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1

FOSSIL FUEL INDUSTRIES  

Science.gov (United States)

The chapter focuses on methane emissions from the coal and natural gas industries. The petroleum industry is not addressed because of the lack of related quality data. Emission points are identified for each industry, and a discussion of factors affecting emissions is presented. ...

2

Fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recovery, handling and combustion of fossil fuels is damaging the environment. This damage may ultimately cause many plant and animal species to become extinct. If we continue to increase our use of fossil fuels for energy production, humanity may ultimately become one of the species that perish. This is an overwhelming reason to stop the use of fossil fuels as our main energy source. If long-range survival is deemed inadequate to make profound near-term changes in the energy infrastructure, then a second powerful justification come sform the need to conserve the unique substaces in fossil fuels for future higher-value use as chemical feedstocks. These two drives, one to stop using fossil fuels because they cause damage, and the second to save the fossil materials for higher-value use, constitute a powerful motivation to terminate the burning of fossil fuels. We must find new sources of energy. It is shown here that a large part of current environmental damage is a direct result of the use of fossil fuels as our main energy source, and that the materials found in fossil fuels are much more valuable as chemical feedstocks, from which high value products are made. 46 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Williams, L.O.

1994-04-01

3

Financial subsidies to the Australian fossil fuel industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A common claim during international greenhouse gas reduction negotiations has been that domestic emissions cuts will harm national economies. This argument fails to consider the distorting effect of existing financial subsidies and associated incentives to fossil fuel production and consumption provided by governments in most developed countries. These subsidies support a fossil fuel energy sector that is the major contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions and conflict with attempts to expand the role of sustainable energy technologies. Reform of these types of subsidies has the potential to provide substantial gains in economic efficiency as well as reductions in carbon dioxide emissions--a 'no regrets' outcome for the economy and the environment. This paper examines financial subsidies to fossil fuel production and consumption in Australia and estimates the magnitude of the subsidies. Subsidies and associated incentives to fossil fuel production and consumption in Australia are similar to those in the United States and the other countries that have pushed for increased 'flexibility' during international negotiations

2003-01-01

4

The Council of Industrial Boiler Owners special project on non-utility fossil fuel ash classification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Information is outlined on the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO) special project on non-utility fossil fuel ash classification. Data are presented on; current (1996) regulatory status of fossil-fuel combustion wastes; FBC technology identified for further study; CIBO special project methods; Bevill amendment study factors; data collection; and CIBO special project status.

Svendsen, R.L.

1996-12-31

5

Disaggregation of industrial fossil fuel use in the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan: Methodology and results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The methodology described here projects use of purchased boiler fuel from 1980 to 2030 for six industrial groups. Three types of information were required to generate these projections: a long-term forecast of total industrial fossil fuel use, forecasts of industrial activity, and relative growth rates of industrial energy intensity. The resulting projections were used as inputs to the Industrial Combustion Emissions (ICE) model, one of the sector models of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program. In our projections, we used long-term forecasts of fossil fuel use from the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan (NEPP) prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The NEPP provides projections of total industrial energy use from 1980 to 2010 for several fuel types and three economic growth scenarios (base, low, and high). To extend these projections to 2030, total energy use, electricity use, and renewable energy use were extrapolated. We constructed relative rates of growth for energy intensity in each industry group from historical data. Combining the three elements - fossil fuel use, industrial activity, and relative growth rate of energy intensity - yields a disaggregation of total purchased fossil fuel for each industry consistent with the NEPP forecast. Total fossil fuel use is then converted to boiler fuel use by applying some conversion factors constructed from 1980 census data and 1980 ICE model data. The results indicate negligible growth in boiler fuel use for most of the six industries represented in detail in the ICE model. Only the chemical industry has any significant growth in boiler fuel use in the base and high cases. This finding reflects the low growth in fossil fuel use projected by the NEPP, optimistic projections for the chemical industry by DRI, and significant conservation rates in the other industries.

Boyd, G.A.; Ross, M.H.; Macal, C.M.; Hanson, D.A.; South, D.W.

1986-01-01

6

Hydrogen movement and the next action: fossil fuels industry and sustainability economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Since the hydrogen movement started in 1974, there has been progress in research, development, demonstration and commercialization activities, covering all aspects of the hydrogen energy system. In order to solve the interrelated problems of depletion of fossil fuels and the environmental impact of the combustion products of fossil fuels, it is desirable to speed up the conversion to the hydrogen energy system. Most established industries have joined the hydrogen movement. There is one exception: the fossil fuel industry. A call is made to the fossil fuel industry to join the hydrogen movement. It is also proposed to change the present economic system with a sustainability economics in order to account for environmental damage, recyclability and decommissioning, and thus, ensure a sustainable future. (Author)

1997-01-01

7

Fossil fuels -- future fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

NONE

1998-03-01

8

Effect on industry structure by fossil fuel burden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multi-industrial sector dynamic operation general equilibrium model of Korean economy has been developed. It is able to analyze carbon dioxide emission, energy use and macro economy, and reciprocal actions between each industrial sector and to measure economic effects by environmental policy for the purpose of reducing carbon dioxide. Using this model, it analyzed its effect on industries in Korea of limiting carbon dioxide emission by experimenting each policy instrument, policy object, application of tax revenue for limiting carbon dioxide. The spreading effect on each industry has a large difference for each industry. The production reduction of energy industry or large energy consuming industry (basic chemical industry, transportation and storage, steel industry, construction) shows relatively huge to other industries. Production reduction for each industry, i.e. a wide difference of economic burden between industries, will need some consideration when introducing energy carbon tax, especially in the initial stage, since it could cause an equity problem between industries. Moreover, studies on differentiating tax rate, tax return and exemption that can mitigate an equity problem between industries should be implemented. (author). 66 refs., 22 figs., 12 tabs.

Kang, Yoon Young [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

1999-12-01

9

Rethinking Fossil Fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change and fossil fuel use are connected. It would serve the world well to: begin a moratorium on coal-fired power plants; explore and use renewable energy; insist on immediate action from world governments; and penalize industries putting excess CO2 into the atmosphere.

James Hansen (NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies;)

2008-09-09

10

Fossil fuels outlook for Puerto Rico's private industrial sector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A short history of fossil fuels is presented, from their origin to present times as energy producing natural resources in America and the world. The present and future energy situation resulting from the indiscriminate use of our energy resources is briefly analyzed. A presentation is also made of the distribution of the world's energy resources. The price escalation of fossil fuels is discussed in the context of its effect on Puerto Rico's industrial development and economy, both for the present and future. Energy conservation, together with the use of other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, is evaluated as a Puerto Rican option. Also presented is a brief analysis of Puerto Rico's energy policy today, and the eventual discovery of oil in Puerto Rico.

Yepes, C.

1980-01-01

11

Can industry`s `fourth` fossil fuel establish presence in US?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After five years of commercial experience burning Orimulsion overseas, US utilities are now evaluating the new fuel as a serious alternative to oil. In their relentless drive to remain competitive, electric utilities with oil-fired generating units are searching for lower cost fuel alternatives. Because of high fuel prices, oil-fired units have low capacity factors. Only 23 out of 142 oil-capable units in the US had capacity factors greater than 50% in 1993; the average was a mere 24%. Utility consumption of fuel oil slid from over 600,000 barrels (bbl)/day in 1989 to less than 200,000 bbl/day last year. Orimulsion now fuels nearly 3,000 MW/yr worldwide. The UK`s PowerGen Ltd, currently the world`s largest consumer of Orimulsion, fires some 10-million bbl/yr at two 500-MW units at its Ince plant and three 120-MW units at its Richborough plant. Both plants formerly burned fuel oil, and have been using Orimulsion since 1991. Canada`s New Brunswick Power Corp has fired Orimulsion in two units at its Dalhousie plant since 1994 (Power, April 1995, p 27); one 105-MW unit was originally designed for fuel oil, the other 212-MW unit was designed for coal. Last year, Denmark`s SK Power converted its coal-fired, 700-MW Asnaes Unit 5 to Orimulsion firing. And in the US, Florida Power and Light Co. (FP and L) has signed a 20-yr fuel supply contract with Bitor America Corp (Boca Raton, Fla.), for two 800-MW units at the oil-fired Manatee plant, contingent on securing necessary permits. The Manatee installation (Power, September 1994, p 57) would be the first in the US to burn the fuel. Today, five years after Orimulsion begun to be used commercially, many of the lingering questions involving the new fuel`s handling, transportation, combustion, emissions control, spill control, and waste utilization have been settled. Several US utilities have expressed serious interest in the fuel as an alternative to oil.

Armor, A.F.; Dene, C.E.

1996-09-01

12

Liquid fossil-fuel technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Highlights of research activities at Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for the quarter ending March 1982 are summarized. Major research areas are: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (resource assessment and enhanced production); processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); utilization; and product integration and technology transfer. Special reports include: EOR data base, major new industry tool; properties of crude oils available via telephone hookup; alternative fuels data bank stresses transportation.

1982-07-01

13

Transcontinental methane measurements: Part 2. Mobile surface investigation of fossil fuel industrial fugitive emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

The potent greenhouse gas, methane, CH4, has a wide variety of anthropogenic and natural sources. Fall, continental-scale (Florida to California) surface CH4 data were collected to investigate the importance of fossil fuel industrial (FFI) emissions in the South US. A total of 6600 measurements along 7020-km of roadways were made by flame ion detection gas chromatography onboard a nearly continuously moving recreational vehicle in 2010. A second, winter survey in Southern California measured CH4 at 2 Hz with a cavity ring-down spectrometer in 2012. Data revealed strong and persistent FFI CH4 sources associated with refining, oil/gas production, a presumed major pipeline leak, and a coal loading plant. Nocturnal CH4 mixing ratios tended to be higher than daytime values for similar sources, sometimes significantly, which was attributed to day/night meteorological differences, primarily changes in the boundary layer height. The highest CH4 mixing ratio (39 ppm) was observed near the Kern River Oil Field, California, which uses steam reinjection. FFI CH4 plume signatures were distinguished as stronger than other sources on local scales. On large (4°) scales, the CH4 trend was better matched spatially with FFI activity than wetland spatial patterns. Qualitative comparison of surface data with SCIAMACHY and GOSAT satellite retrievals showed agreement of the large-scale CH4 spatial patterns. Comparison with inventory models and seasonal winds suggests for some seasons and some portions of the Gulf of Mexico a non-negligible underestimation of FFI emissions. For other seasons and locations, qualitative interpretation is not feasible. Unambiguous quantitative source attribution is more complex, requiring transport modeling.

Leifer, Ira; Culling, Daniel; Schneising, Oliver; Farrell, Paige; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John P.

2013-08-01

14

Supply of fossil heating and motor fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This comprehensive study made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) within the framework of the Energy Economics Fundamentals research programme examines if it can be guaranteed that Swiss industry can be supplied with fossil fuels for heating and transport purposes over the next few decades. The results of a comprehensive survey of literature on the subject are presented, with a major focus being placed on oil. The study examines both pessimistic and optimistic views and also presents an overview of fossil energy carriers and the possibilities of substituting them. Scenarios and prognoses on the availability of fossil fuels and their reserves for the future are presented. Also, new technologies for exploration and the extraction of fossil fuels are discussed, as are international interdependencies that influence supply. Market and price scenarios are presented that take account of a possible increasing scarcity of fossil fuels. The implications for industry and investment planning are examined

2003-01-01

15

Fossil fuel furnace reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

Parkinson, William J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

16

The legacy of fossil fuels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30?Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production. PMID:21290608

Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

2011-02-03

17

The legacy of fossil fuels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30?Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production.

Armaroli N; Balzani V

2011-03-01

18

Status of fossil fuel reserves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

2005-01-01

19

Fossil fuel usage and the environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Greenhouse Effect and global warming, ozone formation in the troposphere, ozone destruction in the stratosphere, and acid rain are important environmental issues. The relationship of fossil fuel usage to some of these issues is discussed. Data on fossil fuel consumption and the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, and ozone indicate that natural gas provides lower emission of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen and sulfur oxides than other fossil fuels. Global emissions of methane from the gas industry are significantly less than those from other anthropogenic activities and natural sources, and methane plays an important role along with carbon monoxide and nitric oxide in tropospheric ozone formation. Reductions in any or all of these air pollutants would reduce ozone in the lower atmosphere. Several remedial measures have been or are being implemented in certain countries to reduce fossil fuel emissions. These include removal of emissions from the atmosphere by new biomass growth, fuel substitution by use of cleaner burning fuels for stationary and mobile sources, and fossil fuel combustion at higher efficiencies. It is unlikely that concerned environmental action by all governments of the world will occur soon, but much progress has been made to achieve clean air. 35 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

Klass, D.L.

1990-01-01

20

Fossil fuel usage and the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Greenhouse Effect and global warming, ozone formation in the troposphere, ozone destruction in the stratosphere, and acid rain are important environmental issues. The relationship of fossil fuel usage to some of these issues is discussed. Data on fossil fuel consumption and the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, and ozone indicate that natural gas provides lower emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen and sulfur oxides than other fossil fuels. Global emissions of methane from the gas industry are significantly less than those from other anthropogenic activities and natural sources, and methane plays an important role along with carbon monoxide and nitric oxide in tropospheric ozone formation. Reductions in any or all of these air pollutants would reduce ozone in the lower atmosphere. Several remedial measures have been or are being implemented in certain countries to reduce fossil fuel emissions. These include removal of emissions from the atmosphere by new biomass growth, fuel substitution by use of cleaner burning fuels for stationary and mobile sources, and fossil fuel combustion at higher efficiencies. It is unlikely that concerted environmental action by all governments of the world will occur soon, but much progress has been made to achieve clean air.

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Systematics of solid fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Attempts are examined to create classifications of solid fossil fuels by different researchers. A new plan has been proposed for systematics, which in contrast to the complex existing ones is based on two indicators: composition of organic matter and its content in solid fossil fuels. The latter in the plan are divided into five groups: humites, liptobiolites, saprohumites, humite-sapropelites and sapropelites. Affiliation to each group is determined by the nature of the initial plant material governing their substance-petrographic composition and most important properties. Characteristics of the isolated groups are presented.

Pogrebnov, N.I.; Khrustaleva, G.K.; Lapin, A.A.

1983-01-01

22

News technology utilization fossil fuel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fossil fuel ? ?alternative energy? is coal, petroleum, natural gas. Petroleum and natural gas are scarce resources, but they are delimited. Reserves petroleum will be depleted after 39 years and reserves natural gas after 60 years.World reserves coal are good for another 240 years. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel. It is the least expensive energy source for generating electricity. Many environmental problems associated with use of coal:in coal production, mining creates environmental problems.On Slovakia representative coal only important internal fuel ? power of source and coal is produced in 5 locality. Nowadays, oneself invest to new technology on utilization coal. Perspective solution onself shows UCG, IGCC.

Bli?anová Monika; Sciranková Lucia

2004-01-01

23

On Prediction of Depreciation Time of Fossil Fuel in Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The fossil fuels play a crucial role in the world energy markets. Demand for fossil fuels become increasingly high and worrisome, because of fossil fuels will be significantly reduced and ultimately exhausted. This study was conducted to predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels in Malaysia and estimate the time remaining before the fossil fuels will finish. Approach: To predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels, the reserves, consumption and prices of fossil fuel will be used. The prediction of fossil fuel reserves were estimated using ratio of fossil fuel reserve versus consumption, Klass Model and Modified Klass Model. The prediction time will give us the opportunity to prepare for the coming energy crisis and discover new energy sources. The results from the analysis will be concluded alongside with the Olduvai Theory and Hubbert Peak Theory. Both of the theories are highly related to the energy crisis. The Olduvai Theory states that the industrial civilization will last for approximately 100 year: circa 1930-2030. As for Hubbert Peak Theory, it can estimate the total amount of fossil fuels available based on the production rate from time to time. Results: Due to the vast usage of petroleum, it will be depleted faster than natural gas and coal. After 14 years, natural gas and coal will replace petroleum as a fossil fuel and coal would then be the major fossil fuels. Based on the results from Hubbert Peak Theory, the rate of production of petroleum has reached the maximum level in 2004 and started to decline since that time; while in the Olduvai theory, it has explained that the life expectancy of the industrial civilization was found to be ended in 2030. Petroleum will be spent over in 2020, followed by natural gas in 2058 and coal around the year 2066. Conclusion: So far, Malaysia has not facing disconnection of electricity as other developed countries. When this happens, it gives the meaning of the end of the industrial civilization where the electric power grids go down and never come back up. If there is no substance that can replace fossil fuels to continue in the industrial civilization, human civilization will be facing the fate of collapse.

Nora Muda; Tey Jin Pin

2012-01-01

24

Empirical examination of alternative productivity growth measures, with an application to the steam generated fossil-fueled electric utility industry, 1951-1978  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation examines the productivity growth of the steam generated fossil-fueled electric utility industry during the 1951-1978 period. Three alternate measures of productivity growth are presented, each measure reflecting specific assumptions regarding the underlying production structure and behavioral specification of the industry. The examination of the productivity growth measures is preceded by a brief discussion regarding the specific productivity measures to be investigated and the contribution of the dissertation to the relevant economic literature. The structure of the dissertation allows for three separate investigations, each containing a review of the appropriate literature, presentation of a suitable theoretical and empirical model, an examination of an acceptable estimation technique, a discussion of the estimation results and the implications of these results based on previous studies, and a summary. The major goal of this dissertation is to illustrate that questions regarding the productivity growth behavior of this industry should be answered by resorting to economic theory. The implementation of economic theory allows the researcher the opportunity to appropriately examine the problems associated with productivity growth measurement in this industry.

Callan, S.J.

1985-01-01

25

Energy economy without fossil fuels: Iceland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the time of the settlement of Iceland in the 9th century AD the use of wood and peat for fuel has put this resource in danger of exhaustion. For over two centuries the Icelandic industrial society has relied heavily on imported fossil fuels, coal, coke and petroleum. The abundant potential of Iceland regarding green power like hydroelectric and geothermal has led to two major changes of energy infrastructure in the past century. This was the introduction of hydroelectricity at the turn of the century and the geothermal space heating of major municipalities in the post World War II period. Today, Iceland is facing a third major energy infrastructure revolution within a hundred years with the advent of hydrogen economy. (orig.) [German] Seit Beginn der Besiedlung Islands im 9. Jahrhundert n. Chr. hat die Nutzung von Holz und Torf als Brennstoff diese Ressourcen nahezu erschoepft. Mehr als zwei Jahrhunderte hat sich die islaendische Industriegesellschaft auf den Import fossiler Brennstoffe wie Kohle, Koks und Erdoel gestuetzt. Die Einfuehrung der Stromerzeugung aus Wasserkraft zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts und die Fernwaermeversorgung der groesseren Gemeinden mit Erdwaerme nach dem 2. Weltkrieg haben das Szenario veraendert. (orig.)

Sigfusson, T.I. [Iceland Univ., Reykjavik (Iceland); Iceland New Energy Ltd., Reykjavik (Iceland)

2002-07-01

26

Fossil fuel consumption and the environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The three major environmental problems caused by the burning of fossil fuels, air pollution, acid rain and the greenhouse effect, are discussed. Current and future patterns of energy consumption to the year 2020 are examined. Fuel substitutes for the most noxious fossil fuels, coal and oil, are considered and their advantages and drawbacks assessed. The substitutes are natural gas, renewable energy, hydro power and nuclear power. Finally, energy conservation, as a fifth option is reviewed. The overall conclusions are that a universal drive towards better fuel efficiency, which already makes economic sense, in tandem with some fuel substitution can forestall the worst effects of global warming for an appreciable period giving time for a determined research effort to commercialize renewable energy and into new ways of using fossil fuels without producing such intractable pollution problems. (UK).

Davison, A.

1989-04-01

27

Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x108 ha in the case of biofuels from sugarcane or oil palm, and at least 1.8-3.6x109 ha in the case of ethanol from wheat, corn or sugar beet, as produced in industrialized countries. Biofuels from microalgae which are commercially produced with current technologies do not appear to outperform terrestrial plants such as sugarcane in their ability to displace fossil fuels. Whether they will able to do so on a commercial scale in the future, is uncertain.

Lucas Reijnders

2009-01-01

28

When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Crude oil, coal and gas are the main resources for world energy supply. The size of fossil fuel reserves and the dilemma that 'when non-renewable energy will be diminished' is a fundamental and doubtful question that needs to be answered. This paper presents a new formula for calculating when fossil fuel reserves are likely to be depleted and develops an econometrics model to demonstrate the relationship between fossil fuel reserves and some main variables. The new formula is modified from the Klass model and thus assumes a continuous compound rate and computes fossil fuel reserve depletion times for oil, coal and gas of approximately 35, 107 and 37 years, respectively. This means that coal reserves are available up to 2112, and will be the only fossil fuel remaining after 2042. In the Econometrics model, the main exogenous variables affecting oil, coal and gas reserve trends are their consumption and respective prices between 1980 and 2006. The models for oil and gas reserves unexpectedly show a positive and significant relationship with consumption, while presenting a negative and significant relationship with price. The econometrics model for coal reserves, however, expectedly illustrates a negative and significant relationship with consumption and a positive and significant relationship with price. Consequently, huge reserves of coal and low-level coal prices in comparison to oil and gas make coal one of the main energy substitutions for oil and gas in the future, under the assumption of coal as a clean energy source. (author)

Shafiee, Shahriar; Topal, Erkan [School of Engineering and CRC Mining, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia Qld. 4072 (Australia)

2009-01-15

29

Catching the fossil fuel biodesulfurization wave  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Both coal and oil contain sulfur atoms covalently bound to the carbon skeleton of the fuel. This organic sulfur is located in more complex and more polycyclo-aromatic structures in coals than in petroleum and is modeled (albeit not perfectly) by the simple aromatic compound dibenzothiophene (DBT). Coals, but not petroleum, also contain inorganic forms of sulfur. These are various iron sulfides, most notably iron pyrites. Unlike organic sulfur, inorganic sulfur is not chemically bound to the carbon matrix of coal and can be removed, at least partially, by physical means that depend on differences in density and hydrophobicity between coal and pyrites. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, DOE/PETC was active in promoting advanced physical methods of coal cleaning and had invested considerable money, effort, and prestige in their development. To address that other coal-sulfur problem--the organic sulfur component--DOE/PETC funded a range of chemistry-based options through the early 1990s. By the early 1980s, and in the wake of the coming of age of genetic engineering, microbially based processes were beginning to make an appearance on the industrial scene. Coal cleaning was no exception. The author discusses his perceptions of the DOE's foray into fossil fuel biodesulfurization.

Campbell, I.M. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1993-10-01

30

Sources and sinks of fossil fuel emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fossil fuel utilization worldwide has increased significantly over the last 100 years, especially since World War II. The resulting emissions to the atmosphere are believed by many to result in a variety of environmental problems such as the greenhouse effect and global warming. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to assess in some detail specific atmospheric pollutants that have been either directly (CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub x}, NO{sub x} hydrocarbons, particulates) or indirectly (O{sub 3}) related to fossil fuel usage and to compare them with emissions from other anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic sources. 22 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

Klass, D.L. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA))

1992-01-01

31

The dilemma of fossil fuel use and global climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of fossil fuels and relationship to climate change is discussed. As the use of fossil fuels has grown, the problems of protecting the environment and human health and safety have also grown, providing a continuing challenge to technological and managerial innovation. Today that challenge is to control atmospheric emissions from combustion, particularly those emissions that cause acidic deposition, urban pollution, and increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. Technology for reducing acidic deposition is available and needs only to be adopted, and the remedies for urban pollution are being developed and tested. How effective or expensive these will be remains to be determined. The control of emissions of the greenhouse gas, CO{sub 2}, seems possible only be reducing the total amounts of fossil fuels used worldwide, and by substituting efficient natural gas technologies for coal. Long before physical depletion forces the transition away from fossil fuels, it is at least plausible and even likely that the greenhouse effect will impose a show-stopping constraint. If such a transition were soon to be necessary, the costs would be very high because substitute energy sources are either limited or expensive or undesirable for other reasons. Furthermore, the costs would be unevenly felt and would be more oppressive for developing nations because they would be least able to pay and, on average, their use rates of fossil fuels are growing much faster than those of many industrialized countries. It is prudent, therefore, to try to manage the use of fossil fuels as if a greenhouse constraint is an important possibility.

Judkins, R.R.; Fulkerson, W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Sanghvi, M.K. (Amoco Corp., Chicago, IL (USA))

1991-01-01

32

Modern fossil-fuel power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Different types of fossil-fuel power plants are described. The great common disadvantage of all of them is the emission of carbon dioxide, which leads to the undesirable greenhouse effect. There are only three possible ways to check pollution immissions: 1) Increase the power plants' efficiency 2) Take advantage of all possibilities to avoid waste of power 3) Substitution of fuel burning for nuclear technology. 12 figs., 3 tabs

1989-10-19

33

Kyoto - the impact on fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of the Kyoto conference on environmental policies on greenhouse gases, and on the consumption of fossil fuels, is discussed. Coal consumption is likely to be particularly heavily affected. Nonetheless, coal consumption is likely to remain high in Asia for some while to come.

Hodgson, S.

1998-04-01

34

Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fossil fuel supplies modeling and research effort focuses on models for US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) planning and management. Topics covered included new SPR oil valuation models, updating models for SPR risk analysis, and fill-draw planning. Another task in this program area is the development of advanced computational tools for three-dimensional seismic analysis.

Leiby, P.N.

1996-06-01

35

Fossil fuel conversion -- Measurement and modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of this program is to understand the chemical and physical mechanisms in coal conversion processes and incorporate this knowledge in computer-aided reactor engineering technology for the purposes of development, evaluation, design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. To accomplish this objective, this program will: (1) provide critical data on the physical and chemical processes in fossil fuel gasifier and combustors; (2) further develop a set of comprehensive codes; and (3) apply these codes to model various types of combustors and gasifier (fixed-bed, transport reactor, and fluidized-bed for coal and gas turbines for natural gas). Results are presented on the devolatilization of large coal particles; transport reactor modeling; fluidized bed model; nitrogen evolution from small and large coal particles; modeling of hydrogen cyanide and ammonia release during coal pyrolysis; oxidation rates for large coal particles at high pressures; advanced fixed-bed model development and evaluation; application of ACERC combustion and gasification codes to AFR diagnostic capabilities to systems of interest to METC; and submodel for lean premixed combustion of natural gas in industrial gas turbines.

Solomon, P.R.; Smoot, L.D.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Brewster, B.S.; Radulovic, P.T.

1995-11-01

36

When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Crude oil, coal and gas are the main resources for world energy supply. The size of fossil fuel reserves and the dilemma that 'when non-renewable energy will be diminished' is a fundamental and doubtful question that needs to be answered. This paper presents a new formula for calculating when fossil fuel reserves are likely to be depleted and develops an econometrics model to demonstrate the relationship between fossil fuel reserves and some main variables. The new formula is modified from the Klass model and thus assumes a continuous compound rate and computes fossil fuel reserve depletion times for oil, coal and gas of approximately 35, 107 and 37 years, respectively. This means that coal reserves are available up to 2112, and will be the only fossil fuel remaining after 2042. In the Econometrics model, the main exogenous variables affecting oil, coal and gas reserve trends are their consumption and respective prices between 1980 and 2006. The models for oil and gas reserves unexpectedly show a positive and significant relationship with consumption, while presenting a negative and significant relationship with price. The econometrics model for coal reserves, however, expectedly illustrates a negative and significant relationship with consumption and a positive and significant relationship with price. Consequently, huge reserves of coal and low-level coal prices in comparison to oil and gas make coal one of the main energy substitutions for oil and gas in the future, under the assumption of coal as a clean energy source. 28 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Shahriar Shafiee; Erkan Topal [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). School of Engineering and CRC Mining

2009-01-15

37

Clean electricity from fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The emerging clean coal technologies of PFBC and IGCC tackle the SO[sub 2] and the NO[sub x] problem at its roots, and due to the use of the combined cycle, CO[sub 2] emissions are also being reduced. These technologies have been proven technically at the 100 MW level. 300 MW plants are under construction and can now be offered comnmercially. The future holds the promise of even higher efficiency plants with high temperature fuel cells topping a combined cycle. 18 figs.

Luthi, H.K.; Louis, T.A. (ABB Power Generation Ltd, Baden (Switzerland))

1992-01-01

38

Future fossil fuel carbon emissions without policy intervention: a review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper surveys the literature regarding potential future fossil fuel carbon emissions in the absence of explicit control policies. 30 base cases and uncertainty analysis trajectories from 18 separate analyses of fossil fuel carbon emissions for comparison to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 1991 Integrated Analysis of Country Case Studies have been assembled. Global forecasts of fossil fuel carbon emissions and associated energy consumption, regional forecasts of fossil fuel carbon emissions and associated energy production and consumption, analyses that have explicitly explored the uncertainty associated with global energy and fossil fuel carbon emissions, and differences in key assumptions among various base cases are discussed. 24 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

Edmonds, J.; Richels, R.; Wise, M. [Batelle, Washington, DC (USA). Pacific Northwest laboratory, Global Change Division

2000-07-01

39

Fossil fuel conversion--measurement and modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of this program is to understand the chemical and physical mechanisms in coal conversion processes and incorporate this knowledge in computer-aided reactor engineering technology for the purposes of development, evaluation, design, scale-up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. To accomplish this objective, this program will: (1) provide critical data on the physical and chemical processes in fossil fuel gasifiers and combustors; (2) further develop a set of comprehensive codes; and (3) apply these codes to model various types of combustors and gasifiers (fixed-bed, transport reactor, and fluidized-bed for coal and gas turbines for natural gas).

Solomon, P.R.; Smoot, L.D.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Brewster, B.S.; Radulovic, P.T.

