriate spatial footprints over which the emissions of fossil fuel derived CO2 has been independently determined based on inventories and process models in order to estimate absolute emissions of the correlate gases in different regions, following simple scaling methods we have outlined previously [Miller et al. 2012, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2011JD017048]. This approach provides some of the first reliable "top down", observationally-based emissions estimates for these gases, many of which influence climate, air quality and stratospheric ozone. Unlike most "bottom up" inventories, our estimates of absolute trace gas emissions are accompanied by quantifiable estimates of uncertainty.

Miller, J. B.; Lehman, S.; Montzka, S. A.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.; Miller, B. R.; Wolak, C.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Southon, J. R.; Turnbull, J. C.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Guilderson, T. P.; Fischer, M. L.; Tans, P. P.

2012-12-01

353

Carbon storage versus fossil fuel substitution: a climate change mitigation option for two different land use categories based on short and long rotation forestry in India  

OpenAIRE

Short rotation bioenergy crops for energy production are considered an effective means to mitigate the greenhouse effect, mainly due to their ability to substitute fossil fuels. Alternatively, carbon can be sequestered and stored in the living biomass. This paper compares the two land use categories (forest land and non-forest land) for two management practices (short rotation vs. long rotation) to study mitigation potential of afforestation and fossil fuel substitution as compared to carbon ...

Kaul, M.; Mohren, G. M. J.; Dadhwal, V. K.

2010-01-01

354

Future climate trends from a first-difference atmospheric carbon dioxide regression model involving emissions scenarios for business as usual and for peak fossil fuel  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates the implications of the future continuation of the demonstrated past (1960-2012) strong correlation between first-difference atmospheric CO2 and global surface temperature. It does this, for the period from the present to 2050, for a comprehensive range of future global fossil fuel energy use scenarios. The results show that even for a business-as-usual (the mid-level IPCC) fossil fuel use estimate, global surface temperature will rise at a slower rat...

Leggett, L. M. W.; Ball, D. A.

2014-01-01

355

Prices of agricultural commodities, biofuels and fossil fuels in long-run relationships: a comparative study for the USA and Europe  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Time-series data for the USA and Europe representing prices of agricultural commodities, biofuels and fossil fuels are used for a comparative analysis of long-run price relationships. There is some evidence for cointegration between ethanol and gasoline, especially for the USA, and in the case of biodiesel, stronger evidence of cointegration between biodiesel, diesel and soya oil for both the USA and Europe. Finally, biofuel prices do not seem to influence agricultural commodity prices or fossil fuel prices.

Groth, Tanja; Bentzen, Jan

2013-01-01

356

Test equipment for the fuel cell industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Astris has been active in fuel cell research and development for over twenty years. There was a limited selection of available test equipment for fuel cell electrodes, cells and stacks. To meet the specific requirements of this work, Astris created and continues to develop its own test equipment. Beginning with the all-analog model TL1 Test Load in the mid-eighties and its companion, digital Resistance Free Voltmeter, Astris researchers focused on use of the 'resistance free' method of reading the electrochemical potentials as an important diagnostic and research tool. A test cell for fuel cell and battery electrodes, QUICKCELL QC200 was added soon thereafter. Later, model TL3 digital test load became the workhorse of Astris fuel cell laboratories in Canada and in Europe, and was also the first instrument offered for sale to the fuel cell and battery R and D community. Beginning with model TL4, Astris test loads took advantage of microprocessor intelligence, to increase their functionality and versatility, and to make them suitable for computer control and data collection. The paper describes the further evolution of hardware and software for fuel cell and battery testing laboratories, highlighting the features of the current models TL5 Test Load and TESTMASTER Data Acquisition and Control Program. (author)

357

Governmental interventions in the energy market. Study of the Dutch level playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy conservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study has made an inventory of 53 governmental interventions in the Dutch energy market. Moreover, the consequences for the playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy saving have been quantified. It shows that the government still stimulates the use of energy and fossil fuels more than it stimulates use of renewable energy sources. Policy that focuses on decreasing the price differences between sustainable and fossil should therefore focus on the phase-out of this support and subsequently on bridging the remaining financial gap.

