WorldWideScience

Sample records for fossil fuels industry

  1. Environmental biotechnologies for the fossil fuel industry

    Five recent technologies that have been proven to be viable means to mitigate the environmental impact of the fossil fuel industry were described as evidence of the industry's concern about environmental pollution. The technologies were: bioventing, bioslurping, biofiltration, phytoremediation and the use of genetically engineered organisms. Special attention was paid to genetic modification strategies with reference to improved degradation rates and the regulations in Canada affecting genetically engineered organisms and their use. Case histories were cited to illustrate application of the various processes. 34 refs

  2. 76 FR 3517 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    2011-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility... limited to, the following: Category NAICS \\1\\ Examples of regulated entities Industry 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired...

  3. Financial subsidies to the Australian fossil fuel industry

    A common claim during international greenhouse gas reduction negotiations has been that domestic emissions cuts will harm national economies. This argument fails to consider the distorting effect of existing financial subsidies and associated incentives to fossil fuel production and consumption provided by governments in most developed countries. These subsidies support a fossil fuel energy sector that is the major contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions and conflict with attempts to expand the role of sustainable energy technologies. Reform of these types of subsidies has the potential to provide substantial gains in economic efficiency as well as reductions in carbon dioxide emissions--a 'no regrets' outcome for the economy and the environment. This paper examines financial subsidies to fossil fuel production and consumption in Australia and estimates the magnitude of the subsidies. Subsidies and associated incentives to fossil fuel production and consumption in Australia are similar to those in the United States and the other countries that have pushed for increased 'flexibility' during international negotiations

  4. Fossil Fuel Producing Economies Have Greater Potential for Industrial Interfuel Substitution

    Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Narayanan, Badri G.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes industrial interfuel substitution in an international context using a large unbalanced panel dataset of 63 countries. We find that compared to other countries fossil fuel producing economies have higher short-term interfuel substitution elasticities. This difference increases further in the long run as fossil fuel producing countries have a considerably longer adjustment of their fuel-using capital stock. These results imply lower economic cost for policies aimed at climat...

  5. Hydrogen movement and the next action: fossil fuels industry and sustainability economics

    Since the hydrogen movement started in 1974, there has been progress in research, development, demonstration and commercialization activities, covering all aspects of the hydrogen energy system. In order to solve the interrelated problems of depletion of fossil fuels and the environmental impact of the combustion products of fossil fuels, it is desirable to speed up the conversion to the hydrogen energy system. Most established industries have joined the hydrogen movement. There is one exception: the fossil fuel industry. A call is made to the fossil fuel industry to join the hydrogen movement. It is also proposed to change the present economic system with a sustainability economics in order to account for environmental damage, recyclability and decommissioning, and thus, ensure a sustainable future. (Author)

  6. Biotechnology for the mining, metal refining, and fossil fuel processing industries

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the biochemical processing of fossil fuels. Topics considered at the conference included the acid leaching of uranium ore materials with microbial catalysis, the biocatalytic production of sulfur from process waste streams, the microbiological desulfurization of coal and its increased monetary value, the microbial desulfurization of fossil fuels, microorganisms, and potential impact of biotechnology on the mining industry

  7. 76 FR 3587 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    2011-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility... 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel... government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units owned by municipalities....

  8. Effect on industry structure by fossil fuel burden

    Kang, Yoon Young [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Multi-industrial sector dynamic operation general equilibrium model of Korean economy has been developed. It is able to analyze carbon dioxide emission, energy use and macro economy, and reciprocal actions between each industrial sector and to measure economic effects by environmental policy for the purpose of reducing carbon dioxide. Using this model, it analyzed its effect on industries in Korea of limiting carbon dioxide emission by experimenting each policy instrument, policy object, application of tax revenue for limiting carbon dioxide. The spreading effect on each industry has a large difference for each industry. The production reduction of energy industry or large energy consuming industry (basic chemical industry, transportation and storage, steel industry, construction) shows relatively huge to other industries. Production reduction for each industry, i.e. a wide difference of economic burden between industries, will need some consideration when introducing energy carbon tax, especially in the initial stage, since it could cause an equity problem between industries. Moreover, studies on differentiating tax rate, tax return and exemption that can mitigate an equity problem between industries should be implemented. (author). 66 refs., 22 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. PR WAR: PR STRATEGIES OF THE FOSSIL FUEL INDUSTRY AND ITS OPPONENTS

    David McQueen

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of relations between the fossil fuel industry and its opponents. The paper will explore how different weapons in a ‘PR war’ contribute to particular policy and public opinion outcomes. The paper revisits the Deepwater Horizon crisis and looks at how campaigning groups such as Greenpeace effectively discredited BP, its crisis communications and the ‘Beyond Petroleum’ CSR strategy. It will also contrast campaigns in Ireland, Nigeria and the Arctic against the oil ...

  10. Sustainability of Fossil Fuels

    Lackner, K. S.

    2002-05-01

    For a sustainable world economy, energy is a bottleneck. Energy is at the basis of a modern, technological society, but unlike materials it cannot be recycled. Energy or more precisely "negentropy" (the opposite of entropy) is always consumed. Thus, one either accepts the use of large but finite resources or must stay within the limits imposed by dilute but self-renewing resources like sunlight. The challenge of sustainable energy is exacerbated by likely growth in world energy demand due to increased population and increased wealth. Most of the world still has to undergo the transition to a wealthy, stable society with the near zero population growth that characterizes a modern industrial society. This represents a huge unmet demand. If ten billion people were to consume energy like North Americans do today, world energy demand would be ten times higher. In addition, technological advances while often improving energy efficiency tend to raise energy demand by offering more opportunity for consumption. Energy consumption still increases at close to the 2.3% per year that would lead to a tenfold increase over the course of the next century. Meeting future energy demands while phasing out fossil fuels appears extremely difficult. Instead, the world needs sustainable or nearly sustainable fossil fuels. I propose the following definition of sustainable under which fossil fuels would well qualify: The use of a technology or resource is sustainable if the intended and unintended consequences will not force its abandonment within a reasonable planning horizon. Of course sustainable technologies must not be limited by resource depletion but this is only one of many concerns. Environmental impacts, excessive land use, and other constraints can equally limit the use of a technology and thus render it unsustainable. In the foreseeable future, fossil fuels are not limited by resource depletion. However, environmental concerns based on climate change and other environmental effects of injecting excess carbon into the environment need to be eliminated before fossil fuels can be considered sustainable. Sustainable fossil fuel use would likely rely on abundant, low-grade hydrocarbons like coal, tar, and shale. It would require a closed cycle approach in which carbon is extracted from the ground, processed for its energy content, and returned into safe and stable sinks for permanent disposal. Such sequestration technologies already exist and more advanced approaches that could maintain access to fossil energy for centuries are on the drawing boards. I will review these options and outline a pathway towards a zero emission fossil fuel based economy that could provide energy at prices comparable to those of today for several centuries. A successful implementation will depend not only on technological advances but also on the development of economic institutions that allow one to pay for the required carbon management. If done correctly the markets will decide whether renewable energy, or sustainable fossil energy provides a better choice.

  11. Nuclear Energy R and D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors

    As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Nuclear Energy R and D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R and D Roadmap, entitled 'Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors', addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R and D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: (1) Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, (2) Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and (3) Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation's energy security through more effective utilization of our country's resources while simultaneously providing economic stability and growth (through predictable energy prices and high value jobs), in an environmentally sustainable and secure manner (through lower land and water use, and decreased byproduct emissions). The reduction in imported oil will also increase the retention of wealth within the U.S. economy while still supporting economic growth. Nuclear energy is the only non-fossil fuel that has been demonstrated to reliably supply energy for a growing industrial economy.

  12. Nuclear Energy R&D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors

    David Petti; J. Stephen Herring

    2010-03-01

    As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, entitled “Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors”, addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R&D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: • Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, • Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and • Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation’s energy security through more effective utilization of our country’s resources while simultaneously providing economic stability and growth (through predictable energy prices and high value jobs), in an environmentally sustainable and secure manner (through lower land and water use, and decreased byproduct emissions). The reduction in imported oil will also increase the retention of wealth within the U.S. economy while still supporting economic growth. Nuclear energy is the only non-fossil fuel that has been demonstrated to reliably supply energy for a growing industrial economy.

  13. Design, quality, and quality assurance of solid recovered fuels for the substitution of fossil feedstock in the cement industry.

    Sarc, R; Lorber, Ke; Pomberger, R; Rogetzer, M; Sipple, Em

    2014-06-18

    This paper describes the requirements for the production, quality, and quality assurance of solid recovered fuels (SRF) that are increasingly used in the cement industry. Different aspects have to be considered before using SRF as an alternative fuel. Here, a study on the quality of SRF used in the cement industry is presented. This overview is completed by an investigation of type and properties of input materials used at waste splitting and SRF production plants in Austria. As a simplified classification, SRF can be divided into two classes: a fine, high-calorific SRF for the main burner, or coarser SRF material with low calorific value for secondary firing systems, such as precombustion chambers or similar systems. In the present study, SRFs coming from various sources that fall under these two different waste fuel classes are discussed. Both SRFs are actually fired in the grey clinker kiln of the Holcim (Slovensko) plant in Rohonik (Slovakia). The fine premium-quality material is used in the main burner and the coarse regular-quality material is fed to a FLS Hotdisc combustion device. In general, the alternative fuels are used instead of their substituted fossil fuels. For this, chemical compositions and other properties of SRF were compared to hard coal as one of the most common conventional fuels in Europe. This approach allows to compare the heavy metal input from traditional and alternative fuels and to comment on the legal requirements on SRF that, at the moment, are under development in Europe. PMID:24942836

  14. Supply of fossil heating and motor fuels

    This comprehensive study made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) within the framework of the Energy Economics Fundamentals research programme examines if it can be guaranteed that Swiss industry can be supplied with fossil fuels for heating and transport purposes over the next few decades. The results of a comprehensive survey of literature on the subject are presented, with a major focus being placed on oil. The study examines both pessimistic and optimistic views and also presents an overview of fossil energy carriers and the possibilities of substituting them. Scenarios and prognoses on the availability of fossil fuels and their reserves for the future are presented. Also, new technologies for exploration and the extraction of fossil fuels are discussed, as are international interdependencies that influence supply. Market and price scenarios are presented that take account of a possible increasing scarcity of fossil fuels. The implications for industry and investment planning are examined

  15. Fossil fuel emissions

    An objective of environmental costing is to arrive at a social cost figure expressed in cents per kilowatt hour for each type of electric generation option. This figure can then be applied to incorporate environmental costs in utility planning and resource acquisition procedures to permit selection of the options that are of least cost to society. To arrive at externality costs expressed in cents per kilowatt hour, the analyst must first ascertain the pounds of each pollutant of concern emitted per kilowatt hour for each technology. This chapter addresses air pollutant emissions for fossil fuel-fired power plants. Chapter 5 A.-E. treats the costs to society of each major fossil fuel plant air pollutant in dollars per pound. Then, Chapter 6 A.-C. combines the air emissions figures of this chapter with the cost figures from Chapter 5 to arrive at the cents per kilowatt hour figures that can be used by utilities and regulators. All the above emissions and valuation figures are derived from identified studies reviewed

  16. Evaluation of hard fossil fuel

    Because of its inexhaustible supplies hard fossil fuel will represent the pillar of the power systems of the 21st century. Only high-calorie fossil fuels have the market value and participate in the world trade. Low-calorie fossil fuels ((brown coal and lignite) are fuels spent on the spot and their value is indirectly expressed through manufactured kWh. For the purpose of determining the real value of a tonne of low-calorie coal, the criteria that help in establishing the value of a tonne of hard coal have to be corrected and thus evaluated and assessed at the market. (author)

  17. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  18. The legacy of fossil fuels

    Armaroli, N.; Balzani, V. [CNR, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-03-01

    Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production.

  19. The legacy of fossil fuels.

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production. PMID:21290608

  20. Status of fossil fuel reserves

    Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

  1. News technology utilization fossil fuel

    Blianová Monika; Sciranková Lucia

    2004-01-01

    Fossil fuel alternative energy is coal, petroleum, natural gas. Petroleum and natural gas are scarce resources, but they are delimited. Reserves petroleum will be depleted after 39 years and reserves natural gas after 60 years.World reserves coal are good for another 240 years. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel. It is the least expensive energy source for generating electricity. Many environmental problems associated with use of coal:in coal production, mining creates environmental probl...

  2. Pipeline transport of fossile fuels

    Vlasák, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with hydraulic pipeline transport of fossil fuels. A general analysis of coal and heavy viscous oil pipelining systems is introduced and pipeline transport of concentrated coal-water slurry, coal-water fuel, coal pipelining in other than water carrier liquid (e.g. methanol) and capsule pipeline transport (coal-log pipelining) is described.

  3. New fossil fuel combustion technologies

    The aim of the present article is to supply general information concerning fossil fuels that represent, today and for the near future, the main energy source of our Planet. New fossil fuel technologies are in continual development with two principal goals: to decrease environmental impact and increase transformation process efficiency. Examples of this efforts are: 1) gas-steam combined cycles integrated with coal gasification plants, or with pressurized-fluidized-bed combustors; 2) new cycles with humid air or coal direct fired turbine, now under development. In the first part of this article the international and national energy situations and trends are shown. After some brief notes on environmental problems and alternative fuels, such as bio masses and municipal wastes, technological aspects, mainly relevant to increase fossil-fueled power plant performances, are examined in greater depth. Finally the research and technological development activities of ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment) Engineering Branch, in order to improve fossil fuels energy and environmental use are presented

  4. Progress of fossil fuel science

    Demirbas, M.F.

    2007-07-01

    Coal is the most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. More than 45% of the world's electricity is generated from coal, and it is the major fuel for generating electricity worldwide. The known coal reserves in the world are enough for more than 215 years of consumption, while the known oil reserves are only about 39 times of the world's consumption and the known natural gas reserves are about 63 times of the world's consumption level in 1998. In recent years, there have been effective scientific investigations on Turkish fossil fuels, which are considerable focused on coal resources. Coal is a major fossil fuel source for Turkey. Turkish coal consumption has been stable over the past decade and currently accounts for about 24% of the country's total energy consumption. Lignite coal has had the biggest share in total fossil fuel production, at 43%, in Turkey. Turkish researchers may investigate ten broad pathways of coal species upgrading, such as desulfurization and oxydesulfurization, pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis, liquefaction and hydroliquefaction, extraction and supercritical fluid extraction, gasification, oxidation, briquetting, flotation, and structure identification.

  5. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  6. Modeling of advanced fossil fuel power plants

    Zabihian, Farshid

    The first part of this thesis deals with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel-fired power stations. The GHG emission estimation from fossil fuel power generation industry signifies that emissions from this industry can be significantly reduced by fuel switching and adaption of advanced power generation technologies. In the second part of the thesis, steady-state models of some of the advanced fossil fuel power generation technologies are presented. The impacts of various parameters on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) overpotentials and outputs are investigated. The detail analyses of operation of the hybrid SOFC-gas turbine (GT) cycle when fuelled with methane and syngas demonstrate that the efficiencies of the cycles with and without anode exhaust recirculation are close, but the specific power of the former is much higher. The parametric analysis of the performance of the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle indicates that increasing the system operating pressure and SOFC operating temperature and fuel utilization factor improves cycle efficiency, but the effects of the increasing SOFC current density and turbine inlet temperature are not favourable. The analysis of the operation of the system when fuelled with a wide range of fuel types demonstrates that the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle efficiency can be between 59% and 75%, depending on the inlet fuel type. Then, the system performance is investigated when methane as a reference fuel is replaced with various species that can be found in the fuel, i.e., H2, CO2, CO, and N 2. The results point out that influence of various species can be significant and different for each case. The experimental and numerical analyses of a biodiesel fuelled micro gas turbine indicate that fuel switching from petrodiesel to biodiesel can influence operational parameters of the system. The modeling results of gas turbine-based power plants signify that relatively simple models can predict plant performance with acceptable accuracy. The unique feature of these models is that they are developed based on similar assumptions and run at similar conditions; therefore, their results can be compared. This work demonstrates that, although utilization of fossil fuels for power generation is inevitable, at least in the short- and mid-term future, it is possible and practical to carry out such utilization more efficiently and in an environmentally friendlier manner.

  7. On Prediction of Depreciation Time of Fossil Fuel in Malaysia

    Tey Jin Pin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The fossil fuels play a crucial role in the world energy markets. Demand for fossil fuels become increasingly high and worrisome, because of fossil fuels will be significantly reduced and ultimately exhausted. This study was conducted to predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels in Malaysia and estimate the time remaining before the fossil fuels will finish. Approach: To predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels, the reserves, consumption and prices of fossil fuel will be used. The prediction of fossil fuel reserves were estimated using ratio of fossil fuel reserve versus consumption, Klass Model and Modified Klass Model. The prediction time will give us the opportunity to prepare for the coming energy crisis and discover new energy sources. The results from the analysis will be concluded alongside with the Olduvai Theory and Hubbert Peak Theory. Both of the theories are highly related to the energy crisis. The Olduvai Theory states that the industrial civilization will last for approximately 100 year: circa 1930-2030. As for Hubbert Peak Theory, it can estimate the total amount of fossil fuels available based on the production rate from time to time. Results: Due to the vast usage of petroleum, it will be depleted faster than natural gas and coal. After 14 years, natural gas and coal will replace petroleum as a fossil fuel and coal would then be the major fossil fuels. Based on the results from Hubbert Peak Theory, the rate of production of petroleum has reached the maximum level in 2004 and started to decline since that time; while in the Olduvai theory, it has explained that the life expectancy of the industrial civilization was found to be ended in 2030. Petroleum will be spent over in 2020, followed by natural gas in 2058 and coal around the year 2066. Conclusion: So far, Malaysia has not facing disconnection of electricity as other developed countries. When this happens, it gives the meaning of the end of the industrial civilization where the electric power grids go down and never come back up. If there is no substance that can replace fossil fuels to continue in the industrial civilization, human civilization will be facing the fate of collapse.

  8. On Prediction of Depreciation Time of Fossil Fuel in Malaysia

    Tey Jin Pin; Nora Muda

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The fossil fuels play a crucial role in the world energy markets. Demand for fossil fuels become increasingly high and worrisome, because of fossil fuels will be significantly reduced and ultimately exhausted. This study was conducted to predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels in Malaysia and estimate the time remaining before the fossil fuels will finish. Approach: To predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels, the reserves, consumption and prices of fossil fuel w...

  9. Carbon footprint of a thermal energy storage system using phase change materials for industrial energy recovery to reduce the fossil fuel consumption

    Highlights: • TES system can increase energy efficiency while reducing carbon footprint. • Waste heat recovery using PCM helps to reduce the heat production from fossil fuels. • Environmental benefits, in terms of carbon footprint, are identified in this study. • PCM with high latent heat value tend to achieve better results in the overall system. • The KNO3 manufacture entails higher carbon footprint values than other PCM analysed. - Abstract: Until now, a small number of studies have analysed the carbon footprint (CO2 eq. emissions) of the application of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) in conventional Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems considering different conventional fossil fuels as the source of heat. In those scarce studies, the different environmental impact categories were estimated using, on the one hand, diverse environmental methodologies and, on the other hand, different environmental evaluation methods (the midpoint and endpoint approaches). Despite the fact that several researchers have used the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology as a tool to estimate the environmental impact of TES systems, there is no unanimity in the scientific community on the environmental evaluation method to be used. As a consequence, research results cannot be easily compared. This article evaluates the introduction of a TES system (using different PCMs) to recover the waste thermal energy released in industrial processes, which can be used in other applications, thereby avoiding fossil fuel consumption by the associated equipment to produce thermal energy. Five different fossil fuels have been considered to generate the 20 case studies that were analysed using the same methodology (LCA) and evaluation method (Global Warming Potential, GWP100, a midpoint approach). The results were used to identify the best cases, considering the environmental benefits that they generate. Additionally, this research indicates that the benefits can be achieved since, in general, the amount of conventional fuels saved is sufficiently large to balance the environmental impact associated with the inclusion of PCMs in conventional TES. Nevertheless, the selection of a PCM can increase or eliminate the environmental benefits obtained

  10. Retrofitting for fossil fuel flexibility

    Described in this paper are two fossil plant retrofits recently completed by the Public Service Company of New Hampshire that demonstrate the type of planning and execution required for a successful project under the current regulatory and budget constraints. Merrimack Units 1 and 2 are 120 MW and 338 MW nominal cyclone-fired coal units in Bow, New Hampshire. The retrofits recently completed at these plants have resulted in improved particulate emissions compliance, and the fuel flexibility to allow switching to lower sulphur coals to meet current and future SO2 emission limits. Included in this discussion are the features of each project including the unique precipitator procurement approach for the Unit 1 Retrofit, and methods used to accomplish both retrofits within existing scheduled maintenance outages through careful planning and scheduling, effective use of pre-outage construction, 3-D CADD modeling, modular construction and early procurement. Operating experience while firing various coals in the cyclone fired boilers is also discussed

  11. Fossil fuel support mechanisms in Finland

    Lampinen, Ari

    2013-10-15

    Fossil fuel subsidies and other state support for fossil fuels are forbidden by the Kyoto Protocol and other international treaties. However, they are still commonly used. This publication presents and analyses diverse state support mechanisms for fossil fuels in Finland in 2003-2010. Total of 38 support mechanisms are covered in quantitative analysis and some other mechanisms are mentioned qualitatively only. For some mechanisms the study includes a longer historical perspective. This is the case for tax subsidies for crude oil based traffic fuels that have been maintained in Finland since 1965.

  12. Energy economy without fossil fuels: Iceland

    Sigfusson, T.I. [Iceland Univ., Reykjavik (Iceland); Iceland New Energy Ltd., Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2002-07-01

    From the time of the settlement of Iceland in the 9th century AD the use of wood and peat for fuel has put this resource in danger of exhaustion. For over two centuries the Icelandic industrial society has relied heavily on imported fossil fuels, coal, coke and petroleum. The abundant potential of Iceland regarding green power like hydroelectric and geothermal has led to two major changes of energy infrastructure in the past century. This was the introduction of hydroelectricity at the turn of the century and the geothermal space heating of major municipalities in the post World War II period. Today, Iceland is facing a third major energy infrastructure revolution within a hundred years with the advent of hydrogen economy. (orig.) [German] Seit Beginn der Besiedlung Islands im 9. Jahrhundert n. Chr. hat die Nutzung von Holz und Torf als Brennstoff diese Ressourcen nahezu erschoepft. Mehr als zwei Jahrhunderte hat sich die islaendische Industriegesellschaft auf den Import fossiler Brennstoffe wie Kohle, Koks und Erdoel gestuetzt. Die Einfuehrung der Stromerzeugung aus Wasserkraft zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts und die Fernwaermeversorgung der groesseren Gemeinden mit Erdwaerme nach dem 2. Weltkrieg haben das Szenario veraendert. (orig.)

  13. Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2

    N. Gruber

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 14C-free fossil carbon added to atmospheric CO2 by combustion dilutes the atmospheric 14C/C ratio (Δ14C, potentially providing a means to verify fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. However, sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract this dilution and may bias 14C/C-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 if these nuclear influences are not correctly accounted for. Previous studies have examined nuclear influences on local scales, but the potential for continental-scale influences on Δ14C has not yet been explored. We estimate annual 14C emissions from each nuclear site in the world and conduct an Eulerian transport modeling study to investigate the continental-scale, steady-state gradients of Δ14C caused by nuclear activities and fossil fuel combustion. Over large regions of Europe, North America and East Asia, nuclear enrichment may offset at least 20% of the fossil fuel dilution in Δ14C, corresponding to potential biases of more than −0.25 ppm in the CO2 attributed to fossil fuel emissions, larger than the bias from plant and soil respiration in some areas. Model grid cells including high 14C-release reactors or fuel reprocessing sites showed much larger nuclear enrichment, despite the coarse model resolution of 1.8°×1.8°. The recent growth of nuclear 14C emissions increased the potential nuclear bias over 1985–2005, suggesting that changing nuclear activities may complicate the use of Δ14C observations to identify trends in fossil fuel emissions. The magnitude of the potential nuclear bias is largely independent of the choice of reference station in the context of continental-scale Eulerian transport and inversion studies, but could potentially be reduced by an appropriate choice of reference station in the context of local-scale assessments.

  14. Fuel cells : a viable fossil fuel alternative

    Paduada, M.

    2007-02-15

    This article presented a program initiated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to develop proof-of-concept of underground mining vehicles powered by fuel cells in order to eliminate emissions. Recent studies on American and Canadian underground mines provided the basis for estimating the operational cost savings of switching from diesel to fuel cells. For the Canadian mines evaluated, the estimated ventilation system operating cost reductions ranged from 29 per cent to 75 per cent. In order to demonstrate the viability of a fuel cell-powered vehicle, NRCan has designed a modified Caterpillar R1300 loader with a 160 kW hybrid power plant in which 3 stacks of fuel cells deliver up to 90 kW continuously, and a nickel-metal hydride battery provides up to 70 kW. The battery subsystem transiently boosts output to meet peak power requirements and also accommodates regenerative braking. Traction for the loader is provided by a brushless permanent magnet traction motor. The hydraulic pump motor is capable of a 55 kW load continuously. The loader's hydraulic and traction systems are operated independently. Future fuel cell-powered vehicles designed by the program may include a locomotive and a utility vehicle. Future mines running their operations with hydrogen-fueled equipment may also gain advantages by employing fuel cells in the operation of handheld equipment such as radios, flashlights, and headlamps. However, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells used in the project are prohibitively expensive. The catalytic content of a fuel cell can add hundreds of dollars per kW of electric output. Production of catalytic precious metals will be strongly connected to the scale of use and acceptance of fuel cells in vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of hydrogen production and delivery is significantly lower than the well-to-tank efficiency of many conventional fuels. It was concluded that an adequate hydrogen infrastructure will be required for the mining industry to adopt widespread use of fuel cell technologies. 3 figs.

  15. Development incentives for fossil fuel subsidy reform

    Jakob, Michael; Chen, Claudine; Fuss, Sabine; Marxen, Annika; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2015-08-01

    Reforming fossil fuel subsidies could free up enough funds to finance universal access to water, sanitation, and electricity in many countries, as well as helping to cut global greenhouse-gas emissions.

  16. Maximum fossil fuel feedstock replacement potential of petrochemicals via biorefineries

    Brehmer, B.; Boom, R.M.; Sanders, J. P. M.

    2009-01-01

    The search for feedstock replacement options within the petrochemical industry should logically be based upon non-fossil resources. Retaining the functionality of the biochemicals in biomass for use as chemical products and precursors can lead to a sizeable reduction of fossil fuel consumption. This was assessed by using a limited energetic and exergetic cradle-to-factory gate analysis following the principles of life cycle assessments (LCA). A calculation matrix was created for 16 bioenergy ...

  17. Fossil Fuels, Alternative Energy and Economic Growth

    Raul Barreto

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical framework that incorporates energy within an endogenous growth model. The model explicitly allows for the interaction and substitution between fossil fuels, defined as a non-renewable resource derived from some fixed initial stock, and alternative energy, defined as renewable resource whose production requires capital input. The dynamics of the model depict a unique balance growth to a saddle point. The consumption path temporarily peaks, when fossil fuels are plentif...

  18. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  19. Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels

    Lucas Reijnders

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x108 ha in the case of biofuels from sugarcane or oil palm, and at least 1.8-3.6x109 ha in the case of ethanol from wheat, corn or sugar beet, as produced in industrialized countries. Biofuels from microalgae which are commercially produced with current technologies do not appear to outperform terrestrial plants such as sugarcane in their ability to displace fossil fuels. Whether they will able to do so on a commercial scale in the future, is uncertain.

  20. A Statistical Method for Estimating Missing GHG Emissions in Bottom-Up Inventories: The Case of Fossil Fuel Combustion in Industry in the Bogota Region, Colombia

    Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; Rojas, A. M.; Pulido-Guio, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    The development of environmentally, socially and financially suitable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation portfolios requires detailed disaggregation of emissions by activity sector, preferably at the regional level. Bottom-up (BU) emission inventories are intrinsically disaggregated, but although detailed, they are frequently incomplete. Missing and erroneous activity data are rather common in emission inventories of GHG, criteria and toxic pollutants, even in developed countries. The fraction of missing and erroneous data can be rather large in developing country inventories. In addition, the cost and time for obtaining or correcting this information can be prohibitive or can delay the inventory development. This is particularly true for regional BU inventories in the developing world. Moreover, a rather common practice is to disregard or to arbitrarily impute low default activity or emission values to missing data, which typically leads to significant underestimation of the total emissions. Our investigation focuses on GHG emissions by fossil fuel combustion in industry in the Bogota Region, composed by Bogota and its adjacent, semi-rural area of influence, the Province of Cundinamarca. We found that the BU inventories for this sub-category substantially underestimate emissions when compared to top-down (TD) estimations based on sub-sector specific national fuel consumption data and regional energy intensities. Although both BU inventories have a substantial number of missing and evidently erroneous entries, i.e. information on fuel consumption per combustion unit per company, the validated energy use and emission data display clear and smooth frequency distributions, which can be adequately fitted to bimodal log-normal distributions. This is not unexpected as industrial plant sizes are typically log-normally distributed. Moreover, our statistical tests suggest that industrial sub-sectors, as classified by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), are also well represented by log-normal distributions. Using the validated data, we tested several missing data estimation procedures, including Montecarlo sampling of the real and fitted distributions, and a per ISIC estimation based on bootstrap-calculated mean values. These results will be presented and discussed in detail. Our results suggest that the accuracy of sub-sector BU emission inventories, particularly in developing regions, could be significantly improved if they are designed and carried out to be representative sub-samples (surveys) of the actual universe of emitters. A large fraction the missing data could be subsequently estimated by robust statistical procedures provided that most of the emitters were accounted by number and ISIC.

  1. Environmental damage caused by fossil fuels consumption

    This paper reports that the objectives of this study is to identify the negative effects of the fossil fuels use and to evaluate their economic significance. An economic value of the damage for each of the analyzed effects has been estimated in US dollars per unit energy of the fuel used ($/GJ). This external costs of fossil fuel use should be added to their existing market price, and such real costs should be compared with the real costs of other, environmentally acceptable, energy alternatives, such as hydrogen

  2. Constraints of fossil fuels depletion on global warming projections

    A scientific debate is in progress about the intersection of climate change with the new field of fossil fuels depletion geology. Here, new projections of atmospheric CO2 concentration and global-mean temperature change are presented, should fossil fuels be exploited at a rate limited by geological availability only. The present work starts from the projections of fossil energy use, as obtained from ten independent sources. From such projections an upper bound, a lower bound and an ensemble mean profile for fossil CO2 emissions until 2200 are derived. Using the coupled gas-cycle/climate model MAGICC, the corresponding climatic projections out to 2200 are obtained. We find that CO2 concentration might increase up to about 480 ppm (445-540 ppm), while the global-mean temperature increase w.r.t. 2000 might reach 1.2 deg. C (0.9-1.6 deg. C). However, future improvements of fossil fuels recovery and discoveries of new resources might lead to higher emissions; hence our climatic projections are likely to be underestimated. In the absence of actions of emissions reduction, a level of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system might be already experienced toward the middle of the 21st century, despite the constraints imposed by the exhaustion of fossil fuels. - Highlights: → CO2 and global temperature are projected under fossil fuels exhaustion scenarios. → Temperature is projected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. C above pre-industrial. → Temperature projections are possibly lower than the IPCC ones. → Fossil fuels exhaustion will not avoid dangerous global warming.

  3. The cognitive surplus is made of fossil fuels

    Tomlinson, Bill; Silberman, M. Six

    2012-01-01

    People in the industrial world have a great deal of free time. Clay Shirky has described this free time, considered as a whole, as a vast “cognitive surplus,” and presents many efforts currently under way to use the cognitive surplus for prosocial ends. However, the cognitive surplus came to exist largely as a result of labor–saving devices that run on fossil fuels. Many problems relating to fossil fuels constrain how people can responsibly use the cognitive surplus to addre...

  4. Fossil fuels in a trillion tonne world

    Scott, Vivian; Haszeldine, R. Stuart; Tett, Simon F. B.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    The useful energy services and energy density value of fossil carbon fuels could be retained for longer timescales into the future if their combustion is balanced by CO2 recapture and storage. We assess the global balance between fossil carbon supply and the sufficiency (size) and capability (technology, security) of candidate carbon stores. A hierarchy of value for extraction-to-storage pairings is proposed, which is augmented by classification of CO2 containment as temporary (100,000 yr). Using temporary stores is inefficient and defers an intergenerational problem. Permanent storage capacity is adequate to technically match current fossil fuel reserves. However, rates of storage creation cannot balance current and expected rates of fossil fuel extraction and CO2 consequences. Extraction of conventional natural gas is uniquely holistic because it creates the capacity to re-inject an equivalent tonnage of carbon for storage into the same reservoir and can re-use gas-extraction infrastructure for storage. By contrast, balancing the extraction of coal, oil, biomass and unconventional fossil fuels requires the engineering and validation of additional carbon storage. Such storage is, so far, unproven in sufficiency.

  5. Fructose rich alternative carbon sources for enhanced fossil fuels biodesulfurization

    Silva, Tiago P.; Paixo, Susana M.; Alves, Lus Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Biodesulfurization allows the removal of recalcitrant sulfur from fossil fuels at mild operating conditions with the aid of microorganisms. However the production of biocatalysts still has elevated costs which hinder its industrial application. So the use of agro-industrial by-products and wastes, as alternative carbon sources could present an opportunity to cheapen the process. In previous works we showed that Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B has the ability to use materials such as recyc...

  6. Steam generation: fossil-fired systems: utility boilers; industrial boilers; boiler auxillaries; nuclear systems: boiling water; pressurized water; in-core fuel management; steam-cycle systems: condensate/feedwater; circulating water; water treatment

    A survey of development in steam generation is presented. First, fossil-fired systems are described. Progress in the design of utility and industrial boilers as well as in boiler auxiliaries is traced. Improvements in coal pulverizers, burners that cut pollution and improve efficiency, fans, air heaters and economisers are noted. Nuclear systems are then described, including the BWR and PWR reactors, in-core fuel management techniques are described. Finally, steam-cycle systems for fossil-fired and nuclear power plants are reviewed. Condensate/feedwater systems, circulating water systems, cooling towers, and water treatment systems are discussed

  7. Options for decarbonising fossil fuel energy supplies

    Measures to mitigate anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels are examined. Among these measures, capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide is one of the most significant (i.e. next to using fuels with lower carbon content and increasing the efficiency of energy conversion and use). It is suggested that in coal and gas-fired power plants, separation of carbon dioxide is possible now with available technology which would add about two cents per kWh to the cost of generating electricity and a loss of about 10 per cent of the overall efficiency of the plant. Separation of the carbon from the fossil fuel before combustion is a recently identified alternative. Cost and performance implications of this approach and a number of its variants are reviewed. Fossil fuels burnt in small, distributed appliances could also achieve significant reductions in emissions by being supplied with a decarbonised energy carrier, such as hydrogen. Hydrogen could be manufactured from fossil fuels and the carbon dioxide removed from any of these processes sequestered in deep underground saline reservoirs, in unused oil or natural gas fields, or in unmineable coal seams. Another technically feasible option would be sequestration in the deep ocean, the eventual natural destination of most atmospheric carbon dioxide. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs. (Figures captioned but not supplied)

  8. Fossil-fuel constraints on global warming

    In 2008 and 2009 two papers by Kharecha and Hansen and by Nel and Cooper examined possible fossil energy availability and energy consumption scenarios and consequences for future climate. The papers yield somewhat similar results regarding atmospheric CO2 levels, but they reach substantially different conclusions regarding future climate change. Here, we compare their methods and results. Our work shows that Nel and Cooper's paper significantly underestimates future warming. Nel and Cooper conclude that even if all the available fossil fuels would be burned at the maximum possible rate during this century, the consequent warming would cap at less than 1 deg. C above the 2000 level. We find that - under Nel and Cooper's assumption of an intensive exploitation of fossil fuels - the global temperature in 2100 will likely reach levels which would lead to severely damaging long-term impacts.

  9. Clean fuels from fossil sources

    Energy availability is determining to sustain the social development, but energy production involves environmental impacts at regional and global level. The central role of oil, natural gas, coal for energy supply will be kept for decades. The development of the engine-fuel combination to satisfy more stringent emissions limitations, is the challenge for an environmentally clean transportation system

  10. On the nuclear fuel and fossil fuel reserves

    A short discussion of the nuclear fuel and fossil fuel reserves and the connected problem of prices evolution is presented. The need to regard fuel production under an economic aspect is emphasized. Data about known and assessed fuel reserves, world-wide and with special consideration of Austria, are reviewed. It is concluded that in view of the fuel reserves situation an energy policy which allows for a maximum of options seems adequate. (G.G.)

  11. Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01

    The fossil fuel supplies modeling and research effort focuses on models for US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) planning and management. Topics covered included new SPR oil valuation models, updating models for SPR risk analysis, and fill-draw planning. Another task in this program area is the development of advanced computational tools for three-dimensional seismic analysis.

  12. The dilemma of fossil fuel use and global climate change

    Judkins, R.R.; Fulkerson, W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Sanghvi, M.K. (Amoco Corp., Chicago, IL (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The use of fossil fuels and relationship to climate change is discussed. As the use of fossil fuels has grown, the problems of protecting the environment and human health and safety have also grown, providing a continuing challenge to technological and managerial innovation. Today that challenge is to control atmospheric emissions from combustion, particularly those emissions that cause acidic deposition, urban pollution, and increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. Technology for reducing acidic deposition is available and needs only to be adopted, and the remedies for urban pollution are being developed and tested. How effective or expensive these will be remains to be determined. The control of emissions of the greenhouse gas, CO{sub 2}, seems possible only be reducing the total amounts of fossil fuels used worldwide, and by substituting efficient natural gas technologies for coal. Long before physical depletion forces the transition away from fossil fuels, it is at least plausible and even likely that the greenhouse effect will impose a show-stopping constraint. If such a transition were soon to be necessary, the costs would be very high because substitute energy sources are either limited or expensive or undesirable for other reasons. Furthermore, the costs would be unevenly felt and would be more oppressive for developing nations because they would be least able to pay and, on average, their use rates of fossil fuels are growing much faster than those of many industrialized countries. It is prudent, therefore, to try to manage the use of fossil fuels as if a greenhouse constraint is an important possibility.

  13. The Government’s financial support for fossil fuel companies is being overlooked

    Ward, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Bob Ward explores the subsidies currently doled out by the government to fossil fuel companies and asks why it has not attracted the same degree of criticism as subsidies for the renewable energy industry.

  14. On Corporate Accountability: Lead, Asbestos, and Fossil Fuel Lawsuits.

    Shearer, Christine

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the use of lawsuits against three industries that were eventually found to be selling products damaging to human heath and the environment: lead paint, asbestos, and fossil fuels. These industries are similar in that some companies tried to hide or distort information showing their products were harmful. Common law claims were eventually filed to hold the corporations accountable and compensate the injured. This paper considers the important role the lawsuits played in helping establish some accountability for the industries while also noting the limitations of the lawsuits. It will be argued that the lawsuits helped create pressure for government regulation of the industries' products but were less successful at securing compensation for the injured. Thus, the common law claims strengthened and supported administrative regulation and the adoption of industry alternatives more than they provided a means of legal redress. PMID:25910492

  15. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    Archer, David; Eby, Michael; Brovkin, Victor; Ridgwell, Andy; Cao, Long; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Caldeira, Ken; Matsumoto, Katsumi; Munhoven, Guy; Montenegro, Alvaro; Tokos, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    CO2 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere, the ocean, and the terrestrial biosphere on timescales of a few centuries. However, a sizeable fraction of the CO2 remains in the atmosphere, awaiting a return to the solid earth by much slower weathering processes and deposition of CaCO3. Common measures of the atmospheric lifetime of CO2, including the e-folding time scale, disregard the long tail. Its neglect in the calculation ...

  16. The Fossil Fuel Divestment Movement: An Ethical Dilemma for the Geosciences?

    Greene, C. H.; Kammen, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    For over 200 years, fossil fuels have been the basis for an industrial revolution that has delivered a level of prosperity to modern society unimaginable during the previous 5000 years of human civilization. However, society's dependence on fossil fuels is coming to an end for two reasons. The first reason is because our fossil fuel reserves are running out, oil in this century, natural gas during the next century, and coal a few centuries later. The second reason is because fossil fuels are having a devastating impact on the habitability of our planet, disrupting our climate system and acidifying our oceans. So the question is not whether we will discontinue using fossil fuels, but rather whether we will stop using them before they do irreparable damage to the Earth's life-support systems. Within our geoscience community, climate scientists have determined that a majority of existing fossil fuel reserves must remain unburned if dangerous climate change and ocean acidification are to be avoided. In contrast, Exxon-Mobil, Shell, and other members of the fossil fuel industry are pursuing a business model that assumes all of their reserves will be burned and will not become stranded assets. Since the geosciences have had a long and mutually beneficial relationship with the fossil fuel industry, this inherent conflict between climate science and industrial interests presents an ethical dilemma for many geoscientists. This conflict is further heightened by the fossil fuel divestment movement, which is underway at over 400 college and university campuses around the world. This presentation will explore some of the ethical and financial issues being raised by the divestment movement from a geoscientist's perspective.

  17. The environmental dilemma of fossil fuels

    The increasing atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide poses an environmental dilemma for fossil fuel energy generation that, unlike other related emissions, cannot be resolved by control technologies alone. Although fossil fuels presently provide the most cost-effective global energy source, and model projections suggest that their use is initiating climatic changes which, while quite uncertain, may induce significant, counter-balancing impacts to water resources, coastal resources, ecological systems, and possibly agricultural production. The climate model indicate that the warming should have begun, and there is some evidence for this occurring, but at a less rapid and more uneven rate than projected. In addition, different climate models are not yet in agreement in their latitudinal or regional predictions, and it will likely require a decade or more for such agreement to develop as high performance computers become available for addressing this ''grand challenge'' problem. Thus, in addition to the prospect for climatic change, the uncertainties of the changes and associated impacts contribute to the dilemma of dealing with the issue. Further, the problem is pervasive and international scope, with different countries and peoples having differing perspectives of technology, development, and environmental responsibility. Dealing with this issue will thus require creativity, commitment, and flexibility

  18. Depletion of fossil fuels and anthropogenic climate change : a review

    Höök, Mikael; TANG, XU

    2013-01-01

    Future scenarios with significant anthropogenic climate change also display large increases in world production of fossil fuels, the principal CO2 emission source. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has also been identified as a future challenge. This chapter reviews the connection between these two issues and concludes that limits to availability of fossil fuels will set a limit for mankind’s ability to affect the climate. However, this limit is unclear as various studies have reached quite di...

  19. Global impact of fossil fuel combustion on atmospheric NOx

    Horowitz, Larry W.; Jacob, Daniel James

    1999-01-01

    Fossil fuel combustion is the largest global source of NOx to the troposphere. This source is concentrated in polluted continental boundary layers, and the extent to which it impacts tropospheric chemistry on a global scale is uncertain. We use a global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry and transport to study the impact of fossil fuel combustion on the global distribution of NOx during nothern hemisphere summer. In the model, we tag fossil fuel NOx and its reservoir NOy specie...

  20. Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2

    Gruber, N.; Graven, H. D.

    2011-01-01

    Since aged carbon in fossil fuel contains no 14C, 14C/C ratios (Δ14C) measured in atmospheric CO2 can be used to estimate CO2 added by combustion and, potentially, provide verification of fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. Sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract dilution by fossil CO2. Therefore, these nuclear sources can bias observation-based estimat...

  1. Fossil-fuels, bio-fuels and food: Raking priorities

    Dias, Guilherme Leite da Silva; Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the question of the trade-offs between bio-fuels, fossil-fuels, and food. To do so an analysis is conducted taking into consideration the differences in relative prices and in the productive structure among the countries. The results shows that in general food puts a greater stress over the economies than energy does, and mainly in the developing economies. As a consequence of that, the possibilities for the growing use of bio-fuels is limited and restrict to countries w...

  2. The strategic value of fossil fuels: challenges and responses

    Several speeches of the conference concerning the strategic value of fossil fuels that was held on May 8 to 11, 1995 in Houston, Texas are presented. The current and future importance of fossil fuels in energy consumption throughout the world is highlighted. The role of developing countries in the fossil fuels market is increasing, and these countries need some assistance from developed countries to develop. International and regional cooperation seems to be a good way to ensure economic growth. The importance of fossil fuels is shown by the growth of international coal and natural gas trade. (TEC)

  3. Estimates of seasonal variation in fossil fuel CO2emissions

    Rotty, Ralph M.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal variations are evident in the atmospheric CO2 concentration, and attempts to understand the causes of the variations require an estimate of the seasonal pattern of the fossil fuel CO2 source term. Estimates were made of CO2 emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion on a month-to-month basis for a recent typical year (1982). Twenty-one countries account for over 86% of the fossil fuel emissions. Monthly fuel consumption was used directly for those countries where such fuel data ...

  4. Impact of fossil fuel emissions on atmospheric radiocarbon and various applications of radiocarbon over this century

    Graven, Heather D.

    2015-01-01

    A wide array of scientific disciplines and industries use radiocarbon analyses; for example, it is used in dating of archaeological specimens and in forensic identification of human and wildlife tissues, including traded ivory. Over the next century, fossil fuel emissions will produce a large amount of CO2 with no 14C because fossil fuels have lost all 14C over millions of years of radioactive decay. Atmospheric CO2, and therefore newly produced organic material, will appear as though it has ...

  5. Hydrogen: A real alternative to fossil fuels and bio fuels in the Spanish vehicle industry; El Hidrogeno: Una alternativa real a los combustible fosiles y a los biocombustible para automoacion en Espana

    Hernandez-Sobrino, F.; Rodriguez-Monroy, C.; Hernandez-Perez, J. L.

    2010-07-01

    For several years, UE has been trying to increase the use of bio fuels to replace petrol or diesel in the transports with the aim of fulfilling a commitment about climate change, supplying environmentally friendly conditions, promoting renewable energy sources. To achieve this, the 2003/30/EC Directive states that in all the European countries, before 31st December 2010, at least 5.75% of all petrol and diesel fuels used for transport are bio fuels. In previous papers, the authors evaluated this possibility. Analyzing hydrogen as replacement of fossil fuels and bio fuels nowadays in spain and a technical,economic and environmental point of view is the aim of this paper. (Author)

  6. Economic comparison of hydrogen and fossil fuel systems

    The fuels most considered for the post petroleum and natural gas era, hydrogen (gaseous and liquid), and coal and coal derived synthetic fluid fossil fuels, have been compared by taking into account production costs, external costs and utilization efficiencies. The results show that hydrogen is a much more cost effective energy carrier than coal and synthetic fossil fuels, as well as being the environmentally most compatible fuel. 4 figs., 12 tabs., 21 refs

  7. Traversing the mountaintop: world fossil fuel production to 2050

    Nehring, Richard

    2009-01-01

    During the past century, fossil fuels—petroleum liquids, natural gas and coal—were the dominant source of world energy production. From 1950 to 2005, fossil fuels provided 85–93% of all energy production. All fossil fuels grew substantially during this period, their combined growth exceeding the increase in world population. This growth, however, was irregular, providing for rapidly growing per capita production from 1950 to 1980, stable per capita production from 1980 to 2000 and rising per ...

  8. Fossil fuel biomarkers in sewage sludges: environmental significance

    Payet, Cécile; Bryselbout, Carine; Morel, Jean-Louis; Lichtfouse, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Fossil fuel biomarkers, or "molecular fossils," are specific organic substances found in coals, petroleums, and sedimentary rocks. They are formed during millions of years of sedimentary burial by geochemical alteration of biological molecules, such as cholesterol, under the effect of biodegradation, temperature, pressure, and mineral catalysis, to produce geochemically mature molecules, for example, aromatic steroids (Fig. 1). Since fossil fuel biomarkers have a very specific molecular struc...

  9. Divesting from Fossil Fuels Makes Sense Morally… and Financially

    Cleveland, Cutler J.; Reibstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Should university endowments divest from fossil fuels? A public discussion of this question has seen some university presidents issuing statements that they would not divest--that investments should not be used for "political action." Many universities hold large endowments that have significant positions in fossil fuel companies or…

  10. Divesting from Fossil Fuels Makes Sense Morally and Financially

    Cleveland, Cutler J.; Reibstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Should university endowments divest from fossil fuels? A public discussion of this question has seen some university presidents issuing statements that they would not divest--that investments should not be used for "political action." Many universities hold large endowments that have significant positions in fossil fuel companies or

  11. Security of supply: a neglected fossil fuel externality

    Various groups have attempted to set a monetary value on the externalities of fossil fuel usage based on damages caused by emissions of particulates, sulfur dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen and carbon. One externality that has been neglected in this type of analysis, however, is the cost of maintaining a secure supply of fossil fuels. Military expenditures for this purpose are relatively easy to quantify based on US Department of Defense and Office of Management and Budget figures, and amount to between $1 and more than $3 per million Btu, based on total fossil fuel consumption in the US. Open acknowledgment of such expenses would, at the very least, have a profound effect on the perceived competitiveness of all non-fossil fuel technologies. It should also provide a simple and easily comprehended rationale for an energy content (Btu) charge on all fossil fuels. (Author)

  12. API focuses on cleanliness, economics of fossil fuels

    Fossil fuels, consumed in free markets, are playing positive economic and environmental roles as the world economy becomes integrated, industry leader said last week. Environmental zealots threaten to force conversion from gasoline as a motor fuel in the U.S. and oppose the growing integration of the world economy. Fossil fuels, free markets, human creativity, and entrepreneurial spirit--not government intervention--are the keys to a clean environment, said API pres. Charles J. DiBona and outgoing Chairman C.J. (Pete) Silas, chairman and chief executive officer of Phillips Petroleum Co. DiBona said proponents of the BTU tax defeated earlier this year used erroneous assumptions to make a case against oil use in an effort to replace the efficiency of the marketplace with the inefficiency of bureaucracy. The government's role is to set tough standards and avoid dictating the way environmental standards are met, they said. Other speakers warned that voluntary measures put forward by the Clinton administration of address global climate change issues likely will fall short

  13. Global climate change and the need to replace fossil fuels

    If the Earth had no atmosphere, its average surface temperature would be about -18degC. The Earth is kept at its relatively warm temperature by molecules in the atmosphere, including water molecules and carbon dioxide molecules that absorb some of the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth and prevent its escape from the Earth's environment. This is the natural greenhouse effect.Since the beginning of the industrial era, additional gases have been emitted into the atmosphere-particularly carbon dioxide (CO2)-which adds to this absorption and are believed to further increase the Earth's temperature. This increment is referred to as the anthropogenic greenhouse effect. Warnings about the effects of CO2 emissions date to the 19 century, but they have become a matter of widespread concern only since the 1970. The anticipated consequences are described as global warmingor, more broadly as global climate change.The production of CO2 is the inevitable accompaniment of any combustion of fossil fuels. The amount released per unit energy output varies for the different fuels, due largely to differences in their hydrogen content. Natural gas is primarily methane (CH4) and a considerable fraction of its combustion energy comes from the chemical combination of hydrogen and oxygen. Its ratio of carbon dioxide production to energy production is the lowest among the fossil fuels

  14. Status of fossil fuel reserves; Etat des reserves des combustibles fossiles

    Laherrere, J

    2005-07-01

    Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

  15. A Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis of Chinese fossil-fuel electricity generation companies

    This paper analyses the technical efficiency of Chinese fossil-fuel electricity generation companies from 1999 to 2011, using a Bayesian stochastic frontier model. The results reveal that efficiency varies among the fossil-fuel electricity generation companies that were analysed. We also focus on the factors of size, location, government ownership and mixed sources of electricity generation for the fossil-fuel electricity generation companies, and also examine their effects on the efficiency of these companies. Policy implications are derived. - Highlights: • We analyze the efficiency of 27 quoted Chinese fossil-fuel electricity generation companies during 1999–2011. • We adopt a Bayesian stochastic frontier model taking into consideration the identified heterogeneity. • With reform background in Chinese energy industry, we propose four hypotheses and check their influence on efficiency. • Big size, coastal location, government control and hydro energy sources all have increased costs

  16. Environmental effects of fossil fuel combustion

    Fossil fuel which include natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen are the main source of heat and electrical energy. All these fuels contain beside major constituents (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) other materials as metal, sulfur and nitrogen compounds. During the combustion process different pollutants as fly ash, sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3), nitrogen oxides (NOx NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds are emitted. Fly ash contain different trace elements (heavy metals). Gross emission of pollutants is tremendous all over the world. These pollutants are present in the atmosphere in such conditions that they can affect man and his environment. Air pollution caused by the particulate matter and other pollutants not only acts directly on environment but by contamination of water and soil leads to their degradation. Wet and dry deposition of inorganic pollutants leads to acidification of environment. These phenomena affect health of the people, increase corrosion, destroy cultivated soil and forests. Most of the plants, especially coniferous trees are not resistant to sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Following longer exposure leaves wither and fall. Widespread forest damage has been reported in Europe and North America regions. Many cultivated plants are not resistant to these pollutants either especially in the early period vegetation. The mechanisms of pollutants transformation in atmosphere are described by environmental chemistry. An important role in these transformations plays photochemistry. SO2 and NOx are oxidized and sulfuric and nitric acids are formed in presence of water vapours, fog and droplets. Other problem discussed connected with human activities is emission of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere. These emissions cause stratospheric ozone depletion, ground level photochemical ozone formation, toxic or carcinogenic human health effects, enhancing the global greenhouse effect, accumulation and persistence in environment. Wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) can be applied for flue gas treatment and SO2 and NOx emission control. (author)

  17. Methane emissions and climate compatibility of fossil fuels

    Methane contributes directly and indirectly to the additional greenhouse effect caused by human activities. The vast majority of the anthropogenic methane release occurs worldwide in non-fossil sources such as rice cultivation, livestock operations, sanitary landfills and combustion of bio-mass. Methane emissions also occur during production, distribution and utilisation of fossil fuels. Also when considering the methane release and CO2-emissions of processes upstream of combustion, the ranking of environmental compatibility of natural gas, fuel oil and cool remains unchanged. Of all fossil fuels, natural gas contributes the least to the greenhouse effect. (orig.)