1994-10-01

40

Recent Developments in Biodesulfurization of Fossil Fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

The emission of sulfur oxides can have adverse effects on the environment. Biodesulfurization of fossil fuels is attracting more and more attention because such a bioprocess is environmentally friendly. Some techniques of desulfurization have been used or studied to meet the stricter limitation on sulfur content in China. Recent advances have demonstrated the mechanism and developments for biodesulfurization of gasoline, diesel and crude oils by free cells or immobilized cells. Genetic technology was also used to improve sulfur removal efficiencies. In this review, we summarize recent progress mainly in China on petroleum biodesulfurization.

Xu, Ping; Feng, Jinhui; Yu, Bo; Li, Fuli; Ma, Cuiqing

 
 
 
 
41

Recent developments in biodesulfurization of fossil fuels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The emission of sulfur oxides can have adverse effects on the environment. Biodesulfurization of fossil fuels is attracting more and more attention because such a bioprocess is environmentally friendly. Some techniques of desulfurization have been used or studied to meet the stricter limitation on sulfur content in China. Recent advances have demonstrated the mechanism and developments for biodesulfurization of gasoline, diesel and crude oils by free cells or immobilized cells. Genetic technology was also used to improve sulfur removal efficiencies. In this review, we summarize recent progress mainly in China on petroleum biodesulfurization.

Xu P; Feng J; Yu B; Li F; Ma C

2009-01-01

42

Denitrogenation of fossil fuels using microorganisms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Denitrogenation of fossil fuels is an important environmental issue. We performed a screening to find bacteria that can degrade carbazole, which was chosen as a model molecule for N-containing compounds in fossil fuels. Carbazole degradation tests were carried out with bacteria issued from 6 different habitats. As a result, we could isolate a strain (NIY3), which was able to efficiently use even very low concentrations of carbazole as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen and energy. For instance, 95% of the carbazole present in a solution at 100 ppm was degraded within 3 days at an incubation temperature as low as 30{sup o}C. Strain NIY3 was composed of bright yellow immotile bacteria that were Gram-negative, with a rod shape (0.7 x 0.7 - 1.0 {mu}mm). Further, DNA base sequence analysis suggested that strain NIY3 belongs to the group of Novosphingobium sp.. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

A. Ishihara; T. Aoyagi; F. Dumeignil; M. Nishikawa; M. Hosomi; E.W. Qian; Y. Kabe [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

2005-07-01

43

The environmental dilemma of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide poses an environmental dilemma for fossil fuel energy generation that, unlike other related emissions, cannot be resolved by control technologies alone. Although fossil fuels presently provide the most cost-effective global energy source, and model projections suggest that their use is initiating climatic changes which, while quite uncertain, may induce significant, counter-balancing impacts to water resources, coastal resources, ecological systems, and possibly agricultural production. The climate model indicate that the warming should have begun, and there is some evidence for this occurring, but at a less rapid and more uneven rate than projected. In addition, different climate models are not yet in agreement in their latitudinal or regional predictions, and it will likely require a decade or more for such agreement to develop as high performance computers become available for addressing this ''grand challenge'' problem. Thus, in addition to the prospect for climatic change, the uncertainties of the changes and associated impacts contribute to the dilemma of dealing with the issue. Further, the problem is pervasive and international scope, with different countries and peoples having differing perspectives of technology, development, and environmental responsibility. Dealing with this issue will thus require creativity, commitment, and flexibility

1992-01-01

44

Industrial fuel conference, 1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume contains proceedings of 8 papers delivered at the meeting devoted to the selection of fuel for boiler firing, boiler design, and emission control in industrial power plants. Topics covered include: alternative burner designs; fuel selection considerations; use of coal/oil mixtures as an industrial fuel; equipment corrosion in the wastewater/solid waste supplied to power house; testing of stock-fired boilers for emissions and efficiency; the proper application of fluid fuels; new source performance standards (NSPS) for industrial boilers; fluidized-bed boilers for industrial sized power house. Some contributions are accompanied by bibliographic citation. Each paper is abstracted and indexed separately.

1980-01-01

45

Hydrogen: A real alternative to fossil fuels and bio fuels in the Spanish vehicle industry; El Hidrogeno: Una alternativa real a los combustible fosiles y a los biocombustible para automoacion en Espana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For several years, UE has been trying to increase the use of bio fuels to replace petrol or diesel in the transports with the aim of fulfilling a commitment about climate change, supplying environmentally friendly conditions, promoting renewable energy sources. To achieve this, the 2003/30/EC Directive states that in all the European countries, before 31st December 2010, at least 5.75% of all petrol and diesel fuels used for transport are bio fuels. In previous papers, the authors evaluated this possibility. Analyzing hydrogen as replacement of fossil fuels and bio fuels nowadays in spain and a technical,economic and environmental point of view is the aim of this paper. (Author)

Hernandez-Sobrino, F.; Rodriguez-Monroy, C.; Hernandez-Perez, J. L.

2010-07-01

46

API focuses on cleanliness, economics of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Fossil fuels, consumed in free markets, are playing positive economic and environmental roles as the world economy becomes integrated, industry leader said last week. Environmental zealots threaten to force conversion from gasoline as a motor fuel in the U.S. and oppose the growing integration of the world economy. Fossil fuels, free markets, human creativity, and entrepreneurial spirit--not government intervention--are the keys to a clean environment, said API pres. Charles J. DiBona and outgoing Chairman C.J. (Pete) Silas, chairman and chief executive officer of Phillips Petroleum Co. DiBona said proponents of the BTU tax defeated earlier this year used erroneous assumptions to make a case against oil use in an effort to replace the efficiency of the marketplace with the inefficiency of bureaucracy. The government's role is to set tough standards and avoid dictating the way environmental standards are met, they said. Other speakers warned that voluntary measures put forward by the Clinton administration of address global climate change issues likely will fall short

1993-11-15

47

Global climate change and the need to replace fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] If the Earth had no atmosphere, its average surface temperature would be about -18degC. The Earth is kept at its relatively warm temperature by molecules in the atmosphere, including water molecules and carbon dioxide molecules that absorb some of the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth and prevent its escape from the Earth's environment. This is the natural greenhouse effect.Since the beginning of the industrial era, additional gases have been emitted into the atmosphere-particularly carbon dioxide (CO2)-which adds to this absorption and are believed to further increase the Earth's temperature. This increment is referred to as the anthropogenic greenhouse effect. Warnings about the effects of CO2 emissions date to the 19 century, but they have become a matter of widespread concern only since the 1970. The anticipated consequences are described as global warmingor, more broadly as global climate change.The production of CO2 is the inevitable accompaniment of any combustion of fossil fuels. The amount released per unit energy output varies for the different fuels, due largely to differences in their hydrogen content. Natural gas is primarily methane (CH4) and a considerable fraction of its combustion energy comes from the chemical combination of hydrogen and oxygen. Its ratio of carbon dioxide production to energy production is the lowest among the fossil fuels

2008-12-01

48

Future fossil fuel electricity generation in Europe: options and consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study investigates the development of the fossil fuel fired power generation in Europe up to 2030 and identifies the critical factors that influence its evolution. Through the application of the least-cost expansion planning methods, the technology and fuel mix of fossil fuel power plant portfolios emerging from the twenty-four techno-economic scenarios are described. The different scenarios present alternative views for the role of non-fossil fuel power generation, the development of the world fuel and carbon markets and the carbon capture power generating technologies. The study estimates the needs for new fossil fuel capacity and identifies the optimal power plant mix for all possible combinations of the cases mentioned above. The impacts of the resulting portfolios on the objectives of the European energy policy are assessed using as indicators the capital investment fo the construction of the required capacity, the fuel consumption, the composition of the fuel mix, the CO{sub 2} emission levels, and the average production cost of electricity from the fossil fuelled fleet. The report finds that high CO{sub 2} prices need to be maintained and carbon capture technology must be developed and become commercialised. If these conditions re met and medium or high fossil fuel prices prevail, the portfolio of fossil fuel power plants that will be deployed will be compatible wit the European goal for the development of a more sustainable and secure energy system. The key conclusion is that for a sustainable and secure energy system we need to invest, both in the increase of non-fossil fuel power generation and to ensure that carob n capture and storage technologies are ready to be deployed when needed. 46 refs.,

Tzimas, E.; Georgakaki, A.; Peteves, S.D.

2009-07-01

49

Development of an atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 monitoring station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Complete text of publication follows. The aim of the project supported by Hungarian NSF (ref No. F69029) is determination of atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 concentration in major cities or average industrial regions in Hungary using together measurement of CO2 mixing ratio and radiocarbon (14C) content of the air. For this aim we developed a high precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station in ATOMKI (Figure 1.). The station's measuring system is based on an Ultramat 6F (Siemens) infrared gas analyser. To help continuous, unattended run and autocalibration we built up an automatic gas handling line for the analyzer. For radiocarbon measurements we applied an integrating sampling system. One was installed in Debrecen station and two independent 14CO2 sampling line were installed 400 km far from Debrecen at Hegyhatsal station as background references. During several tests of the measuring and sampling systems we demonstrated that uncertainty of individual CO2 mixing ratio results is less than 0.5 ppm and the applied radiocarbon sampling system developed by ATOMKI works with good reproducibility. In September and October of 2008 we measured the mixing ratio and radiocarbon content of atmospheric CO2 at Debrecen and the far rural reference station (Hegyhatsal) simultaneously. It was concluded that trends in CO2 mixing ratio variations in time are very similar at the three different sampling points (2 m above ground in Debrecen, 10 m and 115 m above ground in Hegyhatsal). Air quality in Debrecen during September of 2008 seemed to be relatively clear from the point of view of its CO2 content at least. When winter came in October, with lower outside temperature and less sunshine hours the CO2 content of air was increased in general at all the three sampling points, but this effect was more intensive closer to the ground level. According our radiocarbon observations it was clearly indicated that there was not significant amount of fossil fuel CO2 in the air of Debrecen during September in 2008. But in October of 2008 the ?14C value of atmospheric CO2 of Debrecen decreased with more than 40 h relative to September's results, and according our calculations it was caused by about 20 ppm fossil fuel CO2 which appeared as a surplus amount in the air above the previous months carbon dioxide level. Using the developed mobile and high precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station we plan to determine the atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 trend in the whole 2008/2009 winter in Debrecen

50

On the optimum trend of fossil fuel taxation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The interest rate should fall with global warming. Remedial policy should allow for this endogeneity. In the simplest infinite-horizon model yielding a steady-state, one can derive the trend that an ad valorem fossil fuel tax should take to internalize the externality from emissions. It is negative. If implemented, it would reduce fossil fuel depletion, and raise the rates of interest and growth to the values they would have had without global warming. The case for a falling fossil fuel tax is reinforced by the possibilities of future emission abatement, and learning about the damage emissions do. 6 refs., 3 figs.

Sinclair, P.J.N.

1994-05-01

51

Environmental effects of fossil fuel combustion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fossil fuel which include natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen are the main source of heat and electrical energy. All these fuels contain beside major constituents (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) other materials as metal, sulfur and nitrogen compounds. During the combustion process different pollutants as fly ash, sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3), nitrogen oxides (NOx NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds are emitted. Fly ash contain different trace elements (heavy metals). Gross emission of pollutants is tremendous all over the world. These pollutants are present in the atmosphere in such conditions that they can affect man and his environment. Air pollution caused by the particulate matter and other pollutants not only acts directly on environment but by contamination of water and soil leads to their degradation. Wet and dry deposition of inorganic pollutants leads to acidification of environment. These phenomena affect health of the people, increase corrosion, destroy cultivated soil and forests. Most of the plants, especially coniferous trees are not resistant to sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Following longer exposure leaves wither and fall. Widespread forest damage has been reported in Europe and North America regions. Many cultivated plants are not resistant to these pollutants either especially in the early period vegetation. The mechanisms of pollutants transformation in atmosphere are described by environmental chemistry. An important role in these transformations plays photochemistry. SO2 and NOx are oxidized and sulfuric and nitric acids are formed in presence of water vapours, fog and droplets. Other problem discussed connected with human activities is emission of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere. These emissions cause stratospheric ozone depletion, ground level photochemical ozone formation, toxic or carcinogenic human health effects, enhancing the global greenhouse effect, accumulation and persistence in environment. Wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) can be applied for flue gas treatment and SO2 and NOx emission control. (author)

1999-01-01

52

Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the `Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.` Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the `low emission sources` and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1995-11-01

53

Does fossil fuel combustion lead to global warming?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Tropospheric sulfate aerosols produced by atmospheric oxidation of SO2 emitted from fossil fuel combustion scatter solar radiation and enhance the reflectivity of clouds. Both effects decrease the absorption of solar radiation by the earth-atmosphere system. This cooling influence tends to offset the warming influence resulting from increased absorption of terrestrial infrared radiation by increased atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The sulfate forcing is estimated to be offsetting 70% of the forcing by CO2 derived from fossil fuel combustion, although the uncertainty of this estimate is quite large--range 28-140%, the latter figure indicating that the present combined forcing is net cooling. Because of the vastly different atmospheric residence times of sulfate aerosol (about a week) and CO2 (about 100 years), the cooling influence of sulfate aerosol is exerted immediately, whereas most of the warming influence of CO2 is exerted over more than 100 years. Consequently the total forcing integrated over the entire time the materials reside in the atmosphere is net warming, with the total CO2 forcing estimate to exceed the sulfate forcing by a factor of 4. The present situation in which the forcing by sulfate is comparable to that by CO2 is shown to be a consequence of the steeply increasing rates of emission over the industrial era. (author)

1993-01-01

54

PowerClean fossil fuel RTD thematic network  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PowerClean is an RTD Thematic Network established under the European Union Fifth Framework Energy R&D Programme. Its objectives are: to encourage collaboration, co-operation, and exchange between EC supported research projects and researchers; to help maintain the technical and industrial content of future European energy-related research and to contribute to identifying future research priorities for clean power generation; to help communication between national and EC activities; to encourage the formation of new RTD partnerships between stakeholders in the power sector including manufacturers, suppliers, users and researchers; to improve dissemination of the results of EU Energy R&D programmes; to support innovation in the European power generation and equipment manufacturing sector In view of the importance of fossil fuels for the supply of secure and sustainable energy to the enlarged European Union, the second objective takes on a heightened importance, and PowerClean will play its part in trying to ensure that fossil fuels are included in the Seventh R&D Framework programme. Membership is open to companies, institutions and individuals throughout Europe.

J.T.McMullan; A. Minchener; K. Hein; Z. Zsigraiova; I. Romey; S. Pasini; L. Jacquet; S. Jansson [University of Ulster, Coleraine (United Kingdom). Energy Research Group (NICERT)

2003-07-01

55

Biotechnology in the fossil fuel sector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microorganisms in the environment, and their role in enhancing recovery of useful products from petroleum sources, or conversely to create production problems by inducing corrosion, were discussed. In another useful applications bacteria were shown to play an important role in the clean-up of fuels and petroleum products spilled into the environment. The ability to genetically engineer specific changes into useful isolates which will enhance the utility of industrially useful strains, was reviewed. The basic biochemical and physiological characteristics of microbes and their use as biocatalysts facilitating changes in hydrocarbons were described. Among their less desirable characteristics, microorganisms have been associated with problems such as corrosion of equipment used in the petroleum industry. Some applications of biotechnology have attempted to control reservoir and pipeline production of hydrogen sulfide by the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) through the introduction of biocides into reservoirs or pipelines. Biocides have the effect of inhibiting the growth of SRBs.48 refs.

Westlake, D.W.S. [Westec Microbes Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada)

1996-05-01

56

Fossil Fuels May Decrease Earth's Natural Capacity to Store Carbon  

Science.gov (United States)

... Fossil Fuels May Decrease Earth's Natural Capacity to Store Carbon The result could be an even ... may actually decrease the Earth's natural capacity to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere ...

57

Fossil fuel sustainability index: An application of resource management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief review on use of fossil fuel resources and sustainability is given in this paper. A sustainability index for fossil fuels is developed, which aims to determine the most efficient management of fossil fuel resources for the energy system. The study is conducted for 62 countries, in the presence of independence, lifetime and environmental constraints. The effect of these indicators are then integrated into a single index for oil, natural gas, and coal. Two approaches have been taken. The first one employs equally weighing of each index, where the second one weighs the indices by using principle component analysis. It is concluded that Fossil Fuel Sustainability Index (FFSI) values indicate that countries supporting oil as the one and only major player are condemned to suffer due to incompetent energy policies.

Ediger, Volkan S. [Cumhurbaskanligi, Cankaya, 06689 Ankara (Turkey); Hosgoer, Enes [Department of Geological Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Suermeli, A. Nesen [Department of Architecture, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: nesensurmeli@gmail.com; Tatlidil, Hueseyin [Department of Statistics, Hacettepe University, 06530 Ankara (Turkey)

2007-05-15

58

Fossil fuel sustainability index: an application of resource management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief review on use of fossil fuel resources and sustainability is given in this paper. A sustainability index for fossil fuels is developed, which aims to determine the most efficient management of fossil fuel resources for the energy system. The study is conducted for 62 countries, in the presence of independence, lifetime and environmental constraints. The effect of these indicators are then integrated into a single index for oil, natural gas, and coal. Two approaches have been taken. The first employs equally weighing of each index, and the second weighs the indices by using principle component analysis. It is concluded that Fossil Fuel Sustainability Index (FFSI) values indicate that countries supporting oil as the one and only major player are condemned to suffer due to incompetent energy policies. 54 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Volkan S. Ediger; Enes Hosgor; A. Nesen Surmeli; Huseyin Tatlidil

2007-05-15

59

Fossil fuel sustainability index: An application of resource management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief review on use of fossil fuel resources and sustainability is given in this paper. A sustainability index for fossil fuels is developed, which aims to determine the most efficient management of fossil fuel resources for the energy system. The study is conducted for 62 countries, in the presence of independence, lifetime and environmental constraints. The effect of these indicators are then integrated into a single index for oil, natural gas, and coal. Two approaches have been taken. The first one employs equally weighing of each index, where the second one weighs the indices by using principle component analysis. It is concluded that Fossil Fuel Sustainability Index (FFSI) values indicate that countries supporting oil as the one and only major player are condemned to suffer due to incompetent energy policies.

2007-01-01

60

Fossil Fuel Emission Verification Modeling at LLNL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have an established project at LLNL to develop the tools needed to constrain fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions using measurements of the carbon-14 isotope in atmospheric samples. In Figure 1 we show the fossil fuel plumes from Los Angeles and San Francisco for two different weather patterns. Obviously, a measurement made at any given location is going to depend on the weather leading up to the measurement. Thus, in order to determine the GHG emissions from some region using in situ measurements of those GHGs, we use state-of-the-art global and regional atmospheric chemistry-transport codes to simulate the plumes: the LLNL-IMPACT model (Rotman et al., 2004) and the WRFCHEM community code (http://www.wrf-model.org/index.php). Both codes can use observed (aka assimilated) meteorology in order to recreate the actual transport that occurred. The measured concentration of each tracer at a particular spatio-temporal location is a linear combination of the plumes from each region at that location (for non-reactive species). The challenge is to calculate the emission strengths for each region that fit the observed concentrations. In general this is difficult because there are errors in the measurements and modeling of the plumes. We solve this inversion problem using the strategy illustrated in Figure 2. The Bayesian Inference step combines the a priori estimates of the emissions, and their uncertainty, for each region with the results of the observations, and their uncertainty, and an ensemble of model predicted plumes for each region, and their uncertainty. The result is the mathematical best estimate of the emissions and their errors. In the case of non-linearities, or if we are using a statistical sampling technique such as a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique, then the process is iterated until it converges (ie reaches stationarity). For the Bayesian inference we can use both a direct inversion capability, which is fast but requires assumptions of linearity and Gaussianity of errors, or one of several statistical sampling techniques, which are computationally slower but do not require either linearity or Gaussianity (Chow, et al., 2008; Delle Monache, et al., 2008). The emission regions we are using are based on the air-basins defined by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), see Figure 3. The only difference is that we have joined some of the smaller air basins together. The results of a test using 4 days of simulated observations using our ensemble retrieval system are shown in Figure 3 (right). The main source of the variation between the different model configurations arises from the uncertainty in the atmospheric boundary layer parameterization in the WRF model. We are currently developing a capability to constrain the boundary layer height in our carbon-14 work either by weighting the ensemble member results by the accuracy of their boundary layer height (using commercial aircraft observations), or as part of the retrieval process using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) capability.

Cameron-Smith, P; Kosovic, B; Guilderson, T; Monache, L D; Bergmann, D

2009-08-06

 
 
 
 
61

Fossil fuels. Commercializing clean coal technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal, an abundant domestic energy source, provides 25 percent of the nation's energy needs, but its use contributes to various types of pollution, including acid rain. The Department of Energy (DOE) has a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program whose goal is to expand the use of coal in an environmentally safe manner by contributing to the cost of projects demonstrating the commercial applications of emerging clean coal technologies. Concerned about the implementation of the CCT program, the Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy and Power, House Committee on Energy and Commerce, requested GAO to report on (1) DOE's process of negotiating cooperative agreements with project sponsors, (2) changes DOE has made to the program, (3) the status of funded projects, and (4) the interrelationship between acid rain control proposals and the potential commercialization of clean coal technologies. Under the CCT program, DOE funds up to 50 percent of the cost of financing projects that demonstrate commercial applications of emerging clean coal technologies. DOE has conducted two solicitations for demonstration project proposals and is planning a third solicitation by May 1989. The Congress has appropriated $400 million for the first solicitation, or round one of the program, $575 million for round two, and $575 million for round three, for a total of $1.55 billion. For the round-one solicitation, DOE received 51 proposals from project sponsors. As of December 31, 1988, DOE had funded nine projects and was in the process of negotiating cooperative financial assistance agreements with sponsors of four projects. In September 1988, DOE selected 16 round-two projects from 55 proposals submitted and began the process of negotiating cooperative agreements with the project sponsors. The Congress has debated the need to reduce acid rain-causing emissions associated with fossil fuel combustion. The 100th Congress considered but did not enact about 20 acid rain control bills. On February 9, 1989, President Bush told the Congress that he plans to propose legislation for a new, more effective Clean Air Act, which will include a plan to reduce, by a specific date, the emissions that cause acid rain. DOE experienced difficulties in negotiating cooperative agreements with round-one project sponsors, which delayed completing agreements for five projects and resulted in the termination of negotiations for three projects. One of the main problems was that project sponsors had difficulty in completing financial and other business arrangements to fund their share of project costs. Negotiations were also delayed because of (1) sponsors' reluctance to agree to repay the federal share of project costs should the technology become commercialized and (2) sponsors' and other project participants' reluctance to release proprietary data to DOE. Further, DOE headquarters review and approval process to ensure negotiation consistency added time to the agreement formalization process. Although DOE made changes for round two of the program, federal repayment requirements and proprietary data rights could continue to cause delays in completing agreements with project sponsors. Seven of the nine funded round-one projects are not progressing as planned because of equipment failure, delays in obtaining equipment, project financing problems, and delays in obtaining permits. DOE said it is too early to tell whether the slippage will affect the timing of the commercial availability of the clean coal technologies. The CCT program can play an important role in reducing emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants. The new administration has indicated its commitment to full funding of the program. Enactment of legislation that prescribes stringent deadlines and/or reduced levels of emissions to control acid rain could affect the program's potential effectiveness by diverting investment from emerging clean coal technologies into available conventional technologies. On the other hand, enactment of legislation that allows for development of emerging technologies while also requiring some

1989-01-01

62

Methane from fuel combustion and industrial processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview is given of current estimates of global methane emissions from fuel combustion, including non-commercial fuels, and industrial non-combustion sources (so-called industrial processes). The largest contributions appear to be from the combustion of fuelwood and crop residues, with also large uncertainty ranges. On a global basis, road transport and residential coal combustion are relatively minor sources, when compared to fuelwood and crop residues. Of the other sources stationary combustion, other transport and industrial processes, in particular coal combustion and iron and steel manufacturing are of some importance. Based on detailed emission factors for CH4 by fuel type or industrial process and associated activity levels a bottom-up estimate of global source strengths has been prepared and compared with some other recent estimates. Fossil fuel production and transmission, landfills and other waste treatment processes are not considered here. 27 refs., 7 tabs

1993-01-01

63

World fossil fuel subsidies and global carbon emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper reviews existing fossil fuel pricing regimes throughout the world and estimates the level of world fossil fuel subsidies. It then develops a simple framework for estimating the impact of subsidy removal on global carbon emissions. A first estimate of carbon emission reductions is based on the assumption that world prices of fossil fuels do not change in response to the demand reduction in subsidizing countries that results from the removal of subsidies. Subsequently, world price effects and fossil fuel consumption in non-subsidizing countries are estimated using a simple model of global fossil fuel markets. Welfare gains resulting from fossil fuel subsidy removal are estimated, first, on the assumption that world prices are unchanged for both subsidizing and non-subsidizing countries and, second, on the assumption that such prices do change. Finally, estimates are made of the level of OECD carbon taxes that would be required to achieve world emission reductions equal to those resulting from the removal of subsidies. 29 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

Larsen, B.; Shah, A. (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States). Public Economics Division)

1992-10-01

64

Criteria for solid recovered fuels as a substitute for fossil fuels--a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The waste treatment, particularly the thermal treatment of waste has changed fundamentally in the last 20 years, i.e. from facilities solely dedicated to the thermal treatment of waste to facilities, which in addition to that ensure the safe plant operation and fulfill very ambitious criteria regarding emission reduction, resource recovery and energy efficiency as well. Therefore this contributes to the economic use of raw materials and due to the energy recovered from waste also to the energy provision. The development described had the consequence that waste and solid recovered fuels (SRF) has to be evaluated based on fuel criteria as well. Fossil fuels - coal, crude oil, natural gas etc. have been extensively investigated due to their application in plants for energy conversion and also due to their use in the primary industry. Thereby depending on the respective processes, criteria on fuel technical properties can be derived. The methods for engineering analysis of regular fuels (fossil fuels) can be transferred only partially to SRF. For this reason methods are being developed or adapted to current analytical methods for the characterization of SRF. In this paper the possibilities of the energetic utilization of SRF and the characterization of SRF before and during the energetic utilization will be discussed.

Beckmann M; Pohl M; Bernhardt D; Gebauer K

2012-04-01

65

Alternative fuels in cement industry; Alternativa braenslen i cementindustrin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this project the cement industry`s possibilities to replace half of the fossil fuels with waste derived fuels are investigated. Bench-scale experiments, pilot plant tests and full scale tests have been done with used tires and plastics wastes

Nyman, K.E.; Ek, R. [Finnsementti Oy, Parainen (Finland); Maekelae, K. [Finreci Oy (Finland)

1997-10-01

66

Total energy analysis of nuclear and fossil fueled power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall thermal efficiencies of electrical power generation were determined for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder, High Temperature Gas Cooled, Boiling Water, and Pressurized Water Reactors and for coal-, oil-, and gas-fired systems. All important energy consuming steps from mining through processing, transporting, and reprocessing the fuels were included in the energy balance along with electrical transmission and thermal losses and energy expenditures for pollution abatement. The results of these studies show that the overall fuel cycle efficiency of the light water nuclear fueled reactors is less than the efficiency of modern fossil fuel cycles. However, the nuclear fuel cycle based on the fast breeder reactors should produce power more efficiently than the most modern supercritical fossil fuel cycles. The high temperature gas cooled reactor has a cycle efficiency comparable to the supercritical coal fuel cycle.

1971-01-01

67

The European carbon balance. Part 1: fossil fuel emissions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We analyzed the magnitude, the trends and the uncertainties of fossil-fuel CO? emissions in the European Union 25 member states (hereafter EU-25), based on emission inventories from energy-use statistics. The stability of emissions during the past decade at EU-25 scale masks decreasing trends in some regions, offset by increasing trends elsewhere. In the recent 4 years, the new Eastern EU-25 member states have experienced an increase in emissions, reversing after a decade-long decreasing trend. Mediterranean and Nordic countries have also experienced a strong acceleration in emissions. In Germany, France and United Kingdom, the stability of emissions is due to the decrease in the industry sector, offset by an increase in the transportation sector. When four different inventories models are compared, we show that the between-models uncertainty is as large as 19% of the mean for EU-25, and even bigger for individual countries. Accurate accounting for fossil CO? emissions depends on a clear understanding of system boundaries, i.e. emitting activities included in the accounting. We found that the largest source of errors between inventories is the use of distinct systems boundaries (e.g. counting or not bunker fuels, cement manufacturing, nonenergy products). Once these inconsistencies are corrected, the between-models uncertainty can be reduced down to 7% at EU-25 scale. The uncertainty of emissions at smaller spatial scales than the country scale was analyzed by comparing two emission maps based upon distinct economic and demographic activities. A number of spatial and temporal biases have been found among the two maps, indicating a significant increase in uncertainties when increasing the resolution at scales finer than [almost equal to]200 km. At 100 km resolution, for example, the uncertainty of regional emissions is estimated to be 60 g C m?² yr?¹, up to 50% of the mean. The uncertainty on regional fossil-fuel CO? fluxes to the atmosphere could be reduced by making accurate ¹?C measurements in atmospheric CO?, and by combining them with transport models.

CIAIS P; PARIS JD; MARLAND G; PEYLIN P; PIAO SL; LEVIN I; PREGGER T; SCHOLZ Y; FRIEDRICH R; RIVIER L; HOUWELLING S; SCHULZE ED

2010-05-01

68

Fossil fuel decarbonization technology for mitigating global warming.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been understood that production of hydrogen from fossil and carbonaceous fuels with reduced CO(sub 2) emission to the atmosphere is key to the production of hydrogen-rich fuels for mitigating the CO(sub 2) greenhouse gas climate change problem. The...

M. Steinberg

1998-01-01

69

Hydrogen: Its comparison with fossil fuels and its potential as a universal fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fuels most often considered for the post-petroleum and natural-gas era are hydrogen (both gas and liquid forms), coal, and coal-derived synthetic fossil fuels. These fuels can be compared in terms of production cost, external cost, and end-use efficiency. The results show that hydrogen is a much more cost effective energy carrier than coal or synthetic fossil fuels, as well as being the most environmentally compatible fuel. 21 refs., 4 figs., 12 tabs.