358

Alternative fuels mixture in cement industry kilns employing Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Most of the works accomplished in the optimization area in the cement industry are addressed to solve problems just considering only one variable, forgetting that it includes too many variables and they act at the same time. Among the main variables it can be mentioned the quality of the final produ [...] ct, the environmental ones, the costs along the process and the reduction of the fossil fuels (primary) employed through the use of alternative fuels (secondary), among others. The present work intends to build a mathematical model using optimization tools seeking to improve the cement production process foreseeing what can happen with the clinker and the emissions when the industrial residues co-processing technology is used as alternative or secondary fuel. In the optimization process a new approach called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is employed, which is based on the Cauchy and Gauss distribution considering several process restrictions such as the specific fuel consumption, the cement quality and the environmental impact. The results obtained with PSO were precise and promising and they were compared with the classical Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP). It was also possible to evaluate the levels of primary fuels substitution through the alternative or secondary ones.

Ricardo C., Carpio; Francisco de, Sousa Júnior; Leandro dos Santos, Coelho; Rogério José da, Silva.

2008-12-01

359

Carbon isotopes and sulphur content as indicators of atmospheric pollution from burning fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarizes the study carried out in Krakow, Poland in 1975-76 on the estimated local air pollution as measured by carbon isotopes and total sulphur measurement in plants. Good correlation was found between ?14C value and total sulpher (measured by radionuclide excited X-ray fluorescence) in beech leaves collected in late summer, indicating the common source of both pollutants. Sampling and measurement of delta13C in atmospheric CO2 has shown that delta13C can be used as a pollution indicator only in the winter period when no fluctuations exist due to plant respiration. A method of CO2 sampling using molecular sieve proved to be feasible for instantaneous sampling with no isotope fractionation. The highest pollution by fossil CO2 was measured in winter (12.8% excess). During spring and summer the average contribution of fossil CO2 was 4.5 to 5.6%. (author)

360

A multiresolution spatial parameterization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The characterization of fossil-fuel CO2 (ffCO2 emissions is paramount to carbon cycle studies, but the use of atmospheric inverse modeling approaches for this purpose has been limited by the highly heterogeneous and non-Gaussian spatiotemporal variability of emissions. Here we explore the feasibility of capturing this variability using a low-dimensional parameterization that can be implemented within the context of atmospheric CO2 inverse problems aimed at constraining regional-scale emissions. We construct a multiresolution (i.e., wavelet-based spatial parameterization for ffCO2 emissions using the Vulcan inventory, and examine whether such a parameterization can capture a realistic representation of the expected spatial variability of actual emissions. We then explore whether sub-selecting wavelets using two easily available proxies of human activity (images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas yields a low-dimensional alternative. We finally implement this low-dimensional parameterization within an inversion, where a sparse reconstruction algorithm, an extension of Stagewise Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (StOMP, is used to identify the wavelet coefficients. We find that (i the spatial variability of fossil fuel emission can indeed be represented using a low-dimensional wavelet-based parameterization, (ii that images of lights at night can be used as a proxy for sub-selecting wavelets for such analysis, and (iii that implementing this parameterization within the described inversion framework makes it possible to quantify fossil fuel emissions at regional scales under some simplifying conditions.

J. Ray

2014-02-01

361

Toward Verifying Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions with the CMAQ Model: Motivation, Model Description and Initial Simulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Motivated by the urgent need for emission verification of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, we have developed regional CO2 simulation with CMAQ over the contiguous U.S. Model sensitivity experiments have been performed using three different sets of inputs for net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and two fossil fuel emission inventories, to understand the roles of fossil fuel emissions, atmosphere-biosphere exchange and transport in regulating the spatial and diurnal variability of CO2 near the surface, and to characterize the well-known ‘signal-to-noise’ problem, i.e. the interference from the biosphere on the interpretation of atmospheric CO2 observations. It is found that differences in the meteorological conditions for different urban areas strongly contribute to the contrast in concentrations. The uncertainty of NEE, as measured by the difference among the three different NEE inputs, has notable impact on regional distribution of CO2 simulated by CMAQ. Larger NEE uncertainty and impact are found over eastern U.S. urban areas than along the western coast. A comparison with tower CO2 measurements at Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) shows that the CMAQ model using hourly varied and high-resolution CO2 emission from the Vulcan inventory and CarbonTracker optimized NEE reasonably reproduce the observed diurnal profile, whereas switching to different NEE inputs significantly degrades the model performance. Spatial distribution of CO2 is found to correlate with NOx, SO2 and CO, due to their similarity in emission sources and transport processes. These initial results from CMAQ demonstrate the power of a state-of-the art CTM in helping interpret CO2 observations and verify fossil fuel emissions. The ability to simulate CO2 in CMAQ will also facilitate investigations of the utility of traditionally regulated pollutants and other species as tracers to CO2 source attribution.

