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76 FR 3517 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional...221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating...22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam...

2011-01-20

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76 FR 3587 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional...Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating...Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam...

2011-01-20

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Sustainability of Fossil Fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

For a sustainable world economy, energy is a bottleneck. Energy is at the basis of a modern, technological society, but unlike materials it cannot be recycled. Energy or more precisely "negentropy" (the opposite of entropy) is always consumed. Thus, one either accepts the use of large but finite resources or must stay within the limits imposed by dilute but self-renewing resources like sunlight. The challenge of sustainable energy is exacerbated by likely growth in world energy demand due to increased population and increased wealth. Most of the world still has to undergo the transition to a wealthy, stable society with the near zero population growth that characterizes a modern industrial society. This represents a huge unmet demand. If ten billion people were to consume energy like North Americans do today, world energy demand would be ten times higher. In addition, technological advances while often improving energy efficiency tend to raise energy demand by offering more opportunity for consumption. Energy consumption still increases at close to the 2.3% per year that would lead to a tenfold increase over the course of the next century. Meeting future energy demands while phasing out fossil fuels appears extremely difficult. Instead, the world needs sustainable or nearly sustainable fossil fuels. I propose the following definition of sustainable under which fossil fuels would well qualify: The use of a technology or resource is sustainable if the intended and unintended consequences will not force its abandonment within a reasonable planning horizon. Of course sustainable technologies must not be limited by resource depletion but this is only one of many concerns. Environmental impacts, excessive land use, and other constraints can equally limit the use of a technology and thus render it unsustainable. In the foreseeable future, fossil fuels are not limited by resource depletion. However, environmental concerns based on climate change and other environmental effects of injecting excess carbon into the environment need to be eliminated before fossil fuels can be considered sustainable. Sustainable fossil fuel use would likely rely on abundant, low-grade hydrocarbons like coal, tar, and shale. It would require a closed cycle approach in which carbon is extracted from the ground, processed for its energy content, and returned into safe and stable sinks for permanent disposal. Such sequestration technologies already exist and more advanced approaches that could maintain access to fossil energy for centuries are on the drawing boards. I will review these options and outline a pathway towards a zero emission fossil fuel based economy that could provide energy at prices comparable to those of today for several centuries. A successful implementation will depend not only on technological advances but also on the development of economic institutions that allow one to pay for the required carbon management. If done correctly the markets will decide whether renewable energy, or sustainable fossil energy provides a better choice.

Lackner, K. S.

2002-05-01

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Nuclear Energy R&D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, entitled “Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors”, addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R&D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: • Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, • Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and • Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation’s energy security through more effective utilization of our country’s resources while simultaneously providing economic stability and growth (through predictable energy prices and high value jobs), in an environmentally sustainable and secure manner (through lower land and water use, and decreased byproduct emissions). The reduction in imported oil will also increase the retention of wealth within the U.S. economy while still supporting economic growth. Nuclear energy is the only non-fossil fuel that has been demonstrated to reliably supply energy for a growing industrial economy.

David Petti; J. Stephen Herring

2010-03-01

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Nuclear Energy R and D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Nuclear Energy R and D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R and D Roadmap, entitled 'Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors', addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R and D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: (1) Gerial and transportation sectors to: (1) Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, (2) Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and (3) Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation's energy security through more effective utilization of our country's resources while simultaneously providing economic stability and growth (through predictable energy prices and high value jobs), in an environmentally sustainable and secure manner (through lower land and water use, and decreased byproduct emissions). The reduction in imported oil will also increase the retention of wealth within the U.S. economy while still supporting economic growth. Nuclear energy is the only non-fossil fuel that has been demonstrated to reliably supply energy for a growing industrial economy.

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Fossil Fuels: Capstone  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson summarizes our dependency upon fossil fuels, pointing out that there are very few aspects of our daily life that are not impacted by their use. The discussion centers around whether these fuels could be replaced and makes the point that there is a significant percentage of them which is used to manufacture products and is not simply burned for energy. The lesson includes an activity in which students use an online calculator to estimate how much of each fossil fuel they are responsible for consuming each year.

Pratte, John

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Supply of fossil heating and motor fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This comprehensive study made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) within the framework of the Energy Economics Fundamentals research programme examines if it can be guaranteed that Swiss industry can be supplied with fossil fuels for heating and transport purposes over the next few decades. The results of a comprehensive survey of literature on the subject are presented, with a major focus being placed on oil. The study examines both pessimistic and optimistic views and also presents an overview of fossil energy carriers and the possibilities of substituting them. Scenarios and prognoses on the availability of fossil fuels and their reserves for the future are presented. Also, new technologies for exploration and the extraction of fossil fuels are discussed, as are international interdependencies that influence supply. Market and price scenarios are presented that take account of a possible increasing scarcity of fossil fuels. The implications for industry and investment planning are examined

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Fossil fuel emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An objective of environmental costing is to arrive at a social cost figure expressed in cents per kilowatt hour for each type of electric generation option. This figure can then be applied to incorporate environmental costs in utility planning and resource acquisition procedures to permit selection of the options that are of least cost to society. To arrive at externality costs expressed in cents per kilowatt hour, the analyst must first ascertain the pounds of each pollutant of concern emitted per kilowatt hour for each technology. This chapter addresses air pollutant emissions for fossil fuel-fired power plants. Chapter 5 A.-E. treats the costs to society of each major fossil fuel plant air pollutant in dollars per pound. Then, Chapter 6 A.-C. combines the air emissions figures of this chapter with the cost figures from Chapter 5 to arrive at the cents per kilowatt hour figures that can be used by utilities and regulators. All the above emissions and valuation figures are derived from identified studies reviewed

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Crop production without fossil fuel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With diminishing fossil fuel reserves and concerns about global warming, the agricultural sector needs to reduce its use of fossil fuels. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate different systems for biomass-based production of tractor fuel and mineral nitrogen fertilisers, which at present are the two largest fossil energy carriers in Swedish agriculture. The land use, energy input and environmental load of the systems were calculated using life cycle assessment methodology. Two categor...

Ahlgren, Serina

2009-01-01

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Evaluation of hard fossil fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of its inexhaustible supplies hard fossil fuel will represent the pillar of the power systems of the 21st century. Only high-calorie fossil fuels have the market value and participate in the world trade. Low-calorie fossil fuels ((brown coal and lignite) are fuels spent on the spot and their value is indirectly expressed through manufactured kWh. For the purpose of determining the real value of a tonne of low-calorie coal, the criteria that help in establishing the value of a tonne of hard coal have to be corrected and thus evaluated and assessed at the market. (author)

11

The legacy of fossil fuels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30?Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production. PMID:21290608

Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

2011-03-01

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The legacy of fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production.

Armaroli, N.; Balzani, V. [CNR, Bologna (Italy)

2011-03-01

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Status of fossil fuel reserves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

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News technology utilization fossil fuel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fossil fuel ? ?alternative energy? is coal, petroleum, natural gas. Petroleum and natural gas are scarce resources, but they are delimited. Reserves petroleum will be depleted after 39 years and reserves natural gas after 60 years.World reserves coal are good for another 240 years. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel. It is the least expensive energy source for generating electricity. Many environmental problems associated with use of coal:in coal production, mining creates environmental...

Bli?ťanová Monika; Sciranková Lucia

2004-01-01

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Transcontinental Surface Validation of Satellite Observations of Enhanced Methane Anomalies Associated with Fossil Fuel Industrial Methane Emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

A ground-based, transcontinental (Florida to California - i.e., satellite-scale) survey was conducted to understand better the role of fossil fuel industrial (FFI) fugitive emissions of the potent greenhouse gas, methane. Data were collected by flame ion detection gas chromatography (Fall 2010) and by a cavity ring-down sensor (Winter 2012) from a nearly continuously moving recreational vehicle, allowing 24/7 data collection. Nocturnal methane measurements for similar sources tended to be higher compared to daytime values, sometime significantly, due to day/night meteorological differences. Data revealed strong and persistent FFI methane sources associated with refining, a presumed major pipeline leak, and several minor pipeline leaks, a coal loading plant, and areas of active petroleum production. Data showed FFI source emissions were highly transient and heterogeneous; however, integrated over these large-scale facilities, methane signatures overwhelmed that of other sources, creating clearly identifiable plumes that were well elevated above ambient. The highest methane concentration recorded was 39 ppm at an active central valley California production field, while desert values were as low as 1.80 ppm. Surface methane data show similar trends with strong emissions correlated with FFI on large (4° bin) scales and positive methane anomalies centered on the Gulf Coast area of Houston, home to most of US refining capacity. Comparison with SCIAMACHY and GOSAT satellite data show agreement with surface data in the large-scale methane spatial patterns. Positive satellite methane anomalies in the southeast and Mexico largely correlated with methane anthropogenic and wetland inventory models suggests most strong ground methane anomalies in the Gulf of Mexico region were related to dominant FFI input for most seasons. Wind advection played a role, in some cases confounding a clear relationship. Results are consistent with a non-negligible underestimation of the FFI contribution to global methane budgets.; In situ methane concentrations during transcontinental survey Fall 2010.

Leifer, I.; Culling, D.; Schneising, O.; Bovensmann, H.; Buchwitz, M.; Burrows, J. P.

2012-12-01

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News technology utilization fossil fuel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fossil fuel ? ?alternative energy? is coal, petroleum, natural gas. Petroleum and natural gas are scarce resources, but they are delimited. Reserves petroleum will be depleted after 39 years and reserves natural gas after 60 years.World reserves coal are good for another 240 years. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel. It is the least expensive energy source for generating electricity. Many environmental problems associated with use of coal:in coal production, mining creates environmental problems.On Slovakia representative coal only important internal fuel ? power of source and coal is produced in 5 locality. Nowadays, oneself invest to new technology on utilization coal. Perspective solution onself shows UCG, IGCC.

Bli?ťanová Monika

2004-09-01

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Sanitary effects of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

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On Prediction of Depreciation Time of Fossil Fuel in Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The fossil fuels play a crucial role in the world energy markets. Demand for fossil fuels become increasingly high and worrisome, because of fossil fuels will be significantly reduced and ultimately exhausted. This study was conducted to predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels in Malaysia and estimate the time remaining before the fossil fuels will finish. Approach: To predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels, the reserves, consumption and prices of fossil fuel will be used. The prediction of fossil fuel reserves were estimated using ratio of fossil fuel reserve versus consumption, Klass Model and Modified Klass Model. The prediction time will give us the opportunity to prepare for the coming energy crisis and discover new energy sources. The results from the analysis will be concluded alongside with the Olduvai Theory and Hubbert Peak Theory. Both of the theories are highly related to the energy crisis. The Olduvai Theory states that the industrial civilization will last for approximately 100 year: circa 1930-2030. As for Hubbert Peak Theory, it can estimate the total amount of fossil fuels available based on the production rate from time to time. Results: Due to the vast usage of petroleum, it will be depleted faster than natural gas and coal. After 14 years, natural gas and coal will replace petroleum as a fossil fuel and coal would then be the major fossil fuels. Based on the results from Hubbert Peak Theory, the rate of production of petroleum has reached the maximum level in 2004 and started to decline since that time; while in the Olduvai theory, it has explained that the life expectancy of the industrial civilization was found to be ended in 2030. Petroleum will be spent over in 2020, followed by natural gas in 2058 and coal around the year 2066. Conclusion: So far, Malaysia has not facing disconnection of electricity as other developed countries. When this happens, it gives the meaning of the end of the industrial civilization where the electric power grids go down and never come back up. If there is no substance that can replace fossil fuels to continue in the industrial civilization, human civilization will be facing the fate of collapse.

Tey Jin Pin

2012-01-01

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Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since aged carbon in fossil fuel contains no 14C, 14C/C ratios (?14C measured in atmospheric CO2 can be used to estimate CO2 added by combustion and, potentially, provide verification of fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. Sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract dilution by fossil CO2. Therefore, these nuclear sources can bias observation-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 if they are not correctly accounted for or included as a source of uncertainty. We estimate annual 14C emissions from each nuclear site in the world and conduct an Eulerian transport modeling study to investigate the continental-scale, steady-state gradients of ?14C caused by nuclear activities and fossil fuel combustion. Over Europe, North America and East Asia, nuclear enrichment may offset 0–260 % of the fossil fuel dilution in ?14C, corresponding to potential biases of 0 to ?8 ppm in the CO2 attributed to fossil fuel emissions, larger than the bias from respiration in some areas. Growth of 14C emissions increased the potential nuclear bias over 1985–2005. The magnitude of this potential bias is largely independent of the choice of reference station in the context of Eulerian transport and inversion studies, but could potentially be reduced by an appropriate choice of reference station in the context of local-scale assessments.

N. Gruber

2011-05-01

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Fossil fuel support mechanisms in Finland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fossil fuel subsidies and other state support for fossil fuels are forbidden by the Kyoto Protocol and other international treaties. However, they are still commonly used. This publication presents and analyses diverse state support mechanisms for fossil fuels in Finland in 2003-2010. Total of 38 support mechanisms are covered in quantitative analysis and some other mechanisms are mentioned qualitatively only. For some mechanisms the study includes a longer historical perspective. This is the case for tax subsidies for crude oil based traffic fuels that have been maintained in Finland since 1965.

Lampinen, Ari

2013-10-15

 
 
 
 
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US DOE fossil energy fuel cells program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy's (FE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), in partnership with private industry, educational institutions and national laboratories, is leading the development and demonstration of high efficiency, high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and fuel cell turbine (FCT) hybrid power generation systems for stationary markets including auxiliary power units (A-PUs), distributed generation (DG) and large, coal-based central power plants. The DOE FE fuel cells program has three aspects: the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA), Fuel Cell Coal Based Systems for central power, and the High Temperature Electrochemistry Center (HiTEC). The SECA goal is to decrease SOFC system cost to US$ 400 per kilowatt (M) by 2010 for stationary markets. DOE FE is ultimately concerned with coal-based central power plants such as FutureGen. The goal is to aggregate SECA-type fuel cells into larger systems and to produce a very high efficiency megawatt-class FCT hybrid for testing at FutureGen. The low-cost, US$ 400 kW{sup -1} SECA FCT hybrid is a key component to achieving 60% efficiency by 2020. Advanced aspects of solid oxide technology are part of HiTEC R&D. Technical progress and advances are discussed for all three program aspects.

Williams, M.C.; Strakey, J.; Sudoval, W. [US DOE, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Energy Technology Lab.

2006-09-22

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Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 14C-free fossil carbon added to atmospheric CO2 by combustion dilutes the atmospheric 14C/C ratio (?14C, potentially providing a means to verify fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. However, sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract this dilution and may bias 14C/C-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 if these nuclear influences are not correctly accounted for. Previous studies have examined nuclear influences on local scales, but the potential for continental-scale influences on ?14C has not yet been explored. We estimate annual 14C emissions from each nuclear site in the world and conduct an Eulerian transport modeling study to investigate the continental-scale, steady-state gradients of ?14C caused by nuclear activities and fossil fuel combustion. Over large regions of Europe, North America and East Asia, nuclear enrichment may offset at least 20% of the fossil fuel dilution in ?14C, corresponding to potential biases of more than ?0.25 ppm in the CO2 attributed to fossil fuel emissions, larger than the bias from plant and soil respiration in some areas. Model grid cells including high 14C-release reactors or fuel reprocessing sites showed much larger nuclear enrichment, despite the coarse model resolution of 1.8°×1.8°. The recent growth of nuclear 14C emissions increased the potential nuclear bias over 1985–2005, suggesting that changing nuclear activities may complicate the use of ?14C observations to identify trends in fossil fuel emissions. The magnitude of the potential nuclear bias is largely independent of the choice of reference station in the context of continental-scale Eulerian transport and inversion studies, but could potentially be reduced by an appropriate choice of reference station in the context of local-scale assessments.

N. Gruber

2011-12-01

23

Global warming and future fossil fuel consumption  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the potential for reducing the emissions of CO{sub 2} by reducing the use of fossil fuels. Following a brief review of the current data on greenhouse gas emissions (on increase in CO{sub 2} levels of 25% is less than 150 years has taken place) and global warming, the paper considers three ways of decreasing fossil fuel comsumption: doing without; maximizing conversion efficiences; and reducing the use of energy-intensive products through better design and extensive recycling of materials. A major potential for such reductions is indentified in buildings, transportation and industry, but they will be difficult to implement, even if the public's desire for them is intensified by a clear condfirmation that a significant global warming is going to occur. These difficulties centre around the diffuse nature of the measures necessary for dramatic energy conservation and around the extreme cross-national inequalities in energy comsumption. Looking just 30 years ahead, United Nations (1988) projections forecast a 15% larger population in the rich countries and 84% more people in the poor world. Current annual per capita primary energy comsumption in the poor world averages about 20MJ (the rich world's mean is close to 150MJ). It is concluded that reductions in the population growth of the poor countries and in the energy, consumption per capita of the rich countries must be major components of any attempt to reduce greenhouse gas emission significantly. 46 refs., 4 figs.

Smil, V. (Univ. of Manitoba, MB (Canada))

1989-01-01

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Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x108 ha in the case of biofuels from sugarcane or oil palm, and at least 1.8-3.6x109 ha in the case of ethanol from wheat, corn or sugar beet, as produced in industrialized countries. Biofuels from microalgae which are commercially produced with current technologies do not appear to outperform terrestrial plants such as sugarcane in their ability to displace fossil fuels. Whether they will able to do so on a commercial scale in the future, is uncertain.

Lucas Reijnders

2009-02-01

25

Constraints of fossil fuels depletion on global warming projections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A scientific debate is in progress about the intersection of climate change with the new field of fossil fuels depletion geology. Here, new projections of atmospheric CO2 concentration and global-mean temperature change are presented, should fossil fuels be exploited at a rate limited by geological availability only. The present work starts from the projections of fossil energy use, as obtained from ten independent sources. From such projections an upper bound, a lower bound and an ensemble mean profile for fossil CO2 emissions until 2200 are derived. Using the coupled gas-cycle/climate model MAGICC, the corresponding climatic projections out to 2200 are obtained. We find that CO2 concentration might increase up to about 480 ppm (445-540 ppm), while the global-mean temperature increase w.r.t. 2000 might reach 1.2 deg. C (0.9-1.6 deg. C). However, future improvements of fossil fuels recovery and discoveries of new resources might lead to higher emissions; hence our climatic projections are likely to be underestimated. In the absence of actions of emissions reduction, a level of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system might be already experienced toward the middle of the 21st century, despite the constraints imposed by the exhaustion of fossil fuels. - Highlights: ? CO2 and global temperature are projected under fossil fuels exhaustion scenarios. ? Temperature is projected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. rojected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. C above pre-industrial. ? Temperature projections are possibly lower than the IPCC ones. ? Fossil fuels exhaustion will not avoid dangerous global warming.

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Constraints of fossil fuels depletion on global warming projections  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A scientific debate is in progress about the intersection of climate change with the new field of fossil fuels depletion geology. Here, new projections of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and global-mean temperature change are presented, should fossil fuels be exploited at a rate limited by geological availability only. The present work starts from the projections of fossil energy use, as obtained from ten independent sources. From such projections an upper bound, a lower bound and an ensemble mean profile for fossil CO{sub 2} emissions until 2200 are derived. Using the coupled gas-cycle/climate model MAGICC, the corresponding climatic projections out to 2200 are obtained. We find that CO{sub 2} concentration might increase up to about 480 ppm (445-540 ppm), while the global-mean temperature increase w.r.t. 2000 might reach 1.2 deg. C (0.9-1.6 deg. C). However, future improvements of fossil fuels recovery and discoveries of new resources might lead to higher emissions; hence our climatic projections are likely to be underestimated. In the absence of actions of emissions reduction, a level of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system might be already experienced toward the middle of the 21st century, despite the constraints imposed by the exhaustion of fossil fuels. - Highlights: > CO{sub 2} and global temperature are projected under fossil fuels exhaustion scenarios. > Temperature is projected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. C above pre-industrial. > Temperature projections are possibly lower than the IPCC ones. > Fossil fuels exhaustion will not avoid dangerous global warming.

Chiari, Luca, E-mail: chiari@science.unitn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo (Italy); Zecca, Antonio, E-mail: zecca@science.unitn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo (Italy)

2011-09-15

27

When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude oil, coal and gas are the main resources for world energy supply. The size of fossil fuel reserves and the dilemma that 'when non-renewable energy will be diminished' is a fundamental and doubtful question that needs to be answered. This paper presents a new formula for calculating when fossil fuel reserves are likely to be depleted and develops an econometrics model to demonstrate the relationship between fossil fuel reserves and some main variables. The new formula is modified from the Klass model and thus assumes a continuous compound rate and computes fossil fuel reserve depletion times for oil, coal and gas of approximately 35, 107 and 37 years, respectively. This means that coal reserves are available up to 2112, and will be the only fossil fuel remaining after 2042. In the Econometrics model, the main exogenous variables affecting oil, coal and gas reserve trends are their consumption and respective prices between 1980 and 2006. The models for oil and gas reserves unexpectedly show a positive and significant relationship with consumption, while presenting a negative and significant relationship with price. The econometrics model for coal reserves, however, expectedly illustrates a negative and significant relationship with consumption and a positive and significant relationship with price. Consequently, huge reserves of coal and low-level coal prices in comparison to oil and gas make coal one of the main energy substitutions for oil and gas in the future, under the assumption of coal as a clean energy source. (author)

28

When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude oil, coal and gas are the main resources for world energy supply. The size of fossil fuel reserves and the dilemma that 'when non-renewable energy will be diminished' is a fundamental and doubtful question that needs to be answered. This paper presents a new formula for calculating when fossil fuel reserves are likely to be depleted and develops an econometrics model to demonstrate the relationship between fossil fuel reserves and some main variables. The new formula is modified from the Klass model and thus assumes a continuous compound rate and computes fossil fuel reserve depletion times for oil, coal and gas of approximately 35, 107 and 37 years, respectively. This means that coal reserves are available up to 2112, and will be the only fossil fuel remaining after 2042. In the Econometrics model, the main exogenous variables affecting oil, coal and gas reserve trends are their consumption and respective prices between 1980 and 2006. The models for oil and gas reserves unexpectedly show a positive and significant relationship with consumption, while presenting a negative and significant relationship with price. The econometrics model for coal reserves, however, expectedly illustrates a negative and significant relationship with consumption and a positive and significant relationship with price. Consequently, huge reserves of coal and low-level coal prices in comparison to oil and gas make coal one of the main energy substitutions for oil and gas in the future, under the assumption of coal as a clean energy source

29

Fossil-fuel constraints on global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2008 and 2009 two papers by Kharecha and Hansen and by Nel and Cooper examined possible fossil energy availability and energy consumption scenarios and consequences for future climate. The papers yield somewhat similar results regarding atmospheric CO2 levels, but they reach substantially different conclusions regarding future climate change. Here, we compare their methods and results. Our work shows that Nel and Cooper's paper significantly underestimates future warming. Nel and Cooper conclude that even if all the available fossil fuels would be burned at the maximum possible rate during this century, the consequent warming would cap at less than 1 deg. C above the 2000 level. We find that - under Nel and Cooper's assumption of an intensive exploitation of fossil fuels - the global temperature in 2100 will likely reach levels which would lead to severely damaging long-term impacts.

30

Fossil-fuel constraints on global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2008 and 2009 two papers by Kharecha and Hansen and by Nel and Cooper examined possible fossil energy availability and energy consumption scenarios and consequences for future climate. The papers yield somewhat similar results regarding atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, but they reach substantially different conclusions regarding future climate change. Here, we compare their methods and results. Our work shows that Nel and Cooper's paper significantly underestimates future warming. Nel and Cooper conclude that even if all the available fossil fuels would be burned at the maximum possible rate during this century, the consequent warming would cap at less than 1 C above the 2000 level. We find that - under Nel and Cooper's assumption of an intensive exploitation of fossil fuels - the global temperature in 2100 will likely reach levels which would lead to severely damaging long-term impacts. (author)

Zecca, Antonio; Chiari, Luca [Physics Department, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo TN (Italy)

2010-01-15

31

Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fossil fuel supplies modeling and research effort focuses on models for US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) planning and management. Topics covered included new SPR oil valuation models, updating models for SPR risk analysis, and fill-draw planning. Another task in this program area is the development of advanced computational tools for three-dimensional seismic analysis.

Leiby, P.N.

1996-06-01

32

Global change: The new challenge for the fossil carbon industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human population growth, at 90 million more per year and at least 10 billion next century, is forcing a re-examination of our values and technologies. Technology concerns are energy, food production, water and air quality, and waste disposal. All of these involve exact knowledge of the outer few km of our planet because this film forms the basis of all our resources. A great new challenge faces people with expertise in the fine structure and dynamics of the porous-cracked outer layers of earth. Much of this expertise is centered in the fossil carbon industries. All must be involved in the problems of water supply, soil conservation, waste disposal, and clean energy production. Perhaps the greatest question facing the fossil fuel industry concerns whether greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced

33

Fossil Fuel, Climate and Anti-Capitalism - Climate &  

...Google Pocket StumbleUpon Pinterest LinkedIn Tumblr Related articleshellip; (auto-generated) Why the fossil fuel industry fights so hard to block action on climate change (posted on February 8, 2012) Anti-capitalism, Climate Change, and Copenhagen (posted on May 6, 2009) Obama's anti-climate crusade (posted on February 15, 2012) Anti-capitalism and environmentalism as a political alternative (posted on August 20, 2011) The four laws of ecologyand the four anti-ecological laws of capitalism (...

34

IGT calculates world reserves of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Institute of Gas Technology has published the IGT World Reserves Survey, giving their latest tabulation of world reserves of fossil fuels and uranium. The report contains 120 Tables and 41 Figures. Estimates are provided for proved reserves, resources, current production, and life indexes of the non-renewable energy sources of the US and of the world as a whole. World regional data are also provided in many cases. The data are summarized here. 2 figures, 5 tables

35

Emissions Scenarios and Fossil-fuel Peaking  

Science.gov (United States)

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emissions scenarios are based on detailed energy system models in which demographics, technology and economics are used to generate projections of future world energy consumption, and therefore, of greenhouse gas emissions. Built into the assumptions for these scenarios are estimates for ultimately recoverable resources of various fossil fuels. There is a growing chorus of critics who believe that the true extent of recoverable fossil resources is much smaller than the amounts taken as a baseline for the IPCC scenarios. In a climate optimist camp are those who contend that "peak oil" will lead to a switch to renewable energy sources, while others point out that high prices for oil caused by supply limitations could very well lead to a transition to liquid fuels that actually increase total carbon emissions. We examine a third scenario in which high energy prices, which are correlated with increasing infrastructure, exploration and development costs, conspire to limit the potential for making a switch to coal or natural gas for liquid fuels. In addition, the same increasing costs limit the potential for expansion of tar sand and shale oil recovery. In our qualitative model of the energy system, backed by data from short- and medium-term trends, we have a useful way to gain a sense of potential carbon emission bounds. A bound for 21st century emissions is investigated based on two assumptions: first, that extractable fossil-fuel resources follow the trends assumed by "peak oil" adherents, and second, that little is done in the way of climate mitigation policies. If resources, and perhaps more importantly, extraction rates, of fossil fuels are limited compared to assumptions in the emissions scenarios, a situation can arise in which emissions are supply-driven. However, we show that even in this "peak fossil-fuel" limit, carbon emissions are high enough to surpass 550 ppm or 2°C climate protection guardrails. Some indicators are presented that the scenario presented here should not be disregarded, and comparisons are made to the outputs of emission scenarios used for the IPCC reports.

Brecha, R.

2008-12-01

36

Replacement of fossil fuels by hydrogen  

Science.gov (United States)

The replacement of fossil fuels by solar hydrogen plantations is considered. A model is proposed in which ten plantation families, situated in suitable deserted zones of the world after the year 2000, would generate enough electrical energy to produce solar cells and materials for the construction of ten new plantations within a decade. The technological growth process for identical solar plantation units could be completed about 50 years after construction of the first plantation. All ten plantation families would, by using their electrical energy for the electrolysis of water, generate an amount of hydrogen per year which is four to five times the energy of the world's present annual consumption of oil. This concept envisions the global replacement of fossil fuels by hydrogen within a period consistent with the remaining time span of fossil fuel availability. Storage and transportation of hydrogen would be economical, and the energy produced would not present any environmental problems. Advantages with respect to gains in international cooperation, world peace, and world economy are also discussed.

Dahlberg, R.

37

The environmental dilemma of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide poses an environmental dilemma for fossil fuel energy generation that, unlike other related emissions, cannot be resolved by control technologies alone. Although fossil fuels presently provide the most cost-effective global energy source, and model projections suggest that their use is initiating climatic changes which, while quite uncertain, may induce significant, counter-balancing impacts to water resources, coastal resources, ecological systems, and possibly agricultural production. The climate model indicate that the warming should have begun, and there is some evidence for this occurring, but at a less rapid and more uneven rate than projected. In addition, different climate models are not yet in agreement in their latitudinal or regional predictions, and it will likely require a decade or more for such agreement to develop as high performance computers become available for addressing this ''grand challenge'' problem. Thus, in addition to the prospect for climatic change, the uncertainties of the changes and associated impacts contribute to the dilemma of dealing with the issue. Further, the problem is pervasive and international scope, with different countries and peoples having differing perspectives of technology, development, and environmental responsibility. Dealing with this issue will thus require creativity, commitment, and flexibility

38

Traversing the mountaintop: world fossil fuel production to 2050  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the past century, fossil fuels—petroleum liquids, natural gas and coal—were the dominant source of world energy production. From 1950 to 2005, fossil fuels provided 85–93% of all energy production. All fossil fuels grew substantially during this period, their combined growth exceeding the increase in world population. This growth, however, was irregular, providing for rapidly growing per capita production from 1950 to 1980, stable per capita production from 1980 to 2000 and risin...

Nehring, Richard

2009-01-01

39

Fossil Fuel Biomarkers in Sewage Sludges: Environmental Significance  

Science.gov (United States)

Fossil fuel biomarkers, or "molecular fossils," are specific organic substances found in coals, petroleums, and sedimentary rocks. They are formed during millions of years of sedimentary burial by geochemical alteration of biological molecules, such as cholesterol, under the effect of biodegradation, temperature, pressure, and mineral catalysis, to produce geochemically mature molecules, for example, aromatic steroids (Fig. 1). Since fossil fuel biomarkers have a very specific molecular structure betraying fossil fuel sources, such markers should be useful in assessing the fossil fuel contamination of various modern media such as soils, plants, waters, and modern sediments. Here the identification of fossil fuel biomarkers of high geothermal maturity in sewage sludges provides evidence of the contamination of sludges by petroleum products. The most likely sources of contamination are contaminated vegetal food, road dust, and soil particles carried by rain water.

Payet, C.; Bryselbout, C.; Morel, J.-L.; Lichtfouse, E.

40

COMPOUND FORMS OF FOSSIL FUEL FLY ASH EMISSIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

A methodology for identifying inorganic compounds in particulate emissions from fossil fuel combustion processes is described. Samples collected from power plants burning coal and oil fuels of different compositions provided a typical range of fly ashes for the investigations. El...

 
 
 
 
41

API focuses on cleanliness, economics of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fossil fuels, consumed in free markets, are playing positive economic and environmental roles as the world economy becomes integrated, industry leader said last week. Environmental zealots threaten to force conversion from gasoline as a motor fuel in the U.S. and oppose the growing integration of the world economy. Fossil fuels, free markets, human creativity, and entrepreneurial spirit--not government intervention--are the keys to a clean environment, said API pres. Charles J. DiBona and outgoing Chairman C.J. (Pete) Silas, chairman and chief executive officer of Phillips Petroleum Co. DiBona said proponents of the BTU tax defeated earlier this year used erroneous assumptions to make a case against oil use in an effort to replace the efficiency of the marketplace with the inefficiency of bureaucracy. The government's role is to set tough standards and avoid dictating the way environmental standards are met, they said. Other speakers warned that voluntary measures put forward by the Clinton administration of address global climate change issues likely will fall short

42

Global climate change and the need to replace fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If the Earth had no atmosphere, its average surface temperature would be about -18degC. The Earth is kept at its relatively warm temperature by molecules in the atmosphere, including water molecules and carbon dioxide molecules that absorb some of the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth and prevent its escape from the Earth's environment. This is the natural greenhouse effect.Since the beginning of the industrial era, additional gases have been emitted into the atmosphere-particularly carbon dioxide (CO2)-which adds to this absorption and are believed to further increase the Earth's temperature. This increment is referred to as the anthropogenic greenhouse effect. Warnings about the effects of CO2 emissions date to the 19 century, but they have become a matter of widespread concern only since the 1970. The anticipated consequences are described as global warmingor, more broadly as global climate change.The production of CO2 is the inevitable accompaniment of any combustion of fossil fuels. The amount released per unit energy output varies for the different fuels, due largely to differences in their hydrogen content. Natural gas is primarily methane (CH4) and a considerable fraction of its combustion energy comes from the chemical combination of hydrogen and oxygen. Its ratio of carbon dioxide production to energy production is the lowest among the fossil fuels

43

Quality assurance systems for fossil-fuel power plants. Qualitaetssicherungssysteme fuer konventionelle Kraftwerke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quality assurance systems are obviously successful in the service industry (e.g. software) and in the producing industry. In fossil-fuel power plants, they are still sceptically compared with the systems used in nuclear power plants. However, quality assurance systems, if rightly understood, can contribute to a better transparency of organization. (orig.).

Adams, H.W.; Haker, W. (Dr. Adams und Partner Unternehmensberatung GmbH, Duisburg (Germany, F.R.))

1990-11-19

44

Status of fossil fuel reserves; Etat des reserves des combustibles fossiles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

Laherrere, J

2005-07-01

45

U.S. DOE fossil energy fuel cells program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy's (FE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), in partnership with private industry, educational institutions and national laboratories, is leading the development and demonstration of high efficiency, high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and fuel cell turbine (FCT) hybrid power generation systems for stationary markets including auxiliary power units (APUs), distributed generation (DG) and large, coal-based central power plants. The DOE FE fuel cells program has three aspects: the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA), Fuel Cell Coal Based Systems for central power, and the High Temperature Electrochemistry Center (HiTEC). The SECA goal is to decrease SOFC system cost to US$ 400 per kilowatt (kW) by 2010 for stationary markets. DOE FE is ultimately concerned with coal-based central power plants such as FutureGen. The goal is to aggregate SECA-type fuel cells into larger systems and to produce a very high efficiency megawatt-class FCT hybrid for testing at FutureGen. The low-cost, US$ 400kW{sup -1} SECA FCT hybrid is a key component to achieving 60% efficiency by 2020. Advanced aspects of solid oxide technology are part of HiTEC R&D. Technical progress and advances are discussed for all three program aspects. (author)

Williams, Mark C.; Strakey, Joseph; Sudoval, Wayne [US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, 421 Jefferson Street, Morgantown, WV 26501 (United States)

2006-09-22

46

Environmental effects of fossil fuel combustion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fossil fuel which include natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen are the main source of heat and electrical energy. All these fuels contain beside major constituents (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) other materials as metal, sulfur and nitrogen compounds. During the combustion process different pollutants as fly ash, sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3), nitrogen oxides (NOx NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds are emitted. Fly ash contain different trace elements (heavy metals). Gross emission of pollutants is tremendous all over the world. These pollutants are present in the atmosphere in such conditions that they can affect man and his environment. Air pollution caused by the particulate matter and other pollutants not only acts directly on environment but by contamination of water and soil leads to their degradation. Wet and dry deposition of inorganic pollutants leads to acidification of environment. These phenomena affect health of the people, increase corrosion, destroy cultivated soil and forests. Most of the plants, especially coniferous trees are not resistant to sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Following longer exposure leaves wither and fall. Widespread forest damage has been reported in Europe and North America regions. Many cultivated plants are not resistant to these pollutants either especially in the early period vegetation. The mechanisms of pollutants transformation in atmosphere are described by environmental chemistry. An important role in these transformations plays photochemistry. SO2 and NOx are oxidized and sulfuric and nitric acids are formed in presence of water vapours, fog and droplets. Other problem discussed connected with human activities is emission of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere. These emissions cause stratospheric ozone depletion, ground level photochemical ozone formation, toxic or carcinogenic human health effects, enhancing the global greenhouse effect, accumulation and persistence in environment. Wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) can be applied for flue gas treatment and SO2 and NOx emission control. (author)

47

Development of an atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 monitoring station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. The aim of the project supported by Hungarian NSF (ref No. F69029) is determination of atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 concentration in major cities or average industrial regions in Hungary using together measurement of CO2 mixing ratio and radiocarbon (14C) content of the air. For this aim we developed a high precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station in ATOMKI (Figure 1.). The station's measuring system is based on an Ultramat 6F (Siemens) infrared gas analyser. To help continuous, unattended run and autocalibration we built up an automatic gas handling line for the analyzer. For radiocarbon measurements we applied an integrating sampling system. One was installed in Debrecen station and two independent 14CO2 sampling line were installed 400 km far from Debrecen at Hegyhatsal station as background references. During several tests of the measuring and sampling systems we demonstrated that uncertainty of individual CO2 mixing ratio results is less than 0.5 ppm and the applied radiocarbon sampling system developed by ATOMKI works with good reproducibility. In September and October of 2008 we measured the mixing ratio and radiocarbon content of atmospheric CO2 at Debrecen and the far rural reference station (Hegyhatsal) simultaneously. It was concluded that trends in CO2 mixing ratio variations in time are very similar at the three different sampling points (2 m above ground in Debrecen, 10 m and 115 m above ground in Hegyhatsal). Air quality in Debrecen during September of 2008 seemed to be relatively clear from the point of view of its CO2 content at least. When winter came in October, with lower outside temperature and less sunshine hours the CO2 content of air was increased in general at all the three sampling points, but this effect was more intensive closer to the ground level. According our radiocarbon observations it was clearly indicated that there was not significant amount of fossil fuel CO2 in the air of Debrecen during September in 2008. But in October of 2008 the ?14C value of atmospheric CO2 of Debrecen decreased with more than 40 h relative to September's results, and according our calculations it was caused by about 20 ppm fossil fuel CO2 which appeared as a surplus amount in the air above the previous months carbon dioxide level. Using the developed mobile and high precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station we plan to determine the atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 trend in the whole 2008/2009 winter in Debrecen

48

Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the 'Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.' Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the 'low emission sources' and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

49

Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the `Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.` Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the `low emission sources` and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1995-11-01

50

Does fossil fuel combustion lead to global warming?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tropospheric sulfate aerosols produced by atmospheric oxidation of SO2 emitted from fossil fuel combustion scatter solar radiation and enhance the reflectivity of clouds. Both effects decrease the absorption of solar radiation by the earth-atmosphere system. This cooling influence tends to offset the warming influence resulting from increased absorption of terrestrial infrared radiation by increased atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The sulfate forcing is estimated to be offsetting 70% of the forcing by CO2 derived from fossil fuel combustion, although the uncertainty of this estimate is quite large--range 28-140%, the latter figure indicating that the present combined forcing is net cooling. Because of the vastly different atmospheric residence times of sulfate aerosol (about a week) and CO2 (about 100 years), the cooling influence of sulfate aerosol is exerted immediately, whereas most of the warming influence of CO2 is exerted over more than 100 years. Consequently the total forcing integrated over the entire time the materials reside in the atmosphere is net warming, with the total CO2 forcing estimate to exceed the sulfate forcing by a factor of 4. The present situation in which the forcing by sulfate is comparable to that by CO2 is shown to be a consequence of the steeply increasing rates of emission over the industrial era. (author)

51

Reliability estimation for multiunit nuclear and fossil-fired industrial energy systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As petroleum-based fuels grow increasingly scarce and costly, nuclear energy may become an important alternative source of industrial energy. Initial applications would most likely include a mix of fossil-fired and nuclear sources of process energy. A means for determining the overall reliability of these mixed systems is a fundamental aspect of demonstrating their feasibility to potential industrial users. Reliability data from nuclear and fossil-fired plants are presented, and several methods of applying these data for calculating the reliability of reasonably complex industrial energy supply systems are given. Reliability estimates made under a number of simplifying assumptions indicate that multiple nuclear units or a combination of nuclear and fossil-fired plants could provide adequate reliability to meet industrial requirements for continuity of service.

Sullivan, W. G.; Wilson, J. V.; Klepper, O. H.

1977-06-29

52

Methane from fuel combustion and industrial processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview is given of current estimates of global methane emissions from fuel combustion, including non-commercial fuels, and industrial non-combustion sources (so-called industrial processes). The largest contributions appear to be from the combustion of fuelwood and crop residues, with also large uncertainty ranges. On a global basis, road transport and residential coal combustion are relatively minor sources, when compared to fuelwood and crop residues. Of the other sources stationary combustion, other transport and industrial processes, in particular coal combustion and iron and steel manufacturing are of some importance. Based on detailed emission factors for CH4 by fuel type or industrial process and associated activity levels a bottom-up estimate of global source strengths has been prepared and compared with some other recent estimates. Fossil fuel production and transmission, landfills and other waste treatment processes are not considered here. 27 refs., 7 tabs

53

ADVANCED FOSSIL FUEL AND THE ENVIRONMENT: AN EXECUTIVE REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

This executive-level report gives an overview of some of the more advanced fossil fuel technologies, including several Chemical Coal Cleaning and Liquid Fuels Cleaning methods. Synthetic fuels, Chemically Active Fluid Beds, and Oil Shale are also considered as viable advanced pro...

54

Fossil Fuels May Decrease Earth's Natural Capacity to Store Carbon  

Science.gov (United States)

... the burning of fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas, and the capacity of land and ocean to absorb ... fundamental research and education across all fields of science and engineering, with an annual ...

55

Fossil fuel sustainability index: An application of resource management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief review on use of fossil fuel resources and sustainability is given in this paper. A sustainability index for fossil fuels is developed, which aims to determine the most efficient management of fossil fuel resources for the energy system. The study is conducted for 62 countries, in the presence of independence, lifetime and environmental constraints. The effect of these indicators are then integrated into a single index for oil, natural gas, and coal. Two approaches have been taken. The first one employs equally weighing of each index, where the second one weighs the indices by using principle component analysis. It is concluded that Fossil Fuel Sustainability Index (FFSI) values indicate that countries supporting oil as the one and only major player are condemned to suffer due to incompetent energy policies

56

Hydrogen production econometric studies. [hydrogen and fossil fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

The current assessments of fossil fuel resources in the United States were examined, and predictions of the maximum and minimum lifetimes of recoverable resources according to these assessments are presented. In addition, current rates of production in quads/year for the fossil fuels were determined from the literature. Where possible, costs of energy, location of reserves, and remaining time before these reserves are exhausted are given. Limitations that appear to hinder complete development of each energy source are outlined.