Veziroglu, T.N. (Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)); Barbir, F. (Energy Partners, Inc., West Palm Beach, FL (United States))

1993-01-01

70

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1982  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights of research activities at Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for the quarter ending March 1982 are summarized. Major research areas are: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (resource assessment and enhanced production); processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); utilization; and product integration and technology transfer. Special reports include: EOR data base - major new industry tool; properties of crude oils available via telephone hookup; alternative fuels data bank stresses transportation. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1982-07-01

71

Application of genetic algorithm (GA) technique on demand estimation of fossil fuels in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective is to investigate Turkey's fossil fuels demand, projection and supplies by using the structure of the Turkish industry and economic conditions. This study develops scenarios to analyze fossil fuels consumption and makes future projections based on a genetic algorithm (GA). The models developed in the nonlinear form are applied to the coal, oil and natural gas demand of Turkey. Genetic algorithm demand estimation models (GA-DEM) are developed to estimate the future coal, oil and natural gas demand values based on population, gross national product, import and export figures. It may be concluded that the proposed models can be used as alternative solutions and estimation techniques for the future fossil fuel utilization values of any country. In the study, coal, oil and natural gas consumption of Turkey are projected. Turkish fossil fuel demand is increased dramatically. Especially, coal, oil and natural gas consumption values are estimated to increase almost 2.82, 1.73 and 4.83 times between 2000 and 2020. In the figures GA-DEM results are compared with World Energy Council Turkish National Committee (WECTNC) projections. The observed results indicate that WECTNC overestimates the fossil fuel consumptions. (author)

Canyurt, Olcay Ersel; Ozturk, Harun Kemal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Pamukkale University, 20070 Kinikli, Denizli (Turkey)

2008-07-15

72

Application of genetic algorithm (GA) technique on demand estimation of fossil fuels in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective is to investigate Turkey's fossil fuels demand, projection and supplies by using the structure of the Turkish industry and economic conditions. This study develops scenarios to analyze fossil fuels consumption and makes future projections based on a genetic algorithm (GA). The models developed in the nonlinear form are applied to the coal, oil and natural gas demand of Turkey. Genetic algorithm demand estimation models (GA-DEM) are developed to estimate the future coal, oil and natural gas demand values based on population, gross national product, import and export figures. It may be concluded that the proposed models can be used as alternative solutions and estimation techniques for the future fossil fuel utilization values of any country. In the study, coal, oil and natural gas consumption of Turkey are projected. Turkish fossil fuel demand is increased dramatically. Especially, coal, oil and natural gas consumption values are estimated to increase almost 2.82, 1.73 and 4.83 times between 2000 and 2020. In the figures GA-DEM results are compared with World Energy Council Turkish National Committee (WECTNC) projections. The observed results indicate that WECTNC overestimates the fossil fuel consumptions.

2008-01-01

73

Can Geothermal Power Replace Fossil Fuels?  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of geothermal energy in any capacity is a positive step toward a sustainable energy future. The resource is enormous and has the capacity to supply most future demand for electrical power if technology can meet some substantial challenges. Electrical power from geothermal energy has several compelling characteristics: a small footprint, low emissions, continuous availability, and sustainability. However, a common perception of geothermal energy is that it is available only in a few isolated localities and thus cannot contribute significantly to future electrical power needs. This perception neglects the stored thermal energy available everywhere in the upper 10 km of Earth’s crust. We are investigating the potential for power production in oil-producing sedimentary basins where subsurface temperatures are sufficient for intermediate geothermal resources (90 °C -150 °C) at depths greater than 3 km. Existing estimates of geothermal energy stored at depth in sedimentary formations in the U.S. have been based only on a few aquifers and have not included the greater volume of fluids in oil-bearing formations. We reevaluated the accessible geothermal resource base for the north central US and found that including geothermal fluids in oil-producing formations increased the resource estimate by a factor of eight. Preliminary analysis of other basins indicates that the current estimate of thermal energy in the U.S. (100,000 EJ) may be of the order of 400,000 EJ. This is particularly significant due to recent technological advances leading to commercialization of scalable organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engines. Until recently, ORC systems were available only on an at large scale, i.e., 10s of MW, and had efficiencies of about 10 percent. Currently there are at least five manufacturers making scalable ORC systems in the 50 kW to 1 MW range, and at least one system has an efficiency of about 17 percent and is expected to attain an efficiency in the low 20s as it is scaled up to produce power in the MW range. Values needed for these systems are temperatures of 92+ °C and flow rates of 140-1000 gpm. In a detailed analysis of the North Dakota part of the Williston Basin, we used heat flow, bottom-hole temperatures, and measured temperature gradients to calculate the energy contained within specific formations having temperatures in the range of 100 °C to 150 °C. We find that at a 2% recovery factor, approximately 4500 MW/hr can be recovered at depths of 3-4 km. North Dakota currently produces approximately 3100 MW/hr from non-renewable sources such as coal and petroleum. We conclude that the geothermal resource in the Williston Basin could completely replace fossil fuels as an electrical power supply for North Dakota.

Klenner, R.; Gosnold, W. D.

2009-12-01

74

Determination of fossil carbon content in Swedish waste fuel by four different methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to determine the content of fossil carbon in waste combusted in Sweden by using four different methods at seven geographically spread combustion plants. In total, the measurement campaign included 42 solid samples, 21 flue gas samples, 3 sorting analyses and 2 investigations using the balance method. The fossil carbon content in the solid samples and in the flue gas samples was determined using (14)C-analysis. From the analyses it was concluded that about a third of the carbon in mixed Swedish waste (municipal solid waste and industrial waste collected at Swedish industry sites) is fossil. The two other methods (the balance method and calculations from sorting analyses), based on assumptions and calculations, gave similar results in the plants in which they were used. Furthermore, the results indicate that the difference between samples containing as much as 80% industrial waste and samples consisting of solely municipal solid waste was not as large as expected. Besides investigating the fossil content of the waste, the project was also established to investigate the usability of various methods. However, it is difficult to directly compare the different methods used in this project because besides the estimation of emitted fossil carbon the methods provide other information, which is valuable to the plant owner. Therefore, the choice of method can also be controlled by factors other than direct determination of the fossil fuel emissions when considering implementation in the combustion plants.

Jones FC; Blomqvist EW; Bisaillon M; Lindberg DK; Hupa M

2013-06-01

75

Determination of fossil carbon content in Swedish waste fuel by four different methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to determine the content of fossil carbon in waste combusted in Sweden by using four different methods at seven geographically spread combustion plants. In total, the measurement campaign included 42 solid samples, 21 flue gas samples, 3 sorting analyses and 2 investigations using the balance method. The fossil carbon content in the solid samples and in the flue gas samples was determined using (14)C-analysis. From the analyses it was concluded that about a third of the carbon in mixed Swedish waste (municipal solid waste and industrial waste collected at Swedish industry sites) is fossil. The two other methods (the balance method and calculations from sorting analyses), based on assumptions and calculations, gave similar results in the plants in which they were used. Furthermore, the results indicate that the difference between samples containing as much as 80% industrial waste and samples consisting of solely municipal solid waste was not as large as expected. Besides investigating the fossil content of the waste, the project was also established to investigate the usability of various methods. However, it is difficult to directly compare the different methods used in this project because besides the estimation of emitted fossil carbon the methods provide other information, which is valuable to the plant owner. Therefore, the choice of method can also be controlled by factors other than direct determination of the fossil fuel emissions when considering implementation in the combustion plants.

Jones FC; Blomqvist EW; Bisaillon M; Lindberg DK; Hupa M

2013-10-01

76

Simple models for the consumption rate of fossil fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy consumption models are useful in the analysis of many energy and resource problems. Fossil fuel consumption models are especially useful in forecasting future atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels. Simple models are frequently used to develop scenarios. In CO/sub 2/ analysis, two logistic type models have been used to construct scenarios of fossil fuel consumption. In this paper, economic theory is used to derive a new model. The previous logistic type models are shown to be special cases of the new model.

Reister, D.B.; Rotty, R.M.

1983-04-01

77

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. Membranes testing during this reporting period were greater than 1 mm thick and had the general perovskite composition AB{sub 1-x}B'{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where 0.05 {<=} x {<=} 0.3. These materials demonstrated hydrogen separation rates between 1 and 2 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, which represents roughly 20% of the target goal for membranes of this thickness. The sintered membranes were greater than 95% dense, but the phase purity decreased with increasing dopant concentration. The quantity of dopant incorporated into the perovskite phase was roughly constant, with excess dopant forming an additional phase. Composite materials with distinct ceramic and metallic phases, and thin film perovskites (100 {micro}m) also were successfully prepared, but have not yet been tested for hydrogen transport. Finally, porous platinum was identified as a excellent catalyst for evaluation of membrane materials, however, lower cost nickel catalyst systems are being developed.

Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Adam Calihman; Andy Girard; Pamela M. Van Calcar; Richard Mackay; Tom Barton; Sara Rolfe

2001-01-30

78

Alternative fuels for industrial gas turbines (AFTUR)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmentally friendly, gas turbine driven co-generation plants can be located close to energy consumption sites, which can produce their own fuel such as waste process gas or biomass derived fuels. Since gas turbines are available in a large power range, they are well suited for this application. Current gas turbine systems that are capable of burning such fuels are normally developed for a single specific fuel (such as natural gas or domestic fuel oil) and use conventional diffusion flame technology with relatively high levels of NO{sub x} and partially unburned species emissions. Recently, great progress has been made in the clean combustion of natural gas and other fossil fuels through the use of dry low emission technologies based on lean premixed combustion, particularly with respect of NO{sub x} emissions. The objective of the AFTUR project is to extend this capability to a wider range of potentially commercial fuel types, including those of lower calorific value produced by gasification of biomass (LHV < 25% natural gas in line with the European Union targets) and hydrogen enriched fuels. The paper reports preliminary progress in the selection and characterisation of potential, liquid and gas, alternative fuels for industrial gas turbines. The combustion and emission characteristics of the selected fuels will be assessed, in the later phases of the project, both in laboratory and industrial combustion chambers. (Author)

Goekalp, Iskender [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Lab. de Combustion et Systemes Reactifs, Orleans, 45 (France); Lebas, Etienne [Institut Francais de Petrole, Vernaison Cedex, 69 (France)

2004-08-01

79

New Optical Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accomplishments of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants and solid oxide fuel cells are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring.

John Coggin; Tom Flynn; Jonas Ivasauskas; Daniel Kominsky; Carrie Kozikowski; Russell May; Michael Miller; Tony Peng; Gary Pickrell; Raymond Rumpf; Kelly Stinson-Bagby; Dan Thorsen; Rena Wilson

2007-12-31

80

CARBON DIOXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUELS: ADAPTING TO UNCERTAINTY  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discusses the general effect and control of CO2. The world is likely to experience noticeable global warming by the beginning of the next century if high annual growth rates of fossil fuel energy use continue. Only with optimistic assumptions and low growth rates will C...

 
 
 
 
81

The Formation of Fossil Fuels - Earth: The Operators' Manual  

Science.gov (United States)

This video from Earth: The Operators' Manual describes how fossil fuels are made, and it compares how long it takes to create coal, oil and natural gas (millions of years), with how fast we're using them (hundreds of years). Narrated by Dr. Richard Alley.

Productions, Geoff H.; Manual, Earth: T.

82

Fossil-fuel carbon emission control in irrigated maize production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate optimal management strategies which reduce fossil-fuel carbon emissions, an idealized gross returns objective function was developed for the production of irrigated maize with the inclusion of a disincentive carbon-taxing term. The gross returns objective function is multivariant and optimized through a gradient search procedure. Carbon emissions emanating from maize production stem from the utilization of fossil-fuel energy on the farm as well as that utilized to manufacture many of the production inputs (i.e. fertilizers and pesticides). Particular emphasis was placed on determining fertilizer (nitrogen) and irrigation (furrow) management strategies which reduced fossil-fuel carbon emissions at a minimum reduction in gross returns. Total emissions and optimal maize yield were reduced slightly at high carbon-taxing rates, whereas gross returns decreased considerably. Decreases in optimal maize yield were a consequence of reducing applied water and nitrogen fertilizer, both of which are energy-intensive production inputs. The most effective means of reducing fossil-fuel carbon emissions associated with maize production at minimum reductions in gross returns is increasing the price of nitrogen fertilizer rather than levying a carbon tax. (Author)

Wind, B.D. [Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District, Loveland, CO (United States); Wallender, W.W. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Departments of Hydrologic Science and Biological and Agricultural Engineering

1997-08-01

83

Separation enhanced reactors for de-carbonisation of fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the form of overhead sheets insight is given into the title process, focusing on research and development at ECN with respect to membrane reactors and sorbent reactors (sorption enhanced reforming process or SERP) for the de-carbonisation of fossil fuels (conversion of natural gas and coal into hydrogen)

Jansen, D.; Alderliesten, P.T. [ECN Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)

2005-02-01

84

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, and Argonne National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Currently, this project is focusing on four basic categories of dense membranes: (i) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (ii) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (iii) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (iv) hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This report describes resent results for long-term hydrogen permeation and chemical stability measurements, new mixed conducting cermets, progress in cermet, thin film, and thin-walled tube fabrication, hydrogen absorption measurements for selected compositions, and membrane facilitated alkane to olefin conversion.

Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Stewart Schesnack; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. (Balu) Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

2003-04-30

85

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUELS PLANTS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, and Argonne National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Currently, this project is focusing on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites containing hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This report presents hydrogen permeation data during long term tests and tests at high pressure in addition to progress with cermet, ceramic/ceramic, and thin film membranes.

Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Stewart Schesnack; Scott Morrison; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

2003-07-31

86

Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides

1980-01-01

87

Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and NORAM are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Currently, this project is focusing on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites containing hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this final quarter of the no cost extension several planar membranes of a cermet composition referred to as EC101 containing a high permeability metal and a ceramic phase were prepared and permeability testing was performed.

Carl R. Evenson; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson

2006-04-30

88

Natural radioactivity of fossil fuels used in Austria and of their burnt wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The natural radioactivity of fossil fuels and of the wastes resulting from the burning of these fuels, which are used in Austria, were measured especially for the isotopes 40K, 137Cs, 214Bi, 214Pb, 226Ra, 208Tl, 212Pb, 228Ac and the concentrations of U, Th, K and Ra. The measured data are presented in form of tables, giving the values for industrial and domestic wastes of fuels like brown coal, coke, ashes, oil and black coal. (A.N.)

1982-01-01

89

Ethanol - No Fossils in this Fuel  

Science.gov (United States)

In this short module by General Motors middle school students are introduced to ethanol (E85), ethanol production, flex-fuel technologies, and ethanol emissions. Included in the module are a student activity sheet, experiment (students make ethanol), observation sheet, and vocabulary reference sheet.

Motors, General

90

CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN JAPAN: A MULTIVARIATE APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores whether Japanese economy can continue to grow without extensive dependence on fossil fuels. The paper conducts time series analysis using a multivariate model of fossil fuels, non-fossil energy, labor, stock and GDP to investigate the relationship between fossil fuel consumption and economic growth in Japan. The results of cointegration tests indicate long-run relationships among the variables. Using a vector error-correction model, the study reveals bidirectional causality between fossil fuels and GDP. The results also show that there is no causal relationship between non-fossil energy and GDP. The results of cointegration analysis, Granger causality tests, and variance decomposition analysis imply that non-fossil energy may not necessarily be able to play the role of fossil fuels. Japan cannot seem to realize both continuous economic growth and the departure from dependence on fossil fuels. Hence, growth-oriented macroeconomic policies should be re-examined.

Hazuki Ishida

2013-01-01

91

Hydrogen as a renewable and sustainable solution in reducing global fossil fuel consumption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for reducing global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions are derived depending primarily upon the exergetic utilization ratios of fossil fuels and hydrogen: the fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency, fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator. These relations incorporate predicted exergetic utilization ratios for hydrogen energy from non-fossil fuel resources such as water, etc., and are used to investigate whether or not exergetic utilization of hydrogen can significantly reduce the fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient (ranging from 1 to +?) indicating the fossil fuel consumption and contribute to increase the hydrogen based global exergetic indicator (ranging from 0 to 1) indicating the hydrogen utilization at a certain ratio of fossil fuel utilization. In order to verify all these exergetic expressions, the actual fossil fuel consumption and production data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. For the verification of these parameters, the variations of fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator as the functions of fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency and exergetic utilization of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels are analyzed and discussed in detail. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases, the fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient will decrease and the hydrogen based global exergetic indicator will increase. (author)

2008-01-01

92

The effect of fossil fuel prices to electric generation mix  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The rapid economic growth in the newly rising developing countries like China and India provoked the competition for resource security worldwide. These resources include crude oil, coal, natural gas, uranium with other mineral materials. Crude oil was especially in the center of this competition. In the meantime, the cost for electric generation in Korea depends heavily on the prices of fuels such as coal and LNG since almost fuels for generation have to be imported from abroad. Accordingly the rising of fossil fuel prices lead directly to the increase of the average generation cost in Korea. This also requires the change of the rational electric system mix which is mainly determined by the lifetime costs of each generation technology. The objective of this study is to analyze the direction or range of change in electric mix influenced by the changes of fossil fuel prices. In the following sections, firstly we will summarize the forecasts for fossil fuel prices from overseas expert agencies, followed by the choice of LDC(Load Duration Curve) to be used and the calculation of generation costs by each technology

2009-01-01

93

Fossil fuel combined cycle power generation method  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for converting fuel energy to electricity includes the steps of converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one mixed gas stream of lower average molecular weight including at least a first lower molecular weight gas and a second gas, the first and second gases being different gases, wherein the first lower molecular weight gas comprises H.sub.2 and the second gas comprises CO. The mixed gas is supplied to at least one turbine to produce electricity. The mixed gas stream is divided after the turbine into a first gas stream mainly comprising H.sub.2 and a second gas stream mainly comprising CO. The first and second gas streams are then electrochemically oxidized in separate fuel cells to produce electricity. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

Labinov, Solomon D [Knoxville, TN; Armstrong, Timothy R [Clinton, TN; Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN

2008-10-21

94

Dynamic control of fossil fuel injections in EAF through continuous fumes monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The control of oxygen and fossil fuels injections, taking into account real furnace conditions at each step of the melt is essential for EAF improvement. Based on near IR laser-diode spectroscopy, a system enabling dynamic and continuous CO and CO{sub 2} monitoring of EAF fumes during the whole melt for long-term operations has been developed. Several industrial trials are reported, the technology is described and the results are discussed.

F. Januard; S. Bockel-Macal; J.-C. Vuillermoz; J. Laurent; C. Lebrun

2006-06-15

95

Fossil fuel biomarkers in plant waxes as pollution parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hopane and sterane derivatives typical of highly mature sedimentary organic matter, e.g. petroleum, have been identified in several plant species growing near Nancy, France. Analyses of plant waxes by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry over a restricted mass interval (m/z 185-195) allows definition of pollution parameters based on the relative concentration of fossil hopanes versus modern plant n-alkanes. Indeed, such parameters are higher for Pinus nigra growing along a high traffic highway than for Pinus nigra growing in a less polluted suburb area. Molecular pollution parameters based on fossil molecules are thus promising tools for measuring the extent of fossil fuel input into plant and food

Bryselbout, Carine; Henner, Pascale; Lichtfouse, Eric [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, INRA/ENSAIA-INPL, BP 172, 54505 Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France)

1998-10-27

96

Fossil fuel decarbonization technology for mitigating global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has been understood that production of hydrogen from fossil and carbonaceous fuels with reduced CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere is key to the production of hydrogen-rich fuels for mitigating the CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas climate change problem. The conventional methods of hydrogen production from fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas and biomass) include steam reforming and water gas shift mainly of natural gas (SRM). In order to suppress CO{sub 2} emission from the steam reforming process, CO{sub 2} must be concentrated and sequestered either in or under the ocean or in or underground (in aquifers, or depleted oil or gas wells). Up to about 40% of the energy is lost in this process. An alternative process is the pyrolysis or the thermal decomposition of methane, natural gas (TDM) to hydrogen and carbon. The carbon can either be sequestered or sold on the market as a materials commodity or used as a fuel at a later date under less severe CO{sub 2} restraints. The energy sequestered in the carbon amounts to about 42% of the energy in the natural gas resource which is stored and not destroyed. A comparison is made between the well developed conventional SRB and the less developed TDM process including technological status, efficiency, carbon management and cost. The TDM process appears to have advantages over the well developed SRM process. It is much easier to sequester carbon as a stable solid than CO{sub 2} as a reactive gas or low temperature liquid. It is also possible to reduce cost by marketing the carbon as a filler or construction material. The potential benefits of the TDM process justifies its further efficient development. The hydrogen can be used as a transportation fuel or converted to methanol by reaction with CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel fired power plant stack gases, thus allowing reuse of the carbon in conventional IC automobile engines or in advanced fuel cell vehicles.

Steinberg, M.

1998-07-01

97

Fossil fuel decarbonization technology for mitigating global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has been understood that production of hydrogen from fossil and carbonaceous fuels with reduced CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere is key to the production of hydrogen-rich fuels for mitigating the CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas climate change problem. The conventional methods of hydrogen production from fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas and biomass) include steam reforming process, mainly of natural gas (SRM). In order to suppress CO{sub 2} emission from the steam reforming process, CO{sub 2} must be concentrated and sequestered either in or under the ocean or in or underground (in aquifers, or depleted oil or gas wells). Up to about 40% of the energy is lost in this process. An alternative process is the pyrolysis or the thermal decomposition of methane, natural gas (TDM) to hydrogen and carbon. The carbon can either be sequestered or sold on the market as a materials commodity or used as a fuel at a later date under less severe CO{sub 2} restraints. The energy sequestered in the carbon amounts to about 42% of the energy in the natural gas resource which is stored and not destroyed. A comparison is made between the well developed conventional SRM and the less developed TDM process including technological status, efficiency, carbon management and cost. The TDM process appears to have advantages over the well developed SRM process. It is much easier to sequester carbon as a stable solid than CO{sub 2} as a reactive gas or low temperature liquid. It is also possible to reduce cost by marketing the carbon as a filler or construction material. The potential benefits of the TDM process justifies its further efficient development. The hydrogen can be used as a transportation fuel or converted to methanol by reaction with CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel fired power plant stack gases, thus allowing reuse of the carbon in conventional IC automobile engines or in advanced fuel cell vehicles.

Steinberg, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1998-04-01

98

Fossil fuel decarbonization technology for mitigating global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has been understood that production of hydrogen from fossil and carbonaceous fuels with reduced CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere is key to the production of hydrogen-rich fuels for mitigating the CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas climate change problem. The conventional methods of hydrogen production from fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas and biomass) include steam reforming and water gas shift mainly of natural gas (SRM). In order to suppress CO{sub 2} emission from the steam reforming process, CO{sub 2} must be concentrated and sequestered either in or under the ocean or underground (in aquifers, or depleted oil or gas wells). Up to about 40% of the energy is lost in this process. An alternative process is the pyrolysis or the thermal decomposition of methane, natural gas (TDM) to hydrogen and carbon. The carbon can either be sequestered or sold on the market as a materials commodity or used as a fuel at a later date under less severe CO{sub 2} restraints. The energy sequestered in the carbon amounts to about 42% of the energy in the natural gas resource which is stored and not destroyed. A comparison is made between the well developed conventional SRM and the less developed TDM process including technological status, efficiency, carbon management and cost. The TDM process appears to have advantages over the well developed SRM process. It is much easier to sequester carbon as a stable solid than CO{sub 2} as a reactive gas or low temperature liquid. It is also possible to reduce cost by marketing the carbon as a filler or construction material. The potential benefits of the TDM process justifies its further efficient development. The hydrogen can be used as a transportation fuel or converted to methanol by reaction with CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel fired power plant stack gases, thus allowing reuse of the carbon in conventional IC automobile engines or in advanced fuel cell vehicles.

Steinberg, M.

1998-09-01

99

GC/MI/FTIR applications: Analysis of fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Capillary-column gas chromatography interfaced with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (GC/IR) is a technique of rapidly growing importance. Gas chromatography/matrix-isolation/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (GC/MI/FTIR) freezes the GC effluent in an argon matrix. This allows for the FTIR analysis of each component of a complex mixture to be performed with the high sensitivity and specificity of matrix-FTIR detection. The GC/MI/ FTIR technique has sensitivity 100 times greater than the light-pipe GC/IR method and the specificity to distinguish between isomers that are difficult to distinguish by GC/MS. In this paper, application of GC/MI/FTIR to the analysis of fossil fuels is described. Infrared spectra of matrix-isolated fossil fuel components is presented, and the utility of GC/MI/FTIR is discussed.

Schneider, J.F.; Boparai, A.S.; Raphaelian, L.A.

1986-09-01

100

US fossil fuel technologies for Thailand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy has been encouraging other countries to consider US coal and coal technologies in meeting their future energy needs. Thailand is one of three developing countries determined to be a potentially favorable market for such exports. This report briefly profiles Thailand with respect to population, employment, energy infrastructure and policies, as well as financial, economic, and trade issues. Thailand is shifting from a traditionally agrarian economy to one based more strongly on light manufacturing and will therefore require increased energy resources that are reliable and flexible in responding to anticipated growth. Thailand has extensive lignite deposits that could fuel a variety of coal-based technologies. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors could utilize this resource and still permit Thailand to meet emission standards for sulfur dioxide. This option also lends itself to small-scale applications suitable for private-sector power generation. Slagging combustors and coal-water mixtures also appear to have potential. Both new construction and refurbishment of existing plants are planned. 18 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

Buehring, W.A.; Dials, G.E.; Gillette, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.; Traczyk, P.A.

1990-10-01

 
 
 
 
101

Approaches and potentials for reducing greenhouse effects from fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of energy consumption in 1989, an inventory was made for the original Federal Republic of Germany ('Western Germany') of the carbon dioxide and methane emissions involved in the greenhouse effect for the fossil fuels crude oil, natural gas, coal and lignite. After assessing the various parameters, the report indicates possible approaches to and technical potentials for reducing greenhouse emissions due to use of energy. (orig.) With 70 figs., 144 tabs., 181 refs.

1992-01-01

102

The long-term legacy of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fossil fuels will have large impacts on ocean chemistry and climate during the period while they are being burnt (and carbon dioxide emitted) in large amounts. It is frequently assumed that these impacts will fade away soon thereafter. Recent model results, by contrast, suggest that significant impacts will persist for hundreds of thousands of years after emissions cease. We present a new analysis that supports these model findings by elucidating the cause of this 'fossil fuel hangover' phenomenon. We explain why the carbonate compensation feedback is atypical, compared to other feedbacks, in the sense that convergence is back towards a new steady-state that is distinct from the starting state. We also calculate in greater detail the predicted implications for the future ocean and atmosphere. The post-fossil fuel long-term equilibrium state could differ from the pre-anthropogenic state by as much as 50% for total dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity and 100% for atmospheric pCO2, depending on the total amount of future emissions.

2007-01-01

103

The long-term legacy of fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fossil fuels will have large impacts on ocean chemistry and climate during the period while they are being burnt (and carbon dioxide emitted) in large amounts. It is frequently assumed that these impacts will fade away soon thereafter. Recent model results, by contrast, suggest that significant impacts will persist for hundreds of thousands of years after emissions cease. We present a new analysis that supports these model findings by elucidating the cause of this 'fossil fuel hangover' phenomenon. We explain why the carbonate compensation feedback is atypical, compared to other feedbacks, in the sense that convergence is back towards a new steady-state that is distinct from the starting state. We also calculate in greater detail the predicted implications for the future ocean and atmosphere. The post-fossil fuel long-term equilibrium state could differ from the pre-anthropogenic state by as much as 50% for total dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity and 100% for atmospheric pCO{sub 2}, depending on the total amount of future emissions.

Tyrrell, Toby; Shepherd, John G.; Castle, Stephanie [National Oceanography Centre Southampton, Southampton Univ., European Way, Southampton (United Kingdom)]. e-mail: tt@noc.soton.ac.uk

2007-09-15

104

Carbon dioxide emissions from the use of fossil fuels in Asia: An overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Asian emissions of carbon dioxide from the use of fossil fuels now exceed those from North America or Europe. It is thus essential that the countries of Asia be full and active partners in any global agreement to limit the emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper presents estimated emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use in each of the countries and geographical entities of Asia. The two favored approaches for reducing future emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use are: (i) improving the efficiency of energy use; and (ii) making greater use of less carbon-intensive sources of energy. With respect to energy efficiency, the higher Energy/GNP ratio of developing countries when compared to industrialized countries is frequently cited as evidence of the inefficient use of energy in developing countries. However, this comparison is made using a GNP figure that is calculated using market exchange rates. In contrast, when GNP is based on purchasing power parity, the Energy/GNP ratios for developing countries are similar to the ratios for industrialized countries. Data for some of the larger developing countries of Asia are presented to illustrate this point. The potential for increasing the use of natural gas is also discussed and the proven reserves of natural gas in a number of countries are provided. 8 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

Siddiqi, T.A. [UN ESCAP, Bangkok (Thailand). Environment and Natural Resources Management Div.

1996-06-01

105

Carbon dioxide storage potential in coalbeds: A near-term consideration for the fossil energy industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of using gassy unminable coalbeds for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage while concurrently initiating and enhancing coalbed methane production may be a viable near-term system for industry consideration. Coal is the most abundant and cheapest fossil fuel resource, and it has played a vital role in the stability and growth of the US economy. With the burning of coal in power plants, the energy source is also one of the fuel causing large CO2 emissions. In the near future, coal may also have a role in solving environmental greenhouse gas concerns with increasing CO2 emissions throughout the world. Coal resources may be an acceptable and significant geological sink for storing CO2 emissions in amenable unminable coalbeds while at the same time producing natural gas from gassy coalbeds. Industry proprietary research has shown that the recovery of coalbed methane can be enhanced by the injection of CO2 via well bores into coal deposits. Gassy coals generally have shown a 2:1 coal-absorption selectivity for CO2 over methane which could allow for the potential of targeting unminable coals near fossil fueled power plants to be utilized for storing stack gas CO2. Preliminary technical and economic assessments of this concept appear to merit further research leading to pilot demonstrations in selected regions of the US.