  18. Development of an atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 monitoring station

    Complete text of publication follows. The aim of the project supported by Hungarian NSF (ref No. F69029) is determination of atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 concentration in major cities or average industrial regions in Hungary using together measurement of CO2 mixing ratio and radiocarbon (14C) content of the air. For this aim we developed a high precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station in ATOMKI (Figure 1.). The station's measuring system is based on an Ultramat 6F (Siemens) infrared gas analyser. To help continuous, unattended run and autocalibration we built up an automatic gas handling line for the analyzer. For radiocarbon measurements we applied an integrating sampling system. One was installed in Debrecen station and two independent 14CO2 sampling line were installed 400 km far from Debrecen at Hegyhatsal station as background references. During several tests of the measuring and sampling systems we demonstrated that uncertainty of individual CO2 mixing ratio results is less than 0.5 ppm and the applied radiocarbon sampling system developed by ATOMKI works with good reproducibility. In September and October of 2008 we measured the mixing ratio and radiocarbon content of atmospheric CO2 at Debrecen and the far rural reference station (Hegyhatsal) simultaneously. It was concluded that trends in CO2 mixing ratio variations in time are very similar at the three different sampling points (2 m above ground in Debrecen, 10 m and 115 m above ground in Hegyhatsal). Air quality in Debrecen during September of 2008 seemed to be relatively clear from the point of view of its CO2 content at least. When winter came in October, with lower outside temperature and less sunshine hours the CO2 content of air was increased in general at all the three sampling points, but this effect was more intensive closer to the ground level. According our radiocarbon observations it was clearly indicated that there was not significant amount of fossil fuel CO2 in the air of Debrecen during September in 2008. But in October of 2008 the Δ14C value of atmospheric CO2 of Debrecen decreased with more than 40 h relative to September's results, and according our calculations it was caused by about 20 ppm fossil fuel CO2 which appeared as a surplus amount in the air above the previous months carbon dioxide level. Using the developed mobile and high precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station we plan to determine the atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 trend in the whole 2008/2009 winter in Debrecen

  19. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    Pierce, B.L.; Butcher, T.A.

    1994-06-01

    Almost half of the energy used for beating in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 boilerhouses with a total capacity of 1,071 MW, and about 100,000 home furnaces with a total capacity of about 300 MW. More than 600 boilerhouses and 60 percent of the home furnaces are situated near the city center. These facilities are referred to as ``low emission sources`` because they have low stacks. They are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbons in the city, and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the US Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in Krakow as the ``Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.`` Funding is provided through the US Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe.

  20. Does fossil fuel combustion lead to global warming?

    Tropospheric sulfate aerosols produced by atmospheric oxidation of SO2 emitted from fossil fuel combustion scatter solar radiation and enhance the reflectivity of clouds. Both effects decrease the absorption of solar radiation by the earth-atmosphere system. This cooling influence tends to offset the warming influence resulting from increased absorption of terrestrial infrared radiation by increased atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The sulfate forcing is estimated to be offsetting 70% of the forcing by CO2 derived from fossil fuel combustion, although the uncertainty of this estimate is quite large--range 28-140%, the latter figure indicating that the present combined forcing is net cooling. Because of the vastly different atmospheric residence times of sulfate aerosol (about a week) and CO2 (about 100 years), the cooling influence of sulfate aerosol is exerted immediately, whereas most of the warming influence of CO2 is exerted over more than 100 years. Consequently the total forcing integrated over the entire time the materials reside in the atmosphere is net warming, with the total CO2 forcing estimate to exceed the sulfate forcing by a factor of 4. The present situation in which the forcing by sulfate is comparable to that by CO2 is shown to be a consequence of the steeply increasing rates of emission over the industrial era. (author)

  1. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the `Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.` Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the `low emission sources` and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

  2. Fossil fuels. Commercializing clean coal technologies

    Coal, an abundant domestic energy source, provides 25 percent of the nation's energy needs, but its use contributes to various types of pollution, including acid rain. The Department of Energy (DOE) has a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program whose goal is to expand the use of coal in an environmentally safe manner by contributing to the cost of projects demonstrating the commercial applications of emerging clean coal technologies. Concerned about the implementation of the CCT program, the Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy and Power, House Committee on Energy and Commerce, requested GAO to report on (1) DOE's process of negotiating cooperative agreements with project sponsors, (2) changes DOE has made to the program, (3) the status of funded projects, and (4) the interrelationship between acid rain control proposals and the potential commercialization of clean coal technologies. Under the CCT program, DOE funds up to 50 percent of the cost of financing projects that demonstrate commercial applications of emerging clean coal technologies. DOE has conducted two solicitations for demonstration project proposals and is planning a third solicitation by May 1989. The Congress has appropriated $400 million for the first solicitation, or round one of the program, $575 million for round two, and $575 million for round three, for a total of $1.55 billion. For the round-one solicitation, DOE received 51 proposals from project sponsors. As of December 31, 1988, DOE had funded nine projects and was in the process of negotiating cooperative financial assistance agreements with sponsors of four projects. In September 1988, DOE selected 16 round-two projects from 55 proposals submitted and began the process of negotiating cooperative agreements with the project sponsors. The Congress has debated the need to reduce acid rain-causing emissions associated with fossil fuel combustion. The 100th Congress considered but did not enact about 20 acid rain control bills. On February 9, 1989, President Bush told the Congress that he plans to propose legislation for a new, more effective Clean Air Act, which will include a plan to reduce, by a specific date, the emissions that cause acid rain. DOE experienced difficulties in negotiating cooperative agreements with round-one project sponsors, which delayed completing agreements for five projects and resulted in the termination of negotiations for three projects. One of the main problems was that project sponsors had difficulty in completing financial and other business arrangements to fund their share of project costs. Negotiations were also delayed because of (1) sponsors' reluctance to agree to repay the federal share of project costs should the technology become commercialized and (2) sponsors' and other project participants' reluctance to release proprietary data to DOE. Further, DOE headquarters review and approval process to ensure negotiation consistency added time to the agreement formalization process. Although DOE made changes for round two of the program, federal repayment requirements and proprietary data rights could continue to cause delays in completing agreements with project sponsors. Seven of the nine funded round-one projects are not progressing as planned because of equipment failure, delays in obtaining equipment, project financing problems, and delays in obtaining permits. DOE said it is too early to tell whether the slippage will affect the timing of the commercial availability of the clean coal technologies. The CCT program can play an important role in reducing emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants. The new administration has indicated its commitment to full funding of the program. Enactment of legislation that prescribes stringent deadlines and/or reduced levels of emissions to control acid rain could affect the program's potential effectiveness by diverting investment from emerging clean coal technologies into available conventional technologies. On the other hand, enactment of legislation that allows for development of emerging technologies while also requiring some near-term emissions reductions through conventional technologies, could encourage commercialization of more efficient, cleaner, emerging technologies

  3. Reliability estimation for multiunit nuclear and fossil-fired industrial energy systems

    As petroleum-based fuels grow increasingly scarce and costly, nuclear energy may become an important alternative source of industrial energy. Initial applications would most likely include a mix of fossil-fired and nuclear sources of process energy. A means for determining the overall reliability of these mixed systems is a fundamental aspect of demonstrating their feasibility to potential industrial users. Reliability data from nuclear and fossil-fired plants are presented, and several methods of applying these data for calculating the reliability of reasonably complex industrial energy supply systems are given. Reliability estimates made under a number of simplifying assumptions indicate that multiple nuclear units or a combination of nuclear and fossil-fired plants could provide adequate reliability to meet industrial requirements for continuity of service

  4. BIOSORPTION VANADIUM RECOVERY FROM FOSSIL FUEL POWER PLANT WASTEWATER

    K. Imandel; M. Ghotbi-Ravandi; N. Moazami; M. Mazaheri Asadi

    1999-01-01

    Fossil fuel power plant is one of the most important sources of environmental pollution of the vanadium toxic metal. This survey showed that the Penicilium austuranium is the best microorganism for biosorption of vanadium isolated from environment of fossil fuel power plant. To determine the optimum pH and most biosorption and accumulation of vanadium by these fungi, power plants wastewater, passed through a cylindrical laboratory vessel, containing a great mass of this microorganism. When th...

  5. Geological setting of U.S. fossil fuels.

    Masters, C.D.; Mast, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The USA has a special position in terms of fossil fuel development. Not only is it one of the most important nations in terms of resources of oil, gas and coal, but it has also been by far the dominant producer and consumer. In this thorough review of the regional geological environments in which fossil fuels formed in the USA, the authors point to a variety of models of resource occurrence of global interest.-Authors

  6. Hydrogen production econometric studies. [hydrogen and fossil fuels

    Howell, J. R.; Bannerot, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The current assessments of fossil fuel resources in the United States were examined, and predictions of the maximum and minimum lifetimes of recoverable resources according to these assessments are presented. In addition, current rates of production in quads/year for the fossil fuels were determined from the literature. Where possible, costs of energy, location of reserves, and remaining time before these reserves are exhausted are given. Limitations that appear to hinder complete development of each energy source are outlined.

  7. A long-term view of worldwide fossil fuel prices

    This paper reviews a long-term trend of worldwide fossil fuel prices in the future by introducing a new method to forecast oil, natural gas and coal prices. The first section of this study analyses the global fossil fuel market and the historical trend of real and nominal fossil fuel prices from 1950 to 2008. Historical fossil fuel price analysis shows that coal prices are decreasing, while natural gas prices are increasing. The second section reviews previously available price modelling techniques and proposes a new comprehensive version of the long-term trend reverting jump and dip diffusion model. The third section uses the new model to forecast fossil fuel prices in nominal and real terms from 2009 to 2018. The new model follows the extrapolation of the historical sinusoidal trend of nominal and real fossil fuel prices. The historical trends show an increase in nominal/real oil and natural gas prices plus nominal coal prices, as well as a decrease in real coal prices. Furthermore, the new model forecasts that oil, natural gas and coal will stay in jump for the next couple of years and after that they will revert back to the long-term trend until 2018. (author)

  8. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur

  9. Fossil fuels in a sustainable energy future

    Bechtel, T.F. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The coal industry in the United States has become a world leader in safety, productivity, and environmental protection in the mining of coal. The {open_quotes}pick-and-shovel{close_quotes} miner with mangled limbs and black lung disease has been replaced by the highly skilled technicians that lead the world in tons per man-hour. The gob piles, polluted streams, and scared land are a thing of the past. The complementary efforts of the DOE and EPRI-funded programs in coal utilization R&D and the Clean Coal Technology Program commercial demonstrations, have positioned the power generation industry to utilize coal in a way that doesn`t pollute the air or water, keeps electrical power costs low, and avoids the mountains of waste material. This paper reviews the potential for advanced coal utilization technologies in new power generation applications as well as the repowering of existing plants to increase their output, raise their efficiency, and reduce pollution. It demonstrates the potential for these advanced coal-fueled plants to play a complementary role in future planning with the natural gas and oil fired units currently favored in the market place. The status of the US program to demonstrate these technologies at commercial scale is reviewed in some detail.

  10. Foresight Study on Advanced Conversion Technologies of Fossil Fuels

    The Observatorio de Prospectiva Tecnologica Industrial (OPTI) is a Foundation supported by the Ministry of Industry and Energy, (MINER) and has as main objective to provide a basic information and knowledge on technology evolution. This information will be accessible to the Administration and to the Companies and can be taking into account in planning and decision making of technology policies. Ciemat is member of OPTI and is the organism in charge of the actions in the Energy sector. CIEMAT has the responsibility on the realisation of the sector studies to get in three years (1998 to 2001) a foresight vision of the critical technology topics. The OPTI integrated strategic plan undertake the analysis of other seven technology sectors, with the same criteria on methodological aspects. Delphi method was used for the realization of the studies. It consisted of a survey conducted in two rounds using a questionnaire to check the experts opinion. The time frame of the studies was defined from 1999 to 2015. The study presented in this document has been performed by CIEMAT in the second stage of the OPTI activities. The main goal behind this study is to identify the advanced clean and efficient technologies for the conversion of fossil fuels to promote in our country. The questionnaire was addressed to 250 experts and the response rate was about the 37%, ratifying the final results. The spanish position and the barriers for the development of each technology has been determined and also the recommended measures to facilitate their performance in the future. This basic information is consider of main interest, taking in account the actual energetic situation with a foreseeable demand increase and fossil fuels dependence. (Author) 17 refs

  11. Hydrogen Separation Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    Roark, Shane E.; Mackay, Richard; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2001-11-06

    Eltron Research and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. By appropriately changing the catalysts coupled with the membrane, essentially the same system can be used to facilitate alkane dehydrogenation and coupling, aromatics processing, and hydrogen sulfide decomposition.

  12. Development of an integrated solar-fossil powered steam generation system for industrial applications

    Hafner, Bernd; Stoppok, Olaf; Zahler, Christian; Berger, Michael; Hennecke, Klaus; Krüger, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    To this day solar technologies do not cover a significant share of the industrial steam demand, despite the fact that concentrating solar collectors are market available, are well capable of reaching the required operating temperatures, and are able to generate steam directly. In addition to the low cost of fossil fuels and emission permits, other reasons for the slow market penetration of solar thermal technologies for industrial process heat applications are the lack of awareness within ind...

  13. Methane from fuel combustion and industrial processes

    An overview is given of current estimates of global methane emissions from fuel combustion, including non-commercial fuels, and industrial non-combustion sources (so-called industrial processes). The largest contributions appear to be from the combustion of fuelwood and crop residues, with also large uncertainty ranges. On a global basis, road transport and residential coal combustion are relatively minor sources, when compared to fuelwood and crop residues. Of the other sources stationary combustion, other transport and industrial processes, in particular coal combustion and iron and steel manufacturing are of some importance. Based on detailed emission factors for CH4 by fuel type or industrial process and associated activity levels a bottom-up estimate of global source strengths has been prepared and compared with some other recent estimates. Fossil fuel production and transmission, landfills and other waste treatment processes are not considered here. 27 refs., 7 tabs

  14. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  15. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes

    Short, N. M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the application of remotely sensed data from orbital satellites to the exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels. Geological applications of Landsat data are described including map editing, lithologic identification, structural geology, and mineral exploration. Specific results in fuel exploration are reviewed and a series of related Landsat images is included.

  16. Microalgal and terrestrial transport biofuels to displace fossil fuels

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x10(8) ha in t...

  17. Synergistic energy conversion process using nuclear energy and fossil fuels

    Because primary energies such as fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewable energy are limited in quantity of supply, it is necessary to use available energies effectively for the increase of energy demand that is inevitable this century while keeping environment in good condition. For this purpose, an efficient synergistic energy conversion process using nuclear energy and fossil fuels together converted to energy carriers such are electricity, hydrogen, and synthetic fuels seems to be effective. Synergistic energy conversion processes containing nuclear energy were surveyed and effects of these processes on resource saving and the CO2 emission reduction were discussed. (T.T.)

  18. Alternative fuels in cement industry; Alternativa braenslen i cementindustrin

    Nyman, K.E.; Ek, R. [Finnsementti Oy, Parainen (Finland); Maekelae, K. [Finreci Oy (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In this project the cement industry`s possibilities to replace half of the fossil fuels with waste derived fuels are investigated. Bench-scale experiments, pilot plant tests and full scale tests have been done with used tires and plastics wastes

  19. Fossil Fuel Subsidy and Pricing Policies

    Kojima,Masami

    2016-01-01

    The steep decline in the world oil price in the last quarter of 2014 slashed fuel price subsidies. Several governments responded by announcing that they would remove subsidies for one or more fuels and move to market-based pricing with full cost recovery. Other governments took advantage of low world prices to increase taxes and other charges on fuels. However, the decision to move to cost...

  20. Modeling CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion using the logistic equation

    CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion have been known to contribute to the greenhouse effect. Research on emission trends and further forecasting their further values is important for adjusting energy policies, particularly those relative to low carbon. Except for a few countries, the main figures of CO2 emission from fossil fuel combustion in other countries are S-shaped curves. The logistic function is selected to simulate the S-shaped curve, and to improve the goodness of fit, three algorithms were provided to estimate its parameters. Considering the different emission characteristics of different industries, the three algorithms estimated the parameters of CO2 emission in each industry separately. The most suitable parameters for each industry are selected based on the criterion of Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE). With the combined simulation values of the selected models, the estimate of total CO2 emission from fossil fuel combustion is obtained. The empirical analysis of China shows that our method is better than the linear model in terms of goodness of fit and simulation risk. -- Highlights: → Figures of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion in most countries are S-shape curves. → Using the logistic function to model the S-shape curve. → Three algorithms are offered to estimate the parameters of the logistic function. → The empirical analysis from China shows that the logistic equation has satisfactory simulation results.

  1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Applications to Unconventional Fossil Fuel Resources

    Kleinberg, R. L.; Leu, G.

    2008-12-01

    Technical and economic projections strongly suggest that fossil fuels will continue to play a dominant role in the global energy market through at least the mid twenty-first century. However, low-cost conventional oil and gas will be depleted in that time frame. Therefore new sources of energy will be needed. We discuss two relatively untapped unconventional fossil fuels: heavy oil and gas hydrate. In both cases, nuclear magnetic resonance plays a key role in appraising the resource and providing information needed for designing production processes.

  2. Carbon monoxide: A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf; Meijer, Harro; Schroeder, Hartwig; Levin, Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon (14CO2) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The observations were compared with model estimates simulated with the regional transport model REMO at 0.5°x0.5° resolution in Europe for 2002. These estimates are based on two available emissions inventories...

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Bio Fuel from Industrial Waste

    M.N Abinayah Shree; K. Iyappan; Srinivasakannan, C.

    2009-01-01

    Disposal of biomass becomes often an environmental issue. A novel method has been developed to convert biomass into solid bio-fuel. Experiments were carried out on preparation of solid fuel pellet from industrial biomass wastes. A maximum calorific value of 22,593KJ/kg has been obtained for the bio-fuel prepared in the present investigation and compared with the fossil fuel coal. The bio-fuel pellets were burnt and the emitted green house gases were critically analyzed.

  4. Fossil fuel combined cycle power system

    Labinov, Solomon Davidovich; Armstrong, Timothy Robert; Judkins, Roddie Reagan

    2006-10-10

    A system for converting fuel energy to electricity includes a reformer for converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one lower molecular weight gas, at least one turbine to produce electricity from expansion of at least one of the lower molecular weight gases, and at least one fuel cell. The system can further include at least one separation device for substantially dividing the lower molecular weight gases into at least two gas streams prior to the electrochemical oxidization step. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

  5. New Optical Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Application

    John Coggin; Tom Flynn; Jonas Ivasauskas; Daniel Kominsky; Carrie Kozikowski; Russell May; Michael Miller; Tony Peng; Gary Pickrell; Raymond Rumpf; Kelly Stinson-Bagby; Dan Thorsen; Rena Wilson

    2007-12-31

    Accomplishments of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants and solid oxide fuel cells are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring.

  6. Environmental impacts of fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants

    Large power plants burning fossil fuels generate emissions with a high content of sulphur dioxide and a content of noxious aerosols and radioisotopes whose radioactivity exceeds the limits set for nuclear power plants. The main problem of nuclear power plants is to secure radiation safety namely in case of an accident even though the probability of such an event is very small. The most complicated problems are related to the treatment of spent fuel, its transport, processing and storage. (B.H.)

  7. HEAT PUMPS: SUBSTITUTES FOR OUTMODED FOSSIL-FUELED SYSTEMS

    The report reviews the state-of-the-art relative to development, capacity, and adequacy of the heat pump as a potential replacement for outmoded fossil-fueled heating and cooling systems in the residential and commercial sector. Projections are made of the rate at which heat pump...

  8. Fossil fuels without CO2 emissions

    The climatic impact of fossil energy can be reduced by separating the resulting carbon and sequestering it away from the atmosphere. Recent work in carbon management (CM) - the linked processes of separating and collecting carbon and sequestering it in the ocean or ground - has shown substantial progress in developing the necessary technologies and in understanding the potential for sequestration. One large-scale project for sequestering CO2 is operational. Statoil in Norway separates 300 ktC of CO2 per year from a natural gas field and injects it into an aquifer in the North Sea. Other projects are planned. A pilot plant in Alberta, Canada aims to develop a zero-emission electric plant by exploring the technology of injecting CO2 to displace methane from coal beds. However, CM's technical progress is outpacing consideration of its limitations and potential risks. The article sketches recent technical developments in CM and discusses its implications for the policy and politics of global climate change. CM's near-term potential is seen as being at least as great as that of nonfossil energy. 19 refs

  9. Fossil fuel combined cycle power generation method

    Labinov, Solomon D [Knoxville, TN; Armstrong, Timothy R [Clinton, TN; Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-21

    A method for converting fuel energy to electricity includes the steps of converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one mixed gas stream of lower average molecular weight including at least a first lower molecular weight gas and a second gas, the first and second gases being different gases, wherein the first lower molecular weight gas comprises H.sub.2 and the second gas comprises CO. The mixed gas is supplied to at least one turbine to produce electricity. The mixed gas stream is divided after the turbine into a first gas stream mainly comprising H.sub.2 and a second gas stream mainly comprising CO. The first and second gas streams are then electrochemically oxidized in separate fuel cells to produce electricity. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

  10. Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies

    Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides

  11. Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies

    Crowther, M.A.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Morris, S.C.

    1980-10-01

    Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides.

  12. Origin and monitoring of pollutants in fossil-fuel flames

    A review is given of the origin of pollutants in fossil-fuel flames. Burning of fossil fuels is the major cause of air pollution and significant reductions in levels of environmental pollution can be achieved by more effective control of combustion systems. The chemical kinetics of formation of unburned hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide and particulate matter are described, as well as the reactions which can lead to oxidation and destruction of these pollutants within the flame. The important influence of mixing and aerodynamics is discussed, together with methods of mathematical modelling and prediction methods. Practical problems arising in gas turbine engines, spark ignition engines and diesel engines are investigated in order to minimize the emission of pollutants while preserving fuel economy. (author)

  13. Dependence on Biofuels as an Alternative Source of Fossil Fuels

    Sai Gireesha

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels are liquid fuels that are derived from different materials like waste plant and animal matter. Biofuels are vital for variety of reasons. Transport depends on finite fossil fuels like oil and oil for its energy wants thus it is important that we have a tendency to move towards a lot of renewable and property fuels. In this text, the small print of the biofuels and also the totally different healthy and versatile ways that of their production just like the earlier ways that lateral bi...

  14. Fossil-Fuel C02 Emissions Database and Exploration System

    Krassovski, M.; Boden, T.; Andres, R. J.; Blasing, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) quantifies the release of carbon from fossil-fuel use and cement production at global, regional, and national spatial scales. The CDIAC emission time series estimates are based largely on annual energy statistics published at the national level by the United Nations (UN). CDIAC has developed a relational database to house collected data and information and a web-based interface to help users worldwide identify, explore and download desired emission data. The available information is divided in two major group: time series and gridded data. The time series data is offered for global, regional and national scales. Publications containing historical energy statistics make it possible to estimate fossil fuel CO2 emissions back to 1751. Etemad et al. (1991) published a summary compilation that tabulates coal, brown coal, peat, and crude oil production by nation and year. Footnotes in the Etemad et al.(1991) publication extend the energy statistics time series back to 1751. Summary compilations of fossil fuel trade were published by Mitchell (1983, 1992, 1993, 1995). Mitchell's work tabulates solid and liquid fuel imports and exports by nation and year. These pre-1950 production and trade data were digitized and CO2 emission calculations were made following the procedures discussed in Marland and Rotty (1984) and Boden et al. (1995). The gridded data presents annual and monthly estimates. Annual data presents a time series recording 1 latitude by 1 longitude CO2 emissions in units of million metric tons of carbon per year from anthropogenic sources for 1751-2008. The monthly, fossil-fuel CO2 emissions estimates from 1950-2008 provided in this database are derived from time series of global, regional, and national fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (Boden et al. 2011), the references therein, and the methodology described in Andres et al. (2011). The data accessible here take these tabular, national, mass-emissions data and distribute them spatially on a one degree latitude by one degree longitude grid. The within-country spatial distribution is achieved through a fixed population distribution as reported in Andres et al. (1996). This presentation introduces newly build database and web interface, reflects the present state and functionality of the Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Database and Exploration System as well as future plans for expansion.

  15. 13C values of grasses as a novel indicator of pollution by fossil-fuel-derived greenhouse gas CO2 in urban areas

    Lichtfouse, Eric; Lichtfouse, Michel; Jaffrézic, Anne

    2003-01-01

    A novel fossil-fuel pollution indicator based on the 13C/12C isotopic composition of plants has been designed. This bioindicator is a promising tool for future mapping of the sequestration of fossil-fuel CO2 into urban vegetation. Theoretically, plants growing in fossil-fuel CO2 contaminated areas such as major cities, industrial centers, and highway borders, should assimilate a mixture of global atmospheric CO2 of δ13C value of - 8.02‰ and of fossil-fuel CO2 of average δ13C value of 27.28‰. ...

  16. Global exergetic dimension of hydrogen use in reducing fossil fuel consumption

    In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for minimizing the fossil fuel based-global irreversibility coefficient of global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions such as global waste exergy factor, global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based-global exergetic indicator. In order to investigate the role of hydrogen use at minimizing the fossil fuel based global irreversibility, the actual fossil fuel consumption data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases, the fossil fuel based-global irreversibility coefficient will decrease. (author)

  17. Hydrogen as a renewable and sustainable solution in reducing global fossil fuel consumption

    In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for reducing global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions are derived depending primarily upon the exergetic utilization ratios of fossil fuels and hydrogen: the fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency, fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator. These relations incorporate predicted exergetic utilization ratios for hydrogen energy from non-fossil fuel resources such as water, etc., and are used to investigate whether or not exergetic utilization of hydrogen can significantly reduce the fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient (ranging from 1 to +?) indicating the fossil fuel consumption and contribute to increase the hydrogen based global exergetic indicator (ranging from 0 to 1) indicating the hydrogen utilization at a certain ratio of fossil fuel utilization. In order to verify all these exergetic expressions, the actual fossil fuel consumption and production data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. For the verification of these parameters, the variations of fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator as the functions of fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency and exergetic utilization of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels are analyzed and discussed in detail. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases, the fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient will decrease and the hydrogen based global exergetic indicator will increase. (author)

  18. Bioremediation of fossil fuel contaminated soils

    Bioremediation involves the use of microorganisms and their biodegradative capacity to remove pollutants. The byproducts of effective bioremediation, such as water and carbon dioxide, are nontoxic and can be accommodated without harm to the environment and living organisms. This paper reports that using bioremediation to remove pollutants has many advantages. This method is cheap, whereas physical methods for decontaminating the environment are extraordinarily expensive. Neither government nor private industry can afford the cost to clean up physically the nation's known toxic waste sites. Therefore, a renewed interest in bioremediation has developed. Whereas current technologies call for moving large quantities of toxic waste and its associated contaminated soil to incinerators, bioremediation can be done on site and requires simple equipment that is readily available. Bioremediation, though, is not the solution for all environmental pollution problems. Like other technologies, bioremediation has limitations

  19. US fossil fuel technologies for Thailand

    Buehring, W.A.; Dials, G.E.; Gillette, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy has been encouraging other countries to consider US coal and coal technologies in meeting their future energy needs. Thailand is one of three developing countries determined to be a potentially favorable market for such exports. This report briefly profiles Thailand with respect to population, employment, energy infrastructure and policies, as well as financial, economic, and trade issues. Thailand is shifting from a traditionally agrarian economy to one based more strongly on light manufacturing and will therefore require increased energy resources that are reliable and flexible in responding to anticipated growth. Thailand has extensive lignite deposits that could fuel a variety of coal-based technologies. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors could utilize this resource and still permit Thailand to meet emission standards for sulfur dioxide. This option also lends itself to small-scale applications suitable for private-sector power generation. Slagging combustors and coal-water mixtures also appear to have potential. Both new construction and refurbishment of existing plants are planned. 18 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Renewable hydrogen production for fossil fuel processing

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.; Tevault, C.V. [and others

    1995-06-01

    In the fundamental biological process of photosynthesis, atmospheric carbon dioxide is reduced to carbohydrate using water as the source of electrons with simultaneous evolution of molecular oxygen: H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + light {yields} O{sub 2} + (CH{sub 2}O). It is well established that two light reactions, Photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) working in series, are required to perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Experimental data supporting the two-light reaction model are based on the quantum requirement for complete photosynthesis, spectroscopy, and direct biochemical analysis. Some algae also have the capability to evolve molecular hydrogen in a reaction energized by the light reactions of photosynthesis. This process, now known as biophotolysis, can use water as the electron donor and lead to simultaneous evolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen. In green algae, hydrogen evolution requires prior incubation under anaerobic conditions. Atmospheric oxygen inhibits hydrogen evolution and also represses the synthesis of hydrogenase enzyme. CO{sub 2} fixation competes with proton reduction for electrons relased from the photosystems. Interest in biophotolysis arises from both the questions that it raises concerning photosynthesis and its potential practical application as a process for converting solar energy to a non-carbon-based fuel. Prior data supported the requirement for both Photosystem I and Photosystem II in spanning the energy gap necessary for biophotolysis of water to oxygen and hydrogen. In this paper we report the at PSII alone is capable of driving sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen in an anaerobically adapted PSI-deficient strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, mutant B4, and that CO{sub 2} competes as an electron acceptor.

  1. Geology, fossil fuel potential and environmental concerns of the Caspian Sea

    Rabinowitz, P.; Yusifov, M.; Arnoldi, J.

    2003-04-01

    The fossil fuel producing areas of the Caspian region consists primarily of two basins, the Precaspian and South Caspian basins, both containing sediments in excess of 20km. The South Caspian Basin, a remnant of Tethys, was formed commencing in the Early-Middle Jurassic as a result of opening of back-arc basins behind volcanic arcs. The PreCaspian Basin extends onshore onto Kazakhstan and Russia and commenced its complicated geological evolution in the Middle Devonian. These basins are presently producing oil and gas in excess of one million barrels per day and two trillion cubic feet per day, respectively. They contain oil and gas reserves that are comparable to those of most other of the world's fossil fuel producing regions, excluding the Middle East. It is anticipated that within a decade these basins will produce over three million barrels of oil and four trillion cubic feet of gas per day. We review the economic, environmental, and geopolitical concerns with respect to exploration and recovery of the region’s fossil fuels. For one, the presence of mud volcanoes, gas hydrates, and earthquakes are a hazard for installation of oil platforms and other facilities. Pollution, attributed in large part to the fossil fuel industry, has created health and other environmental problems such as mass die-off of the Caspian seal, and in part to the large decrease in sturgeon population. Other important environmental concerns include the relatively rapid changes in sea level and desertification of the surrounding regions. There are also important legal questions with respect to ownership of resources beneath the seafloor. In addition, the transportation routes (pipelines) of fossil fuels that are anticipated to be recovered over the next decades have yet to be fully determined. Despite many of the political uncertainties, significant advances have been made in the short time since the breakup of the Soviet Union fueling optimism for the future of the region.

  2. Forecasting Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption for Power Generation Using QHSA-Based LSSVM Model

    Wei Sun; Yujun He; Hong Chang

    2015-01-01

    Accurate forecasting of fossil fuel energy consumption for power generation is important and fundamental for rational power energy planning in the electricity industry. The least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is a powerful methodology for solving nonlinear forecasting issues with small samples. The key point is how to determine the appropriate parameters which have great effect on the performance of LSSVM model. In this paper, a novel hybrid quantum harmony search algorithm-based LSS...

  3. Fossil fuel power plant combustion control: Research in Italy

    Electric power demand forecasts for Italy to the year 2000 indicate an increase of about 50% which, due to the current moratorium on nuclear energy, should be met entirely by fossil fuel power plants. Now, there is growing public concern about possible negative health impacts due to the air pollution produced through the combustion of fossil fuels. In response to these concerns, ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) is investing heavily in air pollution abatement technology R ampersand D. The first phase involves the investigation of pollution mechanisms in order to develop suitable mathematical models and diagnostic techniques. The validity of the models is being tested through through measurements made by sophisticated instrumentation placed directly inside the combustion chambers of steam generator systems. These are allowing engineers to develop improved combustion control methods designed to reduce air pollution at source

  4. Engineering a Sustainable and Economically Active Future without Fossil Fuels

    Sangster, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    The need for mankind to make the transition from a global civilisation powered by fossil fuels, to one powered by non-polluting sources of energy, is at last beginning to impinge on public awareness, now that the science of climate change is becoming established. Unfortunately, obfuscation and procrastination still exists, impeding progress to sustainability as vested interests are increasingly muddying the waters by choosing to support technical solutions/fixes of doubtful effectiveness....

  5. Biodesulphurization of fossil fuels: energy, emissions and cost analysis

    Alves, Luís Manuel; Paixão, Susana M.; Pacheco, R.; Ferreira, Ana F.; Carla M. Silva

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve stringent environmental and safety requirements, refineries are in search of “green” and cost-effective methods for crude oil desulphurization. Combined desulphurization technologies are being studied, including bioprocessing to upgrade fossil fuels. Using biodesulphurization (BDS), which is a biochemical process mediated by specific microorganisms, it is possible to desulphurize most of the hydrodesulphurization (HDS) recalcitrant sulphur compounds under mild operating co...

  6. Fossil Fuel Employment and Public Opinion about Climate Change

    Tvinnereim, Endre

    2014-01-01

    Public opinion about climate change has been shown to vary according to gender, age, ideological views, and placement in social networks, while variation in climate policy has been explained referring to economic factors such as reliance on fossil fuels. Nevertheless, an individual's type of employment – which combines social networks and economic interests – has not to date been used as a predictor for public opinion about climate change. Using data from Norway, we find that respondent...

  7. Mapping Biomass Availability to Decrease the Dependency on Fossil Fuels

    T. Steensen; Mller, S.; M. Jandewerth; O. Bscher

    2014-01-01

    To decrease the dependency on fossil fuels, more renewable energy sources need to be explored. Over the last years, the consumption of biomass has risen steadily and it has become a major source for re-growing energy. Besides the most common sources of biomass (forests, agriculture etc.) there are smaller supplies available in mostly unused areas like hedges, vegetation along streets, railways, rivers and field margins. However, these sources are not mapped and in order to obtain the...

  8. Oceanic methane hydrates: untapped fossil-fuel reservoirs

    Years ago, oil explorers had only a superficial idea about the existence of a solid form of natural gas known as methane hydrate, and much less, about its geological mode of occurrence. Intensive explorations undertaken by oceanographers and oil geologists, during the last ten years, many occurrences around the world have come to light. Today, hydrate reserves are supposed to hold more fossil fuel energy than is present in conventional oil, gas and coal deposits

  9. Determining where northern hemisphere fossil fuel CO2 goes

    40% of fossil fuel CO2 is known to be removed annually from atmosphere. The application of 13C constraints to the identification of global CO2 sinks is the central theme of this project undertaken by the CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research in Melbourne. The results reported indicate that the very depleted arctic 13C favours a northern ocean uptake over a terrestrial sink

  10. Synergistic production of hydrogen using fossil fuels and nuclear energy application of nuclear-heated membrane reformer

    Processes and technologies to produce hydrogen synergistically by the steam reforming reaction using fossil fuels and nuclear heat are reviewed. Formulas of chemical reactions, required heats for reactions, saving of fuel consumption or reduction of carbon dioxide emission, possible processes and other prospects are examined for such fossil fuels as natural gas, petroleum and coal. The 'membrane reformer' steam reforming with recirculation of reaction products in a closed loop configuration is considered to be the most advantageous among various synergistic hydrogen production methods. Typical merits of this method are: nuclear heat supply at medium temperature below 600 deg. C, compact plant size and membrane area for hydrogen production, efficient conversion of feed fuel, appreciable reduction of carbon dioxide emission, high purity hydrogen without any additional process, and ease of separating carbon dioxide for future sequestration requirements. With all these benefits, the synergistic production of hydrogen by membrane reformer using fossil fuels and nuclear energy can be an effective solution in this century for the world which has to use. fossil fuels any way to some extent while reducing carbon dioxide emission. For both the fossil fuels industry and the nuclear industry, which are under constraint of resource, environment and economy, this production method will be a viable symbiosis strategy for the coming hydrogen economy era. (author)

  11. CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN JAPAN: A MULTIVARIATE APPROACH

    Hazuki Ishida

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores whether Japanese economy can continue to grow without extensive dependence on fossil fuels. The paper conducts time series analysis using a multivariate model of fossil fuels, non-fossil energy, labor, stock and GDP to investigate the relationship between fossil fuel consumption and economic growth in Japan. The results of cointegration tests indicate long-run relationships among the variables. Using a vector error-correction model, the study reveals bidirectional causalit...

  12. How do the stock prices of new energy and fossil fuel companies correlate? Evidence from China

    This study documents the return and volatility spillover effect between the stock prices of Chinese new energy and fossil fuel companies using the asymmetric BEKK model. Based on daily samples taken from August 30, 2006 to September 11, 2012, the dynamics of new energy/fossil fuel stock spillover are found to be significant and asymmetric. Compared with positive news, negative news about new energy and fossil fuel stock returns leads to larger return changes in their counter assets. News about both new energy and fossil fuel stock returns spills over into variances of their counter assets, and the volatility spillovers depend complexly on the respective signs of the return shocks of each asset. The empirical results demonstrate that new energy and fossil fuel stocks are generally viewed as competing assets, that positive news about new energy stocks could affect the attractiveness of fossil fuel stocks and that new energy stock investment is more speculative and riskier than fossil fuel stock investment. These results have potential implications for asset allocation, financial risk management and energy policymaking. - Highlights: • The dynamics of Chinese new energy/fossil fuel stock spillover are significant and asymmetric. • New energy and fossil fuel stocks are generally viewed as competing assets. • Positive news about new energy stocks affects the attractiveness of fossil fuel stocks. • New energy stock investment is more speculative and riskier than fossil fuel stock investment

  13. The effect of size-control policy on unified energy and carbon efficiency for Chinese fossil fuel power plants

    This paper examines the effect of size control policy on the energy and carbon efficiency for Chinese fossil fuel power industry. For this purpose, we propose two non-radial directional distance functions for energy/carbon efficiency analysis of fossil fuel electricity generation. One is named a total-factor directional distance function that incorporates the inefficiency of all input and output factors to measure the unified (operational and environmental) efficiency of fossil fuel power plants, and the other is called an energy–environmental directional distance function that can be used to measure the energy–environmental performance of fossil fuel electric power plants. Several standardized indicators for measuring unified efficiency and energy–environmental performance are derived from the two directional distance functions. An empirical study of 252 fossil fuel power plants in China is conducted by using the proposed approach. Our empirical results show that there exists a significant positive relationship between the plant size and unified efficiency, the five state-owned companies show lower unified efficiency and energy–environmental performance than other companies. It is suggested that Chinese government might need to consider private incentives and deregulation for its state-owned enterprises to improve their performance proactively. - Highlights: • Two non-radial directional distance functions are presented for energy/carbon efficiency analysis. • An empirical study of 252 fossil fuel power plants in China is conducted. • The five state-owned companies show lower unified efficiency and energy–environmental performance

  14. Competitivity of cogeneration fueled by biofuels or fossil fuels

    The economy of cogeneration systems for different fuels are analyzed in the light of the Swedish governmental proposition of a carbon dioxide emission tax, a general energy tax on fuels and an investment subsidy (per kWe) or a production subsidy (per kWhe) for biofuel cogeneration. (2 refs., 27 figs., 11 tabs.)

  15. A novel CO2 sequestration system for environmentally producing hydrogen from fossil-fuels

    Aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbers are currently used to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial flue gases in various fossil-fuel based energy production systems. MEA is a highly volatile, corrosive, physiologically toxic, and foul-smelling chemical that requires replacement after 1000 operational hours. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), a novel class of materials with negligible vapor pressures and potentiality as benign solvents, may be the ideal replacement for MEA. Ab initio computational modeling was used to investigate the molecular interactions of ILs with CO2. The energetic and thermodynamic parameters of the RTILs as CO2 solvents are on par with MEA. As viable competitors to the present CO2 separation technology, RTILs may economize the fossil-fuel decarbonization process with the ultimate aim of realizing a green hydrogen economy

  16. Power generation by fossil fuels: prospects and problems

    As fossil fuels are non-renewable energy sources, efficient management of thermal power stations of India is of prime importance in the overall management of available power. The areas which required to be managed are: quality of coal, fuel combustion, heat loss, quality of water and steam, steam consumption, load control, and energy consumption by power station auxiliaries. An energy audit is an essential part of energy management. To reduce period of outages, proper inventory levels of fuel and spares must be maintained. Life of power stations can be extended by renovation and replacement of worn-out parts with high-tech components. Proper management leads to optimum utilization of available resources and this is of economic importance. (M.G.B.). tabs., 7 annexures

  17. Say no to fossil fuels and yes to nuclear energy

    Mistaken notion and wrongful fear of nuclear energy based on the horrors of the second world war bombing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima and accidents at Chernobyl and Three mile island and lately the Fukushima nuclear plant meltdown to earthquake and and tsunami have developed antagonism to nuclear energy (NE) and clouded its usefulness as a practical, clean, environment friendly and affordable alternate source of energy. Such antagonism has slowed down research on NE and its adoption on a much wider scale, the crying need of the day. There is a motivated disinformation campaign against nuclear energy in India as witnessed from the ongoing agitation at Kudankulam in Tamil Nadu and Jaitapur in Maharashtra. In fact nuclear energy is the only practical alternative energy source to meet the ever increasing energy needs of the world particularly the developing nations, and to save the world from the greenhouse ill effects of massive carbon dioxide and other emissions from burning fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas. Emissions from fossil fuel burning including radioactive emissions are hundreds of times more in weight and volume and far more hazardous than from an equal capacity nuclear plant. In fact there are no greenhouse gases (CO2), acid rain gases (SO2) or carcinogen emissions (NOx) from nuclear plants. The accident rates and severity of accidents owing to nuclear plants is much lower as compared to fossil fuel power generation. Last but not the least NE offers economic freedom from the clutches of the few monopolistic oil producing countries, which charge exorbitant oil prices and cripple the finances of developing nations. (author)

  18. PERSPECTIVE: Keeping a closer eye on fossil fuel CO2

    Nelson, Peter F.

    2009-12-01

    Peter F Nelson The world is watching expectantly as the clock winds down towards the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP15; http://en.cop15.dk/) to be held 7-18 December 2009 in Copenhagen. While most are now convinced of the need for a strong and concerted response to the climate challenge, the exact nature and extent of that response remains uncertain. There is evidence (Barnett 2009) that current estimates of emissions now exceed all but the most extreme emission scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). If that increase in emissions persists then temperature increases of 4 °C by 2060 have been predicted (Barnett 2009). An inevitable result of the potential for such extreme climate change is to advance the need for multiple adaptation strategies to decision making about, for example, infrastructure, urban planning and forest management. These strategies need to do more than incremental adaptation (Barnett 2009); instead transformative approaches may be required to adapt. The timing of the response is also proving to be a critical determining factor in the effectiveness of global actions. Using a simple conceptual model of emissions, Vaughan and co-workers (Vaughan et al 2009) show that avoiding dangerous climate change is more effective if such action begins early. Early action is also more effective than acting more aggressively later (Vaughan et al 2009). Uncertainties, although reduced, are still significant in the science of climate change. The interactions between control of particulate air pollutants and climate change are particularly challenging (Arneth et al 2009, Shindell et al 2009) but many other uncertainties require continuing research. The scientific uncertainties are only one aspect of an intense interdisciplinary, political, economic and cultural dialogue. It is clear that political will, economic interest, target setting for emissions reductions, adaptation, technology and financing (Pan 2009) will all have a major influence on progress to an international agreement. It is important that the political challenges are not underestimated. Long-term observers of the negotiations necessary for global agreements (Inman 2009) are pessimistic about the chances for success at COP15, and argue that agreements between smaller groups of countries may be more effective. China and other developing countries clearly expect greater emission cuts by developed nations as a condition for a successful deal (Pan 2009). Conversely, the constraints on US climate policies are considerable, notably those imposed by fears that an international agreement that does not include equitable emission control measures for developing countries like China and India, will compromise the agreement and reduce its effectiveness (Skodvin and Andresen 2009). In this context the need for earlier, and more reliable, information on emissions is a high priority. Myhre and coworkers (Myhre et al 2009) provide an efficient method for calculating global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion by combining industry statistics with data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC; http://cdiac.ornl.gov/). Recent analyses of carbon dioxide emission data show a worrying acceleration in emissions, beyond even the most extreme IPCC projections, but are based largely on the CDIAC which gives information about emissions released two to three years before real time (Canadell et al 2007, Raupach et al 2007). The approach used by Myhre et al (2009) uses BP annual statistics of fossil fuel consumption and has a much shorter lag, of the order of six months. Of significant concern is that their analysis of the data also reveals that the recent strong increase in fossil fuel CO2 is largely driven by an increase in emissions from coal, most significantly in China. By contrast, emissions from oil and gas continue to follow longer-term historical trends. Earlier and accurate data on CO2 emissions is important for a range of reasons. It allows comparison with the scenarios developed by the IPCC; uncertainties in emission scenarios are one of the major sources of uncertainties in temperature projections, particularly at longer time scales, where temperature projections are increasingly dependent on specific emission scenarios (IPCC 2007). There have also been recent suggestions (Le Quere et al 2007) of a weakening of the oceanic sink for CO2, and earlier information on emission pathways will be important for testing this hypothesis. Some observers (Levi 2009) believe that the best outcome from COP15 may be an agreement on measurement, reporting and verification. While this may seem like a modest ambition, progress in this area is essential to a successful climate change measure and to compliance with any international agreement. As Levi (2009) points out, `such verification will help make it more politically feasible to undertake similar emissions-cutting actions elsewhere, including in the United States'. The approach of Myhre et al is a very useful tool in such independent verification. References Arneth A, Unger N, Kulmala M and Andreae M O 2009 Clean the air, heat the planet? Science 326 672-3 Barnett A 2009 No easy way out Nature Reports Climate Change 3 128-9 Canadell J G, Le Quere C, Raupach M R, Field C B, Buitenhuis, E T, Ciais P, Conway T J, Gillett N P, Houghton R A and Marland G 2007 Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104 18866-70 Inman M 2009 The climate change game Nature Reports Climate Change 3 130-3 IPCC 2007 Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Report on Climate Change (Geneva: IPCC) 104pp Le Quere C, Rodenbeck C, Buitenhuis E T, Conway T J, Langenfelds R, Gomez A, Labuschagne C, Ramonet M, Nakazawa T, Metzl N, Gillett N and Heimann M 2007 Saturation of the Southern Ocean CO2 sink due to recent climate change Science 316 1735-8 Levi M A 2009 Copenhagen's inconvenient truth: how to salvage the climate conference Foreign Affairs 92-103 Myhre G, Alterskjaer K and Lowe D 2009 A fast method for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions Environ. Res. Lett. 4 034012 Pan J 2009 China expects leadership from rich nations Nature 461 1055 Raupach M R, Marland G, Ciais P, Le Quere C, Canadell J G, Klepper G and Field C B 2007 Global and regional drivers of accelerating CO2 emissions Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104 10288-93 Shindell D T, Faluvegi G, Koch D M, Schmidt G A, Unger N and Bauer S E 2009 Improved attribution of climate forcing to emissions Science 326 716-8 Skodvin T and Andresen S 2009 An agenda for change in US climate policies? Presidential ambitions and congressional powers Int. Environ. Agreements: Politics Law Econ. 9 263-80 Vaughan N E, Lenton T M and Shepherd J G 2009 Climate change mitigation: trade-offs between delay and strength of action required Climatic Change 96 29-43

  19. Carbon dioxide storage potential in coalbeds: A near-term consideration for the fossil energy industry

    Byrer, C.W.; Guthrie, H.D. [Federal Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The concept of using gassy unminable coalbeds for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage while concurrently initiating and enhancing coalbed methane production may be a viable near-term system for industry consideration. Coal is our most abundant and cheapest fossil fuel resource, and it has played a vital role in the stability and growth of the US economy. With the burning of coal in power plants, the energy source is also one of the fuels causing large CO2 emissions. In the near future, coal may also have a role in solving environmental greenhouse gas concerns with increasing CO2 emissions throughout the world. Coal resources may be an acceptable and significant {open_quotes}geological sink{close_quotes} for storing CO2 emissions in amenable unminable coalbeds while at the same time producing natural gas from gassy coalbeds. Industry proprietary research has shown that the recovery of coalbed methane can be enhanced by the injection of CO2 via well bores into coal deposits. Gassy coals generally have shown a 2:1 coal-absorption selectivity for CO2 over methane which could allow for the potential of targeting unminable coals near fossil fueled power plants to be utilized for storing stack gas CO2. Preliminary technical and economic assessments of this concept appear to merit further research leading to pilot demonstrations in selected re ions of the US.

  20. Carbon dioxide storage potential in coalbeds: A near-term consideration for the fossil energy industry

    Byrer, C.W.; Guthrie, H.D.

    1998-07-01

    The concept of using gassy unminable coalbeds for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage while concurrently initiating and enhancing coalbed methane production may be a viable near-term system for industry consideration. Coal is the most abundant and cheapest fossil fuel resource, and it has played a vital role in the stability and growth of the US economy. With the burning of coal in power plants, the energy source is also one of the fuel causing large CO2 emissions. In the near future, coal may also have a role in solving environmental greenhouse gas concerns with increasing CO2 emissions throughout the world. Coal resources may be an acceptable and significant geological sink for storing CO2 emissions in amenable unminable coalbeds while at the same time producing natural gas from gassy coalbeds. Industry proprietary research has shown that the recovery of coalbed methane can be enhanced by the injection of CO2 via well bores into coal deposits. Gassy coals generally have shown a 2:1 coal-absorption selectivity for CO2 over methane which could allow for the potential of targeting unminable coals near fossil fueled power plants to be utilized for storing stack gas CO2. Preliminary technical and economic assessments of this concept appear to merit further research leading to pilot demonstrations in selected regions of the US.

  1. Evaluation of conventional power systems. [emphasizing fossil fuels and nuclear energy

    Smith, K. R.; Weyant, J.; Holdren, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The technical, economic, and environmental characteristics of (thermal, nonsolar) electric power plants are reviewed. The fuel cycle, from extraction of new fuel to final waste management, is included. Emphasis is placed on the fossil fuel and nuclear technologies.

  2. Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption

    Andres, R.J.; Gregg, Jay Sterling; Losey, L.; Marland, G.; Boden, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950–2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80%...... the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models....... modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully...

  3. Energy Efficiency Indicators for Public Electricity Production from Fossil Fuels

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a set of indicators that are used to analyse the energy efficiency of electricity production from fossil fuels on a global level and for a number of key countries and regions. The analysis is based on IEA statistics and includes public electricity plants and public CHP plants. Electricity production by autoproducers is not included and represents less than 6% of global electricity production. However, the share of autoproducers is significant in certain countries, particularly in Europe. Austria, Finland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Spain all have a share of electricity production from autoproducers that is more than twice the global average.

  4. Burning Fossil Fuels: Impact of Climate Change on Health.

    Sommer, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    A recent, sophisticated granular analysis of climate change in the United States related to burning fossil fuels indicates a high likelihood of dramatic increases in temperature, wet-bulb temperature, and precipitation, which will dramatically impact the health and well-being of many Americans, particularly the young, the elderly, and the poor and marginalized. Other areas of the world, where they lack the resources to remediate these weather impacts, will be even more greatly affected. Too little attention is being paid to the impending health impact of accumulating greenhouse gases. PMID:26721565

  5. AIR POLLUTION FROM FOSSIL FUEL IN ARAB REGION

    MohamedGomma Elnour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of air quality conditions and atmospheric pollution in the Arab Region has been addressed through consideration of the energy production and energy consumption pattern. Global, regional and local sources of air pollution in the study have been considered. Emission scenarios of many Arab countries of the region have been outli ned. It has been realized that air pollution constitutes one of the major sources of loss on GNP of many Arab countries in the region due to weak institutional capabilities for air pollution management and control. Major types of air pollution sources in t he region such as greenhouse gas emissions and other gases from various industries are considered. Local sources of air pollution are found due to urban growth, transportation systems, industrialization and lack of awareness and shortage of institutional c apabilities all contributed to the relatively low air quality and weak control in the Arab Region. The purpose of this paper is to review all available literature on the issue of air pollution in Arab countries due to combustion of fossil fuel coming from mobile sources and petroleum gas flaring in order to present the dire situation of the air quality in Arab countries. The report is organized based on certain factors which make the transport sector , power plants and associated gas flaring are significan t polluters of the air in the Arab region. We present a brief introduction to the composition of the transport sector in most of Arab countries and the forms of emissions resulting from it, then the report continues with the explanation of the major impact s that old - aged machines like automobiles, old petroleum production technology and old electrical energy plants technology have in terms of causing air pollution in these countries and thus; making them very inefficient and also very harmful towards the en vironment in most of Arab countries. In this paper also we have used the statistical data during the years 2005 - 2008 in terms of air pollution in most of Arab countries compared with each other. We have taken for study six largest air polluting agents th at are accepted by international organizations such as NAAQS (Air Quality Standards National Environmental, EPA (Environmental Protection Agency of U.S. and sometimes (USEPA, which today are used widely worldwide, and the WHO. The six pollutants are: CO - Carbon Mono - oxide, Ozone O3, at the lower atmospheric layers, Pb - lead, SO2, sulfur dioxide, PM10 (and in some cases PM2.5 – particles of dust, and NO2 - nitrogen oxide. In the present study is analyzed also the ways of reducing the environmental pollution by emissions of gases that cause mobile engines in urban areas. In the study is given changes in emissions of gases depending on the improvement of mobile construction, according to years of production, in accordance with the requirements established by the legislation of EU countries and mobile manufactures. The level of emissions from automobile engines in the city of Tabuk (Saudi - Arabia, for all types of engines is taken as examples to be measured and examined according to the years of production. It ’s found that changing the structure vehicle inserted in use for automobiles of production after 1996, their pollution level decreases twice. Also in the study is analyzed the possibility of modifying the urban intersections with additional lanes before cr ucifixion to reduce the residence time of vehicles in traffic and reduce environmental pollution to two times. Furthermore, we analyze the issue of the low quality fuel being used in some of these countries which increases the emissions of harmful waste gases. Moreover, this paper also presents the issue(s of the lack of legal control which further enables mobile sources to circulate without catalytic converters.

  6. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, mixed proton/electron conductivity and hydrogen transport was measured as a function of metal phase content for a range of ceramic/metal (cermet) compositions. It was found that optimum performance occurred at 44 wt.% metal content for all compositions tested. Although each cermet appeared to have a continuous metal phase, it is believed that hydrogen transport increased with increasing metal content partially due to beneficial surface catalyst characteristics resulting from the metal phase. Beyond 44 wt.% there was a reduction in hydrogen transport most likely due to dilution of the proton conducting ceramic phase. Hydrogen separation rates for 1-mm thick cermet membranes were in excess of 0.1 mL/min/cm(sup 2), which corresponded to ambipolar conductivities between 1 x 10(sup -3) and 8 x 10(sup -3) S/cm. Similar results were obtained for multiphase ceramic membranes comprised of a proton-conducting perovskite and electron conducting metal oxide. These multi-phase ceramic membranes showed only a slight improvement in hydrogen transport upon addition of a metal phase. The highest hydrogen separation rates observed this quarter were for a cermet membrane containing a hydrogen transport metal. A 1-mm thick membrane of this material achieved a hydrogen separation rate of 0.3 mL/min/cm(sup 2) at only 700 C, which increased to 0.6 mL/min/cm(sup 2) at 950 C

  7. Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/01

    1980-06-01

    This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985 and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands are forecast as well as the impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration using a set of energy technology assumptions. (DMC)

  8. Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/03

    1980-06-01

    This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985, 2000, and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands and impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration are forecast using a set of energy technology assumptions.