Liu, Zhen; Bambha, Ray P.; Pinto, Joseph P.; Zeng, Tao; Boylan, Jim; Huang, Maoyi; Lei, Huimin; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Shishi; Mao, Jiafu; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Shi, Xiaoying; Wei, Yaxing; Michelsen, Hope A.

2014-03-14

362

Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Funding from DoE grant # FG0204-ER63721, Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2, supposed several postdoctoral fellows and research activities at MBARI related to ocean CO2 disposal and the biological consequences of high ocean CO2 levels on marine organisms. Postdocs supported on the project included Brad Seibel, now an associate professor at the University of Rhode Island, Jeff Drazen, now an associate professor at the University of Hawaii, and Eric Pane, who continues as a research associate at MBARI. Thus, the project contributed significantly to the professional development of young scientists. In addition, we made significant progress in several research areas. We continued several deep-sea CO2 release experiments using support from DoE and MBARI, along with several collaborators. These CO2 release studies had the goal of broadening our understanding of the effects of high ocean CO2 levels on deep sea animals in the vicinity of potential release sites for direct deep-ocean carbon dioxide sequestration. Using MBARI ships and ROVs, we performed these experiments at depths of 3000 to 3600 m, where liquid CO2 is heavier than seawater. CO2 was released into small pools (sections of PVC pipe) on the seabed, where it dissolved and drifted downstream, bathing any caged animals and sediments in a CO2-rich, low-pH plume. We assessed the survival of organisms nearby. Several publications arose from these studies (Barry et al. 2004, 2005; Carman et al. 2004; Thistle et al. 2005, 2006, 2007; Fleeger et al. 2006, 2010; Barry and Drazen 2007; Bernhard et al. 2009; Sedlacek et al. 2009; Ricketts et al. in press; Barry et al, in revision) concerning the sensitivity of animals to low pH waters. Using funds from DoE and MBARI, we designed and fabricated a hyperbaric trap-respirometer to study metabolic rates of deep-sea fishes under high CO2 conditions (Drazen et al, 2005), as well as a gas-control aquarium system to support laboratory studies of the effects of high CO2 waters on marine animals (Barry et al. 2008). This system is capable of controlling oxygen, pH, and temperature of seawater for use in studies of the physiological responses of animals under acidified conditions. We have investigated the tolerance of deep- and shallow-living crabs to high CO2 levels (Pane and Barry 2007; Pane et al. 2008), and are now working on brachiopods (Barry et al. in prep.) and a comparison of deep and shallow living sea urchins. This research program, supported in part by DoE has contributed to a number of other publications authored or co-authored by Barry (Caldeira et al. 2005; Brewer and Barry 2008; Barry et al. 2006, 2010a,b,c; National Research Council, in press; Hoffman et al. in press) as well as over 40 invited talks since 2004, including Congressional briefings and testimony at U.S. Senate Hearings on Ocean Acidification. Through the grant period, the research emphasis shifted from studies of the effects of direct deep-sea carbon dioxide sequestration on deep-sea animals, to a broader conceptual framework of the effects of ocean acidification (whether purposeful or passive) on the physiology and survival of deep and shallow living marine animals. We feel that this has been a very productive program and are grateful to DoE for its support.

Barry, James, P.

2010-05-26

363

Method development for mass spectrometry based molecular characterization of fossil fuels and biological samples  

Science.gov (United States)