Howell, J. R.; Bannerot, R. B.

1975-01-01

57

Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the US Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. The project is being conducted in three phases. In Phase I, testing and analytical activities will establish the current level of emissions from existing equipment and operating practices, and will provide estimates of the costs and emission reductions of various options. Phase II consists of a series of public meetings in both Poland and the United States to present the results of Phase I activities. In Phase III, DOE will issue a solicitation for Polish/US joint ventures to perform commercial feasibility studies for the use of US technology in one or more of the areas under consideration. This report provides interim results from Phase 1.

Butcher, T.; Pierce, B.; Krishna, C.R.

1992-09-01

58

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur

59

A long-term view of worldwide fossil fuel prices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews a long-term trend of worldwide fossil fuel prices in the future by introducing a new method to forecast oil, natural gas and coal prices. The first section of this study analyses the global fossil fuel market and the historical trend of real and nominal fossil fuel prices from 1950 to 2008. Historical fossil fuel price analysis shows that coal prices are decreasing, while natural gas prices are increasing. The second section reviews previously available price modelling techniques and proposes a new comprehensive version of the long-term trend reverting jump and dip diffusion model. The third section uses the new model to forecast fossil fuel prices in nominal and real terms from 2009 to 2018. The new model follows the extrapolation of the historical sinusoidal trend of nominal and real fossil fuel prices. The historical trends show an increase in nominal/real oil and natural gas prices plus nominal coal prices, as well as a decrease in real coal prices. Furthermore, the new model forecasts that oil, natural gas and coal will stay in jump for the next couple of years and after that they will revert back to the long-term trend until 2018. (author)

60

Alternative fuels in cement industry; Alternativa braenslen i cementindustrin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this project the cement industry`s possibilities to replace half of the fossil fuels with waste derived fuels are investigated. Bench-scale experiments, pilot plant tests and full scale tests have been done with used tires and plastics wastes

Nyman, K.E.; Ek, R. [Finnsementti Oy, Parainen (Finland); Maekelae, K. [Finreci Oy (Finland)

1997-10-01

 
 
 
 
61

Fossil fuels in a sustainable energy future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The coal industry in the United States has become a world leader in safety, productivity, and environmental protection in the mining of coal. The {open_quotes}pick-and-shovel{close_quotes} miner with mangled limbs and black lung disease has been replaced by the highly skilled technicians that lead the world in tons per man-hour. The gob piles, polluted streams, and scared land are a thing of the past. The complementary efforts of the DOE and EPRI-funded programs in coal utilization R&D and the Clean Coal Technology Program commercial demonstrations, have positioned the power generation industry to utilize coal in a way that doesn`t pollute the air or water, keeps electrical power costs low, and avoids the mountains of waste material. This paper reviews the potential for advanced coal utilization technologies in new power generation applications as well as the repowering of existing plants to increase their output, raise their efficiency, and reduce pollution. It demonstrates the potential for these advanced coal-fueled plants to play a complementary role in future planning with the natural gas and oil fired units currently favored in the market place. The status of the US program to demonstrate these technologies at commercial scale is reviewed in some detail.

Bechtel, T.F. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

1995-12-01

62

Hydrogen Separation Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eltron Research and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. By appropriately changing the catalysts coupled with the membrane, essentially the same system can be used to facilitate alkane dehydrogenation and coupling, aromatics processing, and hydrogen sulfide decomposition.

Roark, Shane E.; Mackay, Richard; Sammells, Anthony F.

2001-11-06

63

Too much petroleum. Fossil fuels and climatic change; Trop de petrole. Energie fossile et rechauffement climatique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the framework of the global warming, the author forecasts on the consequences of fossil fuels use, taking into account that the problem of the fossil energies is not a problem of shortage but a problem of environmental pollution. He proposes then radical and original solutions where a change of life attitudes, the necessity of the nuclear energy and a beginning of actions even without a world cooperation. (A.L.B.)

Prevot, H

2007-01-15

64

Total energy analysis of nuclear and fossil fueled power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall thermal efficiencies of electrical power generation were determined for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder, High Temperature Gas Cooled, Boiling Water, and Pressurized Water Reactors and for coal-, oil-, and gas-fired systems. All important energy consuming steps from mining through processing, transporting, and reprocessing the fuels were included in the energy balance along with electrical transmission and thermal losses and energy expenditures for pollution abatement. The results of these studies show that the overall fuel cycle efficiency of the light water nuclear fueled reactors is less than the efficiency of modern fossil fuel cycles. However, the nuclear fuel cycle based on the fast breeder reactors should produce power more efficiently than the most modern supercritical fossil fuel cycles. The high temperature gas cooled reactor has a cycle efficiency comparable to the supercritical coal fuel cycle

65

Preparation and Characterization of Bio Fuel from Industrial Waste  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Disposal of biomass becomes often an environmental issue. A novel method has been developed to convert biomass into solid bio-fuel. Experiments were carried out on preparation of solid fuel pellet from industrial biomass wastes. A maximum calorific value of 22,593KJ/kg has been obtained for the bio-fuel prepared in the present investigation and compared with the fossil fuel coal. The bio-fuel pellets were burnt and the emitted green house gases were critically analyzed.

Abinayah Shree, M. N.; Iyappan, K.; Srinivasakannan, C.

2009-01-01

66

Application of genetic algorithm (GA) technique on demand estimation of fossil fuels in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective is to investigate Turkey's fossil fuels demand, projection and supplies by using the structure of the Turkish industry and economic conditions. This study develops scenarios to analyze fossil fuels consumption and makes future projections based on a genetic algorithm (GA). The models developed in the nonlinear form are applied to the coal, oil and natural gas demand of Turkey. Genetic algorithm demand estimation models (GA-DEM) are developed to estimate the future coal, oil and natural gas demand values based on population, gross national product, import and export figures. It may be concluded that the proposed models can be used as alternative solutions and estimation techniques for the future fossil fuel utilization values of any country. In the study, coal, oil and natural gas consumption of Turkey are projected. Turkish fossil fuel demand is increased dramatically. Especially, coal, oil and natural gas consumption values are estimated to increase almost 2.82, 1.73 and 4.83 times between 2000 and 2020. In the figures GA-DEM results are compared with World Energy Council Turkish National Committee (WECTNC) projections. The observed results indicate that WECTNC overestimates the fossil fuel consumptions. (author)

67

Modeling CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion using the logistic equation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion have been known to contribute to the greenhouse effect. Research on emission trends and further forecasting their further values is important for adjusting energy policies, particularly those relative to low carbon. Except for a few countries, the main figures of CO2 emission from fossil fuel combustion in other countries are S-shaped curves. The logistic function is selected to simulate the S-shaped curve, and to improve the goodness of fit, three algorithms were provided to estimate its parameters. Considering the different emission characteristics of different industries, the three algorithms estimated the parameters of CO2 emission in each industry separately. The most suitable parameters for each industry are selected based on the criterion of Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE). With the combined simulation values of the selected models, the estimate of total CO2 emission from fossil fuel combustion is obtained. The empirical analysis of China shows that our method is better than the linear model in terms of goodness of fit and simulation risk. -- Highlights: ? Figures of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion in most countries are S-shape curves. ? Using the logistic function to model the S-shape curve. ? Three algorithms are offered to estimate the parameters of the logistic function. ? The empirical analysis from China shows that the logistic equation has satisfactory simulation results.

68

Total column constraints on regional fossil fuel CO2 emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate the potential for using total column CO2 observations from space to verify national level fossil fuel emissions. We illustrate a data-driven approach in which aggregated XCO2 fields are differenced over emission and upwind regions to determine regional contrasts in XCO2. Here, we present results from both simulated XCO2 fields and from ACOS-GOSAT XCO2. In simulations, upwind contrasts in XCO2 from tagged fossil fuel CO2 scale with emissions and can exceed 0.7 ppm based on 2007 emission estimates. Interpretation of the regional contrasts owing to fossil fuel emissions is complicated by seasonal variations in transport patterns and by variations in atmospheric CO2 owing primarily to biospheric carbon exchange. We use simulations to explore the use of regions defined by free tropospheric potential temperature contours to ensure that the aggregated regions are dynamically connected and also to minimize the XCO2 contrast between the emission and upwind regions owing to biospheric exchange. We evaluate contributions to XCO2 variability from biospheric exchange using interannually varying fluxes from the CASA-GFED3 biogeochemical model and by using flux estimates from the Community Climate System Model. Results from ACOS-GOSAT XCO2 data are more complicated to interpret since data are relatively sparse and of moderate precision. We find that our results are sensitive to residual bias in the retrieved XCO2 data. An increase in the number of observations, such as from OCO-2 which has a smaller sampling footprint than GOSAT, will likely make estimation of fossil fuel XCO2 contrasts between emission and upwind regions more robust. Our approach to diagnosing fossil fuel CO2 emissions through regional upwind differencing may be useful as a policy tool to verify national fossil emissions, as it provides an independent, observational constraint.

Keppel-Aleks, G.; Wennberg, P. O.; Randerson, J. T.

2011-12-01

69

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. Membranes testing during this reporting period were greater than 1 mm thick and had the general perovskite composition AB{sub 1-x}B'{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where 0.05 {<=} x {<=} 0.3. These materials demonstrated hydrogen separation rates between 1 and 2 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, which represents roughly 20% of the target goal for membranes of this thickness. The sintered membranes were greater than 95% dense, but the phase purity decreased with increasing dopant concentration. The quantity of dopant incorporated into the perovskite phase was roughly constant, with excess dopant forming an additional phase. Composite materials with distinct ceramic and metallic phases, and thin film perovskites (100 {micro}m) also were successfully prepared, but have not yet been tested for hydrogen transport. Finally, porous platinum was identified as a excellent catalyst for evaluation of membrane materials, however, lower cost nickel catalyst systems are being developed.

Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Adam Calihman; Andy Girard; Pamela M. Van Calcar; Richard Mackay; Tom Barton; Sara Rolfe

2001-01-30

70

The future of oil: unconventional fossil fuels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unconventional fossil hydrocarbons fall into two categories: resource plays and conversion-sourced hydrocarbons. Resource plays involve the production of accumulations of solid, liquid or gaseous hydro-carbons that have been generated over geological time from organic matter in source rocks. The character of these hydrocarbons may have been modified subsequently, especially in the case of solids and extra-heavy liquids. These unconventional hydrocarbons therefore comprise accumulations of hydrocarbons that are trapped in an unconventional manner and/or whose economic exploitation requires complex and technically advanced production methods. This review focuses primarily on unconventional liquid hydro-carbons. The future potential of unconventional gas, especially shale gas, is also discussed, as it is revolutionizing the energy outlook in North America and elsewhere. PMID:24298078

Chew, Kenneth J

2014-01-13

71

New Optical Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accomplishments of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants and solid oxide fuel cells are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring.

John Coggin; Tom Flynn; Jonas Ivasauskas; Daniel Kominsky; Carrie Kozikowski; Russell May; Michael Miller; Tony Peng; Gary Pickrell; Raymond Rumpf; Kelly Stinson-Bagby; Dan Thorsen; Rena Wilson

2007-12-31

72

Environmental impacts of fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large power plants burning fossil fuels generate emissions with a high content of sulphur dioxide and a content of noxious aerosols and radioisotopes whose radioactivity exceeds the limits set for nuclear power plants. The main problem of nuclear power plants is to secure radiation safety namely in case of an accident even though the probability of such an event is very small. The most complicated problems are related to the treatment of spent fuel, its transport, processing and storage. (B.H.)

73

CARBON DIOXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUELS: ADAPTING TO UNCERTAINTY  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discusses the general effect and control of CO2. The world is likely to experience noticeable global warming by the beginning of the next century if high annual growth rates of fossil fuel energy use continue. Only with optimistic assumptions and low growth rates will C...

74

Energy 4: Fossil Fuels and the Greenhouse Gas Effect  

Science.gov (United States)

This video describes in detail the greenhouse effect and how recovery from energy from fossile fuels results in green house gases. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.

Vanasupa, Linda

75

Quantification of Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions From East Asia Using Atmospheric Observations of 14CO2  

Science.gov (United States)

Fossil fuel CO2 emissions are the largest annual net source of CO2 to the atmosphere, and accurate quantification of these emissions is essential to furthering our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Currently, these fossil fuel CO2 emissions are estimated from economic inventories of fossil fuel use reported by governments and industry. Independent, objective methods of quantifying fossil fuel CO2 emissions are necessary to validate the inventory estimates, and have the potential to improve upon these inventories by: improving and quantifying uncertainty estimates; providing emissions estimates at smaller scales (in both space and time) than obtainable from inventories; and may be available to researchers more quickly. Measurements of the 14C content of CO2 (?14CO2) provide an ideal independent method of constraining fossil fuel CO2 emissions, since fossil fuel derived CO2, unlike other CO2 sources, is devoid of 14C. Several studies have demonstrated that the depletion of ?14CO2 can be used to accurately quantify the recently-added fossil fuel CO2 component in atmospheric samples. A remaining challenge is to translate these measured fossil fuel CO2 mixing ratios into the fossil fuel CO2 flux for a given region. We approach this problem by examining time series of ?14CO2 measurements, in combination with atmospheric transport modeling, to measure the change in fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the source region over time. This technique allows use of a relatively small number of ?14CO2 measurements, and is less sensitive to bias in the transport model, than inversion methods. We assess the uncertainties in the estimated fossil fuel emissions, both from the measurements, and from the transport model. We use East Asia as a test region; using ?14CO2 measurements from the NOAA/ESRL cooperative sampling network to independently measure the growth in emissions since 2004. The rapid growth in emissions from East Asia make the signal relatively easily detectable, and with China now apparently the largest fossil fuel CO2 emitting country, uncertainties or biases in the fossil fuel CO2 emission estimates for China are globally important.

Turnbull, J. C.; Tans, P. P.; Lehman, S. J.; Petron, G.; Miller, J. B.

2008-12-01

76

Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides.

Crowther, M.A.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Morris, S.C.

1980-10-01

77

Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides

78

Fossil fuel combined cycle power generation method  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for converting fuel energy to electricity includes the steps of converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one mixed gas stream of lower average molecular weight including at least a first lower molecular weight gas and a second gas, the first and second gases being different gases, wherein the first lower molecular weight gas comprises H.sub.2 and the second gas comprises CO. The mixed gas is supplied to at least one turbine to produce electricity. The mixed gas stream is divided after the turbine into a first gas stream mainly comprising H.sub.2 and a second gas stream mainly comprising CO. The first and second gas streams are then electrochemically oxidized in separate fuel cells to produce electricity. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

Labinov, Solomon D [Knoxville, TN; Armstrong, Timothy R [Clinton, TN; Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN

2008-10-21

79

Natural radioactivity of fossil fuels used in Austria and of their burnt wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The natural radioactivity of fossil fuels and of the wastes resulting from the burning of these fuels, which are used in Austria, were measured especially for the isotopes 40K, 137Cs, 214Bi, 214Pb, 226Ra, 208Tl, 212Pb, 228Ac and the concentrations of U, Th, K and Ra. The measured data are presented in form of tables, giving the values for industrial and domestic wastes of fuels like brown coal, coke, ashes, oil and black coal. (A.N.)

80

Global exergetic dimension of hydrogen use in reducing fossil fuel consumption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for minimizing the fossil fuel based-global irreversibility coefficient of global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions such as global waste exergy factor, global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based-global exergetic indicator. In order to investigate the role of hydrogen use at minimizing the fossil fuel based global irreversibility, the actual fossil fuel consumption data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases, the fossil fuel based-global irreversibility coefficient will decrease. (author)

 
 
 
 
81

The effect of fossil fuel prices to electric generation mix  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rapid economic growth in the newly rising developing countries like China and India provoked the competition for resource security worldwide. These resources include crude oil, coal, natural gas, uranium with other mineral materials. Crude oil was especially in the center of this competition. In the meantime, the cost for electric generation in Korea depends heavily on the prices of fuels such as coal and LNG since almost fuels for generation have to be imported from abroad. Accordingly the rising of fossil fuel prices lead directly to the increase of the average generation cost in Korea. This also requires the change of the rational electric system mix which is mainly determined by the lifetime costs of each generation technology. The objective of this study is to analyze the direction or range of change in electric mix influenced by the changes of fossil fuel prices. In the following sections, firstly we will summarize the forecasts for fossil fuel prices from overseas expert agencies, followed by the choice of LDC(Load Duration Curve) to be used and the calculation of generation costs by each technology

82

Hydrogen as a renewable and sustainable solution in reducing global fossil fuel consumption  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for reducing global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions are derived depending primarily upon the exergetic utilization ratios of fossil fuels and hydrogen: the fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency, fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator. These relations incorporate predicted exergetic utilization ratios for hydrogen energy from non-fossil fuel resources such as water, etc., and are used to investigate whether or not exergetic utilization of hydrogen can significantly reduce the fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient (ranging from 1 to +{infinity}) indicating the fossil fuel consumption and contribute to increase the hydrogen based global exergetic indicator (ranging from 0 to 1) indicating the hydrogen utilization at a certain ratio of fossil fuel utilization. In order to verify all these exergetic expressions, the actual fossil fuel consumption and production data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. For the verification of these parameters, the variations of fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator as the functions of fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency and exergetic utilization of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels are analyzed and discussed in detail. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases, the fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient will decrease and the hydrogen based global exergetic indicator will increase. (author)

Midilli, Adnan; Dincer, Ibrahim [Energy Division, Mechanical Engineering Department, Nigde University, 51100 Nigde (Turkey); Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada)

2008-08-15

83

Reducing the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel power plans by exhaust gas treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other pollutants which result from burning fossil fuels has been identified as the major contributor to global warming and climate change. However, for the short term, at least for the next 10-20 years, the world will continue to rely on fossil fuels as the source of primary energy. The challenge for the fossil the fuel industry is to find cost-effective solutions that will reduce the release of CO2 and other pollutants into the atmosphere. The focus of this paper is on the ability to treat the exhaust gas from fossil fuel power plants in order to capture and store the CO2 and remove the other pollutants such as SOx and NOx which are released into the atmosphere. In summary, capture/separation costs represent the largest financial impediment for this type of plants. Hence, efficient, cost-effective capture/separation technologies need to be developed to allow their large-scale use. (author)

84

75 FR 66008 - Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EERE-2010-BT-STD-0031] RIN 1904-AB96 Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction...proposed rulemaking (NOPR) regarding the fossil fuel- generated energy consumption...meeting and seeking comments regarding the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption...

2010-10-27

85

Fossil fuel biomarkers in plant waxes as pollution parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hopane and sterane derivatives typical of highly mature sedimentary organic matter, e.g. petroleum, have been identified in several plant species growing near Nancy, France. Analyses of plant waxes by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry over a restricted mass interval (m/z 185-195) allows definition of pollution parameters based on the relative concentration of fossil hopanes versus modern plant n-alkanes. Indeed, such parameters are higher for Pinus nigra growing along a high traffic highway than for Pinus nigra growing in a less polluted suburb area. Molecular pollution parameters based on fossil molecules are thus promising tools for measuring the extent of fossil fuel input into plant and food

Bryselbout, Carine; Henner, Pascale; Lichtfouse, Eric [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, INRA/ENSAIA-INPL, BP 172, 54505 Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France)

1998-10-27

86

Synergistic production of hydrogen using fossil fuels and nuclear energy application of nuclear-heated membrane reformer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Processes and technologies to produce hydrogen synergistically by the steam reforming reaction using fossil fuels and nuclear heat are reviewed. Formulas of chemical reactions, required heats for reactions, saving of fuel consumption or reduction of carbon dioxide emission, possible processes and other prospects are examined for such fossil fuels as natural gas, petroleum and coal. The 'membrane reformer' steam reforming with recirculation of reaction products in a closed loop configuration is considered to be the most advantageous among various synergistic hydrogen production methods. Typical merits of this method are: nuclear heat supply at medium temperature below 600 deg. C, compact plant size and membrane area for hydrogen production, efficient conversion of feed fuel, appreciable reduction of carbon dioxide emission, high purity hydrogen without any additional process, and ease of separating carbon dioxide for future sequestration requirements. With all these benefits, the synergistic production of hydrogen by membrane reformer using fossil fuels and nuclear energy can be an effective solution in this century for the world which has to use. fossil fuels any way to some extent while reducing carbon dioxide emission. For both the fossil fuels industry and the nuclear industry, which are under constraint of resource, environment and economy, this production method will be a viable symbiosis strategy for the coming hydrogen economy era. (author)

87

US fossil fuel technologies for Thailand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy has been encouraging other countries to consider US coal and coal technologies in meeting their future energy needs. Thailand is one of three developing countries determined to be a potentially favorable market for such exports. This report briefly profiles Thailand with respect to population, employment, energy infrastructure and policies, as well as financial, economic, and trade issues. Thailand is shifting from a traditionally agrarian economy to one based more strongly on light manufacturing and will therefore require increased energy resources that are reliable and flexible in responding to anticipated growth. Thailand has extensive lignite deposits that could fuel a variety of coal-based technologies. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors could utilize this resource and still permit Thailand to meet emission standards for sulfur dioxide. This option also lends itself to small-scale applications suitable for private-sector power generation. Slagging combustors and coal-water mixtures also appear to have potential. Both new construction and refurbishment of existing plants are planned. 18 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

Buehring, W.A.; Dials, G.E.; Gillette, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.; Traczyk, P.A.

1990-10-01

88

Renewable hydrogen production for fossil fuel processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the fundamental biological process of photosynthesis, atmospheric carbon dioxide is reduced to carbohydrate using water as the source of electrons with simultaneous evolution of molecular oxygen: H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + light {yields} O{sub 2} + (CH{sub 2}O). It is well established that two light reactions, Photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) working in series, are required to perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Experimental data supporting the two-light reaction model are based on the quantum requirement for complete photosynthesis, spectroscopy, and direct biochemical analysis. Some algae also have the capability to evolve molecular hydrogen in a reaction energized by the light reactions of photosynthesis. This process, now known as biophotolysis, can use water as the electron donor and lead to simultaneous evolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen. In green algae, hydrogen evolution requires prior incubation under anaerobic conditions. Atmospheric oxygen inhibits hydrogen evolution and also represses the synthesis of hydrogenase enzyme. CO{sub 2} fixation competes with proton reduction for electrons relased from the photosystems. Interest in biophotolysis arises from both the questions that it raises concerning photosynthesis and its potential practical application as a process for converting solar energy to a non-carbon-based fuel. Prior data supported the requirement for both Photosystem I and Photosystem II in spanning the energy gap necessary for biophotolysis of water to oxygen and hydrogen. In this paper we report the at PSII alone is capable of driving sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen in an anaerobically adapted PSI-deficient strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, mutant B4, and that CO{sub 2} competes as an electron acceptor.

Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.; Tevault, C.V. [and others

1995-06-01

89

Brown Clouds over South Asia: Biomass or Fossil Fuel Combustion?  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbonaceous aerosols cause strong atmospheric heating and large surface cooling that is as important to South Asian climate forcing as greenhouse gases, yet the aerosol sources are poorly understood. Emission inventory models suggest that biofuel burning accounts for 50 to 90 % of emissions, whereas the elemental composition of ambient aerosols points to fossil fuel combustion. We used radiocarbon measurements of winter monsoon aerosols from western India and the Indian Ocean to determine that biomass combustion produced two-thirds of the bulk carbonaceous aerosols, as well as one-half and two-thirds of two black carbon subfractions, respectively. These constraints show that both biomass combustion (such as residential cooking and agricultural burning) and fossil fuel combustion should be targeted to mitigate climate effects and improve air quality.

Gustafsson, Örjan; Krusĺ, Martin; Zencak, Zdenek; Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Granat, Lennart; Engström, Erik; Praveen, P. S.; Rao, P. S. P.; Leck, Caroline; Rodhe, Henning

2009-01-01

90

Greenhouse gas emissions reduction from fossil fuels: options and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are to be stabilized over the next 50 years, net emissions from the use of fossil fuels have to be reduced. One concept worth exploring is the removal of carbon dioxide from plant flue gases and disposing of it in a manner that sequesters it from the atmosphere. A number of technologies, which are either commercially available or under development, promise to make this concept viable. The question of where to dispose of the carbon dioxide removed is not the limiting factor, given the potential for use in enhanced hydrocarbon production as well as other geological disposal options. In the longer term, fossil fuel use will significantly decline, but these extraction and sequestration technologies can provide the time for the transition to take place in a manner which causes least impact to the economies of the world. (author)

91

Approaches and potentials for reducing greenhouse effects from fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of energy consumption in 1989, an inventory was made for the original Federal Republic of Germany ('Western Germany') of the carbon dioxide and methane emissions involved in the greenhouse effect for the fossil fuels crude oil, natural gas, coal and lignite. After assessing the various parameters, the report indicates possible approaches to and technical potentials for reducing greenhouse emissions due to use of energy. (orig.) With 70 figs., 144 tabs., 181 refs

92

Say no to fossil fuels and yes to nuclear energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mistaken notion and wrongful fear of nuclear energy based on the horrors of the second world war bombing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima and accidents at Chernobyl and Three mile island and lately the Fukushima nuclear plant meltdown to earthquake and and tsunami have developed antagonism to nuclear energy (NE) and clouded its usefulness as a practical, clean, environment friendly and affordable alternate source of energy. Such antagonism has slowed down research on NE and its adoption on a much wider scale, the crying need of the day. There is a motivated disinformation campaign against nuclear energy in India as witnessed from the ongoing agitation at Kudankulam in Tamil Nadu and Jaitapur in Maharashtra. In fact nuclear energy is the only practical alternative energy source to meet the ever increasing energy needs of the world particularly the developing nations, and to save the world from the greenhouse ill effects of massive carbon dioxide and other emissions from burning fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas. Emissions from fossil fuel burning including radioactive emissions are hundreds of times more in weight and volume and far more hazardous than from an equal capacity nuclear plant. In fact there are no greenhouse gases (CO2), acid rain gases (SO2) or carcinogen emissions (NOx) from nuclear plants. The accident rates and severity of accidents owing to nuclear plants is much lower as compared to fossil fuel power generation. Lampared to fossil fuel power generation. Last but not the least NE offers economic freedom from the clutches of the few monopolistic oil producing countries, which charge exorbitant oil prices and cripple the finances of developing nations. (author)

93

Oceanic methane hydrates: untapped fossil-fuel reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Years ago, oil explorers had only a superficial idea about the existence of a solid form of natural gas known as methane hydrate, and much less, about its geological mode of occurrence. Intensive explorations undertaken by oceanographers and oil geologists, during the last ten years, many occurrences around the world have come to light. Today, hydrate reserves are supposed to hold more fossil fuel energy than is present in conventional oil, gas and coal deposits

94

CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN JAPAN: A MULTIVARIATE APPROACH  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores whether Japanese economy can continue to grow without extensive dependence on fossil fuels. The paper conducts time series analysis using a multivariate model of fossil fuels, non-fossil energy, labor, stock and GDP to investigate the relationship between fossil fuel consumption and economic growth in Japan. The results of cointegration tests indicate long-run relationships among the variables. Using a vector error-correction model, the study reveals bidirectional causalit...

Hazuki Ishida

2013-01-01

95

A PARAMETRIC STUDY ON EXERGETIC ASPECTS OF HYDROGEN ENERGY IN REDUCING FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a parametric analysis on the exergetic dimension of hydrogen in reducing global fossil fuels consumption. Some key parameters such as fossil fuel based-global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based-global exergetic efficiency, and fossil fuel based-global irreversibility coefficient are proposed and studied in this regard. In order to verify these exergetic parameters, the actual fossil fuel consumption and production data are used as the base data in the analysis. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for the present study, it is assumed that the utilization ratio of hydrogen is practically ranged between 0 and 1. As a result, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases, the fossil fuel based-global irreversibility coefficient will decrease.

Adnan Midilli [Energy Division, Mechanical Engineering Department, Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey); Ibrahim Dincer [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

2008-09-30

96

South Korea's nuclear fuel industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

March 1990 marked a major milestone for South Korea's nuclear power program, as the country became self-sufficient in nuclear fuel fabrication. The reconversion line (UF6 to UO2) came into full operation at the Korea Nuclear Fuel Company's fabrication plant, as the last step in South Korea's program, initiated in the mid-1970s, to localize fuel fabrication. Thus, South Korea now has the capability to produce both CANDU and pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. This article covers the nuclear fuel industry in South Korea-how it is structures, its current capabilities, and its outlook for the future

97

Competitivity of cogeneration fueled by biofuels or fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economy of cogeneration systems for different fuels are analyzed in the light of the Swedish governmental proposition of a carbon dioxide emission tax, a general energy tax on fuels and an investment subsidy (per kWe) or a production subsidy (per kWhe) for biofuel cogeneration. (2 refs., 27 figs., 11 tabs.)

98

A novel CO2 sequestration system for environmentally producing hydrogen from fossil-fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbers are currently used to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial flue gases in various fossil-fuel based energy production systems. MEA is a highly volatile, corrosive, physiologically toxic, and foul-smelling chemical that requires replacement after 1000 operational hours. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), a novel class of materials with negligible vapor pressures and potentiality as benign solvents, may be the ideal replacement for MEA. Ab initio computational modeling was used to investigate the molecular interactions of ILs with CO2. The energetic and thermodynamic parameters of the RTILs as CO2 solvents are on par with MEA. As viable competitors to the present CO2 separation technology, RTILs may economize the fossil-fuel decarbonization process with the ultimate aim of realizing a green hydrogen economy

99

Preparation and Characterization of Bio Fuel from Industrial Waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Disposal of biomass becomes often an environmental issue. A novel method has been developed to convert biomass into solid bio-fuel. Experiments were carried out on preparation of solid fuel pellet from industrial biomass wastes. A maximum calorific value of 22,593KJ/kg has been obtained for the bio-fuel prepared in the present investigation and compared with the fossil fuel coal. The bio-fuel pellets were burnt and the emitted green house gases were critically analyzed.

M.N Abinayah Shree

2009-02-01

100

Fuel Efficiency in Truck Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports range of activities and offer information regarding activities performed at Paccar Inc. truck’s plant in order to reduce of fuel consumption in truck industry. There are six major areas investigated: Aerodynamics, Component Spec’ing, Advanced Technology, Route Management, Driver Behaviour, Proper Maintenance. New technologies to improve vehicle fuel efficiency are also reported.

?tefan Farkas

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

New fossil fuel energy technology in the USA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview is given of the American governmental programmes to improve the technology to generate energy by means of fossil fuels (natural gas, oil and coal). It appears that budgets for energy technology are rising again, partly used for the improvement of existing power plants and for the marketing and commercialization of new technology, e.g. advanced gas turbines and fuel cell technology for electricity production. In particular, attention is paid to the hybrid fuel cell gas turbine and cogeneration systems. The contents of the Vision-21 programme of the US Department of Energy is summarized. Vision 21 must form the basis of the future (after 2015) energy supply in the USA. 6 ref

102

Evaluation of conventional power systems. [emphasizing fossil fuels and nuclear energy  

Science.gov (United States)

The technical, economic, and environmental characteristics of (thermal, nonsolar) electric power plants are reviewed. The fuel cycle, from extraction of new fuel to final waste management, is included. Emphasis is placed on the fossil fuel and nuclear technologies.

Smith, K. R.; Weyant, J.; Holdren, J. P.

1975-01-01

103

Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/02  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985, 2000, and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands and impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration are forecast using a set of energy technology assumptions. (DMC)

1980-06-01

104

Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/03  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985, 2000, and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands and impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration are forecast using a set of energy technology assumptions.

1980-06-01

105

Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/01  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985 and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands are forecast as well as the impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration using a set of energy technology assumptions. (DMC)

1980-06-01

106

Energy Efficiency Indicators for Public Electricity Production from Fossil Fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a set of indicators that are used to analyse the energy efficiency of electricity production from fossil fuels on a global level and for a number of key countries and regions. The analysis is based on IEA statistics and includes public electricity plants and public CHP plants. Electricity production by autoproducers is not included and represents less than 6% of global electricity production. However, the share of autoproducers is significant in certain countries, particularly in Europe. Austria, Finland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Spain all have a share of electricity production from autoproducers that is more than twice the global average.

NONE

2008-07-01

107

The European carbon balance. Part 1: fossil fuel emissions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyzed the magnitude, the trends and the uncertainties of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions in the European Union 25 member states (hereafter EU-25), based on emission inventories from energy-use statistics. The stability of emissions during the past decade at EU-25 scale masks decreasing trends in some regions, offset by increasing trends elsewhere. In the recent 4 years, the new Eastern EU-25 member states have experienced an increase in emissions, reversing after a decade-long decreasing tren...

Ciais, P.; Paris, J. D.; Marland, G.; Peylin, P.; Piao, S. L.; Levin, I.; Pregger, T.; Scholz, Y.; Friedrich, R.; Rivier, L.; Houweling, S.; Schulze, E. D.

2010-01-01

108

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, mixed proton/electron conductivity and hydrogen transport was measured as a function of metal phase content for a range of ceramic/metal (cermet) compositions. It was found that optimum performance occurred at 44 wt.% metal content for all compositions tested. Although each cermet appeared to have a continuous metal phase, it is beliehave a continuous metal phase, it is believed that hydrogen transport increased with increasing metal content partially due to beneficial surface catalyst characteristics resulting from the metal phase. Beyond 44 wt.% there was a reduction in hydrogen transport most likely due to dilution of the proton conducting ceramic phase. Hydrogen separation rates for 1-mm thick cermet membranes were in excess of 0.1 mL/min/cm(sup 2), which corresponded to ambipolar conductivities between 1 x 10(sup -3) and 8 x 10(sup -3) S/cm. Similar results were obtained for multiphase ceramic membranes comprised of a proton-conducting perovskite and electron conducting metal oxide. These multi-phase ceramic membranes showed only a slight improvement in hydrogen transport upon addition of a metal phase. The highest hydrogen separation rates observed this quarter were for a cermet membrane containing a hydrogen transport metal. A 1-mm thick membrane of this material achieved a hydrogen separation rate of 0.3 mL/min/cm(sup 2) at only 700 C, which increased to 0.6 mL/min/cm(sup 2) at 950 C

109

Current status of U.S. coal utilization and non-fuel uses of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An understanding of the current situation is important for projecting the future direction of coal utilization. The world's annual consumption of coal in 1995 was 5104.01 million short tons (MST, 1 short ton = 0.907 metric ton). Coal plays a very important role in the US energy supply; US coal production in 1995 totaled 1033 MST, including 611.1 MST of bituminous coal, 328.4 MST of subbituminous coal, 86.1 MST of lignite, and 4.1 MST of anthracite. US coal consumption totaled 940.6 MST, with 88.1% in electric utilities, 3.5% in coke plants, 7.8% for other industrial uses, and only 0.6% in the residential and commercial sectors. The amount of fossil resources used for non-fuel purposes accounted for 8.4% of the total annual consumption in 1995. Non-fuel uses of fossil fuels particularly coal may become more important in the future. The demonstrated coal reserves in the world are large enough for consumption for over 220 years at the 1995 level, while proven oil reserves are only about 40 times the world's 1995 consumption level. Coal has several positive attributes when considered as a feedstock for aromatic chemicals, specialty chemicals, and carbon-based materials. Existing nonfuel uses of coals include (1) high temperature carbonization of bituminous and subbituminous coals to make metallurgical coke; (2) gasification of coal to make synthesis gases and other chemicals; (3) use of coal in manufacturing other materials such as activated carbons, carbon molecular sieves (CMS) and production of phosphorus (phosphoric acid); (4) the use of coal tars from carbonization and gasification for making aromatic and phenolic chemicals; (5) the use of coal tar pitch for making carbon fibers and activated carbon fibers; and (6) other non-fuel products derived from coal including combustion by-products. Coal may become more important both as an energy source and as the source of chemical feedstocks in the 21st century

110

Evaluation of sustainability by a population living near fossil fuel resources in Northwestern Greece  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The emergence of sustainability as a goal in the management of fossil fuel resources is a result of the growing global environmental concern, and highlights some of the issues expected to be significant in coming years. In order to secure social acceptance, the mining industry has to face these challenges by engaging its many different stakeholders and examining their sustainability concerns. For this reason a questionnaire was conducted involving a simple random sampling of inhabitants near an area rich in fossil fuel resources, in order to gather respondents' views on social, economic and environmental benefits. The study discusses new subnational findings on public attitudes to regional sustainability, based on a quantitative research design. The site of the study was the energy-rich Greek region of Kozani, Western Macedonia, one of the country's energy hubs. The paper examines the future perspectives of the area. The conclusions can form a useful framework for energy policy in the wider Balkan area, which contains important fossil fuel resources.

Vatalis, K.I. [Technological Educational Institute of Western Macedonia, Kila (Greece)

2010-12-15

111

Evaluation of sustainability by a population living near fossil fuel resources in Northwestern Greece.  

Science.gov (United States)

The emergence of sustainability as a goal in the management of fossil fuel resources is a result of the growing global environmental concern, and highlights some of the issues expected to be significant in coming years. In order to secure social acceptance, the mining industry has to face these challenges by engaging its many different stakeholders and examining their sustainability concerns. For this reason a questionnaire was conducted involving a simple random sampling of inhabitants near an area rich in fossil fuel resources, in order to gather respondents' views on social, economic and environmental benefits. The study discusses new subnational findings on public attitudes to regional sustainability, based on a quantitative research design. The site of the study was the energy-rich Greek region of Kozani, Western Macedonia, one of the country's energy hubs. The paper examines the future perspectives of the area. The conclusions can form a useful framework for energy policy in the wider Balkan area, which contains important fossil fuel resources. PMID:20801577

Vatalis, Konstantinos I

2010-12-01

112

Partial replacement of non renewable fossil fuels energy by the use of waste materials as alternative fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports recent investigations on the use of biomass like rice husk, palm kernel shell, saw dust and municipal waste to reduce the use of fossil fuels energy in the cement production. Such waste materials have heat values in the range approximately from 2,000 to 4,000 kcal/kg. These are comparable to the average value of 5800 kcal/kg from fossil materials like coals which are widely applied in many industrial processing. Hence, such waste materials could be used as alternative fuels replacing the fossil one. It is shown that replacement of coals with such waste materials has a significant impact on cost effectiveness as well as sustainable development. Variation in moisture content of the waste materials, however should be taken into account because this is one of the parameter that could not be controlled. During fuel combustion, some amount of the total energy is used to evaporate the water content and thus the net effective heat value is less.

Indrawati, V.; Manaf, A.; Purwadi, G.

2009-09-01

113

Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vortex has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation'' program with the Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and will not leach to the environment--as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC system design. This topical report will present a summary of the activities conducted during Phase 1 of the ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation'' program. The report includes the detail technical data generated during the experimental program and the design and cost data for the preliminary Phase 2 plant

114

Health effects of fossil-fuel combustion products: needed research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An examination is made of the research needed to expand and clarify the understanding of the products of fossil-fuel combustion, chiefly that taking place in stationary sources of power. One of the specific objectives that guided the study on which this report is based was to identify the pollutants potentially hazardous to man that are released into the environment in the course of the combustion of fossil fuels. The hazards of principal concern are those which could cause deleterious, long-term somatic and genetic effects. Another objective was to specify the nature of the research needed to determine the health effects of these pollutants on the general population. Special attention was paid to the interaction of pollutants; the meteorologic and climatic factors that affect the transport, diffusion, and transformation of pollutants; the effects of concentrations of aerosol, particulate, and thermal loads on biologic systems; and the susceptibility of some portions of the population to the effects of pollutants on the skin and cardiovascular, pulmonary, and urinary systems. Other objectives were to evaluate the methods of the proposed research, including analytic and interpretation techniques, to identify fields in which the available scientific information is inadequate for regulatory decision-making and to recommend a research program to meet those deficiencies, and to provide a logical framework within which the necessary information can be developed (the proposed program is presented in terms of subject, methods, and priorities).

1980-01-01

115

An econometrics view of worldwide fossil fuel consumption and the role of US  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude oil, coal and gas, known as fossil fuels, play a crucial role in the global economy. This paper proposes new econometrics modelling to demonstrate the trend of fossil fuels consumption. The main variables affecting consumption trends are: world reserves, the price of fossil fuels, US production and US net imports. All variables have been analysed individually for more than half a century. The research found that while the consumption of fossil fuels worldwide has increased trends in the US production and net imports have been dependent on the type of fossil fuels. Most of the US coal and gas production has been for domestic use, which is why it does not have a strong influence on worldwide fossil fuel prices. Moreover, the reserves of fossil fuels have not shown any diminution during the last couple of decades and predictions that they were about to run out are not substantiated. The nominal and real price of fossil fuels was found to change depending on the type. Finally, estimates of three econometric models for the consumption of fossil fuels from 1949 to 2006 are presented which identify the effects of significant variables

116

The LPG-fuel industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LPG-fuel industry comprises several professionals from various domains such as assembly shops for vehicles transformation, materials manufacturers for public distribution stations and companies which produce and commercialize the LPG-fuel. This paper summarizes the administrative and technical liabilities of these professionals, with the technical qualification required, the regulations concerning the official approval of transformation kits and pressure tanks. The French network of public distribution stations for LPG-fuel is shared between five independent dispensers with their own economic policy which represents about 700 LPG-stations. However, the safety regulations concerning LPG-fuels considerably limit the installation of LPG facilities in urban areas. A cost-benefit comparison between LPG and other liquid fuels is given in inset and takes into account the transformation costs of the vehicle. (J.S.)