Byrer, C.W.; Guthrie, H.D.

1998-07-01

106

Fossil fuel characterization using laser desorption mass spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High molecular weight compounds (>600 amu) in fossil fuel have been overlooked in the past principally because of inappropriate analytical techniques. Mass spectrometry characterization of these heavy components has mostly depended on pyrolysis to break up the larger molecules prior to analysis, especially by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry. High temperature gas chromatography has extended the range to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, but still chiefly relies on the easily volatilizable fraction. The material that is outside of the volatilizable fractions has received little attention. Laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI) are soft ionization techniques, which are particularly applicable to those molecules which resist intact ionization by traditional gas-phase methods. The application and limitations of these techniques to model compounds and fossil derived materials will be presented.

Hunt, J.E.; Winans, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-12-31

107

Preparation and Characterization of Bio Fuel from Industrial Waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Disposal of biomass becomes often an environmental issue. A novel method has been developed to convert biomass into solid bio-fuel. Experiments were carried out on preparation of solid fuel pellet from industrial biomass wastes. A maximum calorific value of 22,593KJ/kg has been obtained for the bio-fuel prepared in the present investigation and compared with the fossil fuel coal. The bio-fuel pellets were burnt and the emitted green house gases were critically analyzed.

M.N Abinayah Shree; K. Iyappan; C Srinivasakannan

2009-01-01

108

Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/01  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985 and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands are forecast as well as the impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration using a set of energy technology assumptions. (DMC)

1980-06-01

109

Fossil-fuel power plants and power generation: Economic analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bibliography contains citations concerning economic analyses and evaluations of utility and industrial fossil-fuel power generation. Coal-fired, oil-fired, and natural gas-fired electric power generating systems are discussed. Specific technologies, experiences, and locations are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.).

1993-01-01

110

Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/03  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985, 2000, and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands and impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration are forecast using a set of energy technology assumptions.

1980-06-01

111

Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/02  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985, 2000, and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands and impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration are forecast using a set of energy technology assumptions. (DMC)

1980-06-01

112

Fossil fuel decarbonization technology for mitigating global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has been understood that production of hydrogen from fossil and carbonaceous fuels with reduced CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere is key to the production of hydrogen-rich fuels for mitigating the CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas climate change problem. The conventional methods of hydrogen production from fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas and biomass) include steam reforming and water gas shift mainly of natural gas (SRM). In order to suppress CO{sub 2} emission from the steam reforming process, CO{sub 2} must be concentrated and sequestered either in or under the ocean or in or underground (in aquifers, or depleted oil or gas wells). Up to about 40% of the energy is lost in this process. An alternative process is the pyrolysis or the thermal decomposition of methane, natural gas (TDM) to hydrogen and carbon. The carbon can either be sequestered or sold on the market as a materials commodity or used as a fuel at a later date under less severe CO{sub 2} restraints. The energy sequestered in the carbon amounts to about 42% of the energy in the natural gas resource which is stored and not destroyed. A comparison is made between the well developed conventional SRM and the less developed TDM process including technological status, efficiency, carbon management and cost. The TDM process appears to have advantages over the well developed SRM process. It is much easier to sequester carbon as a stable solid than CO{sub 2} as a reactive gas or low temperature liquid. It is also possible to reduce cost by marketing the carbon as a filler or construction material. The potential benefits of the TDM process justifies its further efficient development. The hydrogen can be used as a transportation fuel or converted to methanol by reaction with CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel fired power plant stack gases, thus allowing reuse of the carbon in conventional IC automobile engines or in advanced fuel cell vehicles. (author)

Steinberg, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1999-08-01

113

1981 Industrial fuel conference  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A total of 6 papers were presented in three subject areas: air pollution from industrial boilers; decision making for industrial steam and power facilities; and practical solutions to power house problems. 4 papers have been abstracted separately.

1981-01-01

114

Water treatment for fossil fuel power generation - technology status report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This technology status report focuses on the use of water treatment technology in fossil fuel power plants. The use of polymeric ion exchange resins for deionization of water, the currently preferred use of ion exchange for economically treating water containing low dissolved salts, the use of low pressure high-flux membranes, membrane microfiltration, and reverse osmosis are discussed. Details are given of the benefits of the technologies, water use at power plants, the current status of water treatment technologies, and the potential for future developments, along with power plant market trends and potentials, worldwide developments, and UK capabilities in water treatment plant design and manufacturing.

2006-01-01

115

Fuel Efficiency in Truck Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports range of activities and offer information regarding activities performed at Paccar Inc. truck’s plant in order to reduce of fuel consumption in truck industry. There are six major areas investigated: Aerodynamics, Component Spec’ing, Advanced Technology, Route Management, Driver Behaviour, Proper Maintenance. New technologies to improve vehicle fuel efficiency are also reported.

?tefan Farkas

2010-01-01

116

CO2 Capture and Storage in Geological Formations. Zero emissions technologies for fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Climate change is a problem of global proportions. A number of anthropogenic gases are largely responsible for driving this process forward, the most significant contributor being carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by the burning of fossil fuels. The latter provide a large proportion (>85%) of the world's commercial energy needs and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. To ensure that substantial reductions in atmospheric CO2 levels can be made during the present century and beyond, technological solutions urgently require development and application in order to control the increasing amounts of CO2 being produced. The International Energy Agency (IEA) is playing a major role in addressing this problem. Recognising the potential of CO2 capture and storage technologies, the IEA's Working Party on Fossil Fuels (WPFF) launched its strategy for Zero Emissions Technologies (ZETs) in 2001. With this concept, almost all conventional pollutants produced by the burning of fossil fuels are eliminated and CO2 is captured and stored, thus precluding its emission into the atmosphere. The capture of CO2 from commercial and industrial operations, followed by its storage in geological formations, is viewed as an important strategy for achieving substantial reductions in emissions levels. Widespread deployment of CO2 capture and storage technologies will depend, however, on the widespread introduction of appropriate mandatory standards or mechanisms for pricing CO2 emissions.

Podkanski, J. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

2003-09-01

117

Evaluation of sustainability by a population living near fossil fuel resources in Northwestern Greece  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The emergence of sustainability as a goal in the management of fossil fuel resources is a result of the growing global environmental concern, and highlights some of the issues expected to be significant in coming years. In order to secure social acceptance, the mining industry has to face these challenges by engaging its many different stakeholders and examining their sustainability concerns. For this reason a questionnaire was conducted involving a simple random sampling of inhabitants near an area rich in fossil fuel resources, in order to gather respondents' views on social, economic and environmental benefits. The study discusses new subnational findings on public attitudes to regional sustainability, based on a quantitative research design. The site of the study was the energy-rich Greek region of Kozani, Western Macedonia, one of the country's energy hubs. The paper examines the future perspectives of the area. The conclusions can form a useful framework for energy policy in the wider Balkan area, which contains important fossil fuel resources.

Vatalis, K.I. [Technological Educational Institute of Western Macedonia, Kila (Greece)

2010-12-15

118

Evaluation of sustainability by a population living near fossil fuel resources in Northwestern Greece.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The emergence of sustainability as a goal in the management of fossil fuel resources is a result of the growing global environmental concern, and highlights some of the issues expected to be significant in coming years. In order to secure social acceptance, the mining industry has to face these challenges by engaging its many different stakeholders and examining their sustainability concerns. For this reason a questionnaire was conducted involving a simple random sampling of inhabitants near an area rich in fossil fuel resources, in order to gather respondents' views on social, economic and environmental benefits. The study discusses new subnational findings on public attitudes to regional sustainability, based on a quantitative research design. The site of the study was the energy-rich Greek region of Kozani, Western Macedonia, one of the country's energy hubs. The paper examines the future perspectives of the area. The conclusions can form a useful framework for energy policy in the wider Balkan area, which contains important fossil fuel resources.

Vatalis KI

2010-12-01

119

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, mixed proton/electron conductivity and hydrogen transport was measured as a function of metal phase content for a range of ceramic/metal (cermet) compositions. It was found that optimum performance occurred at 44 wt.% metal content for all compositions tested. Although each cermet appeared to have a continuous metal phase, it is believed that hydrogen transport increased with increasing metal content partially due to beneficial surface catalyst characteristics resulting from the metal phase. Beyond 44 wt.% there was a reduction in hydrogen transport most likely due to dilution of the proton conducting ceramic phase. Hydrogen separation rates for 1-mm thick cermet membranes were in excess of 0.1 mL/min/cm(sup 2), which corresponded to ambipolar conductivities between 1 x 10(sup -3) and 8 x 10(sup -3) S/cm. Similar results were obtained for multiphase ceramic membranes comprised of a proton-conducting perovskite and electron conducting metal oxide. These multi-phase ceramic membranes showed only a slight improvement in hydrogen transport upon addition of a metal phase. The highest hydrogen separation rates observed this quarter were for a cermet membrane containing a hydrogen transport metal. A 1-mm thick membrane of this material achieved a hydrogen separation rate of 0.3 mL/min/cm(sup 2) at only 700 C, which increased to 0.6 mL/min/cm(sup 2) at 950 C.

2001-01-01

120

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and NORAM are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Over the past 12 months, this project has focused on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites containing hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. The ceramic/ceramic composites demonstrate the lowest hydrogen permeation rates, with a maximum of approximately 0.1 mL/min/cm{sup 2} for 0.5-mm thick membranes at 800 to 950 C. Under equivalent conditions, cermets achieve a hydrogen permeation rate near 1 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, and the metal phase also improves structural stability and surface catalysis for hydrogen dissociation. Furthermore, if metals with high hydrogen permeability are used in cermets, permeation rates near 4 mL/min/cm{sup 2} are achievable with relatively thick membranes. Layered composite membranes have by far the highest permeation rates with a maximum flux in excess of 200 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup -2}. Moreover, these permeation rates were achieved at a total pressure differential across the membrane of 450 psi. Based on these results, effort during the next year will focus on this category of membranes. This report contains long-term hydrogen permeation data over eight-months of continuous operation, and permeation results as a function of operating conditions at high pressure for layered composite membranes. Additional progress with cermet and thin film membranes also is presented.

Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Stewart R. Schesnack; Scott R. Morrison; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

2003-10-30

 
 
 
 
121

Current status of U.S. coal utilization and non-fuel uses of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An understanding of the current situation is important for projecting the future direction of coal utilization. The world's annual consumption of coal in 1995 was 5104.01 million short tons (MST, 1 short ton = 0.907 metric ton). Coal plays a very important role in the US energy supply; US coal production in 1995 totaled 1033 MST, including 611.1 MST of bituminous coal, 328.4 MST of subbituminous coal, 86.1 MST of lignite, and 4.1 MST of anthracite. US coal consumption totaled 940.6 MST, with 88.1% in electric utilities, 3.5% in coke plants, 7.8% for other industrial uses, and only 0.6% in the residential and commercial sectors. The amount of fossil resources used for non-fuel purposes accounted for 8.4% of the total annual consumption in 1995. Non-fuel uses of fossil fuels particularly coal may become more important in the future. The demonstrated coal reserves in the world are large enough for consumption for over 220 years at the 1995 level, while proven oil reserves are only about 40 times the world's 1995 consumption level. Coal has several positive attributes when considered as a feedstock for aromatic chemicals, specialty chemicals, and carbon-based materials. Existing nonfuel uses of coals include (1) high temperature carbonization of bituminous and subbituminous coals to make metallurgical coke; (2) gasification of coal to make synthesis gases and other chemicals; (3) use of coal in manufacturing other materials such as activated carbons, carbon molecular sieves (CMS) and production of phosphorus (phosphoric acid); (4) the use of coal tars from carbonization and gasification for making aromatic and phenolic chemicals; (5) the use of coal tar pitch for making carbon fibers and activated carbon fibers; and (6) other non-fuel products derived from coal including combustion by-products. Coal may become more important both as an energy source and as the source of chemical feedstocks in the 21st century

122

Fossils  

Science.gov (United States)

4th Grade Science Standard 4: Students will understand how fossils are formed, where they may be found in Utah, and how they can be used to make inferences. DISCOVERING FOSSILS!!

 
 
141

New Optimal Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accomplishments during Phase II of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring. During this program work period, major progress has been experienced in the development of the sensor hardware, and the planning of the system installation and operation. The major focus of the next work period will be the installation of sensors in the Hamilton, Ohio power plant, and demonstration of high-temperature strain gages during mechanical testing of SOFC components.

John Coggin; Jonas Ivasauskas; Russell G. May; Michael B. Miller; Rena Wilson

2006-09-30

142

Regulatory taxation of fossil fuels. Theory and policy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research on energy taxation is often based on purely theoretical deductions. This paper stays closer to the real world, using empirical data and interpreting results in a political-economic setting of risk and uncertainty. Economic growth in developing countries will boost energy demand, increasing the risk of shortages of oil and natural gas half-way through the next century, and of coal towards the year 2100. Furthermore, there is mounting evidence that emissions of CO{sub 2} trigger harmful climate changes. A timely introduction of regulatory taxes will reduce demand for fossil fuels and accelerate the introduction of sustainable technology. The empirical results presented show, moreover, that such taxes may claim a substantial part of the rent on energy extraction for the energy-importing countries. It is argued that optimal control and the avoidance of displacement effects require a tax affecting marginal use, with exceptions to safeguard competitive positions. Exceptions may be scaled down as the jurisdiction is enlarged

Wolfson, Dirk J. [Netherlands Scientific Council for Government Policy WRR, The Hague (Netherlands); Koopmans, Carl C. [Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, CPB, The Hague (Netherlands)

1996-10-01

143

The LPG-fuel industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LPG-fuel industry comprises several professionals from various domains such as assembly shops for vehicles transformation, materials manufacturers for public distribution stations and companies which produce and commercialize the LPG-fuel. This paper summarizes the administrative and technical liabilities of these professionals, with the technical qualification required, the regulations concerning the official approval of transformation kits and pressure tanks. The French network of public distribution stations for LPG-fuel is shared between five independent dispensers with their own economic policy which represents about 700 LPG-stations. However, the safety regulations concerning LPG-fuels considerably limit the installation of LPG facilities in urban areas. A cost-benefit comparison between LPG and other liquid fuels is given in inset and takes into account the transformation costs of the vehicle. (J.S.).

1996-01-01

144

Global exergetic dimension of hydrogen use in reducing fossil fuel consumption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for minimizing the fossil fuel based-global irreversibility coefficient of global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions such as global waste exergy factor, global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based-global exergetic indicator. In order to investigate the role of hydrogen use at minimizing the fossil fuel based global irreversibility, the actual fossil fuel consumption data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases, the fossil fuel based-global irreversibility coefficient will decrease. (author)

2009-01-01

145

Fossil fuels and clean, plentiful energy in the 21st century: The example of coal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many people believe we must quickly wean ourselves from fossil fuels to save the planet from environmental catastrophe, wars and economic collapse. However, we have the technological capability to use fossil fuels without emitting climate-threatening greenhouse gases or other pollutants. The natural...

Jaccard, Mark

146

Fossil fuels and the global warming debate: the case for a reduction in fossil fuel usage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The science of global warming due to human activities is summarised and the role of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) explained. The impacts of climate change are outlined (loss of land due to rise in sea level, increased possibility of floods, with the subsequent impact on water supplies and impact on crops, and effect on human health). The Framework Convention on Climate Change has the objective of achieving stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system in a time scale to allow ecosystems to adapt to climate change, ensure food production is not threatened and enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner. For stabilisation of levels of CO{sub 2} at just below 500 ppmv (a likely level under negotiation) commitments will be required from all sections of the community and industry has the challenge of developing and marketing developments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Houghton, J. [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva (Switzerland)

1996-12-31

147

Environmental evidence of fossil fuel pollution in Laguna Chica de San Pedro lake sediments (Central Chile)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes lake sediment spheroidal carbonaceous particle (SCP) profiles from Laguna Chica San Pedro, located in the Biobio Region, Chile (36{sup o} 51' S, 73{sup o} 05' W). The earliest presence of SCPs was found at 16 cm depth, corresponding to the 1915-1937 period, at the very onset of industrial activities in the study area. No SCPs were found at lower depths. SCP concentrations in Laguna Chica San Pedro lake sediments were directly related to local industrial activities. Moreover, no SCPs were found in Galletue lake (38{sup o} 41' S, 71{sup o} 17.5' W), a pristine high mountain water body used here as a reference site, suggesting that contribution from long distance atmospheric transport could be neglected, unlike published data from remote Northern Hemisphere lakes. These results are the first SCP sediment profiles from Chile, showing a direct relationship with fossil fuel consumption in the region. Cores were dated using the {sup 21}Pb technique. - The lake sediment record of SCPs shows the record of fossil-fuel derived pollution in Central Chile.

Chirinos, L. [Centro de Ciencias Ambientales EULA-Chile, Universidad de Concepcion, PO Box 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)]. E-mail: lchirin@pucp.edu.pe; Rose, N.L. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London WG1HOAP (United Kingdom); Urrutia, R. [Centro de Ciencias Ambientales EULA-Chile, Universidad de Concepcion, PO Box 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Munoz, P. [Departamento de Biologia Marina, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo (Chile); Torrejon, F. [Centro de Ciencias Ambientales EULA-Chile, Universidad de Concepcion, PO Box 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Torres, L. [Departamento de Botanica, Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Cruces, F. [Departamento de Botanica, Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Araneda, A. [Centro de Ciencias Ambientales EULA-Chile, Universidad de Concepcion, PO Box 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Zaror, C. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)

2006-05-15

148

Environmental evidence of fossil fuel pollution in Laguna Chica de San Pedro lake sediments (Central Chile)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes lake sediment spheroidal carbonaceous particle (SCP) profiles from Laguna Chica San Pedro, located in the Biobio Region, Chile (36o 51' S, 73o 05' W). The earliest presence of SCPs was found at 16 cm depth, corresponding to the 1915-1937 period, at the very onset of industrial activities in the study area. No SCPs were found at lower depths. SCP concentrations in Laguna Chica San Pedro lake sediments were directly related to local industrial activities. Moreover, no SCPs were found in Galletue lake (38o 41' S, 71o 17.5' W), a pristine high mountain water body used here as a reference site, suggesting that contribution from long distance atmospheric transport could be neglected, unlike published data from remote Northern Hemisphere lakes. These results are the first SCP sediment profiles from Chile, showing a direct relationship with fossil fuel consumption in the region. Cores were dated using the 21Pb technique. - The lake sediment record of SCPs shows the record of fossil-fuel derived pollution in Central Chile.

2006-01-01

149

Environmental benchmarking of the largest fossil-fueled electricity generating plants in the U.S  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental management, to be effective, requires performance evaluation and process improvement. This is especially the case in fossil-fueled electricity generating plants. Although eco-efficient management of these types of organizations are critical to local, national and global environmental issues, few studies have focused on performance measurement and eco-efficiency improvements in this industry. This study evaluates the eco-efficiencies of the top 100 major U.S. fossil-fueled electricity generating plants from 1998 data. Using a multi-criteria non-parametric productivity model (data envelopment analysis) efficiency scores are determined. These efficiency scores are treated by a clustering method in identifying benchmarks for improving poorly performing plants. Efficiency measures are based on three resource input measures including boiler generating capacity, total fuel heat used, and total generator capacity, and four output measures including actual energy generated, SO2, NOx, and CO2 emissions. The purpose of this paper is two-fold, to introduce the methodology"s application to eco-efficiency performance measurement and show some characteristics of the benchmarked plants and groups.

Sarkis, Joseph

150

Key Technologies for the Development of Fossil Fuels in the 21st Century  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the world faces growing economic and environmental challenges, the energy mix that fuels the global economy is undergoing rapid change. Yet how this change will evolve in the future is uncertain. What will be the sources of primary energy in twenty years? In fifty years? In different regions of the globe? How will this energy be utilized? Fossil energy currently supplies about ninety percent of the world's primary energy. In Japan this number is closer to eighty percent. It is clear that fossil energy will be a major supplier of global energy for some time to come, but what is not clear is the types of fossil energy and how it will be utilized. The degree to which the abundant supplies of fossil energy, especially coal, will continue to play a major role will depend on whether technology will provide safe, clean and affordable fuel for electricity and transportation. Technology will not only assist in finding more fossil energy in varying regions of the globe but, most importantly, will play a strong role in efficient utilization and in determining the cost of delivering that energy. Several important questions will have to be answered: (1) Will cost effective technologies be found to burn coal more cleanly? Can this be done with drastically reduced or no emitted carbon? (2) Can enough oil be found outside the Middle East to ensure more adequate and secure supplies to fuel the transportation and industrial needs? (3) Will the transportation sector, so heavily dependent on oil, be fueled on another source? (4) Can enough natural gas be assured from enough secure places to ensure investment in the utilization of this lowest-carbon fossil fuel? (5) What will these options cost in research and in the price of energy? The answers to these and other questions challenge leaders and researchers in the fossil energy industry. A World Energy Council (WEC) study of those technologies that might be key sheds some light on what might happen in terms of a wide range of possible scenarios. Also on what might be necessary in expenditure, time, and policies to help bring these technologies to market. This study should be helpful to energy executives in planning for future technologies, either as new ventures or as competition for existing technologies. The emphasis in this ongoing study is on what is possible from today's vantage, not what will happen--actual developments are unpredictable and it is, of course, impossible to foresee the course of actual technology development or economic growth. Nevertheless, it is possible to look at what could happen in a number of scenarios using (1) knowledge about current technologies and (2) their projected development, investment costs, and likely time to commercialization based on historical energy technology development. A comprehensive set of possible technologies was available from the WEC in conjunction with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) and studies as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

Schock, R

2002-11-22

151

Secondary fuels in the cement industry; Sekundaerbrennstoffe in der Zementindustrie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Secondary fuels save fossil fuels, achieve a cost reduction and thus help to improve the competitive and job situation of the cement industry. The ecological problems should be solved by a co-operative effort of all parties concerned (operators, environmental authorities and associations, neighbours, etc.). The future of the NRW cement industry depends on how well the economic and ecological challenges can be met. [German] Grosse Chancen zur Standort- und somit Arbeitsplatzsicherung in der Zementindustrie bieten u.a. der Einsatz sekundaerer Brennstoffe, durch den sich fossile Brennstoffe einsparen und Energiekosten verringern lassen. Die damit verbundenen oekologischen Herausforderungen muessen im Zusammenwirken aller Beteiligten (Betreiber, Umweltbehoerden u. Verbaende, Nachbarschaft etc.) bewaeltigt werden. Die Zukunft der ueber Jahrzehnte gewachsenen westfaelischen Zementindustrie haengt somit sowohl von den oekonomischen Entwicklungsperspektiven als auch von der Bewaeltigung der damit verbundenen hohen oekologischen Herausforderungen ab. (orig.)

Boeker, M. [Staatliches Umweltamt Muenster (Germany)

2000-07-01

152

Prevent the risk of climate change by taxing fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of all the greenhouse gases, it is emissions of CO2 which most urgently require reduction. On the one hand, given the very long lifetime of this gas, its emissions are almost irreversible in character. On the other hand, the measures to be taken concern technological choices, and choices in matters of planning and land use, which are not easily reversible either. It would be very costly, later on, to go back on decisions we make in the coming years without taking into account the risk of climate change. We will only be able to stabilize the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere if we are able to reduce present emissions by 60 per cent. The challenge to humanity is considerable, since this reduction in emissions has to be achieved despite the forecast doubling of the world's population. We must organize ourselves both to stabilize the world's forests (reforestation in certain regions compensating for the inevitable deforestation elsewhere), and to reduce by 25 per cent the average consumption of fossil fuel per inhabitant. Such a radical reorientation of our habits in the consumption of fossil energy does not seem to me technically unreachable, and it will not cause widespread ruin if we manage to optimize its organization. Preventive work will only be effective if it is made on a planetary scale. It will only be undertaken if we are able to share the burden fairly between the various countries; and it will not be ruinous if we manage to decentralize necessary initiatives, so that the least costly methods are undertaken everywhere from the outset. (author).

1992-01-01

153

Emissions of CO/sub 2/ to the atmosphere due to U. S. A. fossil fuel consumption  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analysis and projection of carbon dioxide emitted to the atmosphere are estimated based on the Brookhaven reference energy system. Some new results are given on carbon dioxide contribution to the atmosphere from US fossil fuel consumption by different sectors including residential, commercial, industrial and transportation. The total weight of carbon as carbon dioxide emitted to the atmosphere and the additional CO/sub 2/ concentration over background by different subsectors in the years 1977, 1980, 1985, 1990, 2000 and 2020 are presented.

Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

1980-06-01

154

Climate agreements: Optimal taxation of fossil fuels and the distribution of costs and benefits across countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report analyses the response of governments to a climate agreement that commits them to reduce their CO{sub 2} emissions. It develops a formula for optimal taxation of fossil fuels in open economies subject both to an emission constraint and a public budget constraint. The theory captures how national governments` behaviours are sensitive to the size of the benefits from revenue recycling and how these benefits adjust the distribution of abatement costs. The empirical part of the report illustrates the significance of the participating countries` current and potential fossil fuel taxation schemes and their roles in the fossil fuel markets. 23 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Holtsmark, Bjart

1997-12-31

155

High Efficiency Direct Carbon and Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Fossil Fuel Power Generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen he1 cells have been under development for a number of years and are now nearing commercial applications. Direct carbon fuel cells, heretofore, have not reached practical stages of development because of problems in fuel reactivity and cell configuration. The carbon/air fuel cell reaction (C + O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2}) has the advantage of having a nearly zero entropy change. This allows a theoretical efficiency of 100 % at 700-800 C. The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product do not change during consumption of the fuel. Consequently, the EMF is invariant; this raises the possibility of 100% fuel utilization in a single pass. (In contrast, the high-temperature hydrogen fuel cell has a theoretical efficiency of and changes in fuel activity limit practical utilizations to 75-85%.) A direct carbon fuel cell is currently being developed that utilizes reactive carbon particulates wetted by a molten carbonate electrolyte. Pure COZ is evolved at the anode and oxygen from air is consumed at the cathode. Electrochemical data is reported here for the carbon/air cell utilizing carbons derived from he1 oil pyrolysis, purified coal, purified bio-char and petroleum coke. At 800 O C, a voltage efficiency of 80% was measured at power densities of 0.5-1 kW/m2. Carbon and hydrogen fuels may be produced simultaneously at lugh efficiency from: (1) natural gas, by thermal decomposition, (2) petroleum, by coking or pyrolysis of distillates, (3) coal, by sequential hydrogasification to methane and thermal pyrolysis of the methane, with recycle of the hydrogen, and (4) biomass, similarly by sequential hydrogenation and thermal pyrolysis. Fuel production data may be combined with direct C and H2 fuel cell operating data for power cycle estimates. Thermal to electric efficiencies indicate 80% HHV [85% LHV] for petroleum, 75.5% HHV [83.4% LHV] for natural gas and 68.3% HHV [70.8% LHV] for lignite coal. Possible benefits of integrated carbon and hydrogen fuel cell power generation cycles are: (1) increased efficiency by a factor of up to 2 over many conventional fossil fuel steam plants, (2) reduced power generation cost, especially for increasing fossil fuel cost, (3) reduced CO2 emission per kWh, and (4) direct sequestration or reuse (e.g., in enhanced oil or NG recovery) of the CO{sub 2} product.

Steinberg, M; Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N

2002-01-02

156

DEA approach for unified efficiency measurement: Assessment of Japanese fossil fuel power generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study discusses a new DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) approach to measure the unified (operational and environmental) efficiency of energy firms. It is widely known that they produce not only desirable (good) outputs (e.g., electricity) but also undesirable (bad) outputs (e.g., CO{sub 2}) as a result of their plant operations. The proposed approach incorporates an output separation (desirable and undesirable outputs) for the performance evaluation of energy firms. In addition to the output separation, this study separates inputs into energy and non-energy inputs. Consequently, the proposed approach incorporates not only the output separation but also the input separation within a computational framework of DEA non-radial measurement. This study compares the proposed approach with other previous DEA approaches used for the performance evaluation of energy firms. After the methodological comparison, this study applies the proposed approach for measuring the unified efficiency of Japanese fossil fuel power generation. This empirical study confirms that the implementation of Kyoto Protocol (2005) has not been effective on the unified efficiency of Japanese fossil fuel power generation during the observed period (2004-2008). Although the empirical result is inconsistent with the current Japanese environmental policy under Kyoto Protocol, it contains policy implications for guiding the future direction of Japanese environmental policy on the electric power industry.

Sueyoshi, T.; Goto, M. [New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Management

2011-03-15

157

Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Vortec has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation'' program. The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment-as confirmed by both ANS 16.1 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and did not leach to the environment as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC subsystem design

1994-01-01

158

Integrated procurement planning for supplying energy plant with forest, fossil, and wood-waste fuels  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, a potential solution to large-scale and long-term industrial fuel procurement scheduling problems is considered. The problems include the allocation of a number of fossil, peat, and wood-waste fuel procurement chains to an energy plant during different periods. This decision environment is further complicated by sequence-dependent procurement chains for forest fuels. A dynamic linear programming model was used to describe the scheduling task. This approach can be efficiently used for modelling material flows in procurement planning. However, due to the complex nature of the problem, the resulting model cannot be directly used to solve the integrated planning problem in a manner that is relevant to the forest industry. Therefore, this approach was combined with an energy-flow model to better describe the combinatorial complexity. The properties of this methodology are discussed and two examples of how the model works based on real-world data and an optional emissions cost constraint are presented.