  9. South Korea's nuclear fuel industry

    March 1990 marked a major milestone for South Korea's nuclear power program, as the country became self-sufficient in nuclear fuel fabrication. The reconversion line (UF6 to UO2) came into full operation at the Korea Nuclear Fuel Company's fabrication plant, as the last step in South Korea's program, initiated in the mid-1970s, to localize fuel fabrication. Thus, South Korea now has the capability to produce both CANDU and pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. This article covers the nuclear fuel industry in South Korea-how it is structures, its current capabilities, and its outlook for the future

  10. Current status of U.S. coal utilization and non-fuel uses of fossil fuels

    An understanding of the current situation is important for projecting the future direction of coal utilization. The world's annual consumption of coal in 1995 was 5104.01 million short tons (MST, 1 short ton = 0.907 metric ton). Coal plays a very important role in the US energy supply; US coal production in 1995 totaled 1033 MST, including 611.1 MST of bituminous coal, 328.4 MST of subbituminous coal, 86.1 MST of lignite, and 4.1 MST of anthracite. US coal consumption totaled 940.6 MST, with 88.1% in electric utilities, 3.5% in coke plants, 7.8% for other industrial uses, and only 0.6% in the residential and commercial sectors. The amount of fossil resources used for non-fuel purposes accounted for 8.4% of the total annual consumption in 1995. Non-fuel uses of fossil fuels particularly coal may become more important in the future. The demonstrated coal reserves in the world are large enough for consumption for over 220 years at the 1995 level, while proven oil reserves are only about 40 times the world's 1995 consumption level. Coal has several positive attributes when considered as a feedstock for aromatic chemicals, specialty chemicals, and carbon-based materials. Existing nonfuel uses of coals include (1) high temperature carbonization of bituminous and subbituminous coals to make metallurgical coke; (2) gasification of coal to make synthesis gases and other chemicals; (3) use of coal in manufacturing other materials such as activated carbons, carbon molecular sieves (CMS) and production of phosphorus (phosphoric acid); (4) the use of coal tars from carbonization and gasification for making aromatic and phenolic chemicals; (5) the use of coal tar pitch for making carbon fibers and activated carbon fibers; and (6) other non-fuel products derived from coal including combustion by-products. Coal may become more important both as an energy source and as the source of chemical feedstocks in the 21st century

  11. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation

    Vortex has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation'' program with the Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and will not leach to the environment--as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC system design. This topical report will present a summary of the activities conducted during Phase 1 of the ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation'' program. The report includes the detail technical data generated during the experimental program and the design and cost data for the preliminary Phase 2 plant

  12. Geochemical controls of vanadium accumulation in fossil fuels

    Breit, G.N.; Wanty, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    High vanadium contents in petroleum and other fossil fuels have been attributed to organic-matter type, organisms, volcanic emanations, diffusion of sea water, and epigenetic enrichment. However, these factors are inadequate to account for the high abundance of vanadium in some fossil fuels and the paucity in others. By examining vanadium deposits in sedimentary rocks with sparse organic matter, constraints are placed on processes controlling vanadium accumulation in organic-rich sediments. Vanadium, as vanadate (V(V)), entered some depositional basins in oxidizing waters from dry, subaerial environments. Upon contact with organic matter in anoxic waters, V(V) is reduced to vanadyl (V(IV)), which can be removed from the water column by adsorption. H2S reduces V(IV) to V(III), which hydrolyzes and precipitates. The lack of V(III) in petroleum suggests that reduction of V(IV) to V(III) is inhibited by organic complexes. In the absence of strong complexing agents, V(III) forms and is incorporated in clay minerals.

  13. Geochemical controls on vanadium accumulation in fossil fuels

    Breit, G.N.; Wanty, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    High vanadium contents in petroleum and other fossil fuels have been attributed to organic-matter type, organisms, volcanic emanations, diffusion of sea water, and epigenetic enrichment. However, these factors are inadequate to account for the high abundance of vanadium in some fossil fuels and the paucity in others. By examining vanadium deposits in sedimentary rocks with sparse organic matter, constraints are placed on processes controlling vanadium accumulation in organic-rich sediments. Vanadium, as vanadate (V(V)), entered some depositional basins in oxidizing waters from dry, subaerial environments. Upon contact with organic matter in anoxic waters, V(V) is reduced to vanadyl (V(IV)), which can be removed from the water column by adsorption. H2S reduces V(IV) to V(III), which hydrolyzes and precipitates. The lack of V(III) in petroleum suggests that reduction of V(IV) to V(III) is inhibited by organic complexes. In the absence of strong complexing agents, V(III) forms and is incorporated in clay minerals.

  14. Fossil fuels and climate protection: the carbon logic

    Preventing dangerous climate change will involve limiting both the rate and magnitude of climate change over the next century to levels that natural and human systems can tolerate without significant damage. This report shows the implications for overall fossil fuel use, in the form of a 'carbon budget', over the next century if the global community is to prevent dangerous climate change. It is demonstrated that it is only possible to burn a small fraction of the total oil, coal and gas that has already been discovered, if such dangerous changes are to be avoided. Even the reserves of fossil fuels that are considered economic to recover now, with no advances in technology, are far greater than the total allowable 'carbon budget'. This conclusion is shown to be robust to a wide range of assumptions about how sensitive the climate is to human interference, and the levels of change that might be considered unacceptable or dangerous. Comparison of the 'carbon budget' with projections of possible future energy sources nevertheless suggests that such a target is both technically and economically feasible. 17 figs., 23 tabs

  15. Fossil fuels and climate protection. The carbon logic

    Preventing dangerous climate change will involve limiting both the rate and magnitude of climate change over the next century to levels that natural and human systems can tolerate without significant damage. This report shows the implications for overall fossil fuel use, in the form of a 'carbon budget', over the next century if the global community is to prevent dangerous climate change. It is demonstrated that it is only possible to burn a small fraction of the total oil, coal and gas that has already been discovered, if such dangerous changes are to be avoided. Even the reserves of fossil fuels that are considered economic to recover now, with no advances in technology, are far greater than the total allowable 'carbon budget'. This conclusion is shown to be robust to a wide range of assumptions about how sensitive the climate is to human interference, and the levels of change that might be considered unacceptable or dangerous. Comparison of the 'carbon budget' with projections of possible future energy sources nevertheless suggests that such a target is both technically and economically feasible.

  16. Depletion of fossil fuels and the impacts of global warming

    This paper combines the theory of optimal extraction of exhaustible resources with the theory of greenhouse externalities, to analyze problems of global warming when the supply side is considered. The optimal carbon tax will initially rise but eventually fall when the externality is positively related to the stock of carbon in the atmosphere. It is shown that the tax will start falling before the stock of carbon in the atmosphere reaches its maximum. If there exists a non-polluting backstop technology, it will be optimal to extract and consume fossil fuels even when the price of fossil fuels is equal to the price of the backstop. The total extraction is the same as when the externality is ignored, but in the presence of the greenhouse effect, it will be optimal to slow the extraction and spread it over a longer period. If, on the other hand, the greenhouse externality depends on the rate of change in the atmospheric stock of carbon, the evolution of the optimal carbon tax is more complex. It can even be optimal to subsidize carbon emissions to avoid future rapid changes in the stock of carbon, and therefore future damages. 22 refs., 3 figs

  17. Health effects of fossil-fuel combustion products: needed research

    1980-01-01

    An examination is made of the research needed to expand and clarify the understanding of the products of fossil-fuel combustion, chiefly that taking place in stationary sources of power. One of the specific objectives that guided the study on which this report is based was to identify the pollutants potentially hazardous to man that are released into the environment in the course of the combustion of fossil fuels. The hazards of principal concern are those which could cause deleterious, long-term somatic and genetic effects. Another objective was to specify the nature of the research needed to determine the health effects of these pollutants on the general population. Special attention was paid to the interaction of pollutants; the meteorologic and climatic factors that affect the transport, diffusion, and transformation of pollutants; the effects of concentrations of aerosol, particulate, and thermal loads on biologic systems; and the susceptibility of some portions of the population to the effects of pollutants on the skin and cardiovascular, pulmonary, and urinary systems. Other objectives were to evaluate the methods of the proposed research, including analytic and interpretation techniques, to identify fields in which the available scientific information is inadequate for regulatory decision-making and to recommend a research program to meet those deficiencies, and to provide a logical framework within which the necessary information can be developed (the proposed program is presented in terms of subject, methods, and priorities).

  18. BIOSORPTION VANADIUM RECOVERY FROM FOSSIL FUEL POWER PLANT WASTEWATER

    K. Imandel

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel power plant is one of the most important sources of environmental pollution of the vanadium toxic metal. This survey showed that the Penicilium austuranium is the best microorganism for biosorption of vanadium isolated from environment of fossil fuel power plant. To determine the optimum pH and most biosorption and accumulation of vanadium by these fungi, power plants wastewater, passed through a cylindrical laboratory vessel, containing a great mass of this microorganism. When the concentration of 1000 ppm vanadium solution with 120 m1/h speeds, was passed through the above mentioned container, after 10 min, the laboratory experiment showed that the absorption was 100% and by the concentration, the time, was reduced. The best biosorption occurred with pH lower than 2, because vanadium acted as a cationic element, but in pH more than 2, vanadium was adsorbed to the cell fungi as anionic element and the sorption reduced. The alkaline condition stopped the vanadium sorption on the outer surface of the fungi. For isolation and recovery of vanadium, one can use water from distributed water supply networks.

  19. Fuel Efficiency in Truck Industry

    Ştefan Farkas

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports range of activities and offer information regarding activities performed at Paccar Inc. truck’s plant in order to reduce of fuel consumption in truck industry. There are six major areas investigated: Aerodynamics, Component Spec’ing, Advanced Technology, Route Management, Driver Behaviour, Proper Maintenance. New technologies to improve vehicle fuel efficiency are also reported.

  20. Climate Policies in a Fossil Fuel Producing Country - Demand Versus Supply Side Policies

    Taran FÆHN; Hagem, Cathrine; Lindholt, Lars; Mæland, Ståle; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2014-01-01

    In absence of joint global action, many jurisdictions take unilateral steps to reduce carbon emissions, and the usual strategy is to restrict domestic demand for fossil fuels. The impact on global emissions of such demand side policies is found by accounting for carbon leakage, i.e. changes in emissions abroad induced by the domestic action. Another domestic option for fossil fuel producers, that is yet not well explored, is to reduce own supply of fossil fuels, again accounting for leakages....

  1. Research support on foreign funding of fossil fuel and alternative energy r&d. Final report

    Fedor, H.; Garian, R.

    1994-11-01

    A compendium of open-source materials for the period 1989-94, on fossil fuel and alternative energy research and development funding in selected industrialized countries. The information is presented in two types of tables: those showing the expenditures of all the countries and those showing expenditures of a single country over a given period of time. Sources of information are mainly from the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and materials provided by ministries, statistical bureaus, embassies, and public organizations of various countries.

  2. The fossil episode

    Hassler, John; Sinn, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    We build a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model with one-sided substitutability between fossil carbon and biocarbon. One shock only, the discovery of the technology to use fossil fuels, leads to a transition from an initial pre-industrial phase to three following phases: a pure fossil carbon phase, a mixed fossil and biocarbon phase and an absorbing biocarbon phase. The increased competition for biocarbon during phase 3 and 4 leads to increasing food prices. We provide closed form exp...

  3. Possible future environmental issues for fossil fuel technologies. Final report

    Attaway, L.D.

    1979-07-01

    The work reported here was carried out for the Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy to identify and assess 15 to 20 major environmental issues likely to affect the implementation of fossil energy technologies between 1985 and 2000. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; and true and modified in situ oil shale retorting. Environmental analysis of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. The 16 environmental issues identified as those most likely for future regulatory actions and the main features of, and the possible regulatory actions associated with, each are as follows: disposal of solid waste from coal conversion and combustion technologies; water consumption by coal and oil shale conversion technologies; siting of coal conversion facilities; the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect; emission of polycyclic organic matter (POM); impacts of outer continental shelf (OCS) oil development; emission of trace elements; groundwater contamination; liquefied natural gas (LNG), safety and environmental factors; underground coal mining - health and safety; fugitive emissions from coal gasification and liquefaction - health and safety; boomtown effects; emission of fine particulates from coal, oil and oil shale technologies; emission of radioactivity from the mining and conversion of coal; emission of nitrogn oxides; and land disturbance from surface mining. (LTN)

  4. Regulatory taxation of fossil fuels. Theory and policy

    Research on energy taxation is often based on purely theoretical deductions. This paper stays closer to the real world, using empirical data and interpreting results in a political-economic setting of risk and uncertainty. Economic growth in developing countries will boost energy demand, increasing the risk of shortages of oil and natural gas half-way through the next century, and of coal towards the year 2100. Furthermore, there is mounting evidence that emissions of CO2 trigger harmful climate changes. A timely introduction of regulatory taxes will reduce demand for fossil fuels and accelerate the introduction of sustainable technology. The empirical results presented show, moreover, that such taxes may claim a substantial part of the rent on energy extraction for the energy-importing countries. It is argued that optimal control and the avoidance of displacement effects require a tax affecting marginal use, with exceptions to safeguard competitive positions. Exceptions may be scaled down as the jurisdiction is enlarged

  5. Optimized evaluation of aging fossil-fueled power plants

    The continued use of aging fossil-fueled power plants presents a number of unique challenges to utilities worldwide. To confront these challenges has required the simultaneous development of engineering methods and of strategic and planning approaches. New viewpoints and new tools have been required to assess the condition of existing equipment and to predict expected performance of older units. This paper reviews the recent evolution of methods for optimized use of older plants, both for the assessment of individual components and for cost-effective and integrated planning. The present state of understanding, current trends, implications, and lessons learned from a three-year demonstration project that included 10 US and Canadian utilities are discussed. (author)

  6. New Optimal Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications

    John Coggin; Jonas Ivasauskas; Russell G. May; Michael B. Miller; Rena Wilson

    2006-09-30

    Accomplishments during Phase II of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring. During this program work period, major progress has been experienced in the development of the sensor hardware, and the planning of the system installation and operation. The major focus of the next work period will be the installation of sensors in the Hamilton, Ohio power plant, and demonstration of high-temperature strain gages during mechanical testing of SOFC components.

  7. Progress performance report of clean uses of fossil fuels

    1992-09-01

    A one-year USDOE/EPSCOR Traineeship Grant, entitled ``Clean Uses of Fossil Fuels.`` was awarded to the Kentucky EPSCoR Committee in September 1991 and administered through the the DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee. Ten Traineeships were awarded to doctoral students who are enrolled or accepted into Graduate Programs at either the University of Kentucky or the University of Louisville. The disciplines of these students include Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Physics. The methods used for a statewide proposal solicitation and to award the Traineeships are presented. The review panel and Kentucky DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee involved in awarding the Traineeships are described. A summary of the proposed research to be performed within these awards is presented, along with a description of the qualifications of the faculty and students who proposed projects. Future efforts to increase participation in Traineeship proposals for the succeeding funding period are outlined.

  8. Progress performance report of clean uses of fossil fuels

    Todd, Jr., Lee T.; Boggess, Ronald J.; Carson, Ronald J.; Falkenberg, Virginia P.; Flanagan, Patrick; Hettinger, Jr., William P.; Kimel, Kris; Kupchella, Charles E.; Magid, Lee J.; McLaughlin, Barbara; Royster, Wimberly C.; Streepey, Judi L.; Wells, James H.; Stencel, John; Derbyshire, Frank J.; Hanley, Thomas R.; Magid, Lee J.; McEllistrem, Marc T.; Riley, John T.; Steffen, Joseph M.

    1992-01-01

    A one-year USDOE/EPSCOR Traineeship Grant, entitled Clean Uses of Fossil Fuels.'' was awarded to the Kentucky EPSCoR Committee in September 1991 and administered through the the DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee. Ten Traineeships were awarded to doctoral students who are enrolled or accepted into Graduate Programs at either the University of Kentucky or the University of Louisville. The disciplines of these students include Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Physics. The methods used for a statewide proposal solicitation and to award the Traineeships are presented. The review panel and Kentucky DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee involved in awarding the Traineeships are described. A summary of the proposed research to be performed within these awards is presented, along with a description of the qualifications of the faculty and students who proposed projects. Future efforts to increase participation in Traineeship proposals for the succeeding funding period are outlined.

  9. Greenhouse effect and the fuel fossil burning in Brazil

    In Brazil, the global energy consumption per inhabitant is low and the fraction of renewable energy is high, which represents an advantage in terms of gas released. On the other hand the burning in the Amazon Region releases more greenhouse gases than fossil fuel combustion. This article, considering trends in the energy consumption by different economic sectors, discusses the greenhouse effect and its repercussion in energy planning. As known the energy generation process is in great part responsible for the emission of CO2, the main anthropogenic gas which causes the greenhouse effect. A comparison of the brazilian case with other studies from developed countries was made to show the advantages and disadvantages of the adopted energetic solution. Carbon emissions were calculated in different scenarios leading to same interesting conclusions. (B.C.A.)

  10. Aromatic nitrogen compounds in fossil fuels: a potential hazard

    Ho, C H; Clark, B R; Guerin, M R; Ma, C Y; Rao, T K

    1979-01-01

    To achieve energy independence in the United States, converting coal to oil or extracting oil from shale will be required. Before commercial scale fossil fuel conversion facilities become a reality, chemical and biological studies of currently available synfuel samples derived from coal or shale are urgently needed in order to determine what the potential health problems, such as from occupational exposure, might be. Aromatic nitrogen compounds such as basic aza-arenes, neutral aza-arenes, and aromatic amines are considered environmentally important and several members of these classes of compounds possess biological activity. For example, dibenz(a,h)acridine, 7 H-dibenzo(c,g)carbazole, and 2-naphthylamine, are well known as carcinogens. The methods used to isolate the basic aromatic nitrogen compounds and neutral aza-arenes from one shale oil and one coal-derived oil are discussed. The mutagenic activities of these fractions, based on the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test, are compared.

  11. GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM FOSSIL FUELS AND BIOMASS COMBUSTION IN SMALL HEATING APPLIANCES

    Daniele Dell'Antonia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of emission control has increased sharply due to the increased need of energy from combustion. However, biomass utilization in energy production is not free from problems because of physical and chemical characteristics which are substantially different from conventional energy sources. In this situation, the quantity and quality of emissions as well as used renewable sources as wood or corn grain are often unknown. To assess this problem the paper addresses the objectives to quantify the amount of greenhouse gases during the combustion of corn as compared to the emissions in fossil combustion (natural gas, LPG and diesel boiler. The test was carried out in Friuli Venezia Giulia in 2006-2008 to determine the air pollution (CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2 and CO2 from fuel combustion in family boilers with a power between 20-30 kWt. The flue gas emission was measured with a professional semi-continuous multi-gas analyzer, (Vario plus industrial, MRU air Neckarsulm-Obereisesheim. Data showed a lower emission of fossil fuel compared to corn in family boilers in reference to pollutants in the flue gas (NOx, SO2 and CO. In a particular way the biomass combustion makes a higher concentration of carbon monoxide (for an incomplete combustion because there is not a good mixing between fuel and air and nitrogen oxides (in relation at a higher content of nitrogen in herbaceous biomass in comparison to another fuel.

  12. Nuclear power as a substitute for fossil fuels

    The challenge in energy policy is to reduce CO2 emissions and the worlds dependence on oil while satisfying a substantially increased demand for energy. Putting aside the still-speculative possibility of sequestering carbon dioxide, this challenge reduces to that of using energy more efficiently and finding substitutes for fossil fuels. Alternatives to fossil fuels fall into two broad categories: Renewable sources. Most of these sources-including hydroelectric power, wind power, direct solar heating, photovoltaic power, and biomass-derive their energy ultimately from the Sun and will not be exhausted during the next billion years. Geothermal energy and tidal energy are also renewable, in this sense, although they do not rely on the sun. However, there is almost an inverse correlation between the extent to which the source b now being used and the size of the potentially trap able resource. Thus, expansion of hydroelectric power (which is substantially used) is constricted by limited sites and environmental objections, whereas wind (for which the resource is large) is as yet less used and thus is not fully proven as a large-scale contributor. Nuclear sources. The two nuclear possibilities are fission and fusion. The latter would be inexhaustible for all practical purposes, but developing an effective fusion system remains an uncertain hope. Fission energy would also have an extremely long time span if breeder reactors arc employed, but with present-day reactors limits on uranium (or thorium) resources could be an eventual problem. At present, fission power faces problems of public acceptance and economic competitiveness. The broad alternatives of renewable energy and nuclear energy can be considered as being in competition, with one or the other to be the dominant choice, or complementary, with both being extensively employed

  13. Renewable and nuclear sources of energy reduce the share of fossil fuels

    In this paper author presents a statistical data use of nuclear energy, renewable sources and fossil fuels in the share of energy production in the Slovak Republic. It is stated that use of nuclear energy and renewable sources reduce the share of fossil fuels.

  14. Renewable and nuclear sources of energy decreases of share of fossil fuels

    In this paper author presents a statistical data use of nuclear energy, renewable sources and fossil fuels in the share of energy production in the Slovak Republic. It is stated that use of nuclear energy and renewable sources decreases of share of fossil fuels.

  15. Forecasting production of fossil fuel sources in Turkey using a comparative regression and ARIMA model

    This study aims at forecasting the most possible curve for domestic fossil fuel production of Turkey to help policy makers to develop policy implications for rapidly growing dependency problem on imported fossil fuels. The fossil fuel dependency problem is international in scope and context and Turkey is a typical example for emerging energy markets of the developing world. We developed a decision support system for forecasting fossil fuel production by applying a regression, ARIMA and SARIMA method to the historical data from 1950 to 2003 in a comparative manner. The method integrates each model by using some decision parameters related to goodness-of-fit and confidence interval, behavior of the curve, and reserves. Different forecasting models are proposed for different fossil fuel types. The best result is obtained for oil since the reserve classifications used it is much better defined them for the others. Our findings show that the fossil fuel production peak has already been reached; indicating the total fossil fuel production of the country will diminish and theoretically will end in 2038. However, production is expected to end in 2019 for hard coal, in 2024 for natural gas, in 2029 for oil and 2031 for asphaltite. The gap between the fossil fuel consumption and production is growing enormously and it reaches in 2030 to approximately twice of what it is in 2000

  16. Environmental impacts and costs of nuclear and fossil fuel cycles

    Rational management of the environment requires knowledge of the costs of environmental impacts, as well as the extent to which these costs have not yet been internalized by market forces or by Government regulations. In recent years several estimates for the environmental costs of power generation have been published. The results of such studies show a wide divergence, often differing by several orders of magnitude for the same impacts. The reason lies not only in the uncertainties, but more importantly in the lack of uniformity of the hypotheses and methodologies. To give a firmer and more consistant basis to such studies, the Commission of the European Communities, in a cooperative program with the US Department of Energy is developing an accounting framework for the external costs of fuel cycles [ORNL/RFF 1994, EC 1995]. This program is based on the methodology of impact pathway analysis [also called damage function approach] applied with a common set of clearly stated assumptions. One traces the impact pathway for each pollutant or other burden, from the source to the receptor, and evaluates the damage both in physical and monetary units. This paper presents results for the production of electricity by the nuclear and fossil fuel cycles in France. The results are, however, indicative of other sites as well. This paper is a brief summary; details can be found in the full report. This field is rapidly evolving, and the reader who wants more complete information is advised to consult also the other studies of this type. (author)

  17. Comparative life cycle assessment of biodiesel and fossil diesel fuel

    Biofuels offer clear advantages in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, but do they perform better when we look at all the environmental impacts from a life cycle perspective. In the context of a demonstration project at the Flemish Institute for Technology Research (VITO) on the use of rapeseed methyl ester (RME) or biodiesel as automotive fuel, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of biodiesel and diesel was made. The primary concern was the question as to whether or not the biodiesel chain was comparable to the conventional diesel chain, from an environmental point of view, taking into account all stages of the life cycle of the two products. Additionally, environmental damage costs were calculated, using an impact pathway analysis. This paper presents the results of the two methods for evaluation of environmental impacts of RME and conventional diesel. Both methods are complementary and share the conclusion that although biodiesel has much lower greenhouse gas emissions, it still has significant impacts on other impact categories. The external costs of biodiesel are a bit lower compared to fossil diesel. For both fuels, external costs are significantly higher than the private production cost. (Author)

  18. Replacing fossil diesel by biodiesel fuel: expected impact on health.

    Hutter, Hans-Peter; Kundi, Michael; Moshammer, Hanns; Shelton, Janie; Krger, Bernd; Schicker, Irene; Wallner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels have become an alternative to fossil fuel, but consequences on human health from changes to emissions compositions are not well understood. By combining information on composition of vehicle exhaust, dispersion models, and relationship between exposure to air contaminants and health, the authors determined expected mortality outcomes in 2 scenarios: a blend of 10% biodiesel and 90% standard diesel (B10) and biodiesel only (B100), for a rural and an urban environment. Vehicle exhaust for both fuel compositions contained lower fine particle mass but higher NO2 levels. Ambient air concentrations in scenario B10 were almost unchanged. In scenario B100, PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 ?m) levels decreased by 4-8% and NO2 levels increased 7-11%. Reduction of PM2.5 is expected to reduce mortality rate by 5 10(-6) and 31 10(-6) per year, whereas NO2 increase adds 17 10(-6) and 30 10(-6) to mortality rate for B10 and B100, respectively. Since effects of PM2.5 and NO2 are not independent, a positive net effect is possible. PMID:24965323

  19. Environmental evidence of fossil fuel pollution in Laguna Chica de San Pedro lake sediments (Central Chile)

    This paper describes lake sediment spheroidal carbonaceous particle (SCP) profiles from Laguna Chica San Pedro, located in the Biobio Region, Chile (36o 51' S, 73o 05' W). The earliest presence of SCPs was found at 16 cm depth, corresponding to the 1915-1937 period, at the very onset of industrial activities in the study area. No SCPs were found at lower depths. SCP concentrations in Laguna Chica San Pedro lake sediments were directly related to local industrial activities. Moreover, no SCPs were found in Galletue lake (38o 41' S, 71o 17.5' W), a pristine high mountain water body used here as a reference site, suggesting that contribution from long distance atmospheric transport could be neglected, unlike published data from remote Northern Hemisphere lakes. These results are the first SCP sediment profiles from Chile, showing a direct relationship with fossil fuel consumption in the region. Cores were dated using the 21Pb technique. - The lake sediment record of SCPs shows the record of fossil-fuel derived pollution in Central Chile

  20. Preliminary carbon isotope measurements of fossil fuel and biogenic emissions from the Brazilian Southeastern region

    Oliveira, F. M.; Santos, G.; Macario, K.; Muniz, M.; Queiroz, E.; Park, J.

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have confirmed that the continuing global rising of atmospheric CO2 content is caused by anthropogenic CO2 contributions. Most of those contributions are essentially associated with burning of fossil fuels (coal, petroleum and natural gas). However, deforestation, biomass burning, and land use changes, can also play important roles. Researchers have showed that 14C measurements of annual plants, such as corn leaf (Hsueh et al. 2007), annual grasses (Wang and Pataki 2012), and leaves of deciduous trees (Park et al. 2013) can be used to obtain time-integrated information of the fossil fuel ration in the atmosphere. Those regional-scale fossil fuel maps are essential for monitoring CO2 emissions mitigation efforts and/or growth spikes around the globe. However, no current data from anthropogenic contributions from both biogenic and fossil carbon has been reported from the major urban areas of Brazil. Here we make use of carbon isotopes (13C and 14C) to infer sources of CO2 in the highly populated Brazilian Southeastern region (over 80 million in 2010). This region leads the country in population, urban population, population density, vehicles, industries, and many other utilities and major infrastructures. For a starting point, we focus on collecting Ipê leaves (Tabebuia, a popular deciduous tree) from across Rio de Janeiro city and state as well as Sao Paulo city during May/June of 2014 to obtain the regional distribution of 13C and 14C of those urban domes. So far, Δ14C range from -10 to 32‰, when δ13C values are running from -26 to -35‰. The result of these preliminary investigations will be presented and discussed.Hsueh et al. 2007 Regional patterns of radiocarbon and fossil fuel-derived CO2 in surface air across North America. Geophysical Research Letters. 34: L02816. doi:10.1029/2006GL027032 Wang and Pataki 2012 Drivers of spatial variability in urban plant and soil isotopic composition in the Los Angeles Basin. Plant and Soil 350: 323-338. Park et al. 2013 A Comparison of Distribution Maps of Δ14C of 2010 and 2011 in Korea. Radiocarbon, 55(2-3), 841-847.

  1. Depletion of fossil fuels and anthropogenic climate change—A review

    Future scenarios with significant anthropogenic climate change also display large increases in world production of fossil fuels, the principal CO2 emission source. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has also been identified as a future challenge. This chapter reviews the connection between these two issues and concludes that limits to availability of fossil fuels will set a limit for mankind's ability to affect the climate. However, this limit is unclear as various studies have reached quite different conclusions regarding future atmospheric CO2 concentrations caused by fossil fuel limitations. It is concluded that the current set of emission scenarios used by the IPCC and others is perforated by optimistic expectations on future fossil fuel production that are improbable or even unrealistic. The current situation, where climate models largely rely on emission scenarios detached from the reality of supply and its inherent problems are problematic. In fact, it may even mislead planners and politicians into making decisions that mitigate one problem but make the other one worse. It is important to understand that the fossil energy problem and the anthropogenic climate change problem are tightly connected and need to be treated as two interwoven challenges necessitating a holistic solution. - Highlights: ► Review of the development of emission scenarios. ► Survey of future fossil fuel trajectories used by the IPCC emission scenarios. ► Discussions on energy transitions in the light of oil depletion. ► Review of earlier studies of future climate change and fossil fuel limitations.

  2. Prevent the risk of climate change by taxing fossil fuels

    Of all the greenhouse gases, it is emissions of CO2 which most urgently require reduction. On the one hand, given the very long lifetime of this gas, its emissions are almost irreversible in character. On the other hand, the measures to be taken concern technological choices, and choices in matters of planning and land use, which are not easily reversible either. It would be very costly, later on, to go back on decisions we make in the coming years without taking into account the risk of climate change. We will only be able to stabilize the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere if we are able to reduce present emissions by 60 per cent. The challenge to humanity is considerable, since this reduction in emissions has to be achieved despite the forecast doubling of the world's population. We must organize ourselves both to stabilize the world's forests (reforestation in certain regions compensating for the inevitable deforestation elsewhere), and to reduce by 25 per cent the average consumption of fossil fuel per inhabitant. Such a radical reorientation of our habits in the consumption of fossil energy does not seem to me technically unreachable, and it will not cause widespread ruin if we manage to optimize its organization. Preventive work will only be effective if it is made on a planetary scale. It will only be undertaken if we are able to share the burden fairly between the various countries; and it will not be ruinous if we manage to decentralize necessary initiatives, so that the least costly methods are undertaken everywhere from the outset. (author)

  3. Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India. Part 1 - Fossil fuel combustion

    A comprehensive, spatially resolved (0.25o x 0.25o) fossil fuel consumption database and emissions inventory was constructed, for India, for the first time. Emissions of sulphur dioxide and aerosol chemical constituents were estimated for 1996-1997 and extrapolated to the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) study period (1998-1999). District level consumption of coal/lignite, petroleum and natural gas in power plants, industrial, transportation and domestic sectors was 9411 PJ, with major contributions from coal (54%) followed by diesel (18%). Emission factors for various pollutants were derived using India specific fuel characteristics and information on combustion/air pollution control technologies for the power and industrial sectors. Domestic and transportation emission factors, appropriate for Indian source characteristics, were compiled from literature. SO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion for 1996-1997 were 4.0Tg SO2yr-1, with 756 large point sources (e.g. utilities, iron and steel, fertilisers, cement, refineries and petrochemicals and non-ferrous metals), accounting for 62%. PM2.5 emitted was 0.5 and 2.0Tgyr-1 for the 100% and the 50% control scenario, respectively, applied to coal burning in the power and industrial sectors. Coal combustion was the major source of PM2.5 (92%) primarily consisting of fly ash, accounting for 98% of the 'inorganic fraction' emissions (difference between PM2.5 and black carbon + organic matter) of 1.6Tgyr-1. Black carbon emissions were estimated at 0.1Tgyr-1, with 58% from diesel transport, and organic matter emissions at 0.3Tgyr-1, with 48% from brick-kilns. Fossil fuel consumption and emissions peaked at the large point industrial sources and 22 cities, with elevated area fluxes in northern and western India. The spatial resolution of this inventory makes it suitable for regional-scale aerosol-climate studies. These results are compared to previous studies and differences discussed. Measurements of emission factors for Indian sources are needed to further refine these estimates. (Author)

  4. Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India: I—Fossil fuel combustion

    Reddy, M. Shekar; Venkataraman, Chandra

    A comprehensive, spatially resolved (0.25°×0.25°) fossil fuel consumption database and emissions inventory was constructed, for India, for the first time. Emissions of sulphur dioxide and aerosol chemical constituents were estimated for 1996-1997 and extrapolated to the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) study period (1998-1999). District level consumption of coal/lignite, petroleum and natural gas in power plants, industrial, transportation and domestic sectors was 9411 PJ, with major contributions from coal (54%) followed by diesel (18%). Emission factors for various pollutants were derived using India specific fuel characteristics and information on combustion/air pollution control technologies for the power and industrial sectors. Domestic and transportation emission factors, appropriate for Indian source characteristics, were compiled from literature. SO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion for 1996-1997 were 4.0 Tg SO 2 yr -1, with 756 large point sources (e.g. utilities, iron and steel, fertilisers, cement, refineries and petrochemicals and non-ferrous metals), accounting for 62%. PM 2.5 emitted was 0.5 and 2.0 Tg yr -1 for the 100% and the 50% control scenario, respectively, applied to coal burning in the power and industrial sectors. Coal combustion was the major source of PM 2.5 (92%) primarily consisting of fly ash, accounting for 98% of the "inorganic fraction" emissions (difference between PM 2.5 and black carbon+organic matter) of 1.6 Tg yr -1. Black carbon emissions were estimated at 0.1 Tg yr -1, with 58% from diesel transport, and organic matter emissions at 0.3 Tg yr -1, with 48% from brick-kilns. Fossil fuel consumption and emissions peaked at the large point industrial sources and 22 cities, with elevated area fluxes in northern and western India. The spatial resolution of this inventory makes it suitable for regional-scale aerosol-climate studies. These results are compared to previous studies and differences discussed. Measurements of emission factors for Indian sources are needed to further refine these estimates.

  5. Identifying the european fossil fuel plumes in the atmosphere over the northeast atlantic region through isotropic observations and numerical modelling

    Geels, C.; Christensen, J. H.; Hansen, Aksel Walle; Heinemeier, J.; Kiilsholm, S.; Larsen, N. W.; Larsen, S.E.; Pedersen, T.; Srensen, L. L.; Brandt, J.; Frohn, L. M.; Djurhuus, S.

    Atmospheric transport, C-14. fossil fuel CO_2, numerical modeling, the north East Atlantic Region Udgivelsesdato: 18 August......Atmospheric transport, C-14. fossil fuel CO_2, numerical modeling, the north East Atlantic Region Udgivelsesdato: 18 August...

  6. Identifying the European fossil fuel plumes in the atmosphere over the Northeast Atlantic Region through isotopic observations and numerical modelling

    Geels, C.; Christensen, J.H.; Hansen, A.W.; Heinemeier, J.; Kiilsholm, S.; Larsen, N.W.; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Pedersen, T.; Sørensen, L.L.; Brandt, J.; Frohn, L.M.; Djurhuus, S.

    Atmospheric transport, C-14. fossil fuel CO_2, numerical modeling, the north East Atlantic Region Udgivelsesdato: 18 August......Atmospheric transport, C-14. fossil fuel CO_2, numerical modeling, the north East Atlantic Region Udgivelsesdato: 18 August...

  7. Fossil fuels and clean, plentiful energy in the 21st century: The example of coal

    Jaccard, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Many people believe we must quickly wean ourselves from fossil fuels to save the planet from environmental catastrophe, wars and economic collapse. However, we have the technological capability to use fossil fuels without emitting climate-threatening greenhouse gases or other pollutants. The natural transition from conventional oil and gas to unconventional oil, unconventional gas and coal for producing electricity, hydrogen and cleaner-burning fuels will decrease energy dependence on politic...

  8. Unilateral mitigation of climate damage via purchase of fossil fuel deposits

    Pethig, Rüdiger; Eichner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In a multi-country model with interconnected markets for fossil fuel and deposits some countries fight climate damage by purchasing and preserving fossil fuel deposits, which would be exploited otherwise. We analyze the effectiveness of such a deposit policy, when that policy stands alone or is combined with fuel cap policies. If the stand-alone deposit policy is non-strategic, it implements the first-best allocation; otherwise, it distorts the allocation in the coalition s favor. Following H...

  9. Structural changes between models of fossil-fuel demand by steam-electric power plants

    Gerring, L.F.

    1984-01-01

    A consumption function for multi-fuel steam-electric power plants is used to investigate fossil-fuel demand behavior. The input consumption equations for a plant's primary and alternate fossil fuels are derived by Shepard's lemma from a generalized Cobb-Douglas cost function reflecting average variable cost minimization constrained by technology and the demand for electricity. These equations are estimated by primary and alternate fuel subsets with ordinary least squares and seemingly unrelated regression techniques for 1974, 1977, and 1980. The results of the regression analysis show the importance of consumer demand in the fossil fuel consumption decision; it has the only significant parameter in all of the estimated equations. The estimated own- and cross-price elasticities are small, when they are statistically significant. The results for the primary fuel equations are better than those for the alternate fuel equations in all of the fuel pair subsets.

  10. Engineering a Sustainable and Economically Active Future without Fossil Fuels

    A.J. Sangster

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The need for mankind to make the transition from a global civilisation powered by fossil fuels, to one powered by non-polluting sources of energy, is at last beginning to impinge on public awareness, now that the science of climate change is becoming established. Unfortunately, obfuscation and procrastination still exists, impeding progress to sustainability as vested interests are increasingly ‘muddying the waters’ by choosing to support technical ‘solutions/fixes’ of doubtful effectiveness. Among these technical fixes, considered in the paper, are carbon capture and storage, nuclear power and hydrogen. Given that the ‘window of opportunity’ to seriously address the carbon emissions problem is arguably just a few years, rather than a few decades, the only sensible, technically sound, and sustainable solution is a rapid and massive adoption of renewables. The key criterion of balancing the growing global demand for power, when the supply emanates from diverse, varied and widespread generation schemes, is examined in this paper, and is shown to be feasible.

  11. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation

    Vortec has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation'' program. The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment-as confirmed by both ANS 16.1 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and did not leach to the environment as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC subsystem design

  12. Mapping Biomass Availability to Decrease the Dependency on Fossil Fuels

    Steensen, T.; Mller, S.; Jandewerth, M.; Bscher, O.

    2014-09-01

    To decrease the dependency on fossil fuels, more renewable energy sources need to be explored. Over the last years, the consumption of biomass has risen steadily and it has become a major source for re-growing energy. Besides the most common sources of biomass (forests, agriculture etc.) there are smaller supplies available in mostly unused areas like hedges, vegetation along streets, railways, rivers and field margins. However, these sources are not mapped and in order to obtain their potential for usage as a renewable energy, a method to quickly assess their spatial distribution and their volume is needed. We use a range of data sets including satellite imagery, GIS and elevation data to evaluate these parameters. With the upcoming Sentinel missions, our satellite data is chosen to match the spatial resolution of Sentinel-2 (10-20 m) as well as its spectral characteristics. To obtain sub-pixel information from the satellite data, we use a spectral unmixing approach. Additional GIS data is provided by the German Digital Landscape Model (ATKIS Base-DLM). To estimate the height (and derive the volume) of the vegetation, we use LIDAR data to produce a digital surface model. These data sets allow us to map the extent of previously unused biomass sources. This map can then be used as a starting point for further analyses about the feasibility of the biomass extraction and their usage as a renewable energy source.

  13. OVERVIEW OF THE ROMANIAN FOSSIL FUEL MARKET BETWEEN 2002 AND 2012

    ALINA ZAHARIA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a context in which the energy needs seems to increase fast and the limited stocks of fossil fuels can generate negative impacts on human society, biodiversity and environment, the policy makers proposed several economic models for achieving sustainable development, like green economy, which appears to promote the necessity of decreasing fossil fuel consumption and of increasing energy savings. This paper aims to emphasize the evolution of fossil fuel market, and the electricity generated from fossil fuels since 2002, and especially after 2010, when in Romania were taken some measures for implementing the principles of green economy. In order to see their effects, this research presents an historical analysis for Romania based on the data obtained from European Commission and Romanian Institute of Statistics. The results indicate decreasing trends of primary energy production and consumption, and decreasing trends of electricity generation from fossil fuels due to the more and more use of renewable and nuclear energy sources. The results highlight the need of taking more actions in the energy sector by promoting even more the renewable energy production and consumption for reducing the fossil fuel use, and by promoting, also, a more efficient use of fossil fuel resources for a sustainable future.

  14. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions on the building/street scale for a large U.S. city.

    Gurney, Kevin R; Razlivanov, Igor; Song, Yang; Zhou, Yuyu; Benes, Bedrich; Abdul-Massih, Michel

    2012-11-01

    In order to advance the scientific understanding of carbon exchange with the land surface, build an effective carbon monitoring system, and contribute to quantitatively based U.S. climate change policy interests, fine spatial and temporal quantification of fossil fuel CO(2) emissions, the primary greenhouse gas, is essential. Called the "Hestia Project", this research effort is the first to use bottom-up methods to quantify all fossil fuel CO(2) emissions down to the scale of individual buildings, road segments, and industrial/electricity production facilities on an hourly basis for an entire urban landscape. Here, we describe the methods used to quantify the on-site fossil fuel CO(2) emissions across the city of Indianapolis, IN. This effort combines a series of data sets and simulation tools such as a building energy simulation model, traffic data, power production reporting, and local air pollution reporting. The system is general enough to be applied to any large U.S. city and holds tremendous potential as a key component of a carbon-monitoring system in addition to enabling efficient greenhouse gas mitigation and planning. We compare the natural gas component of our fossil fuel CO(2) emissions estimate to consumption data provided by the local gas utility. At the zip code level, we achieve a bias-adjusted Pearson r correlation value of 0.92 (p < 0.001). PMID:22891924

  15. High Efficiency Direct Carbon and Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Fossil Fuel Power Generation

    Steinberg, M; Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N

    2002-01-02

    Hydrogen he1 cells have been under development for a number of years and are now nearing commercial applications. Direct carbon fuel cells, heretofore, have not reached practical stages of development because of problems in fuel reactivity and cell configuration. The carbon/air fuel cell reaction (C + O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2}) has the advantage of having a nearly zero entropy change. This allows a theoretical efficiency of 100 % at 700-800 C. The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product do not change during consumption of the fuel. Consequently, the EMF is invariant; this raises the possibility of 100% fuel utilization in a single pass. (In contrast, the high-temperature hydrogen fuel cell has a theoretical efficiency of and changes in fuel activity limit practical utilizations to 75-85%.) A direct carbon fuel cell is currently being developed that utilizes reactive carbon particulates wetted by a molten carbonate electrolyte. Pure COZ is evolved at the anode and oxygen from air is consumed at the cathode. Electrochemical data is reported here for the carbon/air cell utilizing carbons derived from he1 oil pyrolysis, purified coal, purified bio-char and petroleum coke. At 800 O C, a voltage efficiency of 80% was measured at power densities of 0.5-1 kW/m2. Carbon and hydrogen fuels may be produced simultaneously at lugh efficiency from: (1) natural gas, by thermal decomposition, (2) petroleum, by coking or pyrolysis of distillates, (3) coal, by sequential hydrogasification to methane and thermal pyrolysis of the methane, with recycle of the hydrogen, and (4) biomass, similarly by sequential hydrogenation and thermal pyrolysis. Fuel production data may be combined with direct C and H2 fuel cell operating data for power cycle estimates. Thermal to electric efficiencies indicate 80% HHV [85% LHV] for petroleum, 75.5% HHV [83.4% LHV] for natural gas and 68.3% HHV [70.8% LHV] for lignite coal. Possible benefits of integrated carbon and hydrogen fuel cell power generation cycles are: (1) increased efficiency by a factor of up to 2 over many conventional fossil fuel steam plants, (2) reduced power generation cost, especially for increasing fossil fuel cost, (3) reduced CO2 emission per kWh, and (4) direct sequestration or reuse (e.g., in enhanced oil or NG recovery) of the CO{sub 2} product.

  16. 14C of grasses as an indicator of fossil fuel CO2 pollution

    Lichtfouse, Eric; Lichtfouse, Michel; Kashgarian, Michaele; Bol, Roland

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the amount of fossil fuel carbon stored in the vegetation is now crucial to understand the mechanisms ruling climate changes. In this respect, highly polluted areas such as major towns represent "natural" laboratories because fossil fuel CO2 (14C-free) is isotopically distinct from mean atmospheric CO2 (14C-labeled). Here, a 14C study of urban grasses near a major highway in Paris, France, shows that plants store up to 13% of fossil fuel carbon. 14C composition of urban grasses is t...

  17. Effects of New Fossil Fuel Developments on the Possibilities of Meeting 2C Scenarios

    Meindertsma, W.; Blok, K.

    2012-12-15

    Recent years have seen an increasing activity in developing new fossil fuel production capacity. This includes unconventional fossil fuels, such as tar sands and shale gas, fossil fuels from remote locations, and fossil fuels with a very large increase in production in the near future. In this report, the impact of such developments on our ability to mitigate climate change is investigated. Our inventory shows that the new fossil fuel developments currently underway consist of 29,400 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 260,000 million barrels of oil and 49,600 million tonnes of coal. The development of these new fossil fuels would result in emissions of 300 billion tonnes of CO2 -equivalent (CO2e) from 2012 until 2050. Until 2050, a 'carbon budget' of 1550 billion tonnes CO2e is still available if we want to of keep global warming below 2C with a 50% probability. For a 75% probability to stay below 2C this budget is only 1050 billion tonnes CO2e. So, the new fossil fuel developments identified in this report consume 20-33% of the remaining carbon budget until 2050. In a scenario where the new fossil fuels are developed, we need to embark on a rapid emission reductions pathway at the latest in 2019 in order to meet the 50% probability carbon budget. Avoiding the development of new fossil fuels will give us until 2025 to start further rapid emission reductions. These calculations are based on the assumption that the maximum emission reduction rate is 4% per year and that the maximum change in emission trend is 0.5 percentage point per year. The starting year for rapid emission reductions depends on the choice of these parameters. A sensitivity analysis shows that, in all cases, refraining from new fossil fuel development allows for a delay of 5 to 8 years before we should embark on a rapid emission reduction pathway. The high investments required for developing new fossil fuels lead to a lock in effect; once developed, these fossil fuels need to be exploited for several decades in order to recuperate investment costs. Since emission reductions need to start soon, i.e. within the next decade, recuperating these costs will be difficult. This will either lead to destruction of capital or not staying within the carbon budget.

  18. DEA approach for unified efficiency measurement: Assessment of Japanese fossil fuel power generation

    Sueyoshi, T.; Goto, M. [New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Management

    2011-03-15

    This study discusses a new DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) approach to measure the unified (operational and environmental) efficiency of energy firms. It is widely known that they produce not only desirable (good) outputs (e.g., electricity) but also undesirable (bad) outputs (e.g., CO{sub 2}) as a result of their plant operations. The proposed approach incorporates an output separation (desirable and undesirable outputs) for the performance evaluation of energy firms. In addition to the output separation, this study separates inputs into energy and non-energy inputs. Consequently, the proposed approach incorporates not only the output separation but also the input separation within a computational framework of DEA non-radial measurement. This study compares the proposed approach with other previous DEA approaches used for the performance evaluation of energy firms. After the methodological comparison, this study applies the proposed approach for measuring the unified efficiency of Japanese fossil fuel power generation. This empirical study confirms that the implementation of Kyoto Protocol (2005) has not been effective on the unified efficiency of Japanese fossil fuel power generation during the observed period (2004-2008). Although the empirical result is inconsistent with the current Japanese environmental policy under Kyoto Protocol, it contains policy implications for guiding the future direction of Japanese environmental policy on the electric power industry.

  19. Forecasting Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption for Power Generation Using QHSA-Based LSSVM Model

    Wei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate forecasting of fossil fuel energy consumption for power generation is important and fundamental for rational power energy planning in the electricity industry. The least squares support vector machine (LSSVM is a powerful methodology for solving nonlinear forecasting issues with small samples. The key point is how to determine the appropriate parameters which have great effect on the performance of LSSVM model. In this paper, a novel hybrid quantum harmony search algorithm-based LSSVM (QHSA-LSSVM energy forecasting model is proposed. The QHSA which combines the quantum computation theory and harmony search algorithm is applied to searching the optimal values of and C in LSSVM model to enhance the learning and generalization ability. The case study on annual fossil fuel energy consumption for power generation in China shows that the proposed model outperforms other four comparative models, namely regression, grey model (1, 1 (GM (1, 1, back propagation (BP and LSSVM, in terms of prediction accuracy and forecasting risk.

  20. Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Østergård, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Modern food production depends on limited natural resources for providing energy and fertilisers. We assess the fossil fuel dependency for the Danish food production system by means of Food Energy Returned on fossil Energy Invested (Food-EROI) and by the use of energy intensive nutrients from...

  1. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-07-13

    This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem.

  2. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology.

  3. The road to independence :a study of reducing fossil fuel import dependency for private land transport on Mauritius

    Paulen, Synnøve Lill

    2013-01-01

    Imported fossil fuels accounted for 83.8% of the primary energy demand on Mauritius in 2011. 36.4% of the fossil fuels imported were used in the transport sector. This thesis examines how Mauritius can reduce their import dependency on fossil fuels for private land transport by use of biofuels and electric vehicles. Nine models for possible fuel consumption in private land transport are used. These models are based on three different fuel intensities and three different average distances ...

  4. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 4: Energy from fossil fuels

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The conversion of fossil-fired power plants now burning oil or gas to burn coal is discussed along with the relaxation of air quality standards and the development of coal gasification processes to insure a continued supply of gas from coal. The location of oil fields, refining areas, natural gas fields, and pipelines in the U.S. is shown. The technologies of modern fossil-fired boilers and gas turbines are defined along with the new technologies of fluid-bed boilers and MHD generators.

  5. Fuel cells - an attractive option for use in industry. Brennstoffzellen - eine attraktive Option fuer Anwendungen in der Industrie

    Drenckhahn, W. (Siemens AG Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Erlangen (Germany)); Hassmann, K. (Siemens AG Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Erlangen (Germany)); Lezuo, A. (Siemens AG Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Erlangen (Germany))

    1994-09-01

    In energy generation, environmental loads caused by fossil fuels are one of the motivations for the development of effective processes, including new technologies. According to a present assessment, fuel cell engineering can reserve some niches in this decade from the point of view of costs. Technically almost mature is especially the phosphoric acid fuel cell. Its use may make sense in the industrial range, if as an industrial by-product hydrogen-rich gases are available, which can be used as fuel for the fuel cell. In the present contribution, an applied case is described and some statements on the engineering and cost-effectiveness are made. (orig.)

  6. Impact on food productivity by fossil fuel independence - A case study of a Swedish small-scale integrated organic farm

    Johansson, Sheshti [Dept. of Energy and Technology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Belfrage, Kristina [Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Olsson, Mats [Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    The large-scale industrial agriculture that provides the majority of food at present is dependent upon fossil fuels in the form of tractor fuel, mineral fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation. Yet, the age of cheap and abundant fossil fuels will likely come to an end within the coming decades. In this case study, the productivity of a small-scale farm (8 ha arable land, 5.5 ha meadow, 3.5 ha pasture and 18 ha forest) independent on fossil fuels by using organic methods and draught horse power was investigated. The aim was to quantify its productivity when the animal composition and possible alternatives to tractive power were varied. After an analysis of possible solutions, three scenarios for tractive power were selected: draught horse power, diesel tractor, and combination of draught horse power and rapeseed oil fueled tractor. A model that calculates the amount of food available at the farm in terms of meat, milk egg, and crops, converts it into energy units and calculates how many people can be supplied from the farm was developed. The most reasonable of the scenarios studied was when draught horse power was combined with tractor (and combine harvester) driven on locally produced rapeseed oil. Then the farm will have access to all advantages with the tractor and harvester, e.g., timeliness in harvest and lifting heavy loads, and the renewability and efficiency of draught horse power on smaller fields, and lighter operations. This system was able to support between 66 and 82 persons depending on crop yields, milk yields, meat production, fuel demand for the tractor, and availability of forest grazing. Most likely the production capacity lands on ability to support approximately 68 - 70 persons, and the farm may require fossil fuels to support more than 80 persons. If all farmland globally was to be operated with the same productivity, this would be enough for supplying the global population with food at present.

  7. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    Andres, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Bréon, F.-M.; Ciais, P.; Davis, S.; Erickson, D.; Gregg, Jay Sterling; Jacobson, A.; Marland, G.; Miller, J.; Oda, T.; Olivier, J.G.J.; Raupach, M.R.; Rayner, P.; Treanton, K.

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms...... uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or...... which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossilfuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon...

  8. ISLSCP II Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuels, Cement, and Gas Flaring

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration This data set contains decadal (1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990 and 1995) estimates of gridded fossil-fuel emissions, expressed in 1,000 metric tons C per year per one...

  9. ISLSCP II Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuels, Cement, and Gas Flaring

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains decadal (1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990 and 1995) estimates of gridded fossil-fuel emissions, expressed in 1,000 metric tons C per year per one...

  10. ISLSCP II Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuels, Cement, and Gas Flaring

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains decadal (1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990 and 1995) estimates of gridded fossil-fuel emissions, expressed in 1,000 metric tons C per...

  11. Screening potential social impacts of fossil fuels and biofuels for vehicles

    The generic social and socioeconomic impacts of various biofuels and fossil fuels were screened by applying Social Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Data were taken from the Social Hotspots Database on all categories for all the related themes and all indicators available. To limit the amount of data, only high and very high risk indicators were considered for each combination. The risks identified per life cycle phase were listed for each fuel assessed and the results were then aggregated by counting the number of high and very high risk indicators for that fuel. All the fossil fuels and biofuels analysed were found to display high or very high risks of negative impacts. Country of origin seemed to be of greater importance for risks than fuel type, as the most risk-related and least risk-related product systems referred to the same type of fuel, fossil oil from Russia/Nigeria and fossil oil from Norway, respectively. These results suggest that in developing policy, strict procurement requirements on social performance should be set for both fossil fuel and biofuel. However, the results must be interpreted with care owing to some limitations in the assessment, such as simplifications to life cycles, method used and data collection. - Highlights: • Both fossil and biofuels displayed high or very high risks of negative social impacts. • Social procurement requirements should be applied on all vehicle fuels. • Applying social criteria only on biofuels may be unfairly benefiting fossil fuels. • Social LCA can identify severe social impacts and influence policies accordingly. • Schemes can be adapted to include relevant criteria for specific fuels and/or origins

  12. Policy Surveillance in the G20 Fossil Fuel Subsidies Agreement: Lessons for Climate Policy

    Aldy, Joseph Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate policy surveillance has undermined the effectiveness of multilateral climate agreements. To illustrate an alternative approach to transparency, I evaluate policy surveillance under the 2009 G-20 fossil fuel subsidies agreement. The Leaders of the Group of 20 nations tasked their energy and finance ministers to identify and phase-out fossil fuel subsidies. The G-20 leaders agreed to submit their subsidy reform strategies to peer review and to independent expert review conducted by i...