117

Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

1999-06-30

118

GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM FOSSIL FUELS AND BIOMASS COMBUSTION IN SMALL HEATING APPLIANCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The importance of emission control has increased sharply due to the increased need of energy from combustion. However, biomass utilization in energy production is not free from problems because of physical and chemical characteristics which are substantially different from conventional energy sources. In this situation, the quantity and quality of emissions as well as used renewable sources as wood or corn grain are often unknown. To assess this problem the paper addresses the objectives to quantify the amount of greenhouse gases during the combustion of corn as compared to the emissions in fossil combustion (natural gas, LPG and diesel boiler. The test was carried out in Friuli Venezia Giulia in 2006-2008 to determine the air pollution (CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2 and CO2 from fuel combustion in family boilers with a power between 20-30 kWt. The flue gas emission was measured with a professional semi-continuous multi-gas analyzer, (Vario plus industrial, MRU air Neckarsulm-Obereisesheim. Data showed a lower emission of fossil fuel compared to corn in family boilers in reference to pollutants in the flue gas (NOx, SO2 and CO. In a particular way the biomass combustion makes a higher concentration of carbon monoxide (for an incomplete combustion because there is not a good mixing between fuel and air and nitrogen oxides (in relation at a higher content of nitrogen in herbaceous biomass in comparison to another fuel.

Gianfranco Pergher

2010-12-01

119

Possible future environmental issues for fossil fuel technologies. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work reported here was carried out for the Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy to identify and assess 15 to 20 major environmental issues likely to affect the implementation of fossil energy technologies between 1985 and 2000. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; and true and modified in situ oil shale retorting. Environmental analysis of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. The 16 environmental issues identified as those most likely for future regulatory actions and the main features of, and the possible regulatory actions associated with, each are as follows: disposal of solid waste from coal conversion and combustion technologies; water consumption by coal and oil shale conversion technologies; siting of coal conversion facilities; the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect; emission of polycyclic organic matter (POM); impacts of outer continental shelf (OCS) oil development; emission of trace elements; groundwater contamination; liquefied natural gas (LNG), safety and environmental factors; underground coal mining - health and safety; fugitive emissions from coal gasification and liquefaction - health and safety; boomtown effects; emission of fine particulates from coal, oil and oil shale technologies; emission of radioactivity from the mining and conversion of coal; emission of nitrogn oxides; and land disturbance from surface mining. (LTN)

Attaway, L.D.

1979-07-01

120

Fossil fuels and the global warming debate: the case for a reduction in fossil fuel usage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The science of global warming due to human activities is summarised and the role of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) explained. The impacts of climate change are outlined (loss of land due to rise in sea level, increased possibility of floods, with the subsequent impact on water supplies and impact on crops, and effect on human health). The Framework Convention on Climate Change has the objective of achieving stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system in a time scale to allow ecosystems to adapt to climate change, ensure food production is not threatened and enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner. For stabilisation of levels of CO{sub 2} at just below 500 ppmv (a likely level under negotiation) commitments will be required from all sections of the community and industry has the challenge of developing and marketing developments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Houghton, J. [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva (Switzerland)

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
121

New Optimal Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accomplishments during Phase II of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring. During this program work period, major progress has been experienced in the development of the sensor hardware, and the planning of the system installation and operation. The major focus of the next work period will be the installation of sensors in the Hamilton, Ohio power plant, and demonstration of high-temperature strain gages during mechanical testing of SOFC components.

John Coggin; Jonas Ivasauskas; Russell G. May; Michael B. Miller; Rena Wilson

2006-09-30

122

Regulatory taxation of fossil fuels. Theory and policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research on energy taxation is often based on purely theoretical deductions. This paper stays closer to the real world, using empirical data and interpreting results in a political-economic setting of risk and uncertainty. Economic growth in developing countries will boost energy demand, increasing the risk of shortages of oil and natural gas half-way through the next century, and of coal towards the year 2100. Furthermore, there is mounting evidence that emissions of CO2 trigger harmful climate changes. A timely introduction of regulatory taxes will reduce demand for fossil fuels and accelerate the introduction of sustainable technology. The empirical results presented show, moreover, that such taxes may claim a substantial part of the rent on energy extraction for the energy-importing countries. It is argued that optimal control and the avoidance of displacement effects require a tax affecting marginal use, with exceptions to safeguard competitive positions. Exceptions may be scaled down as the jurisdiction is enlarged

123

Cleaner fossil-fuels programme - progress report 2004/05  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a review of the activities undertaken under the auspices of the DTI's Cleaner Fossil Fuels Programme. Previously known as the Cleaner Coal Technology Programme, the review covers the final year of a six-year programme of work. During this period, the implementation of government policy for CCTs continued as set out in Energy Paper 67, 'Cleaner Coal Technologies: Future Plans for Research and Development, Technology Transfer and Exports Promotion' (1999), modified somewhat by recent developments and the content of the 2003 Energy White Paper, 'Our Energy Future: Creating a Low Carbon Economy'. While the focus is now more inclined towards means to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, central themes of the policy are remained as to maintain support for research and development and to extend the programme's activities in technology transfer and exports promotion (TT&EP). This report is in five sections. First, it describes the structure of the programme and outlines management and administrative arrangements. Second, it covers the activities and achievements of the Cleaner fossil fuels Programme. Projects active during the year are listed. This format is repeated in the third section for the TT&EP Programme, where the more cross-cutting activities, such as support for a broad base of coal science and a strengthening export-oriented technology transfer drive, are also described. The fourth section details activities that were directly managed by the DTI. The fifth section comprises annexes to the reports these list the membership of the Programme's Advisory Committee on Cleaner Carbon Abatement Technologies (ACCAT) and publications produced during the year.

NONE

2006-01-15

124

Nuclear power as a substitute for fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The challenge in energy policy is to reduce CO2 emissions and the worlds dependence on oil while satisfying a substantially increased demand for energy. Putting aside the still-speculative possibility of sequestering carbon dioxide, this challenge reduces to that of using energy more efficiently and finding substitutes for fossil fuels. Alternatives to fossil fuels fall into two broad categories: Renewable sources. Most of these sources-including hydroelectric power, wind power, direct solar heating, photovoltaic power, and biomass-derive their energy ultimately from the Sun and will not be exhausted during the next billion years. Geothermal energy and tidal energy are also renewable, in this sense, although they do not rely on the sun. However, there is almost an inverse correlation between the extent to which the source b now being used and the size of the potentially trap able resource. Thus, expansion of hydroelectric power (which is substantially used) is constricted by limited sites and environmental objections, whereas wind (for which the resource is large) is as yet less used and thus is not fully proven as a large-scale contributor. Nuclear sources. The two nuclear possibilities are fission and fusion. The latter would be inexhaustible for all practical purposes, but developing an effective fusion system remains an uncertain hope. Fission energy would also have an extremely long time span if breeder reactors arc employed, but with present-day reactors limits on uranium (or thorium) resources could be an eventual problem. At present, fission power faces problems of public acceptance and economic competitiveness. The broad alternatives of renewable energy and nuclear energy can be considered as being in competition, with one or the other to be the dominant choice, or complementary, with both being extensively employed

125

Forecasting production of fossil fuel sources in Turkey using a comparative regression and ARIMA model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aims at forecasting the most possible curve for domestic fossil fuel production of Turkey to help policy makers to develop policy implications for rapidly growing dependency problem on imported fossil fuels. The fossil fuel dependency problem is international in scope and context and Turkey is a typical example for emerging energy markets of the developing world. We developed a decision support system for forecasting fossil fuel production by applying a regression, ARIMA and SARIMA method to the historical data from 1950 to 2003 in a comparative manner. The method integrates each model by using some decision parameters related to goodness-of-fit and confidence interval, behavior of the curve, and reserves. Different forecasting models are proposed for different fossil fuel types. The best result is obtained for oil since the reserve classifications used it is much better defined them for the others. Our findings show that the fossil fuel production peak has already been reached; indicating the total fossil fuel production of the country will diminish and theoretically will end in 2038. However, production is expected to end in 2019 for hard coal, in 2024 for natural gas, in 2029 for oil and 2031 for asphaltite. The gap between the fossil fuel consumption and production is growing enormously and it reaches in 2030 to approximately twice of what it is in 2000

126

Forecasting production of fossil fuel sources in Turkey using a comparative regression and ARIMA model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study aims at forecasting the most possible curve for domestic fossil fuel production of Turkey to help policy makers to develop policy implications for rapidly growing dependency problem on imported fossil fuels. The fossil fuel dependency problem is international in scope and context and Turkey is a typical example for emerging energy markets of the developing world. We developed a decision support system for forecasting fossil fuel production by applying a regression, ARIMA and SARIMA method to the historical data from 1950 to 2003 in a comparative manner. The method integrates each model by using some decision parameters related to goodness-of-fit and confidence interval, behavior of the curve, and reserves. Different forecasting models are proposed for different fossil fuel types. The best result is obtained for oil since the reserve classifications used it is much better defined them for the others. Our findings show that the fossil fuel production peak has already been reached; indicating the total fossil fuel production of the country will diminish and theoretically will end in 2038. However, production is expected to end in 2019 for hard coal, in 2024 for natural gas, in 2029 for oil and 2031 for asphaltite. The gap between the fossil fuel consumption and production is growing enormously and it reaches in 2030 to approximately twice of what it is in 2000.

Ediger, Volkan S. [Cumhurbaskanligi, Cankaya, 06689 Ankara (Turkey); Akar, Sertac [Middle East Technical University, Geological Engineering Department, Inoenue Bulvari, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: asertac@metu.edu.tr; Ugurlu, Berkin [Middle East Technical University, Geological Engineering Department, Inoenue Bulvari, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

2006-12-15

127

Forecasting production of fossil fuel sources in Turkey using a comparative regression and ARIMA model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study aims at forecasting the most possible curve for domestic fossil fuel production of Turkey to help policy makers to develop policy implications for rapidly growing dependency problem on imported fossil fuels. The fossil fuel dependency problem is international in scope and context and Turkey is a typical example for emerging energy markets of the developing world. We developed a decision support system for forecasting fossil fuel production by applying a regression, ARIMA and SARIMA method to the historical data from 1950 to 2003 in a comparative manner. The method integrates each model by using some decision parameters related to goodness-of-fit and confidence interval, behavior of the curve, and reserves. Different forecasting models are proposed for different fossil fuel types. The best result is obtained for oil since the reserve classifications used it is much better defined them for the others. Findings show that the fossil fuel production peak has already been reached; indicating the total fossil fuel production of the country will diminish and theoretically will end in 2038. However, production is expected to end in 2019 for hard coal, in 2024 for natural gas, in 2029 for oil and 2031 for asphaltite. The gap between fossil fuel consumption and production is growing enormously and in 2030 approximately twice what it is in 2000. 39 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

Volkan S. Ediger; Sertac Akar; Berkin Ugurlu [Cumhurbaskanligi, Ankara (Turkey)

2006-12-15

128

Extraction of hydrogen from fossil fuels with production of solid carbon materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fossil fuels can be considered as hydrogen ores for CO{sub 2}-free energy, and carbon ores for carbon construction materials. This paper discusses methods for extraction of hydrogen from fossil fuels without carbon oxidation, with co-production of high value solid carbon material products. (author)

Halloran, John W. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48104 (United States)

2008-05-15

129

Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India: I—Fossil fuel combustion  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive, spatially resolved (0.25°×0.25°) fossil fuel consumption database and emissions inventory was constructed, for India, for the first time. Emissions of sulphur dioxide and aerosol chemical constituents were estimated for 1996-1997 and extrapolated to the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) study period (1998-1999). District level consumption of coal/lignite, petroleum and natural gas in power plants, industrial, transportation and domestic sectors was 9411 PJ, with major contributions from coal (54%) followed by diesel (18%). Emission factors for various pollutants were derived using India specific fuel characteristics and information on combustion/air pollution control technologies for the power and industrial sectors. Domestic and transportation emission factors, appropriate for Indian source characteristics, were compiled from literature. SO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion for 1996-1997 were 4.0 Tg SO 2 yr -1, with 756 large point sources (e.g. utilities, iron and steel, fertilisers, cement, refineries and petrochemicals and non-ferrous metals), accounting for 62%. PM 2.5 emitted was 0.5 and 2.0 Tg yr -1 for the 100% and the 50% control scenario, respectively, applied to coal burning in the power and industrial sectors. Coal combustion was the major source of PM 2.5 (92%) primarily consisting of fly ash, accounting for 98% of the "inorganic fraction" emissions (difference between PM 2.5 and black carbon+organic matter) of 1.6 Tg yr -1. Black carbon emissions were estimated at 0.1 Tg yr -1, with 58% from diesel transport, and organic matter emissions at 0.3 Tg yr -1, with 48% from brick-kilns. Fossil fuel consumption and emissions peaked at the large point industrial sources and 22 cities, with elevated area fluxes in northern and western India. The spatial resolution of this inventory makes it suitable for regional-scale aerosol-climate studies. These results are compared to previous studies and differences discussed. Measurements of emission factors for Indian sources are needed to further refine these estimates.

Reddy, M. Shekar; Venkataraman, Chandra

130

Comparative life cycle assessment of biodiesel and fossil diesel fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biofuels offer clear advantages in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, but do they perform better when we look at all the environmental impacts from a life cycle perspective. In the context of a demonstration project at the Flemish Institute for Technology Research (VITO) on the use of rapeseed methyl ester (RME) or biodiesel as automotive fuel, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of biodiesel and diesel was made. The primary concern was the question as to whether or not the biodiesel chain was comparable to the conventional diesel chain, from an environmental point of view, taking into account all stages of the life cycle of the two products. Additionally, environmental damage costs were calculated, using an impact pathway analysis. This paper presents the results of the two methods for evaluation of environmental impacts of RME and conventional diesel. Both methods are complementary and share the conclusion that although biodiesel has much lower greenhouse gas emissions, it still has significant impacts on other impact categories. The external costs of biodiesel are a bit lower compared to fossil diesel. For both fuels, external costs are significantly higher than the private production cost. (Author)

131

Jatropha Biofuel Project: Emissions Up to Six Times Greater Than Fossil Fuels - Climate &  

... Jatropha Biofuel Project: Emissions Up to Six Times Greater Than Fossil Fuels - Climate & Capitalism Climate & Capitalism An ecosocialist ...Monthly Review MR Press MRzine Economist’s Travelogue You are here: Home / 2011 / March / 22 / Jatropha Biofuel Project: Emissions Up to Six Times Greater Than Fossil ...Fuels Posted on March 22, 2011 Jatropha Biofuel Project: Emissions Up to Six Times Greater Than Fossil Fuels A new study from Kenya shows that ... jatropha, which has been promoted as a “wonder fuel,” is a disaster for the environment and for the people the plantations displace ...

132

Economic evaluation of methods to substitute consumption of fossil fuel for nuclear one in power generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technical-and-economic indices of separate and combind processes of thermal and electric power production are compared for different energy sources (heat-only nuclear stations power and heat nuclear stations condensation nuclear power plants, fossil-fuel condensation power plants, fossil-fuel power and heat nuclear stations and fossil-fuel boiler houses). The data on capital outlays, fuel expenses and total reduced costs are presented. The analysis has shown that all versions of nuclear energy development with the use of heat-only nuclear stations in different combinations prove to be less preferable than the version of cogeneration of heat and electric power at power and heat nuclear stations

133

Prevent the risk of climate change by taxing fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of all the greenhouse gases, it is emissions of CO2 which most urgently require reduction. On the one hand, given the very long lifetime of this gas, its emissions are almost irreversible in character. On the other hand, the measures to be taken concern technological choices, and choices in matters of planning and land use, which are not easily reversible either. It would be very costly, later on, to go back on decisions we make in the coming years without taking into account the risk of climate change. We will only be able to stabilize the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere if we are able to reduce present emissions by 60 per cent. The challenge to humanity is considerable, since this reduction in emissions has to be achieved despite the forecast doubling of the world's population. We must organize ourselves both to stabilize the world's forests (reforestation in certain regions compensating for the inevitable deforestation elsewhere), and to reduce by 25 per cent the average consumption of fossil fuel per inhabitant. Such a radical reorientation of our habits in the consumption of fossil energy does not seem to me technically unreachable, and it will not cause widespread ruin if we manage to optimize its organization. Preventive work will only be effective if it is made on a planetary scale. It will only be undertaken if we are able to share the burden fairly between the various countries; and it will not be ruinous if we manage to decentralize necessary initiatives, so that the least costly methods are undertaken everywhere from the outset. (author)

134

Fuel cells - an attractive option for use in industry. Brennstoffzellen - eine attraktive Option fuer Anwendungen in der Industrie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In energy generation, environmental loads caused by fossil fuels are one of the motivations for the development of effective processes, including new technologies. According to a present assessment, fuel cell engineering can reserve some niches in this decade from the point of view of costs. Technically almost mature is especially the phosphoric acid fuel cell. Its use may make sense in the industrial range, if as an industrial by-product hydrogen-rich gases are available, which can be used as fuel for the fuel cell. In the present contribution, an applied case is described and some statements on the engineering and cost-effectiveness are made. (orig.)

Drenckhahn, W. (Siemens AG Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Erlangen (Germany)); Hassmann, K. (Siemens AG Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Erlangen (Germany)); Lezuo, A. (Siemens AG Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Erlangen (Germany))

1994-09-01

135

Cleaner fossil-fuels programme - progress report 2003/04  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a review of the activities undertaken under the auspices of the DTI's Cleaner Fossil Fuels Programme. Previously known as the Cleaner Coal Technology Programme, the review covers year five of a six-year programme of work. During this fourth period, the implementation of government policy for CCTs continued as set out in Energy Paper 67, 'Cleaner Coal Technologies; Future Plans for Research and Development, Technology Transfer and Exports Promotion' (1999). While the focus is now more inclined towards means to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, central themes of the policy are remained as to maintain support for research and development and to extend the programme's activities in technology transfer and exports promotion. This report is in five sections. First, it describes the structure of the programme and outlines management and administrative arrangements. Second, it covers the activities and achievements of the Cleaner Coal Technology R & D Programme. Projects active during the year are listed. This format is repeated in the third section for the Cleaner Coal Technology Transfer Programme, where the more cross-cutting activities, such as support for a broad base of coal science and a strengthening export-oriented technology transfer drive, are also described. The fourth section details activities that were directly managed by the DTI. The fifth section comprises annexes to the reports these list the membership of the Programme's Advisory Committee on Cleaner Coal Technology (ACCCT) and publications produced during the year.

NONE

2004-12-01

136

Mapping Biomass Availability to Decrease the Dependency on Fossil Fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

To decrease the dependency on fossil fuels, more renewable energy sources need to be explored. Over the last years, the consumption of biomass has risen steadily and it has become a major source for re-growing energy. Besides the most common sources of biomass (forests, agriculture etc.) there are smaller supplies available in mostly unused areas like hedges, vegetation along streets, railways, rivers and field margins. However, these sources are not mapped and in order to obtain their potential for usage as a renewable energy, a method to quickly assess their spatial distribution and their volume is needed. We use a range of data sets including satellite imagery, GIS and elevation data to evaluate these parameters. With the upcoming Sentinel missions, our satellite data is chosen to match the spatial resolution of Sentinel-2 (10-20 m) as well as its spectral characteristics. To obtain sub-pixel information from the satellite data, we use a spectral unmixing approach. Additional GIS data is provided by the German Digital Landscape Model (ATKIS Base-DLM). To estimate the height (and derive the volume) of the vegetation, we use LIDAR data to produce a digital surface model. These data sets allow us to map the extent of previously unused biomass sources. This map can then be used as a starting point for further analyses about the feasibility of the biomass extraction and their usage as a renewable energy source.

Steensen, T.; Müller, S.; Jandewerth, M.; Büscher, O.

2014-09-01

137

Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vortec has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation'' program. The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment-as confirmed by both ANS 16.1 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and did not leach to the environment as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC subsystem design

138

High Efficiency Direct Carbon and Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Fossil Fuel Power Generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen he1 cells have been under development for a number of years and are now nearing commercial applications. Direct carbon fuel cells, heretofore, have not reached practical stages of development because of problems in fuel reactivity and cell configuration. The carbon/air fuel cell reaction (C + O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2}) has the advantage of having a nearly zero entropy change. This allows a theoretical efficiency of 100 % at 700-800 C. The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product do not change during consumption of the fuel. Consequently, the EMF is invariant; this raises the possibility of 100% fuel utilization in a single pass. (In contrast, the high-temperature hydrogen fuel cell has a theoretical efficiency of and changes in fuel activity limit practical utilizations to 75-85%.) A direct carbon fuel cell is currently being developed that utilizes reactive carbon particulates wetted by a molten carbonate electrolyte. Pure COZ is evolved at the anode and oxygen from air is consumed at the cathode. Electrochemical data is reported here for the carbon/air cell utilizing carbons derived from he1 oil pyrolysis, purified coal, purified bio-char and petroleum coke. At 800 O C, a voltage efficiency of 80% was measured at power densities of 0.5-1 kW/m2. Carbon and hydrogen fuels may be produced simultaneously at lugh efficiency from: (1) natural gas, by thermal decomposition, (2) petroleum, by coking or pyrolysis of distillates, (3) coal, by sequential hydrogasification to methane and thermal pyrolysis of the methane, with recycle of the hydrogen, and (4) biomass, similarly by sequential hydrogenation and thermal pyrolysis. Fuel production data may be combined with direct C and H2 fuel cell operating data for power cycle estimates. Thermal to electric efficiencies indicate 80% HHV [85% LHV] for petroleum, 75.5% HHV [83.4% LHV] for natural gas and 68.3% HHV [70.8% LHV] for lignite coal. Possible benefits of integrated carbon and hydrogen fuel cell power generation cycles are: (1) increased efficiency by a factor of up to 2 over many conventional fossil fuel steam plants, (2) reduced power generation cost, especially for increasing fossil fuel cost, (3) reduced CO2 emission per kWh, and (4) direct sequestration or reuse (e.g., in enhanced oil or NG recovery) of the CO{sub 2} product.

Steinberg, M; Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N

2002-01-02

139

Effects of New Fossil Fuel Developments on the Possibilities of Meeting 2C Scenarios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent years have seen an increasing activity in developing new fossil fuel production capacity. This includes unconventional fossil fuels, such as tar sands and shale gas, fossil fuels from remote locations, and fossil fuels with a very large increase in production in the near future. In this report, the impact of such developments on our ability to mitigate climate change is investigated. Our inventory shows that the new fossil fuel developments currently underway consist of 29,400 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 260,000 million barrels of oil and 49,600 million tonnes of coal. The development of these new fossil fuels would result in emissions of 300 billion tonnes of CO2 -equivalent (CO2e) from 2012 until 2050. Until 2050, a 'carbon budget' of 1550 billion tonnes CO2e is still available if we want to of keep global warming below 2C with a 50% probability. For a 75% probability to stay below 2C this budget is only 1050 billion tonnes CO2e. So, the new fossil fuel developments identified in this report consume 20-33% of the remaining carbon budget until 2050. In a scenario where the new fossil fuels are developed, we need to embark on a rapid emission reductions pathway at the latest in 2019 in order to meet the 50% probability carbon budget. Avoiding the development of new fossil fuels will give us until 2025 to start further rapid emission reductions. These calculations are based on the assumption that the maximum emission reduction rate is 4% per year and that the maximum change in emission trend is 0.5 percentage point per year. The starting year for rapid emission reductions depends on the choice of these parameters. A sensitivity analysis shows that, in all cases, refraining from new fossil fuel development allows for a delay of 5 to 8 years before we should embark on a rapid emission reduction pathway. The high investments required for developing new fossil fuels lead to a lock in effect; once developed, these fossil fuels need to be exploited for several decades in order to recuperate investment costs. Since emission reductions need to start soon, i.e. within the next decade, recuperating these costs will be difficult. This will either lead to destruction of capital or not staying within the carbon budget.

Meindertsma, W.; Blok, K.

2012-12-15

140

Emissions from ethanol-blended fossil fuel flames  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fundamental study to investigate the emission characteristics of ethanol-blended fossil fuels is presented. Employing a heterogeneous experimental setup, emissions are measured from diffusion flames around spherical porous particles. Using an infusion pump, ethanol-fossil fuel blend is transpired into a porous sphere kept in an upward flowing air stream. A typical probe of portable digital exhaust gas analyzer is placed in and around the flame with the help of a multi-direction traversing mechanism to measure emissions such as un-burnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Since ethanol readily mixes with water, emission characteristics of ethanol-water blends are also studied. For comparison purpose, emissions from pure ethanol diffusion flames are also presented. A simplified theoretical analysis has been carried out to determine equilibrium surface temperature, composition of the fuel components in vapor-phase and heat of reaction of each blend. These theoretical predictions are used in explaining the emission characteristics of flames from ethanol blends. (author) This paper presents the results of an experimental study of flow structure in horizontal equilateral triangular ducts having double rows of half delta-wing type vortex generators mounted on the duct's slant surfaces. The test ducts have the same axial length and hydraulic diameter of 4 m and 58.3 mm, respectively. Each duct consists of double rows of half delta wing pairs arranged either in common flow-up or common flow-down configurations. Flow field measurements were performed using a Particle Image Velocimetry Technique for hydraulic diameter based Reynolds numbers in the range of 1000-8000. The secondary flow field differences generated by two different vortex generator configurations were examined in detail. The secondary flow is found stronger behind the second vortex generator pair than behind the first pair but becomes weaker far from the second pair in the case of Duct1. However, the strength of the secondary flow is found nearly the same behind the first and the second vortex generator pair as well as far from the second vortex generator pair in the case of Duct2. Both ducts are able to create a counter-rotating and a second set of twin foci. Duct2 is able to create the second set of twin foci in an earlier streamwise location than Duct1, as these foci are well-known to their heat transfer augmentation. A larger vortex formation area and a greater induced vorticity field between vortex pairs are observed for Duct2 compared with Duct1. As the induced flow field between the vortex pairs increases the heat transfer, and as the flow field between the vortex cores is found larger in the case of Duct2, therefore, it is expected to obtain better heat transfer characteristics for Duct2 compared with Duct1. (author)

Akcayoglu, Azize [Mersin University, Faculty of Technical Education, Tarsus, Mersin (Turkey)

2011-01-15

 
 
 
 
141

Towards constraints on fossil fuel emissions from total column carbon dioxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We assess the large-scale, top-down constraints on regional fossil fuel emissions provided by observations of atmospheric total column CO2, XCO2. Using an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM with underlying fossil emissions, we determine the influence of regional fossil fuel emissions on global XCO2 fields. We quantify the regional contrasts between source and upwind regions and probe the sensitivity of atmospheric XCO2 to changes in fossil fuel emissions. Regional fossil fuel XCO2 contrasts can exceed 0.7 ppm based on 2007 emission estimates, but have large seasonal variations due to biospheric fluxes. Contamination by clouds reduces the discernible fossil signatures. Nevertheless, our simulations show that atmospheric fossil XCO2 can be tied to its source region and that changes in the regional XCO2 contrasts scale linearly with emissions. We test the GCM results against XCO2 data from the GOSAT satellite. Regional XCO2 contrasts in GOSAT data generally scale with the predictions from the GCM, but the comparison is limited by the moderate precision of and relatively few observations from the satellite. We discuss how this approach may be useful as a policy tool to verify national fossil emissions, as it provides an independent, observational constraint.

G. Keppel-Aleks

2013-04-01

142

Impact on food productivity by fossil fuel independence - A case study of a Swedish small-scale integrated organic farm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The large-scale industrial agriculture that provides the majority of food at present is dependent upon fossil fuels in the form of tractor fuel, mineral fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation. Yet, the age of cheap and abundant fossil fuels will likely come to an end within the coming decades. In this case study, the productivity of a small-scale farm (8 ha arable land, 5.5 ha meadow, 3.5 ha pasture and 18 ha forest) independent on fossil fuels by using organic methods and draught horse power was investigated. The aim was to quantify its productivity when the animal composition and possible alternatives to tractive power were varied. After an analysis of possible solutions, three scenarios for tractive power were selected: draught horse power, diesel tractor, and combination of draught horse power and rapeseed oil fueled tractor. A model that calculates the amount of food available at the farm in terms of meat, milk egg, and crops, converts it into energy units and calculates how many people can be supplied from the farm was developed. The most reasonable of the scenarios studied was when draught horse power was combined with tractor (and combine harvester) driven on locally produced rapeseed oil. Then the farm will have access to all advantages with the tractor and harvester, e.g., timeliness in harvest and lifting heavy loads, and the renewability and efficiency of draught horse power on smaller fields, and lighter operations. This system was able to support between 66 and 82 persons depending on crop yields, milk yields, meat production, fuel demand for the tractor, and availability of forest grazing. Most likely the production capacity lands on ability to support approximately 68 - 70 persons, and the farm may require fossil fuels to support more than 80 persons. If all farmland globally was to be operated with the same productivity, this would be enough for supplying the global population with food at present.

Johansson, Sheshti [Dept. of Energy and Technology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Belfrage, Kristina [Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Olsson, Mats [Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

2013-02-15

143

News from the fuel elements industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article deals successively with: the re-structuring of the PWR fuel industry in France, with the setting up of Fragema and Cogema Framatome Combustible; Fragema products, from standard fuel assembly to the development of a new advanced fuel assembly; Framatome's experience with PWR fuel; fuel performances in the light of requirements imposed by network needs follow-up; devices developed by Fragema for on-site analysis of irradiated fuel

144

Modelling renewable supply chain for electricity generation with forest, fossil, and wood-waste fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a multiple objective model to large-scale and long-term industrial energy supply chain scheduling problems is considered. The problems include the allocation of a number of fossil, peat, and wood-waste fuel procurement chains to an energy plant during different periods. This decision environment is further complicated by sequence-dependent procurement chains for forest fuels. A dynamic linear programming model can be efficiently used for modelling energy flows in fuel procurement planning. However, due to the complex nature of the problem, the resulting model cannot be directly used to solve the combined heat and electricity production problem in a manner that is relevant to the energy industry. Therefore, this approach was used with a multiple objective programming model to better describe the combinatorial complexity of the scheduling task. The properties of this methodology are discussed and four examples of how the model works based on real-world data and optional peat fuel tax, feed-in tariff of electricity and energy efficiency constraints are presented. The energy industry as a whole is subject to policy decisions regarding renewable energy production and energy efficiency regulation. These decisions should be made on the basis of comprehensive techno-economic analysis using local energy supply chain models. -- Highlights: ? The energy policy decisions are made using comprehensive techno-economic analysis. ? Peat tax, feed-in tariff and energy efficiency increases renewable energy production. ? The potential of peat procurement deviates from the current assumptions of managers. ? The dynamic MOLP model could easily be adapted to a changing decision environment.

145

Economic growth, CO{sub 2} emissions, and fossil fuels consumption in Iran  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental issues have attracted renewed interest and more attention during recent years due to climatic problems associated with the increased levels of pollution and the deterioration of the environmental quality as a result of increased human activity. This paper investigates the causal relationships between economic growth, carbon emission, and fossil fuels consumption, using the relatively new time series technique known as the Toda-Yamamoto method for Iran during the period 1967-2007. Total fossil fuels, petroleum products, and natural gas consumption are used as three proxies for energy consumption. Empirical results suggest a unidirectional Granger causality running from GDP and two proxies of energy consumption (petroleum products and natural gas consumption) to carbon emissions, and no Granger causality running from total fossil fuels consumption to carbon emissions in the long run. The results also show that carbon emissions, petroleum products, and total fossil fuels consumption do not lead to economic growth, though gas consumption does. (author)

Lotfalipour, Mohammad Reza; Falahi, Mohammad Ali; Ashena, Malihe [Department of Economics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-12-15

146

Untangling the Subsidies Knot: A Panel Discussion of Fossil Fuel Subsidy Reform  

...Untangling the Subsidies Knot: A Panel Discussion of Fossil Fuel Subsidy Reform Search Publications Search IISD    IISD Home Our Knowledge About IISD Media Room Publications Centre Audio/Video Contact Us » Themes Adaptation and Risk Reduction Climate Change and Energy Economics and SD Education, Learning ... Related Related publications:Climate Change, Energy, Subsidies, Governance IISD Publications Centre Untangling the Subsidies Knot: A Panel Discussion of Fossil Fuel Subsidy Reform » Peter Wooders, Dave Sawyer, IISD, 2013. Video, 55 minutes, copyright: IISD By some estimates, ...Good, But a Zero Carbon Price is a Better Start: Fossil-Fuel Subsidies in the Canadian Oil and Gas Sector, David Sawyer Untangling the Subsidies Knot: A Panel Discussion of Fossil Fuel Subsidy ReformIISD Publication Twitter Facebook StumbleUpon Digg Delicious LinkedIn Highlighted Report Collaboration and Innovation: The ...

147

Time-dependent climate benefits of using forest residues to substitute fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study we analyze and compare the climate impacts from the recovery, transport and combustion of forest residues (harvest slash and stumps), versus the climate impacts that would have occurred if the residues were left in the forest and fossil fuels used instead. We use cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) as an indicator of climate impacts, and we explicitly consider the temporal dynamics of atmospheric carbon dioxide and biomass decomposition. Over a 240-year period, we find that CRF is significantly reduced when forest residues are used instead of fossil fuels. The type of fossil fuel replaced is important, with coal replacement giving the greatest CRF reduction. Replacing oil and fossil gas also gives long-term CRF reduction, although CRF is positive during the first 10-25 years when these fuels are replaced. Biomass productivity is also important, with more productive forests giving greater CRF reduction per hectare. The decay rate for biomass left in the forest is found to be less significant. Fossil energy inputs for biomass recovery and transport have very little impact on CRF. -- Highlights: ? Cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) can measure climate impacts of dynamic systems. ? Climate impact is reduced when forest slash and stumps are used to replace fossil fuels. ? Forest biofuels may cause short-term climate impact, followed by long-term climate benefit. ? Forest residues should replace coal to avoid short-term climate impact. ? Fossil energy used for biofuel recovery and transport has very little climate impact.

148

Atmospheric measurement of point source fossil fuel CO2 emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

We use the Kapuni Gas Treatment Plant to examine methodologies for atmospheric monitoring of point source fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions. The Kapuni plant, located in rural New Zealand, removes CO2 from locally extracted natural gas and vents that CO2 to the atmosphere, at a rate of ~0.1 Tg carbon per year. The plant is located in a rural dairy farming area, with no other significant CO2ff sources nearby, but large, diurnally varying, biospheric CO2 fluxes from the surrounding highly productive agricultural grassland. We made flask measurements of CO2 and 14CO2 (from which we derive the CO2ff component) and in situ measurements of CO2 downwind of the Kapuni plant, using a Helikite to sample transects across the emission plume from the surface up to 100 m a.g.l. We also determined the surface CO2ff content averaged over several weeks from the 14CO2 content of grass samples collected from the surrounding area. We use the WindTrax plume dispersion model to compare the atmospheric observations with the emissions reported by the Kapuni plant, and to determine how well atmospheric measurements can constrain the emissions. The model has difficulty accurately capturing the fluctuations and short-term variability in the Helikite samples, but does quite well in representing the observed CO2ff in 15 min averaged surface flask samples and in ~1 week integrated CO2ff averages from grass samples. In this pilot study, we found that using grass samples, the modeled and observed CO2ff emissions averaged over one week agreed to within 30%. The results imply that greater verification accuracy may be achieved by including more detailed meteorological observations and refining 14CO2 sampling strategies.

Turnbull, J. C.; Keller, E. D.; Baisden, W. T.; Brailsford, G.; Bromley, T.; Norris, M.; Zondervan, A.

2013-11-01

149

Fossil fuel and biomass burning effect on climate - heating or cooling?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ct is only half that from fossil fuel burning and its heating effect is twice as large. Future increases in coal and oil burning, and the resultant increase in concentration of cloud condensation nuclei, may saturate the cooling effect, allowing the heating effect to dominate. For a doubling in the CO2 concentration due to fossil fuel burning, the cooling effect is expected to be 0.1 to 0.3 of the heating effect. 75 refs., 8 tabs

150

Destabilizing Investment in the Americas. Public Funding for Fossil Fuels After Rio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary is given of ongoing research by the Sustainable Energy and Economy Network into the financing of fossil fuel and renewables/energy efficiency by U.S. institutions and multilateral development banks in the Americas since 1992, the year of the last Earth Summit. These institutions have been key financers of many of the region's most destructive fossil fuel projects over the past decade

151

Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 4: Energy from fossil fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

The conversion of fossil-fired power plants now burning oil or gas to burn coal is discussed along with the relaxation of air quality standards and the development of coal gasification processes to insure a continued supply of gas from coal. The location of oil fields, refining areas, natural gas fields, and pipelines in the U.S. is shown. The technologies of modern fossil-fired boilers and gas turbines are defined along with the new technologies of fluid-bed boilers and MHD generators.

Williams, J. R.

1974-01-01

152

Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India. Part 1 - Fossil fuel combustion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

f the 'inorganic fraction' emissions (difference between PM2.5 and black carbon + organic matter) of 1.6Tgyr-1. Black carbon emissions were estimated at 0.1Tgyr-1, with 58% from diesel transport, and organic matter emissions at 0.3Tgyr-1, with 48% from brick-kilns. Fossil fuel consumption and emissions peaked at the large point industrial sources and 22 cities, with elevated area fluxes in northern and western India. The spatial resolution of this inventory makes it suitable for regional-scale aerosol-climate studies. These results are compared to previous studies and differences discussed. Measurements of emission factors for Indian sources are needed to further refine these estimates. (Author)

153

Reducing industrial use of fossil raw materials. Techno-economic assessment of relevant cases in Northern Finland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Climate change and global warming are currently widely discussed topics, both of which potentially impact all the nations and industries. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other green house gases (GHG) are seen as a major challenge. This doctoral dissertation aims to conduct techno-economic calculations on the possibilities of reducing the industrial use of fossil raw materials in Northern Finland. This doctoral dissertation analyses industrial CO{sub 2} emissions from five complementary perspectives: identifying significant potential industrial plants, analysing the replacement of fossil raw materials with wood biomass, considering combining different industrial sectors, the potential of biogas as industrial raw material, and estimating the economic significance of moisture in wood fuel. The study started by analysing all the relevant 262 regional environmental permits to find the significant industrial users of synthesis gas in the studied region. Processes used by each identified case were analysed carefully to identify the most potential change possibilities. Economic calculations were conducted for these cases using true production volumes. The aim was to reach solutions that were economically sound. Five industrial sites were identified as potential cases for replacing raw materials of synthesis gas or hydrogen with renewable alternatives. These sites include the Rautaruukki steel mill, Eka Chemicals' hydrochloric acid plant, Kemira's formic acid plant, Kemira's hydrogen peroxide producing plant, and Talvivaara mining's hydrogen plant. The main implications of this dissertation include providing tips for industrial managers, regional decision makers and legislators. Managers of companies with high energy consumption and/or high usage of fossil raw materials in their products can benefit from the results of this dissertation the most. Managers should conduct similar calculations, as in this study, by using exact figures relevant to their processes and raw materials. This doctoral dissertation also suggests finding new solutions for replacing fossil raw materials by combining two different industrial sectors, e.g. steel and chemical industries. Regional decision makers may utilise the calculations presented in this doctoral dissertation when developing regional strategies. (orig.)

Arvola, J.

2012-07-01

154

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps; how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% confidence interval. Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50%. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

R. J. Andres

2012-01-01

155

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e., maps; how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10 % uncertainty (95 % confidence interval. Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. This manuscript concludes that carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion continue to increase with time and that while much is known about the overall characteristics of these emissions, much is still to be learned about the detailed characteristics of these emissions.

R. J. Andres

2012-05-01

156

Material flow analysis of fossil fuels in China during 2000-2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the relationship between the supply and demand of fossil fuels is on edge in the long run, the contradiction between the economic growth and limited resources will hinder the sustainable development of the Chinese society. This paper aims to analyze the input of fossil fuels in China during 2000-2010 via the material flow analysis (MFA) that takes hidden flows into account. With coal, oil, and natural gas quantified by MFA, three indexes, consumption and supply ratio (C/S ratio), resource consumption intensity (RCI), and fossil fuels productivity (FFP), are proposed to reflect the interactions between population, GDP, and fossil fuels. The results indicated that in the past 11 years, China's requirement for fossil fuels has been increasing continuously because of the growing mine productivity in domestic areas, which also leads to a single energy consumption structure as well as excessive dependence on the domestic exploitation. It is advisable to control the fossil fuels consumption by energy recycling and new energy facilities' popularization in order to lead a sustainable access to nonrenewable resources and decrease the soaring carbon emissions. PMID:23365525

Wang, Sheng; Dai, Jing; Su, Meirong

2012-01-01

157

Cost and performance of fossil fuel power plants with CO2 capture and storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CO2 capture and storage (CCS) is receiving considerable attention as a potential greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation option for fossil fuel power plants. Cost and performance estimates for CCS are critical factors in energy and policy analysis. CCS cost studies necessarily employ a host of technical and economic assumptions that can dramatically affect results. Thus, particular studies often are of limited value to analysts, researchers, and industry personnel seeking results for alternative cases. In this paper, we use a generalized modeling tool to estimate and compare the emissions, efficiency, resource requirements and current costs of fossil fuel power plants with CCS on a systematic basis. This plant-level analysis explores a broader range of key assumptions than found in recent studies we reviewed for three major plant types: pulverized coal (PC) plants, natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants, and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems using coal. In particular, we examine the effects of recent increases in capital costs and natural gas prices, as well as effects of differential plant utilization rates, IGCC financing and operating assumptions, variations in plant size, and differences in fuel quality, including bituminous, sub-bituminous and lignite coals. Our results show higher power plant and CCS costs than prior studies as a consequence of recent escalations in capital and operating costs. The broader range of cases also reveals differences not previously reported in the relative costs of PC, NGCC and IGCC plants with and without CCS. While CCS can significantly reduce power plant emissions of CO2 (typically by 85-90%), the impacts of CCS energy requirements on plant-level resource requirements and multi-media environmental emissions also are found to be significant, with increases of approximately 15-30% for current CCS systems. To characterize such impacts, an alternative definition of the 'energy penalty' is proposed in lieu of the prevailing use of this term

158

Development of high temperature air combustion technology in pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High temperature air combustion (HTAC) is a promising technology for energy saving, flame stability enhancement and NOx emission reduction. In a conventional HTAC system, the combustion air is highly preheated by using the recuperative or regenerative heat exchangers. However, such a preheating process is difficult to implement for pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers. In this paper, an alternative approach is proposed. In the proposed HTAC system, a special burner, named PRP burner is introduced to fulfill the preheating process. The PRP burner has a preheating chamber with one end connected with the primary air and the other end opened to the furnace. Inside the chamber, gas recirculation is effectively established such that hot flue gases in the furnace can be introduced. Combustible mixture instead of combustion air is highly preheated by the PRP burner. A series of experiments have been conducted in an industrial scale test facility, burning low volatile petroleum coke and an anthracite coal. Stable combustion was established for burning pure petroleum coke and anthracite coal, respectively. Inside the preheating chamber, the combustible mixture was rapidly heated up to a high temperature level close to that of the hot secondary air used in the conventional HTAC system. The rapid heating of the combustible mixture in the chamber facilitates pyrolysis, volatile matter release processes for the fuel particles, suppressing ignition delay and enhancing combustion stability. Moreover, compared with the results measured in the same facility but with a conventional low NOx burner, NOx concentration at the furnace exit was at the same level when petroleum coke was burnt and 50% less when anthracite was burnt. Practicability of the HTAC technology using the proposed approach was confirmed for efficiently and cleanly burning fossil fuels. 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Hai Zhang; Guangxi Yue; Junfu Lu; Zhen Jia; Jiangxiong Mao; Toshiro Fujimori; Toshiyuki Suko; Takashi Kiga [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Department of Thermal Engineering

2007-07-01

159

Carbon-neutral economy with fossil fuel-based hydrogen energy and carbon materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrocarbon fossil fuels can be considered as hydrogen ores for CO{sub 2}-free energy, and carbon ores for carbonaceous construction materials. Hydrogen fuel can be extracted from fossil fuels by decarbonization, and used as an energy resource. The carbon byproduct can be used as a versatile construction material. Carbon materials would sequester carbon, and replace CO{sub 2}-generating steel and concrete. Approximate comparison of the global consumption of energy and construction materials suggests a rough mass balance of energy and materials markets. The cost of foregoing the carbon energy content as a fuel can be easily offset by the value of the carbon-based construction material. The nature and properties of carbon materials and conventional infrastructural materials are compared. The feasibility of the concept of using fossil fuels for hydrogen energy and carbon materials, or HECAM, depends very much on the value of the solid carbon byproduct. 21 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

John W. Halloran [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2007-10-15

160

Sources of variation in ?13C of fossil fuel emissions in Salt Lake City, USA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ghtly from refined gasoline collected at multiple fueling stations, but time lags between processing and transportation cannot be ruled out as an uncontrollable contributing factor. Measured isotope ratios were then combined with fuel consumption statistics to predict the annual cycle of ?13C of fossil fuel emissions for the Salt Lake City metropolitan area. The results showed that the isotopic composition of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion varied by almost 3 per mille over the course of the 2002 calendar year. This study illustrates that on a regional scale, the isotopic composition of fossil fuel emissions shows a high degree of both spatial and temporal variability that may influence characterization of C sources and sinks with atmospheric measurements

 
 
 
 
161

BIOMASS AND FOSSIL FUEL TO METHANOL AND CARBON VIA THE HYDROCARB PROCESS  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discusses the production of methanol and carbon from biomass and fossil fuels, utilizing the Hydrocarbon process. This process has the potential to minimize dependence on imported fuels for the transportation and utility sectors by increasing the yield and reducing the ...