In an analytical (chemical) method development process, the sample preparation step usually determines the throughput and overall success of the analysis. Both targeted and non-targeted methods were developed for the mass spectrometry (MS) based analyses of fossil fuels (coal) and lipidomic analyses of a unique micro-organism, Gemmata obscuriglobus. In the non-targeted coal analysis using GC-MS, a microwave-assisted pressurized sample extraction method was compared with the traditional extraction method, such as Soxhlet. On the other hand, methods were developed to establish a comprehensive lipidomic profile and to confirm the presence of endotoxins (a.k.a. lipopolysaccharides, LPS) in Gemmata.. The performance of pressurized heating techniques employing hot-air oven and microwave irradiation were compared with that of Soxhlet method in terms of percentage extraction efficiency and extracted analyte profiles (via GC-MS). Sub-bituminous (Powder River Range, Wyoming, USA) and bituminous (Fruitland formation, Colorado, USA) coal samples were tested. Overall 30-40% higher extraction efficiencies (by weight) were obtained with a 4 hour hot-air oven and a 20 min microwave-heating extraction in a pressurized container when compared to a 72 hour Soxhlet extraction. The pressurized methods are 25 times more economic in terms of solvent/sample amount used and are 216 times faster in term of time invested for the extraction process. Additionally, same sets of compounds were identified by GC-MS for all the extraction methods used: n-alkanes and diterpanes in the sub-bituminous sample, and n-alkanes and alkyl aromatic compounds in the bituminous coal sample. G. obscuriglobus, a nucleated bacterium, is a micro-organism of high significances from evolutionary, cell and environmental biology standpoints. Although lipidomics is an essential tool in microbiological systematics and chemotaxonomy, complete lipid profile of this bacterium is still lacking. In addition, the presence of LPS and thus outer membrane (OM) in Gemmata is unknown. Global lipidomic analysis of G. obscuriglobus showed fatty acids (FAs) in the range C14 - C22, with octadecanoic and cis-9 hexadecenoic acids (C18:0 and ?c9 C16:1) being the two most abundant FAs. Thirteen different Gram-negative specific 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-HOFAs) and eukaryote specific sterols (C30; four in number) were identified. Additionally, like a eukaryotic cell, a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA; tent. ?3 C27:3) has also been discovered. The targeted lipidomic study found a series of novel biomarkers in G. obscuriglobus. Compositional analysis of LPS confirmed eight different 3-HOFAs and a sugar-acid, 2-keto 3-deoxy-D-manno -octulosonic acid (Kdo). These two groups of compounds, being unique to a Gram-negative LPS, confirmed the presence of OM in G. obscuriglobus. Moreover, compositional analyses by GC-MS also confirmed glucosamine and hexose and heptose sugars in the LPS. These compositional information obtained from GC-MS analyses were combined with molecular/structural information collected from Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS. The MALDI-TOF MS showed a cluster of ions separated by 14 u, from m/z 2017.16 to 2143.28. For the most intense ion at m/z 2087.22, a tentative hexa-acylated lipid A structure has been proposed. Identifications of multiple 3-HOFAs by GC-MS and a cluster of ions in MALDI suggest presence of multiple lipid A species, i.e., heterogeneous lipid A molecule, in G. obscuriglobus..

Mahat, Rajendra K.

364

Sectoral CO 2, CH 4, N 2O and SO 2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption in Nagpur City of Central India  

Science.gov (United States)

Emission inventory of CO 2, CH 4, N 2O and SO 2 has been prepared for Nagpur city in Central India for the year 2004. Data on fossil fuel (coal, light diesel oil, high speed diesel, petrol/gasoline, low sulphur heavy stock, furnace oil and kerosene) consumption in thermal power, industrial, transport and domestic sectors were collected. Thermal power sector had the maximum coal consumption followed by the industrial and domestic sectors, whereas kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), diesel and gasoline were used only in any single sector. Total annual CO 2, CH 4, N 2O and SO 2 emissions from these fuels in Nagpur city for the year 2004 was found to be 14792418 MT (14.8 Tg), 4649 (4.6 Tg), 1529 (1.5 Tg) and 69093 (6.9 Tg), respectively, in which thermal power and domestic sector had the maximum share. Coal was found to be the major contributor to Green House Gas (GHG) and SO 2 emissions in all the sectors barring transport and domestic sectors. Carbon dioxide was the predominant GHG emitted by the selected sectors in terms of absolute emissions and also global warming contribution (GWC), though the share in the latter was lesser in magnitude due to higher global warming potential (GWP) of CH 4 and N 2O than CO 2. Thermal power sector had a share of 51% in total CO 2 emissions from all the sectors, followed by domestic, industrial and transport sectors having 27, 12 and 10% contributions, respectively. Share of thermal power sector in total SO 2 emissions was 61%, followed by 24% from industrial, 10% from domestic and 5% from transport sector.

Majumdar, Deepanjan; Gajghate, D. G.

2011-08-01

365

Fossil fuel based CO2 emissions, economic growth, and world crude oil price nexus in the United States  

OpenAIRE

With the prime objective of learning from the fossil fuel based CO2 emissions-economic growth-world crude price nexus of a leading economy, the underpinning nature of the relationship among them is investigated for the United States (US). Autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach to cointegration provides empirical evidence for the existence of a long-run equilibrium relationship with 1% growth in GDP being tied up with 3.2% growth in CO2 emissions in the US. Increase in crude pr...