  13. A revisit of fossil-fuel subsidies in China: Challenges and opportunities for energy price reform

    Highlights: • We measure fossil-fuel subsidies and effects of subsidy removal in a systematic fashion during 2006–2010. • Fossil-fuel subsidies scale of China was CNY 881.94 billion in 2010, equivalent to 2.59% of GDP. • Impacts of removing subsidies on macroeconomic variables are examined by the CGE model. • Future policy should focus on designing transparent, targeted and efficient energy subsidies. - Abstract: Fossil-fuel subsidies contribute to the extensive growth of energy demand and the related carbon dioxide emissions in China. However, the process of energy price reform is slow, even though China faces increasing problems of energy scarcity and environmental deterioration. This paper focuses on analyzing fossil fuel subsidies in China by estimating subsidies scale and the implications for future reform. We begin by measuring fossil-fuel subsidies and the effects of subsidy removal in a systematic fashion during 2006–2010 using a price-gap approach. Results indicate that the oil price reform in 2009 significantly reduced China’s fossil-fuel subsidies and modified the subsidy structure. Fossil-fuel subsidies scale in China was 881.94 billion CNY in 2010, which was lower than the amount in 2006, equivalent to 2.59% of the GDP. The macro-economic impacts of removing fossil-fuel subsidies are then evaluated by the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. Results demonstrate that the economic growth and employment will be negatively affected as well as energy demand, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions. Finally, policy implications are suggested: first, risks of government pricing of energy are far from negligible; second, an acceptable macroeconomic impact is a criterion for energy price reform in China; third, the future energy policy should focus on designing transparent, targeted and efficient energy subsidies

  14. Environmental Value of Draught Animals: Saving of Fossil-fuel and Prevention of Greenhouse Gas Emission

    Dikshit, A.K.; Birthal, Pratap Singh

    2010-01-01

    Animal energy is a renewable and sustainable source of energy. It is renewable because the animals can be reproduced by breeding and rearing the required number of animals. It is sustainable because the animals derive their energy for work largely from agricultural by-products. In addition, there are other environmental contributions of the working animal stock — consider replacing it by agricultural machinery run on fossil-fuel. Animal energy saves natural resources, fossil fuel and preven...

  15. Spatial inventory of GHG emissions from fossil fuels extraction and processing: An uncertainty analysis

    Halushchak, M.; Bun, R; Jonas, M; Topylko, P.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses bottom-up inventory analysis for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuels extraction and processing in Poland. The approaches to modelling geo-referenced cadastres of emissions from fossil fuels extraction and processing are described as well as methods of uncertainty reduction using the knowledge on spatial greenhouse gas emissions distribution. The results of GHG emissions spatial inventory contain the information on geographical coordinates of emission source...

  16. Children Are Likely to Suffer Most from Our Fossil Fuel Addiction

    Perera, Frederica P.

    2008-01-01

    Background The periods of fetal and child development arguably represent the stages of greatest vulnerability to the dual impacts of fossil fuel combustion: the multiple toxic effects of emitted pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, particles, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, metals) and the broad health impacts of global climate change attributable in large part to carbon dioxide released by fossil fuel burning. Objectives In this commentary I highlight current scientific evidence ind...

  17. Destabilizing Investment in the Americas. Public Funding for Fossil Fuels After Rio

    A summary is given of ongoing research by the Sustainable Energy and Economy Network into the financing of fossil fuel and renewables/energy efficiency by U.S. institutions and multilateral development banks in the Americas since 1992, the year of the last Earth Summit. These institutions have been key financers of many of the region's most destructive fossil fuel projects over the past decade

  18. Modelling renewable supply chain for electricity generation with forest, fossil, and wood-waste fuels

    In this paper, a multiple objective model to large-scale and long-term industrial energy supply chain scheduling problems is considered. The problems include the allocation of a number of fossil, peat, and wood-waste fuel procurement chains to an energy plant during different periods. This decision environment is further complicated by sequence-dependent procurement chains for forest fuels. A dynamic linear programming model can be efficiently used for modelling energy flows in fuel procurement planning. However, due to the complex nature of the problem, the resulting model cannot be directly used to solve the combined heat and electricity production problem in a manner that is relevant to the energy industry. Therefore, this approach was used with a multiple objective programming model to better describe the combinatorial complexity of the scheduling task. The properties of this methodology are discussed and four examples of how the model works based on real-world data and optional peat fuel tax, feed-in tariff of electricity and energy efficiency constraints are presented. The energy industry as a whole is subject to policy decisions regarding renewable energy production and energy efficiency regulation. These decisions should be made on the basis of comprehensive techno-economic analysis using local energy supply chain models. -- Highlights: → The energy policy decisions are made using comprehensive techno-economic analysis. → Peat tax, feed-in tariff and energy efficiency increases renewable energy production. → The potential of peat procurement deviates from the current assumptions of managers. → The dynamic MOLP model could easily be adapted to a changing decision environment.

  19. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL; Breon, F.-M. [CEA/DSM/LSCE, Gif sur Yvette, France; Ciais, P. [LSCE/CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Davis, S. [Carnegie Institution of Washington; Erickson, D [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gregg, J. S. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Marland, Gregg [Appalachian State University; Miller, J. [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Oda, T [NOAA ESRL/Boulder, CO/Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State Univ.; Oliver, J. G. J. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Raupach, Michael [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Rayner, P [University of Melbourne, Australia; Treanton, K. [Energy Statistics Division, International Energy Agency, Paris, France

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores 5 our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions 10 from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% 15 confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

  20. Co-contaminated sites: Biodegradation of fossil fuels in the presence of PCBs

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sites are often co-contaminated with fossil fuels making biodegradation of the fossil fuel components of two PCB-contaminated sites: (1) a former racing Drag Strip soil contaminated with Aroclor 1242 and (2) a sediment from Silver Lake contaminated with Aroclor 1260. The sandy surface soil at the Drag Strip site contains 1.9% organic carbon and 1.5% fossil fuel component. Analysis of the solvent-extractable organic fraction, by alumina column chromatography, shows the distribution of organics to be 91.2% hydrocarbons, 7.8% polars, and 1.1% asphaltenes. This oil is extremely weathered and contains few readily biodegradable components. Enrichments have yielded undefined mixed cultures of bacteria capable of extensive degradation of components of both the Drag Strip and Silver Lake site materials. One culture, enriched from a creosote-contaminated soil adjacent to a utility pole, transformed approximately 28% and 37% (by weight) of the Drag Strip and Silver Lake oils, respectively. While the presence of fossil fuels has been shown to inhibit aerobic PCB degradation, the studies show that the presence of PCBs negatively impacts fossil fuel biodegradation. Continuing studies will examine the nature of PCB inhibition of fossil fuel biodegradation

  1. An expanded review and comparison of greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel and geothermal electrical generating facilities

    This paper provides a review of the greenhouse gas emissions due to fossil fuel and geothermal electrical generation and to the emissions of their respective support activities. These support activities consist of, exploration, development, and transportation aspects of the fuel source, including waste management. These support activities could amount to an additional 6% for coal, 22% for oil, 13% for natural gas and 1% for geothermal. The presented methodologies and underlying principles can be used to better define the resultant emissions, rankings and global impacts of these electrical generating industries

  2. Studies on the effects of atmospheric contamination due to fossil-fuel combustion in Japan

    Epidemiological studies have been conducted since 1961 to investigate health effects of sulphur dioxide in industrial areas of Japan where fossil-fuel power stations are located. The dose-response relationship between prevalence rates of chronic bronchitis and sulphur dioxide was established. The annual value of sulphur dioxide concentrations estimated by the national network of air pollutant measurements decreased from the peak value of 0.059 ppm in 1967 to 0.017 ppm in 1978. However, the atmospheric concentration of nitrogen dioxide estimated by the national network indicated an annual value of 0.022 ppm in 1968, but the annual value in 1978 was slightly increased to 0.027 ppm. It was therefore considered important to study the health effects of nitrogen dioxide. In six different areas in Japan with varying atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, an extensive epidemiological survey was conducted with 12,717 school-children 6 to 12 years old during the period 1979 to 1981. The prevalence rate of asthma was estimated to be 4.7% for males and 2.1% for females in the high NO2 concentration area, and 1.9% for males and 0.9% for females in the low NO2 concentration area. For asthmalike symptoms, 12.2% for males and 11.9% for females was observed at the high NO2 concentration area, and 7.1% for males and 5.9% for females in the low NO2 concentration area. The natural radioactivity from fossil-fuel power plants as well as risk/benefit comparisons are also discussed. In decision-making on environmental protection and safety, it should be carefully considered whether a reduction of one type of risk might increase another type of risk. Not only the risk-reduction industries but also the construction and operation of the risk-reduction system may not be completely riskless

  3. Cost and performance of fossil fuel power plants with CO2 capture and storage

    CO2 capture and storage (CCS) is receiving considerable attention as a potential greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation option for fossil fuel power plants. Cost and performance estimates for CCS are critical factors in energy and policy analysis. CCS cost studies necessarily employ a host of technical and economic assumptions that can dramatically affect results. Thus, particular studies often are of limited value to analysts, researchers, and industry personnel seeking results for alternative cases. In this paper, we use a generalized modeling tool to estimate and compare the emissions, efficiency, resource requirements and current costs of fossil fuel power plants with CCS on a systematic basis. This plant-level analysis explores a broader range of key assumptions than found in recent studies we reviewed for three major plant types: pulverized coal (PC) plants, natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants, and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems using coal. In particular, we examine the effects of recent increases in capital costs and natural gas prices, as well as effects of differential plant utilization rates, IGCC financing and operating assumptions, variations in plant size, and differences in fuel quality, including bituminous, sub-bituminous and lignite coals. Our results show higher power plant and CCS costs than prior studies as a consequence of recent escalations in capital and operating costs. The broader range of cases also reveals differences not previously reported in the relative costs of PC, NGCC and IGCC plants with and without CCS. While CCS can significantly reduce power plant emissions of CO2 (typically by 85-90%), the impacts of CCS energy requirements on plant-level resource requirements and multi-media environmental emissions also are found to be significant, with increases of approximately 15-30% for current CCS systems. To characterize such impacts, an alternative definition of the 'energy penalty' is proposed in lieu of the prevailing use of this term

  4. Fossil and nuclear fuels. Future supply situation; Fossile und Nukleare Brennstoffe. Die kuenftige Versorgungssituation

    Zittel, Werner; Zerhausen, Jan; Zerta, Martin [Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik GmbH, Ottobrunn (Germany); Arnold, Nikolaus [Univ. fuer Bodenkultur, Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Sicherheits- und Risikowissenschaften

    2013-03-15

    The energy watch group is an international network of scientists and politicians providing studies concerning the shortage of fossil and nuclear energy carriers, scenarios for regenerative energy installation and strategies for assuring a long-term stable energy supply for acceptable prices. The study covers the topics crude oil (oil production, potentials for unconventional oil production, future oil supply), natural gas (USA, Europe, Russia, Middle East), coal, uranium and nuclear power.

  5. Environmental analysis of a Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant hybridised with different fossil and renewable fuels

    Corona Bellostas, Blanca; San Miguel Alfaro, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    The environmental performance of a 50 MW parabolic trough Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant hybridised with different fuels was determined using a Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Six different scenarios were investigated, half of which involved hybridisation with fossil fuels (natural gas, coal and fuel oil), and the other three involved hybridisation with renewable fuels (wheat straw, wood pellets and biogas). Each scenario was compared to a solar-only operation. Nine different environ...

  6. News from the fuel elements industry

    This article deals successively with: the re-structuring of the PWR fuel industry in France, with the setting up of Fragema and Cogema Framatome Combustible; Fragema products, from standard fuel assembly to the development of a new advanced fuel assembly; Framatome's experience with PWR fuel; fuel performances in the light of requirements imposed by network needs follow-up; devices developed by Fragema for on-site analysis of irradiated fuel

  7. The Fossil Fueled Metropolis: Los Angeles and the Emergence of Oil-Based Energy in North America, 1865--1930

    Cooke, Jason Arthur

    Beginning with coal in the nineteenth century, the mass production and intensive consumption of fossil fuel energy fundamentally changed patterns of urban and industrial development in North America. Focusing on the metropolitan development of Los Angeles, this dissertation examines how the emergence of oil-based capitalism in the first three decades of the twentieth century was sustained and made increasingly resilient through the production of urban and industrial space. In a region where coal was scarce, the development of oil-based energy was predicated on long-term investments into conversion technologies, storage systems and distribution networks that facilitated the efficient and economical flow of liquefied fossil fuel. In this dissertation, I argue that the historical and geographical significance of the Southern California petroleum industry is derived from how its distinctive market expansion in the first three decades of the twentieth century helped establish the dominance of oil-based energy as the primary fuel for transportation in capitalist society. In North America, the origins of oil-based capitalism can be traced to the turn of the twentieth century when California was the largest oil-producing economy in the United States and Los Angeles was the fastest growing metropolitan region. This dissertation traces how Los Angeles became the first city in North America where oil became a formative element of urban and industrial development: not only as fuel for transportation, but also in the infrastructures, landscapes and networks that sustain a critical dependence on oil-based energy. With a distinctive metropolitan geography, decentralized and automobile-dependent, Los Angeles became the first oil-based city in North America and thus provides an ideal case study for examining the regional dynamics of energy transition, establishment and dependence. Interwoven with the production of urban and industrial space, oil remains the primary fuel that sustains the capitalist mode of production.

  8. Energy analysis and break-even distance for transportation for biofuels in comparison to fossil fuels

    In the present analysis various forms fuel from biomass and fossil sources, their mass and energy densities, and their break-even transportation distances to transport them effectively were analyzed. This study gives an insight on how many times more energy spent on transporting the fuels to differe...

  9. Environmental Costs of Fossil Fuels : A Rapid Assessment Method with Application to Six Cities

    Lvovsky, Kseniya; Hughes, Gordon; Maddison, David; Ostro, Bart; Pearce, David

    2000-01-01

    Among the key external effects of fossil fuel contribution are urban air pollution, and changes in global climate. A study of six cities in developing countries, and transition economies estimates the magnitude of these effects, and, examines how various fuels, and pollution sources contribute to health damages, and other environmental costs. The study develops a simple, but robust method ...

  10. Hydrogen production from non-fossil fuel sources: understanding and improving efficiencies

    This paper describes hydrogen production from non-fossil fuel sources in order to reduce greenhouse gases. It examines energy areas such as hydrogen, nuclear and renewable energy sources and technologies such as thermal storage, hydrogen production, fuel cells, wind system and solar technology

  11. Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises.

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues. PMID:21942396

  12. Trends in research and development of advanced fossil fuel technologies for electric power generation

    Since the end of World War II, electrical generation has increased dramatically worldwide. Fossil fuels account presently for over 70% of the energy input for US electricity generation. Coal provides about three-fourths of the fossil fuel contribution. If no energy policy changes occur, by the year 2010 in the USA over three-fourths of all electricity generation will be fuelled by fossil fuels. As a corrective measure, a National Energy Strategy (NES) has been proposed that will change US energy policies by reducing the expected annual electricity requirements. The NES also forecasts a larger role for nuclear energy and for renewables for power generation needs, with less emphasis on the use of fossil fuels because expected growth in the use of fossil fuels raises concerns about possible health and environmental effects. The switch to new efficient and environmentally superior electricity generating technologies will permit growth while ensuring that the environment is protected. This paper provides an overview of the new advanced technologies for power generation. 10 figs

  13. Transport realization of high resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions in an urban domain

    Zhou, Y.; Gurney, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion are the largest net annual flux of carbon in the earth atmosphere system and energy consumption in urban environments is a major contributor to total fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding how the emissions are transported in space and time, especially in urban environments and resolving contributions from individual sources of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are an essential component of a complete reliable monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) system that are emerging at local, national, and international levels. As grid models are not designed to resolve concentrations on local scales, we tested the transport realization of fossil fuel CO2 emissions using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) model, a commonly used transport algorithm for small domain air quality studies, in the greater Indianapolis region, USA. A typical 24-hour point, mobile, and area sources fossil fuel CO2 emissions in four seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) were processed from hourly emissions data and prepared at 500-meter spatial resolution for the model inputs together with other parameters. The simulation result provides a complete 4-dimensional concentration matrix transported from all sources for the urban domain which can be analyzed in order to isolate individual sources or test sampling strategies for verification at selected time periods. In addition, the urban 4-dimensional concentration matrix can be visualized in a virtual environment, which provides a powerful education and outreach platform for researchers, students, and public.

  14. Risk assessment of atmospheric contamination due to combustion of fossil-fuels in Japan and possible application of fuzzy set

    For risk assessment of atmospheric contamination due to fossil-fuel combustion in Japan, epidemiological studies have been conducted since 1961. Health effects of sulfur dioxide in industrial areas of Japan where fossil-fuel power stations are located have been investigated. The dose-response relationship between prevalence rates of chronic bronchitis and sulphur dioxide was established. Various efforts have been made to reduce the concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere. However, the average concentration of NO2 tended to increase gradually. It was therefore considered important to study the health effects of nitrogen dioxide. In different areas of Japan with varying atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, an extensive epidemiological survey was conducted with over 10,000 school-children. The results of the survey indicate that the prevalence rates of asthma and wheezing were higher with the higher degree of air pollution, and that the indoor pollution is important. It is also attempted to compare hazard indices of the air-borne wastes from fossil-fuel power plants and those from nuclear power plants. The conventional pollutants seem to be much more important as compared with the radioactive releases under normal conditions of operation. The survey of stochastic effects with very small chances of occurrence was not attempted because of the great uncertainties and difficulties in identifying a small signal within a large noise. The possible application of the theory of Fuzzy Set for risk analysis is suggested

  15. Carry-over of fossil fuel impurities during processes of upgrading and utilization

    Environmental constraints on future fossil fuel utilization, e.g., requirements to minimize solid wastes and fugitive aerosol emissions including acidic components, require that additional information such as the trace element content of fuel stocks and the fate of trace components during processing for fuel extraction, up-grading and combustion, continue to be sought. Among the methods suited for fossil fuel trace analysis, the nuclear-based techniques. INAA, photon activation (IPAA) and PIXE have been adapted in this laboratory. Results obtained by several nuclear methods are compared in accuracy and application to coals and their derivative products and residues, including studies on pilot plant coal hydroliquefaction, and on Canadian coal fired electric generating units and to several Canadian peats. Results obtained for thermal coals and their ashes, synfuel and other heavy oil feedstocks are presented. The results indicate that appreciable fractions of Al, As, Ba, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, and the halogens are carried over into the liquid fuels and some tendency is seen for similar behavior among groups or families of elements which have distinctive associations with mineral components in fossil fuels. The capabilities of radioanalytical techniques to contribute to fossil fuel studies both at the research stage (such as pilot plant coal conversion) and at the full-scale level of thermal station power production are reviewed

  16. Zooplankton fecal pellets link fossil fuel and phosphate deposits

    Porter, K.G.; Robbins, E.I.

    1981-01-01

    Fossil zooplankton fecal pellets found in thinly bedded marine and lacustrine black shales associated with phosphate, oil, and coal deposits, link the deposition of organic matter and biologically associated minerals with planktonic ecosystems. The black shales were probably formed in the anoxic basins of coastal marine waters, inland seas, and rift valley lakes where high productivity was supported by runoff, upwelling, and outwelling. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  17. Fossil fuel biomarkers in plant waxes as pollution parameters

    Bryselbout, Carine; Henner, Pascale; Lichtfouse, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Hopane and sterane derivatives typical of highly mature sedimentary organic matter, e.g. petroleum, have been identified in several plant species growing near Nancy, France. Analyses of plant waxes by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry over a restricted mass interval (m/z 185-195) allows definition of pollution parameters based on the relative concentration of fossil hopanes versus modern plant n alkanes. Indeed, such parameters are higher for Pinus nigra growing along a high traffic highwa...

  18. Market power in the market for greenhouse gas emission permits :the interplay with the fossil fuel markets

    Hagem, Cathrine; MÆSTAD Ottar

    2002-01-01

    Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol is likely to leave Russia and other Eastern European countries with market power in the market for emission permits. Ceteris paribus, this will raise the permit price above the competitive permit price. However, Russia is also a large exporter of fossil fuels. A high price on emission permits may lower the producer price on fossil fuels. Thus, if Russia coordinates its permit market and fossil fuel market policies, market power will not necessarily lead to...

  19. TOWARDS A RESILIENT ENERGY SYSTEM IN EASTERN ROMANIA – FROM FOSSIL FUELS TO RENEWABLE SOURCES

    BĂNICĂ Alexandru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study takes into account the two Romanian Eastern regions (North East and South East trying to emphasize the post-communist dynamics of the energy sector in order to draw a general perspective for the future evolution towards both energy security and a clean environment. Before 1989, the energy sector, that had to sustain not only the population needs, but also an oversized manufacturing industry, was based on big power plants usually using coal and oil and highly polluting the environment. The hydropower had a rather small share in the total energy production. This inherited system was very much resistant after the end of the centralized political system, therefore after the general industrial decline the energy sector remained the main source of air pollution in many towns and cities from Romania. Meanwhile, in the last 6-7 years, due to a favourable national political context, we assisted, especially in the analysed area, to an important emergence of renewable energy investments (mainly wind and solar energy, but also biomass or hydro-energy. Our purpose is to evaluate, from a geographical point of view, the extent and the implications of a desirable progressive shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy that could radically change the territorial relations and sustain development on the long term.

  20. Trends in global, regional and Australian CO2 emissions from fossil fuels

    Full text: A recent analysis of global and regional trends in C02 emissions from fossil fuels (Raupach etal. 2007) found that emissions growth has accelerated at global scale from 1% pa through the 1990s to over 3% pa through 2000-2004, and that a major driver of this increase was a reversal of the earlier declining trend in the carbon intensity of the economy. This poster first reviews the global findings and then places Australian C02 emissions in a global context, as follows: Australia, with 0.32% of the world population, contributes 1.43% of C02 emissions from fossil fuels. Australia's per capita emissions in 2004 were 4.5 times the global average, just below the value for the USA; Australia's carbon intensity of energy (fossil fuel burned per unit of energy produced) is 20% higher than the world average, and 25 to 30% higher than values for the USA, Europe and Japan. Therefore, the energy efficiency of fossil fuel use is significantly lower in Australia than in these other developed countries. Australia's carbon intensity of GDP (fossil fuel burned per dollar of GDP) is 25% higher than the world average. It is a little higher than the USA and nearly double that of Europe and Japan. Therefore, the overall carbon efficiency of the economy, per unit of fossil fuel used, is about half that for Europe and Japan. Over the last 25 years, the average growth rate of Australian emissions was approximately twice the growth rate for the world as a whole, twice the growth rate for the USA and Japan, and five times the growth rate for Europe. The rate of improvement (decline) in the carbon intensity of GDP for Australia is lower than in the USA and Europe

  1. Innovation in the fuel cycle industry

    The fuel cycle industry will have to adapt to the production of new fuel and in the same time will have to improve its performance. Innovation will be a key factor of success. Innovation must be driven by the needs of the fuel cycle industry to achieve. The fuel cycle requirement of tomorrow, Innovative processes for mining high grade uranium, Innovative enrichment process, Sorting the pellets at Melox plant, Innovation in action, and Innovative waste management in la Hague are presented. A number of innovative solutions are already implemented and are in action on industrial facilities. As problems are becoming more and more tough to address, international cooperation will be required. The fuel cycle industry, as a part of the nuclear power industry, is committed to seek improvements through performance upgrade and innovation. (Cho. G. S.). 10 refs., 4 figs

  2. Creating a Global Grid of Distributed Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions from Nighttime Satellite Imagery

    Tuttle, Benjamin T.; Daniel Ziskin; Baugh, Kimberly E.; Sutton, Paul C.; Tilottama Ghosh; Elvidge, Christopher D.

    2010-01-01

    The potential use of satellite observed nighttime lights for estimating carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions has been demonstrated in several previous studies. However, the procedures for a moderate resolution (1 km2 grid cells) global map of fossil fuel CO2 emissions based on nighttime lights are still in the developmental phase. We report on the development of a method for mapping distributed fossil fuel CO2 emissions (excluding electric power utilities) at 30 arc-seconds or approximately 1 km2 r...

  3. Relationship among atmospheric CO2 concentration, global air temperature and fossil fuel consumption

    The level of the atmospheric CO2 concentration was examined as a function of amounts of fossil fuel consumption and the variation in the global surface air temperature during 1861-1988. The atmospheric CO2 level has a tendency to increase with amounts of fossil fuels annually consumed; a sharp increase is observed during the 80's. The relationship between CO2 level and surface air temperature is also not linear, but sigmoid. Correlations among the various variables are analyzed and prospects for cleaner energy systems are discussed. 5 figs., 18 refs

  4. Beyond Kyoto :CO2 permit prices and the markets for fossil fuels

    Lindholt, Lars

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the markets for fossil fuels given that the limits that the Kyoto Protocol sets on CO2 emissions from Annex B countries extend beyond 2008-2012. To our knowledge we are the first to apply a forward-looking model with endogenous prices for fossil fuels in analysis of specific CO2 emission targets, under different assumptions concerning OPEC behaviour. We calculate both the time-path of the international permit prices needed for the Kyoto targets as well as the implications ...

  5. Material Flow Analysis of Fossil Fuels in China during 2000–2010

    Sheng Wang; Jing Dai; Meirong Su

    2012-01-01

    Since the relationship between the supply and demand of fossil fuels is on edge in the long run, the contradiction between the economic growth and limited resources will hinder the sustainable development of the Chinese society. This paper aims to analyze the input of fossil fuels in China during 2000–2010 via the material flow analysis (MFA) that takes hidden flows into account. With coal, oil, and natural gas quantified by MFA, three indexes, consumption and supply ratio (C/S ratio), resour...

  6. Social cost pricing of fossil fuels used in the production of electricity: implications to biomass feasibility

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate full social pricing for fossil fuels and the subsequent effect on biomass quantities in the state of Tennessee. The first step is to estimate the full social costs and then to estimate the effects of their internalization. Other objectives are (1) investigate whether or not market imperfections exist, (2) if they exist, how should full social cost pricing be estimated, (3) what other barriers help fossil fuels stay economically attractive and prevent biomass from competing, (4) estimating the demand for biomass, and (5) given this demand for biomass, what are the implications for farmers and producers in Tennessee. (author)

  7. Combustion system for hybrid solar fossil fuel receiver

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2004-05-25

    A combustion system for a hybrid solar receiver comprises a pre-mixer which combines air and fuel to form an air-fuel mixture. The mixture is introduced tangentially into a cooling jacket. A burner plenum is fluidically connected to the cooling jacket such that the burner plenum and the cooling jacket are arranged in thermal contact with one another. The air-fuel mixture flows through the cooling jacket cooling the burner plenum to reduce pre-ignition of the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum. A combustion chamber is operatively associated with and open to the burner plenum to receive the air-fuel mixture from the burner plenum. An igniter is operatively positioned in the combustion chamber to combust the air-fuel mixture, releasing heat. A recuperator is operatively associated with the burner plenum and the combustion chamber and pre-heats the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum with heat from the combustion chamber. A heat-exchanger is operatively associated and in thermal contact with the combustion chamber. The heat-exchanger provides heat for the hybrid solar receiver.

  8. Comparative study on systems of residual water treatment in the process industry by evaporation, using fossils fuels or solar energy; Estudio comparativo sobre sistemas de tratamiento de aguas residuales de la industria de procesamiento por evaporacion, utilizando combustibles fosiles o energia solar

    Landgrave Romero, Julio; Canseco Contreras, Jose [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The residual water treatment of the process industry, nowadays is an imminent necessity in our country. In the present study two different forms are considered to concentrate residual waters: multiple effect evaporation and solar evaporation. The use of solar evaporation lagoons is a good possibility to conserving energy by means of the diminution of fossil fuel consumption. The design basis of the evaporation systems via multiple effect, as well as solar evaporation, the results of the respective sizing and the estimation of the corresponding costs are presented. A practical case is described on the cooking of cotton linters (flock) [Spanish] El tratamiento de aguas residuales de la industria de proceso, hoy en dia es una necesidad inminente en nuestro pais. En el presente trabajo se consideran dos formas distintas para concentrar las aguas residuales: evaporacion de multiple efecto y evaporacion solar. El empleo de lagunas de evaporacion solar es una buena posibilidad para conseguir el ahorro de energia mediante disminucion del consumo de combustibles fosiles. Se presentan las bases de diseno de los sistemas de evaporacion via multiple efecto, asi como solar, los resultados del dimensionamiento respectivo y la estimacion de los costos correspondientes. Se describe un caso practico sobre el cocido de linters de algodon (borra)

  9. Co-combustion of Fossil Fuels and Waste

    WU, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Frandsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    The Ph.D. thesis deals with the alternative and high efficiency methods of using waste-derived fuels in heat and power production. The focus is on the following subjects: 1) co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel (SRF) under pulverized fuel combustion conditions; 2) dust-firing of straw and the utilization of a waste-derived material as an additive; 3) the combustion of a biomass residue rich in phosphorus. Co-combustion of coal and SRF was conducted in an entrained flow reactor (EFR)...

  10. If Fossil and Fissile Fuels Falter, We've Got. . .

    Klaus, Robert L.

    1977-01-01

    Alternative energy sources and the new systems and techniques required for their development are described: fuel cells, magnetohydrodynamics, thermionics, geothermal, wind, tides, waste consersion, biomass, and ocean thermal energy conversion. (MF)

  11. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    Levi, M. P.; O& #x27; Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  12. Importance of hydrogen fuels as sustainable alternative energy for domestic and industrial applications

    Energy demand is increasing continuously due to rapid growth in population and industrialization development. As a result greenhouse gases especially CO2 produced by the combustion of fossil fuels cause depletion of fossil fuels and deterioration of environmental conditions worldwide. The goal of global energy sustainability implies the replacement of all fossil fuels by renewable energy sources . Hydrogen fuel is one of the sustainable energy sources can be available by conversion of biomass into biological hydrogen gas and ethanol. Rate of biomass generation in domestic wastes in Iranian culture is high. Therefore there is suitable potential for hydrogen generation in rural and urban areas of Iran. On the other hand energy extraction from these fossil fuels causes pollution and diseases. Globally, hydrogen is already produced in significant quantities (around 5 billion cubic metres per annum). It is mainly used to produce ammonia for fertiliser (about 50%), for oil refining (37%), methanol production (8%) and in the chemical and metallurgical industries (4%). On the other hand, increase in emissions rates of greenhouse gases, i.e., CO2 present a threat to the world climate. Also new legislation of Iran has been approved the higher costs of conventional fuels for consuming in vehicles for reduction of greenhouse gases reduction as environmental policies. Demand is rising in all cities of Iran for cleaner fuels such as mixed fuels and natural gas, but unfortunately they are exporting to foreign countries or the required technologies are not available and economically option. Nuclear industries in Iran are also small and expanding only slowly. So importance of alternative energies as hydrogen powers are increasing daily. Presently both major consumers of domestic and industrial such as plants and manufacturers are using fossil fuels for their process that consequently contribute to the global warming and climate change. This paper reviews these options, with reference not only to greenhouse gases but also to welfare increasing. (author)

  13. CO2 emissions mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Mejean, Aurelie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; Calvin, Katherine V.; Wada, Kenichi; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher and decrease with mitigation. A first deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes global emission targets until 2030, in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges and regionally-specific low-carbon technology targets. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increases strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger - twice and more - than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because leakage and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.

  14. Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency

    Hanne Østergård

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern food production depends on limited natural resources for providing energy and fertilisers. We assess the fossil fuel dependency for the Danish food production system by means of Food Energy Returned on fossil Energy Invested (Food-EROI and by the use of energy intensive nutrients from imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing and transportation, 0.25 J of food energy is produced; 0.28 when crediting for produced bioenergy. Furthermore, nutrients in commercial fertiliser and imported feed account for 84%, 90% and 90% of total supply of N, P and K, respectively. We conclude that the system is unsustainable because it is embedded in a highly fossil fuel dependent system based on a non-circular flow of nutrients. As energy and thus nutrient constraints may develop in the coming decades, the current system may need to adapt by reducing use of fossil energy at the farm and for transportation of food and feed. An operational strategy may be to relocalise the supply of energy, nutrients, feed and food.

  15. Co-firing experiences of biomass with fossil fuel in the world's largest biofuel power boiler

    Nickull, S.; Petaenen, P. [Oy Alholmens Kraft AB (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    The major objective of Alhomens Kraft power plant that started up in early 2002 in Pietarsaari, Finland was to demonstrate a novel technology for multifuel and low emission cogeneration at a new commercial size, and co-firing of biomass with fossil fuel. Plant design was based on maximum exploitation of wood based fuels and peat with bituminous coal. Other objectives included electricity production at a competitive price for sale in the open market, utilization of the process steam and heat in the paper mill and for the city of Pietarsaari, and maximum use of combustible by-products from the paper industry. The utility side required higher steam data and the industrial side required better load flexibility. The boiler design requirements combine both features. The biofuel handling systemposed challenges due to the large plant and the diversity of fuels. The ratio of fuels to be used is varying according to availability, quality and price. The boiler capacity is 550 MWth. The high-pressure and re-heater steam values are 194/179 kg/s at 545/545{sup o}C and 165/40 bar. The large fuel flow and fuel variation make even mixing of the fuel components essential in order to secure optimal combustion, which ensures the lowest emissions for the circulating fluidized bed process. The paper compares operating experiences to objectives of the planning and design phase related to fuel logistics up to boiler plant operation. It describes the experience of using different fuel components in different operational situations. Experiences of auxiliary systems needed for reliable operation in co-combustion as well as experience of the boiler controllability with this heterogeneous fuel combination are described. 7 figs.

  16. Critical analysis on hydrogen as an alternative to fossil fuels and biofuels for vehicles in Europe

    In recent times, the global debate on the environment has been centered on CO2 emissions. This gas is the major cause of the ''greenhouse effect'' and people are more concerned with the idea that the emissions of this gas should be minimized. As a result of this concern, the Kyoto Protocol was enacted and subscribed to by many countries, setting the maximum gas emissions for them. Fossil fuels are a major source of CO2 emissions. For some years now The European Union has been seeking to promote some years now the use of biofuels as substitutes for diesel or petrol for transport purposes. As a result of this policy, in 2003 the European Union (EU) Directive 2003/30/EC was developed with the aim of promoting the use of biofuels as a substitute for diesel or gasoline among European Union countries as well as to contribute to fulfilling the commitments acquired on climate change, security of supply in environmentally friendly conditions and the promotion of renewable energy sources. In order to achieve these goals, the directive forces all EU members to ensure that before December 31 of 2010 at least 5.75% of all gasoline and diesel fuels sold for transport purposes are biofuels. European Union countries have social and economic characteristics unique to themselves. The energy dependence on foreign sources, the features of the agricultural sector or the degree of industrialization varies greatly from one country to another. In this context, it is questionable whether the obligation imposed by this directive is actually achieving in its application uniform and/or identical goals in each of the countries involved and whether the actions of the various governments are also aligned with these goals. All these ideas were developed in a previous report (Sobrino and Monroy (2009)). This report examines the possibility of using hydrogen as an alternative to fossil fuels and biofuels from a technical, economic and environmental point of view in the specific case of a European Union country: Spain. (author)

  17. Assessing European potential for geological storage of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion. The Gestco Project

    Total EU (and Norway) emissions of CO2 from thermal power generation were some 950 million tonnes in 1990, the Kyoto agreement reference level. An ongoing research project, the GESTCO project, will provide the first documentation that, for the emission sources within the selected key areas, sufficient geological storage capacity is available for at least 30 years and possibly much longer. Cost of energy will obviously increase, but it is anticipated that electricity production cost price will be comparable to that of renewables. It would further have major implications for the European power generating industry which today is totally dominated by fossil fuel combustion with enormous emissions problems. The identification and siting of subsurface CO2 storage capability can be expected to have considerable effect on the planning for and future siting of fossil fuel plants. In Norway there are plans to build several major, coastally sited, natural gas-fed electricity generating plants. It is obvious that their siting should be, in part, based on the availability of a suitable subsurface CO2 storage facility. Hydrogen power plants, using natural gas as a feed stock, are being considered as a viable future option in a number of countries with natural gas supply systems. In such plants separation of the natural gas into hydrogen and CO2 will take place prior to combustion of the hydrogen. Emissions will be water vapour and the concept includes geological storage of the considerable volumes of clean, separated CO2 in saline aquifers or in (heavy) oil fields, using the CO2 to enhance oil recovery. Such power plants would also be able to supply hydrogen or methanol for automotive transport powered by fuels cells. The siting of such plants will again be dependent on the availability of subsurface CO2 storage facilities. As the search for oil and gas proceeds into geographically more remote areas the widespread transport of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) will become commonplace. In order to produce LNG the gas first has to be cleansed of CO2, and it is essential that the siting of such cleansing plants are seen in relation to suitable subsurface CO2 storage facilities. Storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is technically feasible as demonstrated at the Sleipner gas field in the Norwegian North Sea. Since 1996, 1 million tonnes of CO2 has annually been injected into saltwater saturated sands at depths below 800 m. The CO2 at Sleipner occurs as a natural constituent in the hydrocarbon gas and is separated from the sales gas prior to pipeline export

  18. Aluminum-26 in the early solar system - Fossil or fuel

    Lee, T.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    The isotopic composition of Mg was measured in different phases of a Ca-Al-rich inclusion in the Allende meteorite. Large excesses of Mg-26 of up to 10% were found. These excesses correlate strictly with the Al-27/Mg-24 ratio for four coexisting phases with distinctive chemical compositions. Models of in situ decay of Al-26 within the solar system and of mixing of interstellar dust grains containing fossil Al-26 with normal solar system material are presented. The observed correlation provides definitive evidence for the presence of Al-26 in the early solar system. This requires either injection of freshly synthesized nucleosynthetic material into the solar system immediately before condensation and planet formation, or local production within the solar system by intense activity of the early sun. Planets promptly produced from material with the inferred Al-26/Al-27 would melt within about 300,000 years.

  19. Aluminum-26 in the early solar system: Fossil or fuel

    The isotopic composition of Mg was measured in different phases of a Ca-Al rich inclusion in the Allende meteorite. Large excesses of 26Mg of up to 10% were found. These excesses correlate strictly with the 27Al/24Mg for four coexisting phases with distinctive chemical compositions. Models of in situ decay of 26Al within the solar system and of mixing of interstellar dust grains containing fossil 26Al with normal solar system material are presented. The observed correlation provides definitive evidence for the presence of 26Al in the early solar system. This requires either injection of freshly synthesized nucleosynthetic material into the solar system immediately before condensation and planet formation, or local production within the solar system by intense activity of the early Sun. Planets promptly produced from material with the inferred 26Al/27Al would melt within approx.3 x 105 yr

  20. Market power in the market for greenhouse gas emission permits - the interplay with the fossil fuel markets

    Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol is likely to leave Russia and other Eastern European countries with market power in the market for emission permits. Ceteris paribus, this will raise the permit price above the competitive permit price. However, Russia is also a large exporter of fossil fuels. A high price on emission permits may lower the producer price on fossil fuels. Thus, if Russia co-ordinates its permit market and fossil fuel market policies, market power will not necessarily lead to a higher permit price. Fossil fuel producers may also exert market power in the permit market, provided they conceive the permit price to be influenced by their production volumes. If higher volumes drive up the permit price Russian fuel producers may become more aggressive relative to their competitors in the fuel markets. If the sale of fuels is co-ordinated with the sale of permits. The result is reversed if high fuel production drives the permit price down. (Author)

  1. A look at 1983 CO2 emissions from fossil (with preliminary data for 1984) fuels

    Rotty, Ralph M.

    2011-01-01

    During 1983, global emissions of CO2 from fossil fuels continued to decline slightly. to a value of 4932 millions tons carbon compared to 4957 million tons carbon in 1982. This marked the 4th consecutive year that CO2 emissions from fuel use has declined. Even though cement production has continued to increase very slowly, the annual CO2 emissions from the combination of fuels and cement showed the relative decline that occurred in emissions from fuels alone. Although preliminary, data for 19...

  2. A method for estimating the temporal and spatial patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from national fossil-fuel consumption

    Gregg, J. S.; Andres, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    A proportional methodology is presented for estimating fossil-fuel consumption and concomitant anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This methodology employs data from representative sectors of the fossil-fuel market to determine the temporal (monthly) and spatial (provincial/state) patterns of fuel consumption. These patterns of fuel consumption are then converted to patterns of CO2 emissions. The purpose is to provide a procedure for determining anthropogenic emissions from countrie...

  3. Chemical biorefinery perspectives : the valorisation of functionalised chemicals from biomass resources compared to the conventional fossil fuel production route

    Brehmer, B.

    2008-01-01

    In response to the impending problems related to fossil fuels (continued supply, price, and regional and global pollution) alternative feedstocks are gaining interest as possible solutions. Biomass, considered sustainable and renewable, is an option with the potential to replace a wide diversity of fossil based products within the energy sector; heat, power, fuels, materials and chemicals. All the proposed applications for biomass, however, require direct and indirect fossil derived inpu...

  4. Power Gas and Combined Cycles: Clean Power From Fossil Fuels

    Metz, William D.

    1973-01-01

    The combined-cycle system is currently regarded as a useful procedure for producing electricity. This system can burn natural gas and oil distillates in addition to coal. In the future when natural gas stocks will be low, coal may become an important fuel for such systems. Considerable effort must be made for research on coal gasification and

  5. Towards a Future of District Heating Systems with Low-Temperature Operation together with Non-Fossil Fuel Heat Sources

    Tol, Hakan; Dinçer, Ibrahim; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigation of non-fossil fuel heat sources to be supplied to low-energy district heating systems operating in low temperature such as 55 C and 25 C in terms of, respectively, supply and return. Vast variety of heat sources classed in categories such as fossil fuel...

  6. Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1982

    Linville, B. (ed.)

    1982-10-01

    This report primarily covers in-house oil, gas, and synfuel research and lists the contracted research. The report is broken into the following areas: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are listed. (DLC)

  7. Dynamics of fossil fuel CO2 neutralization by marine CaCO3

    A detailed model of the ocean circulation and carbon cycle was coupled to a mechanistic model of CaCO3 diagenesis in deep sea sediments to simulate the millennium-scale response of the oceans to future fossil fuel CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and deep sea. Simulations of deep sea injection of CO2 show that CaCO3 dissolution is sensitive to passage of high-CO2 waters through the Atlantic Ocean, but CaCO3 dissolution has a negligible impact on atmospheric pCO2 or the atmospheric stabilization CO2 emission in the coming centuries. The ultimate fate of the fossil fuel CO2 will be to react with CaCO3 on the seafloor and on land. Neutralization by seafloor CaCO3 occurs on a timescale of 5-6 kyr, and is limited to at most 60-70% of the fossil fuel release. Additional neutralization by terrestrial CaCO3 restores a balance between CaCO3 weathering and seafloor accumulation on a timescale of 8.5 kyr, while the deficit of seafloor CaCO3 (the lysocline) is replenished with an e-folding timescale of approximately 18 kyr. The final equilibrium with CaCO3 leaves 7-8% of the fossil fuel CO2 remaining in the atmosphere, to be neutralized by the silicate rock cycle on a time frame of hundreds of thousands of years

  8. 75 FR 66008 - Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major...

    2010-10-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 433 and 435 RIN 1904-AB96 Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings; Correction AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  9. Workshop on an Assessment of Gas-Side Fouling in Fossil Fuel Exhaust Environments

    Marner, W. J. (Editor); Webb, R. L. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The state of the art of gas side fouling in fossil fuel exhaust environments was assessed. Heat recovery applications were emphasized. The deleterious effects of gas side fouling including increased energy consumption, increased material losses, and loss of production were identified.

  10. EPA/IFP EUROPEAN WORKSHOP ON THE EMISSION ON NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION

    The report summarizes the proceedings of an EPA/Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) cosponsored workshop addressing direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from fossil fuel combustion. The third in a series, it was held at the IFP in Rueil-Malmaison, France, on June 1-2, 1988. Increas...

  11. Increasing the momentum of fossil-fuel subsidy reform: a roadmap for international cooperation

    Lang, K.; Wooders, P.; Kulovesi, K.

    2010-06-15

    Subsidizing fossil fuels is not compatible with the actions that have to be implemented to address climate change and promote sustainable development. A collaboration on an international level can support efforts engaged at the national level, through a research and technical assistance, a sharing of knowledge and best practice, the institution of rules and financial support. In 2010, the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) published a report, providing an analysis of the potential of the various international organizations around the world to host the international discussions and planning of actions regarding energy subsidy reform. Several existing organizations were considered. While the role of these organizations is important to support initiatives designed to reform fossil fuel subsidies, the study demonstrated that none of them present all the secretariat functions required to support a movement at the international level. A particular attention is given to the potential of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to house the international cooperation, considering their legal basis and their ability to reform fossil-fuel subsidies. After a description of the G-20 initiative regarding the reduction of fossil fuel subsidies, the IISD presents a Roadmap for international cooperation providing a route leading to a negotiated agreement, and describes the procedure to follow at a short-, medium- and long term. This roadmap identifies the roles of the different organizations through this process. 41 refs.

  12. Under What Conditions Does a Carbon Tax on Fossil Fuels Stimulate Biofuels?

    Timilsina , Govinda R.; Csordas, Stefan; Mevel, Simon

    2011-01-01

    A carbon tax is an efficient economic instrument to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide released from fossil fuel burning. Its impacts on production of renewable energy depend on how it is designed -- particularly in the context of the penetration of biofuels into the energy supply mix for road transportation. Using a multi-sector, multi-country computable general equilibrium model, this st...

  13. Regional variations in spatial structure of nightlights, population density and fossil-fuel CO2 emissions

    We evaluate the joint use of satellite-observed intensity of urban nightlights and census-based population density data as constraints on the spatial structure of CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. Findings are: (1) the probability that population density exceeds a given value follows a power-law distribution over two orders of magnitude of population density, encompassing the 40% of the global population at the highest densities. (2) The corresponding probability distribution for nightlights intensity also follows a power-law, departing near instrumental saturation. (3) Assuming that the true nightlights intensity distribution follows the power-law above instrumental saturation, we obtain a correction for saturation errors in the nightlights data. The amplification of nightlights intensity required to correct for saturation errors is estimated to be a factor of 1.15-1.23 globally and much greater in regions with high nightlights intensities. (4) Correcting for saturation, we observe clear empirical relationships between nightlights intensity and areal densities of energy consumption, fossil-fuel emissions and economic activity, holding throughout the development spectrum. (5) We indicate how these relationships underpin a fossil-fuel data assimilation system (FFDAS) for estimating fossil-fuel CO2 emissions.

  14. A new evaluation of the uncertainty associated with CDIAC estimates of fossil fuel carbon dioxide emission

    Robert J. Andres

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three uncertainty assessments associated with the global total of carbon dioxide emitted from fossil fuel use and cement production are presented. Each assessment has its own strengths and weaknesses and none give a full uncertainty assessment of the emission estimates. This approach grew out of the lack of independent measurements at the spatial and temporal scales of interest. Issues of dependent and independent data are considered as well as the temporal and spatial relationships of the data. The result is a multifaceted examination of the uncertainty associated with fossil fuel carbon dioxide emission estimates. The three assessments collectively give a range that spans from 1.0 to 13% (2 ?. Greatly simplifying the assessments give a global fossil fuel carbon dioxide uncertainty value of 8.4% (2 ?. In the largest context presented, the determination of fossil fuel emission uncertainty is important for a better understanding of the global carbon cycle and its implications for the physical, economic and political world.

  15. Impact of fossil fuel emissions on atmospheric radiocarbon and various applications of radiocarbon over this century.

    Graven, Heather D

    2015-08-01

    Radiocarbon analyses are commonly used in a broad range of fields, including earth science, archaeology, forgery detection, isotope forensics, and physiology. Many applications are sensitive to the radiocarbon ((14)C) content of atmospheric CO2, which has varied since 1890 as a result of nuclear weapons testing, fossil fuel emissions, and CO2 cycling between atmospheric, oceanic, and terrestrial carbon reservoirs. Over this century, the ratio (14)C/C in atmospheric CO2 (?(14)CO2) will be determined by the amount of fossil fuel combustion, which decreases ?(14)CO2 because fossil fuels have lost all (14)C from radioactive decay. Simulations of ?(14)CO2 using the emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report, the Representative Concentration Pathways, indicate that ambitious emission reductions could sustain ?(14)CO2 near the preindustrial level of 0 through 2100, whereas "business-as-usual" emissions will reduce ?(14)CO2 to -250, equivalent to the depletion expected from over 2,000 y of radioactive decay. Given current emissions trends, fossil fuel emission-driven artificial "aging" of the atmosphere is likely to occur much faster and with a larger magnitude than previously expected. This finding has strong and as yet unrecognized implications for many applications of radiocarbon in various fields, and it implies that radiocarbon dating may no longer provide definitive ages for samples up to 2,000 y old. PMID:26195757

  16. Economic value of U.S. fossil fuel electricity health impacts.

    Machol, Ben; Rizk, Sarah

    2013-02-01

    Fossil fuel energy has several externalities not accounted for in the retail price, including associated adverse human health impacts, future costs from climate change, and other environmental damages. Here, we quantify the economic value of health impacts associated with PM(2.5) and PM(2.5) precursors (NO(x) and SO(2)) on a per kilowatt hour basis. We provide figures based on state electricity profiles, national averages and fossil fuel type. We find that the economic value of improved human health associated with avoiding emissions from fossil fuel electricity in the United States ranges from a low of $0.005-$0.013/kWh in California to a high of $0.41-$1.01/kWh in Maryland. When accounting for the adverse health impacts of imported electricity, the California figure increases to $0.03-$0.07/kWh. Nationally, the average economic value of health impacts associated with fossil fuel usage is $0.14-$0.35/kWh. For coal, oil, and natural gas, respectively, associated economic values of health impacts are $0.19-$0.45/kWh, $0.08-$0.19/kWh, and $0.01-$0.02/kWh. For coal and oil, these costs are larger than the typical retail price of electricity, demonstrating the magnitude of the externality. When the economic value of health impacts resulting from air emissions is considered, our analysis suggests that on average, U.S. consumers of electricity should be willing to pay $0.24-$0.45/kWh for alternatives such as energy efficiency investments or emission-free renewable sources that avoid fossil fuel combustion. The economic value of health impacts is approximately an order of magnitude larger than estimates of the social cost of carbon for fossil fuel electricity. In total, we estimate that the economic value of health impacts from fossil fuel electricity in the United States is $361.7-886.5 billion annually, representing 2.5-6.0% of the national GDP. PMID:23246069

  17. Some aspects of the destructive impact of fossil fuel combustion and mining on the environment

    In Poland, over 80% of the power is generated by combustion of coal and lignite. In the process of coal fired power generation, SO2, NOx, heavy elements and trace elements are emitted into the air, and the water is contaminated by saline water discharged from mines. During combustion, significant quantities of natural radioactive elements are mobilized and emitted into the environment together with gases, ash and water. Large emissions of radioactive elements were found. Combustion of coal in power stations of 1000 MW(e) causes emissions of 138 x 103 t SO2 and 20.9 x 103 t NOx per year. New technologies for removal of gas pollutants were developed. A pilot plant based on the electron beam technology for simultaneous SO2 and NOx removal was constructed and tested. Over the last years, many nuclear devices for quality control of coal and lignite have been developed. Devices have been constructed for measuring the ash contents, dust concentration, and sulphur and moisture contents of fossil fuel both for laboratory and industrial applications. The opponents of nuclear power generation in Poland argue that a nuclear power plant emits significant quantities of radioactive gases to atmosphere and produces liquid and solid radioactive wastes. It is pointed out that power production based on coal combustion generates amounts of radioactive materials comparable with those of nuclear power plants and, in addition, large quantities of gases (SO2, NOx, CO2), dust and ash. 11 refs, 2 tabs

  18. Fossil fuel and biomass burning effect on climate - heating or cooling?

    Emission from burning of fossil fuels and biomass (associated with deforestation) generates a radiative forcing on the atmosphere and a possible climate change. Emitted trace gases heat the atmosphere through their greenhouse effect, while particulates formed from emitted SO2 cause cooling by increasing cloud albedos through alteration of droplet size distributions. This paper reviews the characteristics of the cooling effect and applies Twomey's theory to check whether the radiative balance favours heating or cooling for the cases of fossil fuel and biomass burning. It is also shown that although coal and oil emit 120 times as many CO2 molecules as SO2 molecules, each SO2 molecule is 50-1100 times more effective in cooling the atmosphere (through the effect of aerosol particles on cloud albedo) than a CO2 molecule is in heating it. Note that this ratio accounts for the large difference in the aerosol (3-10 days) and CO2 (7-100 years) lifetimes. It is concluded, that the cooling effect from coal and oil burning may presently range from 0.4 to 8 times the heating effect. Within this large uncertainty, it is presently more likely that fossil fuel burning causes cooling of the atmosphere rather than heating. Biomass burning associated with deforestation, on the other hand, is more likely to cause heating of the atmosphere than cooling since its aerosol cooling effect is only half that from fossil fuel burning and its heating effect is twice as large. Future increases in coal and oil burning, and the resultant increase in concentration of cloud condensation nuclei, may saturate the cooling effect, allowing the heating effect to dominate. For a doubling in the CO2 concentration due to fossil fuel burning, the cooling effect is expected to be 0.1 to 0.3 of the heating effect. 75 refs., 8 tabs

  19. Long-term climate policy implications of phasing out fossil fuel subsidies

    It is often argued that fossil fuel subsidies hamper the transition towards a sustainable energy supply as they incentivize wasteful consumption. We assess implications of a subsidy phase-out for the mitigation of climate change and the low-carbon transformation of the energy system, using the global energy–economy model REMIND. We compare our results with those obtained by the International Energy Agency (based on the World Energy Model) and by the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD-Model ENV-Linkages), providing the long-term perspective of an intertemporal optimization model. The results are analyzed in the two dimensions of subsidy phase-out and climate policy scenarios. We confirm short-term benefits of phasing-out fossil fuel subsidies as found in prior studies. However, these benefits are only sustained to a small extent in the long term, if dedicated climate policies are weak or nonexistent. Most remarkably we find that a removal of fossil fuel subsidies, if not complemented by other policies, can slow down a global transition towards a renewable based energy system. The reason is that world market prices for fossil fuels may drop due to a removal of subsidies. Thus, low carbon alternatives would encounter comparative disadvantages. - Highlights: • We assess implications of phasing out fossil fuel subsidies on the mitigation of climate change. • The removal of subsidies leads to a net-reduction in the use of energy. • Emission reductions contribute little to stabilize greenhouse gases at 450 ppm if not combined with climate policies. • Low carbon alternatives may encounter comparative disadvantages due to relative price changes at world markets

  20. Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model

    Wise, M.A.; Woodruff, M.G.; Ashton, W.B.