162

Importance of hydrogen fuels as sustainable alternative energy for domestic and industrial applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy demand is increasing continuously due to rapid growth in population and industrialization development. As a result greenhouse gases especially CO2 produced by the combustion of fossil fuels cause depletion of fossil fuels and deterioration of environmental conditions worldwide. The goal of global energy sustainability implies the replacement of all fossil fuels by renewable energy sources . Hydrogen fuel is one of the sustainable energy sources can be available by conversion of biomass into biological hydrogen gas and ethanol. Rate of biomass generation in domestic wastes in Iranian culture is high. Therefore there is suitable potential for hydrogen generation in rural and urban areas of Iran. On the other hand energy extraction from these fossil fuels causes pollution and diseases. Globally, hydrogen is already produced in significant quantities (around 5 billion cubic metres per annum). It is mainly used to produce ammonia for fertiliser (about 50%), for oil refining (37%), methanol production (8%) and in the chemical and metallurgical industries (4%). On the other hand, increase in emissions rates of greenhouse gases, i.e., CO2 present a threat to the world climate. Also new legislation of Iran has been approved the higher costs of conventional fuels for consuming in vehicles for reduction of greenhouse gases reduction as environmental policies. Demand is rising in all cities of Iran for cleaner fuels such as mixed fuels and natural gas, but unfortunately they are exporting to foreign countries or the required technologies are not available and economically option. Nuclear industries in Iran are also small and expanding only slowly. So importance of alternative energies as hydrogen powers are increasing daily. Presently both major consumers of domestic and industrial such as plants and manufacturers are using fossil fuels for their process that consequently contribute to the global warming and climate change. This paper reviews these options, with reference not only to greenhouse gases but also to welfare increasing. (author)

163

Trends in research and development of advanced fossil fuel technologies for electric power generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the end of World War II, electrical generation has increased dramatically worldwide. Fossil fuels account presently for over 70% of the energy input for US electricity generation. Coal provides about three-fourths of the fossil fuel contribution. If no energy policy changes occur, by the year 2010 in the USA over three-fourths of all electricity generation will be fuelled by fossil fuels. As a corrective measure, a National Energy Strategy (NES) has been proposed that will change US energy policies by reducing the expected annual electricity requirements. The NES also forecasts a larger role for nuclear energy and for renewables for power generation needs, with less emphasis on the use of fossil fuels because expected growth in the use of fossil fuels raises concerns about possible health and environmental effects. The switch to new efficient and environmentally superior electricity generating technologies will permit growth while ensuring that the environment is protected. This paper provides an overview of the new advanced technologies for power generation. 10 figs

164

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e., maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossilfuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. This manuscript concludes that carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion continue to increase with time and that while much is known about the overall characteristics of these emissions, much is still to be learned about the detailed characteristics of these emissions.

Andres, R.J.; Boden, T.A.

2012-01-01

165

The Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuels in Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption are presented for the five Asian countries that are among the global leaders in anthropogenic carbon emissions: China (13% of global total), Japan (5% of global total), India (5% of global total), South Korea (2% of global total), and Indonesia (1% of global total). Together, these five countries represent over a quarter of the world's fossil-fuel based carbon emissions. Moreover, these countries are rapidly developing and energy demand has grown dramatically in the last two decades. A method is developed to estimate the spatial and seasonal flux of fossil-fuel consumption, thereby greatly improving the temporal and spatial resolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Currently, only national annual data for anthropogenic carbon emissions are available, and as such, no understanding of seasonal or sub-national patterns of emissions are possible. This methodology employs fuel distribution data from representative sectors of the fossil-fuel market to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of fuel consumption. These patterns of fuel consumption are then converted to patterns of carbon emissions. The annual total emissions estimates produced by this method are consistent to those maintained by the United Nations. Improved estimates of temporal and spatial resolution of the human based carbon emissions allows for better projections about future energy demands, carbon emissions, and ultimately the global carbon cycle.

Gregg, J. S.; Andres, R. J.

2006-12-01

166

Towards constraints on fossil fuel emissions from total column carbon dioxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We assess the large-scale, top-down constraints on regional fossil fuel emissions provided by observations of atmospheric total column CO2, XCO2. Using an atmospheric GCM with underlying fossil emissions, we determine the influence of regional fossil fuel emissions on global XCO2 fields. We quantify the regional contrasts between source and upwind regions and probe the sensitivity of atmospheric XCO2 to changes in fossil fuel emissions. Regional fossil fuel XCO2 contrasts can exceed 0.7 ppm based on 2007 emission estimates, but have large seasonal variations due to biospheric fluxes. Contamination by clouds reduces the discernible fossil signatures. Nevertheless, our simulations show that atmospheric fossil XCO2 can be tied to its source region and that changes in the regional XCO2 contrasts scale linearly with emissions. We test the GCM results against XCO2 data from the GOSAT satellite. Regional XCO2 contrasts in GOSAT data generally scale with the predictions from the GCM, but the comparison is limited by the moderate precision of and relatively few observations from the satellite. We discuss how this approach may be useful as a policy tool to verify national fossil emissions, as it provides an independent, observational constraint.

G. Keppel-Aleks

2012-11-01

167

Zooplankton fecal pellets link fossil fuel and phosphate deposits  

Science.gov (United States)

Fossil zooplankton fecal pellets found in thinly bedded marine and lacustrine black shales associated with phosphate, oil, and coal deposits, link the deposition of organic matter and biologically associated minerals with planktonic ecosystems. The black shales were probably formed in the anoxic basins of coastal marine waters, inland seas, and rift valley lakes where high productivity was supported by runoff, upwelling, and outwelling. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

Porter, K. G.; Robbins, E. I.

1981-01-01

168

Comparative study on systems of residual water treatment in the process industry by evaporation, using fossils fuels or solar energy; Estudio comparativo sobre sistemas de tratamiento de aguas residuales de la industria de procesamiento por evaporacion, utilizando combustibles fosiles o energia solar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The residual water treatment of the process industry, nowadays is an imminent necessity in our country. In the present study two different forms are considered to concentrate residual waters: multiple effect evaporation and solar evaporation. The use of solar evaporation lagoons is a good possibility to conserving energy by means of the diminution of fossil fuel consumption. The design basis of the evaporation systems via multiple effect, as well as solar evaporation, the results of the respective sizing and the estimation of the corresponding costs are presented. A practical case is described on the cooking of cotton linters (flock) [Spanish] El tratamiento de aguas residuales de la industria de proceso, hoy en dia es una necesidad inminente en nuestro pais. En el presente trabajo se consideran dos formas distintas para concentrar las aguas residuales: evaporacion de multiple efecto y evaporacion solar. El empleo de lagunas de evaporacion solar es una buena posibilidad para conseguir el ahorro de energia mediante disminucion del consumo de combustibles fosiles. Se presentan las bases de diseno de los sistemas de evaporacion via multiple efecto, asi como solar, los resultados del dimensionamiento respectivo y la estimacion de los costos correspondientes. Se describe un caso practico sobre el cocido de linters de algodon (borra)

Landgrave Romero, Julio; Canseco Contreras, Jose [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM (Mexico)

1996-07-01

169

Compound-specific hydrogen isotope composition of n-alkanes in combustion residuals of fossil fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

The hydrogen isotope compositions (?D) of n-alkanes present in the combustion residuals of fossil fuels (coal, gasoline, and diesel) were measured using GC-IRMS to distinguish between coal soot and vehicle exhaust. The n-alkane ?D values of industrial and domestic coal soot ranged from -95.3‰ to -219.6‰ and -128.1‰ to -188.6‰, respectively, exhibiting similar tendencies. The ?D values of the C15-C18n-alkanes in both types of coal soot were nearly consistent, and the ?D values of the C19-C24n-alkanes exhibited a zigzag profile. The ?D values of C16-C22n-alkanes in gasoline exhaust exhibited a saw-tooth distribution, decreased with the carbon number, and were more positive than the ?D values of C16-C22n-alkanes in diesel exhaust, which increased with the carbon number. However, the ?D values of the C23-C29n-alkanes in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust were mostly consistent. The weighted average ?D values of the C16-C19n-alkanes in industrial and domestic coal soot were similar to the average ?D values in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhausts; however, the average ?D values of the C21-C29n-alkanes in vehicle exhausts were richer in D than those in coal soot.

Bai, Huiling; Peng, Lin; Li, Zhongping; Liu, Xiaofeng; Song, Chongfang; Mu, Ling

2014-11-01

170

Poly(3-hydroxypropionate): a promising alternative to fossil fuel-based materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are storage compounds synthesized by numerous microorganisms and have attracted the interest of industry since they are biobased and biodegradable alternatives to fossil fuel-derived plastics. Among PHAs, poly(3-hydroxypropionate) [poly(3HP)] has outstanding material characteristics and exhibits a large variety of applications. As it is not brittle like, e.g., the best-studied PHA, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [poly(3HB)], it can be used as a plasticizer in blends to improve their properties. Furthermore, 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) is considered likely to become one of the new industrial building blocks, and it can be obtained from poly(3HP) by simple hydrolysis. Unfortunately, no natural organism is known to accumulate poly(3HP) so far. Thus, several efforts have been made to engineer genetically modified organisms capable of synthesizing the homopolymer or copolymers containing 3HP. In this review, the achievements made so far in efforts to obtain biomass which has accumulated poly(3HP) or 3HP-containing copolymers, as well as the properties of these polyesters and their applications, are compiled and evaluated. PMID:25149521

Andreessen, Björn; Taylor, Nicolas; Steinbüchel, Alexander

2014-11-01

171

Long time management of fossil fuel resources to limit global warming and avoid ice age onsets  

Science.gov (United States)

There are about 5000 billion tons of fossil fuel carbon in accessible reserves. Combustion of all this carbon within the next few centuries would force high atmospheric CO2 content and extreme global warming. On the other hand, low atmospheric CO2 content favors the onset of an ice age when changes in the Earth's orbit lead to low summer insolation at high northern latitudes. Here I present Earth System Model projections showing that typical reduction targets for fossil fuel use in the present century could limit ongoing global warming to less than one degree Celcius above present. Furthermore, the projections show that combustion pulses of remaining fossil fuel reserves could then be tailored to raise atmospheric CO2 content high and long enough to parry forcing of ice age onsets by summer insolation minima far into the future. Our present interglacial period could be extended by about 500,000 years in this way.

Shaffer, Gary

2009-02-01

172

Fossil and non-fossil solid fuels loss of gasification reactivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the perspective of the internationally established state-of-art, the paper surveys the contribution of Italian research groups in the development of the most advanced and environmentally compatible technologies for power generation from solid fuels and based on gasification or combustion at sub- or nearly-stoichiometric conditions

173

Fossil Fuel Supply, Green Growth, and Unburnable Carbon | Publications at SEI  

... Tempest, Kevin Fossil Fuel Supply, Green Growth, and Unburnable Carbon | Publications at SEI GLOBAL STOCKHOLM YORK OXFORD TALLINN US ... Tempest Year: 2014 In: SEI Discussion Brief Type: Discussion Brief Language: English Centre: US Link to SEI author(...s):Michael LazarusKevin Tempest Fossil Fuel Supply, Green Growth, and Unburnable Carbon This discussion brief synthesizes key issues being explored by an ... Michael Lazarus Senior Scientist Theme co-leader, Reducing Climate Risk Kevin Tempest Staff Scientist More SEI staff »EVENTS Nov 2013 ...

174

Fossil Fuel Supply, Green Growth, and Unburnable Carbon | Publications at SEI  

... Tempest, Kevin Fossil Fuel Supply, Green Growth, and Unburnable Carbon | Publications at SEI GLOBAL STOCKHOLM YORK OXFORD TALLINN US ... Tempest Year: 2014 In: SEI Discussion Brief Type: Discussion Brief Language: English Centre: US Link to SEI author(...s):Michael LazarusKevin Tempest Fossil Fuel Supply, Green Growth, and Unburnable Carbon This discussion brief synthesizes key issues being explored by an ... Michael Lazarus Senior Scientist Theme co-leader, Reducing Climate Risk Kevin Tempest Staff Scientist More SEI staff »EVENTS Sep 2013 ...

175

Fossil Fuel Supply, Green Growth, and Unburnable Carbon | Publications at SEI  

... Tempest, Kevin Fossil Fuel Supply, Green Growth, and Unburnable Carbon | Publications at SEI GLOBAL STOCKHOLM YORK OXFORD TALLINN US ... Tempest Year: 2014 In: SEI Discussion Brief Type: Discussion Brief Language: English Centre: US Link to SEI author(...s):Michael LazarusKevin Tempest Fossil Fuel Supply, Green Growth, and Unburnable Carbon This discussion brief synthesizes key issues being explored by an ... Michael Lazarus Senior Scientist Theme co-leader, Reducing Climate Risk Kevin Tempest Staff Scientist More SEI staff »EVENTS Oct 2013 ...

176

Material Flow Analysis of Fossil Fuels in China during 2000–2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the relationship between the supply and demand of fossil fuels is on edge in the long run, the contradiction between the economic growth and limited resources will hinder the sustainable development of the Chinese society. This paper aims to analyze the input of fossil fuels in China during 2000–2010 via the material flow analysis (MFA) that takes hidden flows into account. With coal, oil, and natural gas quantified by MFA, three indexes, consumption and supply ratio (C/S ratio), reso...

Wang, Sheng; Dai, Jing; Su, Meirong

2012-01-01

177

Social cost pricing of fossil fuels used in the production of electricity: implications to biomass feasibility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary objective of this study is to investigate full social pricing for fossil fuels and the subsequent effect on biomass quantities in the state of Tennessee. The first step is to estimate the full social costs and then to estimate the effects of their internalization. Other objectives are (1) investigate whether or not market imperfections exist, (2) if they exist, how should full social cost pricing be estimated, (3) what other barriers help fossil fuels stay economically attractive and prevent biomass from competing, (4) estimating the demand for biomass, and (5) given this demand for biomass, what are the implications for farmers and producers in Tennessee. (author)

178

Interaction of carbon reduction and green energy promotion in a small fossil-fuel importing economy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the incidence of carbon-reduction and green-energy promotion policies in an open fossil-fuel importing general equilibrium economy. The focus is on mixed price-based or quantity-based policies. Instruments directed toward promoting green energy are shown to reduce also carbon emissions and vice versa. Their direct effects are stronger than their side effects, the more so, the greater is the elasticity of substitution in consumption between energy and the consumption good. We calculate the effects of variations in individual policy parameters, especially on energy prices and welfare costs, and determine the impact of exogenous fossil-fuel price shocks on the economy. (orig.)

179

Industrial Maturity of FR Fuel Cycle Processes and Technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

FR fuel cycle processes and technologies have already been proven industrially for Oxide Fuel, and to a lesser extent for metal fuel. In addition, both used oxide fuel reprocessing and fresh oxide fuel manufacturing benefit from similar industrial experience currently deployed for LWR. Alternative fuel type will have to generate very significant benefit in reactor ( safety, cost, … ) to justify corresponding development and industrialization costs

180

Reliability estimation for multiunit nuclear and fossil-fired industrial energy systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to report industrial experience with process energy system reliability, and to assess the reliability of multiunit nuclear and fossil-fired energy systems in an industrial setting. Reliability here refers to the percentage of clock time that sufficient amounts of steam energy were available to permit desired production quotas to be met at a particular plant. A nationwide survey was conducted to obtain data relative to energy system reliabilities during 1973--74, and these data for 29 plants from chemicals and allied products (S.I.C. 28), petroleum refining and related industries (S.I.C. 29) and primary metals industries (S.I.C. 33) are reported here. A simulation model in which various operating characteristics of the energy systems were taken into account was developed to obtain estimates of reliabilities of proposed multiunit nuclear and fossil-fired systems. Based on several example problems evaluated with the simulation model, study results indicated that multiple nuclear units or a combination of nuclear and fossil-fired units could provide adequate reliability to meet large-scale industrial requirements for continuity of service

 
 
 
 
181

Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modern food production depends on limited natural resources for providing energy and fertilisers. We assess the fossil fuel dependency for the Danish food production system by means of Food Energy Returned on fossil Energy Invested (Food-EROI and by the use of energy intensive nutrients from imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing and transportation, 0.25 J of food energy is produced; 0.28 when crediting for produced bioenergy. Furthermore, nutrients in commercial fertiliser and imported feed account for 84%, 90% and 90% of total supply of N, P and K, respectively. We conclude that the system is unsustainable because it is embedded in a highly fossil fuel dependent system based on a non-circular flow of nutrients. As energy and thus nutrient constraints may develop in the coming decades, the current system may need to adapt by reducing use of fossil energy at the farm and for transportation of food and feed. An operational strategy may be to relocalise the supply of energy, nutrients, feed and food.

Hanne Řstergĺrd

2013-08-01

182

Critical analysis on hydrogen as an alternative to fossil fuels and biofuels for vehicles in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent times, the global debate on the environment has been centered on CO2 emissions. This gas is the major cause of the ''greenhouse effect'' and people are more concerned with the idea that the emissions of this gas should be minimized. As a result of this concern, the Kyoto Protocol was enacted and subscribed to by many countries, setting the maximum gas emissions for them. Fossil fuels are a major source of CO2 emissions. For some years now The European Union has been seeking to promote some years now the use of biofuels as substitutes for diesel or petrol for transport purposes. As a result of this policy, in 2003 the European Union (EU) Directive 2003/30/EC was developed with the aim of promoting the use of biofuels as a substitute for diesel or gasoline among European Union countries as well as to contribute to fulfilling the commitments acquired on climate change, security of supply in environmentally friendly conditions and the promotion of renewable energy sources. In order to achieve these goals, the directive forces all EU members to ensure that before December 31 of 2010 at least 5.75% of all gasoline and diesel fuels sold for transport purposes are biofuels. European Union countries have social and economic characteristics unique to themselves. The energy dependence on foreign sources, the features of the agricultural sector or the degree of industrialization varies greatly from one country to another. In this context, it is quetry to another. In this context, it is questionable whether the obligation imposed by this directive is actually achieving in its application uniform and/or identical goals in each of the countries involved and whether the actions of the various governments are also aligned with these goals. All these ideas were developed in a previous report (Sobrino and Monroy (2009)). This report examines the possibility of using hydrogen as an alternative to fossil fuels and biofuels from a technical, economic and environmental point of view in the specific case of a European Union country: Spain. (author)

183

If Fossil and Fissile Fuels Falter, We've Got. . .  

Science.gov (United States)

Alternative energy sources and the new systems and techniques required for their development are described: fuel cells, magnetohydrodynamics, thermionics, geothermal, wind, tides, waste consersion, biomass, and ocean thermal energy conversion. (MF)

Klaus, Robert L.

1977-01-01

184

Market power in the market for greenhouse gas emission permits - the interplay with the fossil fuel markets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol is likely to leave Russia and other Eastern European countries with market power in the market for emission permits. Ceteris paribus, this will raise the permit price above the competitive permit price. However, Russia is also a large exporter of fossil fuels. A high price on emission permits may lower the producer price on fossil fuels. Thus, if Russia co-ordinates its permit market and fossil fuel market policies, market power will not necessarily lead to a higher permit price. Fossil fuel producers may also exert market power in the permit market, provided they conceive the permit price to be influenced by their production volumes. If higher volumes drive up the permit price Russian fuel producers may become more aggressive relative to their competitors in the fuel markets. If the sale of fuels is co-ordinated with the sale of permits. The result is reversed if high fuel production drives the permit price down. (Author)

Hagem, Cathrine; Maestad, Ottar

2002-07-01

185

Carbon-neutral economy with fossil fuel-based hydrogen energy and carbon materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrocarbon fossil fuels can be considered as hydrogen ores for CO{sub 2}-free energy, and carbon ores for carbonaceous construction materials. Hydrogen fuel can be extracted from fossil fuels by decarbonization, and used as an energy resource. The carbon byproduct can be used as a versatile construction material. Carbon materials would sequester carbon, and replace CO{sub 2}-generating steel and concrete. Approximate comparison of the global consumption of energy and construction materials suggests a rough mass balance of energy and materials markets. The cost of foregoing the carbon energy content as a fuel can be easily offset by the value of the carbon-based construction material. The nature and properties of carbon materials and conventional infrastructural materials are compared. (author)

Halloran, John W. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 (United States)

2007-10-15

186

Solid recovered fuels in the steel industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

By using waste materials as alternative fuels in metallurgical plants it is possible to minimize the traditionally used reducing agents, such as coke, coal, oil or natural gas. Moreover, by using waste materials in the metallurgical industry it is feasible to recover these materials as far as possible. This also represents another step towards environmental protection because carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced, if the H(2) content of the waste material is greater in comparison with that of the substituted fuel and the effects of global warming can therefore be reduced. In the present article various solid recovered fuels and their applications in the metallurgical industry are detailed. PMID:22086964

Kepplinger, Werner L; Tappeiner, Tamara

2012-04-01

187

High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO2 measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of approximately 100 km2 and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO2 inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the "Vulcan" inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO2 emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km2 and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Comparison to the global 1degree x 1 degree fossil fuel CO2 inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach. PMID:19708393

Gurney, Kevin R; Mendoza, Daniel L; Zhou, Yuyu; Fischer, Marc L; Miller, Chris C; Geethakumar, Sarath; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2009-07-15

188

Assessment of industrial applications for fuel cell cogeneration systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The fuel cell energy systems are designed with and without a utility connection for emergency back-up power. Sale of electricity to the utility during periods of low plant demand is not considered. For each of the three industrial applications, conceptual designs were also developed for conventional utility systems relying on purchased electric power and fossil-fired boilers for steam/hot water. The capital investment for each energy system is estimated. Annual operating costs are also determined for each system. These cost estimates are converted to levelized annual costs by applying appropriate economic factors. The breakeven electricity price that would make fuel cell systems competitive with the conventional systems is plotted as a function of naphtha price. The sensitivity of the breakeven point to capital investment and coal price is also evaluated.

Stickles, R. P.; Oneill, J. K.; Smith, E. H.

1978-01-01

189

Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model's parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed

190

Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model's parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed.

Wise, M.A.; Woodruff, M.G.; Ashton, W.B.

1992-08-01

191

Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model`s parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed.

Wise, M.A.; Woodruff, M.G.; Ashton, W.B.

1992-08-01

192

Fossil and non-fossil solid fuels loss of gasification reactivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the perspective of the internationally established state-of-art, the paper surveys the contribution of Italian research groups in the development of the most advanced and environmentally compatible technologies for power generation from solid fuels and based on gasification or combustion at sub- or nearly-stoichiometric conditions. [Italian] Il lavoro passa in rassegna le ricerche dei gruppi italiani impegnati nello sviluppo delle tecnologie piu' avanzate e a piu basso impatto ambientale per la generazione di potenza a partire dall'impiego di combustibili solidi e basate su processi di gassificazione o di combustione a condizione substechiometriche o prossime allo stechiometrico. Si analizza anche il quadro piu' generale dello stato delle conoscenze acquisite dalla ricerca internazionale.

Salatino, P.; Senneca, O. [Neaples Univ. Federico Secondo, Neaples (Italy). Dipt. di Ingneria Chimica; COnsiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Neaples (Italy). Ist. di Ricerche sulla Combustione; Tognotti, L. [PIsa Univ., Pisa (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica

1999-09-01

193

Efficient management of insecure fossil fuel imports through taxing (!) domestic green energy?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A small open economy produces a consumer good along with green and black energy and imports fossil fuel for black-energy production at an uncertain world market price. Efficient risk management requires curbing fuel consumption, and hence carbon emissions, when consumers are prudent. Moreover, if consumer preferences display constant absolute risk aversion (implying prudence), an efficient response to increasing risk is promoting green energy and reducing total energy production. Unregulated ...

Eichner, Thomas; Pethig, Ru?diger

2009-01-01

194

Optimization of low sulfur jerusalem artichoke juice for fossil fuels biodesulfurization process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most of the world’s energy is generated from the burning of fossil fuels such as oil and its derivatives. When burnt, these fuels release into the atmosphere volatile organic compounds, sulfur as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and the fine particulate matter of metal sulfates. These are pollutants which can be responsible for bronchial irritation, asthma attacks, cardio-pulmonary diseases and lung cancer mortality, and they also contribute for the occurrence of acid rains and the increase of the hole...

Silva, Tiago P.; Paixa?o, Susana M.; Roseiro, J. Carlos; Alves, Lui?s Manuel

2013-01-01

195

Co-combustion of Fossil Fuels and Waste  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Ph.D. thesis deals with the alternative and high efficiency methods of using waste-derived fuels in heat and power production. The focus is on the following subjects: 1) co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel (SRF) under pulverized fuel combustion conditions; 2) dust-firing of straw and the utilization of a waste-derived material as an additive; 3) the combustion of a biomass residue rich in phosphorus. Co-combustion of coal and SRF was conducted in an entrained flow reactor (EFR). The work revealed that when coal was co-fired with up to 25 wt% SRF, the burnout and the emissions of SO2 and NO were decreased with increasing share of SRF, probably due to the combustion characteristics of the SRF and/or the interactions between the SRF and the coal in co-combustion. The Cl content in the fly ash was very low (

Wu, Hao

2011-01-01

196

A new evaluation of the uncertainty associated with CDIAC estimates of fossil fuel carbon dioxide emission  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three uncertainty assessments associated with the global total of carbon dioxide emitted from fossil fuel use and cement production are presented. Each assessment has its own strengths and weaknesses and none give a full uncertainty assessment of the emission estimates. This approach grew out of the lack of independent measurements at the spatial and temporal scales of interest. Issues of dependent and independent data are considered as well as the temporal and spatial relationships of the data. The result is a multifaceted examination of the uncertainty associated with fossil fuel carbon dioxide emission estimates. The three assessments collectively give a range that spans from 1.0 to 13% (2 ?. Greatly simplifying the assessments give a global fossil fuel carbon dioxide uncertainty value of 8.4% (2 ?. In the largest context presented, the determination of fossil fuel emission uncertainty is important for a better understanding of the global carbon cycle and its implications for the physical, economic and political world.

Robert J. Andres

2014-07-01

197

Energy 3: Fossil Fuel Use and its Consequences - The Carbon Cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

This video goes through the carbon cycle and describes how using fossil fuels threatens the foundation of the aquatic global food chain. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.

Vanasupa, Linda

198

Comprehensive exergetic and economic comparison of PWR and hybrid fossil fuel-PWR power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A typical 1000 MW Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant and two similar hybrid 1000 MW PWR plants operate with natural gas and coal fired fossil fuel superheater-economizers (Hybrid PWR-Fossil fuel plants) are compared exergetically and economically. Comparison is performed based on energetic and economic features of three systems. In order to compare system at their optimum operating point, three workable base case systems including the conventional PWR, and gas and coal fired hybrid PWR-Fossil fuel power plants considered and optimized in exergetic and exergoeconomic optimization scenarios, separately. The thermodynamic modeling of three systems is performed based on energy and exergy analyses, while an economic model is developed according to the exergoeconomic analysis and Total Revenue Requirement (TRR) method. The objective functions based on exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses are developed. The exergetic and exergoeconomic optimizations are performed using the Genetic Algorithm (GA). Energetic and economic features of exergetic and exergoeconomic optimized conventional PWR and gas and coal fired Hybrid PWR-Fossil fuel power plants are compared and discussed comprehensively.

199

EPA/IFP EUROPEAN WORKSHOP ON THE EMISSION ON NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION  

Science.gov (United States)

The report summarizes the proceedings of an EPA/Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) cosponsored workshop addressing direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from fossil fuel combustion. The third in a series, it was held at the IFP in Rueil-Malmaison, France, on June 1-2, 1988. Increas...

200

Regional variations in spatial structure of nightlights, population density and fossil-fuel CO2 emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluate the joint use of satellite-observed intensity of urban nightlights and census-based population density data as constraints on the spatial structure of CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. Findings are: (1) the probability that population density exceeds a given value follows a power-law distribution over two orders of magnitude of population density, encompassing the 40% of the global population at the highest densities. (2) The corresponding probability distribution for nightlights intensity also follows a power-law, departing near instrumental saturation. (3) Assuming that the true nightlights intensity distribution follows the power-law above instrumental saturation, we obtain a correction for saturation errors in the nightlights data. The amplification of nightlights intensity required to correct for saturation errors is estimated to be a factor of 1.15-1.23 globally and much greater in regions with high nightlights intensities. (4) Correcting for saturation, we observe clear empirical relationships between nightlights intensity and areal densities of energy consumption, fossil-fuel emissions and economic activity, holding throughout the development spectrum. (5) We indicate how these relationships underpin a fossil-fuel data assimilation system (FFDAS) for estimating fossil-fuel CO2 emissions.

 
 
 
 
201

Sources of black carbon in aerosols: fossil fuel burning vs. biomass burning  

Science.gov (United States)

The uncertainty in black carbon (BC) analysis and our inability to directly quantify the BC sources in the atmosphere has led to the uncertainty in compiling a regional or global BC emission inventory attributed to biomass burnings. We initiate this study to demonstrate a new approach, which quantifies the source of BC in the atmosphere between biomass and fossil fuel burnings. We applied the newly developed multi-element scanning thermal analysis (MESTA) technology to quantify BC and organic carbon (OC), respectively, in aerosol samples. MESTA can also separate BC from OC for subsequent radiocarbon analyses. Because fossil fuel has been depleted of radiocarbon and biomass has radiocarbon of the modern atmospheric level, we can quantify the sources of BC between fossil fuel and biomass burnings. We sampled the PM2.5 in the ambient air of central Tallahassee and its rural areas during the May-June (prescribed burning) and Nov-Dec (non-burning) periods. The results indicate that biomass burning contributed 89×1% and 67×2% of BC, respectively, during May-June and Nov.-Dec. periods. The rest of PM2.5 BC was contributed from fossil fuel burning. The radiocarbon contents of the OC was 103.42×0.55 percent modern carbon (pmC), which is consistent with the current atmospheric level with a trace of the bomb radiocarbon remained from the open atmosphere nuclear testing.

Hsieh, Y.

2013-12-01

202

Impacts of Wind and Solar on Fossil-Fueled Generators: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High penetrations of wind and solar power will impact the operations of the remaining generators on the power system. Regional integration studies have shown that wind and solar may cause fossil-fueled generators to cycle on and off and ramp down to part load more frequently and potentially more rapidly. Increased cycling, deeper load following, and rapid ramping may result in wear-and-tear impacts on fossil-fueled generators that lead to increased capital and maintenance costs, increased equivalent forced outage rates, and degraded performance over time. Heat rates and emissions from fossil-fueled generators may be higher during cycling and ramping than during steady-state operation. Many wind and solar integration studies have not taken these increased cost and emissions impacts into account because data have not been available. This analysis considers the cost and emissions impacts of cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generation to refine assessments of wind and solar impacts on the power system.

Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Agan, D.; Lefton, S.

2012-08-01

203

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1982  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report primarily covers in-house oil, gas, and synfuel research and lists the contracted research. The report is broken into the following areas: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are listed. (DLC)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1982-10-01

204

Comprehensive exergetic and economic comparison of PWR and hybrid fossil fuel-PWR power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A typical 1000 MW Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant and two similar hybrid 1000 MW PWR plants operate with natural gas and coal fired fossil fuel superheater-economizers (Hybrid PWR-Fossil fuel plants) are compared exergetically and economically. Comparison is performed based on energetic and economic features of three systems. In order to compare system at their optimum operating point, three workable base case systems including the conventional PWR, and gas and coal fired hybrid PWR-Fossil fuel power plants considered and optimized in exergetic and exergoeconomic optimization scenarios, separately. The thermodynamic modeling of three systems is performed based on energy and exergy analyses, while an economic model is developed according to the exergoeconomic analysis and Total Revenue Requirement (TRR) method. The objective functions based on exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses are developed. The exergetic and exergoeconomic optimizations are performed using the Genetic Algorithm (GA). Energetic and economic features of exergetic and exergoeconomic optimized conventional PWR and gas and coal fired Hybrid PWR-Fossil fuel power plants are compared and discussed comprehensively. (author)

Sayyaadi, Hoseyn; Sabzaligol, Tooraj [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Division, K.N. Toosi University of Technology P.O. Box: 19395-1999, No. 15-19, Pardis Str., Mollasadra Ave., Vanak Sq., Tehran 1999 143344 (Iran)

2010-07-15

205

Some aspects of the destructive impact of fossil fuel combustion and mining on the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Poland, over 80% of the power is generated by combustion of coal and lignite. In the process of coal fired power generation, SO2, NOx, heavy elements and trace elements are emitted into the air, and the water is contaminated by saline water discharged from mines. During combustion, significant quantities of natural radioactive elements are mobilized and emitted into the environment together with gases, ash and water. Large emissions of radioactive elements were found. Combustion of coal in power stations of 1000 MW(e) causes emissions of 138 x 103 t SO2 and 20.9 x 103 t NOx per year. New technologies for removal of gas pollutants were developed. A pilot plant based on the electron beam technology for simultaneous SO2 and NOx removal was constructed and tested. Over the last years, many nuclear devices for quality control of coal and lignite have been developed. Devices have been constructed for measuring the ash contents, dust concentration, and sulphur and moisture contents of fossil fuel both for laboratory and industrial applications. The opponents of nuclear power generation in Poland argue that a nuclear power plant emits significant quantities of radioactive gases to atmosphere and produces liquid and solid radioactive wastes. It is pointed out that power production based on coal combustion generates amounts of radioactive materials comparable with those of nuclear power plants and, in addition, large quantities of gases (SO2, NOx, CO2), dust and ash. 11 refs, 2 tabs

206

Fossil Fuel and Biomass Burning Effect on Climate--Heating or Cooling?.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emission from burning of fossil fuels and biomass (associated with deforestation) generates a radiative forcing on the atmosphere and a possible climate chaw. Emitted trace gases heat the atmosphere through their greenhouse effect, while particulates formed from emitted SO2 cause cooling by increasing cloud albedos through alteration of droplet size distributions. This paper reviews the characteristics of the cooling effect and applies Twomey's theory to cheek whether the radiative balance favors heating or cooling for the cases of fossil fuel and biomass burning. It is also shown that although coal and oil emit 120 times as many CO2 molecules as SO2 molecules, each SO2 molecule is 50-1100 times more effective in cooling the atmosphere (through the effect of aerosol particles on cloud albedo) than a CO2 molecule is in heating it. Note that this ratio accounts for the large difference in the aerosol (3-10 days) and CO2 (7-100 years) lifetimes. It is concluded, that the cooling effect from coal and oil burning may presently range from 0.4 to 8 times the heating effect. Within this large uncertainty, it is presently more likely that fossil fuel burning causes cooling of the atmosphere rather than heating. Biomass burning associated with deforestation, on the other hand, is more likely to cause heating of the atmosphere than cooling since its aerosol cooling effect is only half that from fossil fuel burning and its heating effect is twice as large. Future increases in coal and oil burning, and the resultant increase in concentration of cloud condensation nuclei, may saturate the cooling effect, allowing the heating effect to dominate. For a doubling in the C02 concentration due to fossil fuel burning, the cooling effect is expected to be 0.1 to 0.3 of the heating effect.

Kaufman, Yoram J.; Fraser, Robert S.; Mahoney, Robert L.

1991-06-01

207

Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Modern food production depends on limited natural resources for providing energy and fertilisers. We assess the fossil fuel dependency for the Danish food production system by means of Food Energy Returned on fossil Energy Invested (Food-EROI) and by the use of energy intensive nutrients from imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing and transportation, 0.25 J of food energy is produced; 0.28 when crediting for produced bioenergy. Furthermore, nutrients in commercial fertiliser and imported feed account for 84%, 90% and 90% of total supply of N, P and K, respectively. We conclude that the system is unsustainable because it is embedded in a highly fossil fuel dependent system based on a non-circular flow of nutrients. As energy and thus nutrient constraints may develop in the coming decades, the current system may need to adapt by reducing use of fossilenergy at the farm and for transportation of food and feed. An operational strategy may be to relocalise the supply of energy, nutrients, feed and food.

Markussen, Mads Ville; Řstergĺrd, Hanne

2013-01-01

208

Economic analysis to compare fabrication of nuclear power and fossil fuel power plants at Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electric power due to its many advantages over other forms of energies covers most of the world's energy demands.The electric power can be produced by various energy converting systems fed by different energy resources like fossil fuels, nuclear, hydro and renewable energies, each having their own appropriate technologies. The fossil fuel not only consumes the deplete and precious sources of non conventional energies but they add pollution to environment too. The nuclear power plants has its own share of radioactive pollutions which, of course can be controlled by taking precautionary measures. The investing cost of each generated unit (KWh) in the nuclear power plants, comparing with its equivalent production by fossil fuels is investigated. The various issues of economical analysis, technical, political and environmental are the different aspects, which individually can influence the decisions for kind of power plant to be installed. Finally, it is concluded that the fossil and nuclear power generations both has its own advantages and disadvantages. Hence, from a specializing point of view, it may not be proper to prefer one over the others

209

Is photovoltaic hydrogen in Italy competitive with traditional fossil fuels?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have performed an evaluation of the end-use price of photovoltaically produced hydrogen. Our evaluation is optimistic as current estimates of photovoltaic energy costs by other authors generally correspond to higher figures, and evaluations of process and transportation costs have usually taken into account only the main components. Hydrogen is considered to be tax-free. A more realistic evaluation should be based on a fractional tax reduction over the short term, followed by full taxation in later years. Under these conditions, photovoltaic hydrogen as a fuel has proved to be non-competitive except in the transport sector. (Author)

210

Analytic framework for analyzing non-energy uses of fossil fuels as petrochemical feedstocks in the USA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon dioxide emissions from the non-energy use (NEU) of fossil fuels are a significant source of national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the USA. As one of the emission sources that make the largest contribution to the absolute overall level of national emissions, NEU is a 'key source' in the U.S. GHG Inventory, accounting for 4.6% of USA fossil fuel emissions in 2002. As suggested by IPCC/UNEP/OECD/IEA (Revised 1996 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, United Nations Environment Programme, Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development. Paris, France: International Energy Agency; 1997), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has designed an approach for characterizing emissions and long-term storage of carbon in NEU, tailored to USA conditions and data availability, which yield results that are more accurate than application of the general assumptions supplied by the IPCC guidelines. In the USA, of the various non-energy uses of fossil fuels, petrochemical feedstocks is the largest, followed by asphalt, lubricants, and other categories. The overall storage factor for petrochemical feedstocks in the USA for 2002, calculated as the quotient of carbon stored divided by total carbon in feedstocks, is 67%. In other words, of the net consumption, 67% was destined for long-term storage in products - including products subsequently combusted for waste disposal - while the remaining 33% was emitted sal - while the remaining 33% was emitted to the atmosphere directly as CO2 (e.g., through combustion of industrial byproducts) or indirectly as CO2 precursors (e.g., through evaporative product use). The basic framework used in this approach could be applied in other countries, and is similar in several respects to the Non-Energy use Emission Accounting Tables (NEAT) model framework developed independently and described by other authors in this issue

211

N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship, on a global basis, between the amount of N fixed by chemical, biological or atmospheric processes entering the terrestrial biosphere, and the total emission of nitrous oxide (N2O, has been re-examined, using known global atmospheric removal rates and concentration growth of N2O as a proxy for overall emissions. The relationship, in both the pre-industrial period and in recent times, after taking into account the large-scale changes in synthetic N fertiliser production and deforestation, is consistent, showing an overall conversion factor of 3–5%. This factor is covered only in part by the ~1% of "direct" emissions from agricultural crop lands estimated by IPCC (2006, or the "indirect" emissions cited therein. This means that the extra N2O entering the atmosphere as a result of using N to produce crops for biofuels will also be correspondingly greater than that estimated just on the basis of IPCC (2006. When the extra N2O emission from biofuel production is calculated in "CO2-equivalent" global warming terms, and compared with the quasi-cooling effect of "saving" emissions of fossil fuel derived CO2, the outcome is that the production of commonly used biofuels, such as biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from corn (maize, can contribute as much or more to global warming by N2O emissions than cooling by fossil fuel savings. Crops with less N demand, such as grasses and woody coppice species have more favourable climate impacts. This analysis only considers the conversion of biomass to biofuel. It does not take into account the use of fossil fuel on the farms and for fertilizer and pesticide production, but it also neglects the production of useful co-products. Both factors partially compensate each other. This needs to be analyzed in a full life cycle assessment.