Shanthini, Rajaratnam

2007-01-01

366

Bioaccumulation of fossil fuel components during single-compound and complex-mixture exposures of Daphnia magna  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors conducted tests with the water flea (Daphnia magna) to compare the bioaccumulation of compounds presented alone with the bioaccumulation of these same compounds when they were presented within a complex coal liquid, water-soluble fraction. Phenol and aniline were used as representative compounds because they are highly soluble, moderately toxic, and common to many fossil fuel liquid products and corresponding wastes. The tests were primarily designed to aid in development of predictive models relating to the transport and fate of components from complex mixtures in aquatic biota

367

Use of Chia Plant to Monitor Urban Fossil Fuel CO2 Emission: An Example From Irvine, CA in 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

?14CO2 is a unique tracer for quantifying anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, monitoring 14CO2 change and distribution in an urban environment is challenging because of its large spatial and temporal variations. We have tested the potential use of a chia plant (Salvia hispanica) as an alternative way to collect a time-integrated CO2 sample for radiocarbon analysis. The results show that ?14C of the new growth of chia sprouts and chia leaves are consistent with the ?14C of air samples collected during the growing period, indicating the new growth has no inherited C from seeds and thus records atmospheric 14CO2. Time-integrated air samples and chia leaf samples significantly reduced the noises of ?14CO2 in an urban environment. We report here an example of monitoring 14CO2 change in Irvine, CA from Mar 2010 to Mar 2011 utilizing such a method. The results showed a clear seasonal cycle with high (close to remote air background level) ?14C in summer and low ?14C in winter months in this urban area. Excess (above remote air background) fossil fuel CO2 was calculated to be closed to 0 ppm in June to about 16 ppm from November 2010 to February 2011. Monthly mean ?14CO2 was anti-correlated with monthly mean CO mixing ratio, indicating ?14CO2 is mainly controlled by fossil fuel CO2 mixing with clean on-shore marine air. In summary, this study has shown encouraging result that chia plant can be potentially used as a convenient and inexpensive sampling method for time-integrated atmospheric 14CO2. Combined with other annual plants this provides the opportunity to map out time-integrated fossil fuel-derived CO2 in major cities at low cost. This in turn can be used to: 1) establish a baseline for fossil fuel emissions reductions in cities in the future; 2) provide invaluable information for validating emission models.

Xu, X.; Stills, A.; Trumbore, S.; Randerson, J. T.; Yi, J.

2011-12-01

368

General informations: The predominance of fossil fuels until 2020 strengthens the primordial list of Middle-East  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Giving a summary of results of study headed: Energy for tomorrow world, realized by experts of International Council of Energy, Mr P. Gadonneix ( President of the french commission of this council and General Manager of ' Gaz de France') noticed that predominance of fossil fuels in international balance of energy until the year 2020 would strengthen the part of Middle East in world-wide provisioning and do unrealistic the objects of stabilization of carbon dioxides emissions as defined at the United Nations conference at Rio de Janeiro in 1992

369

Proceedings of the US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 1. Plenary session and fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volume one of the proceedings (Plenary Session and Fossil Fuels) contains papers on environmental pollution control which resulted mainly from US DOE's research programs in coal (preparation, desulfurization, gasification, liquefaction, combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, and pollution control methods with respect to SO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/, and CO/sub 2/ (global effects and feasibility studies); a few papers deal with oil shale operations and the enhanced recovery of petroleum. Papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA, with 3 also into EAPA; six papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

None

1979-09-01

370

CAP--a combined codes, alarms and paging system--effective in nuclear and fossil-fueled power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CAP system now employed in two TVA power generating facilities has proven to be effective in both operational and emergency alerting and voice communications. Alternatives to emergency signalling point to advantages of a distributed amplifier/speaker system providing multi-signal and voice capabilities. Inclusion of a CAP-type system in all nuclear and fossil-fueled power plants is recommended, particularly in view of new NCR emergency alerting guidelines recently published. Outdoor-area warning is also included. Paper No. 80 JPGC 803-7