    1992-08-01

    The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model's parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed.

  1. Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model

    Wise, M.A.; Woodruff, M.G.; Ashton, W.B.

    1992-08-01

    The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model`s parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed.

  2. Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model

    The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model's parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed

  3. Atmospheric Modeling and Verification of Point Source Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions

    Keller, E. D.; Turnbull, J. C.; Baisden, W. T.; Brailsford, G. W.; Bromley, T.; Norris, M. W.; Zondervan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Emissions from large point sources (electricity generation and large-scale industry) of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions are currently determined from self-reported "bottom-up" inventory data, with an uncertainty of about 20% for individual power plants. As the world moves towards a regulatory environment, there is a need for independent, objective measurements of these emissions both to improve the accuracy of and to verify the reported amounts. "Top-down" atmospheric methods have the potential to independently constrain point source emissions, combining observations with atmospheric transport modeling to derive emission estimates. We use the Kapuni Gas Treatment Plant to examine methodologies and model sensitivities for atmospheric monitoring of point source fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions. The Kapuni plant, located in rural New Zealand, removes and vents CO2 from locally extracted natural gas at a rate of ~0.1 Tg carbon per year. We measured the CO2ff content in three different types of observations: air samples collected in flasks over a period of a few minutes, sodium hydroxide solution exposed the atmosphere, and grass samples from the surrounding farmland, the latter two representing ~1 week integrated averages. We use the WindTrax Lagrangian plume dispersion model to compare these atmospheric observations with "expected" values given the emissions reported by the Kapuni plant. The model has difficulty accurately capturing the short-term variability in the flask samples but does well in representing the longer-term averages from grass samples, suggesting that passive integrated-sampling methods have the potential to monitor long-term emissions. Our results indicate that using this method, point source emissions can be verified to within about 30%. Further improvements in atmospheric transport modelling are needed to reduce uncertainties. In view of this, we discuss model strengths and weaknesses and explore model sensitivity to meteorological conditions. In particular, we look at how much of the variation in our observations can be attributed to changing emissions levels and how much is a result of natural climate and atmospheric transport variations that remain unconstrained by our model and input data.

  4. Technical considerations in repowering a nuclear plant for fossil fueled operation

    Repowering involves replacement of the reactor by a fossil fuel source of steam. This source can be a conventional fossil fueled boiler or the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) on a gas turbine exhaust. The existing steam turbine plant is used to the extent possible. Alternative fuels for repowering a nuclear plant are coal, natural gas and oil. In today's world oil is not usually an alternative. Selection of coal or natural gas is largely a matter of availability of the fuel near the location of the plant. Both the fossil boiler and the HRSG produce steam at higher pressures and temperatures than the throttle conditions for a saturated steam nuclear turbine. It is necessary to match the steam conditions from the new source to the existing turbine as closely as possible. Technical approaches to achieve a match range from using a topping turbine at the front end of the cycle to attemperation of the throttle steam with feedwater. The electrical output from the repowered plant is usually greater than that of the original nuclear fueled design. This requires consideration of the ability to use the excess electricity. Interfacing of the new facility with the existing turbine plant requires consideration of facility layout and design. Site factors must also be considered, especially for a coal fired boiler, since rail and coal handling facilities must be added to a site for which these were not considered. Additional site factors that require consideration are ash handling and disposal

  5. Potential high temperature corrosion problems due to co-firing of biomass and fossil fuels

    Montgomery, Melanie; Vilhelmsen, T.; Jensen, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past years, considerable high temperature corrosion problems have been encountered when firing biomass in power plants due to the high content of potassium chloride in the deposits. Therefore to combat chloride corrosion problems co-firing of biomass with a fossil fuel has been undertaken...... mechanisms appear such as sulphidation and hot corrosion due to sulphate deposits. At Studstrup power plant Unit 4, based on trials with exposure times of 3000 hours using 0-20% straw co-firing with coal, the plant now runs with a fuel of 10% straw + coal. After three years exposure in this environment, the...... significant corrosion attack was due to sulphidation attack at the grain boundaries of 18-8 steel after 3 years exposure. The corrosion mechanisms and corrosion rates are compared with biomass firing and coal firing. Potential corrosion problems due to co-firing biomass and fossil fuels are discussed....

  6. Sensitivity analysis and probabilistic assessment of seawater desalination costs fueled by nuclear and fossil fuel

    The reliable supply of water and energy is an important prerequisite for sustainable development. Desalination is a feasible option that can solve the problem of water scarcity in some areas, but it is a very energy intensive technology. Moreover, the rising cost of fossil fuel, its uncertain availability and associated environmental concerns have led to a need for future desalination plants to use other energy sources, such as renewables and nuclear. Nuclear desalination has thus the potential to be an important option for safe, economic and reliable supply of large amounts of fresh water to meet the ever-increasing worldwide water demand. Different approaches to use nuclear power for seawater desalination have been considered including utilisation of the waste heat from nuclear reactors to further reduce the cost of nuclear desalination. Various options to implement nuclear desalination relay mainly on policy making based on socio-economic and environmental impacts of available technologies. This paper examines nuclear desalination costs and proposes a methodology for exploring interactions between critical parameters. - Highlights: • The paper demonstrated desalination costs under uncertainty conditions. • Uncertainty for nuclear power prevails only during the construction period. • Nuclear desalination proved to be cheaper and with less uncertainty

  7. Economic analysis to compare fabrication of nuclear power and fossil fuel power plants at Iran

    Electric power due to its many advantages over other forms of energies covers most of the world's energy demands.The electric power can be produced by various energy converting systems fed by different energy resources like fossil fuels, nuclear, hydro and renewable energies, each having their own appropriate technologies. The fossil fuel not only consumes the deplete and precious sources of non conventional energies but they add pollution to environment too. The nuclear power plants has its own share of radioactive pollutions which, of course can be controlled by taking precautionary measures. The investing cost of each generated unit (KWh) in the nuclear power plants, comparing with its equivalent production by fossil fuels is investigated. The various issues of economical analysis, technical, political and environmental are the different aspects, which individually can influence the decisions for kind of power plant to be installed. Finally, it is concluded that the fossil and nuclear power generations both has its own advantages and disadvantages. Hence, from a specializing point of view, it may not be proper to prefer one over the others

  8. Reconciling fossil fuel power generation development and climate issues: CCS and CCS-Ready

    Paelinck, Philippe; Sonnois, Louis; Leandri, Jean-Francois

    2010-09-15

    This paper intends to analyse how CCS can contribute to reduce CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel power plants and to describe what is its current overall status. Its potential future development is assessed, in both developed and developing countries, and an economical assessment of different investment options highlight the importance of CCS retrofit. The paper analyses then the challenges of the development of fossil fuelled power plants and details case examples to illustrate some technical challenges related to CCS and what are the technical solutions available today to ease and address them: CCS-Ready power plants.

  9. Timing is everything : along the fossil fuel transition pathway.

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2013-10-01

    People save for retirement throughout their career because it is virtually impossible to save all you'll need in retirement the year before you retire. Similarly, without installing incremental amounts of clean fossil, renewable or transformative energy technologies throughout the coming decades, a radical and immediate change will be near impossible the year before a policy goal is set to be in place. Therefore, our research question is,To meet our desired technical and policy goals, what are the factors that affect the rate we must install technology to achieve these goals in the coming decades?' Existing models do not include full regulatory constraints due to their often complex, and inflexible approaches to solve foroptimal' engineering instead ofrobust' and multidisciplinary solutions. This project outlines the theory and then develops an applied software tool to model the laboratory-to-market transition using the traditional technology readiness level (TRL) framework, but develops subsequent and a novel regulatory readiness level (RRL) and market readiness level (MRL). This tool uses the ideally-suited system dynamics framework to incorporate feedbacks and time delays. Future energy-economic-environment models, regardless of their programming platform, may adapt this software model component framework ormodule' to further vet the likelihood of new or innovative technology moving through the laboratory, regulatory and market space. The prototype analytical framework and tool, called the Technology, Regulatory and Market Readiness Level simulation model (TRMsim) illustrates the interaction between technology research, application, policy and market dynamics as they relate to a new or innovative technology moving from the theoretical stage to full market deployment. The initial results that illustrate the model's capabilities indicate for a hypothetical technology, that increasing the key driver behind each of the TRL, RRL and MRL components individually decreases the time required for the technology to progress through each component by 63, 68 and 64%, respectively. Therefore, under the current working assumptions, to decrease the time it may take for a technology to move from the conceptual stage to full scale market adoption one might consider expending additional effort to secure regulatory approval and reducing the uncertainty of the technology's demand in the marketplace.

  10. The fossil-fuels and the global warming

    Remenyi, Karoly

    2010-09-15

    The earth is heated by solar radiation. One is the most important questions is the effect of the human industry. A simple model used, this gives a good result of the phenomena than difficult expressions of numerical applications. The calculation assigns a small number of parameters to the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. It is most important parameter which is changing. If decrease the atmospheric CO2 concentration on 500 ppm, the surface temperature would rise less 1 oC. The CO2 concentraton is a sensitive criterion, but not so much then we found by other models.

  11. Assessment of industrial applications for fuel cell cogeneration systems

    Stickles, R. P.; Oneill, J. K.; Smith, E. H.

    1978-01-01

    The fuel cell energy systems are designed with and without a utility connection for emergency back-up power. Sale of electricity to the utility during periods of low plant demand is not considered. For each of the three industrial applications, conceptual designs were also developed for conventional utility systems relying on purchased electric power and fossil-fired boilers for steam/hot water. The capital investment for each energy system is estimated. Annual operating costs are also determined for each system. These cost estimates are converted to levelized annual costs by applying appropriate economic factors. The breakeven electricity price that would make fuel cell systems competitive with the conventional systems is plotted as a function of naphtha price. The sensitivity of the breakeven point to capital investment and coal price is also evaluated.

  12. Solid recovered fuels in the steel industry.

    Kepplinger, Werner L; Tappeiner, Tamara

    2012-04-01

    By using waste materials as alternative fuels in metallurgical plants it is possible to minimize the traditionally used reducing agents, such as coke, coal, oil or natural gas. Moreover, by using waste materials in the metallurgical industry it is feasible to recover these materials as far as possible. This also represents another step towards environmental protection because carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced, if the H(2) content of the waste material is greater in comparison with that of the substituted fuel and the effects of global warming can therefore be reduced. In the present article various solid recovered fuels and their applications in the metallurgical industry are detailed. PMID:22086964

  13. A 21st-century shift from fossil-fuel to biogenic methane emissions indicated by 13CH4

    Schaefer, Hinrich; Fletcher, Sara E. Mikaloff; Veidt, Cordelia; Lassey, Keith R.; Brailsford, Gordon W.; Bromley, Tony M.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Michel, Sylvia E.; Miller, John B.; Levin, Ingeborg; Lowe, Dave C.; Martin, Ross J.; Vaughn, Bruce H.; White, James W. C.

    2016-04-01

    Between 1999 and 2006, a plateau interrupted the otherwise continuous increase of atmospheric methane concentration [CH4] since preindustrial times. Causes could be sink variability or a temporary reduction in industrial or climate-sensitive sources. We reconstructed the global history of [CH4] and its stable carbon isotopes from ice cores, archived air, and a global network of monitoring stations. A box-model analysis suggests that diminishing thermogenic emissions, probably from the fossil-fuel industry, and/or variations in the hydroxyl CH4 sink caused the [CH4] plateau. Thermogenic emissions did not resume to cause the renewed [CH4] rise after 2006, which contradicts emission inventories. Post-2006 source increases are predominantly biogenic, outside the Arctic, and arguably more consistent with agriculture than wetlands. If so, mitigating CH4 emissions must be balanced with the need for food production.

  14. A 21st-century shift from fossil-fuel to biogenic methane emissions indicated by ¹³CH₄.

    Schaefer, Hinrich; Mikaloff Fletcher, Sara E; Veidt, Cordelia; Lassey, Keith R; Brailsford, Gordon W; Bromley, Tony M; Dlugokencky, Edward J; Michel, Sylvia E; Miller, John B; Levin, Ingeborg; Lowe, Dave C; Martin, Ross J; Vaughn, Bruce H; White, James W C

    2016-04-01

    Between 1999 and 2006, a plateau interrupted the otherwise continuous increase of atmospheric methane concentration [CH4] since preindustrial times. Causes could be sink variability or a temporary reduction in industrial or climate-sensitive sources. We reconstructed the global history of [CH4] and its stable carbon isotopes from ice cores, archived air, and a global network of monitoring stations. A box-model analysis suggests that diminishing thermogenic emissions, probably from the fossil-fuel industry, and/or variations in the hydroxyl CH4 sink caused the [CH4] plateau. Thermogenic emissions did not resume to cause the renewed [CH4] rise after 2006, which contradicts emission inventories. Post-2006 source increases are predominantly biogenic, outside the Arctic, and arguably more consistent with agriculture than wetlands. If so, mitigating CH4 emissions must be balanced with the need for food production. PMID:26966190

  15. N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels

    A. R. Mosier

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship, on a global basis, between the amount of N fixed by chemical, biological or atmospheric processes entering the terrestrial biosphere, and the total emission of nitrous oxide (N2O, has been re-examined, using known global atmospheric removal rates and concentration growth of N2O as a proxy for overall emissions. The relationship, in both the pre-industrial period and in recent times, after taking into account the large-scale changes in synthetic N fertiliser production and deforestation, is consistent, showing an overall conversion factor of 3–5%. This factor is covered only in part by the ~1% of "direct" emissions from agricultural crop lands estimated by IPCC (2006, or the "indirect" emissions cited therein. This means that the extra N2O entering the atmosphere as a result of using N to produce crops for biofuels will also be correspondingly greater than that estimated just on the basis of IPCC (2006. When the extra N2O emission from biofuel production is calculated in "CO2-equivalent" global warming terms, and compared with the quasi-cooling effect of "saving" emissions of fossil fuel derived CO2, the outcome is that the production of commonly used biofuels, such as biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from corn (maize, can contribute as much or more to global warming by N2O emissions than cooling by fossil fuel savings. Crops with less N demand, such as grasses and woody coppice species have more favourable climate impacts. This analysis only considers the conversion of biomass to biofuel. It does not take into account the use of fossil fuel on the farms and for fertilizer and pesticide production, but it also neglects the production of useful co-products. Both factors partially compensate each other. This needs to be analyzed in a full life cycle assessment.

  16. Analytic framework for analyzing non-energy uses of fossil fuels as petrochemical feedstocks in the USA

    Carbon dioxide emissions from the non-energy use (NEU) of fossil fuels are a significant source of national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the USA. As one of the emission sources that make the largest contribution to the absolute overall level of national emissions, NEU is a 'key source' in the U.S. GHG Inventory, accounting for 4.6% of USA fossil fuel emissions in 2002. As suggested by IPCC/UNEP/OECD/IEA (Revised 1996 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, United Nations Environment Programme, Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development. Paris, France: International Energy Agency; 1997), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has designed an approach for characterizing emissions and long-term storage of carbon in NEU, tailored to USA conditions and data availability, which yield results that are more accurate than application of the general assumptions supplied by the IPCC guidelines. In the USA, of the various non-energy uses of fossil fuels, petrochemical feedstocks is the largest, followed by asphalt, lubricants, and other categories. The overall storage factor for petrochemical feedstocks in the USA for 2002, calculated as the quotient of carbon stored divided by total carbon in feedstocks, is 67%. In other words, of the net consumption, 67% was destined for long-term storage in products - including products subsequently combusted for waste disposal - while the remaining 33% was emitted to the atmosphere directly as CO2 (e.g., through combustion of industrial byproducts) or indirectly as CO2 precursors (e.g., through evaporative product use). The basic framework used in this approach could be applied in other countries, and is similar in several respects to the Non-Energy use Emission Accounting Tables (NEAT) model framework developed independently and described by other authors in this issue

  17. A comparative study of dynamic changes in CO2 emission performance of fossil fuel power plants in China and Korea

    This paper aims to conduct a comparative study of the changes in CO2 emission performance of state-owned fossil fuel power plants between China and Korea. For this purpose, we combine the concept of the metafrontier Malmquist productivity index and the non-radial directional distance function to develop a new index called the non-radial metafrontier Malmquist CO2 emission performance index (NMMCPI). This new methodology allows for the incorporation of technological heterogeneities and slack variables into the previously introduced Malmquist CO2 emission performance index (MCPI). The NMMCPI can be derived by solving several non-radial data envelopment analysis (DEA) models. The NMMCPI can be decomposed into an efficiency change (EC) index, a best-practice gap change (BPC) index, and a technology gap change (TGC) index. By fixing the non-energy inputs, we measure the pure CO2 emission performance change. Based on the proposed indices, the comparative study between Chinese and Korean fossil fuel power industries is conducted for the 2005–2010 period. Empirical results indicate significant differences in terms of various decomposed CO2 emission performance changes between China and Korea. Korean power plants demonstrate improvements in innovation, while Chinese power plants demonstrate a higher ability for technological leadership. Some related policy implications are also proposed based on the empirical results. -- Highlights: •The non-radial metafrontier Malmquist CO2 emission performance index (NMMCPI) is proposed. •It allows for the incorporation of group heterogeneity and non-radial slack. •The changes in CO2 emission performance and its decomposition of fossil fuel power plants in China and Korea are compared

  18. Fire vs. fossil fuel: all CO2 emissions are not created equal

    Landry, J.-S.; Matthews, H. D.

    2015-09-01

    Fire is arguably the most influential natural disturbance in terrestrial ecosystems, thereby playing a major role in carbon exchanges and affecting many climatic processes. Nevertheless, fire has not been the subject of dedicated studies in coupled climate-carbon models with interactive vegetation until very recently. Hence, previous studies resorted to results from simulations of fossil fuel emissions to estimate the effects of fire-induced CO2 emissions. While atmospheric CO2 molecules are all alike, fundamental differences in their origin suggest that the effects from fire emissions on the global carbon cycle and temperature are irreconcilable with the effects from fossil fuel emissions. The main purpose of this study is to illustrate the consequences from these fundamental differences between CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and non-deforestation fires (i.e., following which the natural vegetation can recover) using 1000-year simulations of a coupled climate-carbon model with interactive vegetation. We assessed emissions from both pulse and stable fire regime changes, considering both the gross (carbon released from combustion) and net (fire-caused change in land carbon, also accounting for vegetation decomposition and regrowth, as well as climate-carbon feedbacks) fire CO2 emissions. In all cases, we found substantial differences from equivalent amounts of emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion. These findings suggest that side-by-side comparisons of non-deforestation fire and fossil fuel CO2 emissions - implicitly implying that they have similar effects - should therefore be avoided, particularly when these comparisons involve gross fire emissions. Our results also support the notion that most net emissions occur relatively soon after fire regime shifts and then progressively approach zero, whereas gross emissions stabilize around a new value that is a poor indicator of the cumulative net emissions caused by the fire regime shift. Overall, our study calls for the explicit representation of fire in climate models, rather than resorting to ersatz results coming from fossil fuel simulations, as a valuable step to foster a more accurate understanding of its impacts in the Earth system.

  19. Fire vs. fossil fuel: all CO2 emissions are not created equal

    J.-S. Landry

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fire is arguably the most influential natural disturbance in terrestrial ecosystems, thereby playing a major role in carbon exchanges and affecting many climatic processes. Nevertheless, fire has not been the subject of dedicated studies in coupled climatecarbon models with interactive vegetation until very recently. Hence, previous studies resorted to results from simulations of fossil fuel emissions to estimate the effects of fire-induced CO2 emissions. While atmospheric CO2 molecules are all alike, fundamental differences in their origin suggest that the effects from fire emissions on the global carbon cycle and temperature are irreconcilable with the effects from fossil fuel emissions. The main purpose of this study is to illustrate the consequences from these fundamental differences between CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and non-deforestation fires (i.e., following which the natural vegetation can recover using 1000-year simulations of a coupled climatecarbon model with interactive vegetation. We assessed emissions from both pulse and stable fire regime changes, considering both the gross (carbon released from combustion and net (fire-caused change in land carbon, also accounting for vegetation decomposition and regrowth, as well as climatecarbon feedbacks fire CO2 emissions. In all cases, we found substantial differences from equivalent amounts of emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion. These findings suggest that side-by-side comparisons of non-deforestation fire and fossil fuel CO2 emissions implicitly implying that they have similar effects should therefore be avoided, particularly when these comparisons involve gross fire emissions. Our results also support the notion that most net emissions occur relatively soon after fire regime shifts and then progressively approach zero, whereas gross emissions stabilize around a new value that is a poor indicator of the cumulative net emissions caused by the fire regime shift. Overall, our study calls for the explicit representation of fire in climate models, rather than resorting to ersatz results coming from fossil fuel simulations, as a valuable step to foster a more accurate understanding of its impacts in the Earth system.

  20. Sources of variation in δ13C of fossil fuel emissions in Salt Lake City, USA

    The isotopic composition of fossil fuels is an important component of many studies of C sources and sinks based on atmospheric measurements of CO2. In C budget studies, the isotopic composition of crude petroleum and CH4 are often used as a proxy for the isotopic composition of CO2 emissions from combustion. In this study, the C isotope composition (δ13C) of exhaust from the major fossil fuel emission sources in Salt Lake City, USA, was characterized with 159 measurements of vehicle exhaust of various types and eight measurements of residential furnace exhaust. These two sources were found to be isotopically distinct, and differed from global-scale estimates based on average values for crude petroleum and CH4. Vehicle-specific factors such as engine load and operation time had no effect on δ13C of vehicle exhaust. A small difference was found between the mean δ13C of vehicle exhaust collected randomly from different vehicles and the mean δ13C of gasoline collected from multiple fueling stations representing major gasoline distributors in Salt Lake City and the surrounding area. However, a paired comparison of δ13C of exhaust and gasoline for six different vehicles did not show any consistent C isotope fractionation during vehicle combustion. The mean δ13C of crude petroleum processed for local distribution differed slightly from refined gasoline collected at multiple fueling stations, but time lags between processing and transportation cannot be ruled out as an uncontrollable contributing factor. Measured isotope ratios were then combined with fuel consumption statistics to predict the annual cycle of δ13C of fossil fuel emissions for the Salt Lake City metropolitan area. The results showed that the isotopic composition of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion varied by almost 3 per mille over the course of the 2002 calendar year. This study illustrates that on a regional scale, the isotopic composition of fossil fuel emissions shows a high degree of both spatial and temporal variability that may influence characterization of C sources and sinks with atmospheric measurements

  1. Fossil fuels in a changing climate: how to protect the world's climate by ending the use of coal, oil and gas

    The results of analysis conducted for Greenpeace reported in this document show that contrary to the message from the fossil fuel industries and some governments, that future energy security is dependent on a continuing increase in the use of oil, coal, gas and nuclear energy, it is not only possible to phase out the use of fossil fuels but this is also achievable in a relatively short timescale. The analysis was based on the computer modelling of energy technologies and policies, linked to the related impact on the world's climate. In the analysis, global carbon dioxide emissions from world fossil fuel use fall by more than 50% within 40 years, and 100% by the year 2100. The phase-out of fossil fuels is made possible by the rapid implementation of energy efficiency, together with extensive use of clean renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass, small-scale hydro and geothermal power. Renewable energy currently delivering 14% of global energy supply, could provide more than 60% by 2030, and all the world's energy needs by 2100. Nuclear power could be phased out by 2100. Greenpeace believes that new policies are needed to see the world on the path of a cleaner energy future. Strong protocols are needed to the international climate convention to set targets on energy efficiency and reneable energy for signatory countries as well as providing funding to allow the south to participate effectively

  2. Applications of biotechnology in the fossil fuel sector

    A review is presented of the effects of micoorganisms on petroleum industry operations and on the potentially significant applications of biotechnology in that sector. Detrimental aspects of microbial activity include the biodegradation of petroleum products and petrochemical products, microbially influenced corrosion, and microbial souring of oil reservoirs by sulfate reducing bacteria. Beneficial aspects include microbially enhanced oil recovery, the mapping of the presence of ethane oxidizing bacteria as an exploration tool, the use of bacterial systems for plugging during hydraulic fracturing, microbially stimulated oil production, microbial dewaxing, use of biopolymers such as xanthan in drilling muds, microbial surfactants and emulsifiers for use in pipelining of viscous oils, microbial upgrading of oil, manufacture of biodegradable products, and bioremediation of contaminated sites. Microbially enhanced oil recovery technologies, well and tank cleaning operations based on microbial formulations, and microbial-based well stimulation and cleaning operations have already reached field trial success, with commercial success in several cases. The hottest area of application in the 1990s will undoubtedly be in the area of biological remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites and emissions. 39 refs

  3. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    Carl R. Evenson; Shane E. Roark

    2006-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. A family of hydrogen separation membranes was developed including single phase mixed conducting ceramics, ceramic/ceramic composites, cermet membranes, cermet membranes containing a hydrogen permeable metal, and intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. Each membrane type had different operating parameters, advantages, and disadvantages that were documented over the course of the project. Research on these membranes progressed from ceramics to cermets to intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. During this progression performance was increased from 0.01 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2} up to 423 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2}. Eltron and team membranes not only developed each membrane type, but also membrane surface catalysis and impurity tolerance, creation of thin film membranes, alternative applications such as membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation, demonstration of scale-up testing, and complete engineering documentation including process and mechanical considerations necessary for inclusion of Eltron membranes in a full scale integrated gasification combined cycle power plant. The results of this project directly led to a new $15 million program funded by the Department of Energy. This new project will focus exclusively on scale-up of this technology as part of the FutureGen initiative.

  4. The fossil trace of CO2 emissions in multi-fuel energy systems

    The search for sustainability in energy systems has increased the concern to reduce pollutant emissions and waste. Among the several strategies that help in this task are increased energy efficiency, carbon capture and storage, hybrid renewable-fossil systems, and system integration. All of them often result in complex multi-fuel multi-product systems. Conventional thermoeconomic analysis of such systems does not give information related to the type of energy source used, nor to the emissions generated. The aim of this work is to provide a method to reveal the fate of energy resources inside a system. We present a methodology to decompose exergy flows into as many parts as different types of external resources a system has. The proposed method was applied to a cogeneration system, showing to be a powerful tool to analyze multi-fuel systems, especially hybrid fossil-renewable plants, since the evolution of fossil resources can be tracked through the entire system. It also presents an answer to the unsolved problem of discriminated conversion efficiency, fuel impact and CO2 emissions impact when different fuels are used, which allows an extended analysis of energy systems, by taking into account the existence of a carbon tax. - Highlights: Every exergy stream of a system is decomposed according to the different origins of external resources. The conversion efficiency of each type of resource into every product of the system is determined. Discriminated fuel impact of every type of fuel is determined. The impact on CO2 emissions for multi-fuel energy systems is defined. A carbon tax is taken into account to define de operation cost impact of the system

  5. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Scott R. Morrison; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephen; Frank E. Anderson; Shandra Ratnasamy; Jon P. Wagner; Clive Brereton

    2004-01-30

    The objective of this project is to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. Currently, this project is focusing on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites with hydrogen permeable alloys. The primary technical challenge in achieving the goals of this project will be to optimize membrane composition to enable practical hydrogen separation rates and chemical stability. Other key aspects of this developing technology include catalysis, ceramic processing methods, and separation unit design operating under high pressure. To achieve these technical goals, Eltron Research Inc. has organized a consortium consisting of CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, Inc. (SCI), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and NORAM. Hydrogen permeation rates in excess of 50 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup 2} at {approx}440 C were routinely achieved under less than optimal experimental conditions using a range of membrane compositions. Factors that limit the maximum permeation attainable were determined to be mass transport resistance of H{sub 2} to and from the membrane surface, as well as surface contamination. Mass transport resistance was partially overcome by increasing the feed and sweep gas flow rates to greater than five liters per minute. Under these experimental conditions, H2 permeation rates in excess of 350 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup 2} at {approx}440 C were attained. These results are presented in this report, in addition to progress with cermets, thin film fabrication, catalyst development, and H{sub 2} separation unit scale up.

  6. Heat planning for fossil-fuel-free district heating areas with extensive end-use heat savings

    Harrestrup, Maria; Svendsen, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Danish government plans to make the Danish energy system to be completely free of fossil fuels by 2050 and that by 2035 the energy supply for buildings and electricity should be entirely based on renewable energy sources. To become independent from fossil fuels, it is necessary to reduce the...... energy consumption of the existing building stock, increase energy efficiency, and convert the present heat supply from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. District heating is a sustainable way of providing space heating and domestic hot water to buildings in densely populated areas. This paper is...

  7. The role of natural gas in assessing environmental cost of fossil fuels

    The actual price of a resource is the results of its internal and external costs. Internal costs means the price paid by the users in order to utilise the resource. On the other hand, externals costs, which are associated with the resource, are not paid directly by the users, but they shall be paid for by the society of the future generations. The article presents methodologies and issues relevant to energy policy decisions, when it comes to evaluating and using environmental external costs of fossil fuel life, with particular consideration to the end-use phase. The results of published studies on environmental costs of energy sources and an analysis applied to the Italia case show that natural gas as a significantly higher environmental value than other fossil fuels. The range of values depends upon the technologies considered and on the assumptions adopted when assessment environmental damages

  8. Processing of solid fossil-fuel deposits by electrical induction heating

    Fisher, S. T.

    1980-02-01

    A study has been made to determine the feasibility of extracting the energy commodities electricity, gas, petroleum, chemical feedstocks, and coke from the solid fossil fuels coal, oil shale, oil sand, and heavy oil by the electrical induction heating of the deposits. Available electrical, physical, and chemical data indicate that this process may be technically and economically feasible. Some basic data are missing, and it has been necessary to indicate possible ranges of values for some parameters. The tentative conclusions drawn are the following. All four solid fossil fuels can be processed successfully underground. All five energy commodities can be produced economically in adequate quantities for a period of a century or more in North America, without recourse to any other major energy source. The development and construction time required is short enough to permit an uninterrupted supply of all energy commodities as present sources decline

  9. Formulating Energy Policies Related to Fossil Fuel Use: Critical Uncertainties in the Global Carbon Cycle

    Post, W. M.; Dale, V. H.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Mann, L. K.; Mulholland, P. J.; O`Neill, R. V.; Peng, T. -H.; Farrell, M. P.

    1990-02-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs.

  10. Diagnosis of Heat Exchanger Tube Failure in Fossil Fuel Boilers Through Estimation of Steady State Operating Conditions

    Estimation of operating conditions for fossil fuel boiler heat exchangers is often required due to changes in working conditions, design modifications and especially for monitoring performance and failure diagnosis. Regular heat exchangers in fossil fuel boilers are composed of tube banks through which water or steam flow, while hot combustion (flue) gases flow outside the tubes. This work presents a top-down approach to operating conditions estimation based on field measurements. An example for a 350 MW unit superheater is thoroughly discussed. Integral calculations based on measurements for all unit heat exchangers (reheaters, superheaters) were performed first. Based on these calculations a scheme of integral conservation equations (lumped parameter) was then formulated at the single tube level. Steady state temperatures of superheater tube walls were obtained as a main output, and were compared to the maximum allowable operating temperatures of the tubes material. A combined lumped parameter - CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics, FLUENT code) approach constitutes an efficient tool in certain cases. A brief report of such a case is given for another unit superheater. We conclude that steady state evaluations based on both integral and detailed simulations are a valuable monitoring and diagnosis tool for the power generation industry

  11. Trees and biomass energy: carbon storage and/or fossil fuel substitution?

    Studies on climate change and energy production increasingly recognise the crucial role of biological systems. Carbon sinks in forests (above and below ground), CO2 emissions from deforestation, planting trees for carbon storage, and biomass as a substitute for fossil fuels are some key issues which arise. This paper assesses various forestry strategies and examines land availability, forest management, environmental sustainability, social and political factors, infrastructure and organisation, economic feasibility, and ancillary benefits associated with biomass for energy. (author)

  12. Public money for fossil fuels in the EU and in three EU member states

    This research report aims to provide an overview of all forms of public money spent on the production and primary processing of fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) in France, the Netherlands, United Kingdom and the European Union since early 2004. Public money includes R and D subsidies, investment and other subsidies; export credits and guarantees; tax rebates and reductions; bilateral development aid and other forms of financial incentives.

  13. Bioethanol from poplar clone Imola: an environmentally viable alternative to fossil fuel?

    GUO, MIAO; Li, Changsheng; Facciotto, Gianni; Bergante, Sara; Bhatia, Rakesh; Comolli, Roberto; Ferré, Chiara; Murphy, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background Environmental issues, e.g. climate change, fossil resource depletion have triggered ambitious national/regional policies to develop biofuel and bioenergy roles within the overall energy portfolio to achieve decarbonising the global economy and increase energy security. With the 10 % binding target for the transport sector, the Renewable Energy Directive confirms the EU’s commitment to renewable transport fuels especially advanced biofuels. Imola is an elite poplar clone crossed fro...

  14. Substitution elasticities between capital, labour, material, electricity and fossil fuels in German producing and service sectors

    Koschel, Henrike

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, substitutional relationships between capital, labour, material, electricity, and fossil fuels in German producing and service sectors are estimated using a translog cost function. Estimates are based on a pooled time-series cross-sectional data sample for the period 1978-90 and nearly 50 sectors reported by the national account statistics. Results indicate that, except for the service sectors, own-price elasticities of all factor demands are below 0.5 (in absolute terms). In te...

  15. Implications of alternative mitigation policies on world prices for fossil fuels and agricultural products

    PALTSEV Sergey

    2012-01-01

    Emissions mitigation policies affect prices, including prices for fossil fuels and agricultural products. Consumer prices for coal and natural gas are expected to rise when climate policy is implemented, while oil prices may be reduced or remain the same in comparison to a no policy scenario. Impacts on agricultural prices are more controversial as reduced negative productivity impacts on yields are compensated by increased costs of energy inputs to agriculture, lower CO2 fertilization effect...

  16. Fossil fuel extraction and climate policy: A review of the green paradox with endogenous resource exploration

    Österle, Ines

    2012-01-01

    Policies aimed at reducing emissions from fossil fuels may increase climate damages. This “Green Paradox” emerges if resource owners increase near-term extraction in fear of stricter future policy measures. Hans-Werner Sinn (2008) showed that the paradox occurs when increasing resource taxes are applied within a basic exhaustible resource model. This article highlights that the emergence of the Green Paradox within this framework relies on the non-existence of a backstop technology and fixed ...

  17. Efficient management of insecure fossil fuel imports through taxing (!) domestic green energy?

    Eichner, Thomas; Pethig, Rüdiger

    2009-01-01

    A small open economy produces a consumer good, green and black energy, and imports fossil fuel at an uncertain price. Unregulated competitive markets are shown to be inefficient. The implied market failures are due to the agents' attitudes toward risk, to risk shifting and the uniform price for both types of energy. Under the plausible assumptions that consumers are prudent and at least as risk averse as the producers of black energy, the risk can be efficiently managed by taxing emissions an...

  18. Fire vs. fossil fuel: all CO2 emissions are not created equal

    J.-S. Landry; Matthews, H. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is arguably the most influential natural disturbance in terrestrial ecosystems, thereby playing a major role in carbon exchanges and affecting many climatic processes. Nevertheless, fire has not been the subject of dedicated studies in coupled climate–carbon models with interactive vegetation until very recently. Hence, previous studies resorted to results from simulations of fossil fuel emissions to estimate the effects of fire-induc...

  19. CO2 emission mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Méjean, Aurélie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; ASHINA Shuichi; CALVIN, KATHERINE; WADA Kenichi; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher than coal prices. A first deviation from optimal transition pathways is delayed acti...

  20. Think Globally, Act Locally? Stock vs Flow Regulation of a Fossil Fuel

    Amigues, Jean-Pierre; CHAKRAVORTY Ujjayant; Moreaux, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of environmental externalities like global warming from the burning of fossil fuels (e.g., coal and oil) is often done by capping both emission flows and stocks. For example, the European Union and states in the Northeastern United States have introduced caps on flows of carbon emissions while the stated goal of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) which provides the science behind the current global climate negotiations is to stabilize the atmospheric stock of carb...

  1. Interaction of carbon reduction and green energy promotion in a small fossil-fuel importing economy

    Pethig, Rüdiger; Wittlich, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We study the incidence of carbon-reduction and green-energy promotion policies in a general equilibrium small open economy that depends on imports of fossil fuels. The focus is on mixed policies that are either price based (emissions taxes and producer price subsidies for green energy) or quantity based (schemes of trading emissions and green certificates). Policy instruments directed head-on toward promoting green energy are shown to also reduce carbon emissions and vice versa but the direct...

  2. A new evaluation of the uncertainty associated with CDIAC estimates of fossil fuel carbon dioxide emission

    Andres, Robert J.; Boden, Thomas A.; Higdon, David

    2014-01-01

    Three uncertainty assessments associated with the global total of carbon dioxide emitted from fossil fuel use and cement production are presented. Each assessment has its own strengths and weaknesses and none give a full uncertainty assessment of the emission estimates. This approach grew out of the lack of independent measurements at the spatial and temporal scales of interest. Issues of dependent and independent data are considered as well as the temporal and spatial relationships of the da...

  3. Nitrogen compounds in pressurised fluidised bed gasification of biomass and fossil fuels:

    De Jong, W

    2005-01-01

    Fossil fuels still dominate the energy supply in modern societies. The resources, however, are depleting. Therefore, other energy sources are to be exploited further within this century. Biomass is one of the practically CO2 neutral, renewable contributors to the future energy production. Nowadays many modern, high efficiency (combined) power and heat producing systems using biomass are or become commercially available. One promising route to efficient power and heat supply is the Integrated ...

  4. Comparative studies on Ar and He closed-cycle MHD power plants combined with fossil fuel

    Comparative studies on Ar and He closed-cycle MHD power plants combined with fossil fuel are performed. The sizes of a regenerative heat exchanger and a boiler are expected to be smaller for He than for Ar. The pressure loss of a working gas in a regenerative heat exchanger is reduced for He. The purification subsystem for He is expected to be more compact and economical than that for Ar; but a larger compressor is required for He than for Ar. (author)

  5. Pareto optimality in the extraction of fossil fuels and the greenhouse effect: a note

    Sinn, Hans-Werner

    2007-01-01

    This note generalizes the Solow-Stiglitz efficiency condition for natural resources to the problem of fossil fuel extraction with a greenhouse effect. The generalized optimality condition suggests that the greenhouse effect implies overextraction in the sense of leaving future generations a wrongly composed wealth portfolio with too few natural resources relative to man-made capital. This judgment is independent of society's ethical preferences concerning the well-being of future generations.

  6. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    R. J. Andres; T. A. Boden; F.-M. Bréon; Ciais, P; Davis, S; Erickson, D.; Gregg, J. S.; A. Jacobson; Marland, G.; Miller, J.; Oda, T; Olivier, J. G. J.; Raupach, M. R.; Rayner, P.; Treanton, K

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how...

  7. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    R. J. Andres; T. A. Boden; Bréon, F.-M.; Ciais, P; Davis, S; Erickson, D.; Gregg, J. S.; A. Jacobson; Marland, G.; Miller, J.; Oda, T; Olivier, J. G. J.; Raupach, M. R.; Rayner, P.; Treanton, K

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and te...

  8. A multiyear, global gridded fossil fuel CO2 emission data product: Evaluation and analysis of results

    Asefi-Najafabady, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Gurney, K. R.; McRobert, A.; Song, Y.; Coltin, K.; Huang, J.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution, global quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle science and climate policy. We build upon a previously developed fossil fuel data assimilation system (FFDAS) for estimating global high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions. We have improved the underlying observationally based data sources, expanded the approach through treatment of separate emitting sectors including a new pointwise database of global power plants, and extended the results to cover a 1997 to 2010 time series at a spatial resolution of 0.1°. Long-term trend analysis of the resulting global emissions shows subnational spatial structure in large active economies such as the United States, China, and India. These three countries, in particular, show different long-term trends and exploration of the trends in nighttime lights, and population reveal a decoupling of population and emissions at the subnational level. Analysis of shorter-term variations reveals the impact of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis with widespread negative emission anomalies across the U.S. and Europe. We have used a center of mass (CM) calculation as a compact metric to express the time evolution of spatial patterns in fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The global emission CM has moved toward the east and somewhat south between 1997 and 2010, driven by the increase in emissions in China and South Asia over this time period. Analysis at the level of individual countries reveals per capita CO2 emission migration in both Russia and India. The per capita emission CM holds potential as a way to succinctly analyze subnational shifts in carbon intensity over time. Uncertainties are generally lower than the previous version of FFDAS due mainly to an improved nightlight data set.

  9. Social Costs of Air Pollution and Fossil Fuel Use – A Macroeconomic Approach

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    1998-01-01

    Economic activity and environmental conditions are related to each other in several ways. Production and consumption may pollute the environment, and at the same time the state of the environment may affect the production capacity of the economy. Thus, it follows that studying social costs of air pollution should be handled within an integrated model. Moreover, air pollution mostly stems from the use of fossil fuels, which also brings about other non-environmental externalities, particularly ...

  10. Nitrogen compounds in pressurised fluidised bed gasification of biomass and fossil fuels

    De Jong, W.

    2005-01-01

    Fossil fuels still dominate the energy supply in modern societies. The resources, however, are depleting. Therefore, other energy sources are to be exploited further within this century. Biomass is one of the practically CO2 neutral, renewable contributors to the future energy production. Nowadays many modern, high efficiency (combined) power and heat producing systems using biomass are or become commercially available. One promising route to efficient power and heat supply is the Integrated ...

  11. Environmental impact of fossil fuel utilization in the thermal power plant

    Carbon dioxide causes green house effect, has been considered as a pollutant source of our safe environment. Since combustion of fossil fuel may create tremendous amount of carbon dioxide, detecting any pollutant sources would be important to eliminate the pollution sources. Evaluation of smoke dispersion that has been generated by a power plant utilizing fossil fuel is the objective of this paper. The concentration of NO, and SO, in the soil, have been analyzed from a distance of 3 to 4 km far from power plant. The experimental results shown. that the concentration of toxic gases was a little above the international standards. Replacement of fossil fuel by natural gas caused NO, concentration to be developed in the atmosphere, therefore usage of natural gas is limited by environmental protection agencies. Beside the nuclear power plant, the power generated by other sources. are limited. Electric power generated by water dam is not a major contribution of electric power demand. Therefore generation of electricity by any other energy sources, which are friendly to the environment, is recommended. Other sources of energy, such as wind power, solar energy, geothermal, ocean thennal and renewable source of energy can be considered safe for the environment. The goal of environmental management system would be to meet the minimum requirements were established and demanded by the local environmental protection agency or international standard organization (ISO-14000). (Author)

  12. Solar thermal technologies as a bridge from fossil fuels to renewables

    Dalvi, Vishwanath Haily; Panse, Sudhir V.; Joshi, Jyeshtharaj B.

    2015-11-01

    Integrating solar thermal systems into Rankine-cycle power plants can be done with minimal modification to the existing infrastructure. This presents an opportunity to introduce these technologies into the commercial space incrementally, to allow engineers to build familiarity with the systems before phasing out fossil-fuel energy with solar electricity. This paper shows that there is no thermodynamic barrier to injecting solar thermal heat into Rankine-cycle plants to offset even up to 50% fossil-fuel combustion with existing technology: with better solar-to-electricity efficiencies than conventionally deployed solar-thermal power plants. This strategy is economically preferable to installing carbon-capture and compression equipment for mitigating an equivalent amount of greenhouse-gas emissions. We suggest that such projects be encouraged by extending the same subsidy/incentives to the solar-thermal fraction of a `solar-aided’ plant that would be offered to a conventionally deployed solar-thermal power plant of similar capacity. Such a policy would prepare the ground for an incremental solar-thermal takeover of fossil-fuel power plants.

  13. Combined-cycle plants for maximum generation of thermal energy with fossil fuels

    The two thermodynamic processes, cogeneration with combined-cycle plants and thermal compression with heat pumps - one following the other - make it possible to generate the greatest amount of thermal energy possible from a given amount of fossil fuel. That amount exceeds by far the heat value of the fuel used. Cogeneration plants based on combined-cycle installations are also the most efficient way to compensate for the loss in electric power (amounting to approx. 1/7 of the thermal energy produced) resulting from nuclear cogeneration of district heat. (author) 15 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  14. Clean uses of fossil fuels. Progress performance report, September 29, 1991--January 25, 1994

    Stencel, J.M.

    1994-01-25

    Science and engineering doctoral students performing energy related research were supported by a USDOE/ESPCoR Traineeship grant awarded to the Kentucky EPSCoR Committee. The grant, administered by the KY DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee, focused on research having the general description of {open_quotes}Clean Uses of Fossil Fuels{close_quotes}. The value of the grant was $500,000 for three years duration, beginning September 30, 1991 and ending September 29, 1994. Ten PhD students were selected for support during the first year of the Traineeship. Upon reviewing coursework and research progress of the students at the end of the first year, the KY DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee awarded a second year of support at the same $25,000/year funding level. A total of 12 students will have been supported during the duration of the grant as a consequence of one student completing his degree during the support period and of one student deciding that she wanted to complete only a Masters rather than a PhD degree. The students supported were at either the University of Kentucky or the University of Louisville - the two PhD, science and engineering granting universities within the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The disciplines of these students included Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Physics. The methods used for the initial statewide solicitation for student support, the annual review of the students progress for support renewal, and a summary of progress and impact of the awards after two years are presented. It is shown that the Traineeships presented opportunities to: perform high quality research; initiate interactions between different scientific disciplines and departments; develop collaborations at national DOE laboratories, universities outside of Kentucky and industries; and establish research ideas for submittal to funding agencies.

  15. The Future of Fossil Fuels: A Century of Abundance or a Century of Decline?

    Nelder, C.

    2012-12-01

    Horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and other advanced technologies have spawned a host of new euphoric forecasts of hydrocarbon abundance. Yet although the world's remaining oil and gas resources are enormous, most of them are destined to stay in the ground due to real-world constraints on price, flow rates, investor appetite, supply chain security, resource quality, and global economic conditions. While laboring under the mistaken belief that it sits atop a 100-year supply of natural gas, the U.S. is contemplating exporting nearly all of its shale gas production even as that production is already flattening due to poor economics. Instead of bringing "energy independence" to the U.S. and making it the top oil exporter, unrestricted drilling for tight oil and in the federal outer continental shelf would cut the lifespan of U.S. oil production in half and make it the world's most desperate oil importer by mid-century. And current forecasts for Canadian tar sands production are as unrealistic as their failed predecessors. Over the past century, world energy production has moved progressively from high quality resources with high production rates and low costs to lower quality resources with lower production rates and higher costs, and that progression is accelerating. Soon we will discover the limits of practical extraction, as production costs exceed consumer price tolerance. Oil and gas from tight formations, shale, bitumen, kerogen, coalbeds, deepwater, and the Arctic are not the stuff of new abundance, but the oil junkie's last dirty fix. This session will highlight the gap between the story the industry tells about our energy future, and the story the data tells about resource size, production rates, costs, and consumer price tolerance. It will show why it's time to put aside unrealistic visions of continued dependence on fossil fuels, face up to a century of decline, and commit ourselves to energy and transportation transition.

  16. The industrial nuclear fuel cycle in Argentina

    The nuclear power program of Argentina for the period 1976-85 is described, as a basis to indicate fuel requirements and the consequent implementation of a national fuel cycle industry. Fuel cycle activities in Argentina were initiated as soon as 1951-2 in the prospection and mining activities through the country. Following this step, yellow-cake production was initiated in plants of limited capacity. National production of uranium concentrate has met requirements up to the present time, and will continue to do so until the Sierra Pintada Industrial Complex starts operation in 1979. Presently, there is a gap in local production of uranium dioxide and fuel elements for the Atucha power station, which are produced abroad using Argentine uranium concentrate. With its background, the argentine program for the installation of nuclear fuel cycle industries is described, and the techno-economical implications considered. Individual projects are reviewed, as well as the present and planned infrastructure needed to support the industrial effort

  17. Estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels combustion in the main sectors of selected countries 1971-1990

    Calculations of sectoral CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning in the period 1971-1990 were done for the 15 countries at the top of the list of nations ordered by decreasing contribution to global emissions, namely: United States of America, Soviet Union, People's Republic of China, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom, India, Poland, Canada, France, Italy, German Democratic Republic, South Africa, Mexico and Czechoslovakia. In addition, the CO2 emission of two groups of industrialized countries, namely the OECD and the European Economic Community (EEC) were calculated. The main recommendations of the IPCC/OECD current methodology have been adopted for the calculations, with the principal exception that CO2 emissions from the use of bunker fuels have not been included in the national estimates. The sectors are: 1. Transformations. Total emissions and the part stemming from power plants 2. Industry (excluding Feedstocks) 3. Transportation 4. Agriculture 5. Residential 6. Commerce and Public Services 7. Non-specified Other 8. Non-Energy Use 9. Feedstocks (in Industry). Data are presented in tables and diagrams. (orig./KW)

  18. Time scales and ratios of climate forcing due to thermal versus carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-06-01

    The Earth warms both when fossil fuel carbon is oxidized to carbon dioxide and when greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide inhibits longwave radiation from escaping to space. Various important time scales and ratios comparing these two climate forcings have not previously been quantified. For example, the global and time-integrated radiative forcing from burning a fossil fuel exceeds the heat released upon combustion within 2 months. Over the long lifetime of CO2 in the atmosphere, the cumulative CO2-radiative forcing exceeds the amount of energy released upon combustion by a factor >100,000. For a new power plant, the radiative forcing from the accumulation of released CO2 exceeds the direct thermal emissions in less than half a year. Furthermore, we show that the energy released from the combustion of fossil fuels is now about 1.71% of the radiative forcing from CO2 that has accumulated in the atmosphere as a consequence of historical fossil fuel combustion.

  19. Options contracts in the nuclear fuel industry

    This article discusses options trading in the nuclear fuels industry. Although there now exists no formal options market in the nuclear industry, flexibilities, or embedded options, are actually quite common in the long-term supply contracts. The value of these flexibilities can be estimated by applying the methods used to evaluate options. The method used is the Black-Scholes Model, and it is applied to a number of examples

  20. The industrial production of fuel elements

    The authors deal successively with the industrial production of fuel elements for power reactors of the natural uranium-graphite-gas type, and more particularly for the EDF power stations, and with the industrial production of fuel elements containing enriched uranium designed for swimming-pool type reactors. 1. part: advanced fuel elements for the EDF reactors. After recalling the characteristics of the fuel elements now being produced industrially for the Marcoule and Chinon reactors, the authors give the various steps leading to the industrial production of a new type of fuel element both as concerns the can, and in certain cases the graphite sleeve, and the fuel itself. As for as the production of the fuel is concerned, they describe the various operations, stressing the original aspects of the production and of the equipment such as: - casting in hot moulds, - thermal treatments, of Uranium containing 1% in weight molybdenum, - welding of the pellets for closing the tubes of uranium, - canning, - controls in the various steps. As far as can production is concerned they show why the extruded can was replaced by a machined can and give a few characteristics of the equipment used as well as the controls effected. They give also some details concerning the production and machining of the sleeves. After recalling the state of the nuclear fuel industry in France in mid-1964 the authors stress the economic aspects of the production of fuel elements. They show the relative importance of capital costs on the cost price of the fuel itself and examine the various items involved. They analyse the cost price of a completed fuel element using present date knowledge. In conclusion the authors show the particular points which should be the subject of future efforts in order to decrease the cost of a production which is perhaps delicate but now will define, and review the development of this new industrial branch. 2. part: industrial production of fuel elements for swimming-pool type reactors. The authors show how the problem of the industrial production of rolled fuel elements has been solved in France, and give the three steps involved: 1 - Assembly of the plates made in the U.S.A., 2 - Rolling of the cores made in the U.S.A. to obtain the plates, 3 - Fabrication of the U-Al alloy and production of the cores. They then recall briefly the characteristics of the different fuel elements now in production. A description is given of the various stages of the production including information about the equipment; stress is laid on the extent of the controls carried out at each stage. In conclusion the authors consider the future development of this type of production taking into account the improvements planned and those which are possible. (authors)

  1. ELECTRICITY SUPPLY, FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION, CO2 EMISSIONS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: IMPLICATIONS AND POLICY OPTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

    Chibueze Eze Nnaji; Jude O. Chukwu; Moses Nnaji

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the causal relationship among electricity supply, fossil fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Nigeria for the period 1971-2009, in a multivariate framework.Using the bound test approach to cointegration, we found a short-run as well as a long-run relationship among the variables with a positive and statistically significant relationship between CO2 emissions and fossil fuel consumption. The findings also indicate that economic growth is associated wit...

  2. A novel approach for independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO2 over Europe by 14CO2 observations

    Levin, Ingeborg; Kromer, Bernd; Schmidt, Martina; Sartorius, Hartmut

    2003-01-01

    Long-term atmospheric 14CO2 observations are deployed to quantify fossil fuel derived CO2 concentrations at a regional polluted site, and at a continental mountain station in south-west Germany. Fossil fuel CO2 emission rates for the relevant catchment areas are obtained by applying the Radon-Tracer-Method. They are shown to compare well with statistical emissions inventories but reveal a larger seasonality than assumed earlier, thus contributing significantly to the observed CO2 seasonal cyc...

  3. A New Algorithm of Parameter Estimation for the Logistic Equation in Modeling CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion

    Ming Meng; Wei Shang; Dongxiao Niu; Qian Gao

    2014-01-01

    CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion have been considered as the most important driving factor of global climate change. A complete understanding of the rules of CO2 emissions is warranted in modifying the climate change mitigation policy. The current paper advanced a new algorithm of parameter estimation for the logistic equation, which was used to simulate the trend of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The differential equation of the transformed logistic equation was used as ...

  4. Climate change adaptation, damages and fossil fuel dependence. An RETD position paper on the costs of inaction

    Katofsky, Ryan; Stanberry, Matt; Hagenstad, Marca; Frantzis, Lisa

    2011-07-15

    The Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (RETD) agreement initiated this project to advance the understanding of the ''Costs of Inaction'', i.e. the costs of climate change adaptation, damages and fossil fuel dependence. A quantitative estimate was developed as well as a better understanding of the knowledge gaps and research needs. The project also included some conceptual work on how to better integrate the analyses of mitigation, adaptation, damages and fossil fuel dependence in energy scenario modelling.