A. R. Mosier

2007-08-01

212

Emission of sulphur dioxide during thermal treatment of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dynamics of SO2 emission during thermooxidation of Estonian oil shale, its semicoke, different samples of coal and their mixtures, as well as the influence of Estonian oil shale ash addition (for modelling the CFBC process) on the dynamics were studied. The experiments were carried out with thermogravimetric equipment under dynamic heating conditions (5 K min-1) in the atmosphere of dried air, with simultaneous gastitrimetric EGA. It was established that SO2 emission from the fuels started at 200-320 deg C. Depending on the form of sulphur (organic, pyritic, sulphate), the emission took place in two or three steps, and continued up to 580-650 deg C, during which 35-75% of the total sulphur was emitted into the gaseous phase. Regulating the mole ratio of free CaO/S in the mixtures of fuels with oil shake ash addition the emission of SO2 ceased abruptly at 460-540 deg C and it was limited to the level of 7-30%. (author)

213

Timing is everything : along the fossil fuel transition pathway.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

People save for retirement throughout their career because it is virtually impossible to save all you'll need in retirement the year before you retire. Similarly, without installing incremental amounts of clean fossil, renewable or transformative energy technologies throughout the coming decades, a radical and immediate change will be near impossible the year before a policy goal is set to be in place. Therefore, our research question is,To meet our desired technical and policy goals, what are the factors that affect the rate we must install technology to achieve these goals in the coming decades?' Existing models do not include full regulatory constraints due to their often complex, and inflexible approaches to solve foroptimal' engineering instead ofrobust' and multidisciplinary solutions. This project outlines the theory and then develops an applied software tool to model the laboratory-to-market transition using the traditional technology readiness level (TRL) framework, but develops subsequent and a novel regulatory readiness level (RRL) and market readiness level (MRL). This tool uses the ideally-suited system dynamics framework to incorporate feedbacks and time delays. Future energy-economic-environment models, regardless of their programming platform, may adapt this software model component framework ormodule' to further vet the likelihood of new or innovative technology moving through the laboratory, regulatory and market space. The prototype analytical framework and tool, called the Technology, Regulatory and Market Readiness Level simulation model (TRMsim) illustrates the interaction between technology research, application, policy and market dynamics as they relate to a new or innovative technology moving from the theoretical stage to full market deployment. The initial results that illustrate the model's capabilities indicate for a hypothetical technology, that increasing the key driver behind each of the TRL, RRL and MRL components individually decreases the time required for the technology to progress through each component by 63, 68 and 64%, respectively. Therefore, under the current working assumptions, to decrease the time it may take for a technology to move from the conceptual stage to full scale market adoption one might consider expending additional effort to secure regulatory approval and reducing the uncertainty of the technology's demand in the marketplace.

Kobos, Peter Holmes; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Malczynski, Leonard A.

2013-10-01

214

The fossil-fuels and the global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The earth is heated by solar radiation. One is the most important questions is the effect of the human industry. A simple model used, this gives a good result of the phenomena than difficult expressions of numerical applications. The calculation assigns a small number of parameters to the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. It is most important parameter which is changing. If decrease the atmospheric CO2 concentration on 500 ppm, the surface temperature would rise less 1 oC. The CO2 concentraton is a sensitive criterion, but not so much then we found by other models.

Remenyi, Karoly

2010-09-15

215

Fossil fuels in a changing climate: how to protect the world's climate by ending the use of coal, oil and gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of analysis conducted for Greenpeace reported in this document show that contrary to the message from the fossil fuel industries and some governments, that future energy security is dependent on a continuing increase in the use of oil, coal, gas and nuclear energy, it is not only possible to phase out the use of fossil fuels but this is also achievable in a relatively short timescale. The analysis was based on the computer modelling of energy technologies and policies, linked to the related impact on the world's climate. In the analysis, global carbon dioxide emissions from world fossil fuel use fall by more than 50% within 40 years, and 100% by the year 2100. The phase-out of fossil fuels is made possible by the rapid implementation of energy efficiency, together with extensive use of clean renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass, small-scale hydro and geothermal power. Renewable energy currently delivering 14% of global energy supply, could provide more than 60% by 2030, and all the world's energy needs by 2100. Nuclear power could be phased out by 2100. Greenpeace believes that new policies are needed to see the world on the path of a cleaner energy future. Strong protocols are needed to the international climate convention to set targets on energy efficiency and reneable energy for signatory countries as well as providing funding to allow the south to participate effectively

216

Closing the fuel cycle: the industrial demonstration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The progressive implementation of some key nuclear fuel cycle capacities in a country corresponds to a strategy for the acquisition of an independent energy source. France, Japan, and some European countries are engaged in such strategic programs. In France, COGEMA, the nuclear fuel company, has now completed the industrial demonstration of the closed fuel cycle. Its experience covers every step of the front-end and of the back-end: transportation of spent fuels, storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning. The La Hague reprocessing plant smooth operation, as well as the large investment program under active progress can testify of full mastering of this industry. Together with other French and European companies, COGEMA is engaged in the recycling industry, both for uranium through conversion of uranyl nitrate for its further re-enrichment, and for plutonium through MOX fuel fabrication. Reprocessing and recycling offer the optimum solution for a complete, economic, safe and future-oriented fuel cycle, hence contributing to the necessary development of nuclear energy

217

Fossil fuel gasification: Technological developments - processes and materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gasification technology has long played an important role in the process industries and the concept of the environmentally clean Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant has been around for many years. Several coal gasification technologies have been demonstrated at commercial or near-to-commercial scale and there are planned international IGCC power plant projects. The technologies have a few critical areas, particularly, in the field of materials. Research is aiming at a 'simplified' IGCC concept which features two developments which could lead to lower cost plants with efficiencies of 42%: air gasification and hot gas clean-up. New hypotheses of 'hybrid' processes and projects involving heavy oil gasification are being developed. The gasification advanced research activities of ENEL's (Italian National Electricity Board) Research and Development Department are reported in this paper

218

The gloomy greenhouse: Should the world phase out fossil fuels?  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1988 the Toronto World Conference on the Changing Atmosphere called for a reduction of CO2 emissions of the industrialized countries by approximately 20% by the year 2005 as compared with 1988. A stabilization of CO2 concentrations would require an eventual emissions reduction of more than 50% of present levels. Model runs were performed with the Dutch Integrated Model for the Assessment of the Greenhouse Effect (IMAGE) to put these figures into perspective. It was found that the suggested emissions reduction levels could indeed be adequate to prevent global temperature change from moving beyond past climate experience. However, this would only be the case when these reduced levels of emissions were achieved at a global scale and maximum emission control for the other greenhouse gases was implemented. A delayed response analysis shows that the policies of the coming decades are crucial for the eventual control of the greenhouse effect.

Rotmans, Jan; Swart, Rob

1990-05-01

219

Co-combustion of fossil fuels and waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Ph.D. thesis deals with the alternative and high efficiency methods of using waste-derived fuels in heat and power production. The focus is on the following subjects: 1) co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel (SRF) under pulverized fuel combustion conditions; 2) dust-firing of straw and the utilization of a waste-derived material as an additive; 3) the combustion of a biomass residue rich in phosphorus. Co-combustion of coal and SRF was conducted in an entrained flow reactor (EFR). The work revealed that when coal was co-fired with up to 25 wt% SRF, the burnout and the emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO were decreased with increasing share of SRF. The Cl content in the fly ash was very low (<0.07 wt%) when coal was co-fired up to 25 wt% SRF, indicating that the majority of the Cl in the SRF were released to gas phase during cocombustion. The formation of fouling deposits on a probe was reduced with increasing share of SRF and the resulting deposits had a very small Cl content (<0.01 wt%). On the other hand, when NaCl or PVC was added to the mixture of coal and SRF, the formation of alkali chlorides was significantly promoted. The partitioning of trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Sb and Zn) during co-combustion of coal and SRF was investigated through the experiments in the EFR. They revealed that As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn were highly volatile during combustion, while the volatility of Cr was relatively low. The volatility of Cd, Pb and Zn increased significantly with the injection of Cl based additives such as PVC and NaCl, while the addition of ammonium sulphate generally decreased the volatility of trace elements. The addition of kaolinite reduced the volatility of Pb, while the effect on other trace elements was insignificant. Full-scale tests on co-combustion of coal and SRF were carried out in a pulverized coal-fired power plant, and the formation of fine particles was evaluated by applying a low-pressure cascade impactor. Compared to dedicated coal combustion, co-combustion of coal and SRF (up to 10% thermal share) generally promoted the formation of ultrafine particles with a concentration peak around 0.1 {mu}m, while the total concentration of PM{sub 2.5} decreased. Composition analyses showed that the Ca, S and P were significantly enriched in the ultrafine particles, indicating a high volatility of these elements in pulverized coal combustion. Compared to dedicated coal combustion, the content of the Ca, P and K was larger in the fine particles generated from co-combustion, whereas the S content was slightly smaller. During the full-scale tests, the dust emission appeared to be significantly increased during co-combustion of coal and SRF, which was presumably related to a reduction of the collection efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Dust-firing of straw was performed in an entrained flow reactor, and the feasibility of utilizing spent bleaching earth (SBE) as an additive was investigated through a comparison with kaolinite. It was found that about 70% of the K in the fly ash from straw-dust firing was water soluble, and the KCl contributed more than 40% of the water soluble K. With the addition of 10-20 wt% of SBE, the Cl retention in ash was decreased, the SO{sub 2} emission was increased, and the formation of water soluble alkali species was reduced. Compared to kaolinite, the inhibiting effect of SBE on the formation of alkali chlorides was slightly smaller when the molar ratio of K/(Al+Si) was similar in the fuel mixture. The addition of SBE significantly reduced the Cl content of the deposits collected on a probe. The release and transformation of inorganic elements during the combustion of a residual bran was studied through experiments and equilibrium modeling. The work revealed that the major inorganic elements released during bran combustion were K, P and S. The S was almost fully vaporized during pyrolysis at temperatures below 700 deg. C, whereas about 60-70 % of the K and P in the bran were released during combustion in a temperature range of 900-1100 deg. C. Additives such

Wu, Hao

2011-05-15

220

Analysis of the uncertainty associated with national fossil fuel CO2 emissions datasets for use in the global Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS) and carbon budgets  

Science.gov (United States)

High resolution quantification of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions has become essential in research aimed at understanding the global carbon cycle and supporting the verification of international agreements on greenhouse gas emission reductions. The Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS) was used to estimate global fossil fuel carbon emissions at 0.25 degree from 1992 to 2010. FFDAS quantifies CO2 emissions based on areal population density, per capita economic activity, energy intensity and carbon intensity. A critical constraint to this system is the estimation of national-scale fossil fuel CO2 emissions disaggregated into economic sectors. Furthermore, prior uncertainty estimation is an important aspect of the FFDAS. Objective techniques to quantify uncertainty for the national emissions are essential. There are several institutional datasets that quantify national carbon emissions, including British Petroleum (BP), the International Energy Agency (IEA), the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC). These four datasets have been "harmonized" by Jordan Macknick for inter-comparison purposes (Macknick, Carbon Management, 2011). The harmonization attempted to generate consistency among the different institutional datasets via a variety of techniques such as reclassifying into consistent emitting categories, recalculating based on consistent emission factors, and converting into consistent units. These harmonized data form the basis of our uncertainty estimation. We summarized the maximum, minimum and mean national carbon emissions for all the datasets from 1992 to 2010. We calculated key statistics highlighting the remaining differences among the harmonized datasets. We combine the span (max - min) of datasets for each country and year with the standard deviation of the national spans over time. We utilize the economic sectoral definitions from IEA to disaggregate the national total emission into specific sectors required by FFDAS. Our results indicated that although the harmonization performed by Macknick generates better agreement among datasets, significant differences remain at national total level. For example, the CO2 emission span for most countries range from 10% to 12%; BP is generally the highest of the four datasets while IEA is typically the lowest; The US and China had the highest absolute span values but lower percentage span values compared to other countries. However, the US and China make up nearly one-half of the total global absolute span quantity. The absolute span value for the summation of national differences approaches 1 GtC/year in 2007, almost one-half of the biological "missing sink". The span value is used as a potential bias in a recalculation of global and regional carbon budgets to highlight the importance of fossil fuel CO2 emissions in calculating the missing sink. We conclude that if the harmonized span represents potential bias, calculations of the missing sink through forward budget or inverse approaches may be biased by nearly a factor of two.

Song, Y.; Gurney, K. R.; Rayner, P. J.; Asefi-Najafabady, S.

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

Diagnosis of Heat Exchanger Tube Failure in Fossil Fuel Boilers Through Estimation of Steady State Operating Conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimation of operating conditions for fossil fuel boiler heat exchangers is often required due to changes in working conditions, design modifications and especially for monitoring performance and failure diagnosis. Regular heat exchangers in fossil fuel boilers are composed of tube banks through which water or steam flow, while hot combustion (flue) gases flow outside the tubes. This work presents a top-down approach to operating conditions estimation based on field measurements. An example for a 350 MW unit superheater is thoroughly discussed. Integral calculations based on measurements for all unit heat exchangers (reheaters, superheaters) were performed first. Based on these calculations a scheme of integral conservation equations (lumped parameter) was then formulated at the single tube level. Steady state temperatures of superheater tube walls were obtained as a main output, and were compared to the maximum allowable operating temperatures of the tubes material. A combined lumped parameter - CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics, FLUENT code) approach constitutes an efficient tool in certain cases. A brief report of such a case is given for another unit superheater. We conclude that steady state evaluations based on both integral and detailed simulations are a valuable monitoring and diagnosis tool for the power generation industry

222

Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project was to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. A family of hydrogen separation membranes was developed including single phase mixed conducting ceramics, ceramic/ceramic composites, cermet membranes, cermet membranes containing a hydrogen permeable metal, and intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. Each membrane type had different operating parameters, advantages, and disadvantages that were documented over the course of the project. Research on these membranes progressed from ceramics to cermets to intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. During this progression performance was increased from 0.01 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2} up to 423 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2}. Eltron and team membranes not only developed each membrane type, but also membrane surface catalysis and impurity tolerance, creation of thin film membranes, alternative applications such as membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation, demonstration of scale-up testing, and complete engineering documentation including process and mechanical considerations necessary for inclusion of Eltron membranes in a full scale integrated gasification combined cycle power plant. The results of this project directly led to a new $15 million program funded by the Department of Energy. This new project will focus exclusively on scale-up of this technology as part of the FutureGen initiative.

Carl R. Evenson; Shane E. Roark

2006-03-31

223

Applications of biotechnology in the fossil fuel sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented of the effects of micoorganisms on petroleum industry operations and on the potentially significant applications of biotechnology in that sector. Detrimental aspects of microbial activity include the biodegradation of petroleum products and petrochemical products, microbially influenced corrosion, and microbial souring of oil reservoirs by sulfate reducing bacteria. Beneficial aspects include microbially enhanced oil recovery, the mapping of the presence of ethane oxidizing bacteria as an exploration tool, the use of bacterial systems for plugging during hydraulic fracturing, microbially stimulated oil production, microbial dewaxing, use of biopolymers such as xanthan in drilling muds, microbial surfactants and emulsifiers for use in pipelining of viscous oils, microbial upgrading of oil, manufacture of biodegradable products, and bioremediation of contaminated sites. Microbially enhanced oil recovery technologies, well and tank cleaning operations based on microbial formulations, and microbial-based well stimulation and cleaning operations have already reached field trial success, with commercial success in several cases. The hottest area of application in the 1990s will undoubtedly be in the area of biological remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites and emissions. 39 refs

224

Light absorption by primary particles from fossil-fuel combustion: Implications for radiative forcing  

Science.gov (United States)

Interactions of visible radiation with atmospheric aerosols are important to the heat balance of the Earth. Accurate emission inventories of particles from combustion are required to predict anthropogenically-induced changes in the radiative balance. I present measurements of the optical properties of particles from several types of combustion and compare them with assumptions used in previous emission inventories. Emissions from an indirect-injection diesel engine were similar to expected values. However, a second engine with a direct-injection scheme emitted about 100 times the expected amount of both mass and light absorption because of a poor injection pattern. Total emissions from vehicles depend critically on the number of such "catastrophic" units in operation. Absorption emitted from a low-technology industrial lignite-burning furnace was about 20 times lower than previous estimates; the emitted particles contained partially aromatized carbon. Burning bituminous coal in a Chinese-style domestic combustor yielded significant light absorption, similar to published emission factors. Combustion of both coal briquettes obtained from China and lignite resulted in very low light absorption because tar release from these fuels was low. Combining the measurement and modeling results with an extensive literature survey, I estimated central, low and high values of emission factors for different fuels and combustion sectors. I then calculated a global emission inventory of light-absorbing carbon from fossil-fuel combustion. The total emission of light-absorbing carbon for 1994 is 3.7 Tg, about half the magnitude of previously published emission inventories. The upper and lower uncertainty boundaries are 0.8 and 44 Tg year--1. The largest sources of uncertainty are emission characteristics for residential coal and the existing fraction of "catastrophic" units in operation. Emission inventories for organic carbon (central value of 5.1 Tg year--1, with a range of 0.5-42 Tg year--1) and for primary particles (3 x 1028 year--1) are also presented. Radiative forcing by light-absorbing particles on a global-average basis is small, but regional effects are significant. In regions with high area-specific emissions, the central estimate of top-of-atmosphere forcing is about +0.7 W m--2, and the upper bound is around +4.0 W m --2.

Bond, Tami Christine

225

Bio-fuels: the rush to industrialization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ambitious goals of the French government fire with enthusiasm the bio-fuel sector which is in the fair way to become an industry at a whole. However, in order to build in time the requested ethanol and bio-diesel units the government will have to speed up the approval procedures and to maintain the financial incentive policy. (J.S.)

226

Efficient management of insecure fossil fuel imports through taxing (.) domestic green energy?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A small open economy produces a consumer good, green and black energy, and imports fossil fuel at an uncertain price. Unregulated competitive markets are shown to be inefficient. The implied market failures are due to the agents' attitudes toward risk, to risk shifting and the uniform price for both types of energy. Under the plausible assumptions that consumers are prudent and at least as risk averse as the producers of black energy, the risk can be efficiently managed by taxing emissions and green energy. The need to tax (.) green energy contradicts the widespread view that subsidization of green energy is an appropriate means to enhance energy security in countries depending on risky fossil fuel imports. (orig.)

Eichner, Thomas [Hagen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Pethig, Ruediger [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics

2010-05-15

227

Nuclear and fossil fuel steam generation of electricity: Differences and similarities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides an econometric analysis of the production technology and generating costs of nuclear power as well as the efficiency and equity of the nuclear rate structure. Using data from a 1985 cross-section of 40 pr4ately owned electric utilities of which approximately 36% of steam generation was nuclear, the authors estimate the cost functions of nuclear and fossil-fuel generation at the firm-level. Statistical tests and other relevant measures are used to determine whether nuclear power should be treated as a sample separate from conventional steam generation. Section 2 discusses the development of the statistical model. Section 3 contains the estimation results and the results of the comparison tests on fossil-fuel and nuclear steam cost functions. Section IV discusses the efficiency of the rate structure for nuclear utilities. Section V contains a summary and conclusion

228

Importance of fossil fuel emission uncertainties over Europe for CO2 modeling. Model intercomparison  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ns. These contributions to the hourly (monthly) std-dev's amount to 1.2 (0.8) ppm and 0.4 (0.3) ppm for transport and emissions, respectively. First comparisons of the modeled concentrations with 14C-based fossil fuel CO2 observations show that the large transport differences still hamper a quantitative evaluation/validation of the emission inventories. Changes in the estimated monthly biosphere flux (Fbio) over Europe, using two inverse modeling approaches, are relatively small (less that 5%) while changes in annual Fbio (up to 0.15 Gt C/yr) are only slightly smaller than the differences in annual emission totals and around 30% of the mean European ecosystem carbon sink. These results point to an urgent need to improve not only the transport models but also the assumed spatial and temporal distribution of fossil fuel emission maps

229

Formulating energy policies related to fossil fuel use: Critical uncertainties in the global carbon cycle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs. 87 refs.

Post, W.M.; Dale, V.H.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; O' Neill, R.V.; Peng, T.-H.; Farrell, M.P.

1990-01-01

230

A multiyear, global gridded fossil fuel CO2 emission data product: Evaluation and analysis of results  

Science.gov (United States)

global quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle science and climate policy. We build upon a previously developed fossil fuel data assimilation system (FFDAS) for estimating global high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions. We have improved the underlying observationally based data sources, expanded the approach through treatment of separate emitting sectors including a new pointwise database of global power plants, and extended the results to cover a 1997 to 2010 time series at a spatial resolution of 0.1°. Long-term trend analysis of the resulting global emissions shows subnational spatial structure in large active economies such as the United States, China, and India. These three countries, in particular, show different long-term trends and exploration of the trends in nighttime lights, and population reveal a decoupling of population and emissions at the subnational level. Analysis of shorter-term variations reveals the impact of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis with widespread negative emission anomalies across the U.S. and Europe. We have used a center of mass (CM) calculation as a compact metric to express the time evolution of spatial patterns in fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The global emission CM has moved toward the east and somewhat south between 1997 and 2010, driven by the increase in emissions in China and South Asia over this time period. Analysis at the level of individual countries reveals per capita CO2 emission migration in both Russia and India. The per capita emission CM holds potential as a way to succinctly analyze subnational shifts in carbon intensity over time. Uncertainties are generally lower than the previous version of FFDAS due mainly to an improved nightlight data set.

Asefi-Najafabady, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Gurney, K. R.; McRobert, A.; Song, Y.; Coltin, K.; Huang, J.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.

2014-09-01

231

Nitrogen compounds in pressurised fluidised bed gasification of biomass and fossil fuels:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fossil fuels still dominate the energy supply in modern societies. The resources, however, are depleting. Therefore, other energy sources are to be exploited further within this century. Biomass is one of the practically CO2 neutral, renewable contributors to the future energy production. Nowadays many modern, high efficiency (combined) power and heat producing systems using biomass are or become commercially available. One promising route to efficient power and heat supply is the Integrated ...

Jong, W.

2005-01-01

232

Recent world fossil-fuel and primary energy production and consumption trends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Worldwide fossil fuel and primary electric power production figures since 1973 show a recent drop in oil production similar to the 1975 decline after recession. Crude oil consumption has declined since 1978, while production has increased. Natural gas production and consumption continue to increase as does power generation from all energy sources. Differences are noted between data sources and comparisons made of the validity of the data. 13 references, 7 figures, 12 tables. (DCK)

Parent, J.D.

1982-08-02

233

Efficient management of insecure fossil fuel Imports through taxing (!) domestic green energy?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A small open economy produces a consumer good, green and black energy, and imports fossil fuel at an uncertain price. Unregulated competitive markets are shown to be inefficient. The implied market failures are due to the agents' attitudes toward risk, to risk shifting and the uniform price for both types of energy. Under the plausible assumptions that consumers are prudent and at least as risk averse as the producers of black energy, the risk can be efficiently managed by taxing emissions an...

Eichner, Thomas; Pethig, Ru?diger

2010-01-01

234

Organic farming without fossil fuels - life cycle assessment of two Swedish cases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organic agriculture is dependent on fossil fuels, just like conventional agriculture, but this can be reduced by the use of on-farm biomass resources. The energy efficiency and environmental impacts of different alternatives can be assessed by life cycle assessment (LCA), which we have done in this project. Swedish organic milk production can become self-sufficient in energy by using renewable sources available on the farm, with biogas from manure as the main energy source. Thereby greenhouse...

Sundberg, C.; Kimming, M.; Nordberg, A?; Baky, A.; Hansson, P. -a

2013-01-01

235

Trees and biomass energy: carbon storage and/or fossil fuel substitution?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies on climate change and energy production increasingly recognise the crucial role of biological systems. Carbon sinks in forests (above and below ground), CO2 emissions from deforestation, planting trees for carbon storage, and biomass as a substitute for fossil fuels are some key issues which arise. This paper assesses various forestry strategies and examines land availability, forest management, environmental sustainability, social and political factors, infrastructure and organisation, economic feasibility, and ancillary benefits associated with biomass for energy. (author)

236

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how...

Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; -m Bre?on, F.; Ciais, P.; Davis, S; Erickson, D.; Gregg, J. S.; Jacobson, A.; Marland, G.; Miller, J.; Oda, T.; Olivier, J. G. J.; Raupach, M. R.; Rayner, P.; Treanton, K.

2012-01-01

237

Public money for fossil fuels in the EU and in three EU member states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research report aims to provide an overview of all forms of public money spent on the production and primary processing of fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) in France, the Netherlands, United Kingdom and the European Union since early 2004. Public money includes R and D subsidies, investment and other subsidies; export credits and guarantees; tax rebates and reductions; bilateral development aid and other forms of financial incentives.

238

Estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels combustion in the main sectors of selected countries 1971-1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculations of sectoral CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning in the period 1971-1990 were done for the 15 countries at the top of the list of nations ordered by decreasing contribution to global emissions, namely: United States of America, Soviet Union, People's Republic of China, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom, India, Poland, Canada, France, Italy, German Democratic Republic, South Africa, Mexico and Czechoslovakia. In addition, the CO2 emission of two groups of industrialized countries, namely the OECD and the European Economic Community (EEC) were calculated. The main recommendations of the IPCC/OECD current methodology have been adopted for the calculations, with the principal exception that CO2 emissions from the use of bunker fuels have not been included in the national estimates. The sectors are: 1. Transformations. Total emissions and the part stemming from power plants 2. Industry (excluding Feedstocks) 3. Transportation 4. Agriculture 5. Residential 6. Commerce and Public Services 7. Non-specified Other 8. Non-Energy Use 9. Feedstocks (in Industry). Data are presented in tables and diagrams. (orig./KW)

239

Model calculations of competing climatic effects of SO2 and CO2 in fossil fuel combustion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fossil fuel combustion has two competing effects on the climate system, a warming due to the emission of CO2 and other trace gases and a cooling due to sulphate particles formed from the SO2 emission. A detailed parameterization of the relationship between fossil fuel burning and the SO2 effect on backscattering and cloud albedo is implemented in a one-dimensional radiative-convective model for assessing the climatic impact. The results show that at present the cooling induced by the combined effect of SO2 completely counteracts the CO2 greenhouse warming. The model predicts that by the year 2060 the SO2-induced cooling reduces warming due to CO2 by 66% in the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) scenario Business-as-Usual (BAU) and by 27% in the IPCC scenario D. Attempts to slow-pace the fossil fuel burning will decrease the SO2 concentration, which could further increase global warming. (author). 26 refs., 7 figs

240

A fast method for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We provide a fast and efficient method for calculating global annual mean carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels by combining data from an established data set with BP annual statistics. Using this method it is possible to retrieve an updated estimate of global CO2 emissions six months after the actual emissions occurred. Using this data set we find that atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions have increased by over 40% from 1990 to 2008 with an annual average increase of 3.7% over the five-year period 2003-2007. In 2008 the growth rate in the fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions was smaller than in the preceding five years, but it was still over 2%. Global mean carbon dioxide emissions in 2008 were 8.8 GtC yr-1. For the latter part of the last century emissions of carbon dioxide have been greater from oil than from coal. However during the last few years this situation has changed. The recent strong increase in fossil fuel CO2 emissions is mainly driven by an increase in emissions from coal, whereas emissions from oil and gas to a large degree follow the trend from the 1990s.

 
 
 
 
241

The influence of constrained fossil fuel emissions scenarios on climate and water resource projections  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water resources planning requires long-term projections of the impact of climate change on freshwater resources. In addition to intrinsic uncertainty associated with the natural climate, projections of climate change are subject to the combined uncertainties associated with selection of emissions scenarios, GCM ensembles and downscaling techniques. In particular, unknown future greenhouse gas emissions contribute substantially to the overall uncertainty. We contend that a reduction in uncertainty is possible by refining emissions scenarios. We present a comprehensive review of the growing body of literature that challenges the assumptions underlying the high-growth emissions scenarios (widely used in climate change impact studies, and instead points to a peak and decline in fossil fuel production occurring in the 21st century. We find that the IPCC's new RCP 4.5 scenario (low-medium emissions, as well as the B1 and A1T (low emissions marker scenarios from the IPCC's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios are broadly consistent with the majority of recent fossil fuel production forecasts, whereas the medium to high emissions scenarios generally depend upon unrealistic assumptions of future fossil fuel production. We use a simple case study of projected climate change in 2070 for the Scott Creek catchment in South Australia to demonstrate that even with the current suite of climate models, by limiting projections to the B1 scenario, both the median change and the spread of model results are reduced relative to equivalent projections under an unrealistic high emissions scenario (A1FI.

J. D. Ward

2011-03-01

242

The Future of Fossil Fuels: A Century of Abundance or a Century of Decline?  

Science.gov (United States)

Horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and other advanced technologies have spawned a host of new euphoric forecasts of hydrocarbon abundance. Yet although the world's remaining oil and gas resources are enormous, most of them are destined to stay in the ground due to real-world constraints on price, flow rates, investor appetite, supply chain security, resource quality, and global economic conditions. While laboring under the mistaken belief that it sits atop a 100-year supply of natural gas, the U.S. is contemplating exporting nearly all of its shale gas production even as that production is already flattening due to poor economics. Instead of bringing "energy independence" to the U.S. and making it the top oil exporter, unrestricted drilling for tight oil and in the federal outer continental shelf would cut the lifespan of U.S. oil production in half and make it the world's most desperate oil importer by mid-century. And current forecasts for Canadian tar sands production are as unrealistic as their failed predecessors. Over the past century, world energy production has moved progressively from high quality resources with high production rates and low costs to lower quality resources with lower production rates and higher costs, and that progression is accelerating. Soon we will discover the limits of practical extraction, as production costs exceed consumer price tolerance. Oil and gas from tight formations, shale, bitumen, kerogen, coalbeds, deepwater, and the Arctic are not the stuff of new abundance, but the oil junkie's last dirty fix. This session will highlight the gap between the story the industry tells about our energy future, and the story the data tells about resource size, production rates, costs, and consumer price tolerance. It will show why it's time to put aside unrealistic visions of continued dependence on fossil fuels, face up to a century of decline, and commit ourselves to energy and transportation transition.

Nelder, C.

2012-12-01

243

Statistics of the availabilities of fossil fuel and nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results and conclusions of the international survey on the availability of traditional fossil fuel power plants made by the UNIPEDE between 1977-1981 are summarized and compared with the data of nuclear reactors collected by the IAEA from the sixties and stored in the Power Reactor Information System. Power and availability factors in the function of the nominal power, the age of the plants and the quality of fuel are given. The causes of planned and unplanned unavailability are discussed in detail. (V.N.)

244

Being more flexible and efficient in use. Future requirements to fossil-fueled power plants; Flexibler und effizienter im Einsatz. Zukuenftige Anforderungen an fossile Kraftwerke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to the energy policy turnaround, the requirements to fossil-fueled power plants vary considerably. Increasingly enhanced demands especially are made on the operating flexibility in order to balance the fluctuating supply of renewable energies. But also the improvement of the efficiency is on the agenda in order to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide.

Balling, Lothar [Siemens Energy, Erlangen (Germany)

2012-07-01

245

Fuel Cells in the Coal Energy Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In march 1998 at the conference ?Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems? in Clearwater, USA representatives of U.S. Department of Energy presented the vision 21 focused on the electricity generation from coal for 21st century. The goal is a powerplant with the ability to produce the electricity from coal with the efficiency approaching 60% (higher heating value and emission levels of one-tenth of today´s technologies, The CO2 capture and permanent sequestration at the cost of $15/ton of CO2, and a cost of electricity of 3 cents per kilowatt-hour. The goal is believed to be achievable by the first quarter of the next century. The vision 21 is presented with several possible concepts. One of them is based on coal gasification with following hydrogen separation. The obtained hydrogen is used as a fuel for the cogeneration unit with fuel cells. The remaining gas can be liquefied and utilised as a fuel in the automotive industry or further chemically processed. The concept has several important features. Firstly, a very clean low cost electricity production. Secondly, it is comprised of fuel processing section and power processing section. The two sections need not to be co-located. In the world of the deregulated electricity generation this offers a major advantage. The technologies of fuel processing section ? coal gasification and hydrogen separation have been successfully developed in the last two decades. A specificity of the fuel processing section of this concept is to obtain hydrogen rich gas with very low concentrations of substances, as CO, which cause a poisoning of electrodes of fuel cells leading to the decreasing fuel cells efficiency. Fuel cells, specially highly efficient coal-gas SOFC and MCFC, are expected to be commercially available by 2020. The natural-gas MCFC and SOFC plants should enter the commercial marketplace by the year 2002.

Kolat Peter

1998-09-01

246

Climate change adaptation, damages and fossil fuel dependence. An RETD position paper on the costs of inaction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (RETD) agreement initiated this project to advance the understanding of the ''Costs of Inaction'', i.e. the costs of climate change adaptation, damages and fossil fuel dependence. A quantitative estimate was developed as well as a better understanding of the knowledge gaps and research needs. The project also included some conceptual work on how to better integrate the analyses of mitigation, adaptation, damages and fossil fuel dependence in energy scenario modelling.

Katofsky, Ryan; Stanberry, Matt; Hagenstad, Marca; Frantzis, Lisa

2011-07-15

247

Closing the fuel cycle: An industrial demonstration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By the end of the century, the nuclear reactors worldwide will have produced more than 120,000 t of spent fuel. A serious, safe solution must be found for the proper management of this spent fuel. In France, reprocessing and recycling fissile materials has always been considered as the rational way of closing the fuel cycle. All the operations included in the LWR fuel cycle back end have been successfully achieved on the industrial and commercial scale by Cogema. Transport of 6000 t of spent fuel from over 60 reactors to La Hague had been performed to date without any accident, whether by road, rail or sea. Spent fuel storage under safe conditions is currently under way at the La Hague facilities, with a pond storage capacity of 6,300 t, to be extended to over 10,000 t in 1988. Reprocessing operations are running smoothly at the La Hague UP2 plant which has treated 1,900 t of LWR fuel, with a growing availability factor as well as high safety standards. Waste processing has been mastered, thanks mainly to the HLW vitrification process which has been in continuous operation at Marcoule for 9 years. Long term waste disposal is attaining the industrial level, first for short lived radionuclides and their shallow land disposal and then for long lived nuclides, with a timely schedule for their final geological disposal. Plutonium recycling is a mature industry with two mixed oxide (MOX) assembly production facilities in Cadarache (Commissariat a l'energie atomique, France) and Dessel (Belgonucleaire, Belgium) with our associate Belgonucleaire in the COMMOX joint venture for MOX rods commercialization. The Pu recycling programme of the French Electricite de France (EDF) will lead progressively to a large MOX fuel demand in the early 1990s. Uranium recycling is the last operation to complete the closure of the fuel cycle. More than 1,300 t of reprocessed uranium have already been recycled to conversion and enrichment plants, and a joint venture, Urep, was created in 1986 with Comurhex to commercialize all services associated with reprocessed uranium. (author)

248

Presence of estrogenic activity from emission of fossil fuel combustion as detected by a recombinant yeast bioassay  

Science.gov (United States)

Estrogenic activities of emission samples generated by fossil fuel combustion were investigated with human estrogen receptor (ER) recombinant yeast bioassay. The results showed that there were weak but clear estrogenic activities in combustion emissions of fossil fuels including coal, petroleum, and diesel. The estrogenic relative potency (RP) of fossil fuel combustion was the highest in petroleum-fired car, followed by coal-fired stove, diesel-fired agrimotor, coal-fired electric power station. On the other hand, the estrogenic relative inductive efficiency (RIE) was the highest in coal-fired stove and coal-fired electric power station, followed by petroleum-fired car and diesel-fired agrimotor. The estrogenic activities in the sub-fractions from chromatographic separation of emitted materials were also determined. The results indicated that different chemical fractions in these complex systems have different estrogenic potencies. The GC/MS analysis of the emission showed that there were many aromatic carbonyls, big molecular alcohol, PAHs and derivatives, and substituted phenolic compounds and derivatives which have been reported as environmental estrogens. The existence of estrogenic substances in fossil fuel combustion demands further investigation of their potential adverse effects on human and on the ecosystem. The magnitude of pollution due to global usage of fossil fuels makes it imperative to understand the issue of fossil fuel-derived endocrine activities and the associated health risks, particularly the aggregated risks stemmed from exposure to toxicants of multiple sources.

Wang, Jingxian; Wu, Wenzhong; Henkelmann, Bernhard; You, Li; Kettrup, Antonius; Schramm, Karl-Werner

249

Reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells  

Science.gov (United States)

PEM fuel cell systems are considered as a sustainable option for the future transport sector in the future. There is great interest in converting current hydrocarbon based transportation fuels into hydrogen rich gases acceptable by PEM fuel cells on-board of vehicles. In this paper, we compare the results of our simulation studies for 100 kW PEM fuel cell systems utilizing three different major reforming technologies, namely steam reforming (SREF), partial oxidation (POX) and autothermal reforming (ATR). Natural gas, gasoline and diesel are the selected hydrocarbon fuels. It is desired to investigate the effect of the selected fuel reforming options on the overall fuel cell system efficiency, which depends on the fuel processing, PEM fuel cell and auxiliary system efficiencies. The Aspen-HYSYS 3.1 code has been used for simulation purposes. Process parameters of fuel preparation steps have been determined considering the limitations set by the catalysts and hydrocarbons involved. Results indicate that fuel properties, fuel processing system and its operation parameters, and PEM fuel cell characteristics all affect the overall system efficiencies. Steam reforming appears as the most efficient fuel preparation option for all investigated fuels. Natural gas with steam reforming shows the highest fuel cell system efficiency. Good heat integration within the fuel cell system is absolutely necessary to achieve acceptable overall system efficiencies.

Ersoz, Atilla; Olgun, Hayati; Ozdogan, Sibel

250

Fossil fuel consumption and heavy metal emissions into the atmosphere in Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent decades more and more attention has been paid to the problem of ecosystem pollution by heavy metals. Many trace elements are registered now as a global pollutant due to their toxic nature. Their negative influence on the environment is caused by accumulation in different ecosystem components and increased involvement in biochemical cycles. The atmosphere is the main medium through which pollutants transported from emission sources to background territories where heavy metals are deposited into water and on plants. Heavy metal emissions into the atmosphere cause certain global environmental problems due to their long lifetime and the long-term transport of these elements in the atmosphere, as well as the increasing rate of their accumulation in the environment even at most remote territories. Moreover, heavy metals have evidently entered human food chains. The influence of global ecosystem pollution by heavy metals on human health is not well known as yet. Most trace elements comes into the atmosphere with natural and man-made aerosols. The main sources of natural aerosols in the atmosphere are soil erosion and weathering of mountain rocks, volcanic and space dust, forest firing smoke, and others. Major anthropogenic sources of toxic elements are fossil fuel combustion, mining, industrial processes, and waste incineration. The anthropogenic flow of heavy metals to the atmosphere is about 94-97 per cent of the total. An inventory of emission sources should be the first step in developing a control strategy and modelling global and regional cycles of trace elements. In this article the situation with lead, cadmium and mercury emissions from coal combustion of power plants and gasoline combustion by road transport is discussed. Pollutant amounts released into the atmosphere in industrial regions induce not only local deterioration of air, but they also affect on remote areas, and areas sensitive to contamination, such as the Arctic region. Problems on the uncertainty of emission inventory and, as a consequence, long range transport and deposition of air pollution into ecosystems of remote lands are also discussed

251

Long-term tradeoffs between nuclear- and fossil-fuel burning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A global energy/economics/environmental (E3) model has been adapted with a nuclear energy/materials model to understand better open-quotes top-levelclose quotes, long-term trade offs between civilian nuclear power, nuclear-weapons proliferation, fossil-fuel burning, and global economic welfare. Using a open-quotes business-as-usualclose quotes (BAU) point-of-departure case, economic, resource, proliferation-risk implications of plutonium recycle in LAIRs, greenhouse-gas-mitigating carbon taxes, and a range of nuclear energy costs (capital and fuel) considerations have been examined. After describing the essential elements of the analysis approach being developed to support the Los Alamos Nuclear Vision Project, preliminary examples of parametric variations about the BAU base-case scenario are presented. The results described herein represent a sampling from more extensive results collected in a separate report. The primary motivation here is: (a) to compare the BAU basecase with results from other studies; (b) to model on a regionally resolved global basis long-term (to year ?2100) evolution of plutonium accumulation in a variety of forms under a limited range of fuel-cycle scenarios; and (c) to illustrate a preliminary connectivity between risks associated with nuclear proliferation and fossil-fuel burning (e.g., greenhouse-gas accumulations)

252

Potential high temperature corrosion problems due to co-firing of biomass and fossil fuels  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Over the past few years, considerable high temperature corrosion problems have been encountered when firing biomass in power plants due to the high content of potassium chloride in the deposits. Therefore, to combat chloride corrosion problems cofiring of biomass with a fossil fuel has been undertaken. This results in potassium chloride being converted to potassium sulphate in the combustion chamber and it is sulphate rich deposits that are deposited on the vulnerable metallic surfaces such as high temperature superheaters. Although this removes the problem of chloride corrosion, other corrosion mechanisms appear such as sulphidation and hot corrosion due to sulphate deposits. At Studstrup power plant Unit 4, based on trials with exposure times of 3000 h using 0–20% straw co-firing with coal, the plant now runs with a fuel mix of 10% strawţcoal. Based on results from a 3 years exposure in this environment, the internal sulphidation is much more significant than that revealed in the demonstration project. Avedřre 2 main boiler is fuelled with wood pelletsţheavy fuel oilţgas. Some reaction products resulting from the presence of vanadium compounds in the heavy oil were detected, i.e. iron vanadates. However, the most significant corrosion attack was sulphidation attack at the grain boundaries of 18-8 steel after 3 years exposure. The corrosion mechanisms and corrosion rates are compared with biomass firing and coal firing. Potential corrosion problems due to co-firing biomass and fossil fuels are discussed.