371

Industrial integration of the fuel cycle in Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The power-reactor construction program in Argentina for the period 1976-1985 is described on the basis of which the nuclear-fuel requirements have been determined. Activities connected with the fuel cycle commenced in 1950 in Argentina with the prospection and working of uranium deposits. On the basis of the nuclear power program described, plans have been drawn up for the establishment of the industrial plants that will be needed to ensure the domestic supply of fuel. The demand for fuel is correlated with the availability of uranium resoures and it is shown to be desirable from the technical, economic and industrial point of view to integrate the front end of the fuel cycle, keeping the irradiation aspects and the tail end at the development level. Progress made in this field and current programs covering exploration, concentrate production, nuclear purification, conversion to uranium dioxide, production of special alloys and fuel element fabrication are described

372

The chemical industry, a novel market NICHE for fuel cells?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chemical industry may be seen as a market for fuel cells. Fuel cells can be applied to upgrade by-product hydrogen. Fuel cell stacks may be fully integrated in the process system design to enhance the chemical process performance. In this case the arrangement of stacks is one of the unit operations which the chemical process is composed of. Finally trigeneration systems may be designed to produce chemicals, power and heat simultaneously, as equally important commercial products. Identification of novel market opportunities in the chemical industry can be done by a three-step method. The economic feasibility largely depends on stack lifetime and stack capital cost.

Dijkema, G.P.J. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Grievink, J.; Luteijn, C.P.; Weijnen, M.P.C. [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Delft (Netherlands)

1996-12-31

373

Risk and investment in the fuel cell industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy industry is one of the building blocks of the new economy. Currently, the global energy industry is going through a transformation from high carbon content fuels like crude oil to less carbon content fuels like natural gas and hydrogen. Fuel cells are the backbone of the hydrogen economy. Advances in fuel cell technology have the potential to improve the living standards of people in all countries. New sources of financial capital, however, remain a problem. In the fuel cell industry, the future of a firm often depends upon the success or failure of a few key products. This tends to make these firms very risky to invest in and, as a result, makes it difficult for these firms to secure financial investment capital. Oil price movements remain one very important source of risk to fuel cell companies. Conventional wisdom suggests that higher oil prices stimulate interest in alternative energy sources like fuel cells and the stock prices of publicly traded fuel cell companies tend to perform well when oil prices are high. Lower oil prices, however, have the opposite effect. Consequently, oil price movements may affect the rates of return of the companies currently in the fuel cell industry. In this paper, we empirically analyze the stock price sensitivity of a sample of fuel cell companies to oil price risk. In particular, we look at both the impact and magnitude of oil price changes on fuel cell stock prices. Both symmetric and asymmetric oil price changes are tric and asymmetric oil price changes are considered. Our results indicate that oil price risk is not an important source of risk that impacts the equity returns of fuel cell companies. We find that market risk factors are much more important. We then offer suggestions on how to manage this risk. These results are useful for managers, investors, policy makers, and others who are interested in the strategic management, financing and risk management of firms building the hydrogen economy. (author)

374

The energy demand and the impact by fossil fuels use in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, from 1988 to 2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Temporary variation for the demand of refining products which are used in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is presented. Its consequent energy contribution is evaluated from 1988 to 2000. The annual estimation was integrated from a detailed inventory of fuels volume, so as the calculus of its respective energy equivalence. The fuel quality specifications, which have been required by regional Air Quality authority for controlling emissions to the atmosphere, are also presented for the same period. The evolution demand of fuels, in term of volume, quality and its energy contribution for this area, is compared with the national demand. On this regard, fuel pool differs in each bound and the demand along the same period has been increasing on both regions but at different rates, with 21% at MCMA and 31% countrywide. In 2000, the MCMA demanded 14% of the internal refining products volume sales, which represented 17% of the energy contribution to the country for those fuels. Likewise, the energy use coefficient (GJ per capita) was applied to compare this region with country trends. During 1996 and up to 2000, the MCMA presented slightly minor energy use per capita, than the rest of the country, and this period was distinguished also for using cleaner fuels and for obtaining improvements in air quality. On the other hand, MCMA and country greenhouse gases emissions will increase because of their fossil fuel dependence, so several mitigation measures must be implementeral mitigation measures must be implemented in the next decades

375

Fuel Cells in the Coal Energy Industry  

OpenAIRE

In march 1998 at the conference ?Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems? in Clearwater, USA representatives of U.S. Department of Energy presented the vision 21 focused on the electricity generation from coal for 21st century. The goal is a powerplant with the ability to produce the electricity from coal with the efficiency approaching 60% (higher heating value) and emission levels of one-tenth of today´s technologies, The CO2 capture and permanent sequestration at the cost of $15/ton of CO2, and...