Palander Teijo; Vesa Lauri

2009-08-01

159

Impact on food productivity by fossil fuel independence - A case study of a Swedish small-scale integrated organic farm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The large-scale industrial agriculture that provides the majority of food at present is dependent upon fossil fuels in the form of tractor fuel, mineral fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation. Yet, the age of cheap and abundant fossil fuels will likely come to an end within the coming decades. In this case study, the productivity of a small-scale farm (8 ha arable land, 5.5 ha meadow, 3.5 ha pasture and 18 ha forest) independent on fossil fuels by using organic methods and draught horse power was investigated. The aim was to quantify its productivity when the animal composition and possible alternatives to tractive power were varied. After an analysis of possible solutions, three scenarios for tractive power were selected: draught horse power, diesel tractor, and combination of draught horse power and rapeseed oil fueled tractor. A model that calculates the amount of food available at the farm in terms of meat, milk egg, and crops, converts it into energy units and calculates how many people can be supplied from the farm was developed. The most reasonable of the scenarios studied was when draught horse power was combined with tractor (and combine harvester) driven on locally produced rapeseed oil. Then the farm will have access to all advantages with the tractor and harvester, e.g., timeliness in harvest and lifting heavy loads, and the renewability and efficiency of draught horse power on smaller fields, and lighter operations. This system was able to support between 66 and 82 persons depending on crop yields, milk yields, meat production, fuel demand for the tractor, and availability of forest grazing. Most likely the production capacity lands on ability to support approximately 68 - 70 persons, and the farm may require fossil fuels to support more than 80 persons. If all farmland globally was to be operated with the same productivity, this would be enough for supplying the global population with food at present.

Johansson, Sheshti [Dept. of Energy and Technology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Belfrage, Kristina [Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Olsson, Mats [Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

2013-02-15

160

Energy and the environment: the impact of fossil fuels on the environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sustainable development requires more than just environmental protection; its principal element is development. The impact of power generation from fossil fuels on the environment is discussed. The paper includes a brief discussion on the global warming issue.

Toohey, A.C. [World Coal Institute, London (United Kingdom)

1994-12-31

 
 
 
 
161

The use of industrial wood as fuel in the UK  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wood has traditionally been used in the UK as a fuel both for domestic heating and within the wood processing industries. It provides a renewable source of energy that can offset the use of finite fossil fuels and hence assist in the reduction of certain pollutant emissions partly responsible for the greenhouse effect and acid rain. Employment in the UK wood processing industries is around 200,000 with a further 30,000 in the forestry industry. Over fifty million cubic metres of wood are consumed each year. Imports account for 90% of this and represent 5% of the total value of UK imports. Wood processing residues are extensively reused within the industry with established markets for all but the lowest quality residues. The predominant markets are for panel and paperboard manufacture. Only 6% of all wood processing residues are estimated to be used directly as fuel within the industry. This report considers the production, processing, utilisation and ultimate disposal of wood and its products in the UK. It provides estimates of the quantities of residues generated by the processing industries together with the amount used as fuel in domestic and industrial premises. (UK)

Major, G.

1994-09-01

162

Mineral components in the integrated processing of solid fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research projects dealing with the mineral content of coals and shales conducted by the Fuel Institute since the 1930s are surveyed. Specific research goals of the Institute in studying the role of mineral components in coal processing, and of cooperating institutes and organizations are listed. As a result of investigations in the 1970s on the effect of mineral components and additives on the parameters of reduction thermo-processing of coals, several new catalyst systems were developed. Study of the composition and properties of organomineral wastes from the mining, preparation, combustion, hydrogenation and gasification of coal resulted in the creation of new sources of some raw materials, e.g. bauxite, kaolinite, alumina. Study of physical and chemical properties of carbonaceous rock from the coal preparation industry resulted in a technology for producing algoporite, a porous filler for light fire-resistant and acid-resistant concrete for the construction industry. It has been calculated that 40-45 million tons of coal preparation wastes can be used annually in the construction industry. 13 references.

Shpirt, M.Ya.; Ruban, V.A.

1984-12-01

163

INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem.

J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

2001-07-13

164

INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology.

J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

2001-10-31

165

A strategy for developing carbon abatement technologies for fossil fuel use  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the UK's strategy for supporting the technical development and commercial development of carbon abatement technologies (CATs) both in the UK and global markets. The reports considers the key strategic issues affecting CATs, the policy context and need for a UK CAT strategy; the future prospects for fossil fuels in the UK and worldwide; the current status and deployment prospects for CATs; the status of CAT-related industries in the UK; and opportunities and constrains for CAT development and deployment. The reports goes on to present the rationale and objectives for a CAT strategy and a plan for delivering the strategy. 17 figs., 8 tabs., 8 photos. 5 apps.

NONE

2005-06-01

166

Industrial fuel gas demonstration plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to Memphis, TN's anticipated energy shortage, MLGW plans to build a demonstration coal-gasification plant that will supply 175 million CF/day of 300 Btu/CF industrial fuel gas (equivalent to 50 million CF of natural gas) to nearby users. IGT's U-GAS fluidized-bed process will gasify 3158 tons/day of Western Kentucky coal. Once the proof of a working system is at hand, the project will serve as a model for other cities to develop similar energy sources.

Gray, R.W.

1980-01-01

167

Material flow analysis of fossil fuels in China during 2000-2010.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since the relationship between the supply and demand of fossil fuels is on edge in the long run, the contradiction between the economic growth and limited resources will hinder the sustainable development of the Chinese society. This paper aims to analyze the input of fossil fuels in China during 2000-2010 via the material flow analysis (MFA) that takes hidden flows into account. With coal, oil, and natural gas quantified by MFA, three indexes, consumption and supply ratio (C/S ratio), resource consumption intensity (RCI), and fossil fuels productivity (FFP), are proposed to reflect the interactions between population, GDP, and fossil fuels. The results indicated that in the past 11 years, China's requirement for fossil fuels has been increasing continuously because of the growing mine productivity in domestic areas, which also leads to a single energy consumption structure as well as excessive dependence on the domestic exploitation. It is advisable to control the fossil fuels consumption by energy recycling and new energy facilities' popularization in order to lead a sustainable access to nonrenewable resources and decrease the soaring carbon emissions.

Wang S; Dai J; Su M

2012-01-01

168

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50%. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

R. J. Andres; T. A. Boden; F.-M. Bréon; P. Ciais; S. Davis; D. Erickson; J. S. Gregg; A. Jacobson; G. Marland; J. Miller; T. Oda; J. G. J. Olivier; M. R. Raupach; P. Rayner; K. Treanton

2012-01-01

169

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e., maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10 % uncertainty (95 % confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. This manuscript concludes that carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion continue to increase with time and that while much is known about the overall characteristics of these emissions, much is still to be learned about the detailed characteristics of these emissions.

R. J. Andres; T. A. Boden; F.-M. Bréon; P. Ciais; S. Davis; D. Erickson; J. S. Gregg; A. Jacobson; G. Marland; J. Miller; T. Oda; J. G. J. Olivier; M. R. Raupach; P. Rayner; K. Treanton

2012-01-01

170

What are the likely roles of fossil fuels in the next 15, 50, and 100 years, with or without active controls on greenhouse gas emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the industrial revolution, the production and utilization of fossil fuels have been an engine driving economic and industrial development in many countries worldwide. However, future reliance on fossil fuels has been questioned due to emerging concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and its potential contribution to global climate change (GCC). While substantial uncertainties exist regarding the ability to accurately predict climate change and the role of various greenhouse gases, some scientists and policymakers have called for immediate action. As a result, there have been many proposals and worldwide initiatives to address the perceived problem. In many of these proposals, the premise is that CO{sub 2} emissions constitute the principal problem, and, correspondingly, that fossil-fuel combustion must be curtailed to resolve this problem. This paper demonstrates that the worldwide fossil fuel resource base and infrastructure are extensive and thus, will continue to be relied on in developed and developing countries. Furthermore, in the electric generating sector (the focus of this paper), numerous clean coal technologies (CCTs) are currently being demonstrated (or are under development) that have higher conversion efficiencies, and thus lower CO{sub 2} emission rates than conventional coal-based technologies. As these technologies are deployed in new power plant or repowering applications to meet electrical load growth, CO{sub 2} (and other GHG) emission levels per unit of electricity generated will be lower than that produced by conventional fossil-fuel technologies. 37 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs.

Kane, R.L. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (USA)); South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1990-01-01

171

Patterns of fuel and energy consumption in the US pulp and paper industry, 1972-1982  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Motivated largely by the economic benefits of energy efficiency, and as one of 10 energy-intensive groups targeted by DOE's energy conservation policy, the pulp, paper, and paperboard industry has invested billions of dollars since 1972. The industry achieved a 35.5% reduction in fossil fuel and purchased energy use per ton of output by 1982 compared to 1972. The industry also increased the use of self-generated and residue sources of energy from 40.4 to 51.7% of total energy used while increasing product output by energy 13%, reduced total oil consumption by 49% and total fossil fuel and purchased energy consumption by 22%, and exceeded the 1980 energy efficiency goal of 23% reduction in its adjusted use of fossil fuels and purchased energy per ton of product by an additional 3%. The report includes details and trends over the 10-year period. 22 figures, 27 tables.

Grant, T.J.; Slinn, R.J.

1983-01-01

172

Hydrogen production from non-fossil fuel sources: understanding and improving efficiencies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes hydrogen production from non-fossil fuel sources in order to reduce greenhouse gases. It examines energy areas such as hydrogen, nuclear and renewable energy sources and technologies such as thermal storage, hydrogen production, fuel cells, wind system and solar technology.

Rosen, M.A. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

2007-07-01

173

Comparison between the marginal protection costs in fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This communication compares the sanitary risks (for the public) and the protection costs in fossil-fuel power plants and nuclear power reactors. It is concluded that the sanitary risks and the annual protection costs are higher for the classical fuel plants. For the marginal protection costs conclusions are not definite. (B.G.)

1980-03-14

174

Hydrogen production from non-fossil fuel sources: understanding and improving efficiencies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper describes hydrogen production from non-fossil fuel sources in order to reduce greenhouse gases. It examines energy areas such as hydrogen, nuclear and renewable energy sources and technologies such as thermal storage, hydrogen production, fuel cells, wind system and solar technology

2007-05-30

175

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1979  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The in-house results at Bartlesville Energy Technology Center on the liquid fossil fuel cycle are presented. The cycle covers extraction, processing, utilization, and environmental technology of the liquid fuels derived from petroleum, heavy oils, tar sands, oil shale, and coal.

Linville, B. (ed.)

1980-02-01

176

Viewpoint on global warming from fossil fuel reserves. Kaseki nenryo no shigenryo to tansan gas mondai  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The long-term forecast for discharge of CO {sub 2} and atmospheric CO {sub 2} concentration is presented with considering restriction in supply of fossil fuels, and it is indicated that the present global warming simulation includes some irrational contents. The consumption of fossil fuels is effected by the spontaneous constraints in availability initiated by thinning down of fossil fuel reserves. More likely production profile of fossil fuel reserves is forecasted for petroleum, natural gas, coal et al. according to their feasible conditions, and the atmospheric CO {sub 2} concentration is simulated on the basis of the forecast. The CO {sub 2} concentration in the year 2100 will fall in the range of 500 to 550 ppm, even when no credit of CO {sub 2} absorption or fixation countermeasures is taken into account. IPCC report in August 1990, predicts the CO {sub 2} concentration in the year 2100 will rise up to 800 ppm, whereas this 800 ppm can be reached only when all the remaining recoverable fossil fuels are used out. Some countermeasures on the CO {sub 2} problem are discussed and importance of the realistic presumption is emphasized. 5 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Shitaka, Y.; Endo, M. (Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1991-01-20

177

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e., maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossilfuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. This manuscript concludes that carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion continue to increase with time and that while much is known about the overall characteristics of these emissions, much is still to be learned about the detailed characteristics of these emissions.

Andres, R.J.; Boden, T.A.

2012-01-01

178

Importance of hydrogen fuels as sustainable alternative energy for domestic and industrial applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy demand is increasing continuously due to rapid growth in population and industrialization development. As a result greenhouse gases especially CO{sub 2} produced by the combustion of fossil fuels cause depletion of fossil fuels and deterioration of environmental conditions worldwide. The goal of global energy sustainability implies the replacement of all fossil fuels by renewable energy sources . Hydrogen fuel is one of the sustainable energy sources can be available by conversion of biomass into biological hydrogen gas and ethanol. Rate of biomass generation in domestic wastes in Iranian culture is high. Therefore there is suitable potential for hydrogen generation in rural and urban areas of Iran. On the other hand energy extraction from these fossil fuels causes pollution and diseases. Globally, hydrogen is already produced in significant quantities (around 5 billion cubic metres per annum). It is mainly used to produce ammonia for fertiliser (about 50%), for oil refining (37%), methanol production (8%) and in the chemical and metallurgical industries (4%). On the other hand, increase in emissions rates of greenhouse gases, i.e., CO{sub 2} present a threat to the world climate. Also new legislation of Iran has been approved the higher costs of conventional fuels for consuming in vehicles for reduction of greenhouse gases reduction as environmental policies. Demand is rising in all cities of Iran for cleaner fuels such as mixed fuels and natural gas, but unfortunately they are exporting to foreign countries or the required technologies are not available and economically option. Nuclear industries in Iran are also small and expanding only slowly. So importance of alternative energies as hydrogen powers are increasing daily. Presently both major consumers of domestic and industrial such as plants and manufacturers are using fossil fuels for their process that consequently contribute to the global warming and climate change. This paper reviews these options, with reference not only to greenhouse gases but also to welfare increasing. (author)

Sharifan, H.R. [Dept. of Environment and Energy, Islamic Azad Univ., Science and Research Campus, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: hsharifan@gmail.com; Banan, N. [Department of Environmental Science, Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davari, A. [Dept. of Environmental Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Univ. of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2009-07-01

179

Comparative study on systems of residual water treatment in the process industry by evaporation, using fossils fuels or solar energy; Estudio comparativo sobre sistemas de tratamiento de aguas residuales de la industria de procesamiento por evaporacion, utilizando combustibles fosiles o energia solar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The residual water treatment of the process industry, nowadays is an imminent necessity in our country. In the present study two different forms are considered to concentrate residual waters: multiple effect evaporation and solar evaporation. The use of solar evaporation lagoons is a good possibility to conserving energy by means of the diminution of fossil fuel consumption. The design basis of the evaporation systems via multiple effect, as well as solar evaporation, the results of the respective sizing and the estimation of the corresponding costs are presented. A practical case is described on the cooking of cotton linters (flock) [Spanish] El tratamiento de aguas residuales de la industria de proceso, hoy en dia es una necesidad inminente en nuestro pais. En el presente trabajo se consideran dos formas distintas para concentrar las aguas residuales: evaporacion de multiple efecto y evaporacion solar. El empleo de lagunas de evaporacion solar es una buena posibilidad para conseguir el ahorro de energia mediante disminucion del consumo de combustibles fosiles. Se presentan las bases de diseno de los sistemas de evaporacion via multiple efecto, asi como solar, los resultados del dimensionamiento respectivo y la estimacion de los costos correspondientes. Se describe un caso practico sobre el cocido de linters de algodon (borra)

Landgrave Romero, Julio; Canseco Contreras, Jose [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM (Mexico)

1996-07-01

180

PREPA analysis of fossil, fossil/biomass and biomass boiler fuel options  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electricity costs have risen to unprecedented levels in Puerto Rico during recent years because of increases in the price of imported oil. Because of this fact the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority decided to use an alternate fuel for its next generating unit and is analyzing other sources of energy for possible utilization in the near future. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of these alternate sources of energy which come about when making a fuel utilization decision are presented. The discussion is divided into three parts: (a) alternate sources for base load units; (b) alternate sources which could serve as backup fuel to these units; and (c) strictly bagasse-fired units. It is concluded that, although there are problems and obstacles in these alternate sources of energy, these are modest in comparison to the problems surrounding oil, at present and in the future.

El Koury, J.M.

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Social cost pricing of fossil fuels used in the production of electricity: implications to biomass feasibility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The primary objective of this study is to investigate full social pricing for fossil fuels and the subsequent effect on biomass quantities in the state of Tennessee. The first step is to estimate the full social costs and then to estimate the effects of their internalization. Other objectives are (1) investigate whether or not market imperfections exist, (2) if they exist, how should full social cost pricing be estimated, (3) what other barriers help fossil fuels stay economically attractive and prevent biomass from competing, (4) estimating the demand for biomass, and (5) given this demand for biomass, what are the implications for farmers and producers in Tennessee. (author)

1997-01-01

182

High-Temperature Corrosion in Fossil Fuel Power Generation: Present and Future  

Science.gov (United States)

Fossil fuels have historically represented two-thirds of all electricity generation in the United States and are projected to continue to play a similar role despite historically low projected growth rates in electricity demand and the recent dramatic shift from coal to more natural gas usage. Economic and environmental drivers will require more reliable and efficient fossil fuel generation systems in the future, likely with new system designs, higher operating temperatures, and more aggressive environments. Some of the current corrosion issues in power plants are reviewed along with research on materials solutions for systems envisioned for the near future, such as coal gasification and oxy-fired coal boilers.

Pint, B. A.

2013-08-01

183

Fossil energy R and D for a competitive power industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the vision for Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s (METC`s) advanced power generation program. It covers the following four topics: the status of the electric industry as it deregulates, particularly those aspects of deregulation that impact advanced power generation technologies; a snapshot of the environmental trends that influence the program; how research, and development, and demonstration (RD&D) program is being restructured in response to these trends; and the status of METC`s merger with its sister center, the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center.

Bajura, R.A.

1996-12-31

184

Industrial Challenges of Fuel and Fuel Cycle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Continued safe, reliable, and economic operation of the current fleet of power plants is an important enabler to the nuclear renaissance. Westinghouse products and services continue to support this goal with a clear commitment to operational excellence, technology and growth initiatives. With core management evolution in recent years pushing fuel duties to higher levels, Westinghouse introduced advanced fuel products to meet more demanding operating requirements while maintaining a high level of fuel reliability. The advanced alloy ZIRLOTM has performed consistently and predictably enabling fuel cycle extensions and power up-ratings required by customers worldwide. With Westinghouse AP1000{sup TM} technology uniquely positioned to serve the nuclear renaissance demand, Westinghouse is also investing in people, processes, and facilities to support this growth, while continuing to meet our customers' requirements for their operating plants. (author)

Belechak, Joe [Westinghouse (United States)

2009-06-15

185

Trend of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels and cement production in Kenya  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The data on annual consumption of fossil fuels and cement production in Kenya was used to carry out an inventory of carbon dioxide emissions from 1966 to 1993 using emission guidelines proposed by the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development. The results show an increasing trend of emissions from the two sources in association with increasing fossil fuel consumption and cement production in the country. Transport sector takes the largest share of fossil fuel consumption making the increasing vehicle population in the country a significant influencing factor in the observed trend. The demand for motor fuel in turn seems to be influenced by the economic performance and is indicated by periods of decline in the consumption of fossil fuels and resultant emissions. If the trend continues there will be an increase of about 46% by the next 20 years. However, Kenya's contribution of carbon dioxide emissions into the global atmosphere through these two sources is small and is consistent with treads observed in other developing parts of the world.

Nganga, J.K. [University of Nairobi, Nairobi (Kenya). Dept. Meteorology

2000-07-01

186

Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modern food production depends on limited natural resources for providing energy and fertilisers. We assess the fossil fuel dependency for the Danish food production system by means of Food Energy Returned on fossil Energy Invested (Food-EROI) and by the use of energy intensive nutrients from imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing and transportation, 0.25 J of food energy is produced; 0.28 when crediting for produced bioenergy. Furthermore, nutrients in commercial fertiliser and imported feed account for 84%, 90% and 90% of total supply of N, P and K, respectively. We conclude that the system is unsustainable because it is embedded in a highly fossil fuel dependent system based on a non-circular flow of nutrients. As energy and thus nutrient constraints may develop in the coming decades, the current system may need to adapt by reducing use of fossil energy at the farm and for transportation of food and feed. An operational strategy may be to relocalise the supply of energy, nutrients, feed and food.

Mads V. Markussen; Hanne Østergård

2013-01-01

187

Market power in the market for greenhouse gas emission permits - the interplay with the fossil fuel markets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol is likely to leave Russia and other Eastern European countries with market power in the market for emission permits. Ceteris paribus, this will raise the permit price above the competitive permit price. However, Russia is also a large exporter of fossil fuels. A high price on emission permits may lower the producer price on fossil fuels. Thus, if Russia co-ordinates its permit market and fossil fuel market policies, market power will not necessarily lead to a higher permit price. Fossil fuel producers may also exert market power in the permit market, provided they conceive the permit price to be influenced by their production volumes. If higher volumes drive up the permit price Russian fuel producers may become more aggressive relative to their competitors in the fuel markets. If the sale of fuels is co-ordinated with the sale of permits. The result is reversed if high fuel production drives the permit price down. (Author)

Hagem, Cathrine; Maestad, Ottar

2002-07-01

188

Critical analysis on hydrogen as an alternative to fossil fuels and biofuels for vehicles in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent times, the global debate on the environment has been centered on CO2 emissions. This gas is the major cause of the ''greenhouse effect'' and people are more concerned with the idea that the emissions of this gas should be minimized. As a result of this concern, the Kyoto Protocol was enacted and subscribed to by many countries, setting the maximum gas emissions for them. Fossil fuels are a major source of CO2 emissions. For some years now The European Union has been seeking to promote some years now the use of biofuels as substitutes for diesel or petrol for transport purposes. As a result of this policy, in 2003 the European Union (EU) Directive 2003/30/EC was developed with the aim of promoting the use of biofuels as a substitute for diesel or gasoline among European Union countries as well as to contribute to fulfilling the commitments acquired on climate change, security of supply in environmentally friendly conditions and the promotion of renewable energy sources. In order to achieve these goals, the directive forces all EU members to ensure that before December 31 of 2010 at least 5.75% of all gasoline and diesel fuels sold for transport purposes are biofuels. European Union countries have social and economic characteristics unique to themselves. The energy dependence on foreign sources, the features of the agricultural sector or the degree of industrialization varies greatly from one country to another. In this context, it is questionable whether the obligation imposed by this directive is actually achieving in its application uniform and/or identical goals in each of the countries involved and whether the actions of the various governments are also aligned with these goals. All these ideas were developed in a previous report (Sobrino and Monroy (2009)). This report examines the possibility of using hydrogen as an alternative to fossil fuels and biofuels from a technical, economic and environmental point of view in the specific case of a European Union country: Spain. (author)

2003-01-00

189

Assessing European potential for geological storage of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion. The Gestco Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Total EU (and Norway) emissions of CO2 from thermal power generation were some 950 million tonnes in 1990, the Kyoto agreement reference level. An ongoing research project, the GESTCO project, will provide the first documentation that, for the emission sources within the selected key areas, sufficient geological storage capacity is available for at least 30 years and possibly much longer. Cost of energy will obviously increase, but it is anticipated that electricity production cost price will be comparable to that of renewables. It would further have major implications for the European power generating industry which today is totally dominated by fossil fuel combustion with enormous emissions problems. The identification and siting of subsurface CO2 storage capability can be expected to have considerable effect on the planning for and future siting of fossil fuel plants. In Norway there are plans to build several major, coastally sited, natural gas-fed electricity generating plants. It is obvious that their siting should be, in part, based on the availability of a suitable subsurface CO2 storage facility. Hydrogen power plants, using natural gas as a feed stock, are being considered as a viable future option in a number of countries with natural gas supply systems. In such plants separation of the natural gas into hydrogen and CO2 will take place prior to combustion of the hydrogen. Emissions will be water vapour and the concept includes geological storage of the considerable volumes of clean, separated CO2 in saline aquifers or in (heavy) oil fields, using the CO2 to enhance oil recovery. Such power plants would also be able to supply hydrogen or methanol for automotive transport powered by fuels cells. The siting of such plants will again be dependent on the availability of subsurface CO2 storage facilities. As the search for oil and gas proceeds into geographically more remote areas the widespread transport of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) will become commonplace. In order to produce LNG the gas first has to be cleansed of CO2, and it is essential that the siting of such cleansing plants are seen in relation to suitable subsurface CO2 storage facilities. Storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is technically feasible as demonstrated at the Sleipner gas field in the Norwegian North Sea. Since 1996, 1 million tonnes of CO2 has annually been injected into saltwater saturated sands at depths below 800 m. The CO2 at Sleipner occurs as a natural constituent in the hydrocarbon gas and is separated from the sales gas prior to pipeline export

2001-10-26

190

Evaluation of Tenax-GC and XAD-2 as polymer adsorbents for sampling fossil fuel combustion products containing nitrogen oxides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tenax-GC and Amberlite XAD-2 are porous polymer adsorbents used to sample organic vapors in effluents from fossil fuel combustion technologies. Experiments determining the efficacy of the two adsorbents are summarized. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicates that Tenax-GC would be more suitable than XAD-2 for the sampling of stack effluents from fossil fuel combustion.

Hanson, R.L.; Clark, C.C.; Carpenter, R.L.; Hobbs, C.H.

1981-06-01

191

Carbon-neutral economy with fossil fuel-based hydrogen energy and carbon materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrocarbon fossil fuels can be considered as hydrogen ores for CO2-free energy, and carbon ores for carbonaceous construction materials. Hydrogen fuel can be extracted from fossil fuels by decarbonization, and used as an energy resource. The carbon byproduct can be used as a versatile construction material. Carbon materials would sequester carbon, and replace CO2-generating steel and concrete. Approximate comparison of the global consumption of energy and construction materials suggests a rough mass balance of energy and materials markets. The cost of foregoing the carbon energy content as a fuel can be easily offset by the value of the carbon-based construction material. The nature and properties of carbon materials and conventional infrastructural materials are compared

2007-01-01

192

Steam-reforming of fossil fuels and wastes to produce energy and chemicals without greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Worldwide concern has demanded a re-examination of the energy- and chemical-producing plants that use fossil fuel sources and release large quantities of greenhouse gases. Plant retrofits with steam-reformer/gasifiers will increase plant efficiencies, improve economics and avoid releasing troublesome amounts of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide. In this paper, the authors describe and illustrate the several new steam-reforming/gasification plants that are processing waste streams and fossil fuels. These plants range in size from 1 ton/day to 2,000 tons/day. They are commercial and economically successful. These new concepts can be used to both upgrade fossil plants for improved economics while eliminating the release of greenhouse gases. By aggressively retrofitting old coal plants and sequestering CO{sub 2}, a 15% reduction in 1990 CO{sub 2} emissions can be met by the US by 2010.

Galloway, T.R.

1998-07-01

193

Environmental review for the conversion of Bellefonte Nuclear Plant to fossil fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Tennessee Valley Authority recently issued for public review a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the conversion of the unfinished Bellefonte Nuclear Plant to fossil fuel. The DEIS was structured to support three tiers of decision making. Tier 1 is to decide between the No-Action Alternative, which is to leave Bellefonte as a partially completed nuclear plant into the indefinite future, and the Proposed Action Alternative, which is to proceed with converting Bellefonte to fossil fuel. Tier 2 is to select one of five conversion options. In the DEIS, TVA indicated no preference among the five competing fossil conversion options. The five conversion pathways would fully repower the plant consistent with fossil fuel availability, would use commercially ready systems and technologies and be designed to fully utilize the capacity of transmission lines serving Bellefonte. Conversion options addressed were pulverized coal (PC), natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), IGCC with joint production of electricity and chemicals, and an option, which combines elements of NGCC and IGCC with coproduction. Tier 3 involves decisions about eight sub-option choices, basically types of processes, equipment, and modes of operation, which is part of two or more conversion options. An example of a sub-option choice would be the type of gasifier that would be used in conversion options involving coal or petroleum coke gasification. Other sub-option choices addressed in the DEIS were natural gas pipeline corridors; fuels, feedstocks, and by-products transportation modes; types of combustion turbines; solid fuels; types of boilers for conventional coal-fired options; chemical production mixes; and modes of onsite solid fuel conveyance. The impact of constructing and operating each proposed fossil conversion option at Bellefonte were evaluated for 18 environmental resource and economic categories.

Carter, R.; Rucker, H.; Summers, R.

1998-07-01

194

High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO2 measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of approximately 100 km2 and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO2 inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the "Vulcan" inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO2 emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km2 and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Comparison to the global 1degree x 1 degree fossil fuel CO2 inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach.

Gurney KR; Mendoza DL; Zhou Y; Fischer ML; Miller CC; Geethakumar S; de la Rue du Can S

2009-07-01

195

High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO{sub 2} emission fluxes for the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quantification of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO{sub 2} measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of about 100 km{sup 2} and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the 'Vulcan' inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km{sup 2} and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product, completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions. Comparison to the global 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach. 39 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Kevin R. Gurney; Daniel L. Mendoza; Yuyu Zhou; Marc L. Fischer; Chris C. Miller; Sarath Geethakumar; Stephane de la Rue du Can [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences/Department of Agronomy

2009-07-15

196

High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quantification of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO{sub 2} measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of {approx}100 km{sup 2} and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the 'Vulcan' inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km{sup 2} and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product, completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions. Comparison to the global 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach.

Gurney, Kevin R.; Mendoza, Daniel L.; Zhou, Yuyu; Fischer, Marc L.; Miller, Chris C.; Geethakumar, Sarath; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2009-03-19

197

Household consumption, associated fossil fuel demand and carbon dioxide emissions: The case of Greece between 1990 and 2006  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper explores how Greece's household consumption has changed between 1990 and 2006 and its environmental implications in terms of fossil fuel demand and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The results show that the 44% increase in Greece's household expenditure between 1990 and 2006 was accompanied by a 67% increase in fossil fuel demand. Of this total, indirect demand accounted for approximately 60% throughout the 16-year period, increasing by 56% overall, whereas direct fossil fuel demand grew by 80%. The results also show that associated CO2 emissions increased by 60%, resulting in a 'relative decoupling' from energy demand. This relative decoupling is shown to be due to fossil fuel mix changes from the supply side rather than action from consumers. These insights highlight the opportunities for demand-side policies to further reduce fossil fuel demand and CO2 emissions, allowing Greece to set more proactive and ambitious post-Kyoto targets.