Montgomery, Melanie

2008-01-01

253

Energy-efficient air pollution controls for fossil-fueled plants: Technology assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require most fossil-fuel fired power plants to reduce sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate emissions. While emission-control equipment is available to help most of New York State`s 91 utility units in 31 power plants comply with the new regulations, technologies currently available consume energy, increase carbon dioxide emissions, reduce operating efficiency, and may produce large amounts of solid and/or semisolid byproducts that use additional energy for processing and disposal. This report discribes several pollution-control technologies that are more energy efficient compared to traditional technologies for controlling sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and particulates, that may have application in New York State. These technologies are either in commercial use, under development, or in the demonstration phase; This report also presents operating characteristics for these technologies and discusses solutions to dispose of pollution-control system byproducts. Estimated energy consumption for emission-control systems relative to a plant`s gross generating capacity is 3 to 5 for reducing up to 90% sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants. 0.5 to 2.5% for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions by up to 80% from all fossil-fuel fired plants; and 0.5 to 1.5 % for controlling particulate emissions from oil- and coal-fired plants. While fuel switching and/or cofiring with natural gas are options to reduce emissions, these techniques are not considered in this report; the discussion is limited to fossil-fueled steam-generating plants.

Sayer, J.H.

1995-06-01

254

Life cycle inventories for bioenergy and fossil-fuel fired cogeneration plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Life-cycle inventories for heat production from forest fuel, Salix, coal and oil are presented. Data from the Oerebro cogeneration plant are used for the bioenergy and coal cycles, whereas the oil-fired cycle is based on a fictive plant producing 53 MW electricity and 106 MW heat, also located in the town of Oerebro. This life cycle analysis only covers the inventory stage. A complete life cycle analysis also includes an environmental impact assessment. The methods for assessing environmental impact are still being developed and thus this phase has been omitted here. The intention is, instead, to provide an overall perspective of where in the chain the greatest environmental load for each fuel can be found. Production and energy conversion of fuel requires energy, which is often obtained from fossil fuel. This input energy corresponds to about 11% of the extracted amount of energy for oil, 9% for coal, 6% for Salix, whereas it is about 4% for forest fuel. Utilization of fossil fuel in the coal cycle amounts to production of electricity using coal condensation intended for train transports within Poland. In a life cycle perspective, biofuels show 20-30 times lower emissions of greenhouse gases in comparison with fossil fuels. The chains for biofuels also give considerably lower SO2 emissions than the chains for coal and oil. The coal chain shows about 50% higher NOx emission than the other fuels. Finally, the study illustrates that emission of parthe study illustrates that emission of particles are similar for all sources of energy. The biofuel cycle is assessed to be generally applicable to plants of similar type and size and with similar transport distances. The oil cycle is probably applicable to small-scale cogeneration plants. However, at present there are no cogeneration plants in Sweden that are solely fired with oil. In the case of the coal cycle, deep mining and a relatively long transport distance within Poland have been assumed. If the coal mining had been from open-cast mines, and if the subsequent transports had been from port to port, some of the results would have been affected markedly, including the input energy 17 refs, 17 figs, 7 tabs, appendices

255

Recent world fossil fuel and primary energy production and consumption trends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This compilation of worldwide fossil-fuel and primary-electricity production statistics for 1972, 1976-79, and 1980-81 is based on the data published by several agencies. The total production for all the fuels showed no tendency to level off or decline until recently; preliminary data indicate a 7-8% drop in crude-oil production in 1981 from 1980. Data for other fuels in 1981 are scarce. Gross natural gas production estimated through 1981 is 67-70 trillion CF/yr; the volume marketed in 1980 was 52.6 TCF. Sources of data for worldwide natural gas production and consumption include the United Nations, the US Department of Energy, Eurostat (Statistical Office of the European Economic Communities), British Petroleum Co., Ltd., the journal Oil and Energy Trends, and the US Central Intelligence Agency. Although the data generally agree overall, some major differences exist among individual countries as well as in the manner of reporting.

Parent, J.D.

1982-01-01

256

Comparing the social costs of biofuels and fossil fuels: A case study of Vietnam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biofuel substitution for fossil fuels has been recommended in the literature and promoted in many countries; however, there are concerns about its economic viability. In this paper we focus on the cost-effectiveness of fuels, i.e., we compare the social costs of biofuels and fossil fuels for a functional unit defined as 1 km of vehicle transportation. We base our empirical results on a case study in Vietnam and compare two biofuels and their alternative fossil fuels: ethanol and gasoline, and biodiesel and diesel with a focus on the blends of E5 and E10 for ethanol, and B5 and B10 for biodiesel. At the discount rate of 4%, ethanol substitution for gasoline in form of E5 or E10 saves 33% of the social cost of gasoline if the fuel consumption of E5 and E10 is the same as gasoline. The ethanol substitution will be cost-effective if the fuel consumption of E5 and E10, in terms of L km?1, is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline by more than 1.7% and 3.5% for E5 and E10 respectively. The biodiesel substitution would be cost-effective if the fuel consumption of B5 and B10, in terms of L km?1 compared to diesel, would decrease by more than 1.4% and 2.8% for B5 and B10 respectively at the discount rate of 4%. -- Highlights: •We examine cost-effectiveness of biofuels under efficiency levels of blends. •Cassava-based ethanol used as E5 saves 33% of social cost compared to gasoline. •Ethanol is cost-effective if E5 consumption per km is less than 1.017 times gasoline consumption. •Jatropha-based biodiesel used as B5 or B10 is currently not cost-effective in comparison to diesel. •Biodiesel would be cost-effective if B5 consumption per km would be less than 0.986 times diesel consumption

257

Sensitivity of simulated CO2 concentration to regridding of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

Errors in the specification or utilization of fossil fuel CO2 emissions within carbon budget or atmospheric CO2 inverse studies can alias the estimation of biospheric and oceanic carbon exchange. A key component in the simulation of CO2 concentrations arising from fossil fuel emissions is the spatial distribution of the emission near coastlines. Finite grid resolution can give rise to mismatches between the emissions and simulated atmospheric dynamics which differ over land or water. We test these mismatches by examining simulated global atmospheric CO2 concentration driven by two different approaches to regridding fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The two approaches are: (1) a commonly-used method that allocates emissions to gridcells with no attempt to ensure dynamical consistency with atmospheric transport; (2) an improved method that reallocates emissions to gridcells to ensure dynamically consistent results. Results show large spatial and temporal differences in the simulated CO2 concentration when comparing these two approaches. The emissions difference ranges from -30.3 Tg C gridcell-1 yr-1 (-3.39 kg C m-2 yr-1) to +30.0 Tg C gridcell-1 yr-1 (+2.6 kg C m-2 yr-1) along coastal margins. Maximum simulated annual mean CO2 concentration differences at the surface exceed ±6 ppm at various locations and times. Examination of the current CO2 monitoring locations during the local afternoon, consistent with inversion modeling system sampling and measurement protocols, finds maximum hourly differences at 38 stations exceed ±0.10 ppm with individual station differences exceeding -32 ppm. The differences implied by not accounting for this dynamical consistency problem are largest at monitoring sites proximal to large coastal urban areas and point sources. These results suggest that studies comparing simulated to observed atmospheric CO2 concentration, such as atmospheric CO2 inversions, must take measures to correct for this potential problem and ensure flux and dynamical consistency.

Zhang, X.; Gurney, K. R.; Rayner, P.; Liu, Y.; Asefi-Najafabady, S.

2014-06-01

258

Sensitivity of simulated CO2 concentration to regridding of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Errors in the specification or utilization of fossil fuel CO2 emissions within carbon budget or atmospheric CO2 inverse studies can alias the estimation of biospheric and oceanic carbon exchange. A key component in the simulation of CO2 concentrations arising from fossil fuel emissions is the spatial distribution of the emission near coastlines. Finite grid resolution can give rise to mismatches between the emissions and simulated atmospheric dynamics which differ over land or water. We test these mismatches by examining simulated global atmospheric CO2 concentration driven by two different approaches to regridding fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The two approaches are: (1 a commonly-used method that allocates emissions to gridcells with no attempt to ensure dynamical consistency with atmospheric transport; (2 an improved method that reallocates emissions to gridcells to ensure dynamically consistent results. Results show large spatial and temporal differences in the simulated CO2 concentration when comparing these two approaches. The emissions difference ranges from ?30.3 Tg C gridcell?1 yr?1 (?3.39 kg C m?2 yr?1 to +30.0 Tg C gridcell?1 yr?1 (+2.6 kg C m?2 yr?1 along coastal margins. Maximum simulated annual mean CO2 concentration differences at the surface exceed ±6 ppm at various locations and times. Examination of the current CO2 monitoring locations during the local afternoon, consistent with inversion modeling system sampling and measurement protocols, finds maximum hourly differences at 38 stations exceed ±0.10 ppm with individual station differences exceeding ?32 ppm. The differences implied by not accounting for this dynamical consistency problem are largest at monitoring sites proximal to large coastal urban areas and point sources. These results suggest that studies comparing simulated to observed atmospheric CO2 concentration, such as atmospheric CO2 inversions, must take measures to correct for this potential problem and ensure flux and dynamical consistency.

X. Zhang

2014-06-01

259

Challenges of efficient and clean use of fossil fuels for power production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Constantly increasing resource efficiency together with the broad introduction of CCS technologies is fundamental for a continuous use of fossil fuels in power generation against the background of up-coming requirements for CO2 emission reduction. In principle, CCS means up-grading conventional power plant technology with proven CO2 removal processes. However, this leads to additional losses, auxiliary power demand and cost. System integration, development or at least adaption of components and processes are the main requirements in this context. Different technology solutions and recent developments will be addressed as well as challenges when implementing in demonstration projects.

Vortmeyer, Nicolas; Zimmermann, Gerhard

2010-09-15

260

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1983  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accomplishments for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. Feature articles for this quarter are: (1) abandoned oil field reports issued; (2) oilfield water data bank report published; (3) microbial enhanced recovery report issued; (4) polymer-augmented project could be economic today; (5) carbon dioxide EOR estimates given; (6) BETC passes 65th milestone; and (7) fifty achievements for fifty years (1918-1968). BETC publications are also listed. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1983-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

Differentiation of primary, secondary and tertiary aromatic amines in fossil fuels using trifluoroacylation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analytical method which distinguishes between primary, secondary and tertiary amines has been developed. Trifluoroacetic anhydride, with 4-pyrrolidinopyridine as a catalyst, is used to form di- and mono-trifluoroacylated derivatives of primary and secondary aromatic amines, respectively. Tertiary aromatic amines such as quinoline do not react. GC/MS is then used to analyze the derivatized samples. Retention indices and response factors (relative to 4-fluoroaniline) are reported for >50 pure compounds known or expected to be present in fossil fuel base fractions. Also, results from the analysis of base fractions from mildly hydrotreated SRC II coal liquids and petroleum-derived light cycle oils will be reported.

Thomson, J.S.; Green, J.B.; Yu, S.K.T.; Vrana, R.P.

1991-12-01

262

Differentiation of primary, secondary and tertiary aromatic amines in fossil fuels using trifluoroacylation. 1, Analytical methodology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analytical method which distinguishes between primary, secondary and tertiary amines has been developed. Trifluoroacetic anhydride, with 4-pyrrolidinopyridine as a catalyst, is used to form di- and mono-trifluoroacylated derivatives of primary and secondary aromatic amines, respectively. Tertiary aromatic amines such as quinoline do not react. GC/MS is then used to analyze the derivatized samples. Retention indices and response factors (relative to 4-fluoroaniline) are reported for >50 pure compounds known or expected to be present in fossil fuel base fractions. Also, results from the analysis of base fractions from mildly hydrotreated SRC II coal liquids and petroleum-derived light cycle oils will be reported.

Thomson, J.S.; Green, J.B.; Yu, S.K.T.; Vrana, R.P.

1991-12-01

263

Importance of fossil fuel emission uncertainties over Europe for CO2 modeling: model intercomparison  

Science.gov (United States)

Inverse modeling techniques used to quantify surface carbon fluxes commonly assume that the uncertainty of fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions is negligible and that intra-annual variations can be neglected. To investigate these assumptions, we analyzed the differences between four fossil fuel emission inventories with spatial and temporal differences over Europe and their impact on the model simulated CO2 concentration. Large temporal flux variations characterize the hourly fields (~40 % and ~80 % for the seasonal and diurnal cycles, peak-to-peak) and annual country totals differ by 10 % on average and up to 40 % for some countries (i.e., the Netherlands). These emissions have been prescribed to seven different transport models, resulting in 28 different FFCO2 concentrations fields. The modeled FFCO2 concentration time series at surface sites using time-varying emissions show larger seasonal cycles (+2 ppm at the Hungarian tall tower (HUN)) and smaller diurnal cycles in summer (-1 ppm at HUN) than when using constant emissions. The concentration range spanned by all simulations varies between stations, and is generally larger in winter (up to ~10 ppm peak-to-peak at HUN) than in summer (~5 ppm). The contribution of transport model differences to the simulated concentration std-dev is 2-3 times larger than the contribution of emission differences only, at typical European sites used in global inversions. These contributions to the hourly (monthly) std-dev's amount to ~1.2 (0.8) ppm and ~0.4 (0.3) ppm for transport and emissions, respectively. First comparisons of the modeled concentrations with 14C-based fossil fuel CO2 observations show that the large transport differences still hamper a quantitative evaluation/validation of the emission inventories. Changes in the estimated monthly biosphere flux (Fbio) over Europe, using two inverse modeling approaches, are relatively small (less that 5 %) while changes in annual Fbio (up to ~0.15 % GtC yr-1) are only slightly smaller than the differences in annual emission totals and around 30 % of the mean European ecosystem carbon sink. These results point to an urgent need to improve not only the transport models but also the assumed spatial and temporal distribution of fossil fuel emission inventories.

Peylin, P.; Houweling, S.; Krol, M. C.; Karstens, U.; Rödenbeck, C.; Geels, C.; Vermeulen, A.; Badawy, B.; Aulagnier, C.; Pregger, T.; Delage, F.; Pieterse, G.; Ciais, P.; Heimann, M.

2011-07-01

264

Carbon sequestration from fossil fuels and biomass - long-term potentials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon sequestration and disposal from fossil fuels combustion is gaining attraction as a means to deal with climate change. However, CO2 emissions from biomass combustion can also be sequestered. If that is done, biomass energy with carbon sequestration (BECS) would become a net negative carbon sink that would at the same time deliver carbon free energy (heat, electricity or hydrogen) to society. Here we estimate some global technoeconomical potentials for BECS, and we also present some rough economics of electricity generation with carbon sequestration

265

Electricity from fossil-fuel power plants: big uncertainties at short term  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to avoid peak load power outages, France will have to modernize its park of fossil fuel power plants. However, several power plants are too old to be conformable with the new European environmental requirements and would require enormous investments to become conformable with pollution regulations. One solution should come from the reciprocity agreements between Electricite de France and Enel (Italy) and from several other projects of building of combined cycle power plants. Today, only few of these projects are confirmed because many uncertainties remain about the fiscality of natural gas, the quotas of CO2 emissions, and the fluctuations of crude oil prices. (J.S.)

266

Fluoride and chloride determination in fossil fuels after sample preparation by pyrohydrolysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pyrohydrolysis is proposed for fossil fuels sample preparation for further fluorine and chlorine determination. Samples were heated during 10 min at temperatures up to 1000 deg C. Water vapor was passed through the reactor and the volatile products were condensed and collected in NH4OH solution. Fluoride was determined by potentiometry using an ion selective electrode (ISE) and Cl by ICP OES and DRC-ICP-MS. The results are in good agreement with certified values and the precision is better than 10% (n = 4). Sample preparation by means of pyrohydrolysis is relatively simple, whereas chlorine and fluorine can be determined at low concentrations (author)

267

Economic evaluations of HTGR applications to fossil-fuel conversion processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary is given of the results of economic evaluations of the application of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor-process heat (HTGR-PH) to coal and oil-shale conversion processes, with emphasis on potential fossil-fuel savings by substituting nuclear heat. Processes for direct coal liquefaction, coal gasification, surface retorting of oil shale, and reforming of natural gas are examined. Potential market needs for the HTGR-PH to the year 2020 are estimated. The core helium temperatures desirable, and attainable, for these applications are discussed. (author)

268

Determination of polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles in fossil fuel-related samples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analytical method is described for the separation, identification, and quantification of a number of polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) in three fossil fuel-related samples including two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), SRM 1597 (coal tar) and SRM 1582 (petroleum crude oil), and a decant oil. Because of the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and PASHs together with their large number of possible alkyl-substituted isomers, the analytical method described requires a number of prerequisites; which are described, namely effective sample cleanup, selective stationary phases, and selective methods of detection.

Mossner, S.G.; Wise, S.A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Division of Analytical Chemistry

1999-01-01

269

Numerical analysis of injector flow and spray characteristics from diesel injectors using fossil and biodiesel fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Fluid-dynamic simulation of injection process with biodiesel and diesel fuel. ? Coupling of Eulerian and Lagrangian spray CFD simulations. ? Effects of hole shaping: conical versus cylindrical and edge rounding effects. ? Prediction of spray characteristics improved using inner nozzle flow data. ? Explanation of mass flow differences depending on hole shape and fuel type. -- Abstract: The aim of the paper is the comparison of the injection process with two fuels, a standard diesel fuel and a pure biodiesel, methyl ester of soybean oil. Multiphase cavitating flows inside injector nozzles are calculated by means of unsteady CFD simulations on moving grids from needle opening to closure, using an Eulerian–Eulerian two-fluid approach which takes into account bubble dynamics. Afterward, spray evolutions are also evaluated in a Lagrangian framework using results of the first computing step, mapped onto the hole exit area, for the initialization of the primary breakup model. Two nozzles with cylindrical and conical holes are studied and their behaviors are discussed in relation to fuel properties. Nozzle flow simulations highlighted that the extent of cavitation regions is not much affected by the fuel type, whereas it is strongly dependent on the nozzle shape. Biodiesel provides a slightly higher mass flow in highly cavitating nozzles. On the contrary using hole shaped nozzles (to reduce cavitation) diesel provides similar or slightly higher mass flow. Comparing the two fuels, the effects of different viscosities and densities play main role which explains these behaviors. Simulations of the spray evolution are also discussed highlighting the differences between the use of fossil and biodiesel fuels in terms of spray penetration, atomization and cone-angle. Usage of diesel fuel in the conical convergent nozzle gives higher liquid penetration.

270

N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship, on a global basis, between the amount of N fixed by chemical, biological or atmospheric processes entering the terrestrial biosphere, and the total emission of nitrous oxide (N2O, has been re-examined, using known global atmospheric removal rates and concentration growth of N2O as a proxy for overall emissions. For both the pre-industrial period and in recent times, after taking into account the large-scale changes in synthetic N fertiliser production, we find an overall conversion factor of 3–5% from newly fixed N to N2O-N. We assume the same factor to be valid for biofuel production systems. It is covered only in part by the default conversion factor for "direct" emissions from agricultural crop lands (1% estimated by IPCC (2006, and the default factors for the "indirect" emissions (following volatilization/deposition and leaching/runoff of N: 0.35–0.45% cited therein. However, as we show in the paper, when additional emissions included in the IPCC methodology, e.g. those from livestock production, are included, the total may not be inconsistent with that given by our "top-down" method. When the extra N2O emission from biofuel production is calculated in "CO2-equivalent" global warming terms, and compared with the quasi-cooling effect of "saving" emissions of fossil fuel derived CO2, the outcome is that the production of commonly used biofuels, such as biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from corn (maize, depending on N fertilizer uptake efficiency by the plants, can contribute as much or more to global warming by N2O emissions than cooling by fossil fuel savings. Crops with less N demand, such as grasses and woody coppice species, have more favourable climate impacts. This analysis only considers the conversion of biomass to biofuel. It does not take into account the use of fossil fuel on the farms and for fertilizer and pesticide production, but it also neglects the production of useful co-products. Both factors partially compensate each other. This needs to be analyzed in a full life cycle assessment.

A. R. Mosier

2008-01-01

271

Reducing global warming through the provision of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concern has increased in recent years regarding the rising atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and its potential effect on future global climate. One element of strategies for the reduction of CO2 emissions would be to increase the proportion of energy derived from non-fossil energy sources. This option has led to renewed interest in the use of hydrogen as an energy vector which could facilitate the transfer of non-fossil energy into a wider range of end-use sectors. To assess, in this context, the potential role of non-fossil-fuel hydrogen (NFFH), published information on the costs and performance of technologies for the production, storage, distribution and utilisation of hydrogen has been reviewed in this study. These data have been used in a model of the UK energy system to investigate the potential contributions of the various hydrogen technologies, over a 50 year timeframe, and with different levels of constraint imposed on the rate of CO2 release. Finally, to set these reduced CO2 release rates in the context of the resultant reduction in global warming commitment, a further modelling study has been made to estimate the residual transient warming to 2050, assuming the world as a whole follows the same CO2 emission profiles as modelled for the UK. This 259 page report of the study contains extensive tables of data and references, and a glossary of terms, units and conversion factors. (author)

272

Decarbonization of fossil fuels as a strategy to control global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the world reaching near-total consensus on the seriousness of the global warming impacts, and on the urgency to halt further warming, R & D efforts have intensified many-fold to find ways and means of global warming control. One of the avenues being explored is 'decarbonization' of fossil fuel use by either decarbonizing the fuels before they are burnt or by capturing the CO{sub 2} they emit on combustion. In this paper the various available options are reviewed in the context of their economic and environmental viability. It emerges that even as the goal is very enchanting, the possibility of it's realization appears remote. It also follows that the only sure method of reducing greenhouse gas emissions presently available to humankind is by reducing consumption of energy and other resources.

Abbasi, T.; Abbasi, S.A. [Pondicherry Central University, Pondicherry (India)

2011-05-15

273

Cost and prices of electricity. Fossil fuels, nuclear power and renewable energy sources in comparison  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consumers of electricity pay for production, transport and distribution as well as for taxes and dues. Electricity rates depend on various influencing factors, e.g. different fuel and capital cost of the power plants and the ratio of supply and demand in the electricity stock markets. End user electricity rats also include taxes and dues as well as the cost of power transmission. The publication presents background information on the formation of electricity rates in Germany. In a second step, the different cost factors of fossil fuels, nuclear power and renewable energy sources are compared. In particular, the external cost is gone into which often tends to be neglected in the electricity markets.

274

Survey of population health in towns with nuclear and fossil fuel power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Comparative assessment of population health in Sosnovy Bor with nuclear power plant and Kirovsk with fossil fuel power station was made for public and administration information. Both towns are located in Leningrad administrative region at 150 km distance from each other. In nuclear power town radiological situation was assessed as normal and in Kirovsk up to 1995 yr. with coal fuel, maximum permissible levels of suspended particle of sulfur oxide in atmosphere were exceeded in 6-9% of samples. After 1995 yr. the natural gas was used as fuel. Demographic data for 1991-2000 yrs indicate that mortality including infants mortality and stillborns was lower in Sosnovy Bor (NOS) then in Kirovsk (fossil fuel) and on average Leningrad administrative region. Birth rate and population growth was higher in Sosnovy Bor at the same time surprisingly the recorded morbidity was higher in Sosnovy Bor which might be explained by extensive medical supervision and improved diagnostics. However, cancer and tuberculosis morbidity was lower in Sosnovy Bor. In Kirovsk in 1997-2000 yrs. oncological morbidity was higher on average comparing to Leningrad administrative region. Oncological mortality in Sosnovy Bor in 1997-2000 yrs. was lower than in Kirovsk and Leningrad region Standardized annual mortality in Sosnovy Bor, Kirovsk and Leningrad administrative region was 128.3, 209.6 and 211.7 on 100 000 respectively. Health state of pregnant women, deliveries, new-born condition were all in normal range in Sosnovy Bor, contrary to higher increased abortion rate and pregnancy complications in Kirovsk. These findings need further studies. (Author)

Ivanov, E.; Shubik, V. M.

2004-07-01

275

The effect of retrofitting Portuguese fossil fuel power plants with CCS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A map of mainland Portugal with potential CO2 source-sink matching was created. ? Four existing Portuguese power plants were simulated with and without CCS. ? Effect of CCS retrofit on performance and costs at each power plant was studied. ? The incremental COE was estimated at around 46 $/MW h for NGCC plants. ? The incremental COE was estimated at around 61 $/MW h for PC plants. -- Abstract: This work assesses the retrofit potential of existing Portuguese fossil fuel power plants with post-combustion CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology. The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was used to provide a systematic techno-economic analysis of the cost of emission control equipment, the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and other key parameters which may change when CCS is implemented at a fossil fuel power plant. The results indicate that CCS requires a large capital investment and significantly increases the levelized cost of electricity. However, the economic viability of CCS increases with higher CO2 prices. The breakeven CO2 price for plants with and without CCS was estimated at $85–$140/t of CO2 depending on the technical parameters of the individual plants.

276

Spanish Moss as an atmospheric tracer for trace elements from fossil fuel burning power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples of Spanish Moss (Tillandsia usneoides) were analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA), inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectrometry (ICP), and x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) for trace elements as atmospheric environmental monitors. In particular, certain elements thought likely to be contributed to the atmosphere by combustion of fossil fuels were studied in samples collected along two transects, an east/west transect from the Louisiana line west to Dallas and a north/south transect from the Limestone electric Generating Station north to Dallas. Plants were sampled during peak electric generating periods in the summer, as well as following planned outages during the winter months. Se, As and several other volatile species known to concentrate in fly ash particles which are likely to escape power plant collection devices were shown to correlate with downwind directions of plant plumes. Attempts to determine levels of sulfur taken up by the plants which can be attributed to fossil fuel combustion through the use of these marker elements have also be made

277

Characterization of Pollution Outflow From India and Arabia: Biomass Burning and Fossil Fuel Combustion  

Science.gov (United States)

One objective of the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX 1999) was to character- ize the chemical composition of pollution outflow from South Asia. Real-time single particle analysis (ATOFMS, Univ. of California-Riverside), CO analysis (Nondisper- sive Infrared Gas Filter Correlation Photometer, Univ. of Maryland) and fast-response VOC measurements (PTR-MS, Univ. of Innsbruck) measurements were performed onboard the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown. Gas phase and aerosol chemical compo- sition of encountered air parcels changed according to their geographic origin traced by backtrajectory analysis (continental air from Arabia and India; maritime air). The relative strength of combustion related pollution sources (biomass burning (BB) vs. fossil fuel (FF) combustion) was determined from the relative abundance of differ- ent tracers: acetonitrile (BB), CO (BB and FF), submicron particles containing car- bon but no potassium (FF), submicron particles containing carbon and potassium (BB and coal combustion), submicron particles containing carbon, potassium and lithium (coal combustion). Arabian air clearly reflected the signature of fossil fuel combustion, while air from the Indian subcontinent was strongly influenced by biomass burning.

Wisthaler, A.; Hansel, A.; Stehr, J. W.; Dickerson, R. R.; Guazzotti, S. A.; Coffee, K.; Prather, K. A.

278

Is there a future for UK power generation without fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been said that the world's only truly inexhaustible energy sources are solar and nuclear. This is a key factor directing attention towards the day when fossil fuels will have been eliminated for all practical purposes from the electrical generation scene. Such a statement raises many issues but, in the end, a balance has to be struck so that environmental, social and commercial factors are optimised in an acceptable manner. The nuclear debate will doubtless continue until technological advances permit effective decoupling of power generation and weapons manufacture. However, one thing is virtually certain and that is that world and UK electrical demands will increase at the expense of other energy forms. Whilst it is true that solar and nuclear sources are virtually inexhaustible there are practical difficulties, mainly concerned with management and control of a generation mix to which the suppliers of commercial electricity are at present unaccustomed. Storage on a greatly increased scale will be required and nuclear power plants may have to be operated at lower load factors. It is concluded that there is a future for electricity generation in the UK without fossil fuels. (U.K.)

279

Long-term ocean oxygen depletion in response to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ongoing global warming could persist far into the future, because natural processes require decades to hundreds of thousands of years to remove carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel burning from the atmosphere(1-3). Future warming may have large global impacts including ocean oxygen depletion and associated adverse effects on marine life, such as more frequent mortality events(4-8), but long, comprehensive simulations of these impacts are currently not available. Here we project global change over the next 100,000 years using a low-resolution Earth system model(9), and find severe, long-term ocean oxygen depletion, as well as a great expansion of ocean oxygen-minimum zones for scenarios with high emissions or high climate sensitivity. We find that climate feedbacks within the Earth system amplify the strength and duration of global warming, ocean heating and oxygen depletion. Decreased oxygen solubility from surface-layer warming accounts for most of the enhanced oxygen depletion in the upper 500 m of the ocean. Possible weakening of ocean overturning and convection lead to further oxygen depletion, also in the deep ocean. We conclude that substantial reductions in fossil-fuel use over the next few generations are needed if extensive ocean oxygen depletion for thousands of years is to be avoided.

Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

2009-01-01

280

Implications of fossil fuel constraints on economic growth and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy Security and Global Warming are analysed as 21st century sustainability threats. Best estimates of future energy availability are derived as an Energy Reference Case (ERC). An explicit economic growth model is used to interpret the impact of the ERC on economic growth. The model predicts a divergence from 20th century equilibrium conditions in economic growth and socio-economic welfare is only stabilised under optimistic assumptions that demands a paradigm shift in contemporary economic thought and focused attention from policy makers. Fossil fuel depletion also constrains the maximum extent of Global Warming. Carbon emissions from the ERC comply nominally with the B1 scenario, which is the lowest emissions case considered by the IPCC. The IPCC predicts a temperature response within acceptance limits of the Global Warming debate for the B1 scenario. The carbon feedback cycle, used in the IPCC models, is shown as invalid for low-emissions scenarios and an alternative carbon cycle reduces the temperature response for the ERC considerably compared to the IPCC predictions. Our analysis proposes that the extent of Global Warming may be acceptable and preferable compared to the socio-economic consequences of not exploiting fossil fuel reserves to their full technical potential

 
 
 
 
281

Industrial aspects of spent fuel storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of its programme for expanding the reprocessing facilities at the La Hague plant, Cogema has entrusted the Societe generale pour les techniques nouvelles with the task of constructing the new installations required for the storage and reprocessing of spent fuel from French and foreign PWR and BWR plants. The main industrial aspects of the design and operation of the following reception and storage facilities are described: the NPH facility (Nouvelles Piscines de La Hague) which has been in operation since February 1981, the T0 facility (dry unloading) and the storage ponds C,D and E. Also described are the techniques used for reprocessing spent fuel transport casks in the NPH facility (reception, preparation for unloading, decontamination after removal from the pond), the auxiliary functions of the facility (water treatment, control of the installations), and some of the special devices that have been installed. The T0 facility now under construction is described; each facility will be used for the dry unloading of transport casks as of 1985. Finally, the salient characteristics are given of the four storage ponds, each of which can accommodate 2000 t of spent initial uranium fuel. A number of prototypes are used in the installations making up the reception and storage facilities. The most important of these are described: spent fuel transfer equipment, heat exchangers, handling equipment, etc. Facility construction costs are then compared. In conclusion, the sts are then compared. In conclusion, the experience gained at La Hague in the reception and treatment of LWR spent fuel transport casks is described and an explanation is given of how this experience is reflected in the design of the facilities for future UP2-800 and UP3 plants. (author)

282

Building-specific quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions in an urban domain: the case of Indianapolis, US  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in interpreting atmospheric CO2 measurements in addition to providing critical emissions mitigation information. Recent research and decision-support has placed emphasis on quantification of emissions for urban domes with sector specificity. Here we present results of the Hestia Project, an effort aimed at quantifying fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the building and road segment scale for the city of Indianapolis as part of the INFLUX experiment. To calculate CO2 emissions for buildings, we use a combination of county-level estimation from the Vulcan Project and distribute those emissions via an allocation method that utilizes a building energy simulation tool - eQuest (DOE). eQUEST is based on a series of building typologies and has a large number of input variables in order to quantify energy consumption. The simulation process uses default values when the actual data are inaccessible or non-existent. Our method is based on the construction of 22 commercial, 18 industrial, and 8 residential building types. This classification requires specification of building vintages and sizes. To calculate the total floor area of buildings from building heights, remote sensing data are used. The DOEs regional energy surveys, CBECS, RECS and MECS data for the East North Central Census Division, are used to calibrate hourly profiles for different building types. Previous published results for Indianapolis have been substantially updated by using additional data on natural gas pipelines. A more accurate, statistically-based building height assessment has been made using improved lidar data. The reclassification procedure converting Assessor's parcel types into Hestia prototypes, has been revised and improved. More accurate statistics have been calculated and corresponding diagrams and thematic maps have been prepared. Development of a powerful user-friendly information system for decision-makers is in process. That system will allow city environmental managers and regional planning agencies to make analyses of CO2 emissions for inquired sector and period. Of the townships in Indianapolis, Central Township has the largest emissions through the whole year while Wayne is the largest Industrial emitter. The commercial sector building emissions peak during at 7:30 am and 5 pm while the residential sector has peaks at 6 am and 6 pm. The Industrial sector has one peak at 1:30 pm. The relative proportions of those peaks vary with seasons of year. In contrast, their positions in monthly and diurnal profiles appear stable.

Razlivanov, I.; Gurney, K. R.; Zhou, Y.; Turnbull, J. C.; Sweeney, C.; Guenther, D.; Karion, A.; Davis, K. J.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Shepson, P. B.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Lehman, S. J.; Tans, P. P.

2011-12-01

283

Detecting the influence of fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon aerosols on near surface temperature changes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Past research has shown that the dominant influence on recent global climate changes is from anthropogenic greenhouse gas increases with implications for future increases in global temperatures. One mitigation proposal is to reduce black carbon aerosol emissions. How much warming can be offset by controlling black carbon is unclear, especially as its influence on past climate has not been previously unambiguously detected. In this study observations of near-surface warming over the last century are compared with simulations using a climate model, HadGEM1. In the simulations black carbon, from fossil fuel and bio-fuel sources (fBC, produces a positive radiative forcing of about +0.25 Wm?2 over the 20th century, compared with +2.52 Wm?2 for well mixed greenhouse gases. A simulated warming of global mean near-surface temperatures over the twentieth century from fBC of 0.14 ± 0.1 K compares with 1.06 ± 0.07 K from greenhouse gases, ?0.58 ± 0.10 K from anthropogenic aerosols, ozone and land use changes and 0.09 ± 0.09 K from natural influences. Using a detection and attribution methodology, the observed warming since 1900 has detectable influences from anthropogenic and natural factors. Fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon is found to have a detectable contribution to the warming over the last 50 yr of the 20th century, although the results are sensitive to the period being examined as fBC is not detected for the later fifty year period ending in 2006. The attributed warming of fBC was found to be consistent with the warming from fBC unscaled by the detection analysis. This study suggests that there is a possible significant influence from fBC on global temperatures, but its influence is small compared to that from greenhouse gas emissions.

G. S. Jones

2011-01-01

284

Detecting the influence of fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon aerosols on near surface temperature changes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Past research has shown that the dominant influence on recent global climate changes is from anthropogenic greenhouse gas increases with implications for future increases in global temperatures. One mitigation proposal is to reduce black carbon aerosol emissions. How much warming can be offset by the aerosol's control is unclear, especially as its influence on past climate has not been previously unambiguously detected. In this study observations of near-surface warming over the last century are compared with simulations using a climate model, HadGEM1. In the simulations black carbon, from fossil fuel and bio-fuel sources (fBC, produces a positive radiative forcing of about + 0.25 Wm?2 over the 20th century, compared with a little under + 2.5 Wm?2 for well mixed greenhouse gases. A simulated warming of global mean near-surface temperatures over the twentieth century from fBC of 0.14 ± 0.1 K compares with 1.06 ± 0.07 K from greenhouse gases, -0.58 ± 0.10 K from anthropogenic aerosols, ozone and land use changes and 0.09 ± 0.09 K from natural influences. Using a detection and attribution methodology, the observed warming since 1900 has detectable influences from anthropogenic and natural factors. Fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon is found to have a detectable contribution to the warming over the last 50 years of the 20th century, although the results are sensitive to a number of analysis choices, and fBC is not detected for the later fifty year period ending in 2006. The attributed warming of fBC was found to be consistent with the warming from the unscaled simulation. This study suggests that there is a possible significant influence from fBC on global temperatures, but its influence is small compared to that from greenhouse gas emissions.

G. S. Jones

2010-09-01

285

The Estonian national program for sustainable resource development and its connection with teaching about fossil fuels in chemistry courses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conception of sustainable resource development worked out under the initiative of the United Nations (UN) actualizes ideas for improving the health of people and the environment. The needs of people are to he addressed and, simultaneously, natural resources preserved. That is ,why ecological and economic expenses are to he integrated and flow sheets of industrial plants are to be reorganized in order to utilize natural resources in a rational way. The association of Estonia with the resolution of the UN Conference on Environmental Development held in Rio de Janeiro and the resolution of the Estonian Parliament concerning The National Program of Sustainable Development require changes in our lifestyle. Chemical education in schools has to support a change in the way of thinking and many concrete subjects can be connected with the problems of sustainable development. Metallic elements get into the environment mostly with fuel combustion ashes. According to various prognoses, fossil fuel resources will last for a thousand years. This means that more and more metallic compounds are thrown into the environment. Dispersion of metals in the air, water bodies and soil is continuously increasing. Finally, they reach the food chain and to the human body. As a result, toxicosis, illnesses, and inadvisable dislocations in organic life may occur. The trend to use ash as a raw material for metal production is considered to have some prospective economically attractive application. This would be one possible way of sustainable resource development to avoid the increase of environmental pollution and increase production of the corresponding metals

286

Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was conducted to compare the electricity generation costs of a number of current commercial technologies with technologies expected to become commercially available within the coming decade or so. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting per kWh of electricity generated were evaluated. A range of fossil fuel alternatives (with and without physical carbon sequestration), were compared with the baseline case of a pulverised coal, steam cycle power plant. Nuclear, hydro, wind, bioenergy and solar generating plants were also evaluated. The objectives were to assess the comparative costs of mitigation per tonne of carbon emissions avoided, and to estimate the total amount of carbon mitigation that could result from the global electricity sector by 2010 and 2020 as a result of fuel switching, carbon dioxide sequestration and the greater uptake of renewable energy. Most technologies showed potential to reduce both generating costs and carbon emission avoidance by 2020 with the exception of solar power and carbon dioxide sequestration. The global electricity industry has potential to reduce its carbon emissions by over 15% by 2020 together with cost saving benefits compared with existing generation

287

Global Partitioning of NOx Sources Using Satellite Observations: Relative Roles of Fossil Fuel Combustion, Biomass Burning and Soil Emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains the following abstract for the paper "Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: Relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and soil emissions." Satellite observations have been used to provide important new information about emissions of nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are significant in atmospheric chemistry, having a role in ozone air pollution, acid deposition and climate change. We know that human activities have led to a three- to six-fold increase in NOx emissions since pre-industrial times, and that there are three main surface sources of NOx: fuel combustion, large-scale fires, and microbial soil processes. How each of these sources contributes to the total NOx emissions is subject to some doubt, however. The problem is that current NOx emission inventories rely on bottom-up approaches, compiling large quantities of statistical information from diverse sources such as fuel and land use, agricultural data, and estimates of burned areas. This results in inherently large uncertainties. To overcome this, Lyatt Jaegle and colleagues from the University of Washington, USA, used new satellite observations from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. As the spatial and seasonal distribution of each of the sources of NOx can be clearly mapped from space, the team could provide independent topdown constraints on the individual strengths of NOx sources, and thus help resolve discrepancies in existing inventories. Jaegle's analysis of the satellite observations, presented at the recent Faraday Discussion on "Atmospheric Chemistry", shows that fuel combustion dominates emissions at northern mid-latitudes, while fires are a significant source in the Tropics. Additionally, she discovered a larger than expected role for soil emissions, especially over agricultural regions with heavy fertilizer use. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

Jaegle, Lyatt; Steinberger, Linda; Martin, Randall V.; Chance, Kelly

2005-01-01

288

Future contracts in the nuclear fuel industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a modern futures market, standardized contracts for future delivery of a commodity are traded through an exchange that establishes contract terms and the rules of trading. The futures contract itself is simply an agreement between a buyer and a seller in which the seller is obligated to deliver and the buyer is obligated to accept a predetermined quantity of a specified commodity at a given location on a certain date in the future for a set price. Organized futures markets aid in price discovery; provide a risk management tool for those with commercial interests in a commodity; create speculative opportunities; and contribute to competitiveness, efficiency, and fairness in trading. There are, at present, no standardized futures contracts in the nuclear fuel industry, although the concept has been discovered for years. The idea has been raised again recently in relation to the disposition of Russian uranium. Some adaptation of traditional futures contracts, traded on an exchange composed of nuclear fuel industry participants, could provide many of the benefits found in other commodity futures markets

289

Health effects and related standards for fossil-fuel and geothermal power plants. Volume 6 of health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. [In California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report reviews health effects and related standards for fossil-fuel and geothermal power plants, emphasizing impacts which may occur through emissions into the atmosphere, and treating other impacts briefly. Federal regulations as well as California state and local regulations are reviewed. Emissions are characterized by power plant type, including: coal-fired, oil-fired, gas-fired, combined cycle and advanced fossil-fuel plants; and liquid and vapor geothermal systems. Dispersion and transformation of emissions are treated. The state of knowledge of health effects, based on epidemiological, physiological, and biomedical studies, is reviewed.

Case, G.D.; Bertolli, T.A.; Bodington, J.C.; Choy, T.A.; Nero, A.V.