Kolat Peter; Hermann Peter; Noskievič Pavel

1998-01-01

376

Intense atmospheric pollution modifies weather: a case of mixed biomass burning with fossil fuel combustion pollution in eastern China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of air pollutants, especially aerosols, on regional and global climate has been widely investigated, but only a very limited number of studies report their impacts on everyday weather. In this work, we present for the first time direct (observational evidence of a clear effect of how a mixed atmospheric pollution changes the weather with a substantial modification in the air temperature and rainfall. By using comprehensive measurements in Nanjing, China, we found that mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease in the solar radiation intensity by more than 70%, a decrease in the sensible heat by more than 85%, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change in rainfall during both daytime and nighttime. Our results show clear air pollution–weather interactions, and quantify how air pollution affects weather via air pollution–boundary layer dynamics and aerosol–radiation–cloud feedbacks. This study highlights cross-disciplinary needs to investigate the environmental, weather and climate impacts of the mixed biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion sources in East China.

A. J. Ding

2013-10-01

377

Intense atmospheric pollution modifies weather: a case of mixed biomass burning with fossil fuel combustion pollution in eastern China  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of air pollutants, especially aerosols, on regional and global climate has been widely investigated, but only a very limited number of studies report their impacts on everyday weather. In this work, we present for the first time direct (observational) evidence of a clear effect of how a mixed atmospheric pollution changes the weather with a substantial modification in the air temperature and rainfall. By using comprehensive measurements in Nanjing, China, we found that mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease in the solar radiation intensity by more than 70%, a decrease in the sensible heat by more than 85%, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change in rainfall during both daytime and nighttime. Our results show clear air pollution-weather interactions, and quantify how air pollution affects weather via air pollution-boundary layer dynamics and aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks. This study highlights cross-disciplinary needs to investigate the environmental, weather and climate impacts of the mixed biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion sources in East China.

Ding, A. J.; Fu, C. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, J. N.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Herrmann, E.; Zheng, L. F.; Nie, W.; Liu, Q.; Wei, X. L.; Kulmala, M.

2013-10-01

378

Towards a Future of District Heating Systems with Low-Temperature Operation together with Non-Fossil Fuel Heat Sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study focused on investigation of non-fossil fuel heat sources to be supplied to low-energy district heating systems operating in low temperature such as 55 C and 25 C in terms of, respectively, supply and return. Vast variety of heat sources classed in categories such as fossil fuel, renewable energy, and nuclear energy was evaluated in a Canadian case study with consideration given to the regional climatic condition. Hence low-energy district heating systems were considered to be supplied from an integrated energy production together with the basis of using multi-generation in several heat sources. The aim of the study was formulated to compare different forms of heat sources in the point of the performance in energy production and of environmental damage impact within a Canadian case study. Hereby, different scenarios consisting of distinctive heat production configurations each of which was arranged with differing heat sources were investigated in different perspectives such as the performance of low-energy district heating system, exergy analysis of heat production facilities, and parametric studies in management of heat distribution.

Tol, Hakan; Dinçer, Ibrahim

379

Use of petroleum code as fuel in the cement industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Cement industry is a very energy intensive industry. Each ton of cement produced requires 60 to 130 kilograms of fuel oil or an equivalent fuelling amount also requires an average 110 kWh of electricity as well over 40% of total production cost is the energy requirements in the cement industry (i.2). Normally oil, gas or coal is fired in cement kilns as traditional fuels. However use of waste, both as alternative fuels and raw materials is now common practice in many cement companies. Many different types of wastes are burnt today in cement kilns like used tyres, rubber, paper waste, waste oils, waste wood, paper sludge, sewage, animal meal and animal remains (i,4). The choice of fuel for the purpose is normally based on price and availability considering different properties of the fuel as energy contents, ash contents, moisture and volatiles contents. Petcoke is not yet produced in any petroleum refinery in Pakistan but it is abundantly available in the market worldwide as it is obtained as a waste product during the refining processes. The purpose of the current research is to figure out the suitability of petroleum coke as a fuel for cement industry both on technical and economic basis. (author)