2010-01-01

198

New improved standard for electron probe determination of organic sulfur in fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on petroleum coke that is stable under an electron beam and contains a uniform sulfur content. Hence, it is a suitable standard for analysis of organic sulfur content of coal. It should be as applicable for analysis of organic sulfur in other fossil fuels. This standard is available for distribution.

Harris, L.A.; Raymond, R. Jr.; Gooley, R.

1980-01-01

199

Climate agreements, fossil fuel taxation and the distribution of costs across countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper analyzes how different types of climate agreements, with the common characteristic that they commit OECD countries to reduce their CO{sub 2} emissions, will distribute the abatement costs across these countries. The issue is analyzed both theoretically and within the framework of a numerical model. The model simulations presented assume that the OECD countries redesign their fossil fuel taxation to meet their commitments. These tax changes will cause changes in terms-of-trade and affect public revenue. The model simulations illustrate to what extent these changes will be in favor of countries with large net-import of fossil fuels and low fossil fuel taxes. A conclusion is that an agreement with emphasis on commitments to the implementation of certain policies, exemplified by minimum fossil fuel taxes, might have some advantages not only in relation to cost-effectiveness but also in connection to fairness compared to agreements which rely mainly on quantified, national emission-reduction commitments. 9 refs., 3 figs.

Holtsmark, B. [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo (Norway)

1997-12-31

200

Optimization of low sulfur carob pulp liquor as carbon source for fossil fuels biodesulfurization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background:Biodesulfurization (BDS) is a complementary technology to hydrodesulfurization since it allows the removal of recalcitrant sulfur compounds present in fossil fuels. The cost of culture medium to produce the biocatalysts is still one limitation for BDS application. Carob pulp, as an altern...

Silva, Tiago, P.; Paixão, Susana M.; Teixeira, Alexandra V.; Roseiro, José C.; Alves, Luís

 
 
 
 
201

Impacts of Wind and Solar on Fossil-Fueled Generators: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High penetrations of wind and solar power will impact the operations of the remaining generators on the power system. Regional integration studies have shown that wind and solar may cause fossil-fueled generators to cycle on and off and ramp down to part load more frequently and potentially more rapidly. Increased cycling, deeper load following, and rapid ramping may result in wear-and-tear impacts on fossil-fueled generators that lead to increased capital and maintenance costs, increased equivalent forced outage rates, and degraded performance over time. Heat rates and emissions from fossil-fueled generators may be higher during cycling and ramping than during steady-state operation. Many wind and solar integration studies have not taken these increased cost and emissions impacts into account because data have not been available. This analysis considers the cost and emissions impacts of cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generation to refine assessments of wind and solar impacts on the power system.

Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Agan, D.; Lefton, S.

2012-08-01

202

Validity of the fossil fuel production outlooks in the IPCC Emission Scenarios  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anthropogenic global warming caused by CO2 emissions is strongly and fundamentally linked to future energy production. The Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) from 2000 contains 40 scenarios for future fossil fuel production and is used by the IPCC to assess future climate change. Previous s...

Höök, Mikael; Sivertsson, Anders; Aleklett, Kjell

203

A FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR THE COPROCESSING OF FOSSIL FUELS WITH BIOMASS BY THE HYDROCARB PROCESS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes and gives results of an assessment of a new process concept for the production of carbon and methanol from fossil fuels. The Hydrocarb Process consists of the hydrogasification of carbonaceous material to produce methane, which is subsequently thermally decom...

204

Torre Valdaliga (Civitavecchia, Italy) Fossil-Fuel Power Plants: Effects on Composition of Local Precipitations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from wet deposition sampling over an area near Civitavecchia (Italy) fossil-fuel power plants are here presented and discussed. In order to establish the possible influence of the power plants emissions on the chemical composition of the rain collect...

R. Bargagli R. Morabito N. Basili F. Tidei

1989-01-01

205

Increasing the momentum of fossil-fuel subsidy reform: a roadmap for international cooperation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Subsidizing fossil fuels is not compatible with the actions that have to be implemented to address climate change and promote sustainable development. A collaboration on an international level can support efforts engaged at the national level, through a research and technical assistance, a sharing of knowledge and best practice, the institution of rules and financial support. In 2010, the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) published a report, providing an analysis of the potential of the various international organizations around the world to host the international discussions and planning of actions regarding energy subsidy reform. Several existing organizations were considered. While the role of these organizations is important to support initiatives designed to reform fossil fuel subsidies, the study demonstrated that none of them present all the secretariat functions required to support a movement at the international level. A particular attention is given to the potential of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to house the international cooperation, considering their legal basis and their ability to reform fossil-fuel subsidies. After a description of the G-20 initiative regarding the reduction of fossil fuel subsidies, the IISD presents a Roadmap for international cooperation providing a route leading to a negotiated agreement, and describes the procedure to follow at a short-, medium- and long term. This roadmap identifies the roles of the different organizations through this process. 41 refs.

Lang, K.; Wooders, P.; Kulovesi, K.

2010-06-15

206

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights of research activities at BETC during the past quarter are summarized in this document. Major research areas include: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction (resource assessment and enhanced production); processing (characterization, thermodynamics, and process technology); utilization; and product integration and technology transfer.

1981-05-01

207

Pareto optimality in the extraction of fossil fuels and the greenhouse effect: a note  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This note generalizes the Solow-Stiglitz efficiency condition for natural resources to the problem of fossil fuel extraction with a greenhouse effect. The generalized optimality condition suggests that the greenhouse effect implies overextraction in the sense of leaving future generations a wrongly ...

Sinn, Hans-Werner

208

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1981  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Bartlesville Energy Technology Center's research activities are summarized under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction which is subdivided into resource assessment and production; liquid processing which includes characterization of liquids from petroleum, coal, shale and other alternate sources, thermodynamics and process technology; utilization; and project integration and technology transfer. (ATT)

1981-08-01

209

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1982  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report primarily covers in-house oil, gas, and synfuel research and lists the contracted research. The report is broken into the following areas: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are listed. (DLC)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1982-10-01

210

Fossils harbor climate clues and fuel debate over glacier stability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf near McMurdo Station in Antarctica, scientists have discovered fossils of well preserved wood and a mixture of microscopic marine organisms, dating from the Eocene epoch. This discovery promises significant clues to the onset of glaciation in Antarctica. Geologists believe that this discovery may shed light on Antarctica's link to world climate and help predict future climatic change. Debate centers around when glaciation first became extensive, 15 or 20 million years ago, and whether or not the ice sheet was dynamic and responsive to small fluctuations in climate or stable and able to lock up massive amounts of the world's water. 7 refs.

1993-06-01

211

Economic value of U.S. fossil fuel electricity health impacts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fossil fuel energy has several externalities not accounted for in the retail price, including associated adverse human health impacts, future costs from climate change, and other environmental damages. Here, we quantify the economic value of health impacts associated with PM(2.5) and PM(2.5) precursors (NO(x) and SO(2)) on a per kilowatt hour basis. We provide figures based on state electricity profiles, national averages and fossil fuel type. We find that the economic value of improved human health associated with avoiding emissions from fossil fuel electricity in the United States ranges from a low of $0.005-$0.013/kWh in California to a high of $0.41-$1.01/kWh in Maryland. When accounting for the adverse health impacts of imported electricity, the California figure increases to $0.03-$0.07/kWh. Nationally, the average economic value of health impacts associated with fossil fuel usage is $0.14-$0.35/kWh. For coal, oil, and natural gas, respectively, associated economic values of health impacts are $0.19-$0.45/kWh, $0.08-$0.19/kWh, and $0.01-$0.02/kWh. For coal and oil, these costs are larger than the typical retail price of electricity, demonstrating the magnitude of the externality. When the economic value of health impacts resulting from air emissions is considered, our analysis suggests that on average, U.S. consumers of electricity should be willing to pay $0.24-$0.45/kWh for alternatives such as energy efficiency investments or emission-free renewable sources that avoid fossil fuel combustion. The economic value of health impacts is approximately an order of magnitude larger than estimates of the social cost of carbon for fossil fuel electricity. In total, we estimate that the economic value of health impacts from fossil fuel electricity in the United States is $361.7-886.5 billion annually, representing 2.5-6.0% of the national GDP.

Machol B; Rizk S

2013-02-01

212

Economic value of U.S. fossil fuel electricity health impacts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fossil fuel energy has several externalities not accounted for in the retail price, including associated adverse human health impacts, future costs from climate change, and other environmental damages. Here, we quantify the economic value of health impacts associated with PM(2.5) and PM(2.5) precursors (NO(x) and SO(2)) on a per kilowatt hour basis. We provide figures based on state electricity profiles, national averages and fossil fuel type. We find that the economic value of improved human health associated with avoiding emissions from fossil fuel electricity in the United States ranges from a low of $0.005-$0.013/kWh in California to a high of $0.41-$1.01/kWh in Maryland. When accounting for the adverse health impacts of imported electricity, the California figure increases to $0.03-$0.07/kWh. Nationally, the average economic value of health impacts associated with fossil fuel usage is $0.14-$0.35/kWh. For coal, oil, and natural gas, respectively, associated economic values of health impacts are $0.19-$0.45/kWh, $0.08-$0.19/kWh, and $0.01-$0.02/kWh. For coal and oil, these costs are larger than the typical retail price of electricity, demonstrating the magnitude of the externality. When the economic value of health impacts resulting from air emissions is considered, our analysis suggests that on average, U.S. consumers of electricity should be willing to pay $0.24-$0.45/kWh for alternatives such as energy efficiency investments or emission-free renewable sources that avoid fossil fuel combustion. The economic value of health impacts is approximately an order of magnitude larger than estimates of the social cost of carbon for fossil fuel electricity. In total, we estimate that the economic value of health impacts from fossil fuel electricity in the United States is $361.7-886.5 billion annually, representing 2.5-6.0% of the national GDP. PMID:23246069

Machol, Ben; Rizk, Sarah

2012-12-13

213

Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model`s parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed.

Wise, M.A.; Woodruff, M.G.; Ashton, W.B.

1992-08-01

214

Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model's parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed.

1992-01-01

215

Co-combustion of Fossil Fuels and Waste  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Ph.D. thesis deals with the alternative and high efficiency methods of using waste-derived fuels in heat and power production. The focus is on the following subjects: 1) co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel (SRF) under pulverized fuel combustion conditions; 2) dust-firing of straw and the utilization of a waste-derived material as an additive; 3) the combustion of a biomass residue rich in phosphorus. Co-combustion of coal and SRF was conducted in an entrained flow reactor (EFR). The work revealed that when coal was co-fired with up to 25 wt% SRF, the burnout and the emissions of SO2 and NO were decreased with increasing share of SRF, probably due to the combustion characteristics of the SRF and/or the interactions between the SRF and the coal in co-combustion. The Cl content in the fly ash was very low (

Wu, Hao

2011-01-01

216

Solid recovered fuels in the steel industry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By using waste materials as alternative fuels in metallurgical plants it is possible to minimize the traditionally used reducing agents, such as coke, coal, oil or natural gas. Moreover, by using waste materials in the metallurgical industry it is feasible to recover these materials as far as possible. This also represents another step towards environmental protection because carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced, if the H(2) content of the waste material is greater in comparison with that of the substituted fuel and the effects of global warming can therefore be reduced. In the present article various solid recovered fuels and their applications in the metallurgical industry are detailed.

Kepplinger WL; Tappeiner T

2012-04-01

217

Forest industry wood fuel supply  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential for wood fired energy production in the UK is significant. Large scale developments are currently underway which could utilise over 100,000 green tonnes of forest residues. The fuel supply chain is likely to be complicated and there are perceived risks in its organisation and security. This report sets out to address some of these perceived risks and suggest suitable measures to reduce it. Six areas of the fuel supply chain have been studied, namely; Extraction, Comminution, Transport, Assessment and payment of wood fuel; Environmental impact; Nutrient recycling (ash disposal). (author)

NONE

1996-12-01

218

Potential for reducing CO2 from fossil fuel through biomass for fossil fuel substitution. Biomass riyo ni yoru CO2 sakugen koka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces examples of estimation on potential for reducing CO2 emission caused by fossil fuel combustion by utilizing biomass. The paper summarizes biomasses that can be supplied from new afforestation, direct biomass combustion power generation, gasified gas-turbine power generation, and evaluation on energy conversion efficiency of biomass when ethanol fermentation is utilized. It then describes the summary of a method to calculate net CO2 reduction amount from CO2 emission amount that is displaced by using products obtained in each biomass conversion process as substitutes to fossil fuels, from CO2 emission amount associated with energy supply required for each conversion process, and from CO2 emission amount associated with biomass cultivation. The paper also presents results of calculations that show it is possible to reduce the whole amount of CO2 emitted from coal burning by using biomass for power generation, and reduce by half the CO2 emitted from gasoline fueled vehicles in the OECD countries by using ethanol made from biomass. 16 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Dote, Y.; Yokoyama, S. (National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan))

1994-03-25

219

Technical considerations in repowering a nuclear plant for fossil fueled operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Repowering involves replacement of the reactor by a fossil fuel source of steam. This source can be a conventional fossil fueled boiler or the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) on a gas turbine exhaust. The existing steam turbine plant is used to the extent possible. Alternative fuels for repowering a nuclear plant are coal, natural gas and oil. In today`s world oil is not usually an alternative. Selection of coal or natural gas is largely a matter of availability of the fuel near the location of the plant. Both the fossil boiler and the HRSG produce steam at higher pressures and temperatures than the throttle conditions for a saturated steam nuclear turbine. It is necessary to match the steam conditions from the new source to the existing turbine as closely as possible. Technical approaches to achieve a match range from using a topping turbine at the front end of the cycle to attemperation of the throttle steam with feedwater. The electrical output from the repowered plant is usually greater than that of the original nuclear fueled design. This requires consideration of the ability to use the excess electricity. Interfacing of the new facility with the existing turbine plant requires consideration of facility layout and design. Site factors must also be considered, especially for a coal fired boiler, since rail and coal handling facilities must be added to a site for which these were not considered. Additional site factors that require consideration are ash handling and disposal.

Patti, F.J.

1996-03-01

220

Applications of the thermogravimetric analysis in the study of fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of coal and resid liquids and coal and resid solid residues, produced in coal liquefaction and coal- derived resid hydroprocessing in SCTBR (short contact time batch reactor), provides a sensitive, rapid, reproducible means of studying kinetics and mechanisms of fossil fuel conversion processes. SimDis TGA and custom built TGA system for distillation provide unique means to characterize liquid fuels for boiling point distribution. TGA provides information about various weight loss processes that can be a reflection of physical and chemical structure of fossil fuel samples. This technique can also yield TG scanning parameters, such as volatile matter, fixed carbon, ash, etc., for monitoring the conversion processes. One example is onset and rate of retrograde reactions during coal liquefaction.

Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie; Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
221

Cold shock on the wood fuel industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of the wood fuel industry represents one of the pillars of the European energy plan, and in particular of the French energy policy, as it fulfills both objectives of development of renewable energy sources and CO2 balance. The wood fuel industry supplies 6% of the French energy consumption and has permitted to save more than 9 million tons of petroleum equivalent. However, the conclusions of the European project CARBOSOL stress on the strong health impacts of wood-fueled combustion systems, in particular in the case of domestic individual systems and appliances. The combustion of biomass (fireplaces and agriculture) is responsible for 50 to 70% of the winter carbon pollution in Europe. The situation of collective or industrial wood-fueled facilities is different since pollution control solutions can be more easily implemented. (J.S.)

2008-01-01

222

Reconciling fossil fuel power generation development and climate issues: CCS and CCS-Ready  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper intends to analyse how CCS can contribute to reduce CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel power plants and to describe what is its current overall status. Its potential future development is assessed, in both developed and developing countries, and an economical assessment of different investment options highlight the importance of CCS retrofit. The paper analyses then the challenges of the development of fossil fuelled power plants and details case examples to illustrate some technical challenges related to CCS and what are the technical solutions available today to ease and address them: CCS-Ready power plants.

Paelinck, Philippe; Sonnois, Louis; Leandri, Jean-Francois

2010-09-15

223

N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship, on a global basis, between the amount of N fixed by chemical, biological or atmospheric processes entering the terrestrial biosphere, and the total emission of nitrous oxide (N2O), has been re-examined, using known global atmospheric removal rates and concentration growth of N2O as a proxy for overall emissions. The relationship, in both the pre-industrial period and in recent times, after taking into account the large-scale changes in synthetic N fertiliser production and deforestation, is consistent, showing an overall conversion factor of 3–5%. This factor is covered only in part by the ~1% of "direct" emissions from agricultural crop lands estimated by IPCC (2006), or the "indirect" emissions cited therein. This means that the extra N2O entering the atmosphere as a result of using N to produce crops for biofuels will also be correspondingly greater than that estimated just on the basis of IPCC (2006). When the extra N2O emission from biofuel production is calculated in "CO2-equivalent" global warming terms, and compared with the quasi-cooling effect of "saving" emissions of fossil fuel derived CO2, the outcome is that the production of commonly used biofuels, such as biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from corn (maize), can contribute as much or more to global warming by N2O emissions than cooling by fossil fuel savings. Crops with less N demand, such as grasses and woody coppice species have more favourable climate impacts. This analysis only considers the conversion of biomass to biofuel. It does not take into account the use of fossil fuel on the farms and for fertilizer and pesticide production, but it also neglects the production of useful co-products. Both factors partially compensate each other. This needs to be analyzed in a full life cycle assessment.

P. J. Crutzen; A. R. Mosier; K. A. Smith; W. Winiwarter

2007-01-01

224

Co-combustion for fossil fuel replacement and better environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The growing demand for energy and the requirements regarding CO{sub 2} emissions to comply with the Kyoto targets, together with crisis associated with the fuel supply, can be, to some degree, met by the use of renewable fuel sources, such as biomass. Although the use of biomass, originating from forests, could be beneficial, particularly in preventing fires, there are obstacles to achieve a sustainable supply of biomass in most European countries. In addition, there are also technical barriers as biomass combustion conditions may differ from those of coal, which could mean significant retrofitting of existing installations. The significance of this problem was recognized in the EU and a Project is being financed by the 6th Framework Programme, INETI from Portugal being the coordinator. Five EU countries plus Turkey participate in the project which aims at evaluating both the sustainable chain supply in the several countries, taking profit of the experience of northern European countries and the technical issues related with the co-combustion process, pollutant emission control and operational problems, such as fouling and slagging inside the boilers. At INETI, experimental work is being carried out, involving the characterization of several types of biomass and non-toxic residues. These materials are being burned on a pilot fluidized bed combustor, in order to evaluate combustion performance and improve conditions and synergies of fuel blends to control pollutant emissions and slagging tendency. Ashes produced are also being characterized, for composition and leachability, in order to evaluate possibilities of reutilization and compliance with landfilling regulations. In this paper a description of the project is presented, along with some of the results already obtained.

Lopes, M. Helena; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Abelha, Pedro; Teixeira, P.; Crujeira, Teresa; Boavida, Dulce; Marques, F.; Cabrita, Isabel [INETI/DER, Lisboa (Portugal)

2006-07-01

225

Co-combustion for fossil fuel replacement and better environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The growing demand for energy and the requirement regarding CO{sub 2} emissions, to comply with the Kyoto targets, together with crisis associated with the fuel supply, can be, to some degree, met by the use of renewable fuel sources, such as biomass. Although the use of biomass, originating from forests, could be beneficial, there are obstacles to achieve a sustainable supply of biomass in most European countries. In addition, there are also technical barriers as biomass combustion conditions may differ from those of coal, which could mean significant retrofitting of existing installations. The significance of this problem was recognized in the EU and a Project is being financed by the 6th Framework Programme, INETI from Portugal being the coordinator. Five EU countries plus Turkey participate in the project which aims at evaluating both the sustainable chain supply in the several countries, taking profit of the experience of northern European countries and the technical issues related with the co-combustion process, pollutant emission control and operational problems, such as fouling and slagging inside the boilers. At INETI, experimental work is being carried out, involving the characterization of several types of biomass and non-toxic residues. These materials are being burned on a pilot fluidized bed combustor, in order to evaluate combustion performance and improve conditions and synergies of fuel blends to control pollutant emissions and slagging tendency. Ashes produced are also being characterized, for composition and leachability, in order to evaluate possibilities of reutilization and compliance with landfilling regulations. In this paper a description of the project is presented, along with some of the results already obtained. 19 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

M. Helena Lopes; I. Gulyurtlu; P. Abelha; P. Teixeira; T. Crujeira; D. Boavida; F. Marques; I. Cabrita [INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

2006-07-01

226

Is photovoltaic hydrogen in Italy competitive with traditional fossil fuels?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We have performed an evaluation of the end-use price of photovoltaically produced hydrogen. Our evaluation is optimistic as current estimates of photovoltaic energy costs by other authors generally correspond to higher figures, and evaluations of process and transportation costs have usually taken into account only the main components. Hydrogen is considered to be tax-free. A more realistic evaluation should be based on a fractional tax reduction over the short term, followed by full taxation in later years. Under these conditions, photovoltaic hydrogen as a fuel has proved to be non-competitive except in the transport sector. (Author)

1995-01-01

227

Sources of variation in ?13C of fossil fuel emissions in Salt Lake City, USA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The isotopic composition of fossil fuels is an important component of many studies of C sources and sinks based on atmospheric measurements of CO2. In C budget studies, the isotopic composition of crude petroleum and CH4 are often used as a proxy for the isotopic composition of CO2 emissions from combustion. In this study, the C isotope composition (?13C) of exhaust from the major fossil fuel emission sources in Salt Lake City, USA, was characterized with 159 measurements of vehicle exhaust of various types and eight measurements of residential furnace exhaust. These two sources were found to be isotopically distinct, and differed from global-scale estimates based on average values for crude petroleum and CH4. Vehicle-specific factors such as engine load and operation time had no effect on ?13C of vehicle exhaust. A small difference was found between the mean ?13C of vehicle exhaust collected randomly from different vehicles and the mean ?13C of gasoline collected from multiple fueling stations representing major gasoline distributors in Salt Lake City and the surrounding area. However, a paired comparison of ?13C of exhaust and gasoline for six different vehicles did not show any consistent C isotope fractionation during vehicle combustion. The mean ?13C of crude petroleum processed for local distribution differed slightly from refined gasoline collected at multiple fueling stations, but time lags between processing and transportation cannot be ruled out as an uncontrollable contributing factor. Measured isotope ratios were then combined with fuel consumption statistics to predict the annual cycle of ?13C of fossil fuel emissions for the Salt Lake City metropolitan area. The results showed that the isotopic composition of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion varied by almost 3 per mille over the course of the 2002 calendar year. This study illustrates that on a regional scale, the isotopic composition of fossil fuel emissions shows a high degree of both spatial and temporal variability that may influence characterization of C sources and sinks with atmospheric measurements

2007-01-01

228

Timing is everything : along the fossil fuel transition pathway.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

People save for retirement throughout their career because it is virtually impossible to save all you'll need in retirement the year before you retire. Similarly, without installing incremental amounts of clean fossil, renewable or transformative energy technologies throughout the coming decades, a radical and immediate change will be near impossible the year before a policy goal is set to be in place. Therefore, our research question is,To meet our desired technical and policy goals, what are the factors that affect the rate we must install technology to achieve these goals in the coming decades?' Existing models do not include full regulatory constraints due to their often complex, and inflexible approaches to solve foroptimal' engineering instead ofrobust' and multidisciplinary solutions. This project outlines the theory and then develops an applied software tool to model the laboratory-to-market transition using the traditional technology readiness level (TRL) framework, but develops subsequent and a novel regulatory readiness level (RRL) and market readiness level (MRL). This tool uses the ideally-suited system dynamics framework to incorporate feedbacks and time delays. Future energy-economic-environment models, regardless of their programming platform, may adapt this software model component framework ormodule' to further vet the likelihood of new or innovative technology moving through the laboratory, regulatory and market space. The prototype analytical framework and tool, called the Technology, Regulatory and Market Readiness Level simulation model (TRMsim) illustrates the interaction between technology research, application, policy and market dynamics as they relate to a new or innovative technology moving from the theoretical stage to full market deployment. The initial results that illustrate the model's capabilities indicate for a hypothetical technology, that increasing the key driver behind each of the TRL, RRL and MRL components individually decreases the time required for the technology to progress through each component by 63, 68 and 64%, respectively. Therefore, under the current working assumptions, to decrease the time it may take for a technology to move from the conceptual stage to full scale market adoption one might consider expending additional effort to secure regulatory approval and reducing the uncertainty of the technology's demand in the marketplace.

Kobos, Peter Holmes; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Malczynski, Leonard A.

2013-10-01

229

The fossil-fuels and the global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The earth is heated by solar radiation. One is the most important questions is the effect of the human industry. A simple model used, this gives a good result of the phenomena than difficult expressions of numerical applications. The calculation assigns a small number of parameters to the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. It is most important parameter which is changing. If decrease the atmospheric CO2 concentration on 500 ppm, the surface temperature would rise less 1 oC. The CO2 concentraton is a sensitive criterion, but not so much then we found by other models.

Remenyi, Karoly

2010-09-15

230

Zero Emission Steam Technology: Clean Electric Power from Fossil Fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As demand for electricity grows, the United States needs practical technologies for generating electricity without causing environmental harm--such as the Zero Emission Steam Technology (ZEST) developed by Clean Energy Systems, Inc. However, further research is required to reduce the scientific and economic risks before the U.S. electric power industry will embrace ZEST. Therefore, Clean Energy Systems, Inc., along with energy-generation stakeholders and in partnership with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, proposes to build a ZEST research facility for performing research.

Smith, J R

2001-07-31

231

System and a method to visually simulate subsystems in a fossil fuel power plant simulator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a simulation system in real time for visually simulating a firebox of a fossil fuel power plant including alternate levels of flame sources. The simulation system consists of: 1.) means for generating simulated firebox images corresponding to the firebox images of a particular fossil fuel power plant; 2.) means for displaying in real time sequences of simulated firebox images including images of different operating levels and characteristics of the flame sources; and 3.) means for controlling the display to display selected sequences of the firebox images to simulate in real time the changes to the flame sources in the firebox caused by changes in the operation of a simulated power plant.

Patteson, M.W.

1986-02-04

232

Light absorption by primary particles from fossil-fuel combustion: Implications for radiative forcing  

Science.gov (United States)

Interactions of visible radiation with atmospheric aerosols are important to the heat balance of the Earth. Accurate emission inventories of particles from combustion are required to predict anthropogenically-induced changes in the radiative balance. I present measurements of the optical properties of particles from several types of combustion and compare them with assumptions used in previous emission inventories. Emissions from an indirect-injection diesel engine were similar to expected values. However, a second engine with a direct-injection scheme emitted about 100 times the expected amount of both mass and light absorption because of a poor injection pattern. Total emissions from vehicles depend critically on the number of such "catastrophic" units in operation. Absorption emitted from a low-technology industrial lignite-burning furnace was about 20 times lower than previous estimates; the emitted particles contained partially aromatized carbon. Burning bituminous coal in a Chinese-style domestic combustor yielded significant light absorption, similar to published emission factors. Combustion of both coal briquettes obtained from China and lignite resulted in very low light absorption because tar release from these fuels was low. Combining the measurement and modeling results with an extensive literature survey, I estimated central, low and high values of emission factors for different fuels and combustion sectors. I then calculated a global emission inventory of light-absorbing carbon from fossil-fuel combustion. The total emission of light-absorbing carbon for 1994 is 3.7 Tg, about half the magnitude of previously published emission inventories. The upper and lower uncertainty boundaries are 0.8 and 44 Tg year--1. The largest sources of uncertainty are emission characteristics for residential coal and the existing fraction of "catastrophic" units in operation. Emission inventories for organic carbon (central value of 5.1 Tg year--1, with a range of 0.5-42 Tg year--1) and for primary particles (3 x 1028 year--1) are also presented. Radiative forcing by light-absorbing particles on a global-average basis is small, but regional effects are significant. In regions with high area-specific emissions, the central estimate of top-of-atmosphere forcing is about +0.7 W m--2, and the upper bound is around +4.0 W m --2.

Bond, Tami Christine

233

Chlorine induced corrosion of steels in fossil fuel power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The corrosion of steels in power plants (coal combustion, waste incineration) is mainly due to condensed chlorides in the ash deposited on the boiler tubes. These chlorides are stabilized by HCl in the combustion gas. In the case of coal as a fuel, chlorine is present as chloride minerals in the raw material which is converted to HCl during the combustion process. Corrosion of steels in chlorine containing environments occurs by the active oxidation mechanism, which is a self-sustaining accelerated oxidation process, catalyzed by chlorine. This study shows that solid chlorides react with the oxide scale of the steels to form chlorine, which initiates active oxidation. In order to prevent chlorine induced corrosion, the deposition of chlorides on the tubes within the coal ash must be avoided. This is possible by the presence of SO{sub 2}, which is present in the combustion gas, converting the chlorides to sulfates in the gas phase. The paper presents an example of a failure case in a coal fired plant in Germany. In this plant, chlorine induced corrosion was observed after effective removal of SO{sub 2} by additions of CaO. From thermodynamic calculations it can be shown that a certain amount of SO{sub 2} is necessary in order to avoid deposition of chlorides and to prevent corrosion.