1977-01-01

290

Options for the Swedish steel industry - Energy efficiency measures and fuel conversion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The processes of iron and steel making are energy intensive and consume large quantities of electricity and fossil fuels. In order to meet future climate targets and energy prices, the iron and steel industry has to improve its energy and resource efficiency. For the iron and steel industry to utilize its energy resources more efficiently and at the same time reduce its CO2 emissions a number of options are available. In this paper, opportunities for both integrated and scrap-based steel plants are presented and some of the options are electricity production, fuel conversion, methane reforming of coke oven gas and partnership in industrial symbiosis. The options are evaluated from a system perspective and more specific measures are reported for two Swedish case companies: SSAB Strip Products and Sandvik AB. The survey shows that both case companies have great potentials to reduce their CO2 emissions. -- Research highlights: ? Steel plants have several opportunities to utilize excess energy flows. ? Industrial symbiosis and TES can enhance the utilization of excess energy. ? Options to produce electricity from low-grade heat and heat radiation. ? Options to substitute fossil fuels with biomass. ? The case companies have great potentials to reduce their CO2 emissions.

291

?14C level of annual plants and fossil fuel derived CO2 distribution across different regions of China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 14C level in annual plants is a sensitive tracer for monitoring fossil fuel derived CO2 in the atmosphere. Corn leave samples were selected from different regions of China, including high mountains in the Tibetan Plateau, grassland in Inner Mongolia, and inland and coastal cities during the summer of 2010. The 14C/12C ratio of the samples was measured with the NEC compact AMS system at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The fossil fuel derived CO2 was estimated by comparing the measured ?14C values of corn leave samples to background atmospheric ?14C level. The influences of topography, meteorological conditions and carbon cycling processes on the fossil fuel derived CO2 concentration are considered when interpreting the data. Our results show a clear association of the low ?14C values with regions where human activities are intensive.

292

Comparative analysis of structural concrete Quality Assurance practices on nine nuclear and three fossil fuel power plant construction projects. Final summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary of two reports, COO/4120-1 and COO/4120-2, is given. A comparative analysis was made of the Quality Assurance practices related to the structural concrete phase on nine nuclear and three fossil fuel power plant projects which are (or have been) under construction in the United States in the past ten years. For the nuclear projects the analysis identified the response of each Quality Assurance program to the applicable criteria of 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix B as well as to the pertinent regulatory requirements and industry standards. For the fossil projects the analysis identified the response of each Quality Assurance program to criteria similar to those which were applicable in the nuclear situation. The major emphasis was placed on the construction aspects of the structural concrete phase of each project. The engineering and design aspects were examined whenever they interfaced with the construction aspects

293

Fossil fuel use and CO2 emissions in Korea. NEAT approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon accounting is a key issue in the discussions on global warming/CO2 mitigation. This paper applies both the intergovernmental panel on climate change-reference approach (IPCC-RA) and the non-energy use emission accounting tables (NEAT) model, a material flow analysis, to estimate the carbon storage originating from the non-energy use as to assess the carbon release from the use of fossil fuels in Korea for the years 1999 and 2000. The current Korean carbon accounting seems to overestimate the carbon storage and to concomitantly underestimate CO2 emissions. This is because the gross naphtha deliveries are currently considered as feedstock use. The estimation after correction of the non-energy use statistics shows, however, that the carbon storage calculated according to the IPCC-RA are lower than those calculated using the NEAT model. This is because the IPCC default storage fraction for naphtha used in Korea seems to be too low for the Korean petrochemical production structure. A by-product of this study is the identification of a double counting of naphtha consumption in the amount of the backflows to refineries in the Korean energy balance which led to a four-year project to revise the energy balances back to 1990. This paper shows that a material flow analysis like the NEAT model can provide a better basis for estimation of CO2 emissions of the non-energy use and with it that of the fossil fuel use than the current IPCC-RA. Thssil fuel use than the current IPCC-RA. The NEAT model can be used as an independent emission calculation tool to verify the IPCC-RA and IPCC-SA as well as to replace them

294

Towards space/time resolved uncertainty quantification of urban fossil fuel CO2 emissions (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in emerging plans on a global, integrated, carbon monitoring system (CMS). A space/time explicit emissions data product can act as both a verification and planning system. It can verify atmospheric CO2 measurements (in situ and remote) and offer detailed mitigation information to management authorities in order to optimize the mix of mitigation efforts. Quantification of the uncertainty associated with bottom-up emission data products remains a challenging endeavor. There are a number of reasons for this. First, bottom-up source data is often produced by a regulatory agency, which has strict legal limits to the amount and type of information available. Even in cases where legal limitations are not at work, there is no standard for uncertainty reporting and hence, little reliable uncertainty estimation is made. The Hestia Project is an effort aimed at building high-resolution (eg. building and road link-specific, hourly) fossil fuel CO2 emissions data products at the scale of buildings/street segments for entire urban domains. A complete data product has been built for the city of Indianapolis and preliminary quantification has been completed for Los Angeles and Salt Lake City. The effort in Indianapolis is now part of a larger effort aimed at a convergent top-down/bottom-up assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, called INFLUX. In the course of this work, we have attempted to quantify uncertainty. In some cases, this is driven by parameter sensitivity, in other cases through the comparison of independent datasets reporting on the same entity. Expert judgment is also deployed where no alternative exists. Here, I will provide a review of some of these techniques with examples from our urban case studies. Total fossil fuel CO2 emissions for Marion County, IN, for the year 2002: (a) top view with numbered zones and (b) blowups of the numbered zones. Color units: log10 kg C/yr. Box height units: linear.

Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Patarasuk, R.; Song, Y.; O'Keeffe, D.; Huang, J.

2013-12-01

295

Atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 record in Debrecen city during the winter of 2008  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Fossil fuel CO2 content in the air of a major Hungarian city (Debrecen) was determined using together measurement of CO2 mixing ratio and radiocarbon (14C) content of air. In this project we developed a high precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station in Debrecen. An integrating sampling system (developed by ATOMKI) was applied for radiocarbon measurements. One sampler was installed in Debrecen station and two independent 14CO2 sampling line were installed 300 km far from Debrecen at Hegyhatsal station as independent background references, where high precision atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurement is also running since 1997. During the winter of 2008/09 we measured the mixing ratio and radiocarbon content of atmospheric CO2 at Debrecen and the reference station simultaneously. It was concluded that trends in CO2 mixing ratio variations in time are very similar at the three different sampling points (3 m above ground in Debrecen, 10 m and 115 m above ground in Hegyhatsal). Air quality in Debrecen during September of 2008 seemed to be relatively clear from the point of view of its CO2 content at least When winter came closer in October, with lover outside temperature and less sunshine hours the CO2 content of air was increased in general at all the three sampling points, but this effect was more intensive closer to the ground level. According our radiocarbon observations it was clearly indicated that there was not significant amount of fossil fuel CO2 in the air of Debrecen during September in 2008. But during the winter of 2008/09 the ?14C value of atmospheric CO2 of Debrecen decreased with more than 40 per mill relative to September's results, and according our calculations it was caused by about 20 ppm fossil fuel CO2 which appeared as a surplus amount in the air above the September level (Figure 1.). Acknowledgements This research project was supported by Hungarian NSF (Ref No. OTKA-F69029) and Isotoptech Zrt.

296

Theoretical studies of oxides relevant to the combustion of fossil fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthropogenic pollution has greatly increased since the industrial revolution and continues to increase as more of the world becomes dependent upon fossil fuels for important applications like transportation and power production. In a general case, whenever a fossil fuel is consumed, a primary product of a complete combustion reaction is carbon dioxide. In a more specific case, the collection, processing and combustion of coal for power production are one of the primary ways by which trace elements, such as arsenic and selenium, are released into the environment. All of these pollutants are known to have harmful effects, whether on the environment, human health or power production itself. Because of this there has been an increasing interest in studies related to combating these pollutants. Concerning CO2 emissions, recently there has been a significant amount of work related to CO2 capture. A promising method involves the encapsulation of CO2 into isoreticular metal-organic frameworks (IRMOFs). The effectiveness of IMROFs greatly depends on the choice of both metal and organic parts. Molecular simulations have been used in the past to aid in the design and characterization of new MOFs, in particular by generating an adsorption isotherm. However, these traditional simulation methods have several drawbacks. The method used in this thesis, namely expanded Wang-Landau, not only overcomes these drawbacks but provides access to all the thermodynamic properties relevant to the adsorption process through a solution thermodynamics approach. This is greatly beneficial, since an excellent way to characterize the performance of various MOFs is by comparing their desorption free energy, i.e., the energy it takes to regenerate a saturated MOF to prepare it for the next adsorption cycle. Expanded WL was used in the study of CO 2 adsorption into IRMOF-1, 8 and 10 at eight temperatures, spanning both the subcritical and supercritical regimes and the following were obtained: adsorption isotherms, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, entropy and desorption free energy. It was found that, when the maximum loading was compared to the regeneration costs, IRMOF-10 had the best performance, followed by IRMOF-8 then IRMOF-1. During the combustion of coal, not only is CO2 produced, but also the trace elements of arsenic and selenium escape into the environment though this process. Both arsenic and selenium are known to have a harmful effects on the environment and human health. Arsenic is also known to poison the catalytic converter used in selective catalytic reduction of NOx . These trace elements have been found on fly ash or in the hot flue gases released into the atmosphere. In flue gases they most often exist as oxides. There have been many experimental and a few theoretical studies on the monomeric oxides, AsOx and SeOx, where x = 1, 2, or 3. However, little is known concerning the corresponding dimeric oxides, As2Ox and Se2Ox, where x = 3 or 5, though these compounds are expected from their similarities to nitrogen and sulfur chemistry, respectively. From an experimental perspective, they are very challenging to study due to the high temperatures, complex environments and low concentrations needed for a direct study of the form and structures of the dimeric oxides. From a theoretical perspective, they can be challenging to study due to their multireference character and the need for both dynamic and non-dynamic electron correlation due to bonds forming and breaking during isomerization. However, high level multireference ab initio methods which account for both dynamic and non-dynamic electron correlation can be used. In the work contained in this thesis, GVVPT2 and CR-CC(2,3) were used to study the relative stabilities of all relevant isomers and transition states of As2Ox and Se2Ox. The structures used where generated through DFT using the B3LYP functional. Not only were plausible stationary points located for all species, it was further confirmed that GVVPT2, though with lower computational cost than CR-CC(2,3), can accurately predict such co

Hicks, Jason Michael

297

Fossil fuel-fired power generation. Case studies of recently constructed coal- and gas-fired plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To meet future energy demand growth and replace older or inefficient units, a large number of fossil fuel-fired plants will be required to be built worldwide in the next decade. Yet CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fired power generation are a major contributor to climate change. As a result, new plants must be designed and operated at highest efficiency both to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and to facilitate deployment of CO{sub 2} capture and storage in the future. The series of case studies in this report, which respond to a request to the IEA from the G8 Summit in July 2005, were conducted to illustrate what efficiency is achieved now in modern plants in different parts of the world using different grades of fossil fuels. The plants were selected from different geographical areas, because local factors influence attainable efficiency. The case studies include pulverized coal combustion (PCC) with both subcritical and supercritical (very high pressure and temperature) steam turbine cycles, a review of current and future applications of coal-fuelled integrated gasification combined cycle plants (IGCC), and a case study of a natural gas fired combined cycle plant to facilitate comparisons. The results of these analyses show that the technologies for high efficiency (low CO{sub 2} emission) and very low conventional pollutant emissions (particulates, SO{sub 2}, NOx) from fossil fuel-fired power generation are available now through PCC, IGCC or NGCC at commercially acceptable cost. This report contains comprehensive technical and indicative cost information for modern fossil fuel-fired plants that was previously unavailable. It serves as a valuable sourcebook for policy makers and technical decision makers contemplating decisions to build new fossil fuel-fired power generation plants.

Henderson, C. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

2007-10-23

298

Fossil fuel subsidy removal and inadequate public power supply: Implications for businesses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We briefly consider the impact of fossil fuel subsidy removal policies in the context of inadequate power supply, with a focus on the implications for businesses. In doing so, we utilize the case of the early 2012 fuel subsidy removal in Nigeria. The rationale for such subsidy-removal policies is typically informed by analysis showing that they lead to an economically inefficient allocation of resources and market distortions, while often failing to meet intended objectives. However, often the realities of infrastructural and institutional deficiencies are not appropriately factored into the decision-making process. Businesses in many developing countries, already impaired by the high cost of power supply deficiencies, become even less competitive on an unsubsidized basis. We find that justifications for removal often do not adequately reflect the specific environments of developing country economies, resulting in poor recommendations – or ineffective policy. - Highlights: ? We consider the impact of fuel subsidy removal in the context of energy poverty. ? Calls for subsidy removal often do not reflect the developing country realities. ? Businesses impaired by power supply deficiencies, become even less competitive.

299

Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled â??Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels.â?ť Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

Michael Petrik; Robert Ruhl

2012-03-31

300

Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); Summers, Cathy A. (Albany, OR); Gerdemann, Steve (Albany, OR); Oryshchyn, Danylo B. (Philomath, OR); Turner, Paul (Independence, OR); Patrick, Brian R. (Chicago, IL)

2011-10-18

 
 
 
 
301

Solid fossil-fuel recovery by electrical induction heating in situ - A proposal  

Science.gov (United States)

A technique, termed electrical induction heating, is proposed for in situ processes of energy production from solid fossil fuels, such as bitumen production from underground distillation of oil sand; oil by underground distillation of oil shale; petroleum from heavy oil by underground mobilization of heavy oil, from either residues of conventional liquid petroleum deposits or new deposits of viscous oil; methane and coal tar from lignite and coal deposits by underground distillation of coal; and generation of electricity by surface combustion of low calorific-value gas from underground coke gasification by combustion of the organic residue left from the underground distillation of coal by induction heating. A method of surface distillation of mined coking coal by induction heating to produce coke, methane, and coal tar is also proposed.

Fisher, S.

1980-04-01

302

Effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil-fuel processing technologies on aquatic systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress is reported for the second year of this project to evaluate the effects of aqueous effluents from in-situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic biota. The project objectives for Year 2 were pursued through five tasks: literature reviews on process water constituents, possible environmental impacts and potential control technologies; toxicity bioassays on the effects of coal gasification and oil shale retorting process waters and six process water constituents on aquatic biota; biodegradation studies on process water constituents; bioaccumulation factor estimation for the compounds tested in the toxicity bioassays; and recommendations on maximum exposure concentrations for process water constituents based on data from the project and from the literature. Results in each of the five areas of research are reported.

Bergman, H.L.

1978-12-01

303

Significant long-term increase of fossil fuel CO2 uptake from reduced marine calcification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analysis of available plankton manipulation experiments demonstrates a previously unrecognized wide range of sensitivities of biogenic calcification to simulated anthropogenic acidification of the ocean, with the "lab rat" of planktic calcifiers, Emiliania huxleyi not representative of calcification generally. We assess the implications of the experimental uncertainty in plankton calcification response by creating an ensemble of realizations of an Earth system model that encapsulates a comparable range of uncertainty in calcification response. We predict a substantial future reduction in marine carbonate production, with ocean CO2 sequestration across the model ensemble enhanced by between 62 and 199 PgC by the year 3000, equivalent to a reduction in the atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 burden at that time of up to 13%. Concurrent changes in ocean circulation and surface temperatures contribute about one third to the overall importance of reduced plankton calcification.

J. Bijma

2006-11-01

304

Climate policy and the optimal extraction of high- and low-carbon fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study how restricting CO{sub 2} emissions affects resource prices and depletion over time. We use a Hotelling-style model with two non-renewable fossil fuels that differ in their carbon content (e.g., coal and natural gas) and in addition are imperfect substitutes in final good production. We show that an economy facing a CO{sub 2} flow-constraint may substitute towards the relatively dirty input. As the economy tries to maximize output per unit of emissions it is not only carbon content that matters: productivity matters as well. With an announced constraint the economy first substitutes towards the less productive input such that more of the productive input is available when constrained. Preliminary empirical results suggest that it is cost-effective to substitute away from dirty coal to cleaner oil or gas, but to substitute from natural gas towards the dirtier input oil.

Smulders, S.; van der Werf, E. [University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada). Dept. of Economics

2008-11-15

305

Isotopic measurements of atmospheric methane in Los Angeles, California, USA: Influence of “fugitive” fossil fuel emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have suggested that CH4 emissions in Los Angeles and other large cities may be underestimated. We utilized stable isotopes (13C and D) and radiocarbon (14C) to investigate sources of CH4 in Los Angeles, California. First, we made measurements of ?13C and ?D of various CH4 sources in urban areas. Fossil fuel CH4 sources (oil refineries, power plants, traffic, and oil drilling fields) had ?13C values between -45 and -30‰ and dD values between -275 and -100‰, whereas biological CH4 (cows, biofuels, landfills, sewage treatment plants, and cattle feedlots) had ?13C values between -65 and -45‰ and ?D values between -350 and -275‰. We made high-altitude observations of CH4 concentration using continuous tunable laser spectroscopy measurements combined with isotope analyses (13C, 14C, and D) of discrete samples to constrain urban CH4 sources. Our data indicate that the dominant source of CH4 in Los Angeles has a ?13C value of approximately -41.5‰ and a ?D value between -229 and -208‰. ?14C of CH4 in urban air samples ranged from +262 to +344‰ (127.1 to 134.9 pMC), depleted with respect to average global background CH4. We conclude that the major source of CH4 in Los Angeles is leakage of fossil fuels, such as from geologic formations, natural gas pipelines, oil refining, and/or power plants. More research is needed to constrain fluxes of CH4 from natural gas distribution and refining, as this flux may increase with greater reliance on natural gas and biogas for energy needs.

Townsend-Small, Amy; Tyler, Stanley C.; Pataki, Diane E.; Xu, Xiaomei; Christensen, Lance E.

2012-04-01

306

DEVELOPMENT OF SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION SOURCES  

Science.gov (United States)

The report documents the technical approach and results achieved while developing a grab sampling method and an automated, on-line gas chromatography method suitable to characterize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fossil fuel combustion sources. he two methods developed have b...

307

Inferring high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 records at continental sites from combined 14CO2 and CO observations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An uncertainty estimate of a purely observational approach to derive hourly regional fossil fuel CO2 offsets ((delta)CO2(foss)) at continental CO2 monitoring sites is presented. Weekly mean 14C-based fossil fuel CO2 mixing ratios and corresponding regional CO offsets ((delta)CO) are proposed to determine weekly mean (delta)CO/(delta)CO2(foss) ratios in order to derive hourly (delta)CO2(foss) mixing ratios from hourly (delta)CO measurements. Respective regional model estimates of CO and CO2(foss) are applied to test this approach and obtain root mean square errors of the correspondingly determined regional hourly fossil fuel CO2 component. The method is further validated with campaign-based observations in Heidelberg. The uncertainty of the proposed method turns out to increase with decreasing fossil fuel CO2 fraction ranging from about 15% up to 40% for continental Europe. Together with the uncertainty of the (delta)CO/(delta)CO2(foss) ratio, which is determined by the precision of the 14CO2 measurement, this method is still more accurate and precise than any model-based approach

308

Fossil fuels and the global carbon dioxide problem. Disposal and recycling of carbon dioxide may reduce the greenhouse effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greenhouse gas reduction was defined as a global concern at the Kyoto conference of 1997. The emission reduction goals can be reached only if all options for energy saving and emission reduction are used, including disposal or recycling of carbon dioxide in fossil fuel combustion processes

309

Using Radon-222 and 14CO2 to Deduce Regional-scale Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed bottom-up inventories of fossil fuel CO2 emissions are currently being constructed for atmospheric and biogeochemical applications. Top-down estimates of regional-scale fluxes using in-situ atmospheric measurements can provide an independent check on these inventory estimates. A simple approach is presented here for routine monitoring of fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the regional scale using atmospheric measurements of radon-222 and 14CO2 and a Lagrangian particle dispersion model. Radon-222 is useful for calibrating the flux of other gases because its emissions are fairly uniform in space and time and the only atmospheric loss is due to its well-characterized radioactive decay. 14CO2 is an unambiguous tracer of recently emitted fossil fuel CO2. The Lagrangian particle dispersion model (here the STILT model is used) allows one to identify the upwind areas where surface fluxes are influencing the radon-222 and 14CO2 measurements. The transport model is also necessary to diagnose the covariance between fossil fuel emissions and the sensitivity of the atmospheric measurements to those emissions, which can bias radon-222 based estimates of CO2 fluxes if not considered. Results of a synthetic data study are presented, including an analysis of uncertainty.

Hirsch, A. I.

2006-12-01

310

Contextualizing avian mortality: A preliminary appraisal of bird and bat fatalities from wind, fossil-fuel, and nuclear electricity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article explores the threats that wind farms pose to birds and bats before briefly surveying the recent literature on avian mortality and summarizing some of the problems with it. Based on operating performance in the United States and Europe, this study offers an approximate calculation for the number of birds killed per kWh generated for wind electricity, fossil-fuel, and nuclear power systems. The study estimates that wind farms and nuclear power stations are responsible each for between 0.3 and 0.4 fatalities per gigawatt-hour (GWh) of electricity while fossil-fueled power stations are responsible for about 5.2 fatalities per GWh. While this paper should be respected as a preliminary assessment, the estimate means that wind farms killed approximately seven thousand birds in the United States in 2006 but nuclear plants killed about 327,000 and fossil-fueled power plants 14.5 million. The paper concludes that further study is needed, but also that fossil-fueled power stations appear to pose a much greater threat to avian wildlife than wind and nuclear power technologies.

Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)], E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg

2009-06-15

311

Contextualizing avian mortality. A preliminary appraisal of bird and bat fatalities from wind, fossil-fuel, and nuclear electricity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article explores the threats that wind farms pose to birds and bats before briefly surveying the recent literature on avian mortality and summarizing some of the problems with it. Based on operating performance in the United States and Europe, this study offers an approximate calculation for the number of birds killed per kWh generated for wind electricity, fossil-fuel, and nuclear power systems. The study estimates that wind farms and nuclear power stations are responsible each for between 0.3 and 0.4 fatalities per gigawatt-hour (GWh) of electricity while fossil-fueled power stations are responsible for about 5.2 fatalities per GWh. While this paper should be respected as a preliminary assessment, the estimate means that wind farms killed approximately seven thousand birds in the United States in 2006 but nuclear plants killed about 327,000 and fossil-fueled power plants 14.5 million. The paper concludes that further study is needed, but also that fossil-fueled power stations appear to pose a much greater threat to avian wildlife than wind and nuclear power technologies. (author)

Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

2009-06-15

312

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT REPORT FOR INDUSTRIAL BOILER APPLICATIONS: SYNTHETIC FUELS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report, part of a series to aid in determining the technological basis for New Source Performance Standards for Industrial Boilers, addresses the use of synthetic fuels produced from coal as a precombustion emission control for new industrial boilers. The synthetic fuels tech...

313

Comparative analysis of structural concrete quality assurance practices on three fossil fuel power plant construction projects. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The basic objective of this research effort was to perform a comparative analysis of the Quality Assurance practices related to the structural concrete phase on three fossil fuel power plant projects which are (or have been) under construction in the United States in the past ten years. This analysis identified the response of each Quality Assurance program to criteria similar to those which apply on nuclear power plant projects. The major emphasis was placed on the construction aspects of the structural concrete phase of each project. The engineering and design aspects were examined whenever they interfaced with the construction aspects. For those aspects of the Quality Assurance system which can be considered managerial in nature (i.e., organizational relationships, types of Quality Assurance programs, corrective action procedures, etc.) an attempt has been made to present the alternative approaches that were identified. For those aspects of the Quality Assurance system which are technical in nature (i.e., the frequency of testing for slump, compressive strength, etc.) an attempt has been made to present a comparative analysis between projects and in relation to the recommended or mandated practices presented in the appropriate industry codes and standards.

Willenbrock, J.H.; Thomas, H.R. Jr.; Burati, J.L. Jr.

1978-06-01

314

Measurement of fossil fuel carbon dioxide and other anthropogenic trace gases from MEGAPOLI intensive campaign in Paris during winter 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

The Paris agglomeration is the third biggest megacity in Europe (12 million inhabitants) and according to national emission inventories, is responsible for 15 % of the French anthropogenic CO2 emissions mainly originating from road transport, residential and industrial energy consumption. The objective of our feasibility study was to design an efficient monitoring strategy in order to quantify future trends in anthropogenic CO2 emission in Paris area. During the winter campaign of the European project MEGAPOLI and French project CO2-MEGAPARIS, we performed measurements of CO2 and related trace gases from January to February 2010. The RAMCES (Atmospheric Network for Greenhouse Gases Monitoring) team at LSCE monitored CO2 and CO mixing ratio with high temporal resolution using instruments based on Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) in the thirteenth arrondissement of Paris (south). We also sampled air in more than fifty flasks covering three full days at the same place. Flasks were analysed in the RAMCES central laboratory with a Gas Chromatograph system for CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, SF6 and H2 mixing ratios and also by Mass Spectroscopy for CO2 isotopic ratios (?13C and ?18O). In order to quantify the fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) most flasks were analysed at INSTAAR for ?14C in CO2. In addition, 13CO2 isotopic ratio and total CO2 concentration were measured at high temporal resolution (European inventory) and the national ones from CITEPA and AirParif.

Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Delmotte, M.; Gros, V.; Mondelain, D.; Lehman, S.; Ramonet, M.; Vuillemin, C.; Xueref-remy, I. C.

2012-12-01

315

Feeling the heat : oilsands producers tentatively peer outside the box in their search for green alternatives to fossil fuel consumption  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Green alternatives to fossil fuel consumption were explored. Researchers are now suggesting that there is the potential to sustainably produce enough biomass in western Canada to satisfy the energy requirements of Alberta's oil sands industry. Sources of biomass include forestry waste; fast-growing wood willows; mountain pine beetle damaged stocks; and agricultural crops and switchgrass. The biomass can be used in co-combustion processes with coal or petro-coke, or through various means of gasification, which can also generate streams of hydrogen for upgrading bitumen. However, transportation of the biomass remains a significant obstacle to its widespread use. Studies have suggested that pipelines could be constructed to transport wood pellets in coal slurries, while syngas could be pumped through the natural gas system. The use of biomass is expected to offset environmental impacts caused by oil sands development, as any carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) released into the atmosphere is equivalent to that sequestered in new forests and agricultural crops. Oil and gas producers are now considering the use of biomass stocks in future developments, and a consortium of major oil and gas developers is also considering the use of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) for use in deep heat mining processes. In EGS, a pair of deep wells are drilled into basement rock, where superheated water is pumped through fractures and up the second well. It was concluded that EGS has not yet been proven commercially, and demonstration projects are needed to advance the technology. 6 figs.

Smith, M.

2007-09-15

316

Fossil fuels: technical, economical and political challenges for 2030-2050; Combustibles fossiles: enjeux techniques, economiques et politiques a l'horizon 2030-2050  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This panorama takes stock on the international energy actuality in 2003 and discusses the instability of the geo-political context of the energy and the part of the fossil fuels for the future years 2030-2050. The following topics were presented: activities and market for the exploration-production, refining and petrochemistry, the world gas trade situation, the petroleum supply and demand, the Iraq, the diesel in the USA, the investments and the depletion, long-dated evolutions of motors and fuels, implementing of the european directive concerning the market of tradable permits of CO{sub 2}, the carbon sequestration, hydrogen the energy of the future and the biofuels in Europe. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2004-07-01

317

Cost-effective policy instruments for greenhouse gas emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution through bioenergy production in Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Climate change mitigation and security of energy supply are important targets of Austrian energy policy. Bioenergy production based on resources from agriculture and forestry is an important option for attaining these targets. To increase the share of bioenergy in the energy supply, supporting policy instruments are necessary. The cost-effectiveness of these instruments in attaining policy targets depends on the availability of bioenergy technologies. Advanced technologies such as second-generation biofuels, biomass gasification for power production, and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) will likely change the performance of policy instruments. This article assesses the cost-effectiveness of energy policy instruments, considering new bioenergy technologies for the year 2030, with respect to greenhouse gas emission (GHG) reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Instruments that directly subsidize bioenergy are compared with instruments that aim at reducing GHG emissions. A spatially explicit modeling approach is used to account for biomass supply and energy distribution costs in Austria. Results indicate that a carbon tax performs cost-effectively with respect to both policy targets if BECCS is not available. However, the availability of BECCS creates a trade-off between GHG emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Biofuel blending obligations are costly in terms of attaining the policy targets. - Highlights: ? Costs of energy policies and effehts: ? Costs of energy policies and effects on reduction of CO2 emissions and fossil fuel consumption. ? Particular focus on new bioenergy production technologies such as second generation biofuels. ? Spatially explicit techno-economic optimization model. ? CO2 tax: high costs for reducing fossil fuel consumption if carbon capture and storage is available. ? Biofuel policy: no significant reductions in CO2 emissions or fossil fuel consumption.

318

The implication for climate change and peak fossil fuel of the continuation of the current trend in wind and solar energy production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Climate change, and more recently, the risk of fossil fuel production being unable to keep pace with demand (peak fossil fuel) are both considered as risks to civilisation, or global risks. In an initial empirical analysis, this paper attempts to answer the following questions, which have often been posed but have not, to our knowledge, been answered empirically at global level. At which date, if unaddressed, will the risks become critical? Given that the substitution of fossil fuels by wind and solar energy is often proposed as a solution to these problems, what is its current aggregate growth rate and is there a plausible future growth rate which would substitute it for fossil fuels before the risks become critical? The study finds that the peak fossil fuel risk will start to be critical by 2020. If however the future growth rate of wind and solar energy production follows that already achieved for the world mobile phone system or the Chinese National Expressway Network the peak fossil fuel risk can be prevented completely. For global warming, the same growth rate provides significant mitigation by reducing carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels to zero by the early 2030s. - Highlights: ? Converging studies show the peak fossil fuel risk likely to be critical by 2020. ? We model the future growth rate of wind and solar energy based on analogous precedents. ? These are the growth rates already achieved by the world mobile phone system and the Chinese National Expressway Network. ? We show that wind and solar energy growth at these rates averts the peak fossil fuel risk. ? For global warming, the scenarios make fossil-fuel CO2 emissions zero by 2030.

319

ORSIM, Nuclear Fuel, Fossil Fuel Hydroelectric Power Plant Cost and Economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of problem or function: ORSIM is an electric power generating system integration model which simulates the multi-year operation of a mixed power system consisting of fossil, nuclear, hydroelectric, and pumped-storage units. For any specified refueling schedule for nuclear units and future load forecast, the model determines a plan of operation for the system which attempts to minimize the total discounted operating cost over a specified study period. The analysis considers the effects of forced outages, spinning reserve operating constraints, and scheduled introduction and retirement of generating stations. The model determines a maintenance schedule for the non-nuclear stations (nuclear stations are maintained during refueling outages) and the optimum allocation of energy-fixed nuclear and hydroelectric resources. It calculates the expected energy generated by each station in the system, by period over the planning horizon, based on input or calculated incremental operating cost. It also calculates the expected loss-of- load probability and un-served energy demand for each period in the planning horizon. An optimum operating plan, designed to minimize the discounted total production cost, is then calculated, as are the costs of operating each station in the system and the discounted total production cost for the derived plan of operation. 2 - Method of solution: ORSIM searches for a particular mode of operation which, over a multi-year planning horizon, will minimize the total system operating cost of a particular electric power generation system discounted to the beginning of the planning horizon. It does this by: (a) calculating the planned maintenance outages for all units; (b) estimating the incremental discounted cost of energy produced by each station in the system for every subinterval of the planning horizon; (c) utilizing the incremental discounted costs of energy generation to calculate, via probabilistic simulation, the economic optimum energies generated by each station in the system in each subinterval of the planning horizon; (d) utilizing these expected energies in a feedback loop to calculate the total discounted operation cost and to produce a new set of incremental discounted costs, thereby setting the stage for the next iteration. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of: 90 nuclear stations, 90 must-run stations (i.e., stations which must operate at a specified capacity level when available), 90 two-piece stations (i.e., stations considered to be divided into two capacity blocks in the loading order calculation), 90 stations per system, 90 maintenance seasons

320

Towards Robust Energy Systems Modeling: Examinging Uncertainty in Fossil Fuel-Based Life Cycle Assessment Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing concerns about the environmental impacts of fossil fuels used in the U.S. transportation and electricity sectors have spurred interest in alternate energy sources, such as natural gas and biofuels. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methods can be used to estimate the environmental impacts of incumbent energy sources and potential impact reductions achievable through the use of alternate energy sources. Some recent U.S. climate policies have used the results of LCAs to encourage the use of low carbon fuels to meet future energy demands in the U.S. However, the LCA methods used to estimate potential reductions in environmental impact have some drawbacks. First, the LCAs are predominantly based on deterministic approaches that do not account for any uncertainty inherent in life cycle data and methods. Such methods overstate the accuracy of the point estimate results, which could in turn lead to incorrect and (consequent) expensive decision-making. Second, system boundaries considered by most LCA studies tend to be limited (considered a manifestation of uncertainty in LCA). Although LCAs can estimate the benefits of transitioning to energy systems of lower environmental impact, they may not be able to characterize real world systems perfectly. Improved modeling of energy systems mechanisms can provide more accurate representations of reality and define more likely limits on potential environmental impact reductions. This dissertation quantitatively and qualitatively examines the limitations in LCA studies outlined previously. The first three research chapters address the uncertainty in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with petroleum-based fuels, natural gas and coal consumed in the U.S. The uncertainty in life cycle GHG emissions from fossil fuels was found to range between 13 and 18% of their respective mean values. For instance, the 90% confidence interval of the life cycle GHG emissions of average natural gas consumed in the U.S was found to range between -8 to 9% (17%) of the mean value of 66 g CO2e/MJ. Results indicate that uncertainty affects the conclusions of comparative life cycle assessments, especially when differences in average environmental impacts between two competing fuels/products are small. In the final two research chapters of this thesis, system boundary limitations in LCA are addressed. Simplified economic dispatch models for are developed to examine changes in regional power plant dispatch that occur when coal power plants are retired and when natural gas prices drop. These models better reflect reality by estimating the order in which existing power plants are dispatched to meet electricity demand based on short-run marginal costs. Results indicate that the reduction in air emissions are lower than suggested by LCA studies, since they generally do not include the complexity of regional electricity grids, predominantly driven by comparative fuel prices. For instance, comparison, this study estimates 7-15% reductions in emissions with low natural gas prices. Although this is a significant reduction in itself, it is still lower than the benefits reported in traditional life cycle comparisons of coal and natural gas-based power (close to 50%), mainly due to the effects of plant dispatch.

Venkatesh, Aranya

 
 
 
 
321

Transforming fossil fuel energy to electricity using MHD with a rare-gas working fluid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The combination of a source of combustion products and a closed cycle containing a rare gas is a very attractive idea since, to the extent that the problem of the heat transfer from the combustion products to the rare gas is solved, it is possible to enjoy the particular advantages of the open or the closed cycle while avoiding their disadvantages. It is not difficult to produce thermal energy at high temperatures in an open cycle. On the other hand, the design of ducts for operation over long periods of time and the treatment of the combustion products in the medium-temperature heat exchangers and at the seed removal stage pose difficult technological problems for which it may not be possible to find economic solutions. In the closed cycle, on the other hand, the technological problems do not seem to be crucial since the operating temperatures are lower and the gases are far less corrosive. Problems arise when one attempts to link a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor to an MHD system as system pressures are incompatible. However, the existence of a heat exchanger capable of transferring to a rare gas, at about 2000°C, thermal energy obtained by the combustion at atmospheric pressure of fossil fuels with air would: (a) Solve the problem of increasing the efficiency with which the energy released by the combustion of the fossil substances is converted into electricity, a problem which research workers are trying to tackle using Open-cycle systems; (b) Permit the study of closed-cycle problems at full scale before a series of high- temperature converters is launched. In the first part of the paper the authors examine a heat exchanger design that meets these requirements. In the second part they consider the general characteristics of power plants built around such heat exchangers and assess their conversion efficiency. In the third part they study in detail a specific commercial power station project. (author)

322

Atmospheric observations of carbon monoxide and fossil fuel CO2 emissions from East Asia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Flask samples from two sites in East Asia, Tae-Ahn Peninsula, Korea (TAP), and Shangdianzi, China (SDZ), were measured for trace gases including CO2, CO and fossil fuel CO2(CO(2)ff, derived from Delta(CO2)-C-14 observations). The five-year TAP record shows high CO(2)ff when local air comes from the Korean Peninsula. Most samples, however, reflect air masses from Northeastern China with lower CO(2)ff. Our small set of SDZ samples from winter 2009/2010 have strongly elevated CO(2)ff. Biospheric CO2 contributes substantially to total CO2 variability at both sites, even in winter when non-fossil CO2 sources (including photosynthesis, respiration, biomass burning and biofuel use) contribute 20-30% of the total CO2 enhancement. Carbon monoxide (CO) correlates strongly with CO(2)ff. The SDZ and TAP far-field (China influenced) samples have CO: CO(2)ff ratios (R-CO:CO2ff) of 47 +/- 2 and 44 +/- 3 ppb/ppm respectively, consistent with recent bottom-up inventory estimates and other observational studies. Locally influenced TAP samples fall into two distinct data sets, ascribed to air sourced from South Korea and North Korea. The South Korea samples have low R-CO:CO2ff of 13 +/- 3 ppb/ppm, slightly higher than bottom-up inventories, but consistent with emission ratios for other developed nations. We compare our CO(2)ff observations with modeled CO(2)ff using the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model convolved with a bottom-up CO(2)ff emission inventories. The modeled annual mean CO(2)ff mole fractions are consistent with our observations when the model inventory includes the reported 63% increase in Chinese emissions from 2004 to 2010, whereas a model version which holds Chinese emissions flat is unable to replicate the observations.

Turnbull, Jocelyn C.; Tans, Pieter P.

2011-01-01

323

Industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

2007-12-01

324

Creating a Global Grid of Distributed Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions from Nighttime Satellite Imagery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The potential use of satellite observed nighttime lights for estimating carbon-dioxide (CO2 emissions has been demonstrated in several previous studies. However, the procedures for a moderate resolution (1 km2 grid cells global map of fossil fuel CO2 emissions based on nighttime lights are still in the developmental phase. We report on the development of a method for mapping distributed fossil fuel CO2 emissions (excluding electric power utilities at 30 arc-seconds or approximately 1 km2 resolution using nighttime lights data collected by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS. A regression model, Model 1, was initially developed based on carbon emissions from five sectors of the Vulcan data produced by the Purdue University and a nighttime satellite image of the U.S. The coefficient derived through Model 1 was applied to the global nighttime image but it resulted in underestimation of CO2 emissions for most of the world’s countries, and the states of the U.S. Thus, a second model, Model 2 was developed by allocating the distributed CO2 emissions (excluding emissions from utilities using a combination of DMSP-OLS nighttime image and population count data from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE LandScan grid. The CO2 emissions were distributed in proportion to the brightness of the DMSP nighttime lights in areas where lighting was detected. In areas with no DMSP detected lighting, the CO2 emissions were distributed based on population count, with the assumption that people who live in these areas emit half as much CO2 as people who live in the areas with DMSP detected lighting. The results indicate that the relationship between satellite observed nighttime lights and CO2 emissions is complex, with differences between sectors and variations in lighting practices between countries. As a result it is not possible to make independent estimates of CO2 emissions with currently available coarse resolution panchromatic satellite observed nighttime lights. However, the nighttime lights image in conjunction with the population grid can help in more accurate disaggregation of national CO2 emissions to a moderate resolution spatial grid.

Benjamin T. Tuttle

2010-12-01

325

Analysis of fuel shares in the industrial sector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These studies describe how fuel shares have changed over time; determine what factors are important in promoting fuel share changes; and project fuel shares to the year 1995 in the industrial sector. A general characterization of changes in fuel shares of four fuel types - coal, natural gas, oil and electricity - for the industrial sector is as follows. Coal as a major fuel source declined rapidly from 1958 to the early 1970s, with oil and natural gas substituting for coal. Coal's share of total fuels stabilized after the oil price shock of 1972-1973, and increased after the 1979 price shock. In the period since 1973, most industries and the industrial sector as a whole appear to freely substitute natural gas for oil, and vice versa. Throughout the period 1958-1981, the share of electricity as a fuel increased. These observations are derived from analyzing the fuel share patterns of more than 20 industries over the 24-year period 1958 to 1981.

Roop, J.M.; Belzer, D.B.

1986-06-01

326

Use of alternative fuels in the Polish cement industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Alternative fuels are made up of mixtures of different wastes, such as industrial, municipal and hazardous wastes. These fuels need to have an appropriate chemical energy content which depends on the type of components and their organic content. An industry that is particularly well suited to the employment of alternative fuels is the cement industry. There are a number of factors that promote the use of alternative fuels in cement kilns. Of these factors, the most notable are: the high temperatures developed, the appropriate kiln length, the long period of time the fuel stays inside the kiln and the alkaline environment inside the kiln. There are a number of countries that use their own alternative fuels in cement plants. These fuels have different trade names and they differ in the amounts and the quality of the selected municipal and industrial waste fractions used. The fuels used should fall within the extreme values of parameters such as: minimum heating value, maximum humidity content, and maximum content of heavy and toxic metals. Cement plants in Poland also use alternative fuels. Within the Lafarge Group, the cement plants owned by Lafarge Poland Ltd. have initiated activities directed at promoting the wider use of alternative fuels. There are a number of wastes that can be incinerated as fuel in cement plants. Some that can be mentioned are: selected combustible fractions of municipal wastes, liquid crude-oil derived wastes, car tyres, waste products derived from paint and varnish production, expired medicines from the pharmaceutical industry and others. The experience gained by the cement plants of Lafarge Cement Poland Ltd confirms that such activities are economically and ecologically beneficial. The incineration of alternative fuels in cement plants is a safe method for the utilisation of waste that is ecologically friendly and profitable for the industrial plants and society alike. (Author)

Mokrzycki, Eugeniusz; Uliasz-Bochenczyk, Alicja [Polish Academy of Sciences, Mineral and Energy Economy Research Inst., Krakow (Poland); Sarna, Mieczyslaw [Lafarge Cement Polska S.A., Malogoszcz (Poland)

2003-02-01

327

The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 7: Nonreplenishable natural resources: Minerals, fossil fuels and geothermal energy sources  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of remotely-sensed information to the mineral, fossil fuel, and geothermal energy extraction industry is investigated. Public and private cost savings are documented in geologic mapping activities. Benefits and capabilities accruing to the ERS system are assessed. It is shown that remote sensing aids in resource extraction, as well as the monitoring of several dynamic phenomena, including disturbed lands, reclamation, erosion, glaciation, and volcanic and seismic activity.

Lietzke, K. R.