380

The substitutive effect of biofuels on fossil fuels in the lower and higher crude oil price periods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various biofuels, including bioethanol and biodiesel are technologically being considered replacements for fossil fuels, such as the conventional gasoline and diesel. This paper aims to measure whether economic substitutability can be generated during periods of higher and/or lower prices of crude oil. The empirical results of the bivariate EGARCH model prove that this substitutive effect was occurred during the higher crude oil price period due to the significant price spillover effects from crude oil futures to corn and soybean futures, indicating that the increase in food prices can be attributed to more consumption of biofuels. We suggest more extensive research in the search for fuel alternatives from inedible feedstock such as pongamia, jojoba, jatropha, especially the 2nd generation biofuel technologies such as algae-based biofuels. (author)

381

The substitutive effect of biofuels on fossil fuels in the lower and higher crude oil price periods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various biofuels, including bioethanol and biodiesel are technologically being considered replacements for fossil fuels, such as the conventional gasoline and diesel. This paper aims to measure whether economic substitutability can be generated during periods of higher and/or lower prices of crude oil. The empirical results of the bivariate EGARCH model prove that this substitutive effect was occurred during the higher crude oil price period due to the significant price spillover effects from crude oil futures to corn and soybean futures, indicating that the increase in food prices can be attributed to more consumption of biofuels. We suggest more extensive research in the search for fuel alternatives from inedible feedstock such as pongamia, jojoba, jatropha, especially the 2nd generation biofuel technologies such as algae-based biofuels. (author)

Chang, Ting-Huan [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu County 310 (China); Department of Banking and Finance, Tamkang University, No.151, Ying-Chuan Road, Taipei County 251 (China); Su, Hsin-Mei [Department of Banking and Finance, Tamkang University, No.151, Ying-Chuan Road, Taipei County 251 (China)

2010-07-15

382

The expected role of natural gas from the viewpoint of fossil fuels reserves and CO2 global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atomspheric CO2 concentration from the fossil fuels carbon will gradually increase and stop at the level of about 800 ppmv after several centuries. It will not increase so rapidly to that level in the next century. The policy of advanced consumption of natural gas, which accelerates natural gas large scale power generation and restrains coal power generation, is not effective in slowing down the increase of CO2 concentration. Because natural gas ultimate remaining recoverable reserves will be used up in the next century and total carbon emission from natural gas and coal will be equal at the end of next century in any case of natural gas consumption. Therefore, the effectiveness of the policy disappears at the end of next century. Preferable use of natural gas are town gas, small scale co-generation and noble use for chemicals and liquid fuels. (author)

383

Electric power generated by fossil fuels: Impact and environmental administration at global and local level  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis is presented on the derived environmental implications of the current and future structure in the electric power market at international level. The reduced prices of the hydrocarbons determine that the fossil electricity is imposed on other generation forms, that which generates serious challenges to the companies and the governments as regards control and handling of gases emissions. By means of a comparative sample of eight electric companies of developed countries and in development, the tendencies are evaluated in the local and regional markets, as well as the environmental effects of different generating systems of electricity. The mechanism of well-known market is analyzed as activities implemented jointly (AIJ) referred to activities to be implemented jointly to combat the greenhouse gases effect. It concludes that in the short and medium term the conditions of the market will continue favoring the generation of fossil energy, reason why they should strengthen mechanisms of the climatic change control and to impel toward the long term the development of renewable and alternative energy

384

Reconciling the expectations of community participants with the requirements of non-fossil fuel obligation: the experience of Harlock Hill windfarm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Is it possible to reconcile the aspirations of community participants in a wind energy project with the requirements imposed by the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation legislation and procedure? This paper considers the practical experience of the framework that was adopted at Harlock Hill wind farm for community participation and the legal structure that were required to ensure that the project retained the full benefit of the premium price arrangements with the Non-Fossil Purchasing Agency Limited. (Author)

385

The future for fuel cells in the automotive industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Full text:' This paper presents the view that the automotive industry, seen as a vital potential market for hydrogen fuel cell applications, is one that will be characterised in the future by an unprecedented combination of technological and economic diversity. This highly volatile and uncertain future has profound implications for those involved in government policy related to energy use and transportation, as well as those involved in the fuel cell industry. Most significantly, it is argued that the industry that applies hydrogen fuel cells twenty to thirty years from now will have a quite different structure and economic logic to that which currently prevails. Suppliers of hydrogen fuel cell solutions and systems need to have considerable flexibility in their business models. The themes of diversity and co-existence are developed from extensive research into the contemporary automotive industry, as well as an active involvement in the government policy arena at national, EU and international levels. The continued search for sustainability will not just entail the insertion of technology into otherwise familiar products by otherwise familiar manufacturing processes. It will enable and require the transformation of