Spiegel, M.; Grabke, H.J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Dusseldorf (Germany)

1998-12-31

234

The industrial nuclear fuel cycle in Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear power program of Argentina for the period 1976-85 is described, as a basis to indicate fuel requirements and the consequent implementation of a national fuel cycle industry. Fuel cycle activities in Argentina were initiated as soon as 1951-2 in the prospection and mining activities through the country. Following this step, yellow-cake production was initiated in plants of limited capacity. National production of uranium concentrate has met requirements up to the present time, and will continue to do so until the Sierra Pintada Industrial Complex starts operation in 1979. Presently, there is a gap in local production of uranium dioxide and fuel elements for the Atucha power station, which are produced abroad using Argentine uranium concentrate. With its background, the argentine program for the installation of nuclear fuel cycle industries is described, and the techno-economical implications considered. Individual projects are reviewed, as well as the present and planned infrastructure needed to support the industrial effort

1977-05-13

235

Comparative studies on Ar and He closed-cycle MHD power plants combined with fossil fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Comparative studies on Ar and He closed-cycle MHD power plants combined with fossil fuel are performed. The sizes of a regenerative heat exchanger and a boiler are expected to be smaller for He than for Ar. The pressure loss of a working gas in a regenerative heat exchanger is reduced for He. The purification subsystem for He is expected to be more compact and economical than that for Ar; but a larger compressor is required for He than for Ar. (author).

1985-01-01

236

Impacts of renewable generation on fossil fuel unit cycling. Costs and emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, wind and solar have become two of the fastest growing electricity generating technologies. As the penetration of wind and solar increases on the power system, conventional generation will be displaced. Because wind and solar are variable (output varies over different timescales) and uncertain (their output cannot be perfectly forecasted), their impact on the grid is complex and dependent on the specifics of each power system. Regional integration studies that simulate system operations have shown that ramping and on/off cycling of conventional generation tends to increase with wind and solar penetrations. Studies have demonstrated that cycling conventional generation leads to increased operation and maintenance costs due to thermal stresses on various parts. Several studies have also hypothesized that emissions reductions from variable generation (VG) such as wind and solar, will be smaller than expected due to the impacts of ramping and cycling of fossil-fueled power plants. As part of phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), we are studying the cost and emissions impact of cycling in high renewable penetration scenarios. We estimated the cost and emissions impacts of cycling and ramping fossil-fueled units using detailed operation and maintenance cost data and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Continuous Emissions Monitoring (CEM) data. We performed a re-analysis of the modeled dispatch of the Western U.S. electric power system from phase 1 of WWSIS. The new estimates for cycling cost and emissions were used to estimate the total system impacts of cycling. Scenarios with high and low renewable penetration were analyzed to estimate the impact of renewable generation on the cost and emissions impacts of cycling fossil-fueled generators. The results of this work show that the impacts of generator cycling and part-loading can be significant (e.g., for CC generators); however, these impacts are modest compared with the overall benefits of replacing fossil-fueled generation with variable renewable generation. (orig.)

Brinkman, G.; Lew, D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kumar, N.; Lefton, S. [Intertek-APTECH, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G. [GE Energy, Schenectady, NY (United States)

2012-07-01

237

Nature and utility of some unsteady characteristics of a fossil-fuel-fired boiler  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dimensionless temperature rise rate of an initially cold fossil-fuel-fired boiler and the boiler's off-cycle cooling rate are examined analytically. If the thermal relaxation times for the non-water-containing boiler elements are to be relatively short, simplified expressions are found for the time variation of the dimensionless boiler temperature. The utility of these analytic results is examined in the light of experimental observations.

Berlad, A L

1980-01-01

238

Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project was to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. A family of hydrogen separation membranes was developed including single phase mixed conducting ceramics, ceramic/ceramic composites, cermet membranes, cermet membranes containing a hydrogen permeable metal, and intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. Each membrane type had different operating parameters, advantages, and disadvantages that were documented over the course of the project. Research on these membranes progressed from ceramics to cermets to intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. During this progression performance was increased from 0.01 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2} up to 423 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2}. Eltron and team membranes not only developed each membrane type, but also membrane surface catalysis and impurity tolerance, creation of thin film membranes, alternative applications such as membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation, demonstration of scale-up testing, and complete engineering documentation including process and mechanical considerations necessary for inclusion of Eltron membranes in a full scale integrated gasification combined cycle power plant. The results of this project directly led to a new $15 million program funded by the Department of Energy. This new project will focus exclusively on scale-up of this technology as part of the FutureGen initiative.

Carl R. Evenson; Shane E. Roark

2006-03-31

239

Fossil fuel-fired peak heating for geothermal greenhouses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Greenhouses are a major application of low-temperature geothermal resources. In virtually all operating systems, the geothermal fluid is used in a hot water heating system to meet 100% of both the peak and annual heating requirements of the structure. This strategy is a result of the relatively low costs associated with the development of most US geothermal direct-use resources and past tax credit programs which penalized systems using any conventional fuel sources. Increasingly, greenhouse operations will encounter limitations in available geothermal resource flow due either to production or disposal considerations. As a result, it will be necessary to operate additions at reduced water temperatures reflective of the effluent from the existing operations. Water temperature has a strong influence on heating system design. Greenhouse operators tend to have unequivocal preferences regarding heating system equipment. Many growers, particularly cut flower and bedding plant operators, prefer the {open_quotes}bare tube{close_quotes} type heating system. This system places small diameter plastic tubes under the benches or adjacent to the plants. Hot water is circulated through the tubes providing heat to the plants and the air in the greenhouse. Advantages include the ability to provide the heat directly to the plants, low cost, simple installation and the lack of a requirement for fans to circulate air. The major disadvantage of the system is poor performance at low (<140{degrees}F) water temperatures, particularly in cold climates. Under these conditions, the quantity of tubing required to meet the peak heating load is substantial. In fact, under some conditions, it is simply impractical to install sufficient tubing in the greenhouse to meet the peak heating load.

Rafferty, K. [Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States)

1997-01-01

240

ROSE-based compact simulator for fossil fuel-fired power plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear simulators specifications typically ask for {open_quotes}high fidelity full scope replica simulator{close_quotes}. This request is not only the norm but also mandatory due to the strict regulations and safety concerns in that industry. It is an unquestionable fact that these types of simulators do provide the most realistic and effective environment to train control room operators in normal, abnormal operations, and especially in emergency conditions which would be difficult to rehearse otherwise. Utilities in the fossil industry who could afford the price that these top of the line simulators demand would not hesitate long to acquire one. Fortunately for the others, this industry has the luxury to be more flexible in its simulator`s needs which permits utilities to select a simulator within their specific budget. They may chose from a wide range of different types of simulators, including full scope or partial scope, high fidelity or generic, hardware control rooms replicas or CRT-based graphical emulations. In all cases, a simulator must be economically beneficial to plant operations to justify its cost. Taking into account the distinctive requirements of the fossil industry, including their budget constraints, CAE used its vast experience in nuclear simulators to produce a user-friendly, CRT-based compact fossil simulator, using ROSE (Real-time Object-oriented Software Environment). This paper describes the specifics and characteristics of the ROSE-base compact simulator.

Dana, H.; Burelle, R. [CAE Electronics Ltd., Saint-Laurent, Quebec (Canada)

1996-11-01

 
 
 
 
241

Estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels combustion in the main sectors of selected countries 1971-1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Calculations of sectoral CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning in the period 1971-1990 were done for the 15 countries at the top of the list of nations ordered by decreasing contribution to global emissions, namely: United States of America, Soviet Union, People's Republic of China, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom, India, Poland, Canada, France, Italy, German Democratic Republic, South Africa, Mexico and Czechoslovakia. In addition, the CO2 emission of two groups of industrialized countries, namely the OECD and the European Economic Community (EEC) were calculated. The main recommendations of the IPCC/OECD current methodology have been adopted for the calculations, with the principal exception that CO2 emissions from the use of bunker fuels have not been included in the national estimates. The sectors are: 1. Transformations. Total emissions and the part stemming from power plants 2. Industry (excluding Feedstocks) 3. Transportation 4. Agriculture 5. Residential 6. Commerce and Public Services 7. Non-specified Other 8. Non-Energy Use 9. Feedstocks (in Industry). Data are presented in tables and diagrams. (orig./KW)

242

Options contracts in the nuclear fuel industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discusses options trading in the nuclear fuels industry. Although there now exists no formal options market in the nuclear industry, flexibilities, or embedded options, are actually quite common in the long-term supply contracts. The value of these flexibilities can be estimated by applying the methods used to evaluate options. The method used is the Black-Scholes Model, and it is applied to a number of examples.

Fuller, D.M.

1995-04-01

243

ENEL (Italian Electricity Board) Tavazzano-Montanaso (Italy) Fossil-Fuel Power Plant: Report on Environmental Compatibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

The planned ENEL (Italian Electricity Board) Tavazzano-Montanaso fossil-fuel power plant (with poly-fuel boilers which can run on fuel oil, coal or methane) is analyzed for its environmental compatibility - the plant's ability to deal with problems associ...

1987-01-01

244

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project is to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. Currently, this project is focusing on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites with hydrogen permeable alloys. The primary technical challenge in achieving the goals of this project will be to optimize membrane composition to enable practical hydrogen separation rates and chemical stability. Other key aspects of this developing technology include catalysis, ceramic processing methods, and separation unit design operating under high pressure. To achieve these technical goals, Eltron Research Inc. has organized a consortium consisting of CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, Inc. (SCI), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and NORAM. Hydrogen permeation rates in excess of 50 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup 2} at {approx}440 C were routinely achieved under less than optimal experimental conditions using a range of membrane compositions. Factors that limit the maximum permeation attainable were determined to be mass transport resistance of H{sub 2} to and from the membrane surface, as well as surface contamination. Mass transport resistance was partially overcome by increasing the feed and sweep gas flow rates to greater than five liters per minute. Under these experimental conditions, H2 permeation rates in excess of 350 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup 2} at {approx}440 C were attained. These results are presented in this report, in addition to progress with cermets, thin film fabrication, catalyst development, and H{sub 2} separation unit scale up.

Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Scott R. Morrison; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephen; Frank E. Anderson; Shandra Ratnasamy; Jon P. Wagner; Clive Brereton

2004-01-30

245

Clean uses of fossil fuels. Progress performance report, September 29, 1991--January 25, 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Science and engineering doctoral students performing energy related research were supported by a USDOE/ESPCoR Traineeship grant awarded to the Kentucky EPSCoR Committee. The grant, administered by the KY DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee, focused on research having the general description of {open_quotes}Clean Uses of Fossil Fuels{close_quotes}. The value of the grant was $500,000 for three years duration, beginning September 30, 1991 and ending September 29, 1994. Ten PhD students were selected for support during the first year of the Traineeship. Upon reviewing coursework and research progress of the students at the end of the first year, the KY DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee awarded a second year of support at the same $25,000/year funding level. A total of 12 students will have been supported during the duration of the grant as a consequence of one student completing his degree during the support period and of one student deciding that she wanted to complete only a Masters rather than a PhD degree. The students supported were at either the University of Kentucky or the University of Louisville - the two PhD, science and engineering granting universities within the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The disciplines of these students included Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Physics. The methods used for the initial statewide solicitation for student support, the annual review of the students progress for support renewal, and a summary of progress and impact of the awards after two years are presented. It is shown that the Traineeships presented opportunities to: perform high quality research; initiate interactions between different scientific disciplines and departments; develop collaborations at national DOE laboratories, universities outside of Kentucky and industries; and establish research ideas for submittal to funding agencies.

Stencel, J.M.

1994-01-25

246

Sedimentary records of spheroidal carbonaceous particles from fossil-fuel combustion in western Lake Ontario  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) were quantified in three sediment cores collected in the western basin of Lake Ontario to examine the impact of fossil-fuel combustion on sediment metal concentrations. SCP profiles were similar for the three cores showing the initiation of the SCP record deep in the core, followed by a rapid increase to a sub-surface maximum, and a subsequent decrease towards the sediment surface. Subsurface maximum SCP concentrations ranged from 1.97 to 5.61 x 10{sup 5} per gram dry matter/gDM. For Pb-210 dated cores, dates for the initiation of the SCP record (1850 {+-} 10 years), the initiation of the rapid rise in SCPs (1880 {+-} 13 years), and the SCP subsurface maximum (1961 {+-} 3 years) agree well. The rapid increase in sediment SCPs also agrees well with the US bituminous coal consumption during this same period (1880 to 1980). SCPs in surface sediments decreased between 55 to 83% from the subsurface maximum (1961 to 1996) in these cores while US coal usage continued to increase. SCP decreases were attributed to the increased use and efficiency of particle collection devices by utilities and industry. Lead, Cr, Cu, and Zn showed significant correlations with SCPs within each respective sediment core. Calculations show that although SCPs are not the major source of anthropogenic metals in Lake Ontario sediments, they may account for between 4 to 55% of the Zn, 1 to 12% of the Cu, 2 to 22% of the Pb and 1 to 18% of the Cr in these sediments.

Lan, Y.L.; Breslin, V.T. [Syracuse University, Stony Brook, NY (USA). Marine Science Research Center

1999-07-01

247

Comparison of technical and economical parameters of NHS and various energy sources operating on fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative estimation is performed for economical efficiency of the district heating nuclear power station (DHNPS) with two AST-500 reactors and fossil fuel power plants (a boiler house operating on coal, a boiler house operating on gas, a steam-gas plant (PGU-TEhTs). It is established that total discounted costs for DHNPS are 1.4-2.3 times lower in comparison with alternative sources in view of world prices at fuels, ecological damage from gaseous waste release into the atmosphere and main equipment service life. It is concluded that the nuclear power station with two AST-500 plants is preferential for heat supply of the town of Seversk

2001-01-01

248

Combined-cycle plants for maximum generation of thermal energy with fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The two thermodynamic processes, cogeneration with combined-cycle plants and thermal compression with heat pumps - one following the other - make it possible to generate the greatest amount of thermal energy possible from a given amount of fossil fuel. That amount exceeds by far the heat value of the fuel used. Cogeneration plants based on combined-cycle installations are also the most efficient way to compensate for the loss in electric power (amounting to approx. 1/7 of the thermal energy produced) resulting from nuclear cogeneration of district heat. (author) 15 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

1991-01-01

249

The industrial production of fuel elements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors deal successively with the industrial production of fuel elements for power reactors of the natural uranium-graphite-gas type, and more particularly for the EDF power stations, and with the industrial production of fuel elements containing enriched uranium designed for swimming-pool type reactors. 1. part: advanced fuel elements for the EDF reactors. After recalling the characteristics of the fuel elements now being produced industrially for the Marcoule and Chinon reactors, the authors give the various steps leading to the industrial production of a new type of fuel element both as concerns the can, and in certain cases the graphite sleeve, and the fuel itself. As for as the production of the fuel is concerned, they describe the various operations, stressing the original aspects of the production and of the equipment such as: - casting in hot moulds, - thermal treatments, of Uranium containing 1% in weight molybdenum, - welding of the pellets for closing the tubes of uranium, - canning, - controls in the various steps. As far as can production is concerned they show why the extruded can was replaced by a machined can and give a few characteristics of the equipment used as well as the controls effected. They give also some details concerning the production and machining of the sleeves. After recalling the state of the nuclear fuel industry in France in mid-1964 the authors stress the economic aspects of the production of fuel elements. They show the relative importance of capital costs on the cost price of the fuel itself and examine the various items involved. They analyse the cost price of a completed fuel element using present date knowledge. In conclusion the authors show the particular points which should be the subject of future efforts in order to decrease the cost of a production which is perhaps delicate but now will define, and review the development of this new industrial branch. 2. part: industrial production of fuel elements for swimming-pool type reactors. The authors show how the problem of the industrial production of rolled fuel elements has been solved in France, and give the three steps involved: 1 - Assembly of the plates made in the U.S.A., 2 - Rolling of the cores made in the U.S.A. to obtain the plates, 3 - Fabrication of the U-Al alloy and production of the cores. They then recall briefly the characteristics of the different fuel elements now in production. A description is given of the various stages of the production including information about the equipment; stress is laid on the extent of the controls carried out at each stage. In conclusion the authors consider the future development of this type of production taking into account the improvements planned and those which are possible. (authors)

1964-01-01

250

Alternate fuels for industrial combustion engines. Final report on Task 018  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the various options for producing alternate fuels (synfuels) for large industrial combustion engine use are examined from the standpoint of current fuel usage and future engine development trends. This general class of engine in sizes above 1500 horsepower is widely utilized in the utility, transportation and industrial sectors to meet a variety of mechanical power needs. Consequently, industrial engine fuel demands are expected to be an important consideration as to which alternate fuels are developed as well as their commercial properties. The broad conclusions of this study are: (1) The current emphasis on the development of various concepts for the processng of gaseous and distillate fuels from coal and shale will provide a reliable fossil fuel source for industrial engine utilization well beyond the year 2000. (2) Engine emission requirements will largely dictate the degree of upgrading (cost) of alternate engine fuels and their commercial specifications as well as the overall efficiency of the entire energy system from resource to engine output. (3) The present lack of sufficient quantities of alternate fuels for engine development implies a need for fundamental research leading to an improved understanding of fuel properties and their relationship in predicting emission performance and fuel flexibility of engine designs.

Thomas, R.L.

1980-06-01

251

Climate change adaptation, damages and fossil fuel dependence. An RETD position paper on the costs of inaction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (RETD) agreement initiated this project to advance the understanding of the ''Costs of Inaction'', i.e. the costs of climate change adaptation, damages and fossil fuel dependence. A quantitative estimate was developed as well as a better understanding of the knowledge gaps and research needs. The project also included some conceptual work on how to better integrate the analyses of mitigation, adaptation, damages and fossil fuel dependence in energy scenario modelling.

Katofsky, Ryan; Stanberry, Matt; Hagenstad, Marca; Frantzis, Lisa

2011-07-15

252

Alternative fuels in the cement industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper demonstrates some simple ideas by which the cement industry can contribute to a sustainable society by recovering energy from waste streams and by showing that the use of these fuels is an important tool in maintaining a viable business in the UK. (author)

Weller, P. [Castle Cement (United Kingdom)

1998-09-01

253

Bio-fuels: the rush to industrialization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ambitious goals of the French government fire with enthusiasm the bio-fuel sector which is in the fair way to become an industry at a whole. However, in order to build in time the requested ethanol and bio-diesel units the government will have to speed up the approval procedures and to maintain the financial incentive policy. (J.S.)

2005-01-01

254

Radiocarbon in urban atmosphere: assessing fossil fuel CO2 fluxes using combined measurements of CO2, CO, and 14CO2/12CO2 mixing ratios  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: Emissions of carbon dioxide related to burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) constitute an important component of the carbon budget, both on global and regional scales. For heavily industrialized and populated areas such as western and central Europe, a large proportion of the total CO2 flux entering the atmosphere is attributed to this source. Global and regional models of carbon cycle rely so far exclusively on emission statistics to quantify the magnitude and variability of the fossil CO2 flux into the atmosphere. The combined measurements of CO and CO2 mixing ratios on a given area, when calibrated using independent measurements of 14CO2/12CO2 ratios in atmospheric CO2 may provide an independent way of assessing local and regional fossil CO2 fluxes and their temporal variability. Krakow (50o04'N, 19o55'E, 220 m a.s.l.) is a large urban agglomeration located in the southern Poland, with about 1 million inhabitants, rapidly growing car traffic and significant industrial activities. Consumption of coal, gas and oil for communal and transport purposes generates major fluxes of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide within the region. In addition, due to prevailing westerly air circulation, the Krakow region is under substantial influence of a large coal mining and industrial centre (Upper Silesia) located approximately 60 km west of the city. The 14CO2/12CO2 ratios measured in Krakow since 1983 testify major changes in economy of the region which have occurred since 1989. The 14C signature of atmospheric CO2 reflects significant changes in anthropogenic CO2 fluxes released into the atmosphere both on local and regional scales. The contribution of fossil-fuel derived CO2 in the total CO2 load of the lower atmosphere in Krakow decreased from approximately 21 ppm in 1989 to around 10-12 ppm in the last few years. This change is linked with major reduction in coal consumption in Poland, from ca. 160 Mt in 1985 to 84 Mt in 2004. The measurements of CO concentrations in urban atmosphere can serve as a substitute for costly determinations of 14CO2/12CO2 mixing ratios, provided that the ratio CO/CO2 (fossil) is determined for the given area and its variability is adequately characterized. The average value of CO/CO2(fossil) ratio derived for the period April 2003 - April 2006 for Krakow region is equal 27.6 ± 4.2 ppb CO per ppm of fossil CO2. No distinct seasonal changes of this ratio were detected so far. Occasionally, very high (above 70 ppb/ppm) and very low (below 10 ppb/ppm) values of the CO/CO2 (fossil) ratio have been observed. The emission-based CO/CO2 ratios reported for the period 1998-2005 for major industrial sources in the Krakow region are in the range between 7.3 and 10.8 ppb CO per ppm of fossil CO2. However, they do not comprise emissions related to car traffic which is an important source of fossil fuel CO2. Also other trace substances of anthropogenic origin (PAHs, CHCl3, CH3CCl3, CCl4, SF6, F11, F12, F113) have been tested as potential proxies of fossil fuel CO2 emissions in the urban environment. The results of these trials are presented and discussed. (author)

2007-01-01

255

A research of Brazilian hydrogen market and the possibility of replacement of fossil fuels by hydroelectricity in this market; Estudo do mercado brasileiro de hidrogenio e das possibilidades de substituicao de energia fossil por hidraulica neste mercado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work it is proposed a quantitative research of Brazilian hydrogen market, or rather, annual variance of hydrogen amount used in each sector consumption (ammonia and methanol synthesis, metallurgical and petrochemistry industries, also as by-product of chlorine-sodium hydroxide production), as well as market composition annual in Brazil. It is also introduced an estimation of electricity amount needed to produce by means of electrolysis the total hydrogen actually consumed in Brazil; allowing to appraise the possibility of replacement of fossil fuels used in hydrogen production (natural gas and naphtha reforming), by secondary and avowed hydroelectricity (for hydrogen production of electrolysis). (author). 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

Souza, Samuel N.M. de; Silva, Ennio P. da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Hidrogenio

1996-12-31

256

Long-term tradeoffs between nuclear- and fossil-fuel burning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A global energy/economics/environmental (E3) model has been adapted with a nuclear energy/materials model to understand better open-quotes top-levelclose quotes, long-term trade offs between civilian nuclear power, nuclear-weapons proliferation, fossil-fuel burning, and global economic welfare. Using a open-quotes business-as-usualclose quotes (BAU) point-of-departure case, economic, resource, proliferation-risk implications of plutonium recycle in LAIRs, greenhouse-gas-mitigating carbon taxes, and a range of nuclear energy costs (capital and fuel) considerations have been examined. After describing the essential elements of the analysis approach being developed to support the Los Alamos Nuclear Vision Project, preliminary examples of parametric variations about the BAU base-case scenario are presented. The results described herein represent a sampling from more extensive results collected in a separate report. The primary motivation here is: (a) to compare the BAU basecase with results from other studies; (b) to model on a regionally resolved global basis long-term (to year ?2100) evolution of plutonium accumulation in a variety of forms under a limited range of fuel-cycle scenarios; and (c) to illustrate a preliminary connectivity between risks associated with nuclear proliferation and fossil-fuel burning (e.g., greenhouse-gas accumulations).

1996-01-01

257

Long-term tradeoffs between nuclear- and fossil-fuel burning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A global energy/economics/environmental (E{sup 3}) model has been adapted with a nuclear energy/materials model to understand better {open_quotes}top-level{close_quotes}, long-term trade offs between civilian nuclear power, nuclear-weapons proliferation, fossil-fuel burning, and global economic welfare. Using a {open_quotes}business-as-usual{close_quotes} (BAU) point-of-departure case, economic, resource, proliferation-risk implications of plutonium recycle in LAIRs, greenhouse-gas-mitigating carbon taxes, and a range of nuclear energy costs (capital and fuel) considerations have been examined. After describing the essential elements of the analysis approach being developed to support the Los Alamos Nuclear Vision Project, preliminary examples of parametric variations about the BAU base-case scenario are presented. The results described herein represent a sampling from more extensive results collected in a separate report. The primary motivation here is: (a) to compare the BAU basecase with results from other studies; (b) to model on a regionally resolved global basis long-term (to year {approximately}2100) evolution of plutonium accumulation in a variety of forms under a limited range of fuel-cycle scenarios; and (c) to illustrate a preliminary connectivity between risks associated with nuclear proliferation and fossil-fuel burning (e.g., greenhouse-gas accumulations).

Krakowski, R.A.

1996-12-31

258

Fossil fuel consumption and heavy metal emissions into the atmosphere in Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent decades more and more attention has been paid to the problem of ecosystem pollution by heavy metals. Many trace elements are registered now as a global pollutant due to their toxic nature. Their negative influence on the environment is caused by accumulation in different ecosystem components and increased involvement in biochemical cycles. The atmosphere is the main medium through which pollutants transported from emission sources to background territories where heavy metals are deposited into water and on plants. Heavy metal emissions into the atmosphere cause certain global environmental problems due to their long lifetime and the long-term transport of these elements in the atmosphere, as well as the increasing rate of their accumulation in the environment even at most remote territories. Moreover, heavy metals have evidently entered human food chains. The influence of global ecosystem pollution by heavy metals on human health is not well known as yet. Most trace elements comes into the atmosphere with natural and man-made aerosols. The main sources of natural aerosols in the atmosphere are soil erosion and weathering of mountain rocks, volcanic and space dust, forest firing smoke, and others. Major anthropogenic sources of toxic elements are fossil fuel combustion, mining, industrial processes, and waste incineration. The anthropogenic flow of heavy metals to the atmosphere is about 94-97 per cent of the total. An inventory of emission sources should be the first step in developing a control strategy and modelling global and regional cycles of trace elements. In this article the situation with lead, cadmium and mercury emissions from coal combustion of power plants and gasoline combustion by road transport is discussed. Pollutant amounts released into the atmosphere in industrial regions induce not only local deterioration of air, but they also affect on remote areas, and areas sensitive to contamination, such as the Arctic region. Problems on the uncertainty of emission inventory and, as a consequence, long range transport and deposition of air pollution into ecosystems of remote lands are also discussed

1999-01-01

259

Cleaner fossil fuel technologies for Africa's sustainable development. Status of World Energy Council Cleaner Fossil Fuels Systems Committee Action Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We know that access to electricity would improve the quality of life of most Africans. The people of sub-Saharan Africa need clean, affordable energy to help free them from abject poverty. And we know we can't necessarily try to resolve one societal problem without simultaneously attending to others. Providing electricity to the many underdeveloped regions is good for Africa because it is good for Africans. The poorest people need it most. What can electricity do for the people? Electricity, giving light and power, begets industry and agriculture, which beget jobs, which in turn enhance purchasing power, all of which improves the quality of life. Clean and cost-effective energy must be made available at the grassroots level. The more assess to clean energy that African nations have, the more they can sustain themselves and their sovereignty. African nations can benefit from more advanced nations who have already got past the learning curve and incurred the research and development costs. The technologies and insight are available now. It is vital for world stability that 'globalisation' does not leave the poorest behind. We must take the necessary steps to eliminate the 'digital divide,' so Africans have access to the world of information available on the internet. But concrete actions must be taken to activate plans after we lay out what needs to be done at conferences like this. This conference gives us the space and time to talk freely and make some serious decisions on how to move forward in Africa. But we need to think outside the box, so to speak. We need to be creative. We need some new approaches. Questions still remain unanswered. That's why we're here today. What is the most costeffective method for improving accessibility to electricity for the masses of Africans still deprived of this essential service? How can we ensure a win-win result? Work will be needed to answer this question, which must be addressed, to ensure sustainable development. Among other viable technologies, cleaner fossil fuel technologies have a place in the solutions to improve sustainable development in Africa. Again, we need to focus not just on 'action plants' but also on really taking action. We must see that the actions needed are interconnected. We all have a role. And giant steps need to be taken by all of us. I know we can start a few initiatives that will further problem resolution after this meeting. Let us be ready to face the challenges of the coming millennium, however great they may be. I hope our actions here can help lift the shroud of poverty and the yoke of conflict in much of Africa. And we can measure our success by how much the quality of life has improved for the people of the African continent. (au)

McKee, B.N. [US Department of Energy (United States)

2001-07-01

260

Reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PEM fuel cell systems are considered as a sustainable option for the future transport sector in the future. There is great interest in converting current hydrocarbon based transportation fuels into hydrogen rich gases acceptable by PEM fuel cells on-board of vehicles. In this paper, we compare the results of our simulation studies for 100kW PEM fuel cell systems utilizing three different major reforming technologies, namely steam reforming (SREF), partial oxidation (POX) and autothermal reforming (ATR). Natural gas, gasoline and diesel are the selected hydrocarbon fuels. It is desired to investigate the effect of the selected fuel reforming options on the overall fuel cell system efficiency, which depends on the fuel processing, PEM fuel cell and auxiliary system efficiencies. The Aspen-HYSYS 3.1 code has been used for simulation purposes. Process parameters of fuel preparation steps have been determined considering the limitations set by the catalysts and hydrocarbons involved. Results indicate that fuel properties, fuel processing system and its operation parameters, and PEM fuel cell characteristics all affect the overall system efficiencies. Steam reforming appears as the most efficient fuel preparation option for all investigated fuels. Natural gas with steam reforming shows the highest fuel cell system efficiency. Good heat integration within the fuel cell system is absolutely necessary to achieve acceptable overall system efficiencies. (author)

Ersoz, Atilla; Olgun, Hayati [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Institute of Energy, Gebze, 41470 Kocaeli (Turkey); Ozdogan, Sibel [Marmara University Faculty of Engineering, Goztepe, 81040 Istanbul (Turkey)

2006-03-09

 
 
 
 
261

Fuel Cells in the Coal Energy Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In march 1998 at the conference ?Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems? in Clearwater, USA representatives of U.S. Department of Energy presented the vision 21 focused on the electricity generation from coal for 21st century. The goal is a powerplant with the ability to produce the electricity from coal with the efficiency approaching 60% (higher heating value) and emission levels of one-tenth of today´s technologies, The CO2 capture and permanent sequestration at the cost of $15/ton of CO2, and a cost of electricity of 3 cents per kilowatt-hour. The goal is believed to be achievable by the first quarter of the next century. The vision 21 is presented with several possible concepts. One of them is based on coal gasification with following hydrogen separation. The obtained hydrogen is used as a fuel for the cogeneration unit with fuel cells. The remaining gas can be liquefied and utilised as a fuel in the automotive industry or further chemically processed. The concept has several important features. Firstly, a very clean low cost electricity production. Secondly, it is comprised of fuel processing section and power processing section. The two sections need not to be co-located. In the world of the deregulated electricity generation this offers a major advantage. The technologies of fuel processing section ? coal gasification and hydrogen separation have been successfully developed in the last two decades. A specificity of the fuel processing section of this concept is to obtain hydrogen rich gas with very low concentrations of substances, as CO, which cause a poisoning of electrodes of fuel cells leading to the decreasing fuel cells efficiency. Fuel cells, specially highly efficient coal-gas SOFC and MCFC, are expected to be commercially available by 2020. The natural-gas MCFC and SOFC plants should enter the commercial marketplace by the year 2002.