  5. Fossil fuels

    The Support for East European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 required the Secretary of Energy to cooperate with Polish officials to retrofit a coal-fired powerplant in Poland with advanced clean coal technology that has been successfully demonstrated in the United States. The project's goal is to demonstrate a cost-effective technique to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions that can be used at other powerplants in Poland. The act required that the retrofit be carried out by United States companies using United States technology and equipment manufactured in the United States. Questions were raised about changes the Department of Energy (DOE) made to its original definition of a United States firm, and about reductions DOE made to its original SO2 emission requirements for the project. Such changes might result in foreign-owned rather than American-owned firms providing the technology and that the technology might not be the best this country could offer to the Polish people. This paper reviews the reasons for these changes

  6. Presence of estrogenic activity from emission of fossil fuel combustion as detected by a recombinant yeast bioassay

    Wang, Jingxian; Wu, Wenzhong; Henkelmann, Bernhard; You, Li; Kettrup, Antonius; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    Estrogenic activities of emission samples generated by fossil fuel combustion were investigated with human estrogen receptor (ER) recombinant yeast bioassay. The results showed that there were weak but clear estrogenic activities in combustion emissions of fossil fuels including coal, petroleum, and diesel. The estrogenic relative potency (RP) of fossil fuel combustion was the highest in petroleum-fired car, followed by coal-fired stove, diesel-fired agrimotor, coal-fired electric power station. On the other hand, the estrogenic relative inductive efficiency (RIE) was the highest in coal-fired stove and coal-fired electric power station, followed by petroleum-fired car and diesel-fired agrimotor. The estrogenic activities in the sub-fractions from chromatographic separation of emitted materials were also determined. The results indicated that different chemical fractions in these complex systems have different estrogenic potencies. The GC/MS analysis of the emission showed that there were many aromatic carbonyls, big molecular alcohol, PAHs and derivatives, and substituted phenolic compounds and derivatives which have been reported as environmental estrogens. The existence of estrogenic substances in fossil fuel combustion demands further investigation of their potential adverse effects on human and on the ecosystem. The magnitude of pollution due to global usage of fossil fuels makes it imperative to understand the issue of fossil fuel-derived endocrine activities and the associated health risks, particularly the aggregated risks stemmed from exposure to toxicants of multiple sources.

  7. Long-term tradeoffs between nuclear- and fossil-fuel burning

    A global energy/economics/environmental (E3) model has been adapted with a nuclear energy/materials model to understand better open-quotes top-levelclose quotes, long-term trade offs between civilian nuclear power, nuclear-weapons proliferation, fossil-fuel burning, and global economic welfare. Using a open-quotes business-as-usualclose quotes (BAU) point-of-departure case, economic, resource, proliferation-risk implications of plutonium recycle in LAIRs, greenhouse-gas-mitigating carbon taxes, and a range of nuclear energy costs (capital and fuel) considerations have been examined. After describing the essential elements of the analysis approach being developed to support the Los Alamos Nuclear Vision Project, preliminary examples of parametric variations about the BAU base-case scenario are presented. The results described herein represent a sampling from more extensive results collected in a separate report. The primary motivation here is: (a) to compare the BAU basecase with results from other studies; (b) to model on a regionally resolved global basis long-term (to year ∼2100) evolution of plutonium accumulation in a variety of forms under a limited range of fuel-cycle scenarios; and (c) to illustrate a preliminary connectivity between risks associated with nuclear proliferation and fossil-fuel burning (e.g., greenhouse-gas accumulations)

  8. Comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of biodiesel and fossil diesel fuel

    Complementary to VlTO's demonstration project on the use of biodiesel as engine fuel (including on the road emission measurements) in Flanders, Belgium, a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) has been carried out for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and fossil diesel fuel. The primary concern of this study is the question as to whether or not the production of biodiesel is comparable to the production of fossil diesel fuel from an environmental point of view, taking into account all stages of the life cycle of these two products. The study covers: (1) a description of the LCA methodology used; (2) a definition of the goal and scope of the study: (3) an inventory of the consumption of energy and materials and the discharges to the environment, from the cradle to the grave, for both alternative fuels: (4) a comparative impact assessment; and (5) the interpretation of the results. The results of this comparative LCA can be used in the final decision making process next to the results of a social and economical assessment. 6 refs

  9. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  10. Fossil fuel consumption and heavy metal emissions into the atmosphere in Russia

    In recent decades more and more attention has been paid to the problem of ecosystem pollution by heavy metals. Many trace elements are registered now as a global pollutant due to their toxic nature. Their negative influence on the environment is caused by accumulation in different ecosystem components and increased involvement in biochemical cycles. The atmosphere is the main medium through which pollutants transported from emission sources to background territories where heavy metals are deposited into water and on plants. Heavy metal emissions into the atmosphere cause certain global environmental problems due to their long lifetime and the long-term transport of these elements in the atmosphere, as well as the increasing rate of their accumulation in the environment even at most remote territories. Moreover, heavy metals have evidently entered human food chains. The influence of global ecosystem pollution by heavy metals on human health is not well known as yet. Most trace elements comes into the atmosphere with natural and man-made aerosols. The main sources of natural aerosols in the atmosphere are soil erosion and weathering of mountain rocks, volcanic and space dust, forest firing smoke, and others. Major anthropogenic sources of toxic elements are fossil fuel combustion, mining, industrial processes, and waste incineration. The anthropogenic flow of heavy metals to the atmosphere is about 94-97 per cent of the total. An inventory of emission sources should be the first step in developing a control strategy and modelling global and regional cycles of trace elements. In this article the situation with lead, cadmium and mercury emissions from coal combustion of power plants and gasoline combustion by road transport is discussed. Pollutant amounts released into the atmosphere in industrial regions induce not only local deterioration of air, but they also affect on remote areas, and areas sensitive to contamination, such as the Arctic region. Problems on the uncertainty of emission inventory and, as a consequence, long range transport and deposition of air pollution into ecosystems of remote lands are also discussed

  11. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    Liu, Zhu; Guan, Dabo; Wei, Wei; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Bai, Jin; Peng, Shushi; Zhang, Qiang; Hubacek, Klaus; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert J.; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Lin, Jintai; Zhao, Hongyan; Hong, Chaopeng; Boden, Thomas A.; Feng, Kuishuang; Peters, Glen P.; Xi, Fengming; Liu, Junguo; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Zeng, Ning; He, Kebin

    2015-08-01

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China's total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China's carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000-2012 than the value reported by China's national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China's cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China's CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = +/-7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China's cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China's emissions in 2000-2013 may be larger than China's estimated total forest sink in 1990-2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China's land carbon sink in 2000-2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  12. Fossils as Key Resources of Hydrocarbons for the Chemical Industry - The Burning Problem of Industrial Development

    Kopytowski, J.A.; Wojtania, J.; Zebrowski, M.

    1981-01-01

    Intensive research is being pursued world-wide to establish a methodology for industrial development. Many types of changes play an important role in the dynamics of the industrial structure in both large and small economies. The global energy supply and future substitution of crude oil are among the most important and widely investigated constraints. With the existing patterns of production and development strongly determined by the specific conditions in a given region, the development of v...

  13. Industrial Maturity of FR Fuel Cycle Processes and Technologies

    FR fuel cycle processes and technologies have already been proven industrially for Oxide Fuel, and to a lesser extent for metal fuel. In addition, both used oxide fuel reprocessing and fresh oxide fuel manufacturing benefit from similar industrial experience currently deployed for LWR. Alternative fuel type will have to generate very significant benefit in reactor ( safety, cost, … ) to justify corresponding development and industrialization costs

  14. Life cycle inventories for bioenergy and fossil-fuel fired cogeneration plants

    Life-cycle inventories for heat production from forest fuel, Salix, coal and oil are presented. Data from the Oerebro cogeneration plant are used for the bioenergy and coal cycles, whereas the oil-fired cycle is based on a fictive plant producing 53 MW electricity and 106 MW heat, also located in the town of Oerebro. This life cycle analysis only covers the inventory stage. A complete life cycle analysis also includes an environmental impact assessment. The methods for assessing environmental impact are still being developed and thus this phase has been omitted here. The intention is, instead, to provide an overall perspective of where in the chain the greatest environmental load for each fuel can be found. Production and energy conversion of fuel requires energy, which is often obtained from fossil fuel. This input energy corresponds to about 11% of the extracted amount of energy for oil, 9% for coal, 6% for Salix, whereas it is about 4% for forest fuel. Utilization of fossil fuel in the coal cycle amounts to production of electricity using coal condensation intended for train transports within Poland. In a life cycle perspective, biofuels show 20-30 times lower emissions of greenhouse gases in comparison with fossil fuels. The chains for biofuels also give considerably lower SO2 emissions than the chains for coal and oil. The coal chain shows about 50% higher NOx emission than the other fuels. Finally, the study illustrates that emission of particles are similar for all sources of energy. The biofuel cycle is assessed to be generally applicable to plants of similar type and size and with similar transport distances. The oil cycle is probably applicable to small-scale cogeneration plants. However, at present there are no cogeneration plants in Sweden that are solely fired with oil. In the case of the coal cycle, deep mining and a relatively long transport distance within Poland have been assumed. If the coal mining had been from open-cast mines, and if the subsequent transports had been from port to port, some of the results would have been affected markedly, including the input energy 17 refs, 17 figs, 7 tabs, appendices

  15. Atmospheric observations of carbon monoxide and fossil fuel CO2 emissions from East Asia

    Turnbull, Jocelyn C.; Tans, Pieter P.; Lehman, Scott J.; Baker, David; Conway, Thomas J.; Chung, Y. S.; Gregg, Jay Sterling; Miller, John B.; Southon, John R.; Zhou, Ling-Xi

    2011-01-01

    Flask samples from two sites in East Asia, Tae-Ahn Peninsula, Korea (TAP), and Shangdianzi, China (SDZ), were measured for trace gases including CO2, CO and fossil fuel CO2(CO(2)ff, derived from Delta(CO2)-C-14 observations). The five-year TAP record shows high CO(2)ff when local air comes from the...... Korean Peninsula. Most samples, however, reflect air masses from Northeastern China with lower CO(2)ff. Our small set of SDZ samples from winter 2009/2010 have strongly elevated CO(2)ff. Biospheric CO2 contributes substantially to total CO2 variability at both sites, even in winter when non-fossil CO2...

  16. Potential high temperature corrosion problems due to co-firing of biomass and fossil fuels

    Montgomery, Melanie; Vilhelmsen, T.; Jensen, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years, considerable high temperature corrosion problems have been encountered when firing biomass in power plants due to the high content of potassium chloride in the deposits. Therefore, to combat chloride corrosion problems cofiring of biomass with a fossil fuel has been...... corrosion mechanisms appear such as sulphidation and hot corrosion due to sulphate deposits. At Studstrup power plant Unit 4, based on trials with exposure times of 3000 h using 020% straw co-firing with coal, the plant now runs with a fuel mix of 10% strawcoal. Based on results from a 3 years exposure in...... this environment, the internal sulphidation is much more significant than that revealed in the demonstration project. Avedre 2 main boiler is fuelled with wood pelletsheavy fuel oilgas. Some reaction products resulting from the presence of vanadium compounds in the heavy oil were detected, i.e. iron...

  17. Fuel Cells in the Coal Energy Industry

    Kolat Peter

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In march 1998 at the conference „Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems“ in Clearwater, USA representatives of U.S. Department of Energy presented the vision 21 focused on the electricity generation from coal for 21st century. The goal is a powerplant with the ability to produce the electricity from coal with the efficiency approaching 60% (higher heating value and emission levels of one-tenth of today´s technologies, The CO2 capture and permanent sequestration at the cost of $15/ton of CO2, and a cost of electricity of 3 cents per kilowatt-hour. The goal is believed to be achievable by the first quarter of the next century. The vision 21 is presented with several possible concepts. One of them is based on coal gasification with following hydrogen separation. The obtained hydrogen is used as a fuel for the cogeneration unit with fuel cells. The remaining gas can be liquefied and utilised as a fuel in the automotive industry or further chemically processed. The concept has several important features. Firstly, a very clean low cost electricity production. Secondly, it is comprised of fuel processing section and power processing section. The two sections need not to be co-located. In the world of the deregulated electricity generation this offers a major advantage. The technologies of fuel processing section – coal gasification and hydrogen separation have been successfully developed in the last two decades. A specificity of the fuel processing section of this concept is to obtain hydrogen rich gas with very low concentrations of substances, as CO, which cause a poisoning of electrodes of fuel cells leading to the decreasing fuel cells efficiency. Fuel cells, specially highly efficient coal-gas SOFC and MCFC, are expected to be commercially available by 2020. The natural-gas MCFC and SOFC plants should enter the commercial marketplace by the year 2002.

  18. Comparing the social costs of biofuels and fossil fuels: A case study of Vietnam

    Biofuel substitution for fossil fuels has been recommended in the literature and promoted in many countries; however, there are concerns about its economic viability. In this paper we focus on the cost-effectiveness of fuels, i.e., we compare the social costs of biofuels and fossil fuels for a functional unit defined as 1 km of vehicle transportation. We base our empirical results on a case study in Vietnam and compare two biofuels and their alternative fossil fuels: ethanol and gasoline, and biodiesel and diesel with a focus on the blends of E5 and E10 for ethanol, and B5 and B10 for biodiesel. At the discount rate of 4%, ethanol substitution for gasoline in form of E5 or E10 saves 33% of the social cost of gasoline if the fuel consumption of E5 and E10 is the same as gasoline. The ethanol substitution will be cost-effective if the fuel consumption of E5 and E10, in terms of L km−1, is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline by more than 1.7% and 3.5% for E5 and E10 respectively. The biodiesel substitution would be cost-effective if the fuel consumption of B5 and B10, in terms of L km−1 compared to diesel, would decrease by more than 1.4% and 2.8% for B5 and B10 respectively at the discount rate of 4%. -- Highlights: •We examine cost-effectiveness of biofuels under efficiency levels of blends. •Cassava-based ethanol used as E5 saves 33% of social cost compared to gasoline. •Ethanol is cost-effective if E5 consumption per km is less than 1.017 times gasoline consumption. •Jatropha-based biodiesel used as B5 or B10 is currently not cost-effective in comparison to diesel. •Biodiesel would be cost-effective if B5 consumption per km would be less than 0.986 times diesel consumption

  19. Fuel-cycle fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of corn and cellulosic ethanol

    The use of corn-based ethanol as an automotive fuel to displace petroleum-based gasoline in an effort to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was discussed. Some past studies have shown increased GHG emissions from corn ethanol when energy use and emissions by up-stream production activities for corn ethanol were taken into account. Other studies have shown that the use of ethanol reduces GHG emissions. In this study, a thorough analysis of fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emissions of corn ethanol was conducted. The major issues under study were: (1) energy and chemical use intensity of corn farming, (2) N2O emissions from nitrogen fertilizer in corn fields, (3) energy use intensity at ethanol plants, and (4) energy and emission credits of co-products of corn ethanol. Results showed that the use of E85 from corn reduces fossil energy use by 35 to 40 per cent compared to gasoline and GHG are reduced by 16 to 28 per cent. Fuel-cycle energy and GHG emission impacts of cellulosic ethanol was also examined. It was shown that the use of E85 produced from biomass reduces fossil energy use by 80 per cent and eliminates GHG emissions of petroleum-based gasoline. 1 tab., 11 figs

  20. MOX fuel fabrication: Technical and industrial developments

    The plutonium available in the near future is generally estimated rather precisely on the basis of the reprocessing contracts and the performance of the reprocessing plants. A few years ago, decision makers were convinced that a significant share of this fissile material would be used as the feed material for fast breeder reactors (FBRs) or other advanced reactors. The facts today are that large reprocessing plants are coming into commercial operations: UP3 and soon UP2-800 and THORP, but that FBR deployment is delayed worldwide. As a consequence, large quantities of plutonium will be recycled in light water reactors as mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. MOX fuel technology has been properly demonstrated in the past 25 years. All specific problems have been addressed, efficient fabrication processes and engineering background have been implemented to a level of maturity which makes MOX fuel behaving as well as Uranium fuel. The paper concentrates on todays MOX fabrication expertise and presents the technical and industrial developments prepared by the MOX fuel fabrication industry for this last decade of the century

  1. Historic Patterns of CO{sub 2} Emissions from Fossil Fuels: Implications for Stabilization of Emissions

    Andres, R. J.; Marland, G.

    1994-06-01

    This paper examines the historical record of greenhouse gas emissions since 1950, reviews the prospects for emissions into the future, and projects what would be the short-term outcome if the stated targets of the FCCC were in fact achieved. The examination focuses on the most important of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2}. The extensive record of historic CO{sub 2} emissions is explored to ascertain if it is an adequate basis for useful extrapolation into the near future. Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption have been documented. Emissions grew at 4.3% per year from 1950 until the time of the 1973 oil crisis. Another disruption in growth followed the oil price increases of 1979. Global total emissions have been increasing steadily since the 1982-1983 minimum and have grown by more than 20% since then. At present, emission Of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning is dominated by a few countries: the U.S., the former Soviet Union, China, the developed countries of Europe and Japan. Only 20 countries emit 84% of emissions from all countries. However, rates of growth in many of the developed countries are now very low. In contrast, energy use has grown rapidly over the last 20 years in some of the large, developing economies. Emissions from fossil fuel consumption are now nearly 4 times those from land use change and are the primary cause of measured increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}. The increasing concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} has led to rising concern about the possibility of impending changes in the global climate system. In an effort to limit or mitigate potential negative effects of global climate change, 154 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992. The FCCC asks all countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions setting non-binding targets.

  2. Long term worldwide environmental effects caused by acid rain from fossil fuels

    Acid rain is regarded as an environmental problem of growing importance in many parts of the world; it is one of the adverse effects of air pollution. This paper presents data on emissions of air pollutants from combustion of fossil fuels and discusses atmospheric processes that act on these emissions, various effects of air pollution and acid deposition, and some of the aspects of regulation of these pollutants. Evidence of worldwide concern is shown by contrasting the perceived adverse effects of air pollution with ambient levels and the status of regulation. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Climate Policy and the Optimal Extraction of High- and Low-Carbon Fossil Fuels

    Van der Werf, Edwin; Smulders, Sjak

    2005-01-01

    We study how restricting CO2 emissions affcts resource prices and depletion over time.We use a Hotelling-style model with two nonrenewable fossil fuels that differ in their carbon content (e.g. coal and natural gas) and that are imperfect substitutes in final good production.We study both an unexpected constraint and an anticipated constraint.Both shocks induce intertemporal substitution of resource use.When emissions are unexpectedly restricted, it is cost-effective to use high-carbon resour...

  4. Carbon sequestration from fossil fuels and biomass - long-term potentials

    Carbon sequestration and disposal from fossil fuels combustion is gaining attraction as a means to deal with climate change. However, CO2 emissions from biomass combustion can also be sequestered. If that is done, biomass energy with carbon sequestration (BECS) would become a net negative carbon sink that would at the same time deliver carbon free energy (heat, electricity or hydrogen) to society. Here we estimate some global technoeconomical potentials for BECS, and we also present some rough economics of electricity generation with carbon sequestration

  5. Cumulative Emissions,Unburnable Fossil Fuel and the Optimal Carbon Tax

    Rezai, Armon; Ploeg, Frederick van der

    2016-01-01

    A new IAM is used to calculate the optimal tradeoff between, on the one hand,locking up fossil fuel and curbing global warming, and, on the other hand,sacrificing consumption now and in the near future. This IAM uses the Oxford carbon cycle, which differs from DICE, FUND and PAGE in that cumulative emissions are the key driving force of changes in temperature. We highlight how time impatience, intergenerational inequality aversion and expected trend growth affect the time paths of the optimal...

  6. Long-term ocean oxygen depletion in response to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels

    Shaffer, G.; Olsen, S.M.; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing global warming could persist far into the future, because natural processes require decades to hundreds of thousands of years to remove carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel burning from the atmosphere(1-3). Future warming may have large global impacts including ocean oxygen depletion and...... oxygen depletion, as well as a great expansion of ocean oxygen-minimum zones for scenarios with high emissions or high climate sensitivity. We find that climate feedbacks within the Earth system amplify the strength and duration of global warming, ocean heating and oxygen depletion. Decreased oxygen...

  7. Fossil fuels and air pollution in USA after the Clean Air Act

    This paper addresses environmental issues in the USA after the Clean Air Act. Economic damage assessment to population and environment due to air pollution from stationary and mobile sources producing and utilizing fossil fuels in the USA for the period of 1970--1986 is determined and discussed. A comparison of environmental damage assessments for the USA and USSR is provided. The paper also addresses ecologo-economical aspects of hydrogen energy and technology. The effectiveness of hydrogen use in ferrous metallurgy and motor vehicles in the USA is determined and discussed

  8. Potential high temperature corrosion problems due to co-firing of biomass and fossil fuels

    Montgomery, Melanie; Vilhelmsen, T.; Jensen, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    corrosion mechanisms appear such as sulphidation and hot corrosion due to sulphate deposits. At Studstrup power plant Unit 4, based on trials with exposure times of 3000 h using 0–20% straw co-firing with coal, the plant now runs with a fuel mix of 10% strawþcoal. Based on results from a 3 years exposure in...... vanadates. However, the most significant corrosion attack was sulphidation attack at the grain boundaries of 18-8 steel after 3 years exposure. The corrosion mechanisms and corrosion rates are compared with biomass firing and coal firing. Potential corrosion problems due to co-firing biomass and fossil...

  9. Numerical analysis of injector flow and spray characteristics from diesel injectors using fossil and biodiesel fuels

    Highlights: ? Fluid-dynamic simulation of injection process with biodiesel and diesel fuel. ? Coupling of Eulerian and Lagrangian spray CFD simulations. ? Effects of hole shaping: conical versus cylindrical and edge rounding effects. ? Prediction of spray characteristics improved using inner nozzle flow data. ? Explanation of mass flow differences depending on hole shape and fuel type. -- Abstract: The aim of the paper is the comparison of the injection process with two fuels, a standard diesel fuel and a pure biodiesel, methyl ester of soybean oil. Multiphase cavitating flows inside injector nozzles are calculated by means of unsteady CFD simulations on moving grids from needle opening to closure, using an EulerianEulerian two-fluid approach which takes into account bubble dynamics. Afterward, spray evolutions are also evaluated in a Lagrangian framework using results of the first computing step, mapped onto the hole exit area, for the initialization of the primary breakup model. Two nozzles with cylindrical and conical holes are studied and their behaviors are discussed in relation to fuel properties. Nozzle flow simulations highlighted that the extent of cavitation regions is not much affected by the fuel type, whereas it is strongly dependent on the nozzle shape. Biodiesel provides a slightly higher mass flow in highly cavitating nozzles. On the contrary using hole shaped nozzles (to reduce cavitation) diesel provides similar or slightly higher mass flow. Comparing the two fuels, the effects of different viscosities and densities play main role which explains these behaviors. Simulations of the spray evolution are also discussed highlighting the differences between the use of fossil and biodiesel fuels in terms of spray penetration, atomization and cone-angle. Usage of diesel fuel in the conical convergent nozzle gives higher liquid penetration.

  10. Industrial experience of irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing

    At the moment and during the next following years, France and La Hague plant particularly, own the greatest amount of industrial experience in the field of reprocessing, since this experience is referred to three types of reactors, either broadly spread all through the world (GCR and LWR) or ready to be greatly developed in the next future (FBR). Then, the description of processes and technologies used now in France, and the examination of the results obtained, on the production or on the security points of view, are a good approach of the actual industrial experience in the field of spent fuel reprocessing. (author)

  11. Reducing global warming through the provision of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels

    Concern has increased in recent years regarding the rising atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and its potential effect on future global climate. One element of strategies for the reduction of CO2 emissions would be to increase the proportion of energy derived from non-fossil energy sources. This option has led to renewed interest in the use of hydrogen as an energy vector which could facilitate the transfer of non-fossil energy into a wider range of end-use sectors. To assess, in this context, the potential role of non-fossil-fuel hydrogen (NFFH), published information on the costs and performance of technologies for the production, storage, distribution and utilisation of hydrogen has been reviewed in this study. These data have been used in a model of the UK energy system to investigate the potential contributions of the various hydrogen technologies, over a 50 year timeframe, and with different levels of constraint imposed on the rate of CO2 release. Finally, to set these reduced CO2 release rates in the context of the resultant reduction in global warming commitment, a further modelling study has been made to estimate the residual transient warming to 2050, assuming the world as a whole follows the same CO2 emission profiles as modelled for the UK. This 259 page report of the study contains extensive tables of data and references, and a glossary of terms, units and conversion factors. (author)

  12. Multiregional environmental comparison of fossil fuel power generation-Assessment of the contribution of fugitive emissions from conventional and unconventional fossil resources

    Bouman, Evert A.; Ramirez, Andrea|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/284852414; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of fugitive methane emissions from coal, natural gas, and shale gas extraction on the greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of fossil fuel power generation through its life cycle. A multiregional hybridized life cycle assessment (LCA) model is used to evaluate several electricity generation technologies with and without carbon dioxide capture and storage. Based on data from the UNFCCC and other literature sources, it is shown that methane emissions from fossi...

  13. Problems of attracting nuclear energy resources in order to provide economical and rational consumption of fossil fuels

    The solution of problems related to increasing costs of fossil fuels and application of nuclear energy in the industrial sector could be the development and commercialization of high temperature nuclear reactors, as the majority of power consuming industrial processes demand that the temperature of heat carrier generated to be in the range from 900-1000 deg. C. In the Soviet Union the strategy adopted for solving energy supply problems was named 'nuclear-hydrogen power engineering and technologies'. Based on analytic research and taking into account the present state of the art, the new alternative energy sources, e.g. nuclear ones, should be introduced into the industry by the following steps: development and mastering of stable operation of high-temperature nuclear reactors; search of rational technical solutions for heat discharge from nuclear reactors; utilisation of meet the power demand of existing production plants; complete substitution of organic raw materials burned now with nuclear energy; review the conditions and development of organizational and engineering solutions acceptable for implementing the nuclear energy in commercial processes

  14. Engineering organisms for industrial fuel production.

    Berry, David A

    2010-01-01

    Volatile fuel costs, the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel security concerns are driving efforts to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. Petroleum comes from sunlight, CO(2) and water converted via a biological intermediate into fuel over a several million year timescale. It stands to reason that using biology to short-circuit this time cycle offers an attractive alternative--but only with relevant products at or below market prices. The state of the art of biological engineering over the past five years has progressed to allow for market needs to drive innovation rather than trying to adapt existing approaches to the market. This report describes two innovations using synthetic biology to dis-intermediate fuel production. LS9 is developing a means to convert biological intermediates such as cellulosic hydrolysates into drop-in hydrocarbon product replacements such as diesel. Joule Unlimited is pioneering approaches to eliminate feedstock dependency by efficiently capturing sunlight, CO(2) and water to produce fuels and chemicals. The innovations behind these companies are built with the market in mind, focused on low cost biosynthesis of existing products of the petroleum industry. Through successful deployment of technologies such as those behind LS9 and Joule Unlimited, alternative sources of petroleum products will mitigate many of the issues faced with our petroleum-based economy. PMID:21326829

  15. N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels

    A. R. Mosier

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship, on a global basis, between the amount of N fixed by chemical, biological or atmospheric processes entering the terrestrial biosphere, and the total emission of nitrous oxide (N2O, has been re-examined, using known global atmospheric removal rates and concentration growth of N2O as a proxy for overall emissions. For both the pre-industrial period and in recent times, after taking into account the large-scale changes in synthetic N fertiliser production, we find an overall conversion factor of 3–5% from newly fixed N to N2O-N. We assume the same factor to be valid for biofuel production systems. It is covered only in part by the default conversion factor for "direct" emissions from agricultural crop lands (1% estimated by IPCC (2006, and the default factors for the "indirect" emissions (following volatilization/deposition and leaching/runoff of N: 0.35–0.45% cited therein. However, as we show in the paper, when additional emissions included in the IPCC methodology, e.g. those from livestock production, are included, the total may not be inconsistent with that given by our "top-down" method. When the extra N2O emission from biofuel production is calculated in "CO2-equivalent" global warming terms, and compared with the quasi-cooling effect of "saving" emissions of fossil fuel derived CO2, the outcome is that the production of commonly used biofuels, such as biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from corn (maize, depending on N fertilizer uptake efficiency by the plants, can contribute as much or more to global warming by N2O emissions than cooling by fossil fuel savings. Crops with less N demand, such as grasses and woody coppice species, have more favourable climate impacts. This analysis only considers the conversion of biomass to biofuel. It does not take into account the use of fossil fuel on the farms and for fertilizer and pesticide production, but it also neglects the production of useful co-products. Both factors partially compensate each other. This needs to be analyzed in a full life cycle assessment.

  16. Industrial Maturity of Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Processes and Technologies

    For more than sixty years, fast reactors have been using several fuel types, mainly oxide or metal, depending on the reactor and core design, as well as the fuel manufacturing and reprocessing capability. Future industrial deployment will require industrial capacity to extract plutonium from spent fuel, initially from other reactors, then from fast reactors themselves, as well as to manufacture Pu based fuel. This paper gives an overview of the industrial maturity of the different options, both for reprocessing and fuel manufacturing. (author)

  17. A technical and environmental comparison between hydrogen and some fossil fuels

    Highlights: • Hydrogen as new non-conventional energy system. • Technical and environmental comparison between different type of fuels. • Combustion products analysis. • Technical and environmental quality indexes for investigated fuels. • Proposal of a suitable new energy scenario supplied by hydrogen. - Abstract: The exploitation of some fossil fuels such as oil, intended as gasoline or diesel fuel, natural gas and coal, currently satisfy the majority of the growing world energy demand, but they are destined to run out relatively quickly. Beyond this point, their combustion products are the main cause of some global problems such as the greenhouse effect, the hole in the ozone layer, acid rains and generalized environment pollution, so their impact is extremely harmful. Therefore, it is clear that a solution to the energy problem can be obtained only through the use of renewable sources and by means of the exploitation of new low-polluting fuels. In this scenario an important role might be played by hydrogen, which is able to define a new energy system that is more sustainable and cleaner than current systems. For the comparison of the different fuels investigated in this paper, a methodology, which defines appropriate technical and environmental quality indexes, has been developed. These indexes are connected to the pollution produced by combustion reactions and to their intrinsic characteristics of flammability and expansiveness linked to the use of the considered fuels. An appropriate combination of these indexes, in the specific sector of utilization, allows to evaluate a global environmental index for the investigated fuels, highlighting that hydrogen reaches the highest score. In the final part of the paper, a new hydrogen energy economy that would lead to solving the serious environmental problems that damages all the ecosystems of the planet earth, is presented

  18. Fossil fuels: technical, economical and political challenges for 2030-2050

    This panorama takes stock on the international energy actuality in 2003 and discusses the instability of the geo-political context of the energy and the part of the fossil fuels for the future years 2030-2050. The following topics were presented: activities and market for the exploration-production, refining and petrochemistry, the world gas trade situation, the petroleum supply and demand, the Iraq, the diesel in the USA, the investments and the depletion, long-dated evolutions of motors and fuels, implementing of the european directive concerning the market of tradable permits of CO2, the carbon sequestration, hydrogen the energy of the future and the biofuels in Europe. (A.L.B.)

  19. Eating fossil fuels : oil, food and the coming crisis in agriculture

    Pfeiffer, D.A.

    2006-07-01

    This book proposed that a pending agricultural crisis is linked with an anticipated energy crisis. The book demonstrated that the expansion of agriculture has appropriated much of the photosynthetic capacity of the planet, and that population explosions in the world are not sustainable. The importance of fossil fuel-based agriculture for sustaining current population in North America was discussed. North Korea was used as a case study to demonstrate the dangers of ineffective agricultural practices. The impacts of agricultural and energy crises on health and society were reviewed along with issues related to land and water degradation and the use of fertilizers and diesel fuel. The book also provided a critique of the green revolution. It was suggested that energy depletion will have a disastrous effect on agriculture if sustainable, relocalized agricultural policies are not adopted around the world. A case study of Cuba was used to demonstrate the efficacy of sustainable agricultural practices. A resource guide was included. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Cost and prices of electricity. Fossil fuels, nuclear power and renewable energy sources in comparison

    Consumers of electricity pay for production, transport and distribution as well as for taxes and dues. Electricity rates depend on various influencing factors, e.g. different fuel and capital cost of the power plants and the ratio of supply and demand in the electricity stock markets. End user electricity rats also include taxes and dues as well as the cost of power transmission. The publication presents background information on the formation of electricity rates in Germany. In a second step, the different cost factors of fossil fuels, nuclear power and renewable energy sources are compared. In particular, the external cost is gone into which often tends to be neglected in the electricity markets.

  1. Reducing industrial use of fossil raw materials:techno-economic assessment of relevant cases in Northern Finland

    Arvola, J. (Jouko)

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Climate change and global warming are currently widely discussed topics, both of which potentially impact all the nations and industries. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and other green house gases (GHG) are seen as a major challenge. This doctoral dissertation aims to conduct techno-economic calculations on the possibilities of reducing the industrial use of fossil raw materials in Northern Finland. This doctoral dissertation analyses industrial CO2 emissions from five complementary pe...

  2. Survey of population health in towns with nuclear and fossil fuel power plants

    Ivanov, E.; Shubik, V. M.

    2004-07-01

    Comparative assessment of population health in Sosnovy Bor with nuclear power plant and Kirovsk with fossil fuel power station was made for public and administration information. Both towns are located in Leningrad administrative region at 150 km distance from each other. In nuclear power town radiological situation was assessed as normal and in Kirovsk up to 1995 yr. with coal fuel, maximum permissible levels of suspended particle of sulfur oxide in atmosphere were exceeded in 6-9% of samples. After 1995 yr. the natural gas was used as fuel. Demographic data for 1991-2000 yrs indicate that mortality including infants mortality and stillborns was lower in Sosnovy Bor (NOS) then in Kirovsk (fossil fuel) and on average Leningrad administrative region. Birth rate and population growth was higher in Sosnovy Bor at the same time surprisingly the recorded morbidity was higher in Sosnovy Bor which might be explained by extensive medical supervision and improved diagnostics. However, cancer and tuberculosis morbidity was lower in Sosnovy Bor. In Kirovsk in 1997-2000 yrs. oncological morbidity was higher on average comparing to Leningrad administrative region. Oncological mortality in Sosnovy Bor in 1997-2000 yrs. was lower than in Kirovsk and Leningrad region Standardized annual mortality in Sosnovy Bor, Kirovsk and Leningrad administrative region was 128.3, 209.6 and 211.7 on 100 000 respectively. Health state of pregnant women, deliveries, new-born condition were all in normal range in Sosnovy Bor, contrary to higher increased abortion rate and pregnancy complications in Kirovsk. These findings need further studies. (Author)

  3. Survey of population health in towns with nuclear and fossil fuel power plants

    Comparative assessment of population health in Sosnovy Bor with nuclear power plant and Kirovsk with fossil fuel power station was made for public and administration information. Both towns are located in Leningrad administrative region at 150 km distance from each other. In nuclear power town radiological situation was assessed as normal and in Kirovsk up to 1995 yr. with coal fuel, maximum permissible levels of suspended particle of sulfur oxide in atmosphere were exceeded in 6-9% of samples. After 1995 yr. the natural gas was used as fuel. Demographic data for 1991-2000 yrs indicate that mortality including infants mortality and stillborns was lower in Sosnovy Bor (NOS) then in Kirovsk (fossil fuel) and on average Leningrad administrative region. Birth rate and population growth was higher in Sosnovy Bor at the same time surprisingly the recorded morbidity was higher in Sosnovy Bor which might be explained by extensive medical supervision and improved diagnostics. However, cancer and tuberculosis morbidity was lower in Sosnovy Bor. In Kirovsk in 1997-2000 yrs. oncological morbidity was higher on average comparing to Leningrad administrative region. Oncological mortality in Sosnovy Bor in 1997-2000 yrs. was lower than in Kirovsk and Leningrad region Standardized annual mortality in Sosnovy Bor, Kirovsk and Leningrad administrative region was 128.3, 209.6 and 211.7 on 100 000 respectively. Health state of pregnant women, deliveries, new-born condition were all in normal range in Sosnovy Bor, contrary to higher increased abortion rate and pregnancy complications in Kirovsk. These findings need further studies. (Author)

  4. The potential of wind energy to largely displace existing Canadian fossil fuel and nuclear electricity generation

    The potential of wind-generated electricity to displace existing fossil fuel and nuclear generation in Canada is assessed by combining wind turbine power curves with data from the Canadian Wind Energy Atlas. There are many widely-scattered regions with capacity factors (average power output as a fraction of the rated output) greater than 0.4, and some greater than 0.5, that could supply many times the current electricity production from fossil fuel and nuclear powerplants in Canada. By linking multiple high-wind regions to the major demand centres with high voltage direct current transmission lines, the variation in the aggregate electricity output at time scales of one week or less would be greatly reduced, while variations at longer time scales can be largely offset through anti-phase operation of hydro-electric reservoirs. Assuming onshore and offshore wind farm capital costs of about $2000/kW and $3000/kW, respectively, onshore and offshore transmission line costs of $0.5/kW/km and $0.75/kW/km, respectively, and terminal costs of $250/kW, the cost of electricity (financed at a real interest rate of 3%/yr) is 5–7 cents/kWh, which is less than the likely cost of electricity from new coal powerplants equipped to capture CO2 (at least 9 cents/kWh) or from new nuclear powerplants (10–23 cents/kWh). - Highlights: ► Regions of strong wind are widely distributed across Canada. ► Wind combined with hydropower could displace fossil and nuclear. ► Costs including HVDC transmission would be 5–7 cents/kWh at 3% financing

  5. Implications of fossil fuel constraints on economic growth and global warming

    Energy Security and Global Warming are analysed as 21st century sustainability threats. Best estimates of future energy availability are derived as an Energy Reference Case (ERC). An explicit economic growth model is used to interpret the impact of the ERC on economic growth. The model predicts a divergence from 20th century equilibrium conditions in economic growth and socio-economic welfare is only stabilised under optimistic assumptions that demands a paradigm shift in contemporary economic thought and focused attention from policy makers. Fossil fuel depletion also constrains the maximum extent of Global Warming. Carbon emissions from the ERC comply nominally with the B1 scenario, which is the lowest emissions case considered by the IPCC. The IPCC predicts a temperature response within acceptance limits of the Global Warming debate for the B1 scenario. The carbon feedback cycle, used in the IPCC models, is shown as invalid for low-emissions scenarios and an alternative carbon cycle reduces the temperature response for the ERC considerably compared to the IPCC predictions. Our analysis proposes that the extent of Global Warming may be acceptable and preferable compared to the socio-economic consequences of not exploiting fossil fuel reserves to their full technical potential. (author)

  6. Implications of fossil fuel constraints on economic growth and global warming

    Energy Security and Global Warming are analysed as 21st century sustainability threats. Best estimates of future energy availability are derived as an Energy Reference Case (ERC). An explicit economic growth model is used to interpret the impact of the ERC on economic growth. The model predicts a divergence from 20th century equilibrium conditions in economic growth and socio-economic welfare is only stabilised under optimistic assumptions that demands a paradigm shift in contemporary economic thought and focused attention from policy makers. Fossil fuel depletion also constrains the maximum extent of Global Warming. Carbon emissions from the ERC comply nominally with the B1 scenario, which is the lowest emissions case considered by the IPCC. The IPCC predicts a temperature response within acceptance limits of the Global Warming debate for the B1 scenario. The carbon feedback cycle, used in the IPCC models, is shown as invalid for low-emissions scenarios and an alternative carbon cycle reduces the temperature response for the ERC considerably compared to the IPCC predictions. Our analysis proposes that the extent of Global Warming may be acceptable and preferable compared to the socio-economic consequences of not exploiting fossil fuel reserves to their full technical potential

  7. Three Essays on Renewable Energy Policy and its Effects on Fossil Fuel Generation in Electricity Markets

    Bowen, Eric

    In this dissertation, I investigate the effectiveness of renewable policies and consider their impact on electricity markets. The common thread of this research is to understand how renewable policy incentivizes renewable generation and how the increasing share of generation from renewables affects generation from fossil fuels. This type of research is crucial for understanding whether policies to promote renewables are meeting their stated goals and what the unintended effects might be. To this end, I use econometric methods to examine how electricity markets are responding to an influx of renewable energy. My dissertation is composed of three interrelated essays. In Chapter 1, I employ recent scholarship in spatial econometrics to assess the spatial dependence of Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), a prominent state-based renewable incentive. In Chapter 2, I explore the impact of the rapid rise in renewable generation on short-run generation from fossil fuels. And in Chapter 3, I assess the impact of renewable penetration on coal plant retirement decisions.

  8. Identifying fly ash at a distance from fossil fuel power stations

    A method has been developed to identify fly ash originating at fossil fuel power stations, even at a distance where the ash level is lower by a factor of 1000 from that close to a source. Until now such detection has been difficult and uncertain. The technique combines collection of particles, measurement of magnetization and coercive field, and microscopy. The analysis depends on the fact that ash from iron sulfide in fossil fuels is in the form of spherical magnetite. These particles have a relatively high coercive field Hc, near 135 Oe, compared with airborne particulates from soil erosion which have an Hc of ?35 Oe. The coercive field of any sample therefore gives an indication for the percentage of fly ash relative to the total amount of magnetic material that is airborne. The concentration of ash from a large, isolated coal burning power station is found to fall off with the distance from the source, approximately as D-1. As D increases there is a drop in Hc, associated with the reduced amount of fly ash relative to the airborne particulates from soil erosion

  9. The effect of retrofitting Portuguese fossil fuel power plants with CCS

    Highlights: ► A map of mainland Portugal with potential CO2 source-sink matching was created. ► Four existing Portuguese power plants were simulated with and without CCS. ► Effect of CCS retrofit on performance and costs at each power plant was studied. ► The incremental COE was estimated at around 46 $/MW h for NGCC plants. ► The incremental COE was estimated at around 61 $/MW h for PC plants. -- Abstract: This work assesses the retrofit potential of existing Portuguese fossil fuel power plants with post-combustion CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology. The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was used to provide a systematic techno-economic analysis of the cost of emission control equipment, the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and other key parameters which may change when CCS is implemented at a fossil fuel power plant. The results indicate that CCS requires a large capital investment and significantly increases the levelized cost of electricity. However, the economic viability of CCS increases with higher CO2 prices. The breakeven CO2 price for plants with and without CCS was estimated at $85–$140/t of CO2 depending on the technical parameters of the individual plants.

  10. Modern approach to the problem of fossil gas fuels replacement by alternative fuels

    New scientific and engineering fundamentals of fuels substitution have been developed instead of obsolete methodology “Interchangeability of Fuel Gases” developed in USA and existing from the middle of XXth century. To perform the complex prediction of total or partial substitution of given flow rate of natural gas NG for alternative gases AG the following parameters are to be predicted: plant utilization efficiencies – regarding fuel and energy utilization, the last in form of heat ȘH and exergy Șeff efficiencies, saving or overexpenditure of the NG flow rate in the gas mixture with AG, specific fuel consumption b f and specific issue of harmful substances Ct – pollutants in the combustion products (CNOx ) and greenhouse gases (C CO2 ). Certification of alternative gas fuels and fuel mixtures as a commodity products is carried out in frame of our approach with necessary set of characteristics, similar to those accepted in the world practice. Key words: alternative fuel, fuel replacement (substitution), natural gas, process gases, theoretical combustion temperature, thermodynamic equilibrium computations, total enthalpy

  11. Comparison of solar-thermal and fossil total-energy systems for selected industrial applications

    Pine, G. D.

    1980-06-01

    Economic analyses of a conventional system and total energy systems based on phosphoric acid fuel cells, diesel piston engines, and central receiver solar thermal systems were performed for each of four industrial applications; a concrete block plant in Arizona, a fluid milk processing plant in California, a sugar beet processing plant in Colorado, and a meat packing plant in Texas. A series of sensitivity analyses was performed to show the effects of variations in fuel price, system size, cost of capital, and system initial cost. Solar total energy systems (STES) are more capital intensive than the other systems, and significant economies of scale are associated with the STES. If DOE solar system cost goals are met, STES can compete with the other systems for facilities with electrical demands greater than two or three megawatts, but STES are not competitive for smaller facilities. Significant energy resource savings, especially of oil and gas, resulted from STES implementation in the four industries.

  12. Building-specific quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions in an urban domain: the case of Indianapolis, US

    Razlivanov, I.; Gurney, K. R.; Zhou, Y.; Turnbull, J. C.; Sweeney, C.; Guenther, D.; Karion, A.; Davis, K. J.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Shepson, P. B.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Lehman, S. J.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in interpreting atmospheric CO2 measurements in addition to providing critical emissions mitigation information. Recent research and decision-support has placed emphasis on quantification of emissions for urban domes with sector specificity. Here we present results of the Hestia Project, an effort aimed at quantifying fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the building and road segment scale for the city of Indianapolis as part of the INFLUX experiment. To calculate CO2 emissions for buildings, we use a combination of county-level estimation from the Vulcan Project and distribute those emissions via an allocation method that utilizes a building energy simulation tool - eQuest (DOE). eQUEST is based on a series of building typologies and has a large number of input variables in order to quantify energy consumption. The simulation process uses default values when the actual data are inaccessible or non-existent. Our method is based on the construction of 22 commercial, 18 industrial, and 8 residential building types. This classification requires specification of building vintages and sizes. To calculate the total floor area of buildings from building heights, remote sensing data are used. The DOEs regional energy surveys, CBECS, RECS and MECS data for the East North Central Census Division, are used to calibrate hourly profiles for different building types. Previous published results for Indianapolis have been substantially updated by using additional data on natural gas pipelines. A more accurate, statistically-based building height assessment has been made using improved lidar data. The reclassification procedure converting Assessor's parcel types into Hestia prototypes, has been revised and improved. More accurate statistics have been calculated and corresponding diagrams and thematic maps have been prepared. Development of a powerful user-friendly information system for decision-makers is in process. That system will allow city environmental managers and regional planning agencies to make analyses of CO2 emissions for inquired sector and period. Of the townships in Indianapolis, Central Township has the largest emissions through the whole year while Wayne is the largest Industrial emitter. The commercial sector building emissions peak during at 7:30 am and 5 pm while the residential sector has peaks at 6 am and 6 pm. The Industrial sector has one peak at 1:30 pm. The relative proportions of those peaks vary with seasons of year. In contrast, their positions in monthly and diurnal profiles appear stable.

  13. Health effects and related standards for fossil-fuel and geothermal power plants. Volume 6 of health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. [In California

    Case, G.D.; Bertolli, T.A.; Bodington, J.C.; Choy, T.A.; Nero, A.V.

    1977-01-01

    This report reviews health effects and related standards for fossil-fuel and geothermal power plants, emphasizing impacts which may occur through emissions into the atmosphere, and treating other impacts briefly. Federal regulations as well as California state and local regulations are reviewed. Emissions are characterized by power plant type, including: coal-fired, oil-fired, gas-fired, combined cycle and advanced fossil-fuel plants; and liquid and vapor geothermal systems. Dispersion and transformation of emissions are treated. The state of knowledge of health effects, based on epidemiological, physiological, and biomedical studies, is reviewed.

  14. Risks to global biodiversity from fossil-fuel production exceed those from biofuel production

    Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Potential global biodiversity impacts from near-term gasoline production are compared to biofuel, a renewable liquid transportation fuel expected to substitute for gasoline in the near term (i.e., from now until c. 2030). Petroleum exploration activities are projected to extend across more than 5.8 billion ha of land and ocean worldwide (of which 3.1 billion is on land), much of which is in remote, fragile terrestrial ecosystems or off-shore oil fields that would remain relatively undisturbed if not for interest in fossil fuel production. Future biomass production for biofuels is projected to fall within 2.0 billion ha of land, most of which is located in areas already impacted by human activities. A comparison of likely fuel-source areas to the geospatial distribution of species reveals that both energy sources overlap with areas with high species richness and large numbers of threatened species. At the global scale, future petroleum production areas intersect more than double the area and higher total number of threatened species than future biofuel production. Energy options should be developed to optimize provisioning of ecosystem services while minimizing negative effects, which requires information about potential impacts on critical resources. Energy conservation and identifying and effectively protecting habitats with high-conservation value are critical first steps toward protecting biodiversity under any fuel production scenario.

  15. Global Partitioning of NOx Sources Using Satellite Observations: Relative Roles of Fossil Fuel Combustion, Biomass Burning and Soil Emissions

    Jaegle, Lyatt; Steinberger, Linda; Martin, Randall V.; Chance, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    This document contains the following abstract for the paper "Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: Relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and soil emissions." Satellite observations have been used to provide important new information about emissions of nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are significant in atmospheric chemistry, having a role in ozone air pollution, acid deposition and climate change. We know that human activities have led to a three- to six-fold increase in NOx emissions since pre-industrial times, and that there are three main surface sources of NOx: fuel combustion, large-scale fires, and microbial soil processes. How each of these sources contributes to the total NOx emissions is subject to some doubt, however. The problem is that current NOx emission inventories rely on bottom-up approaches, compiling large quantities of statistical information from diverse sources such as fuel and land use, agricultural data, and estimates of burned areas. This results in inherently large uncertainties. To overcome this, Lyatt Jaegle and colleagues from the University of Washington, USA, used new satellite observations from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. As the spatial and seasonal distribution of each of the sources of NOx can be clearly mapped from space, the team could provide independent topdown constraints on the individual strengths of NOx sources, and thus help resolve discrepancies in existing inventories. Jaegle's analysis of the satellite observations, presented at the recent Faraday Discussion on "Atmospheric Chemistry", shows that fuel combustion dominates emissions at northern mid-latitudes, while fires are a significant source in the Tropics. Additionally, she discovered a larger than expected role for soil emissions, especially over agricultural regions with heavy fertilizer use. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  16. Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation

    A study was conducted to compare the electricity generation costs of a number of current commercial technologies with technologies expected to become commercially available within the coming decade or so. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting per kWh of electricity generated were evaluated. A range of fossil fuel alternatives (with and without physical carbon sequestration), were compared with the baseline case of a pulverised coal, steam cycle power plant. Nuclear, hydro, wind, bioenergy and solar generating plants were also evaluated. The objectives were to assess the comparative costs of mitigation per tonne of carbon emissions avoided, and to estimate the total amount of carbon mitigation that could result from the global electricity sector by 2010 and 2020 as a result of fuel switching, carbon dioxide sequestration and the greater uptake of renewable energy. Most technologies showed potential to reduce both generating costs and carbon emission avoidance by 2020 with the exception of solar power and carbon dioxide sequestration. The global electricity industry has potential to reduce its carbon emissions by over 15% by 2020 together with cost saving benefits compared with existing generation

  17. The Estonian national program for sustainable resource development and its connection with teaching about fossil fuels in chemistry courses

    The conception of sustainable resource development worked out under the initiative of the United Nations (UN) actualizes ideas for improving the health of people and the environment. The needs of people are to he addressed and, simultaneously, natural resources preserved. That is ,why ecological and economic expenses are to he integrated and flow sheets of industrial plants are to be reorganized in order to utilize natural resources in a rational way. The association of Estonia with the resolution of the UN Conference on Environmental Development held in Rio de Janeiro and the resolution of the Estonian Parliament concerning The National Program of Sustainable Development require changes in our lifestyle. Chemical education in schools has to support a change in the way of thinking and many concrete subjects can be connected with the problems of sustainable development. Metallic elements get into the environment mostly with fuel combustion ashes. According to various prognoses, fossil fuel resources will last for a thousand years. This means that more and more metallic compounds are thrown into the environment. Dispersion of metals in the air, water bodies and soil is continuously increasing. Finally, they reach the food chain and to the human body. As a result, toxicosis, illnesses, and inadvisable dislocations in organic life may occur. The trend to use ash as a raw material for metal production is considered to have some prospective economically attractive application. This would be one possible way of sustainable resource development to avoid the increase of environmental pollution and increase production of the corresponding metals

  18. Toxic and hazardous air pollutants from co-firing biomass fuels, fossil fuels, MSW and RDF

    Toxic and hazardous pollutants are defined and then are considered from the perspective of pollutants which enter the combustion process with the fuel (principally the metals and metallic compounds) and pollutants which are formed as products of incomplete combustion. Control strategies are reviewed through the entire process including fuel preparation and storage, combustion control and the application of air pollution control devices. Measurement techniques for specific toxic and hazardous air pollutants are discussed

  19. The energy return on energy investment (EROI) of photovoltaics: Methodology and comparisons with fossil fuel life cycles

    A high energy return on energy investment (EROI) of an energy production process is crucial to its long-term viability. The EROI of conventional thermal electricity from fossil fuels has been viewed as being much higher than those of renewable energy life-cycles, and specifically of photovoltaics (PVs). We show that this is largely a misconception fostered by the use of outdated data and, often, a lack of consistency among calculation methods. We hereby present a thorough review of the methodology, discuss methodological variations and present updated EROI values for a range of modern PV systems, in comparison to conventional fossil-fuel based electricity life-cycles. - Highlights: ► We perform a review of the EROI methodology. ► We provide new calculations for PV compared to oil- and coal-based energy systems. ► If compared consistently, PV sits squarely in the same range of EROI as conventional fossil fuel life cycles.

  20. Heat planning for fossil-fuel-free district heating areas with extensive end-use heat savings

    Harrestrup, Maria; Svendsen, S.

    2014-01-01

    energy consumption of the existing building stock, increase energy efficiency, and convert the present heat supply from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. District heating is a sustainable way of providing space heating and domestic hot water to buildings in densely populated areas. This paper is...... a theoretical investigation of the district heating system in the Copenhagen area, in which heat conservation is related to the heat supply in buildings from an economic perspective. Supplying the existing building stock from low-temperature energy resources, e.g. geothermal heat, might lead to......The Danish government plans to make the Danish energy system to be completely free of fossil fuels by 2050 and that by 2035 the energy supply for buildings and electricity should be entirely based on renewable energy sources. To become independent from fossil fuels, it is necessary to reduce the...

  1. Low energy buildings – the basis for realizing the strategy for independency of fossil fuels in 2050

    Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces how low energy buildings can be developed, designed, optimized, constructed and operated in the future and thereby make a significant contribution to the realization of aim of the energy policy of EU: to become independent of fossil fuels in 2050. The paper describes how low...... energy buildings can become independent of fossil fuels in 2020 based on the following activities. Innovation of building components and systems with improved energy performance. Heating of low energy building with low temperature district heating based on renewable heat. Integrated design and...... without use of fossil fuels can be accomplished by the building sector by 2020. The building sector may in the process be transformed from an experience based sector to knowledge and research based sector with high quality sustainable products and very good business....