1974-01-01

328

Environmental regulations and productivity growth: the case of fossil-fueled electric power generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper measures and analyzes the effect of sulfur-dioxide-emission restrictions on the rate of productivity growth in the electric-power industry over the 1973-1979 business cycle. A firm-specific measure of regulatory intensity is developed which depends on the severity of the emission standard, the extent of enforcement, and the unconstrained emission rate relevant to each utility. The results indicate that emission regulations result in significantly higher generating costs, primarily from the increased use of low-sulfur fuels. The average rate of productivity growth was reduced by 0.59 percentage points per year for constrained utilities. 26 references, 5 tables.

Gollop, F.M.; Roberts, M.J.

1983-01-01

329

Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Phase 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vortec has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment-as confirmed by both ANS 16.1 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and did not leach to the environment as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC subsystem design.

1994-01-01

330

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

2008-08-13

331

The effects of hygroscopicity of fossil fuel combustion aerosols on mixed-phase clouds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fossil fuel black carbon and organic matter (ffBC/OM are often emitted together with sulfate, which coats the surface of these particles and changes their hygroscopicity. Observational studies show that the hygroscopicity of soot particles can modulate their ice nucleation ability. To address this, we implemented a scheme that uses 3 levels of soot hygroscopicity (hydrophobic, hydrophilic and hygroscopic and used laboratory data to specify their ice nuclei abilities. The new scheme results in significant changes to anthropogenic forcing in mixed-phase clouds. The net forcing in off-line studies varies from 0.111 to 1.059 W m?2 depending on the ice nucleation capability of hygroscopic soot particles. The total anthropogenic cloud forcing and whole-sky forcing with the new scheme is 0.06 W m?2 and ?2.45 W m?2, respectively, but could be more positive if hygroscopic soot particles are allowed to nucleate ice particles. The change in liquid water path dominates the anthropogenic forcing in mixed-phase clouds.

Y. Yun

2012-08-01

332

Accumulation of fossil fuels and metallic minerals in active and ancient rift lakes  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of active and ancient rift systems around the world suggests that accumulations of fossil fuels and metallic minerals are related to the interactions of processes that form rift valleys with those that take place in and around rift lakes. The deposition of the precursors of petroleum, gas, oil shale, coal, phosphate, barite, Cu-Pb-Zn sulfides, and uranium begins with erosion of uplifted areas, and the consequent input of abundant nutrients and solute loads into swamps and tectonic lakes. Hot springs and volcanism add other nutrients and solutes. The resulting high biological productivity creates oxidized/reduced interfaces, and anoxic and H2S-rich bottom waters which preserves metal-bearing organic tissues and horizons. In the depositional phases, the fine-grained lake deposits are in contact with coarse-grained beach, delta, river, talus, and alluvial fan deposits. Earthquake-induced turbidites also are common coarse-grained deposits of rift lakes. Postdepositional processes in rifts include high heat flow and a resulting concentration of the organic and metallic components that were dispersed throughout the lakebeds. Postdepositional faulting brings organic- and metal-rich sourcebeds in contact with coarse-grained host and reservoir rocks. A suite of potentially economic deposits is therefore a characteristic of rift valleys. ?? 1983.

Robbins, E. I.

1983-01-01

333

Is the fossil fuel hangover going to last for hundreds of thousands of years? (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Paleorecords show that the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 56 Ma) was associated with massive carbon release and global warming >5 K. The PETM is considered the best paleo-analog for massive carbon release and may provide insight into future changes in climate and ocean chemistry. Surprisingly, the paleorecords indicate little, if any decline in, for instance, stable carbon isotope values after 50 kyr. Similar durations of the PETM main phase can be inferred from oxygen isotope records (indicating temperature) and surface ocean carbonate chemistry proxies. The inferred main phase duration of > 50 kyr is also independent of the age model applied. Conventional carbon-cycle/climate models forced with an initial carbon input pulse over ~10 kyr fail to reproduce the long duration of the PETM without invoking additional, slow carbon release over more than 50 kyr. However, potential carbon sources and climate feedbacks that could amplify and prolong the warming have hitherto remained elusive. In this presentation, I will suggest plausible mechanisms for the long duration of the PETM based on first-principle calculations. If such mechanisms are also applicable to the future, the fossil fuel hangover (i.e. magnitude and duration of future warming), could last for hundreds of thousands of years.

Zeebe, R. E.

2013-12-01

334

The Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power Plant - from vision to reality.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sufficient supply of energy without fossil fuels is not possible the next fifty years. Thus, we must find a solution to use coal, without endangering the environment. Carbon Capture and Storage, CCS, might be the answer. At a cost of about 20 Euro/ton CO{sub 2}, there exist technologies, which can be ready for commercial application in 2020. After that, even more cost effective technologies will be developed. To reduce emissions by more than half until 2050, cannot be reached without CCS. However, CCS is very powerful, but not the only tool. All ways to reduce emissions, including renewables and nuclear must be used. To put emphasis behind the words, Vattenfall has started an R and D program to develop technology for CCS in a ten year program. As part of that, Vattenfall is building a Pilot Plant including all process steps from coal input to liquid CO{sub 2}. It will be ready in 2008. In parallel, preparations for a demonstration plant are ongoing. It will be a coal fired full size plant with storage on shore. That will be ready for operation in 2015. (auth)

Stroemberg, L.; Sauthoff, M.

2007-07-01

335

INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION. SUMMARY REPORT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem

336

Integral power evaluation in fossil fuel power plants; Evaluacion energetica integral en unidades de centrales termoelectricas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this occasion, a methodology is presented that carries out an integral energy evaluation of fossil fuel power plants units (FFPPU) with the purpose of determining the root of the significant decrements of power produced soon after the annual maintenance service. This proposal, besides identifying the origin of the energy efficiency problems, offers information about the contributions of each one of the involved equipment in the total decrement of the unit. With this methodology, the maintenance focuses in the equipment that contributes to the greater energy loss. This document presents such methodology along with its application in a real case, results and necessary remedial actions, demonstrating that its application offers bases for the investment in corrective measures. [Spanish] En esta ocasion se presenta una metodologia que efectua una evaluacion energetica integral de las unidades de centrales termoelectricas (UCT) con el fin de determinar la raiz de los decrementos de potencia significativos producidos luego del servicio anual de mantenimiento. Dicha propuesta, ademas de identificar el origen de los problemas de eficiencia energetica, brinda informacion acerca de las aportaciones de cada uno de los equipos involucrados al decremento total de la unidad. Con esta metodologia, el mantenimiento se enfoca a los equipos que contribuyen a la mayor perdida de potencia. Este documento exhibe tal metodologia junto con su aplicacion en un caso real, resultados y las acciones correctivas necesarias, demostrando que su aplicacion ofrece bases para una inversion futura en medidas correctivas.

Figueroa I, Luis R; Sanchez H, Laura E; Rodriguez M, Jose H [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Nebradt G, Jesus [Unidad de Investigacion y Desarrollo de la Subdireccion de Generacion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, (Mexico)

2006-07-01

337

Response of the global climate to changes in atmospheric chemical composition due to fossil fuel burning  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent modeling of atmospheric chemical processes (Logan et al, 1978; Hameed et al, 1979) suggests that tropospheric ozone and methane might significantly increase in the future as the result of increasing anthropogenic emissions of CO, NO(x), and CH4 due to fossil fuel burning. Since O3 and CH4 are both greenhouse gases, increases in their concentrations could augment global warming due to larger future amounts of atmospheric CO2. To test the possible climatic impact of changes in tropospheric chemical composition, a zonal energy-balance climate model has been combined with a vertically averaged tropospheric chemical model. The latter model includes all relevant chemical reactions which affect species derived from H2O, O2, CH4, and NO(x). The climate model correspondingly incorporates changes in the infrared heating of the surface-troposphere system resulting from chemically induced changes in tropospheric ozone and methane. This coupled climate-chemical model indicates that global climate is sensitive to changes in emissions of CO, NO(x) and CH4, and that future increases in these emissions could augment global warming due to increasing atmospheric CO2.

Hameed, S.; Cess, R. D.; Hogan, J. S.

1980-01-01

338

On-line elemental analysis of fossil fuel process streams by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

METC is continuing development of a real-time, multi-element plasma based spectrometer system for application to high temperature and high pressure fossil fuel process streams. Two versions are under consideration for development. One is an Inductively Coupled Plasma system that has been described previously, and the other is a high power microwave system. The ICP torch operates on a mixture of argon and helium with a conventional annular swirl flow plasma gas, no auxiliary gas, and a conventional sample stream injection through the base of the plasma plume. A new, demountable torch design comprising three ceramic sections allows bolts passing the length of the torch to compress a double O-ring seal. This improves the reliability of the torch. The microwave system will use the same data acquisition and reduction components as the ICP system; only the plasma source itself is different. It will operate with a 750-Watt, 2.45 gigahertz microwave generator. The plasma discharge will be contained within a narrow quartz tube one quarter wavelength from a shorted waveguide termination. The plasma source will be observed via fiber optics and a battery of computer controlled monochromators. To extract more information from the raw spectral data, a neural net computer program is being developed. This program will calculate analyte concentrations from data that includes analyte and interferant spectral emission intensity. Matrix effects and spectral overlaps can be treated more effectively by this method than by conventional spectral analysis.

Chisholm, W.P.

1995-06-01

339

Life cycle GHG assessment of fossil fuel power plants with carbon capture and storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evaluation of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a critical factor in energy and policy analysis. The current paper examines life cycle emissions from three types of fossil-fuel-based power plants, namely supercritical pulverized coal (super-PC), natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), with and without CCS. Results show that, for a 90% CO2 capture efficiency, life cycle GHG emissions are reduced by 75-84% depending on what technology is used. With GHG emissions less than 170 g/kWh, IGCC technology is found to be favorable to NGCC with CCS. Sensitivity analysis reveals that, for coal power plants, varying the CO2 capture efficiency and the coal transport distance has a more pronounced effect on life cycle GHG emissions than changing the length of CO2 transport pipeline. Finally, it is concluded from the current study that while the global warming potential is reduced when MEA-based CO2 capture is employed, the increase in other air pollutants such as NOx and NH3 leads to higher eutrophication and acidification potentials

340

Efficacy of monitoring in situ bioremediation of fossil fuel using the Mesocosm system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With in situ bioremediation applications being recommended frequently out of practical and economic necessity, cost-efficient and effective implementation strategies need to be developed and/or refined. At the same time, unequivocal approaches for demonstrating in situ bioremediation of target contaminants need to be established. Toward this end, the authors have developed and refined innovative in situ soil and groundwater bioremediation strategies on a pilot and full-scale, including monitoring approaches using stable carbon isotope biogeochemistry to assess progress during in situ bioremediation of fossil fuels (more specifically PAHs and BTEX). To evaluate rigorously and assess these technologies, the authors have initiated mesocosm studies. The Mesocosm system is installed at the Process Engineering Facility, US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. This system integrates two technologies: a modification of the proven UVB technology, which creates a vertical groundwater circulation, and an in situ bioreactor. Incorporated into this system are four soil columns of approximately two meter height with a diameter of 60 cm, allowing them to model and test the efficacy of monitoring and biodegradation in a controlled environment. Parallel field studies currently at two sites will comparatively define the fate and effect of parent compounds and biotransformation products for mass balances (by monitoring natural abundance stable carbon isotope ratios 13C/13C/12C using a GC/IRMS, the fate of organic compounds can be measured)

 
 
 
 
341

Enhancement of carburization/oxidation resistance in fossil fuel environments through alloy compositional optimization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carburization resistance of numerous heat resistant alloys has been evaluated in equilibrated atmospheres having a wide range of oxygen potentials. This paper attempts to characterize and explain alloy performance in these simulated fossil fuel environments on the basis of alloy content and scale characteristics and discusses means of further improvements in performance. A survey of current information regarding scale characteristics of wrought nickel-base alloys is also presented. Typical carburizing service environments contain at least some level of oxygen. Such applications include heat treating, ethylene pyrolysis, coal conversion, activated carbon production and steam hydrocarbon reforming. Carburization usually plays some role in the ultimate failure of an alloy; it often compromises creep and fatigue life and/or ductility. Conversely, creep, fatigue and thermal cycling can cause protective scales to crack and spall, thereby compromising carburization resistance. To maximize carburization resistance in future alloys, attention must be paid not only to corrosion performance in static environments but also to scale-alloy compatibility, growth stresses, creep and thermal gradient stresses, and inward and outward diffusion coefficients, and scale repairability.

Baker, B.A.; Smith, G.D.; Tassen, C.S. [INCO Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV (United States)

1996-08-01

342

Efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation: Data selection and trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper studies patenting dynamics in efficiency improving electricity generation technologies as an important indicator of innovation activity. We build a novel database of worldwide patent applications in efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation and then analyse patenting trends over time and across countries. We find that patenting has mostly been stable over time, with a recent decreasing trend. OECD countries represent the top innovators and the top markets for technology. Some non-OECD countries, and particularly China, are also very active in terms of patenting activity in this sector. The majority of patents are first filed in OECD countries and only then in BRIC and other non-OECD countries. BRIC and other non-OECD countries apply for patents that are mostly marketed domestically, but BRIC countries represent important markets for patent duplication of OECD inventions. These results are indicative of significant technology transfer in the field of efficiency-improving technologies for electricity production. - Highlights: ? We study innovation in efficiency-improving electricity generation technologies. ? Relevant patents are identified and used as an indicator of innovation. ? We show that there is significant technology transfer in this field. ? Most patents are first filed in OECD countries and then in non-OECD countries. ? Patents in non-OECD countries are mostly marketed domestically.

343

Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimates of US and world conventional fossil fuel and uranium proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources are updated. The survey provides data on current and cumulative production of these nonrenewable energy sources and their life expectancies at selected annual consumption growth rates. Conservation would help to preserve fossil fuel resources, although some complex problems must be solved to avoid a simultaneous reduction in the rate of growth of the economy. The continual increase in world oil prices should encourage commercialization of the vast oil shale and tar sands resources if environmental problems can be solved. Efforts must be made to improve safety, efficiency, and public acceptance of nuclear power and to minimize storage problems of radioactive materials. 115 references, 18 figures, 62 tables

344

Alternative fuels mixture in cement industry kilns employing Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the works accomplished in the optimization area in the cement industry are addressed to solve problems just considering only one variable, forgetting that it includes too many variables and they act at the same time. Among the main variables it can be mentioned the quality of the final product, the environmental ones, the costs along the process and the reduction of the fossil fuels (primary employed through the use of alternative fuels (secondary, among others. The present work intends to build a mathematical model using optimization tools seeking to improve the cement production process foreseeing what can happen with the clinker and the emissions when the industrial residues co-processing technology is used as alternative or secondary fuel. In the optimization process a new approach called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is employed, which is based on the Cauchy and Gauss distribution considering several process restrictions such as the specific fuel consumption, the cement quality and the environmental impact. The results obtained with PSO were precise and promising and they were compared with the classical Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP. It was also possible to evaluate the levels of primary fuels substitution through the alternative or secondary ones.

Ricardo C. Carpio

2008-12-01

345

Alternative fuels mixture in cement industry kilns employing Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Most of the works accomplished in the optimization area in the cement industry are addressed to solve problems just considering only one variable, forgetting that it includes too many variables and they act at the same time. Among the main variables it can be mentioned the quality of the final produ [...] ct, the environmental ones, the costs along the process and the reduction of the fossil fuels (primary) employed through the use of alternative fuels (secondary), among others. The present work intends to build a mathematical model using optimization tools seeking to improve the cement production process foreseeing what can happen with the clinker and the emissions when the industrial residues co-processing technology is used as alternative or secondary fuel. In the optimization process a new approach called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is employed, which is based on the Cauchy and Gauss distribution considering several process restrictions such as the specific fuel consumption, the cement quality and the environmental impact. The results obtained with PSO were precise and promising and they were compared with the classical Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP). It was also possible to evaluate the levels of primary fuels substitution through the alternative or secondary ones.

Ricardo C., Carpio; Francisco de, Sousa Júnior; Leandro dos Santos, Coelho; Rogério José da, Silva.

346

Alternative fuels mixture in cement industry kilns employing Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Most of the works accomplished in the optimization area in the cement industry are addressed to solve problems just considering only one variable, forgetting that it includes too many variables and they act at the same time. Among the main variables it can be mentioned the quality of the final produ [...] ct, the environmental ones, the costs along the process and the reduction of the fossil fuels (primary) employed through the use of alternative fuels (secondary), among others. The present work intends to build a mathematical model using optimization tools seeking to improve the cement production process foreseeing what can happen with the clinker and the emissions when the industrial residues co-processing technology is used as alternative or secondary fuel. In the optimization process a new approach called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is employed, which is based on the Cauchy and Gauss distribution considering several process restrictions such as the specific fuel consumption, the cement quality and the environmental impact. The results obtained with PSO were precise and promising and they were compared with the classical Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP). It was also possible to evaluate the levels of primary fuels substitution through the alternative or secondary ones.

Ricardo C., Carpio; Francisco de, Sousa Júnior; Leandro dos Santos, Coelho; Rogério José da, Silva.

2008-12-01

347

A multiresolution spatial parameterization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions  

Science.gov (United States)

The characterization of fossil-fuel CO2 (ffCO2) emissions is paramount to carbon cycle studies, but the use of atmospheric inverse modeling approaches for this purpose has been limited by the highly heterogeneous and non-Gaussian spatiotemporal variability of emissions. Here we explore the feasibility of capturing this variability using a low-dimensional parameterization that can be implemented within the context of atmospheric CO2 inverse problems aimed at constraining regional-scale emissions. We construct a multiresolution (i.e., wavelet-based) spatial parameterization for ffCO2 emissions using the Vulcan inventory, and examine whether such a~parameterization can capture a realistic representation of the expected spatial variability of actual emissions. We then explore whether sub-selecting wavelets using two easily available proxies of human activity (images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas) yields a low-dimensional alternative. We finally implement this low-dimensional parameterization within an idealized inversion, where a sparse reconstruction algorithm, an extension of stagewise orthogonal matching pursuit (StOMP), is used to identify the wavelet coefficients. We find that (i) the spatial variability of fossil-fuel emission can indeed be represented using a low-dimensional wavelet-based parameterization, (ii) that images of lights at night can be used as a proxy for sub-selecting wavelets for such analysis, and (iii) that implementing this parameterization within the described inversion framework makes it possible to quantify fossil-fuel emissions at regional scales if fossil-fuel-only CO2 observations are available.

Ray, J.; Yadav, V.; Michalak, A. M.; van Bloemen Waanders, B.; McKenna, S. A.

2014-09-01

348

A Global Land Use and Biomass Approach to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Fossil Fuel Use and to Preserve Biodiversity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As average growth consumptions per capita and world population will continue to grow, the promotion of sustainable developments during the next half a century implies to take into account environmental aspects, local potentialities and futures changes in population as well climatic, economic and social factors. At the global level, land and fossil fuel availability per capita, capacity of absorption of greenhouse gas emissions are considered the most important environmental factors. Whereas a...

Riedacker, Arthur

2007-01-01

349

Documented international enquiry on solid sedimentary fossil fuels; Coal: definitions, classifications, reserves-resources and energy potential  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper deals with all solid sedimentary fossil fuels, i.e. coal, the main one for geological reserves and resources, peat, and oil shales. Definitions of coal ( < 50% ash) and coal seam (thickness and depth limits) are examined in view of an international agreement regarding new concepts for a common reserves and resources evaluation using the same nomenclature. The 50% ash limit, already adopted by UN-ECE for coal definition, allows the creation of a new category—the organic ...

Alpern, B.; Lemos Sousa, M. J.

2002-01-01

350

Plasma Technologies for Effective and Ecological Incineration of Fossil Fuels and Their Mixtures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An outlook on plasma technologies and their mixtures utilization is examined, these technologies are based on use of electro arc plasma and include oil-free firing up of boilers, stabilization of combustion (lighting) of low-grade coals and their mixtures, stabilizing of liquid slag yield in slag-tap furnaces, plasma gasification and complex processing of solid fuels, utilization of heavy wastes of deep processing of oil and other industrial wastes. Plasma technologies are not sensible to the quality of initial fuels and their mixtures and provide their effective burning with concurrent decrease in CO2, NOx, SOx, V2O5 emissions into environment and decrease of unburned carbon. Plasma technologies of oil-free firing up and flame stabilization have been already realized in 26 coal-fired boilers of 75-670 ton/h steam output at 15 Thermal Power Stations (TPS) in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, China, Korea, Slovakia and Mongolia. Amounts of unburned carbon were reduced 1,5-2 times, emissions of nitrogen and sulphur oxides were reduced 1.5 times. When utilizing plasma technologies of solid fuel burning at TPS CO2 emissions may be reduced by 10-15 gr. Per 1 kWh of produced electric power at the cost of decrease in amounts of unburned carbon by 40-50%. Plasma technologies utilization in power engineering allows to reduce a severe impact on environment at conservation of high technical and economical indexes on TPigh technical and economical indexes on TPS. (author)

351

Industrial integration of the fuel cycle in Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the power reactor construction programme in Argentina for the period 1976-1985, on the basis of which the nuclear fuel requirements have been determined. Activities connected with the fuel cycle commenced in 1950 in Argentina with the prospection and working of uranium deposits. On the basis of the nuclear power programme described, plans have been drawn up for the establishment of the industrial plants that will be needed to ensure the domestic supply of fuel. The demand for fuel is correlated with the availability of uranium resources and it is shown to be desirable from the technical, economic and industrial point of view to integrate the front end of the fuel cycle, keeping the irradiation aspects and the tail end at the development level. The authors report the progress that has been made in this field and describe current programmes covering prospection, concentrate production, nuclear purification, conversion to uranium dioxide, production of special alloys and fuel element fabrication. (author)

352

ELECTRICITY SUPPLY, FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION, CO2 EMISSIONS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: IMPLICATIONS AND POLICY OPTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the causal relationship among electricity supply, fossil fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Nigeria for the period 1971-2009, in a multivariate framework.Using the bound test approach to cointegration, we found a short-run as well as a long-run relationship among the variables with a positive and statistically significant relationship between CO2 emissions and fossil fuel consumption. The findings also indicate that economic growth is associated with increased CO2 emissions while a positive relationship exists between electricity supply and CO2 emissions revealing the poor nature of electricity supply in Nigeria. Further, the Granger causality test results indicate that electricity supply has not impacted significantly on economic growth in Nigeria. The results also strongly imply that policies aimed at reducing carbon emissions in Nigeria will not impede economic growth. The paper therefore concludes that a holistic energy planning and investment in energy infrastructure is needed to drive economic growth. In the long-run however, it is possible to meet the energy needs of the country, ensure sustainable development and at the same time reduce CO2 emissions by developing alternatives to fossil fuel consumption, the main source of CO2 emissions.

Chibueze Eze Nnaji

2013-01-01

353

CO2 emissions and carbon storage resulting from the non-energy use of fossil fuels in the Netherlands, NEAT results for 1993-1999  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimating CO2 emissions resulting from the non-energy use of fossil fuels is not straightforward, because part of the carbon is released quickly as CO2 whereas another part is first embodied in organic chemicals. To contribute to a more accurate non-energy use CO2 emission accounting, the Non-energy use Emission Accounting Tables (NEAT) model has been developed, which is in this paper applied to the Netherlands for the time period 1993-1999. For this period, we estimate the total non-energy use in CO2 equivalents in the Netherlands to vary between 26.1 and 30.2Mt CO2. Of this total, 4.6-6.6Mt CO2 is emitted in industrial processes and during product use. The remainder is stored, resulting in an overall storage fraction of approximately 80%. Given the uncertainties involved, we cannot distinguish clear trends for the years of study. We show that the definition of non-energy use has a significant effect on the calculated storage fractions. The carbon storage according to the Dutch national greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventory is 5-9Mt CO2 lower compared to the NEAT result. As a result, total fossil CO2 emissions (including those from fossil fuel combustion) according to the national inventory are higher by the same amount, which is 3-5% of the total Dutch emissions. The difference is among other things caused by difficulties associated with the direct use of non-energy use figureth the direct use of non-energy use figures from the Dutch energy statistics for CO2 emission accounting. We recommend improving the Dutch GHG emission inventory making use of the results of this study

354

Risk and investment in the fuel cell industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy industry is one of the building blocks of the new economy. Currently, the global energy industry is going through a transformation from high carbon content fuels like crude oil to less carbon content fuels like natural gas and hydrogen. Fuel cells are the backbone of the hydrogen economy. Advances in fuel cell technology have the potential to improve the living standards of people in all countries. New sources of financial capital, however, remain a problem. In the fuel cell industry, the future of a firm often depends upon the success or failure of a few key products. This tends to make these firms very risky to invest in and, as a result, makes it difficult for these firms to secure financial investment capital. Oil price movements remain one very important source of risk to fuel cell companies. Conventional wisdom suggests that higher oil prices stimulate interest in alternative energy sources like fuel cells and the stock prices of publicly traded fuel cell companies tend to perform well when oil prices are high. Lower oil prices, however, have the opposite effect. Consequently, oil price movements may affect the rates of return of the companies currently in the fuel cell industry. In this paper, we empirically analyze the stock price sensitivity of a sample of fuel cell companies to oil price risk. In particular, we look at both the impact and magnitude of oil price changes on fuel cell stock prices. Both symmetric and asymmetric oil price changes are considered. Our results indicate that oil price risk is not an important source of risk that impacts the equity returns of fuel cell companies. We find that market risk factors are much more important. We then offer suggestions on how to manage this risk. These results are useful for managers, investors, policy makers, and others who are interested in the strategic management, financing and risk management of firms building the hydrogen economy. (author)

355

Nuclear fuel technology transfer to Chinese industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On December 18, 1998, several contracts were signed between Framatome and its Chinese partners. They concern lengthening to 18 months of the operating cycles of the two Daya Bay units and include technology transfer for the design and manufacture of Framatome's AFA 3G fuel assemblies. This new stage of Franco-Chinese cooperation follows the previous transfer of AFA 2G technology to the Yibin Fuel Plant, which has successfully manufactured all the fuel reloads for GNPJVC's Daya Bay Units 1 and 2 since 1994

356

Nuclear fuel supply industry in the European Community belgatom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deals with the industrial activities involved in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle in European Economic Community countries and essentially with operations pertaining to commercial light water reactors (LWR's). Various aspects of needs, investments, plant capacities, costs and prices, markets, financing methods, industrial structures, and employment are considered in detail

357

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM EFFECTS, ANALYTICAL METHODS AND TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN ADVANCED FOSSIL-FUEL PROCESSING EFFLUENTS. VOLUME 2  

Science.gov (United States)

Advance fossil-fuel processing operations, including oil-shale retorting, coal gasification, coal liquifaction and tar-sands recovery, can result in chemically complex aqueous waste effluents. This bibliography compiles much of the recent literature (including 1979) concerning ef...

358

Toward Regional Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Verification Using WRF-CHEM  

Science.gov (United States)

As efforts to reduce emissions of green house gases take shape it is becoming obvious that an essential component of a viable solution will involve emission verification. While detailed inventories of green house gas sources will represent important component of the solution additional verification methodologies will be necessary to reduce uncertainties in emission estimates especially for distributed sources and CO2 offsets. We developed tools for solving inverse dispersion problem for distributed emissions of green house gases. For that purpose we combine probabilistic inverse methodology based on Bayesian inversion with stochastic sampling and weather forecasting and air quality model WRF-CHEM. We demonstrate estimation of CO2 emissions associated with fossil fuel burning in California over two one-week periods in 2006. We use WRF- CHEM in tracer simulation mode to solve forward dispersion problem for emissions over eleven air basins. We first use direct inversion approach to determine optimal location for a limited number of CO2 - C14 isotope sensors. We then use Bayesian inference with stochastic sampling to determine probability distributions for emissions from California air basins. Moreover, we vary the number of sensors and frequency of measurements to study their effect on the accuracy and uncertainty level of the emission estimation. Finally, to take into account uncertainties associated with forward modeling, we combine Bayesian inference and stochastic sampling with ensemble modeling. The ensemble is created by running WRF-CHEM with different initial and boundary conditions as well as different boundary layer and surface model options. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL-ABS-406901-DRAFT). The project 07-ERD- 064 was funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL.

Delle Monache, L.; Kosović, B.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Bergmann, D.; Grant, K.; Guilderson, T.

2008-12-01

359

INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION. FINAL REPORT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology

360

Comparison of AB2588 multipathway risk factors for California fossil-fuel power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Substances released from power plants may travel through various exposure pathways resulting in human health and environmental risks. The stack air emission's primary pathway is inhalation from the ambient air. Multipathway factors (adjustment factors to the inhalation risk) are used to evaluate the importance of non-inhalation pathways (such as ingestion and dermal contact). The multipathway factor for a specific substance is the health risk by all pathways divided by the inhalation health risk for that substance. These factors are compared for fossil fuel power stations that submitted regulatory risk assessments in compliance with California Toxic Hot Spots Act (AB2588). Substances representing the largest contributions to the cancer risk are of primary concern: arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium (+6), formaldehyde, nickel, lead, selenium, and PAHs. Comparisons of the chemical-specific multipathway factors show the impacts of regulatory policy decisions on the estimated health risk for trace substances. As an example, point estimates of the soil mixing depth, varying from 1 cm to 15 cm, relate to the relative importance of the pathway. For the deeper mixing depths, the root-zone uptake by homegrown tomato plants (for assumed consumption rate of 15% for San Diego) may result in high multipathway factors for several trace metals. For shallower mixing depths, soil ingestion may become the dominant non-inhalation pathway. These differences may lead to significantly different risk estimates for similar facilities located at different California locations such as to be under local regulatory authorities. The overall multipathway factor for the total cancer risk is about 2, much smaller than some of the chemical-specific factors. Science-based multipathway analysis should reduce much of the concern that may be due to policy-based decisions on pathway selection and high-value point-estimates of the parameters

 
 
 
 
361

Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Phase 1 report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Krakow is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland. It is situated in the south of the country on the banks of the Vistula River. From the 11th until the 17th centuries, it was the capital of Poland. Today, Krakow is a city of 750,000 residents, one of the largest centers of higher education, an important industrial center, and is of particular importance because of the number and kinds of historic buildings and sites. For this reason, Krakow was included by the UNESCO in the list of the world`s cultural heritages. For about three decades, significant air pollution has been one of Krakow`s most serious problems. Because the city is situated in the Vistula River valley, it is poorly ventilated and experiences a high concentration of air pollutants. The quality of air in Krakow is affected mainly by industry (Sendzimir Steelworks, energy industry, chemical plants), influx from the Silesian industrial region (power plants, metallurgy), transboundary pollution (Ostrava - Czech Republic), and local sources of low pollution, i.e. more than 1,000 boiler houses using solid fuels and more than 100,000 coal-fired home stoves. These local sources, with low stacks and almost no pollution-control equipment, are responsible for about 35-40% of the air pollution. This report presents phase I results of a program to reduce pollution in krakow. Phase I was to gather information on emissions and costs, and to verify assumptions on existing heating methods and alternatives.

Butcher, T.; Pierce, B. [eds.

1995-06-01

362

Prices of agricultural commodities, biofuels and fossil fuels in long-run relationships: a comparative study for the USA and Europe  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Time-series data for the USA and Europe representing prices of agricultural commodities, biofuels and fossil fuels are used for a comparative analysis of long-run price relationships. There is some evidence for cointegration between ethanol and gasoline, especially for the USA, and in the case of biodiesel, stronger evidence of cointegration between biodiesel, diesel and soya oil for both the USA and Europe. Finally, biofuel prices do not seem to influence agricultural commodity prices or fossil fuel prices.

Groth, Tanja; Bentzen, Jan

2013-01-01

363

Characteristics of particulate emissions from a diesel generator fueled with varying blends of biodiesel and fossil diesel.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the particulate matter (PM), particle-bound carbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from a diesel-engine generator fuelled with blends of pure fossil diesel oil (D100) and varying percentages of waste-edible-oil biodiesel (W10, 10 vol %; W20, 20 vol %; W30, 30 vol %; and W50, 50 vol %) under generator loads of 0, 1.5, and 3 kW. On average, the PM emission factors of all blends was 30.5 % (range, 13.7-52.3 %) lower than that of D100 under the tested loads. Substituting pure fossil diesel oil with varying percentages of waste-edible-oil biodiesel reduced emissions of particle-bound total carbon (TC) and elemental carbon (EC). The W20 blend had the lowest particle-bound organic carbon (OC) emissions. Notably, W10, W20, and W30 also had lower Total-PAH emissions and lower total equivalent toxicity (Total-BaP(eq)) compared to D100. Additionally, the brake-specific fuel consumption of the generator correlated positively with the ratio of waste-edible-oil biodiesel to pure fossil diesel. However, generator energy efficiency correlated negatively with the ratio of waste-edible-oil biodiesel to pure fossil diesel. PMID:21240709

Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Kuo, Wen-Chien; Lin, Wen-Yinn

2011-01-01

364

Meeting the special requirements of the fuel cycle industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear fuel cycle industry is generally thriving, despite the slow-down in nuclear power plant construction. Turnover is expected to grow from the present Pound4.7 billion to Pound12 billion in 1985 and nearly Pound16 billion in 1988. The emerging fuel cycle companies have large demands for investment and working capital but are not yet financially strong. Utilities also are finding the funding of fuel onerous. Special nuclear fuel finance companies have been formed to help both satisfy their financing needs. A particular problem is the security of loans and much creative thinking is being applied to the use of contracts as collaterals. (U.K.)

365

Life cycle inventories for bioenergy and fossil-fuel fired cogeneration plants; Livscykelinventering foer bioenergi- och fossileldade kraftvaermeverk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Life-cycle inventories for heat production from forest fuel, Salix, coal and oil are presented. Data from the Oerebro cogeneration plant are used for the bioenergy and coal cycles, whereas the oil-fired cycle is based on a fictive plant producing 53 MW electricity and 106 MW heat, also located in the town of Oerebro. This life cycle analysis only covers the inventory stage. A complete life cycle analysis also includes an environmental impact assessment. The methods for assessing environmental impact are still being developed and thus this phase has been omitted here. The intention is, instead, to provide an overall perspective of where in the chain the greatest environmental load for each fuel can be found. Production and energy conversion of fuel requires energy, which is often obtained from fossil fuel. This input energy corresponds to about 11% of the extracted amount of energy for oil, 9% for coal, 6% for Salix, whereas it is about 4% for forest fuel. Utilization of fossil fuel in the coal cycle amounts to production of electricity using coal condensation intended for train transports within Poland. In a life cycle perspective, biofuels show 20-30 times lower emissions of greenhouse gases in comparison with fossil fuels. The chains for biofuels also give considerably lower SO{sub 2} emissions than the chains for coal and oil. The coal chain shows about 50% higher NO{sub x} emission than the other fuels. Finally, the study illustrates that emission of particles are similar for all sources of energy. The biofuel cycle is assessed to be generally applicable to plants of similar type and size and with similar transport distances. The oil cycle is probably applicable to small-scale cogeneration plants. However, at present there are no cogeneration plants in Sweden that are solely fired with oil. In the case of the coal cycle, deep mining and a relatively long transport distance within Poland have been assumed. If the coal mining had been from open-cast mines, and if the subsequent transports had been from port to port, some of the results would have been affected markedly, including the input energy 17 refs, 17 figs, 7 tabs, appendices

Braennstroem-Norberg, B.M. [Vattenfall Energimarknad, Stockholm (Sweden); Dethlefsen, U. [Vattenfall Utveckling, Vaellingby (Sweden)

1998-06-01

366

The energy demand and the impact by fossil fuels use in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, from 1988 to 2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Temporary variation for the demand of refining products which are used in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is presented. Its consequent energy contribution is evaluated from 1988 to 2000. The annual estimation was integrated from a detailed inventory of fuels volume, so as the calculus of its respective energy equivalence. The fuel quality specifications, which have been required by regional Air Quality authority for controlling emissions to the atmosphere, are also presented for the same period. The evolution demand of fuels, in term of volume, quality and its energy contribution for this area, is compared with the national demand. On this regard, fuel pool differs in each bound and the demand along the same period has been increasing on both regions but at different rates, with 21% at MCMA and 31% countrywide. In 2000, the MCMA demanded 14% of the internal refining products volume sales, which represented 17% of the energy contribution to the country for those fuels. Likewise, the energy use coefficient (GJ per capita) was applied to compare this region with country trends. During 1996 and up to 2000, the MCMA presented slightly minor energy use per capita, than the rest of the country, and this period was distinguished also for using cleaner fuels and for obtaining improvements in air quality. On the other hand, MCMA and country greenhouse gases emissions will increase because of their fossil fuel dependence, so several mitigation measures must be implemented in the next decades

367

Future directions of fuel efficiency in aviation industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A major goal for the aviation community is reducing fuel consumption. Nowadays we can see so much effort to design a modern aircrafts that offer weight and low fuel burn savings. This study could help to understand the long way during the production of the efficient engine such as PurePower and it shows us many advantages in fuel economy. In the second part of this study the author describes technological enhancements and inevitable measures for the improvement of fuel economy. Current fuel efficient engines and future innovations in aircraft designs are introduced in the third part of the thesis. It also shows a great vision in improving aircraft performance and reducing fuel consumption. Anyway, it is too early to say which of many researching ways will lead to viable solutions, but the air transport industry is committed to support advanced technological innovations. Also, technologies are constantly being deployed and researched by the aviation industry to continuously increase performance. But we cannot forget that our effort to achieve an increased efficiency in terms of fuel consumption is still pushing the industry further.

Maria MRAZOVA

2013-12-01

368

Fossil fuel CO2 estimation by atmospheric 14C measurement and CO2 mixing ratios in the city of Debrecen, Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field unit was installed in the city of Debrecen (East Hungary) during the summer of 2008 to monitor urban atmospheric fossil fuel CO2. To establish a reference level simultaneous CO2 sampling has been carried out at a rural site (Hegyhatsal) in Western Hungary. Using the Hungarian background 14CO2 observations from the rural site atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 component for the city of Debrecen was reported in a regional 'Hungarian' scale. A well visible fossil fuel CO2 peak (10-15 ppm) with a maximum in the middle of winter 2008 (January) was observed in Debrecen air. Significant local maximum (?20 ppm) in fossil fuel CO2 during Octobers of 2008 and 2009 was also detected. Stable isotope results are in agreement with the 14C based fossil fuel CO2 observations as the winter of 2008 and 2009 was different in atmospheric ?13C variations too. The more negative ?13C of atmospheric CO2 in the winter of 2008 means more fossil carbon in the atmosphere than during the winter of 2009. (author)

369

Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 at the building/street level for the LA Megacity  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in emerging plans on a global, integrated, carbon monitoring system (CMS). A space/time explicit emissions data product can act as both verification and guidance to emissions mitigation. We have progress on applying our Hestia approach to the entire LA Basin. Here, we present these initial results focusing on a few points of progress worthy of dissemination. Geocoding of the original point sources are inaccurate, placing point sources in the wrong physical position. Sometimes these errors are many kilometers. We have corrected the majority of these point through a variety of techniques. The LAX airport and the LA Port pose large unique sources in the Basin and we have taken novel approaches to characterizing the space/time distribution of these emission sources. We have used AADT and hourly traffic data to best distribute emissions in the onroad sector. This has required both extrapolation and interpolation techniques to fully cover all road types other than local roads. Finally, we have updated the emission product to the year 2012 using a variety of scaling arguments. Work on greenhouse gas emissions has been accomplished by others, though these efforts typically go down to only the county spatial scale. However, these offer numerous opportunities to potentially calibrate or explore alternative methods and results. We will review these efforts and what benefit they are provided thus far. Finally, we will review our attempts to quantify uncertainty at the space/time scales attempted here. Uncertainty quantification remains challenging due to a variety of reasons. First, bottom-up source data is often produced by a regulatory agency, which has strict legal limits to the amount and type of information available. Even in cases where legal limitations are not at work, there is no standard for uncertainty reporting and hence, little reliable uncertainty estimation is made. In the course of this work, we have attempted to quantify uncertainty. In some cases, this is driven by parameter sensitivity, in other cases through the comparison of independent datasets reporting on the same entity. Expert judgment is also deployed where no alternative exists. Here, we will provide a review of some of these techniques with examples from our urban case studies.

Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Patarasuk, R.; Song, Y.; O'Keeffe, D.; Duren, R. M.; Eldering, A.

2013-12-01

370

The refining industry and the future of the fuel oils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fuel oils consumption decrease in France since 1970, because of the two petroleum crisis, the nuclear energy competition and the air pollution. The fuel oils industry is then looking other export possibilities. This report aims to offer a first approach of the problem and presents the main challenges. The first part is devoted to the technical context (definition, production and outlet. The second part presents the environmental context and the fuel oils market. In the third part the market is studied at the world scale, in the fourth at the french scale and in the fifth at the scale of other countries as United States, Japan and european Union. A synthesis tables is given in the last part to compare and propose some hypothesis concerning the future of fuel oils and the french refining industry. (A.L.B.)

371

Industry of nuclear fuel cycle: Status and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear industry in Russia was started in the late forties and early fifties, it was aimed at solving certain defense problems. During 1948-1949, the first plant for enriching uranium 235U and an industrial complex for obtaining and reprocessing plutonium for the defense applications were put into operation. By 1991, the country had 47 plants having a total rated power of 37 GW, i.e., 12.5% of the total power generated in the country. After the Chernobyl' accident, the plans for starting new NPPs were curtailed. Towards the end of this century, the total power generation of all the nuclear power plants of the country is estimated at ?60 GW. In view of the decreased volume of the nuclear equipment, processing of the concentrated uranium for defense purposes was stopped and, consequently, at the present time, the nuclear industry has a capacity exceeding the requirements of the internal market. The author examines in detail the infrastructure of the nuclear industry that is based on the concept of a closed fuel cycle consisting of reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel using the unburnt uranium, plutonium, and other isotopes separated from it. It includes recovery and processing of the uranium ores, production of uranium hexafluoride, its enrichment to yield 235U, production of the fuel assemblies (FA), radiochemical processing of the spent nuclear fuel, and reprocessing and open-quotes buryingclose quotes of the radioactive waste materials ates of the radioactive waste materials and the spent nuclear fuel that is not suitable for regeneration. This article includes section on (1) recovery and processing of uranium ores, (2) production of enriched uranium, (3) production of fuel assemblies, control elements, and rolled zirconium alloys, (4) radiochemical processing o