  2. A comparative study among fossil fuel power plants in PJM and California ISO by DEA environmental assessment

    This study compares among fossil fuel power plants in PJM and California ISO by their unified (operational and environmental) performance. DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) is used as a methodology. For comparative analysis, DEA incorporates strategic concepts such as natural and managerial disposability into the computational process. This study explores both how to measure Returns to Scale (RTS) under natural disposability and how to measure Damages to Scale (DTS) under managerial disposability. This empirical study obtains two implications on US energy policy. One of the two policy implications is that California ISO outperforms PJM in terms of the three unified efficiency measures. The result implies that strict regulation on undesirable outputs, as found in California, is important in enhancing the performance of US fossil fuel power plants. Thus, it is necessary for federal and local governments to regulate the fossil fuel power plants under the strict implementation of environmental protection. Under such a policy direction, it is possible for US fossil fuel power plants to attain economic prosperity (by enhancing their operational efficiencies) and to satisfy environmental regulation (by enhancing their environmental efficiencies). The other policy implication is that coal-fired and gas-fired power plants in PJM and California ISO need to reduce their operational sizes or introduce technology innovation on desirable and undesirable outputs and/or new management for environmental protection within their operations. Meanwhile, oil-fired power plants may increase their operational sizes if they can introduce technology innovation and new management on undesirable outputs. - Highlights: • This study compares fossil fuel power plants in PJM and California ISO. • California ISO outperforms PJM in terms of their unified efficiency measures. • Regulation by Clean Air Act is important for environmental protection. • Fossil fuel power plants need technology innovation for environmental protection

  3. Comparative analysis of structural concrete Quality Assurance practices on nine nuclear and three fossil fuel power plant construction projects. Final summary report

    A summary of two reports, COO/4120-1 and COO/4120-2, is given. A comparative analysis was made of the Quality Assurance practices related to the structural concrete phase on nine nuclear and three fossil fuel power plant projects which are (or have been) under construction in the United States in the past ten years. For the nuclear projects the analysis identified the response of each Quality Assurance program to the applicable criteria of 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix B as well as to the pertinent regulatory requirements and industry standards. For the fossil projects the analysis identified the response of each Quality Assurance program to criteria similar to those which were applicable in the nuclear situation. The major emphasis was placed on the construction aspects of the structural concrete phase of each project. The engineering and design aspects were examined whenever they interfaced with the construction aspects

  4. Towards space/time resolved uncertainty quantification of urban fossil fuel CO2 emissions (Invited)

    Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Patarasuk, R.; Song, Y.; O'Keeffe, D.; Huang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in emerging plans on a global, integrated, carbon monitoring system (CMS). A space/time explicit emissions data product can act as both a verification and planning system. It can verify atmospheric CO2 measurements (in situ and remote) and offer detailed mitigation information to management authorities in order to optimize the mix of mitigation efforts. Quantification of the uncertainty associated with bottom-up emission data products remains a challenging endeavor. There are a number of reasons for this. First, bottom-up source data is often produced by a regulatory agency, which has strict legal limits to the amount and type of information available. Even in cases where legal limitations are not at work, there is no standard for uncertainty reporting and hence, little reliable uncertainty estimation is made. The Hestia Project is an effort aimed at building high-resolution (eg. building and road link-specific, hourly) fossil fuel CO2 emissions data products at the scale of buildings/street segments for entire urban domains. A complete data product has been built for the city of Indianapolis and preliminary quantification has been completed for Los Angeles and Salt Lake City. The effort in Indianapolis is now part of a larger effort aimed at a convergent top-down/bottom-up assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, called INFLUX. In the course of this work, we have attempted to quantify uncertainty. In some cases, this is driven by parameter sensitivity, in other cases through the comparison of independent datasets reporting on the same entity. Expert judgment is also deployed where no alternative exists. Here, I will provide a review of some of these techniques with examples from our urban case studies. Total fossil fuel CO2 emissions for Marion County, IN, for the year 2002: (a) top view with numbered zones and (b) blowups of the numbered zones. Color units: log10 kg C/yr. Box height units: linear.

  5. Inferring high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 records at continental sites from combined 14CO2 and CO observations

    Levin, Ingeborg; Karstens, Ute

    2011-01-01

    An uncertainty estimate of a purely observational approach to derive hourly regional fossil fuel CO2 offsets (ΔCO2(foss)) at continental CO2 monitoring sites is presented. Weekly mean 14C-based fossil fuel CO2 mixing ratios and corresponding regional CO offsets (ΔCO) are proposed to determine weekly mean ΔCO/ΔCO2(foss) ratios in order to derive hourly ΔCO2(foss) mixing ratios from hourly ΔCO measurements. Respective regional model estimates of CO and CO2(foss) are applied to test this approac...

  6. Theoretical studies of oxides relevant to the combustion of fossil fuels

    Hicks, Jason Michael

    Anthropogenic pollution has greatly increased since the industrial revolution and continues to increase as more of the world becomes dependent upon fossil fuels for important applications like transportation and power production. In a general case, whenever a fossil fuel is consumed, a primary product of a complete combustion reaction is carbon dioxide. In a more specific case, the collection, processing and combustion of coal for power production are one of the primary ways by which trace elements, such as arsenic and selenium, are released into the environment. All of these pollutants are known to have harmful effects, whether on the environment, human health or power production itself. Because of this there has been an increasing interest in studies related to combating these pollutants. Concerning CO2 emissions, recently there has been a significant amount of work related to CO2 capture. A promising method involves the encapsulation of CO2 into isoreticular metal-organic frameworks (IRMOFs). The effectiveness of IMROFs greatly depends on the choice of both metal and organic parts. Molecular simulations have been used in the past to aid in the design and characterization of new MOFs, in particular by generating an adsorption isotherm. However, these traditional simulation methods have several drawbacks. The method used in this thesis, namely expanded Wang-Landau, not only overcomes these drawbacks but provides access to all the thermodynamic properties relevant to the adsorption process through a solution thermodynamics approach. This is greatly beneficial, since an excellent way to characterize the performance of various MOFs is by comparing their desorption free energy, i.e., the energy it takes to regenerate a saturated MOF to prepare it for the next adsorption cycle. Expanded WL was used in the study of CO 2 adsorption into IRMOF-1, 8 and 10 at eight temperatures, spanning both the subcritical and supercritical regimes and the following were obtained: adsorption isotherms, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, entropy and desorption free energy. It was found that, when the maximum loading was compared to the regeneration costs, IRMOF-10 had the best performance, followed by IRMOF-8 then IRMOF-1. During the combustion of coal, not only is CO2 produced, but also the trace elements of arsenic and selenium escape into the environment though this process. Both arsenic and selenium are known to have a harmful effects on the environment and human health. Arsenic is also known to poison the catalytic converter used in selective catalytic reduction of NOx . These trace elements have been found on fly ash or in the hot flue gases released into the atmosphere. In flue gases they most often exist as oxides. There have been many experimental and a few theoretical studies on the monomeric oxides, AsOx and SeOx, where x = 1, 2, or 3. However, little is known concerning the corresponding dimeric oxides, As2Ox and Se2Ox, where x = 3 or 5, though these compounds are expected from their similarities to nitrogen and sulfur chemistry, respectively. From an experimental perspective, they are very challenging to study due to the high temperatures, complex environments and low concentrations needed for a direct study of the form and structures of the dimeric oxides. From a theoretical perspective, they can be challenging to study due to their multireference character and the need for both dynamic and non-dynamic electron correlation due to bonds forming and breaking during isomerization. However, high level multireference ab initio methods which account for both dynamic and non-dynamic electron correlation can be used. In the work contained in this thesis, GVVPT2 and CR-CC(2,3) were used to study the relative stabilities of all relevant isomers and transition states of As2Ox and Se2Ox. The structures used where generated through DFT using the B3LYP functional. Not only were plausible stationary points located for all species, it was further confirmed that GVVPT2, though with lower computational cost than CR-CC(2,3), can accurately predict such complex surfaces.

  7. Fossil fuel subsidy removal and inadequate public power supply: Implications for businesses

    We briefly consider the impact of fossil fuel subsidy removal policies in the context of inadequate power supply, with a focus on the implications for businesses. In doing so, we utilize the case of the early 2012 fuel subsidy removal in Nigeria. The rationale for such subsidy-removal policies is typically informed by analysis showing that they lead to an economically inefficient allocation of resources and market distortions, while often failing to meet intended objectives. However, often the realities of infrastructural and institutional deficiencies are not appropriately factored into the decision-making process. Businesses in many developing countries, already impaired by the high cost of power supply deficiencies, become even less competitive on an unsubsidized basis. We find that justifications for removal often do not adequately reflect the specific environments of developing country economies, resulting in poor recommendations – or ineffective policy. - Highlights: ► We consider the impact of fuel subsidy removal in the context of energy poverty. ► Calls for subsidy removal often do not reflect the developing country realities. ► Businesses impaired by power supply deficiencies, become even less competitive.

  8. Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels

    Petrik, Michael [Technology Management Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Ruhl, Robert [Technology Management Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels. Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

  9. Technological research and development of fossil fuels; Ricerca e sviluppo tecnologico per lo sfruttamento ottimale dei combustibili fossili

    Minghetti, E.; Palazzi, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1995-05-01

    The aim of the present document is to supply general information concerning fossil fuels that represent, today and for the near future, the main energy source of our planet. New fossil fuel technologies are in continual development with two principal goals: to decrease environmental impact and increase transformation process efficiency. Examples of this effort are: (1) gas-steam combined cycles integrated with coal gasification plants, or with pressurized-fluidized-bed combustors; (2) new cycles with humid air or coal direct fired turbine, now under development. In the first part of this document the international and national energy situations and trends are shown. After some brief notes on environment problems and alternative fuels, such as biomasses and municipal wastes, technological aspects, mainly relevant to increasing fossil-fueled power plant performances, are examined in greater depth. Finally the research and technological development activities of ENEA (National Agency for New technologies, Energy and the Environment) Engineering Branch in order to improve fossil fuels energy and environmental use are presented.

  10. Fossil fuel-fired power generation. Case studies of recently constructed coal- and gas-fired plants

    Henderson, C. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-23

    To meet future energy demand growth and replace older or inefficient units, a large number of fossil fuel-fired plants will be required to be built worldwide in the next decade. Yet CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fired power generation are a major contributor to climate change. As a result, new plants must be designed and operated at highest efficiency both to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and to facilitate deployment of CO{sub 2} capture and storage in the future. The series of case studies in this report, which respond to a request to the IEA from the G8 Summit in July 2005, were conducted to illustrate what efficiency is achieved now in modern plants in different parts of the world using different grades of fossil fuels. The plants were selected from different geographical areas, because local factors influence attainable efficiency. The case studies include pulverized coal combustion (PCC) with both subcritical and supercritical (very high pressure and temperature) steam turbine cycles, a review of current and future applications of coal-fuelled integrated gasification combined cycle plants (IGCC), and a case study of a natural gas fired combined cycle plant to facilitate comparisons. The results of these analyses show that the technologies for high efficiency (low CO{sub 2} emission) and very low conventional pollutant emissions (particulates, SO{sub 2}, NOx) from fossil fuel-fired power generation are available now through PCC, IGCC or NGCC at commercially acceptable cost. This report contains comprehensive technical and indicative cost information for modern fossil fuel-fired plants that was previously unavailable. It serves as a valuable sourcebook for policy makers and technical decision makers contemplating decisions to build new fossil fuel-fired power generation plants.

  11. Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.; Gerdemann, Steve; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Turner, Paul; Patrick, Brian R.

    2011-10-18

    A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

  12. The Kyoto Protocol and the fossil fuel markets under different emission trading regimes

    The consequences of the Kyoto Protocol for the fossil fuel markets depend on which policy instruments that are used in order to reach the emission targets. This paper uses a numerical model to assess the significance of international emission trading for the oil, coal and gas markets. Three different trading regimes are compared. Particular attention is devoted to the EU proposal about limits on acquisitions and transfers of emission permits. We find that the EU proposal will be non-binding for buyers of emission permits but will significantly constrain the sale of emission permits from Eastern Europe. The EU proposal will increase the level of abatement in Annex B countries and will cause a sharp increase in the price of permits compared to the free trade equilibrium. (author)

  13. Atmospheric observations of carbon monoxide and fossil fuel CO2 emissions from East Asia

    Turnbull, Jocelyn C.; Tans, Pieter P.; Lehman, Scott J.; Baker, David; Conway, Thomas J.; Chung, Y. S.; Gregg, Jay Sterling; Miller, John B.; Southon, John R.; Zhou, Ling-Xi

    2011-01-01

    /ppm respectively, consistent with recent bottom-up inventory estimates and other observational studies. Locally influenced TAP samples fall into two distinct data sets, ascribed to air sourced from South Korea and North Korea. The South Korea samples have low R-CO:CO2ff of 13 +/- 3 ppb/ppm, slightly higher than......Flask samples from two sites in East Asia, Tae-Ahn Peninsula, Korea (TAP), and Shangdianzi, China (SDZ), were measured for trace gases including CO2, CO and fossil fuel CO2(CO(2)ff, derived from Delta(CO2)-C-14 observations). The five-year TAP record shows high CO(2)ff when local air comes from the...

  14. Solid fossil-fuel recovery by electrical induction heating in situ - A proposal

    Fisher, S.

    1980-04-01

    A technique, termed electrical induction heating, is proposed for in situ processes of energy production from solid fossil fuels, such as bitumen production from underground distillation of oil sand; oil by underground distillation of oil shale; petroleum from heavy oil by underground mobilization of heavy oil, from either residues of conventional liquid petroleum deposits or new deposits of viscous oil; methane and coal tar from lignite and coal deposits by underground distillation of coal; and generation of electricity by surface combustion of low calorific-value gas from underground coke gasification by combustion of the organic residue left from the underground distillation of coal by induction heating. A method of surface distillation of mined coking coal by induction heating to produce coke, methane, and coal tar is also proposed.

  15. Hydrogen via methane decomposition: an application for decarbonization of fossil fuels

    Fossil fuel decarbonization is an emerging technological approach for significant reduction of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. CO2-free production of hydrogen via thermocatalytic decomposition of methane (natural gas) as a viable decarbonization strategy is discussed in this paper. The technical approach is based on a single-step decomposition (pyrolysis) of methane and other hydrocarbons over carbon-based catalysts in an air/water free environment. This approach eliminates the need for water-gas shift and CO2 removal stages, required by conventional processes (e.g. methane steam reforming), which significantly simplifies the process. Clean carbon is produced as a valuable byproduct of the process. The experimental data on the catalytic activity of different carbon-based catalysts in methane decomposition reaction are presented in this work. The paper also discusses various conceptual designs for the reactor suitable for decomposition of methane with production of hydrogen-rich gas and continuous withdrawal of elemental carbon. (author)

  16. Prospects for conversion of solar energy into chemical fuels: the concept of a solar fuels industry.

    Harriman, Anthony

    2013-08-13

    There is, at present, no solar fuels industry anywhere in the world despite the well-publicized needs to replace our depleting stock of fossil fuels with renewable energy sources. Many obstacles have to be overcome in order to store sunlight in the form of chemical potential, and there are severe barriers to surmount in order to produce energy on a massive scale, at a modest price and in a convenient form. It is also essential to allow for the intermittent nature of sunlight, its diffusiveness and variability and to cope with the obvious need to use large surface areas for light collection. Nonetheless, we have no alternative but to devise viable strategies for storage of sunlight as biomass or chemical feedstock. Simple alternatives, such as solar heating, are attractive in terms of quick demonstrations but are not the answer. Photo-electrochemical devices might serve as the necessary machinery by which to generate electronic charge but the main problem is to couple these charges to the multi-electron catalysis needed to drive energy-storing chemical reactions. Several potential fuels (CO, H?, HCOOH, NH?, O?, speciality organics, etc.) are possible, but the photochemical reduction of CO? deserves particular mention because of ever-growing concerns about overproduction of greenhouse gases. The prospects for achieving these reactions under ambient conditions are considered herein. PMID:23816906

  17. Heterogeneity in rebound effects: Estimated results and impact of China’s fossil-fuel subsidies

    Highlights: • Rebound effects for China’s sectors are estimated. • The input–output model is a suitable model to analysis energy rebound effects across sectors. • The impacts of fossil-fuel subsidies on rebound effects are evaluated. • Technological progress has varies impactions on energy conservation, thereby rebound effects. - Abstract: Improving energy efficiency through technological advancement has become a primary measure to achieve energy conservation targets in China. However, the existence of energy rebound effects may completely or partially offset energy savings associated with technological advancement. From sectors perspective, technological advancement is not a necessary condition for energy conservation for a given sector because of varied rates of technological advancement and dependence among sectors. Adopting the input–output model, this article presents a detailed analysis of energy rebound effects in China’s economy at the aggregate and sectoral level over 2006–2010. The results show that the aggregate sectors’ rebound effect is about 11.31%, which is larger than without considering the interaction among sectors (11.25%); and strongly suggests that technological advancement has varied impacts on energy conservation and rebound effects. Thus various strategies of technological advancement and incorporated mitigation measures are necessary for energy conservation across sectors. Furthermore, the current study confirms that China’s total value of fossil-fuel subsidies reached 160.23 billion US$ (constant 2005 price) in 2006–2010; and after removal of subsidies, the energy use is expected to save 411.35 million toe and the rebound effects for aggregate sectors become 10.64%. Finally, some relevant policy issues are discussed in depth

  18. The feasibility and implications for conventional liquid fossil fuel of the Indonesian biofuel target in 2025

    This paper identifies conventional liquid fossil fuels that can be replaced or blended with biofuel and quantifies the biofuels required to meet the Indonesian biofuel target of at least 5% of the total primary energy mix in 2025. The analysis was conducted using the Long range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) system with an energy elasticity of 1 and maximum allowable biofuel blending ratios according to the current best practices. The results show that the target could be achieved with the maximum blending alternative based on constant energy demand growth of 6%. The target requires a total contribution from biofuel of about 8–27 GL in 2025 depending on blending ratios. In energy terms, these are equivalent to 232–782 PJ or about 40–135 million barrels crude oil, which constitute roughly around 3.3–11.0% of the estimated liquid fossil fuel oil annual consumption in that year. The results imply that it may have detrimental environmental impact, as it requires 5.2 million ha of palm oil and sugar cane plantations. On the positive side, achieving the target offers potential new employment opportunities of about 3.4 million jobs, particularly in the agricultural sector relevant to liquid biofuel production. - Highlights: • Indonesian energy demand in 2025 was forecasted by using LEAP. • The biofuel target (5% of the total energy mix in 2025) requires 782 PJ of biofuel. • The target can be achieved under the scenario of maximum blending alternative. • The target requires up to 5.2 million ha of palm oil and sugar cane plantation area. • It may offer potential new employment for about 3.4 million people

  19. Future contracts in the nuclear fuel industry

    In a modern futures market, standardized contracts for future delivery of a commodity are traded through an exchange that establishes contract terms and the rules of trading. The futures contract itself is simply an agreement between a buyer and a seller in which the seller is obligated to deliver and the buyer is obligated to accept a predetermined quantity of a specified commodity at a given location on a certain date in the future for a set price. Organized futures markets aid in price discovery; provide a risk management tool for those with commercial interests in a commodity; create speculative opportunities; and contribute to competitiveness, efficiency, and fairness in trading. There are, at present, no standardized futures contracts in the nuclear fuel industry, although the concept has been discovered for years. The idea has been raised again recently in relation to the disposition of Russian uranium. Some adaptation of traditional futures contracts, traded on an exchange composed of nuclear fuel industry participants, could provide many of the benefits found in other commodity futures markets

  20. Improved Energy Efficiency and Fuel Substitution in the Iron and Steel Industry

    Johansson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    IPCC reported in its climate change report 2013 that the atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases (GHG) carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, and nitrous oxide now have reached the highest levels in the past 800,000 years. CO2 concentration has increased by 40% since pre-industrial times and the primary source is fossil fuel combustion. It is vital to reduce anthropogenic emissions of GHGs in order to combat climate change. Industry accounts for 20% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions an...

  1. Options for the Swedish steel industry - Energy efficiency measures and fuel conversion

    The processes of iron and steel making are energy intensive and consume large quantities of electricity and fossil fuels. In order to meet future climate targets and energy prices, the iron and steel industry has to improve its energy and resource efficiency. For the iron and steel industry to utilize its energy resources more efficiently and at the same time reduce its CO2 emissions a number of options are available. In this paper, opportunities for both integrated and scrap-based steel plants are presented and some of the options are electricity production, fuel conversion, methane reforming of coke oven gas and partnership in industrial symbiosis. The options are evaluated from a system perspective and more specific measures are reported for two Swedish case companies: SSAB Strip Products and Sandvik AB. The survey shows that both case companies have great potentials to reduce their CO2 emissions. -- Research highlights: ? Steel plants have several opportunities to utilize excess energy flows. ? Industrial symbiosis and TES can enhance the utilization of excess energy. ? Options to produce electricity from low-grade heat and heat radiation. ? Options to substitute fossil fuels with biomass. ? The case companies have great potentials to reduce their CO2 emissions.

  2. Contextualizing avian mortality: A preliminary appraisal of bird and bat fatalities from wind, fossil-fuel, and nuclear electricity

    This article explores the threats that wind farms pose to birds and bats before briefly surveying the recent literature on avian mortality and summarizing some of the problems with it. Based on operating performance in the United States and Europe, this study offers an approximate calculation for the number of birds killed per kWh generated for wind electricity, fossil-fuel, and nuclear power systems. The study estimates that wind farms and nuclear power stations are responsible each for between 0.3 and 0.4 fatalities per gigawatt-hour (GWh) of electricity while fossil-fueled power stations are responsible for about 5.2 fatalities per GWh. While this paper should be respected as a preliminary assessment, the estimate means that wind farms killed approximately seven thousand birds in the United States in 2006 but nuclear plants killed about 327,000 and fossil-fueled power plants 14.5 million. The paper concludes that further study is needed, but also that fossil-fueled power stations appear to pose a much greater threat to avian wildlife than wind and nuclear power technologies.

  3. Regional variations in spatial structure of nightlights, population density and fossil-fuel CO{sub 2} emissions

    Raupach, M.R.; Paget, M. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, ACT 2601 (Australia); Rayner, P.J. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, CEA CNRS UVSQ, 4 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2010-09-15

    We evaluate the joint use of satellite-observed intensity of urban nightlights and census-based population density data as constraints on the spatial structure of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels. Findings are: (1) the probability that population density exceeds a given value follows a power-law distribution over two orders of magnitude of population density, encompassing the 40% of the global population at the highest densities. (2) The corresponding probability distribution for nightlights intensity also follows a power-law, departing near instrumental saturation. (3) Assuming that the true nightlights intensity distribution follows the power-law above instrumental saturation, we obtain a correction for saturation errors in the nightlights data. The amplification of nightlights intensity required to correct for saturation errors is estimated to be a factor of 1.15-1.23 globally and much greater in regions with high nightlights intensities. (4) Correcting for saturation, we observe clear empirical relationships between nightlights intensity and areal densities of energy consumption, fossil-fuel emissions and economic activity, holding throughout the development spectrum. (5) We indicate how these relationships underpin a fossil-fuel data assimilation system (FFDAS) for estimating fossil-fuel CO{sub 2} emissions. (author)

  4. Fossil fuels and the global carbon dioxide problem. Disposal and recycling of carbon dioxide may reduce the greenhouse effect

    Greenhouse gas reduction was defined as a global concern at the Kyoto conference of 1997. The emission reduction goals can be reached only if all options for energy saving and emission reduction are used, including disposal or recycling of carbon dioxide in fossil fuel combustion processes

  5. FEASIBILITY OF PRODUCING AND MARKETING BYPRODUCT GYPSUM FROM SO2 EMISSION CONTROL AT FOSSIL-FUEL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    The report gives results of a study to identify fossil-fuel-fired power plants that might, in competition with existing crude gypsum sources and other power plants, lower the cost of compliance with SO2 regulations by producing and marketing abatement gypsum. In the Eastern U.S.,...

  6. Determination of heating value of industrial waste for the formulation of alternative fuels

    Bouabid G.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative fuels has become increasingly widespread. They are basically designed based on industrial waste so that they can substitute fossil fuels which start to become scarce. Alternative fuels must meet some criteria, namely an important calorific content, minimum humidity and ash content. When it comes to combustion, the most interesting parameter is the calorific value which represents the thermal energy released during combustion. The experiments that were conducted showed that the calorific value is influenced by other parameters namely moisture and ash content. It was therefore necessary to study the behavior of the heating value in terms of these two parameters in order to establish a relationship that is used to describe the behavior. This is expected to allow a simulation of the calorific value of a mixture of various industrial waste.

  7. Fossil fuels: technical, economical and political challenges for 2030-2050; Combustibles fossiles: enjeux techniques, economiques et politiques a l'horizon 2030-2050

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This panorama takes stock on the international energy actuality in 2003 and discusses the instability of the geo-political context of the energy and the part of the fossil fuels for the future years 2030-2050. The following topics were presented: activities and market for the exploration-production, refining and petrochemistry, the world gas trade situation, the petroleum supply and demand, the Iraq, the diesel in the USA, the investments and the depletion, long-dated evolutions of motors and fuels, implementing of the european directive concerning the market of tradable permits of CO{sub 2}, the carbon sequestration, hydrogen the energy of the future and the biofuels in Europe. (A.L.B.)

  8. An assessment of econometric models applied to fossil fuel power generation

    The main purpose of this report is to provide a general view of those studies, in which the econometric approach is applied to the selection of fuel in fossil fired power generation, focusing the attention to the key role played by the fuel prices. The report consists of a methodological analysis and a survey of the studies available in literature. The methodological analysis allows to assess the adequateness of the econometric approach, in the electrical power utilities policy. With this purpose, the fundamentals of microeconomics, which are the basis of the econometric models, are pointed out and discussed, and then the hypotheses, which are needed to be assumed for complying the economic theory, are verified in their actual implementation in the power generation sector. The survey of the available studies provides a detailed description of the Translog and Logit models, and the results achieved with their application. From these results, the estimated models show to fit the data with good approximation, a certain degree of interfuel substitution and a meaningful reaction to prices on demand side

  9. Photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fossil fuels catalysed by supported TiO{sub 2}

    Garcia-Martinez, Maria J.; Da Riva, Ignacio; Canoira, Laureano; Llamas, Juan F.; Alcantara, Ramon [Department of Chemical Engineering and Fuels, School of Mines, Technical University of Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, 28003-Madrid (Spain); Gallego, Jose Luis R. [Department of Exploitation and Prospecting for Mines, Campus of Mieres, University of Oviedo, Gonzalo Gutierrez S/N-33600 Mieres, Asturias (Spain)

    2006-10-05

    This paper describes the photodegradation behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in different types of fossil fuels (commercial diesel, Arabian light crude, heavy fuel oil from the Prestige oil spill and coal from an abandoned coal dump) suspended in artificial seawater or ultrapure water, under irradiation in a stirred photochemical reactor for 14 days. The reactor was continuously fed with air from a compressor at a constant rate of 6NLh{sup -1}, and thin films of TiO{sub 2} (anatase) supported on pyrex glass raschig rings were used as catalyst. Dark control samples were carried out simultaneously for all the experiments, and both phases, aqueous and organic, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the experimental and dark control samples, allowing to calculate a photodegradation ratio. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reached a high degree of photodegradation in the water-soluble fraction of the samples, but the organic fractions remained almost unaffected in most of the experiments. Some photodegradation products have been also identified in the aqueous and organic fractions of the samples. (author)

  10. Substitution of fossil fuel with wood biomass in mountain tourist centres in Serbia mountain Goc example

    Furtula, M.; Danon, G.; Bajic, V. (Univ. of Belgrade (Serbia). Faculty of Forestry), Email: mladen.furtula@sfb.bg.ac.rs

    2009-07-01

    Serbia has five National Parks and they are relatively big tourist centres. beside that, Serbia has more or less developed mountain tourism on over 30 mountains. Most of these centres in Serbia are using fossil fuels or electricity for heating, while wood biomass from local forests is partly used and mostly collapsing in forest. Using wood biomass from forest as a fuel in tourist facilities on mountains has ecological and economical benefits. Pilot project, whose initiator is Faculty of Forestry from University of Belgrade should confirm, on existent example in their scientific base on mountain Goc, correctness of theory for economical, technical and ecological adequacy for production of thermal and electrical energy from wood biomass. Building a new boiler and extension existing heating system have to ensure enough thermal energy for productive, and tourist facilities on 'Dobre vode' and 'Gvozdac' on mountain Goc. It is in total of 10,000 m2 of covered space of facilities of Faculty of Forestry, hotel 'Dobre vode' with 100 beds, alpine house 'Dobre vode' with 60 beds, children roost 'Goc' with 146 beds and others objects. Present demands for thermal energy, which comes from existing boiler, are app. 3,000,000 kWh and for that purpose it is used 3,000 m3 of stack wood. Addition of new users of thermal energy consumption would be growing up for app. 2.000 kWh or it would spend 2.000 m2 more of stack wood and this amount would replace usage of 300 tons og fossil fuels. All stated amounts of wood biomass would be ensuring from economy forests of Faculty of Forestry. All facilities are supplying with electric energy from nearby city of Kraljevo with frequent discontinuity and unstable main voltage. To provide less dependency from present suppliers, it is calculated in project goals installation of CHP for parallel production of thermal and electric energy. If this idea is proved to be good and feasible this program would, with the help of the National Investment Programme, expand on other tourist centres on mountains in Serbia. (orig.)

  11. Cost-effective policy instruments for greenhouse gas emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution through bioenergy production in Austria

    Schmidt, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.schmidt@boku.ac.at [Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Leduc, Sylvain [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Dotzauer, Erik [Maelardalen University, P.O. Box 883, SE-72123 Vaesteras (Sweden); Schmid, Erwin [Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-06-15

    Climate change mitigation and security of energy supply are important targets of Austrian energy policy. Bioenergy production based on resources from agriculture and forestry is an important option for attaining these targets. To increase the share of bioenergy in the energy supply, supporting policy instruments are necessary. The cost-effectiveness of these instruments in attaining policy targets depends on the availability of bioenergy technologies. Advanced technologies such as second-generation biofuels, biomass gasification for power production, and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) will likely change the performance of policy instruments. This article assesses the cost-effectiveness of energy policy instruments, considering new bioenergy technologies for the year 2030, with respect to greenhouse gas emission (GHG) reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Instruments that directly subsidize bioenergy are compared with instruments that aim at reducing GHG emissions. A spatially explicit modeling approach is used to account for biomass supply and energy distribution costs in Austria. Results indicate that a carbon tax performs cost-effectively with respect to both policy targets if BECCS is not available. However, the availability of BECCS creates a trade-off between GHG emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Biofuel blending obligations are costly in terms of attaining the policy targets. - Highlights: > Costs of energy policies and effects on reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and fossil fuel consumption. > Particular focus on new bioenergy production technologies such as second generation biofuels. > Spatially explicit techno-economic optimization model. > CO{sub 2} tax: high costs for reducing fossil fuel consumption if carbon capture and storage is available. > Biofuel policy: no significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions or fossil fuel consumption.

  12. Cost-effective policy instruments for greenhouse gas emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution through bioenergy production in Austria

    Climate change mitigation and security of energy supply are important targets of Austrian energy policy. Bioenergy production based on resources from agriculture and forestry is an important option for attaining these targets. To increase the share of bioenergy in the energy supply, supporting policy instruments are necessary. The cost-effectiveness of these instruments in attaining policy targets depends on the availability of bioenergy technologies. Advanced technologies such as second-generation biofuels, biomass gasification for power production, and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) will likely change the performance of policy instruments. This article assesses the cost-effectiveness of energy policy instruments, considering new bioenergy technologies for the year 2030, with respect to greenhouse gas emission (GHG) reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Instruments that directly subsidize bioenergy are compared with instruments that aim at reducing GHG emissions. A spatially explicit modeling approach is used to account for biomass supply and energy distribution costs in Austria. Results indicate that a carbon tax performs cost-effectively with respect to both policy targets if BECCS is not available. However, the availability of BECCS creates a trade-off between GHG emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Biofuel blending obligations are costly in terms of attaining the policy targets. - Highlights: → Costs of energy policies and effects on reduction of CO2 emissions and fossil fuel consumption. → Particular focus on new bioenergy production technologies such as second generation biofuels. → Spatially explicit techno-economic optimization model. → CO2 tax: high costs for reducing fossil fuel consumption if carbon capture and storage is available. → Biofuel policy: no significant reductions in CO2 emissions or fossil fuel consumption.

  13. The implication for climate change and peak fossil fuel of the continuation of the current trend in wind and solar energy production

    Climate change, and more recently, the risk of fossil fuel production being unable to keep pace with demand (peak fossil fuel) are both considered as risks to civilisation, or global risks. In an initial empirical analysis, this paper attempts to answer the following questions, which have often been posed but have not, to our knowledge, been answered empirically at global level. At which date, if unaddressed, will the risks become critical? Given that the substitution of fossil fuels by wind and solar energy is often proposed as a solution to these problems, what is its current aggregate growth rate and is there a plausible future growth rate which would substitute it for fossil fuels before the risks become critical? The study finds that the peak fossil fuel risk will start to be critical by 2020. If however the future growth rate of wind and solar energy production follows that already achieved for the world mobile phone system or the Chinese National Expressway Network the peak fossil fuel risk can be prevented completely. For global warming, the same growth rate provides significant mitigation by reducing carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels to zero by the early 2030s. - Highlights: ► Converging studies show the peak fossil fuel risk likely to be critical by 2020. ► We model the future growth rate of wind and solar energy based on analogous precedents. ► These are the growth rates already achieved by the world mobile phone system and the Chinese National Expressway Network. ► We show that wind and solar energy growth at these rates averts the peak fossil fuel risk. ► For global warming, the scenarios make fossil-fuel CO2 emissions zero by 2030.

  14. Towards Robust Energy Systems Modeling: Examinging Uncertainty in Fossil Fuel-Based Life Cycle Assessment Approaches

    Venkatesh, Aranya

    Increasing concerns about the environmental impacts of fossil fuels used in the U.S. transportation and electricity sectors have spurred interest in alternate energy sources, such as natural gas and biofuels. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methods can be used to estimate the environmental impacts of incumbent energy sources and potential impact reductions achievable through the use of alternate energy sources. Some recent U.S. climate policies have used the results of LCAs to encourage the use of low carbon fuels to meet future energy demands in the U.S. However, the LCA methods used to estimate potential reductions in environmental impact have some drawbacks. First, the LCAs are predominantly based on deterministic approaches that do not account for any uncertainty inherent in life cycle data and methods. Such methods overstate the accuracy of the point estimate results, which could in turn lead to incorrect and (consequent) expensive decision-making. Second, system boundaries considered by most LCA studies tend to be limited (considered a manifestation of uncertainty in LCA). Although LCAs can estimate the benefits of transitioning to energy systems of lower environmental impact, they may not be able to characterize real world systems perfectly. Improved modeling of energy systems mechanisms can provide more accurate representations of reality and define more likely limits on potential environmental impact reductions. This dissertation quantitatively and qualitatively examines the limitations in LCA studies outlined previously. The first three research chapters address the uncertainty in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with petroleum-based fuels, natural gas and coal consumed in the U.S. The uncertainty in life cycle GHG emissions from fossil fuels was found to range between 13 and 18% of their respective mean values. For instance, the 90% confidence interval of the life cycle GHG emissions of average natural gas consumed in the U.S was found to range between -8 to 9% (17%) of the mean value of 66 g CO2e/MJ. Results indicate that uncertainty affects the conclusions of comparative life cycle assessments, especially when differences in average environmental impacts between two competing fuels/products are small. In the final two research chapters of this thesis, system boundary limitations in LCA are addressed. Simplified economic dispatch models for are developed to examine changes in regional power plant dispatch that occur when coal power plants are retired and when natural gas prices drop. These models better reflect reality by estimating the order in which existing power plants are dispatched to meet electricity demand based on short-run marginal costs. Results indicate that the reduction in air emissions are lower than suggested by LCA studies, since they generally do not include the complexity of regional electricity grids, predominantly driven by comparative fuel prices. For instance, comparison, this study estimates 7-15% reductions in emissions with low natural gas prices. Although this is a significant reduction in itself, it is still lower than the benefits reported in traditional life cycle comparisons of coal and natural gas-based power (close to 50%), mainly due to the effects of plant dispatch.

  15. Transforming fossil fuel energy to electricity using MHD with a rare-gas working fluid

    The combination of a source of combustion products and a closed cycle containing a rare gas is a very attractive idea since, to the extent that the problem of the heat transfer from the combustion products to the rare gas is solved, it is possible to enjoy the particular advantages of the open or the closed cycle while avoiding their disadvantages. It is not difficult to produce thermal energy at high temperatures in an open cycle. On the other hand, the design of ducts for operation over long periods of time and the treatment of the combustion products in the medium-temperature heat exchangers and at the seed removal stage pose difficult technological problems for which it may not be possible to find economic solutions. In the closed cycle, on the other hand, the technological problems do not seem to be crucial since the operating temperatures are lower and the gases are far less corrosive. Problems arise when one attempts to link a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor to an MHD system as system pressures are incompatible. However, the existence of a heat exchanger capable of transferring to a rare gas, at about 2000C, thermal energy obtained by the combustion at atmospheric pressure of fossil fuels with air would: (a) Solve the problem of increasing the efficiency with which the energy released by the combustion of the fossil substances is converted into electricity, a problem which research workers are trying to tackle using Open-cycle systems; (b) Permit the study of closed-cycle problems at full scale before a series of high- temperature converters is launched. In the first part of the paper the authors examine a heat exchanger design that meets these requirements. In the second part they consider the general characteristics of power plants built around such heat exchangers and assess their conversion efficiency. In the third part they study in detail a specific commercial power station project. (author)

  16. A numerical analysis of worldwide CO{sub 2} emissions based on fossil fuels and effects on atmospheric warming in Turkey

    Tokgoz, Nuray

    2007-07-01

    The climate system of the earth, globally and locally, obviously has been changed from pre-industrial period to present. Some of the changes are due to human activities where the vital role has been played by the emission. Fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, oil), the raw materials for energy, play an effective and determining role in the development and sustenance of industrial development, as well as in the energy planning in all major countries. When global and regional geographies are evaluated from the geo-strategic and geo-political points of view, it is clearly seen that among all fossil fuels, coal is distributed more 'equally' in ratio than oil and natural gas reserves. Coal is gradually gaining importance for countries that do not have energy resources, have limited ones, or have resources on the verge of exhaustion. With the latest environmentally-friendly technological innovations in the field of burning-storing CO2 emissions in thermal power plants and given today's emphasis on the principle of 'sustainable development,' it is an undeniable fact that coal will continue to be a significant primary energy resource in the future, both in Turkey and around the world. In this study, in order to numerically calculate the impact of CO2 from fossil fuel consumption on global warming and the process of climate change, a global scale numerical evaluation has been constructed. The evaluation utilizes the 'total primary energy supply (TPES) - CO2 emission' from 136 countries in 2004 together with such basic indicators as 'TPES/capita' and 'ton CO2/capita'. The potential CO2 emission for the year 2030 has also been estimated. Moreover, to maintain the integrity of the subject under study, the distribution of thermal power plants utilizing fossil fuels among the differing geographical regions of Turkey, the relationship between forests (F) in these regions, and the average annual increase in temperature ({delta}T) between 1975-92 and 1993-2006 have also been examined. Data was taken from 133 macro-climatic meteorological stations within the scope of this study.

  17. Real Costs Assessment of Solar-Hydrogen and Some Fossil Fuels by means of a Combustion Analysis

    Nicoletti, Giovanni; Bruno, Roberto; Arcuri, Natale; Nicoletti, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    In order to compare solar-hydrogen and the most used fossil fuels, the evaluation of the external costs related to their use is required. These costs involve the environmental damage produced by the combustion reactions, the health problems caused by air pollution, the damage to land from fuel mining, and the environmental degradation linked to the global warming, the acid rains, and the water pollution. For each fuel, the global cost is determined as sum of the market price and of the corr...

  18. Historical emissions of carbonaceous aerosols from biomass and fossil fuel burning for the period 1870-2000

    Ito, Akinori; Penner, Joyce E.

    2005-06-01

    Historical changes of black carbon (BC) and particulate organic matter (POM) emissions from biomass burning (BB) and fossil fuel (FF) burning are estimated from 1870 to 2000. A bottom-up inventory for open vegetation (OV) burning is scaled by a top-down estimate for the year 2000. Monthly and interannual variations are derived over the time period from 1979 to 2000 based on the TOMS satellite aerosol index (AI) and this global map. Prior to 1979, emissions are scaled to a CH4 emissions inventory based on land-use change. Biofuel (BF) emissions from a recent inventory for developing countries are scaled forward and backward in time using population statistics and crop production statistics. In developed countries, wood consumption data together with emission factors for cooking and heating practices are used for biofuel estimates. For fossil fuel use, we use fuel consumption data and specific emission factors for different fuel use categories to develop an inventory over 1950-2000, and emissions are scaled to a CO2 inventory prior to that time. Technology changes for emissions from the diesel transport sector are included. During the last decade of this time period, the BC and POM emissions from biomass burning (i.e., OV + BF) contribute a significant amount to the primary sources of BC and POM and are larger than those from FF. Thus 59% of the NH BC emissions and 90% of the NH POM emissions are from BB in 2000. Fossil fuel consumption technologies are needed prior to 1990 in order to improve estimates of fossil fuel emissions during the twentieth century. These results suggest that the aerosol emissions from biomass burning need to be represented realistically in climate change assessments. The estimated emissions are available on a 1° × 1° grid for global climate modeling studies of climate changes.

  19. Community, environmental, and occupational health risks associated with fossil fuel energy production

    Shepherd, Mark A.

    Short-term and long-term health risks associated with fossil fuel power production can be grouped into three broad categories: risks to the surrounding community, the natural environment and to plant workers. The results of three studies examining the primary short-term or long-term impacts of fossil fuel power plants are presented within this dissertation. The first study estimates the plausible community health effects associated with peak SO2 emissions from three coal-fired power plants in the Baltimore, Maryland area. Concentrations from mobile and stationary air monitoring were compared to human clinical studies that demonstrated respiratory morbidity. Results indicate that exposure concentrations are below levels associated with respiratory symptoms. A single measurement at one monitoring site, however, may indicate risk of asymptomatic lung function decrement for SO2-sensitive asthmatics. The second study estimates the relationship between operational, environmental and temporal factors at a Texas coastal power plant and fish and shellfish impingement. Impingement is a long-term risk to fish populations near power plants. When large quantities of water are withdrawn from water bodies for cooling, fish and shellfish may be harmed if impinged against screens intended to remove debris. In this study, impingement of fish and shellfish was best explained by dissolved oxygen concentration, sampling month and sampling time. When examined separately, temperature and sampling month were most important in explaining fish impingement, while for shellfish, sampling month and sampling time were most important. Operational factors were not significant predictors of impingement. The third study examines whether the number of worker similar exposure groups classified using observation methods was the same as groups classified using personal exposure monitoring. Using observational techniques and personal monitoring, power plant workers were grouped according to exposure similarity for respirable silica, respirable particulates, total dust, chromium and arsenic. For respirable particulates, the number of groups estimated using observational techniques is similar to the number estimated using personal monitoring. For respirable silica, total dust, and arsenic, observational techniques indicated more groups than indicated using personal monitoring. No significant exposure differences to chromium were found. Except for respirable silica, the number of similarly exposed groups among power plants is comparable.

  20. Characterization of coal-derived liquids and other fossil-fuel-related materials employing mass spectrometry. Final report, September 30, 1976-September 29, 1980

    Scheppele, S E

    1982-05-01

    A document was prepared which assessed the state-of-the art in the mass spectrometric characterization of fossil fuel materials and the relevance of these data to the fossil fuel industry. A Kratos DS50 SM data system was successfully interfaced to a CEC 21-110B mass spectrometer. Communications between the NOVA 3/12 computer in the data system and the OSU central computer were established. A Grant Comparator/Microdensitometer was acquired and made operational. Plans were developed and hardware acquired for interfacing the densitometer to the NOVA 3/12 computer. A quartz direct introduction probe was acquired for the CEC 21-110B. A temperature controller for the probe was acquired and interfaced to the slow speed ADC on the auxillary board in the data system/mass spectrometer interface. The combined FI/EI source was modified to operate in the FD mode and an apparatus was fabricated for conditioning FD emitters. A CSI supergrater 3 was interfaced to the PE 3920 gas chromatograph. The upgraded facility was used to develop mass spectrometric methods for the characterization of fossil fuel materials and to apply methods to the characterization of these materials. Activities included: (1) initial development of field-ionization mass spectrometry for the characterization of saturated hydrocarbons, (2) computerization of the technique of probe microdistillation/mass spectrometry, (3) initation of the development of a new method for the computer assisted assignment of formulas to ion masses, (4) characterization of neutral fractions from a hydrotreated tar-sands oil, and (5) characterization of coal-derived oils and asphaltenes.

  1. Determination of fossil fraction of refuse derived fuel by the selective dissolution method in calorific value basis: Development of simplified method.

    Ariyaratne, Hiromi Wijesinghe; Asgautsen, Øyvind; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Eine, Kristin; Tokheim, Lars Andre

    2012-01-01

    Determination of net CO2 emissions from combustion of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) is not straight forward due to the heterogeneous nature of the fuel. The fossil fraction of the fuel is an essential parameter for the determination of net CO2 emissions. In the present study, the fossil fraction of RDF is determined by means of the Selective Dissolution Method (SDM) in calorific value basis. Seven artificially made RDF mixtures were tested using this method. The mixtures were prepared by mixing d...

  2. Approach for Emissions Compliance in the Fossil-Fuel Based Energy Sector

    Alain, Bill; Bitran, Guillaume; Basler, Benno; Hess, Stephan

    2007-07-01

    Most of today's air pollution legislation varies from country to country depending on factors such as the economy, fuel supply, fuel dependency and specific local pollution problems. At the same time, in a growing number of countries, the energy sector is going through privatisation, deregulation and globalisation process which is affecting energy demand and fuel selection, driving gradual integration of energy markets and requiring new solutions. Today it is also well recognized that pollution is often not a localized problem and that gaseous air pollutants can cross great distances. This has led to the cooperation between countries to control transboundary pollution, under bilateral or multilateral agreements. Similarly as for the energy sector, countries are not only becoming increasingly linked to each other in political, economic and social terms but also in environmental terms. Power generators and equipment manufacturers have been developing technologies and business agreements in countries with respective legislation constraints over many years and take this trend of interdependence into account. The equipment manufacturers and global solution providers such as Alstom have become the focal point driving the development of new environmental compliance products and solutions within the fossil fuel based energy sector. Technological progress achieved in many fields over recent years in different areas of the world according to the different legislations allows the power generators to meet these increasingly stringent emissions reduction requirements while extending the plant lifetime of existing power plants, and keeping them competitive. This paper gives an overview and outlook of environmental regulations, air pollution control technologies and some experience in pioneering environmental long-term service agreements. Obviously, the most immediately effective way to ensure emissions compliance of existing power plant is to professionally maintain and upgrade the plant in order to guarantee high availability and operating reliability. The second option is to take advantage of monitoring and control systems for continuous process supervision and optimisation. Regular monitoring and fine-tuning of the plant by an expert team using state of the art technology indeed guarantees the lowest possible emissions and energy consumption. Finally a long-term service partnership can secure, for the power generator, plant availability and full environmental compliance. (auth)

  3. Modelling African aerosol using updated fossil fuel and biofuel emission inventories for 2005 and 2030

    Liousse, C.; Penner, J. E.; Assamoi, E.; Xu, L.; Criqui, P.; Mima, S.; Guillaume, B.; Rosset, R.

    2010-12-01

    A regional fossil fuel and biofuel emission inventory for particulates has been developed for Africa at a resolution of 0.25 x 0.25 for the year 2005. The original database of Junker and Liousse (2008) was used after modification for updated regional fuel consumption and emission factors. Consumption data were corrected after direct inquiries conducted in Africa, including a new emitter category (i.e. two-wheel vehicles including zemidjans) and a new activity sector (i.e. power plants) since both were not considered in the previous emission inventory. Emission factors were measured during the 2005 AMMA campaign (Assamoi and Liousse, 2010) and combustion chamber experiments. Two prospective inventories for 2030 are derived based on this new regional inventory and two energy consumption forecasts by the Prospective Outlook on Long-term Energy Systems (POLES) model (Criqui, 2001). The first is a reference scenario, where no emission controls beyond those achieved in 2003 are taken into account, and the second is for a "clean" scenario where possible and planned policies for emission control are assumed to be effective. BC and OCp emission budgets for these new inventories will be discussed and compared to the previous global dataset. These new inventories along with the most recent open biomass burning inventory (Liousse et al., 2010) have been tested in the ORISAM-TM5 global chemistry-climate model with a focus over Africa at a 1 x 1 resolution. Global simulations for BC and primary OC for the years 2005 and 2030 are carried out and the modelled particulate concentrations for 2005 are compared to available measurements in Africa. Finally, BC and OC radiative properties (aerosol optical depths and single scattering albedo) are calculated and the direct radiative forcing is estimated using an off line model (Wang and Penner, 2009). Results of sensitivity tests driven with different emission scenarios will be presented.

  4. Fossil fuel depletion and socio-economic scenarios: An integrated approach

    The progressive reduction of high-quality-easy-to-extract energy is a widely recognized and already ongoing process. Although depletion studies for individual fuels are relatively abundant, few of them offer a global perspective of all energy sources and their potential future developments, and even fewer include the demand of the socio-economic system. This paper presents an Economy-Energy-Environment model based on System Dynamics which integrates all those aspects: the physical restrictions (with peak estimations for oil, gas, coal and uranium), the techno-sustainable potential of renewable energy estimated by a novel top-down methodology, the socio-economic energy demands, the development of alternative technologies and the net CO2 emissions. We confront our model with the basic assumptions of previous Global Environmental Assessment (GEA) studies. The results show that demand-driven evolution, as performed in the past, might be unfeasible: strong energy-supply scarcity is found in the next two decades, especially in the transportation sector before 2020. Electricity generation is unable to fulfill its demand in 2025–2040, and a large expansion of electric renewable energies move us close to their limits. In order to find achievable scenarios, we are obliged to set hypotheses which are hardly used in GEA scenarios, such as zero or negative economic growth. - Highlights: • The paper presents and describes a new Energy–Economy–Environment global model. • GEA scenario dynamics have the potential to lead us to energy resource scarcity in the next 2 decades. • Global forecasts of international agencies show inconsistency in energy constraints. • Renewable energies are only partially able to replace fossil fuels depletion. • Climate change still reaches dangerous dimensions

  5. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

    2008-08-13

    Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

  6. On-line elemental analysis of fossil fuel process streams by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    Chisholm, W.P.

    1995-06-01

    METC is continuing development of a real-time, multi-element plasma based spectrometer system for application to high temperature and high pressure fossil fuel process streams. Two versions are under consideration for development. One is an Inductively Coupled Plasma system that has been described previously, and the other is a high power microwave system. The ICP torch operates on a mixture of argon and helium with a conventional annular swirl flow plasma gas, no auxiliary gas, and a conventional sample stream injection through the base of the plasma plume. A new, demountable torch design comprising three ceramic sections allows bolts passing the length of the torch to compress a double O-ring seal. This improves the reliability of the torch. The microwave system will use the same data acquisition and reduction components as the ICP system; only the plasma source itself is different. It will operate with a 750-Watt, 2.45 gigahertz microwave generator. The plasma discharge will be contained within a narrow quartz tube one quarter wavelength from a shorted waveguide termination. The plasma source will be observed via fiber optics and a battery of computer controlled monochromators. To extract more information from the raw spectral data, a neural net computer program is being developed. This program will calculate analyte concentrations from data that includes analyte and interferant spectral emission intensity. Matrix effects and spectral overlaps can be treated more effectively by this method than by conventional spectral analysis.

  7. Efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation: Data selection and trends

    This paper studies patenting dynamics in efficiency improving electricity generation technologies as an important indicator of innovation activity. We build a novel database of worldwide patent applications in efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation and then analyse patenting trends over time and across countries. We find that patenting has mostly been stable over time, with a recent decreasing trend. OECD countries represent the top innovators and the top markets for technology. Some non-OECD countries, and particularly China, are also very active in terms of patenting activity in this sector. The majority of patents are first filed in OECD countries and only then in BRIC and other non-OECD countries. BRIC and other non-OECD countries apply for patents that are mostly marketed domestically, but BRIC countries represent important markets for patent duplication of OECD inventions. These results are indicative of significant technology transfer in the field of efficiency-improving technologies for electricity production. - Highlights: → We study innovation in efficiency-improving electricity generation technologies. → Relevant patents are identified and used as an indicator of innovation. → We show that there is significant technology transfer in this field. → Most patents are first filed in OECD countries and then in non-OECD countries. → Patents in non-OECD countries are mostly marketed domestically.

  8. The economic viability of nuclear power in a fossil-fuel-rich country: Australia

    This paper assesses the economic viability of investment in nuclear power generation in Australia in the future and, in addition, domestic factors which may influence government policy towards such investments. It argues that the structure of the grid in Eastern Australia and the nature of the existing generator mix would require nuclear technology that has similar attributes to current combined cycle gas technology; i.e. modular construction of (relatively) small generating units, load following capability, low unit capital cost, and a general acceptance by the Australian public. The current generation of nuclear plants possesses none of these attributes. Therefore this paper concludes that it is only technology with similar characteristics to some Generation IV nuclear technology concepts that has the potential to be part of Australia's energy mix after 2030. - Research highlights: ? Prospects for nuclear power in Australia. ? Highly sensitive to discount rates. ? Liberalised electricity market not conducive to long-term investments in power sector. ? Nuclear's external costs relatively low compared with fossil fuels. ? Public opposition a major issue.

  9. Efficacy of monitoring in situ bioremediation of fossil fuel using the Mesocosm system

    With in situ bioremediation applications being recommended frequently out of practical and economic necessity, cost-efficient and effective implementation strategies need to be developed and/or refined. At the same time, unequivocal approaches for demonstrating in situ bioremediation of target contaminants need to be established. Toward this end, the authors have developed and refined innovative in situ soil and groundwater bioremediation strategies on a pilot and full-scale, including monitoring approaches using stable carbon isotope biogeochemistry to assess progress during in situ bioremediation of fossil fuels (more specifically PAHs and BTEX). To evaluate rigorously and assess these technologies, the authors have initiated mesocosm studies. The Mesocosm system is installed at the Process Engineering Facility, US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. This system integrates two technologies: a modification of the proven UVB technology, which creates a vertical groundwater circulation, and an in situ bioreactor. Incorporated into this system are four soil columns of approximately two meter height with a diameter of 60 cm, allowing them to model and test the efficacy of monitoring and biodegradation in a controlled environment. Parallel field studies currently at two sites will comparatively define the fate and effect of parent compounds and biotransformation products for mass balances (by monitoring natural abundance stable carbon isotope ratios 13C/12C using a GC/IRMS, the fate of organic compounds can be measured)

  10. Integral power evaluation in fossil fuel power plants; Evaluacion energetica integral en unidades de centrales termoelectricas

    Figueroa I, Luis R; Sanchez H, Laura E; Rodriguez M, Jose H [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Nebradt G, Jesus [Unidad de Investigacion y Desarrollo de la Subdireccion de Generacion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this occasion, a methodology is presented that carries out an integral energy evaluation of fossil fuel power plants units (FFPPU) with the purpose of determining the root of the significant decrements of power produced soon after the annual maintenance service. This proposal, besides identifying the origin of the energy efficiency problems, offers information about the contributions of each one of the involved equipment in the total decrement of the unit. With this methodology, the maintenance focuses in the equipment that contributes to the greater energy loss. This document presents such methodology along with its application in a real case, results and necessary remedial actions, demonstrating that its application offers bases for the investment in corrective measures. [Spanish] En esta ocasion se presenta una metodologia que efectua una evaluacion energetica integral de las unidades de centrales termoelectricas (UCT) con el fin de determinar la raiz de los decrementos de potencia significativos producidos luego del servicio anual de mantenimiento. Dicha propuesta, ademas de identificar el origen de los problemas de eficiencia energetica, brinda informacion acerca de las aportaciones de cada uno de los equipos involucrados al decremento total de la unidad. Con esta metodologia, el mantenimiento se enfoca a los equipos que contribuyen a la mayor perdida de potencia. Este documento exhibe tal metodologia junto con su aplicacion en un caso real, resultados y las acciones correctivas necesarias, demostrando que su aplicacion ofrece bases para una inversion futura en medidas correctivas.

  11. Response of the global climate to changes in atmospheric chemical composition due to fossil fuel burning

    Hameed, S.; Cess, R. D.; Hogan, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Recent modeling of atmospheric chemical processes (Logan et al, 1978; Hameed et al, 1979) suggests that tropospheric ozone and methane might significantly increase in the future as the result of increasing anthropogenic emissions of CO, NO(x), and CH4 due to fossil fuel burning. Since O3 and CH4 are both greenhouse gases, increases in their concentrations could augment global warming due to larger future amounts of atmospheric CO2. To test the possible climatic impact of changes in tropospheric chemical composition, a zonal energy-balance climate model has been combined with a vertically averaged tropospheric chemical model. The latter model includes all relevant chemical reactions which affect species derived from H2O, O2, CH4, and NO(x). The climate model correspondingly incorporates changes in the infrared heating of the surface-troposphere system resulting from chemically induced changes in tropospheric ozone and methane. This coupled climate-chemical model indicates that global climate is sensitive to changes in emissions of CO, NO(x) and CH4, and that future increases in these emissions could augment global warming due to increasing atmospheric CO2.

  12. Accumulation of fossil fuels and metallic minerals in active and ancient rift lakes

    Robbins, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A study of active and ancient rift systems around the world suggests that accumulations of fossil fuels and metallic minerals are related to the interactions of processes that form rift valleys with those that take place in and around rift lakes. The deposition of the precursors of petroleum, gas, oil shale, coal, phosphate, barite, Cu-Pb-Zn sulfides, and uranium begins with erosion of uplifted areas, and the consequent input of abundant nutrients and solute loads into swamps and tectonic lakes. Hot springs and volcanism add other nutrients and solutes. The resulting high biological productivity creates oxidized/reduced interfaces, and anoxic and H2S-rich bottom waters which preserves metal-bearing organic tissues and horizons. In the depositional phases, the fine-grained lake deposits are in contact with coarse-grained beach, delta, river, talus, and alluvial fan deposits. Earthquake-induced turbidites also are common coarse-grained deposits of rift lakes. Postdepositional processes in rifts include high heat flow and a resulting concentration of the organic and metallic components that were dispersed throughout the lakebeds. Postdepositional faulting brings organic- and metal-rich sourcebeds in contact with coarse-grained host and reservoir rocks. A suite of potentially economic deposits is therefore a characteristic of rift valleys. ?? 1983.

  13. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    Yang, Wen-Ching (Murrysville, PA); Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

    1997-01-01

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains flyash and other particulate. The flyash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The flyash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured flyash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled.

  14. The Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power Plant - from vision to reality.

    Stroemberg, L.; Sauthoff, M.

    2007-07-01

    Sufficient supply of energy without fossil fuels is not possible the next fifty years. Thus, we must find a solution to use coal, without endangering the environment. Carbon Capture and Storage, CCS, might be the answer. At a cost of about 20 Euro/ton CO{sub 2}, there exist technologies, which can be ready for commercial application in 2020. After that, even more cost effective technologies will be developed. To reduce emissions by more than half until 2050, cannot be reached without CCS. However, CCS is very powerful, but not the only tool. All ways to reduce emissions, including renewables and nuclear must be used. To put emphasis behind the words, Vattenfall has started an R and D program to develop technology for CCS in a ten year program. As part of that, Vattenfall is building a Pilot Plant including all process steps from coal input to liquid CO{sub 2}. It will be ready in 2008. In parallel, preparations for a demonstration plant are ongoing. It will be a coal fired full size plant with storage on shore. That will be ready for operation in 2015. (auth)

  15. Comparison of radiative forcing impacts of the use of wood, peat, and fossil fuels

    The present study investigates the greenhouse impacts and the relevant time factors of the use of peat and wood for energy production and compares them with those of fossil fuels. Emissions and sinks of the whole energy production chain and subsequent use of the wood or peat production site are taken into account. The radiative forcing caused by energy production is used as a measure for the greenhouse impact. Economical considerations are not included. Radiative forcing is calculated for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The real emissions of energy production are calculated by subtracting the emissions of non-use from the emissions of energy production. All the emissions are given as a function of time, i.e. their evolution over time is taken into account. At this point the estimates for some emission developments are quite crude and should be considered exemplary. The studied energy production chains can be divided roughly into three groups, if the greenhouse impact caused by continuous energy production of hundred years is considered. In this case forest residues, planted stands and unused merchantable wood cause the least radiative forcing per unit of primary energy generated. Natural gas and peat from cultivated peatland form the middle group. According to the calculations coal and conventional peat cause the greatest greenhouse impact

  16. Life cycle GHG assessment of fossil fuel power plants with carbon capture and storage

    The evaluation of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a critical factor in energy and policy analysis. The current paper examines life cycle emissions from three types of fossil-fuel-based power plants, namely supercritical pulverized coal (super-PC), natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), with and without CCS. Results show that, for a 90% CO2 capture efficiency, life cycle GHG emissions are reduced by 75-84% depending on what technology is used. With GHG emissions less than 170 g/kWh, IGCC technology is found to be favorable to NGCC with CCS. Sensitivity analysis reveals that, for coal power plants, varying the CO2 capture efficiency and the coal transport distance has a more pronounced effect on life cycle GHG emissions than changing the length of CO2 transport pipeline. Finally, it is concluded from the current study that while the global warming potential is reduced when MEA-based CO2 capture is employed, the increase in other air pollutants such as NOx and NH3 leads to higher eutrophication and acidification potentials

  17. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION. SUMMARY REPORT

    This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem

  18. On-line monitoring of the thermal power plant using fossil fuel by personal computer

    Increasing demand for electric power in combination with the environmental concern, requires better utilisation of the thermal power plants using fossil fuel. In this respect, to improve the utilisation it is no longer sufficient to rely on conventional technique. Improved utilisation requires more information that is reliable, structured and available to the user. This can be achieved with on-line monitoring as a part of a complex automation dedicated to control the plant. On-line monitoring improves better overview of the process and functionality of the obtained information. For the complete list of monitored variables it is necessary to develop software functions with an efficient and user- friendly tools, running on a standard PC. However, such a task is a challenge for a thermal power plants in use for 15-20 years. where the compromise between the equipment and required monitoring functions has to be considered. In this paper a practical approach in monitoring of the most important process variables in TPP Negotino (Macedonia) is proposed. The object oriented presentation (apparatus) in Windows environment enables multi-media process presentation by PC. Trends and reports are also defined by a simple selection of the values to be included. Since, the software enables analysis for a severe contingency, it can be also used for a training. (Author)

  19. Hybrid nuclear-fossil systems for low-emission production of synthetic fuels

    Producing synthetic hydrocarbon vehicle fuels requires the input of carbon and hydrogen to make the desired molecule and the input of energy to be stored in the molecule's bonds for recovery during its eventual combustion. For traditional fuels all three of these inputs have come from the same source, petroleum, although there is no requirement that this must be the case. In particular, the energy needed for upgrading a feedstock to a fuel does not have to come from combusting part of the feedstock. Recognizing this allows reductions in both feedstock use and, increasingly importantly, carbon dioxide emissions. The forms in which this added energy is delivered can be quite varied: heat, compressor work, chemical energy in the form of hydrogen, or thermodynamic work in the form of pure oxygen separated from air. While renewable energy can be used for at least part of the energy demand, nuclear energy is particularly useful because of its large scale and ability to operate for long periods at full rates. Using materials such as oil sands, oil shale, coal, or biomass as carbon sources, water as the source of hydrogen, and nuclear energy converted into the necessary forms for chemical process use, hybrid processes can make vehicle fuels while generating very low levels of byproduct emissions. These concepts can be readily extended into the commodity chemical industry. The opportunities for doing this are particularly good in the western regions of Canada and the US where these inputs are, or can be, located near each other. This leads to the long term prospect of developing a major finished fuels production and distribution locus similar to the US Gulf coast or the Middle East. (author)

  20. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 7: Nonreplenishable natural resources: Minerals, fossil fuels and geothermal energy sources

    Lietzke, K. R.

    1974-01-01

    The application of remotely-sensed information to the mineral, fossil fuel, and geothermal energy extraction industry is investigated. Public and private cost savings are documented in geologic mapping activities. Benefits and capabilities accruing to the ERS system are assessed. It is shown that remote sensing aids in resource extraction, as well as the monitoring of several dynamic phenomena, including disturbed lands, reclamation, erosion, glaciation, and volcanic and seismic activity.

  1. Atmospheric observations of carbon monoxide and fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from East Asia

    Turnbull, J. C.; Tans, P. P.; Lehman, S. J.; Baker, D. F.; Conway, T. J.; Chung, Y. S.; Gregg, J.; Miller, J. B.; Southon, J. R.; Zhou, L.

    2011-12-01

    Flask samples from two sites in East Asia, Tae-Ahn Peninsula, Republic of Korea (TAP), and Shangdianzi, People's Republic of China (SDZ), were measured for a suite of trace gases and isotopes, including CO2, CO and Δ14CO2. We use the Δ14CO2 measurements to quantify the contribution of recently added fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) in each sample. Our five-year record from TAP, on the western edge of Korea, shows high pollution events when local air comes from the Korean Peninsula. Most samples at this site, however, reflect air masses from further afield in Northeastern China and typically have lower CO2ff values. SDZ is about 100km northeast of Beijing, and our small set of samples from winter 2009/2010 have strongly elevated CO2ff. Biospheric CO2 also contributes substantially to variability in total CO2 at both sites, even in winter when non-fossil CO2 sources (including photosynthesis, respiration, biomass burning and biofuel use) contribute 20-30% of the total CO2 enhancement over background. Carbon monoxide (CO) is also elevated, and correlates strongly with CO2ff. The SDZ samples, and the TAP far-field (China influenced) samples have CO to CO2ff emission ratios (RCO:CO2ff) of 47±2 and 44±3 ppb/ppm respectively, in agreement with recent bottom-up inventory estimates and consistent with other observational studies. Locally influenced TAP samples fall into two distinct datasets, ascribed to air sourced from either South Korea or North Korea. The South Korea samples are characterized by high CO2ff values and low RCO:CO2ff of 13±3 ppb/ppm, slightly higher than two available bottom-up inventory estimates, but quite consistent with emission ratios for other developed nations. We also compare our CO2ff observations with modeled CO2ff using the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model, convolved with a bottom-up CO2ff emission inventory which includes the reported increase in Chinese emissions of 63% from 2004 to 2010. At SDZ, the model replicates the observations quite well. At TAP, the model performs well on an annual basis, although it is unable to capture the variability on individual days. The modeled time trend is consistent with our observations, whereas a model version which holds Chinese emissions flat at 2004 levels is unable to replicate the observed CO2ff.

  2. Pathways of trace elements in the environment. [Environmental transport of chemical effluents from fossil-fuel power plants

    Raridon, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Applications of computer models for air transport (ATM) and hydrologic transport (HTM) to determine the pathways of trace elements in the environment are discussed. Computed data and measured data are compared for potentially toxic contaminants found in gaseous wastes from fossil-fuel power plants. It is pointed out that meteorological data are required for the air transport model and that for each source it is necessary to know the emission rate, source height, and location relative to the receptor point. Results of studies on ground level SO/sub 2/ concentrations in ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ as a function of distance from a proposed fossil-fuel power plant, the environmental impact of an existing power plant on its surroundings, and in monitoring a 98 hectare watershed for nutrient elements (K, Na, Ca, Mg, N, and P) are discussed. (CH)

  3. Catalytic hydrogen production from fossil fuels via the water gas shift reaction

    Highlights: • Hydrogen is a clean alternative to hydrocarbon fuels. • Hydrogen is primarily produced with the water gas shift reaction. • Development of water gas shift catalysts is essential to the energy industry. • This work summarizes recent progress in water gas shift catalyst research. - Abstract: The production of hydrogen is a highly researched topic for many reasons. First of all, it is a clean fuel that can be used instead of hydrocarbons, which produce CO2, a greenhouse gas emission that is thought to be the reason for climate change in the world. The largest source of hydrogen is the water gas shift (WGS) reaction, where CO and water are mixed over a catalyst to produce the desired hydrogen. Many researchers have focused on development of WGS catalysts with different metals. The most notable of these metals are precious and rare earth metals which, when combined, have unique properties for the WGS reaction. Research in this area is very important to the energy industry and the future of energy around the world. However, the progress made recently has not been reviewed, and this review was designed to fill the gap

  4. The Solodamu Surveys: determining fossil fuel use and sea transport need in a coastal village in Fiji

    Newell, Alison P.; Bola, Amelia R. T.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic sea transport is critical to all aspects of life in the Pacific, providing access to markets and health and education services, as well as enabling cultural and social connectivity. Current sea transport services are entirely dependent upon use of increasingly expensive fossil fuels. Whilst there has been increasing research on international shipping, very little focus has been given to date to domestic shipping in the Pacific, and in particular at the local, village level. Recent st...

  5. Environmental Accounting and Reporting in Fossil Fuel Sector : A Study on Bangladesh Oil, Gas and Mineral Corporation (Petrobangla)

    Bose, Sudipta

    2006-01-01

    Petrobangla is the sole responsible organization to maintain the fossil fuel sector in Bangladesh. It is accountable to next generations for oil, gas and other natural resources. It is necessary to ensure optimum use of these resources. Development activities cannot be sustained if these resources are depleted through wasteful use. This study indicates that Petrobangla takes many initiatives to provide environment-friendly energy in the economy. Environmental Accounting and reporting is the e...

  6. The future of airborne sulfur-containing particles in the absence of fossil fuel sulfur dioxide emissions.

    Perraud, Véronique; Horne, Jeremy R; Martinez, Andrew S; Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Meinardi, Simone; Dawson, Matthew L; Wingen, Lisa M; Dabdub, Donald; Blake, Donald R; Gerber, R Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2015-11-01

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), formed from oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during fossil fuel combustion, is a major precursor of new airborne particles, which have well-documented detrimental effects on health, air quality, and climate. Another precursor is methanesulfonic acid (MSA), produced simultaneously with SO2 during the atmospheric oxidation of organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as dimethyl sulfide. In the present work, a multidisciplinary approach is used to examine how contributions of H2SO4 and MSA to particle formation will change in a large coastal urban area as anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of SO2 decline. The 3-dimensional University of California Irvine-California Institute of Technology airshed model is used to compare atmospheric concentrations of gas phase MSA, H2SO4, and SO2 under current emissions of fossil fuel-associated SO2 and a best-case futuristic scenario with zero fossil fuel sulfur emissions. Model additions include results from (i) quantum chemical calculations that clarify the previously uncertain gas phase mechanism of formation of MSA and (ii) a combination of published and experimental estimates of OSC emissions, such as those from marine, agricultural, and urban processes, which include pet waste and human breath. Results show that in the zero anthropogenic SO2 emissions case, particle formation potential from H2SO4 will drop by about two orders of magnitude compared with the current situation. However, particles will continue to be generated from the oxidation of natural and anthropogenic sources of OSCs, with contributions from MSA and H2SO4 of a similar order of magnitude. This could be particularly important in agricultural areas where there are significant sources of OSCs. PMID:26483454

  7. DETERMINING THE COMPOSITION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF FOSSIL FUEL BASED ON VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES AND GEOMETRIC PROGRAMMING

    Velibor V Vujovi?

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the algorithm and results of a computer program for calculation of complex equilibrium composition for the high temperature fossil fuel combustion products. The method of determining the composition of high temperatures combustion products at the temperatures appearing in the open cycle MHD power generation is given. The determination of combustion product composition is based on minimization of the Gibbs free energy. The number of equations to be solved is reduced by usin...

  8. Documented international enquiry on solid sedimentary fossil fuels; Coal: definitions, classifications, reserves-resources and energy potential

    Alpern, B.; Lemos de Sousa, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with all solid sedimentary fossil fuels, i.e. coal, the main one for geological reserves and resources, peat, and oil shales. Definitions of coal ( < 50% ash) and coal seam (thickness and depth limits) are examined in view of an international agreement regarding new concepts for a common reserves and resources evaluation using the same nomenclature. The 50% ash limit, already adopted by UN-ECE for coal definition, allows the creation of a new category—the organic ...

  9. The potential of PVs in developing countries: maintaining an equitable society in the face of fossil fuel depletion

    Byrd, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The availability of an adequate electrical supply to the whole population is essential for the wellbeing and equity of a society. However, for those countries that are largely dependent on fossil fuels for generating electricity, peak oil and gas threaten energy security and the ability to provide an uninterrupted supply of electricity on an equitable basis. This paper will review future energy demand and supply in Malaysia and implications for its electricity supply. It will demonstrate ...

  10. Plasma Technologies for Effective and Ecological Incineration of Fossil Fuels and Their Mixtures

    An outlook on plasma technologies and their mixtures utilization is examined, these technologies are based on use of electro arc plasma and include oil-free firing up of boilers, stabilization of combustion (lighting) of low-grade coals and their mixtures, stabilizing of liquid slag yield in slag-tap furnaces, plasma gasification and complex processing of solid fuels, utilization of heavy wastes of deep processing of oil and other industrial wastes. Plasma technologies are not sensible to the quality of initial fuels and their mixtures and provide their effective burning with concurrent decrease in CO2, NOx, SOx, V2O5 emissions into environment and decrease of unburned carbon. Plasma technologies of oil-free firing up and flame stabilization have been already realized in 26 coal-fired boilers of 75-670 ton/h steam output at 15 Thermal Power Stations (TPS) in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, China, Korea, Slovakia and Mongolia. Amounts of unburned carbon were reduced 1,5-2 times, emissions of nitrogen and sulphur oxides were reduced 1.5 times. When utilizing plasma technologies of solid fuel burning at TPS CO2 emissions may be reduced by 10-15 gr. Per 1 kWh of produced electric power at the cost of decrease in amounts of unburned carbon by 40-50%. Plasma technologies utilization in power engineering allows to reduce a severe impact on environment at conservation of high technical and economical indexes on TPS. (author)

  11. Renewable fuels as feedstocks in industrial organic chemistry; Nachwachsende Rohstoffe als Feedstock in der industriellen organischen Chemie

    Marquardt, J.

    1995-10-01

    Fossil fuels are used in the chemical industry for providing process energy but primarily as chemical feedstocks. In view of the necessity ofsaving fossil resources and reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, the author investigates inhowfar renewable fuels may serve as substitutes for the fossil carbon carriers now used in the chemical industry. He starts with a bibliographic research which also takes account of studies on the uses of biomass for power generation. On this basis, an outline of current production processes (including specific data for cultivation and processing), production volumes and consumption structures is given for the main types of renewable raw materials (sugar, starch, cellulose and vegetable fats and oils). (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Fossile Energietraeger werden in der chemischen Industrie ausser zur Bereitstellung von Prozessenergie vor allem nichtenergetisch, d.h. als chemische Rohstoffe (sog. Feedstock), eingesetzt. Angesichts der Notwendigkeit, die fossilen Rohstoffvorraete zu schonen und die anthropogenen Klimagasemissionen zu vermindern, stellt sich die Frage, inwieweit nachwachsende Rohstoffe die im Chemiesektor fuer nichtenergetische Zwecke eingesetzten fossilen Kohlenstofftraeger ersetzen koennen. Im Rahmen der Studienarbeit soll zunaechst eine Literaturrecherche zu diesem Themenkomplex durchgefuehrt werden, wobei auch Untersuchungen zur energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse zu beruecksichtigen sind. Auf dieser Basis soll fuer die Haupttypen nachwachsender Rohstoffe (Zucker, Staerke, Cellulose und pflanzliche Fette/Oele) ein Ueberblick zu den heutigen Produktionsverfahren (inkl. Anbau- und verarbeitungsspezifischer Daten), Produktionsmengen und Verbrauchsstrukturen gegeben werden. (orig./SR)

  12. The physico-chemistry of SO2 in the smoke plumes of fossil-fueled power plants

    An experimental determination was made of the type and speed of chemical-physical transformations occurring in the stack effluents of fossil-fueled power-plants, from their emission into the atmosphere. The homogeneous chemical reactions were taken into consideration, as well as the heterogeneous reactions in the presence of a metal, oxide aerosol or water droplets owed to condensation. The results gave a general indication that the quantitatively important transformations of SO2, in a stack plume produced by fuel combustion, took place at the moment of water-vapor condensation; in these conditions the oxidising role of NO2 became prevailing. (author)

  13. Analysis of fuel shares in the industrial sector

    Roop, J.M.; Belzer, D.B.

    1986-06-01

    These studies describe how fuel shares have changed over time; determine what factors are important in promoting fuel share changes; and project fuel shares to the year 1995 in the industrial sector. A general characterization of changes in fuel shares of four fuel types - coal, natural gas, oil and electricity - for the industrial sector is as follows. Coal as a major fuel source declined rapidly from 1958 to the early 1970s, with oil and natural gas substituting for coal. Coal's share of total fuels stabilized after the oil price shock of 1972-1973, and increased after the 1979 price shock. In the period since 1973, most industries and the industrial sector as a whole appear to freely substitute natural gas for oil, and vice versa. Throughout the period 1958-1981, the share of electricity as a fuel increased. These observations are derived from analyzing the fuel share patterns of more than 20 industries over the 24-year period 1958 to 1981.

  14. Three accounts for regional carbon emissions from both fossil energy consumption and industrial process

    In this paper, we classify the carbon emission inventories into three perspectives through a case study in Beijing: territory account (TA), production account (PA) and consumption account (CA). A single-regional–input–output (SRIO) method was used to calculate production account and consumption account with a traditional competitive input–output (IO) table. Results show that both TA and PA have the same final values, but disparity exists at the sectoral distribution level. Both PA and CA increased from 2000 to 2007, but CA was bigger than PA and increased faster than PA. This indicates that Beijing was a carbon importer with an increasing trend. Sectoral analysis shows that “melting and pressing of metals (14)”, “Nonmetal mineral products (13)” and “Petroleum processing, coking, and nuclear fuel processing (11)” have higher direct carbon emissions from production perspective (TA), whilst “Construction” and “Service” sectors have higher emissions from consumption perspective (PA and TA). High embodied emission sectors in PA/TA, particularly the “Construction” sector, deserve more attentions for carbon emission mitigation. - Highlights: • We evaluated regional carbon emissions from three accounts perspective. • Three accounts were discussed and compared by taking Beijing as a case study. • Production account was different with territory account in sectoral distribution. • Iron and steel industries were high emission sectors from territory account. • Construction sector deserved more attentions from consumption perspective

  15. Use of alternative fuels in the Polish cement industry

    Mokrzycki, Eugeniusz; Uliasz-Bochenczyk, Alicja [Polish Academy of Sciences, Mineral and Energy Economy Research Inst., Krakow (Poland); Sarna, Mieczyslaw [Lafarge Cement Polska S.A., Malogoszcz (Poland)

    2003-02-01

    Alternative fuels are made up of mixtures of different wastes, such as industrial, municipal and hazardous wastes. These fuels need to have an appropriate chemical energy content which depends on the type of components and their organic content. An industry that is particularly well suited to the employment of alternative fuels is the cement industry. There are a number of factors that promote the use of alternative fuels in cement kilns. Of these factors, the most notable are: the high temperatures developed, the appropriate kiln length, the long period of time the fuel stays inside the kiln and the alkaline environment inside the kiln. There are a number of countries that use their own alternative fuels in cement plants. These fuels have different trade names and they differ in the amounts and the quality of the selected municipal and industrial waste fractions used. The fuels used should fall within the extreme values of parameters such as: minimum heating value, maximum humidity content, and maximum content of heavy and toxic metals. Cement plants in Poland also use alternative fuels. Within the Lafarge Group, the cement plants owned by Lafarge Poland Ltd. have initiated activities directed at promoting the wider use of alternative fuels. There are a number of wastes that can be incinerated as fuel in cement plants. Some that can be mentioned are: selected combustible fractions of municipal wastes, liquid crude-oil derived wastes, car tyres, waste products derived from paint and varnish production, expired medicines from the pharmaceutical industry and others. The experience gained by the cement plants of Lafarge Cement Poland Ltd confirms that such activities are economically and ecologically beneficial. The incineration of alternative fuels in cement plants is a safe method for the utilisation of waste that is ecologically friendly and profitable for the industrial plants and society alike. (Author)

  16. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION. FINAL REPORT

    This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology

  17. Comparison of AB2588 multipathway risk factors for California fossil-fuel power stations

    Substances released from power plants may travel through various exposure pathways resulting in human health and environmental risks. The stack air emission's primary pathway is inhalation from the ambient air. Multipathway factors (adjustment factors to the inhalation risk) are used to evaluate the importance of non-inhalation pathways (such as ingestion and dermal contact). The multipathway factor for a specific substance is the health risk by all pathways divided by the inhalation health risk for that substance. These factors are compared for fossil fuel power stations that submitted regulatory risk assessments in compliance with California Toxic Hot Spots Act (AB2588). Substances representing the largest contributions to the cancer risk are of primary concern: arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium (+6), formaldehyde, nickel, lead, selenium, and PAHs. Comparisons of the chemical-specific multipathway factors show the impacts of regulatory policy decisions on the estimated health risk for trace substances. As an example, point estimates of the soil mixing depth, varying from 1 cm to 15 cm, relate to the relative importance of the pathway. For the deeper mixing depths, the root-zone uptake by homegrown tomato plants (for assumed consumption rate of 15% for San Diego) may result in high multipathway factors for several trace metals. For shallower mixing depths, soil ingestion may become the dominant non-inhalation pathway. These differences may lead to significantly different risk estimates for similar facilities located at different California locations such as to be under local regulatory authorities. The overall multipathway factor for the total cancer risk is about 2, much smaller than some of the chemical-specific factors. Science-based multipathway analysis should reduce much of the concern that may be due to policy-based decisions on pathway selection and high-value point-estimates of the parameters

  18. Industry

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

  19. SET-Plan - Scientific Assessment in Support of the Materials Roadmap Enabling Low Carbon Energy Technologies - Fossil Fuel Energies Sector, Including Carbon Capture and Storage

    GOMEZ-BRICEÑO Dolores; Jong, Martin; DRAGE Trevor; FALZETTI Marco; Hedin, Niklas; Snijkers, Frans

    2011-01-01

    This document is part of a series of Scientific Assessment reports that underpin the Materials Roadmap enabling Low Carbon Energy Technologies. This report deals with the Fossil Fuel Energies Sector, including Carbon Capture and Storage.

  20. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Phase 1 report

    Butcher, T.; Pierce, B. [eds.

    1995-06-01

    Krakow is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland. It is situated in the south of the country on the banks of the Vistula River. From the 11th until the 17th centuries, it was the capital of Poland. Today, Krakow is a city of 750,000 residents, one of the largest centers of higher education, an important industrial center, and is of particular importance because of the number and kinds of historic buildings and sites. For this reason, Krakow was included by the UNESCO in the list of the world`s cultural heritages. For about three decades, significant air pollution has been one of Krakow`s most serious problems. Because the city is situated in the Vistula River valley, it is poorly ventilated and experiences a high concentration of air pollutants. The quality of air in Krakow is affected mainly by industry (Sendzimir Steelworks, energy industry, chemical plants), influx from the Silesian industrial region (power plants, metallurgy), transboundary pollution (Ostrava - Czech Republic), and local sources of low pollution, i.e. more than 1,000 boiler houses using solid fuels and more than 100,000 coal-fired home stoves. These local sources, with low stacks and almost no pollution-control equipment, are responsible for about 35-40% of the air pollution. This report presents phase I results of a program to reduce pollution in krakow. Phase I was to gather information on emissions and costs, and to verify assumptions on existing heating methods and alternatives.

  1. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China

    Yang, Zhiyong; Dong, Wenjie; Xiu, Jinfeng; Dai, Rufeng; Chou, Jieming

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA) has long been used to quantify global and regional environmental impacts and to clarify emission transfers. Structural path analysis (SPA), a technique based on EEIOA, is especially useful for measuring significant flows in this environmental-economic system. This paper constructs an imports-adjusted single-region input-output (SRIO) model considering only domestic final use elements, and it uses the SPA technique to highlight crucial routes along the production chain in both final use and sectoral perspectives. The results indicate that future mitigation policies on household consumption should change direct energy use structures in rural areas, cut unreasonable demand for power and chemical products, and focus on urban areas due to their consistently higher magnitudes than rural areas in the structural routes. Impacts originating from government spending should be tackled by managing onsite energy use in 3 major service sectors and promoting cleaner fuels and energy-saving techniques in the transport sector. Policies on investment should concentrate on sectoral interrelationships along the production chain by setting up standards to regulate upstream industries, especially for the services, construction and equipment manufacturing sectors, which have high demand pulling effects. Apart from the similar methods above, mitigating policies in exports should also consider improving embodied technology and quality in manufactured products to achieve sustainable development. Additionally, detailed sectoral results in the coal extraction industry highlight the onsite energy use management in large domestic companies, emphasize energy structure rearrangement, and indicate resources and energy safety issues. Conclusions based on the construction and public administration sectors reveal that future mitigation in secondary and tertiary industries should be combined with upstream emission intensive industries in a systematic viewpoint to achieve sustainable development. Overall, SPA is a useful tool in empirical studies, and it can be used to analyze national environmental impacts and guide future mitigation policies. PMID:26332222

  2. Structural Path Analysis of Fossil Fuel Based CO2 Emissions: A Case Study for China.

    Yang, Zhiyong; Dong, Wenjie; Xiu, Jinfeng; Dai, Rufeng; Chou, Jieming

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA) has long been used to quantify global and regional environmental impacts and to clarify emission transfers. Structural path analysis (SPA), a technique based on EEIOA, is especially useful for measuring significant flows in this environmental-economic system. This paper constructs an imports-adjusted single-region input-output (SRIO) model considering only domestic final use elements, and it uses the SPA technique to highlight crucial routes along the production chain in both final use and sectoral perspectives. The results indicate that future mitigation policies on household consumption should change direct energy use structures in rural areas, cut unreasonable demand for power and chemical products, and focus on urban areas due to their consistently higher magnitudes than rural areas in the structural routes. Impacts originating from government spending should be tackled by managing onsite energy use in 3 major service sectors and promoting cleaner fuels and energy-saving techniques in the transport sector. Policies on investment should concentrate on sectoral interrelationships along the production chain by setting up standards to regulate upstream industries, especially for the services, construction and equipment manufacturing sectors, which have high demand pulling effects. Apart from the similar methods above, mitigating policies in exports should also consider improving embodied technology and quality in manufactured products to achieve sustainable development. Additionally, detailed sectoral results in the coal extraction industry highlight the onsite energy use management in large domestic companies, emphasize energy structure rearrangement, and indicate resources and energy safety issues. Conclusions based on the construction and public administration sectors reveal that future mitigation in secondary and tertiary industries should be combined with upstream emission intensive industries in a systematic viewpoint to achieve sustainable development. Overall, SPA is a useful tool in empirical studies, and it can be used to analyze national environmental impacts and guide future mitigation policies. PMID:26332222

  3. Distributions of fossil fuel originated CO2 in five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) according to the Δ14C in ginkgo leaves

    We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus) leaf samples at five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) in 2009 to obtain the regional distribution of fossil fuel originated CO2 (fossil fuel CO2) in the atmosphere. Regions assumed to be free of fossil fuel CO2 were also selected, namely Mt. Chiak, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Jiri, Anmyeon Island, and Jeju Island and ginkgo leaf samples were collected in those areas during the same period. The Δ14C values of the samples were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the fossil fuel CO2 ratios in the atmosphere were obtained in the five metropolitan areas. The average ratio of fossil fuel CO2 in Seoul was higher than that in the other four cities. The leaves from the Sajik Tunnel in Seoul recorded the highest FFCTC (fossil fuel CO2 over total CO2 in atmosphere), 13.9 ± 0.5%, as the air flow of the surrounding neighborhood of the Sajik Tunnel was blocked.

  4. Distributions of fossil fuel originated CO2 in five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) according to the Δ14C in ginkgo leaves

    Park, J. H.; Hong, W.; Park, G.; Sung, K. S.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, Y. E.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, H. W.; Kim, G. D.; Woo, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus) leaf samples at five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) in 2009 to obtain the regional distribution of fossil fuel originated CO2 (fossil fuel CO2) in the atmosphere. Regions assumed to be free of fossil fuel CO2 were also selected, namely Mt. Chiak, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Jiri, Anmyeon Island, and Jeju Island and ginkgo leaf samples were collected in those areas during the same period. The Δ14C values of the samples were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the fossil fuel CO2 ratios in the atmosphere were obtained in the five metropolitan areas. The average ratio of fossil fuel CO2 in Seoul was higher than that in the other four cities. The leaves from the Sajik Tunnel in Seoul recorded the highest FFCTC (fossil fuel CO2 over total CO2 in atmosphere), 13.9 ± 0.5%, as the air flow of the surrounding neighborhood of the Sajik Tunnel was blocked.

  5. Assessing the effects of different regulatory scenarios on air pollutant emissions generated by fossil fuels: The case of the new Italian energy plan

    The paper gives a short view of the study aimed at assessing the effect of different regulations on the reduction of emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total suspended particles and carbon monoxide which will be generated in Italy by the combustion of fossil fuels, according to the projections of the energy consumptions reported in the National Energy Plan. Overall, twenty regulatory scenarios have been implemented to simulate the evolution of emissions in the years 1995 and 2000 in the main activity sectors: electricity generation, industry, transportation and domestic. On the basis of the results of this simulation a preliminary estimate has been done of the costs associated with the reduction of emissions in the electricity generating sector. (author)

  6. Substitutability of Electricity and Renewable Materials for Fossil Fuels in a Post-Carbon Economy

    Antonio Garca-Olivares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A feasible way to avoid the risk of energy decline and combat climate change is to build a 100% renewable global energy mix. However, a globally electrified economy cannot grow much above 12 electric terawatts without putting pressure on the limits of finite mineral reserves. Here we analyze whether 12 TW of electricity and 1 TW of biomass (final power will be able to fuel a future post-carbon economy that can provide similar services to those of a contemporary economy. Contrarily to some pessimistic expectations, this analysis shows that the principle economic processes can be replaced with sustainable alternatives based on electricity, charcoal, biogas and hydrogen. Furthermore, those services that cannot be replaced are not as crucial so as to cause a return to a pre-industrial society. Even so, land transport and aviation are at the limit of what is sustainable, outdoor work should be reorganized, metal primary production should be based on hydrogen reduction when possible, mineral production should be increasingly based on recycling, the petrochemical industry should shrink to a size of 40%43% of the 2012 petrochemical sector, i.e., a size similar to that the sector had in 19851986, and agriculture may require organic farming methods to be sustainable.

  7. Governmental interventions in the energy market. Study of the Dutch level playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy conservation

    This study has made an inventory of 53 governmental interventions in the Dutch energy market. Moreover, the consequences for the playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy saving have been quantified. It shows that the government still stimulates the use of energy and fossil fuels more than it stimulates use of renewable energy sources. Policy that focuses on decreasing the price differences between sustainable and fossil should therefore focus on the phase-out of this support and subsequently on bridging the remaining financial gap.

  8. Industrial integration of the fuel cycle in Argentina

    The power-reactor construction program in Argentina for the period 1976-1985 is described on the basis of which the nuclear-fuel requirements have been determined. Activities connected with the fuel cycle commenced in 1950 in Argentina with the prospection and working of uranium deposits. On the basis of the nuclear power program described, plans have been drawn up for the establishment of the industrial plants that will be needed to ensure the domestic supply of fuel. The demand for fuel is correlated with the availability of uranium resoures and it is shown to be desirable from the technical, economic and industrial point of view to integrate the front end of the fuel cycle, keeping the irradiation aspects and the tail end at the development level. Progress made in this field and current programs covering exploration, concentrate production, nuclear purification, conversion to uranium dioxide, production of special alloys and fuel element fabrication are described

  9. Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices

    None

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Air Force’s Air Mobility Command (AMC) is changing the way it does business. It is saving energy and money through an aircraft fleet fuel-efficiency program inspired by private industry best practices and ideas resulting from the empowered fuel savings culture.

  10. The energy demand and the impact by fossil fuels use in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, from 1988 to 2000

    Temporary variation for the demand of refining products which are used in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is presented. Its consequent energy contribution is evaluated from 1988 to 2000. The annual estimation was integrated from a detailed inventory of fuels volume, so as the calculus of its respective energy equivalence. The fuel quality specifications, which have been required by regional Air Quality authority for controlling emissions to the atmosphere, are also presented for the same period. The evolution demand of fuels, in term of volume, quality and its energy contribution for this area, is compared with the national demand. On this regard, fuel pool differs in each bound and the demand along the same period has been increasing on both regions but at different rates, with 21% at MCMA and 31% countrywide. In 2000, the MCMA demanded 14% of the internal refining products volume sales, which represented 17% of the energy contribution to the country for those fuels. Likewise, the energy use coefficient (GJ per capita) was applied to compare this region with country trends. During 1996 and up to 2000, the MCMA presented slightly minor energy use per capita, than the rest of the country, and this period was distinguished also for using cleaner fuels and for obtaining improvements in air quality. On the other hand, MCMA and country greenhouse gases emissions will increase because of their fossil fuel dependence, so several mitigation measures must be implemented in the next decades

  11. Risk and investment in the fuel cell industry

    The energy industry is one of the building blocks of the new economy. Currently, the global energy industry is going through a transformation from high carbon content fuels like crude oil to less carbon content fuels like natural gas and hydrogen. Fuel cells are the backbone of the hydrogen economy. Advances in fuel cell technology have the potential to improve the living standards of people in all countries. New sources of financial capital, however, remain a problem. In the fuel cell industry, the future of a firm often depends upon the success or failure of a few key products. This tends to make these firms very risky to invest in and, as a result, makes it difficult for these firms to secure financial investment capital. Oil price movements remain one very important source of risk to fuel cell companies. Conventional wisdom suggests that higher oil prices stimulate interest in alternative energy sources like fuel cells and the stock prices of publicly traded fuel cell companies tend to perform well when oil prices are high. Lower oil prices, however, have the opposite effect. Consequently, oil price movements may affect the rates of return of the companies currently in the fuel cell industry. In this paper, we empirically analyze the stock price sensitivity of a sample of fuel cell companies to oil price risk. In particular, we look at both the impact and magnitude of oil price changes on fuel cell stock prices. Both symmetric and asymmetric oil price changes are considered. Our results indicate that oil price risk is not an important source of risk that impacts the equity returns of fuel cell companies. We find that market risk factors are much more important. We then offer suggestions on how to manage this risk. These results are useful for managers, investors, policy makers, and others who are interested in the strategic management, financing and risk management of firms building the hydrogen economy. (author)

  12. Overall intelligent hybrid control system for a fossil-fuel power unit

    Garduno-Ramirez, Raul

    2000-10-01

    In response to the multiple and tighter operation requirements already placed on power plants, and anticipating everyday variations on their quantity and relevance due to competition on deregulated energy markets, this dissertation contributes the Intelligent Coordinated Control System (ICCS) paradigm that establishes a reference framework for the design of overall control systems for fossil-fuel power units, and develops a minimum prototype (ICCS-MP) to show its feasibility. The ICCS consists of a multiagent system organization structured as an open set of functionally grouped agent clusters in a two-level hierarchy. The upper level performs the supervisory functions needed to produce self-governing system behavior, while the lower level performs the fast reactive functions necessary for real-time control and protection. The ICCS-MP greatly extends the concept of current coordinated control schemes and embraces a minimum set of ICCS functions for the power unit to participate in load-frequency control in deregulated power systems; provides the means to achieve optimal wide-range load-tracking in multiobjective operating scenarios. The ICCS-MP preserves the ICCS structure. Supervisory functions include optimization and command generation, learning and control tuning, and performance and state monitoring. Direct level control functions realize a nonlinear multivariable feedforward-feedback scheme. These functions are implemented in three modules: reference governor, feedforward control processor (FFCP), and feedback control processor (FBCP). The reference governor provides set-point trajectories for the control loops by solving a multiobjective optimization problem that accommodates the operating scenario at hand. The FFCP facilitates achievement of wide-range operation; it is implemented as a fuzzy system that emulates the inverse static behavior of the power unit, and it is designed using neural networks. The FBCP provides disturbance and uncertainty compensation along the set-point trajectories; it includes fuzzy-PID controllers in a multiloop configuration and a multivariable feedforward interaction compensator, both scheduled in two-dimensions. Controllers are tuned using a genetic algorithm based procedure, and the compensator is designed using the relative gain array method. Simulation results show that the proposed ICCS paradigm provides a suitable conceptual framework to manage the complexity and to integrate either algorithmic or heuristic techniques into a control system that provides high maneuverability and optimized unit operation.

  13. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 at the building/street level for the LA Megacity

    Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Patarasuk, R.; Song, Y.; O'Keeffe, D.; Duren, R. M.; Eldering, A.

    2013-12-01

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in emerging plans on a global, integrated, carbon monitoring system (CMS). A space/time explicit emissions data product can act as both verification and guidance to emissions mitigation. We have progress on applying our Hestia approach to the entire LA Basin. Here, we present these initial results focusing on a few points of progress worthy of dissemination. Geocoding of the original point sources are inaccurate, placing point sources in the wrong physical position. Sometimes these errors are many kilometers. We have corrected the majority of these point through a variety of techniques. The LAX airport and the LA Port pose large unique sources in the Basin and we have taken novel approaches to characterizing the space/time distribution of these emission sources. We have used AADT and hourly traffic data to best distribute emissions in the onroad sector. This has required both extrapolation and interpolation techniques to fully cover all road types other than local roads. Finally, we have updated the emission product to the year 2012 using a variety of scaling arguments. Work on greenhouse gas emissions has been accomplished by others, though these efforts typically go down to only the county spatial scale. However, these offer numerous opportunities to potentially calibrate or explore alternative methods and results. We will review these efforts and what benefit they are provided thus far. Finally, we will review our attempts to quantify uncertainty at the space/time scales attempted here. Uncertainty quantification remains challenging due to a variety of reasons. First, bottom-up source data is often produced by a regulatory agency, which has strict legal limits to the amount and type of information available. Even in cases where legal limitations are not at work, there is no standard for uncertainty reporting and hence, little reliable uncertainty estimation is made. In the course of this work, we have attempted to quantify uncertainty. In some cases, this is driven by parameter sensitivity, in other cases through the comparison of independent datasets reporting on the same entity. Expert judgment is also deployed where no alternative exists. Here, we will provide a review of some of these techniques with examples from our urban case studies.

  14. Analysis of possible future atmospheric retention of fossil fuel CO/sub 2/

    Edmonds, J.A.; Reilly, J.; Trabalka, J.R.; Reichle, D.E.

    1984-09-01

    This report investigates the likely rates and the potential range of future CO/sub 2/ emissions, combined with knowledge of the global cycle of carbon, to estimate a possible range of future atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations through the year 2075. Historic fossil fuel usage to the present, growing at a rate of 4.5% per year until 1973 and at a slower rate of 1.9% after 1973, was combined with three scenarios of projected emissions growth ranging from approximately 0.2 to 2.8% per year to provide annual CO/sub 2/ emissions data for two different carbon cycle models. The emissions scenarios were constructed using an energy-economic model and by varying key parameters within the bounds of currently expected future values. The extreme values for CO/sub 2/ emissions in the year 2075 are 6.8 x 10/sup 15/ and 91 x 10/sup 15/ g C year/sup -1/. Carbon cycle model simulations used a range of year - 1800 preindustrial atmospheric concentrations of 245 to 292 ppM CO/sub 2/ and three scenarios of bioshere conversion as additional atmospheric CO/sub 2/ source terms. These simulations yield a range of possible atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations in year 2075 of approximately 500 to 1500 ppM, with a median of about 700 ppM. The time at which atmospheric CO/sub 2/ would potentially double from the preindustrial level ranges from year 2025 to >2075. The practical, programmatic value of this forecast exercise is that it forces quantitative definition of the assumptions, and the uncertainties therein, which form the basis of our understanding of the natural biogeochemical cycle of carbon and both historic and future human influences on the dynamics of the global cycle. Assumptions about the possible range of future atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels provide a basis on which to evaluate the implications of these changes on climate and the biosphere. 44 references, 17 figures, 21 tables.

  15. Test equipment for the fuel cell industry

    Astris has been active in fuel cell research and development for over twenty years. There was a limited selection of available test equipment for fuel cell electrodes, cells and stacks. To meet the specific requirements of this work, Astris created and continues to develop its own test equipment. Beginning with the all-analog model TL1 Test Load in the mid-eighties and its companion, digital Resistance Free Voltmeter, Astris researchers focused on use of the 'resistance free' method of reading the electrochemical potentials as an important diagnostic and research tool. A test cell for fuel cell and battery electrodes, QUICKCELL QC200 was added soon thereafter. Later, model TL3 digital test load became the workhorse of Astris fuel cell laboratories in Canada and in Europe, and was also the first instrument offered for sale to the fuel cell and battery R and D community. Beginning with model TL4, Astris test loads took advantage of microprocessor intelligence, to increase their functionality and versatility, and to make them suitable for computer control and data collection. The paper describes the further evolution of hardware and software for fuel cell and battery testing laboratories, highlighting the features of the current models TL5 Test Load and TESTMASTER Data Acquisition and Control Program. (author)

  16. Non-deforestation fire vs. fossil fuel combustion: the source of CO2 emissions affects the global carbon cycle and climate responses

    Landry, Jean-Sébastien; Damon Matthews, H.

    2016-04-01

    Non-deforestation fire - i.e., fire that is typically followed by the recovery of natural vegetation - is arguably the most influential disturbance in terrestrial ecosystems, thereby playing a major role in carbon exchanges and affecting many climatic processes. The radiative effect from a given atmospheric CO2 perturbation is the same for fire and fossil fuel combustion. However, major differences exist per unit of CO2 emitted between the effects of non-deforestation fire vs. fossil fuel combustion on the global carbon cycle and climate, because (1) fossil fuel combustion implies a net transfer of carbon from geological reservoirs to the atmospheric, oceanic, and terrestrial pools, whereas fire occurring in terrestrial ecosystems does not; (2) the average lifetime of the atmospheric CO2 increase is longer when originating from fossil fuel combustion compared to fire, due to the strong vegetation regrowth following fire disturbances in terrestrial ecosystems; and (3) other impacts, for example on land surface albedo, also differ between fire and fossil fuel combustion. The main purpose of this study is to illustrate the consequences from these fundamental differences between fossil fuel combustion and non-deforestation fires using 1000-year simulations of a coupled climate-carbon model with interactive vegetation. We assessed emissions from both pulse and stable fire regime changes, considering both the gross (carbon released from combustion) and net (fire-caused change in land carbon, also accounting for vegetation decomposition and regrowth, as well as climate-carbon feedbacks) fire CO2 emissions. In all cases, we found substantial differences from equivalent amounts of emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion. These findings suggest that side-by-side comparisons of non-deforestation fire and fossil fuel CO2 emissions - implicitly implying that they have similar effects per unit of CO2 emitted - should therefore be avoided, particularly when these comparisons involve gross fire emissions, because the reservoirs from which these emissions are drawn have very different residence times (millions of years for fossil fuel; years to centuries for vegetation and soil-litter). Our results also support the notion that most net emissions occur relatively soon after fire regime shifts and then progressively approach zero. Overall, our study calls for the explicit representation of fire activity as a valuable step to foster a more accurate understanding of its impacts on global carbon cycling and temperature, as opposed to conceiving fire effects as congruent with the consequences from fossil fuel combustion.

  17. The CO2 release and Oxygen uptake from Fossil Fuel Emission Estimate (COFFEE dataset: effects from varying oxidative ratios

    H. Mukai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a global dataset of CO2 emissions and O2 uptake associated with the combustion of different fossil fuel types. To derive spatial and temporal patterns of oxygen uptake, we combined high-resolution CO2 emissions from the EDGAR (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research inventory with country level information on oxidative ratios, based on fossil fuel consumption data from the UN energy statistics database. The results are hourly global maps with a spatial resolution of 1° × 1° for the years 1996–2008. The potential influence of spatial patterns and temporal trends in the resulting O2/CO2 emission ratios on the atmospheric oxygen signal is examined for different stations in the global measurement network, using model simulations from the global TM3 and the regional REMO transport model. For the station Hateruma Island (Japan, 24° 03' N, 123° 48' E, the simulated results are also compared to observations. In addition, the possibility of signals caused by variations in fuel use to be mistaken for oceanic signals is investigated using a global APO inversion.

  18. Evaluation of long range transport of fossil fuel originated organic aerosol at a background site in Northeast Asia

    Hwang, Eun Jin; Lee, Ji Yi; Park, Jin Soo; Lee, Seok Jo; Kim, Hyun Jae; Jeon, Ha Eun; Sung, Min Young

    2013-04-01

    Northeast Asia is heavy air pollution region due to usage of large amounts of fossil fuel. In addition, meteorological conditions represented as prevailing westerlies in Northeast Asia region causes long range transport of anthropogenic pollutants emitted from China to Korea and Japan and even the United States across the Pacific Ocean (Bey et al., 2001). The Baengnyeong Island of Korea is located at the northwestern part of the Korean peninsula and close by North Korea and China, thus this site is regarded as an ideal place for background air measurements in Northeast Asia. Also, it has low local anthropogenic emissions and is frequently influenced by various air masses from China and North Korea in the Island. In this study, we performed intensive sampling during summer and winter in the Baengnyeong Island and analyzed various organic compounds including fossil fuel originated organic markers such as hopanes and PAHs using thermal desorption two dimensional gas chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometry (TD-GCGC-TOFMS). We also analyzed ~20 urban aerosol samples collected at Seoul, a representative urban site in Northeast Asia region to compare organic compounds distributions of aerosol samples at the Baengnyeong Island. By applying air mass back trajectory analysis and comparing organic compounds distributions in aerosol samples of the Baengnyeong Island and Seoul, the impact of long-range transport of fossil fuel originated organic pollutants at a background site in Northeast Asia were evaluated. (References) Bey, I., Jacob, D.J., Logan, J.A., Yantosca, R.M., 2001. Asian chemical outflow to the Pacific in spring: origins, pathways, and budgets. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmosphere 106, 23097-23113.

  19. Toward Verifying Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions with the CMAQ Model: Motivation, Model Description and Initial Simulation

    Liu, Zhen; Bambha, Ray P.; Pinto, Joseph P.; Zeng, Tao; Boylan, Jim; Huang, Maoyi; Lei, Huimin; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Shishi; Mao, Jiafu; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Shi, Xiaoying; Wei, Yaxing; Michelsen, Hope A.

    2014-03-14

    Motivated by the urgent need for emission verification of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, we have developed regional CO2 simulation with CMAQ over the contiguous U.S. Model sensitivity experiments have been performed using three different sets of inputs for net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and two fossil fuel emission inventories, to understand the roles of fossil fuel emissions, atmosphere-biosphere exchange and transport in regulating the spatial and diurnal variability of CO2 near the surface, and to characterize the well-known ‘signal-to-noise’ problem, i.e. the interference from the biosphere on the interpretation of atmospheric CO2 observations. It is found that differences in the meteorological conditions for different urban areas strongly contribute to the contrast in concentrations. The uncertainty of NEE, as measured by the difference among the three different NEE inputs, has notable impact on regional distribution of CO2 simulated by CMAQ. Larger NEE uncertainty and impact are found over eastern U.S. urban areas than along the western coast. A comparison with tower CO2 measurements at Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) shows that the CMAQ model using hourly varied and high-resolution CO2 emission from the Vulcan inventory and CarbonTracker optimized NEE reasonably reproduce the observed diurnal profile, whereas switching to different NEE inputs significantly degrades the model performance. Spatial distribution of CO2 is found to correlate with NOx, SO2 and CO, due to their similarity in emission sources and transport processes. These initial results from CMAQ demonstrate the power of a state-of-the art CTM in helping interpret CO2 observations and verify fossil fuel emissions. The ability to simulate CO2 in CMAQ will also facilitate investigations of the utility of traditionally regulated pollutants and other species as tracers to CO2 source attribution.

  20. Carbon Capture and Storage From Fossil Fuels and Biomass. Costs and Potential Role in Stabilizing the Atmosphere

    Azar, C.; Lindgren, K. [Department of Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Larson, E. [Princeton Environmental Inst., Princeton Univ., Guyot Hall, Princeton, NJ, 08540 (United States); Moellersten, K. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria)

    2006-01-15

    The capture and storage of CO2 from combustion of fossil fuels is gaining attraction as a means to deal with climate change. CO2 emissions from biomass conversion processes can also be captured. If that is done, biomass energy with CO2 capture and storage (BECS) would become a technology that removes CO2 from the atmosphere and at the same time deliver CO2-neutral energy carriers (heat, electricity or hydrogen) to society. Here we present estimates of the costs and conversion efficiency of electricity, hydrogen and heat generation from fossil fuels and biomass with CO2 capture and storage. We then insert these technology characteristics into a global energy and transportation model (GET 5.0), and calculate costs of stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentration at 350 and 450 ppm. We find that carbon capture and storage technologies applied to fossil fuels have the potential to reduce the cost of meeting the 350 ppm stabilisation targets by 50% compared to a case where these technologies are not available and by 80% when BECS is allowed. For the 450 ppm scenario, the reduction in costs is 40 and 42%, respectively. Thus, the difference in costs between cases where BECS technologies are allowed and where they are not is marginal for the 450 ppm stabilization target. It is for very low stabilization targets that negative emissions become warranted, and this makes BECS more valuable than in cases with higher stabilization targets. Systematic and stochastic sensitivity analysis is performed. Finally, BECS opens up the possibility to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. But this option should not be seen as an argument in favour of doing nothing about the climate problem now and then switching on this technology if climate change turns out to be a significant problem. It is not likely that BECS can be initiated sufficiently rapidly at a sufficient scale to follow this path to avoiding abrupt and serious climate changes if that would happen.