Hermann Peter; Noskieviè Pavel; Kolat Peter

1998-01-01

262

Life cycle inventories for bioenergy and fossil-fuel fired cogeneration plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Life-cycle inventories for heat production from forest fuel, Salix, coal and oil are presented. Data from the Oerebro cogeneration plant are used for the bioenergy and coal cycles, whereas the oil-fired cycle is based on a fictive plant producing 53 MW electricity and 106 MW heat, also located in the town of Oerebro. This life cycle analysis only covers the inventory stage. A complete life cycle analysis also includes an environmental impact assessment. The methods for assessing environmental impact are still being developed and thus this phase has been omitted here. The intention is, instead, to provide an overall perspective of where in the chain the greatest environmental load for each fuel can be found. Production and energy conversion of fuel requires energy, which is often obtained from fossil fuel. This input energy corresponds to about 11% of the extracted amount of energy for oil, 9% for coal, 6% for Salix, whereas it is about 4% for forest fuel. Utilization of fossil fuel in the coal cycle amounts to production of electricity using coal condensation intended for train transports within Poland. In a life cycle perspective, biofuels show 20-30 times lower emissions of greenhouse gases in comparison with fossil fuels. The chains for biofuels also give considerably lower SO2 emissions than the chains for coal and oil. The coal chain shows about 50% higher NOx emission than the other fuels. Finally, the study illustrates that emission of particles are similar for all sources of energy. The biofuel cycle is assessed to be generally applicable to plants of similar type and size and with similar transport distances. The oil cycle is probably applicable to small-scale cogeneration plants. However, at present there are no cogeneration plants in Sweden that are solely fired with oil. In the case of the coal cycle, deep mining and a relatively long transport distance within Poland have been assumed. If the coal mining had been from open-cast mines, and if the subsequent transports had been from port to port, some of the results would have been affected markedly, including the input energy 17 refs, 17 figs, 7 tabs, appendices.

1998-01-01

263

Fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Support for East European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 required the Secretary of Energy to cooperate with Polish officials to retrofit a coal-fired powerplant in Poland with advanced clean coal technology that has been successfully demonstrated in the United States. The project's goal is to demonstrate a cost-effective technique to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions that can be used at other powerplants in Poland. The act required that the retrofit be carried out by United States companies using United States technology and equipment manufactured in the United States. Questions were raised about changes the Department of Energy (DOE) made to its original definition of a United States firm, and about reductions DOE made to its original SO2 emission requirements for the project. Such changes might result in foreign-owned rather than American-owned firms providing the technology and that the technology might not be the best this country could offer to the Polish people. This paper reviews the reasons for these changes.

1991-01-01

264

SOME POSSIBILITIES OF USING BIOGAS AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO FOSSIL FUELS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In present time, the global energy production is mostly dependant on the fossil sources of energy (oil, natural gases and coals). Compared to classic fuels, biogas resulted from anaerobe digestion is permanently renewable, because it is obtained  of biomass. As a result, the biogas produced through anaerobe digestion will not only improve the energetic balance of one country, but it will bring an important contribution on preserving natural resources and improving the environmental conditions, through reducing emissions with green house effect and reducing the global warming. The paper wants to reveal some of the advantages of using biogas, the most important being that  biogas is a flexible source of energy, suitable for many applications, especially as fuel for vehicles or in the electric piles  technologies. In order to be used as fuel for vehicle, biogas must be improved and transformed in bio-methane. The paper also presents a small biogas  plant, which can be used by farmers. 

Mariana Dumitru; Mirela Stanciu; Marius Bibu

2013-01-01

265

MOX fuel fabrication: Technical and industrial developments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The plutonium available in the near future is generally estimated rather precisely on the basis of the reprocessing contracts and the performance of the reprocessing plants. A few years ago, decision makers were convinced that a significant share of this fissile material would be used as the feed material for fast breeder reactors (FBRs) or other advanced reactors. The facts today are that large reprocessing plants are coming into commercial operations: UP3 and soon UP2-800 and THORP, but that FBR deployment is delayed worldwide. As a consequence, large quantities of plutonium will be recycled in light water reactors as mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. MOX fuel technology has been properly demonstrated in the past 25 years. All specific problems have been addressed, efficient fabrication processes and engineering background have been implemented to a level of maturity which makes MOX fuel behaving as well as Uranium fuel. The paper concentrates on todays MOX fabrication expertise and presents the technical and industrial developments prepared by the MOX fuel fabrication industry for this last decade of the century.

1990-01-01

266

Algal biorefinery-based industry: an approach to address fuel and food insecurity for a carbon-smart world.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food and fuel production are intricately interconnected. In a carbon-smart society, it is imperative to produce both food and fuel sustainably. Integration of the emerging biorefinery concept with other industries can bring many environmental deliverables while mitigating several sustainability-related issues with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel usage, land use change for fuel production and future food insufficiency. A new biorefinery-based integrated industrial ecology encompasses the different value chain of products, coproducts, and services from the biorefinery industries. This paper discusses a framework to integrate the algal biofuel-based biorefinery, a booming biofuel sector, with other industries such as livestock, lignocellulosic and aquaculture. Using the USA as an example, this paper also illustrates the benefits associated with sustainable production of fuel and food. Policy and regulatory initiatives for synergistic development of the algal biofuel sector with other industries can bring many sustainable solutions for the future existence of mankind. PMID:20981716

Subhadra, Bobban

2011-01-15

267

Algal biorefinery-based industry: an approach to address fuel and food insecurity for a carbon-smart world.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Food and fuel production are intricately interconnected. In a carbon-smart society, it is imperative to produce both food and fuel sustainably. Integration of the emerging biorefinery concept with other industries can bring many environmental deliverables while mitigating several sustainability-related issues with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel usage, land use change for fuel production and future food insufficiency. A new biorefinery-based integrated industrial ecology encompasses the different value chain of products, coproducts, and services from the biorefinery industries. This paper discusses a framework to integrate the algal biofuel-based biorefinery, a booming biofuel sector, with other industries such as livestock, lignocellulosic and aquaculture. Using the USA as an example, this paper also illustrates the benefits associated with sustainable production of fuel and food. Policy and regulatory initiatives for synergistic development of the algal biofuel sector with other industries can bring many sustainable solutions for the future existence of mankind.

Subhadra B

2011-01-01

268

Engineering organisms for industrial fuel production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Volatile fuel costs, the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel security concerns are driving efforts to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. Petroleum comes from sunlight, CO(2) and water converted via a biological intermediate into fuel over a several million year timescale. It stands to reason that using biology to short-circuit this time cycle offers an attractive alternative--but only with relevant products at or below market prices. The state of the art of biological engineering over the past five years has progressed to allow for market needs to drive innovation rather than trying to adapt existing approaches to the market. This report describes two innovations using synthetic biology to dis-intermediate fuel production. LS9 is developing a means to convert biological intermediates such as cellulosic hydrolysates into drop-in hydrocarbon product replacements such as diesel. Joule Unlimited is pioneering approaches to eliminate feedstock dependency by efficiently capturing sunlight, CO(2) and water to produce fuels and chemicals. The innovations behind these companies are built with the market in mind, focused on low cost biosynthesis of existing products of the petroleum industry. Through successful deployment of technologies such as those behind LS9 and Joule Unlimited, alternative sources of petroleum products will mitigate many of the issues faced with our petroleum-based economy.

Berry DA

2010-09-01

269

Engineering organisms for industrial fuel production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile fuel costs, the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel security concerns are driving efforts to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. Petroleum comes from sunlight, CO(2) and water converted via a biological intermediate into fuel over a several million year timescale. It stands to reason that using biology to short-circuit this time cycle offers an attractive alternative--but only with relevant products at or below market prices. The state of the art of biological engineering over the past five years has progressed to allow for market needs to drive innovation rather than trying to adapt existing approaches to the market. This report describes two innovations using synthetic biology to dis-intermediate fuel production. LS9 is developing a means to convert biological intermediates such as cellulosic hydrolysates into drop-in hydrocarbon product replacements such as diesel. Joule Unlimited is pioneering approaches to eliminate feedstock dependency by efficiently capturing sunlight, CO(2) and water to produce fuels and chemicals. The innovations behind these companies are built with the market in mind, focused on low cost biosynthesis of existing products of the petroleum industry. Through successful deployment of technologies such as those behind LS9 and Joule Unlimited, alternative sources of petroleum products will mitigate many of the issues faced with our petroleum-based economy. PMID:21326829

Berry, David A

270

Historic patterns of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels: Implications for stabilization of emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the historical record of greenhouse gas emissions since 1950, reviews the prospects for emissions into the future, and projects what would be the short-term outcome if the stated targets of the FCCC were in fact achieved. The examination focuses on the most important of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2}. The extensive record of historic CO{sub 2} emissions is explored to ascertain if it is an adequate basis for useful extrapolation into the near future. Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption have been documented. Emissions grew at 4.3% per year from 1950 until the time of the 1973 oil crisis. Another disruption in growth followed the oil price increases of 1979. Global total emissions have been increasing steadily since the 1982-1983 minimum and have grown by more than 20% since then. At present, emission Of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning is dominated by a few countries: the U.S., the former Soviet Union, China, the developed countries of Europe and Japan. Only 20 countries emit 84% of emissions from all countries. However, rates of growth in many of the developed countries are now very low. In contrast, energy use has grown rapidly over the last 20 years in some of the large, developing economies. Emissions from fossil fuel consumption are now nearly 4 times those from land use change and are the primary cause of measured increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}. The increasing concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} has led to rising concern about the possibility of impending changes in the global climate system. In an effort to limit or mitigate potential negative effects of global climate change, 154 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992. The FCCC asks all countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions setting non-binding targets.

Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.

1994-10-01

271

N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship, on a global basis, between the amount of N fixed by chemical, biological or atmospheric processes entering the terrestrial biosphere, and the total emission of nitrous oxide (N2O), has been re-examined, using known global atmospheric removal rates and concentration growth of N2O as a proxy for overall emissions. For both the pre-industrial period and in recent times, after taking into account the large-scale changes in synthetic N fertiliser production, we find an overall conversion factor of 3–5% from newly fixed N to N2O-N. We assume the same factor to be valid for biofuel production systems. It is covered only in part by the default conversion factor for "direct" emissions from agricultural crop lands (1%) estimated by IPCC (2006), and the default factors for the "indirect" emissions (following volatilization/deposition and leaching/runoff of N: 0.35–0.45%) cited therein. However, as we show in the paper, when additional emissions included in the IPCC methodology, e.g. those from livestock production, are included, the total may not be inconsistent with that given by our "top-down" method. When the extra N2O emission from biofuel production is calculated in "CO2-equivalent" global warming terms, and compared with the quasi-cooling effect of "saving" emissions of fossil fuel derived CO2, the outcome is that the production of commonly used biofuels, such as biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from corn (maize), depending on N fertilizer uptake efficiency by the plants, can contribute as much or more to global warming by N2O emissions than cooling by fossil fuel savings. Crops with less N demand, such as grasses and woody coppice species, have more favourable climate impacts. This analysis only considers the conversion of biomass to biofuel. It does not take into account the use of fossil fuel on the farms and for fertilizer and pesticide production, but it also neglects the production of useful co-products. Both factors partially compensate each other. This needs to be analyzed in a full life cycle assessment.

P. J. Crutzen; A. R. Mosier; K. A. Smith; W. Winiwarter

2008-01-01

272

Market power in the market for greenhouse gas emission permits - the interplay with the fossil fuel markets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol is likely to leave Russia and other Eastern European countries with market power in the market for emission permits. Ceteris paribus, this will raise the permit price above the competitive permit price. However, Russia is also a large exporter of fossil fuels. A high price on emission permits may lower the producer price on fossil fuels. Thus, if Russia co-ordinates its permit market and fossil fuel market policies, market power will not necessarily lead to a higher permit price. Fossil fuel producers may also exert market power in the permit market, provided they conceive the permit price to be influenced by their production volumes. If higher volumes drive up the permit price Russian fuel producers may become more aggressive relative to their competitors in the fuel markets. If the sale of fuels is co-ordinated with the sale of permits. The result is reversed if high fuel production drives the permit price down. (Author)

2002-01-01

273

PROCESS FOR OBTAINING HUMIC ACIDS OR ALKALINE HUMATES FROM FOSSIL SOLID FUELS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a process for obtaining humic acids and alkaline humates in fossil solid fuels such as brown woody coal. According to the invention, the process consists in treating the finely crushing with aqueous hydroxide solution and/or alkaline or ammonium carbonate and dicarbonate at a pH of 7.5 -8 by boiling at temperatures of 100A C up to 150A and pressures corresponding to a selected steam pressure and a reverse time proportional to the coal particle size, there being obtained humates which are subjected to usual processing to obtain corresponding humic acids.

DORNEANU AUREL; PREDA CONSTANTIN; DUMITRU MIHAIL; DORNEANU EMILIA

274

Importance of fossil fuel emission uncertainties over Europe for CO2 modeling. Model intercomparison  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inverse modeling techniques used to quantify surface carbon fluxes commonly assume that the uncertainty of fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions is negligible and that intraannual variations can be neglected. To investigate these assumptions, we analyzed the differences between four fossil fuel emission maps with spatial and temporal differences over Europe and their impact on the model simulated CO2 concentration. Large temporal flux variations characterize the hourly fields (40% and 80% for the seasonal and diurnal cycles, peak-to-peak) and annual country totals differ by 10% on average and up to 40% for some countries (i.e., The Netherlands). These emissions have been prescribed to seven different transport models, resulting in 28 different FFCO2 concentrations fields. The modeled FFCO2 concentration time series at surface sites using time-varying emissions show larger seasonal cycles (+2 ppm at the Hungarian tall tower (HUN)) and smaller diurnal cycles in summer (-1 ppm at HUN) than when using constant emissions. The concentration range spanned by all simulations varies between stations, and is generally larger in winter (up to 10 ppm peak-to-peak at HUN) than in summer (5 ppm). The contribution of transport model differences to the simulated concentration std-dev is 2-3 times larger than the contribution of emission differences only, at typical European sites used in global inversions. These contributions to the hourly (monthly) std-dev's amount to 1.2 (0.8) ppm and 0.4 (0.3) ppm for transport and emissions, respectively. First comparisons of the modeled concentrations with 14C-based fossil fuel CO2 observations show that the large transport differences still hamper a quantitative evaluation/validation of the emission inventories. Changes in the estimated monthly biosphere flux (Fbio) over Europe, using two inverse modeling approaches, are relatively small (less that 5%) while changes in annual Fbio (up to 0.15 Gt C/yr) are only slightly smaller than the differences in annual emission totals and around 30% of the mean European ecosystem carbon sink. These results point to an urgent need to improve not only the transport models but also the assumed spatial and temporal distribution of fossil fuel emission maps.

2009-01-01

275

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1983  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accomplishments for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. Feature articles for this quarter are: (1) abandoned oil field reports issued; (2) oilfield water data bank report published; (3) microbial enhanced recovery report issued; (4) polymer-augmented project could be economic today; (5) carbon dioxide EOR estimates given; (6) BETC passes 65th milestone; and (7) fifty achievements for fifty years (1918-1968). BETC publications are also listed. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1983-07-01

276

Long term worldwide environmental effects caused by acid rain from fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acid rain is regarded as an environmental problem of growing importance in many parts of the world; it is one of the adverse effects of air pollution. This paper presents data on emissions of air pollutants from combustion of fossil fuels and discusses atmospheric processes that act on these emissions, various effects of air pollution and acid deposition, and some of the aspects of regulation of these pollutants. Evidence of worldwide concern is shown by contrasting the perceived adverse effects of air pollution with ambient levels and the status of regulation. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs.

1990-01-01

277

Differentiation of primary, secondary and tertiary aromatic amines in fossil fuels using trifluoroacylation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analytical method which distinguishes between primary, secondary and tertiary amines has been developed. Trifluoroacetic anhydride, with 4-pyrrolidinopyridine as a catalyst, is used to form di- and mono-trifluoroacylated derivatives of primary and secondary aromatic amines, respectively. Tertiary aromatic amines such as quinoline do not react. GC/MS is then used to analyze the derivatized samples. Retention indices and response factors (relative to 4-fluoroaniline) are reported for >50 pure compounds known or expected to be present in fossil fuel base fractions. Also, results from the analysis of base fractions from mildly hydrotreated SRC II coal liquids and petroleum-derived light cycle oils will be reported.

Thomson, J.S.; Green, J.B.; Yu, S.K.T.; Vrana, R.P.

1991-12-01

278

Differentiation of primary, secondary and tertiary aromatic amines in fossil fuels using trifluoroacylation. 1, Analytical methodology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analytical method which distinguishes between primary, secondary and tertiary amines has been developed. Trifluoroacetic anhydride, with 4-pyrrolidinopyridine as a catalyst, is used to form di- and mono-trifluoroacylated derivatives of primary and secondary aromatic amines, respectively. Tertiary aromatic amines such as quinoline do not react. GC/MS is then used to analyze the derivatized samples. Retention indices and response factors (relative to 4-fluoroaniline) are reported for >50 pure compounds known or expected to be present in fossil fuel base fractions. Also, results from the analysis of base fractions from mildly hydrotreated SRC II coal liquids and petroleum-derived light cycle oils will be reported.

Thomson, J.S.; Green, J.B.; Yu, S.K.T.; Vrana, R.P.

1991-12-01

279

Importance of fossil fuel emission uncertainties over Europe for CO2 modeling: model intercomparison  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inverse modeling techniques used to quantify surface carbon fluxes commonly assume that the uncertainty of fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions is negligible and that intra-annual variations can be neglected. To investigate these assumptions, we analyzed the differences between four fossil fuel emission maps with spatial and temporal differences over Europe and their impact on the model simulated CO2 concentration. Large temporal flux variations characterize the hourly fields (~40% and ~80% for the seasonal and diurnal cycles, peak-to-peak) and annual country totals differ by 10% on average and up to 40% for some countries (i.e., The Netherlands). These emissions have been prescribed to seven different transport models, resulting in 28 different FFCO2 concentrations fields. The modeled FFCO2 concentration time series at surface sites using time-varying emissions show larger seasonal cycles (+2 ppm at the Hungarian tall tower (HUN)) and smaller diurnal cycles in summer (?1 ppm at HUN) than when using constant emissions. The concentration range spanned by all simulations varies between stations, and is generally larger in winter (up to ~10 ppm peak-to-peak at HUN) than in summer (~5 ppm). The contribution of transport model differences to the simulated concentration std-dev is 2–3 times larger than the contribution of emission differences only, at typical European sites used in global inversions. These contributions to the hourly (monthly) std-dev's amount to ~1.2 (0.8) ppm and ~0.4 (0.3) ppm for transport and emissions, respectively. First comparisons of the modeled concentrations with 14C-based fossil fuel CO2 observations show that the large transport differences still hamper a quantitative evaluation/validation of the emission inventories. Changes in the estimated monthly biosphere flux (Fbio) over Europe, using two inverse modeling approaches, are relatively small (less that 5%) while changes in annual Fbio (up to ~0.15 Gt C/yr) are only slightly smaller than the differences in annual emission totals and around 30% of the mean European ecosystem carbon sink. These results point to an urgent need to improve not only the transport models but also the assumed spatial and temporal distribution of fossil fuel emission maps.

P. Peylin; S. Houweling; M. C. Krol; U. Karstens; C. Rödenbeck; C. Geels; A. Vermeulen; B. Badawy; C. Aulagnier; T. Pregger; F. Delage; G. Pieterse; P. Ciais; M. Heimann

2009-01-01

280

Importance of fossil fuel emission uncertainties over Europe for CO2 modeling: model intercomparison  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inverse modeling techniques used to quantify surface carbon fluxes commonly assume that the uncertainty of fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions is negligible and that intra-annual variations can be neglected. To investigate these assumptions, we analyzed the differences between four fossil fuel emission inventories with spatial and temporal differences over Europe and their impact on the model simulated CO2 concentration. Large temporal flux variations characterize the hourly fields (~40 % and ~80 % for the seasonal and diurnal cycles, peak-to-peak) and annual country totals differ by 10 % on average and up to 40 % for some countries (i.e., the Netherlands). These emissions have been prescribed to seven different transport models, resulting in 28 different FFCO2 concentrations fields. The modeled FFCO2 concentration time series at surface sites using time-varying emissions show larger seasonal cycles (+2 ppm at the Hungarian tall tower (HUN)) and smaller diurnal cycles in summer (?1 ppm at HUN) than when using constant emissions. The concentration range spanned by all simulations varies between stations, and is generally larger in winter (up to ~10 ppm peak-to-peak at HUN) than in summer (~5 ppm). The contribution of transport model differences to the simulated concentration std-dev is 2–3 times larger than the contribution of emission differences only, at typical European sites used in global inversions. These contributions to the hourly (monthly) std-dev's amount to ~1.2 (0.8) ppm and ~0.4 (0.3) ppm for transport and emissions, respectively. First comparisons of the modeled concentrations with 14C-based fossil fuel CO2 observations show that the large transport differences still hamper a quantitative evaluation/validation of the emission inventories. Changes in the estimated monthly biosphere flux (Fbio) over Europe, using two inverse modeling approaches, are relatively small (less that 5 %) while changes in annual Fbio (up to ~0.15 % GtC yr?1) are only slightly smaller than the differences in annual emission totals and around 30 % of the mean European ecosystem carbon sink. These results point to an urgent need to improve not only the transport models but also the assumed spatial and temporal distribution of fossil fuel emission inventories.

P. Peylin; S. Houweling; M. C. Krol; U. Karstens; C. Rödenbeck; C. Geels; A. Vermeulen; B. Badawy; C. Aulagnier; T. Pregger; F. Delage; G. Pieterse; P. Ciais; M. Heimann

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Determination of polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles in fossil fuel-related samples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analytical method is described for the separation, identification, and quantification of a number of polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) in three fossil fuel-related samples including two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), SRM 1597 (coal tar) and SRM 1582 (petroleum crude oil), and a decant oil. Because of the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and PASHs together with their large number of possible alkyl-substituted isomers, the analytical method described requires a number of prerequisites; which are described, namely effective sample cleanup, selective stationary phases, and selective methods of detection.

Mossner, S.G.; Wise, S.A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Division of Analytical Chemistry

1999-01-01

282

Fossil fuels and air pollution in USA after the Clean Air Act  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper addresses environmental issues in the USA after the Clean Air Act. Economic damage assessment to population and environment due to air pollution from stationary and mobile sources producing and utilizing fossil fuels in the USA for the period of 1970--1986 is determined and discussed. A comparison of environmental damage assessments for the USA and USSR is provided. The paper also addresses ecologo-economical aspects of hydrogen energy and technology. The effectiveness of hydrogen use in ferrous metallurgy and motor vehicles in the USA is determined and discussed

1990-01-01

283

Global and latitudinal estimates of {delta}{sup 13}C from fossil-fuel consumption and cement manufacture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This database contains estimates of the annual mean value of {delta}{sup 13}C of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and cement manufacture for 1860 to 1992 and estimates of the value of {delta}{sup 13}C for one-degree-latitude bands for the years 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 1991, and 1992. These estimates of the carbon isotopic signature account for the changing mix of fossil fuels used at different times and for the different geographic origins of those fuels.

Andres, B. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bischof, S. [Connecticut College, New London, CT (United States)

1996-12-31

284

Reducing global warming through the provision of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concern has increased in recent years regarding the rising atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and its potential effect on future global climate. One element of strategies for the reduction of CO2 emissions would be to increase the proportion of energy derived from non-fossil energy sources. This option has led to renewed interest in the use of hydrogen as an energy vector which could facilitate the transfer of non-fossil energy into a wider range of end-use sectors. To assess, in this context, the potential role of non-fossil-fuel hydrogen (NFFH), published information on the costs and performance of technologies for the production, storage, distribution and utilisation of hydrogen has been reviewed in this study. These data have been used in a model of the UK energy system to investigate the potential contributions of the various hydrogen technologies, over a 50 year timeframe, and with different levels of constraint imposed on the rate of CO2 release. Finally, to set these reduced CO2 release rates in the context of the resultant reduction in global warming commitment, a further modelling study has been made to estimate the residual transient warming to 2050, assuming the world as a whole follows the same CO2 emission profiles as modelled for the UK. This 259 page report of the study contains extensive tables of data and references, and a glossary of terms, units and conversion factors. (author).

1993-01-01

285

Determination of fossil fraction of refuse derived fuel by the selective dissolution method in calorific value basis:Development of simplified method.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Determination of net CO2 emissions from combustion of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) is not straight forward due to the heterogeneous nature of the fuel. The fossil fraction of the fuel is an essential parameter for the determination of net CO2 emissions. In the present study, the fossil fraction of RDF ...

Ariyaratne, Hiromi Wijesinghe; Asgautsen, Øyvind; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Eine, Kristin; Tokheim, Lars Andre

286

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1751-1991; and an estimate of their isotopic composition and latitudinal distribution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work briefly discusses four of the current research emphases at Oak Ridge National Laboratory regarding the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from fossil fuel consumption, natural gas flaring and cement manufacture. These emphases include: (1) updating the 1950 to present time series of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, (2) extending this time series back to 1751, (3) gridding the data at 1{sup 0} by 1{sup 0} resolution, and (4) estimating the isotopic signature of these emissions. In 1991, global emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel and cement increased 1.5% over 1990 levels to 6188 {times} 10{sup 6} metric tonnes C. The Kuwaiti oil fires can account for all of the increase. Recently published energy data (Etemad et al., 1991) allow extension of the CO emissions time series back to 1751. Preliminary examination shows good agreement with two other, but shorter, energy time series. A latitudinal distribution of carbon emissions is being completed. A southward shift in the major mass of CO{sub 2} emissions is occurring from European-North American latitudes towards central-southeast Asian latitudes, reflecting the growth of population and industrialization at these lower latitudes. The carbon isotopic signature of these emissions has been re-examined. The emissions of the last two decades are approximately 1{per_thousand} lighter than previously reported (Tans, 1981). This lightening of the emissions signature is due to fossil fuel gases and liquids, including a revision of their {delta}{sup 13}C isotopic signature and an increased production rate.

Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T.; Bischof, S.

1994-10-01

287

Fossil fuels: technical, economical and political challenges for 2030-2050  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This panorama takes stock on the international energy actuality in 2003 and discusses the instability of the geo-political context of the energy and the part of the fossil fuels for the future years 2030-2050. The following topics were presented: activities and market for the exploration-production, refining and petrochemistry, the world gas trade situation, the petroleum supply and demand, the Iraq, the diesel in the USA, the investments and the depletion, long-dated evolutions of motors and fuels, implementing of the european directive concerning the market of tradable permits of CO2, the carbon sequestration, hydrogen the energy of the future and the biofuels in Europe. (A.L.B.)

2004-02-05

288

Decarbonization of fossil fuels as a strategy to control global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the world reaching near-total consensus on the seriousness of the global warming impacts, and on the urgency to halt further warming, R & D efforts have intensified many-fold to find ways and means of global warming control. One of the avenues being explored is 'decarbonization' of fossil fuel use by either decarbonizing the fuels before they are burnt or by capturing the CO{sub 2} they emit on combustion. In this paper the various available options are reviewed in the context of their economic and environmental viability. It emerges that even as the goal is very enchanting, the possibility of it's realization appears remote. It also follows that the only sure method of reducing greenhouse gas emissions presently available to humankind is by reducing consumption of energy and other resources.

Abbasi, T.; Abbasi, S.A. [Pondicherry Central University, Pondicherry (India)

2011-05-15

289

New coatings for protection against corrosion in fossil fuel combustion environments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new technique of Ni-Cr 50/50 coating processing has been developed for fossil fuel boiler tube protection against fire-side corrosion. The technology involves the electric arc process where molten wires are atomized by a supersonic jet of hot propane-air combustion products. The small size and high velocity of atomized particles lead to the formation of dense coatings, while the reducing environment in the starting jet section prevents the material from rapid oxidation. Gas permeation measurements revealed that combustion arc sprayed coatings are substantially less permeable than high velocity oxygen fuel and regular electric arc coatings. Elevated temperature corrosion tests proved the superior performance of combustion arc sprayed coatings in reducing H{sub 2}S containing environment and under KCl + Na{sub 2}So{sub 4} salts deposits in air.

Easterly, F.; Verstak, A.; Baranovski, S. [Metalspray USA, Inc., Richmond, VA (United States); Belashchenko, V. [Vlad Belashchenko and Associates, Richmond, VA (United States); Shmyreva, T. [Metallurgical Academy, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine)

1997-08-01

290

Implications of fossil fuel constraints on economic growth and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy Security and Global Warming are analysed as 21st century sustainability threats. Best estimates of future energy availability are derived as an Energy Reference Case (ERC). An explicit economic growth model is used to interpret the impact of the ERC on economic growth. The model predicts a divergence from 20th century equilibrium conditions in economic growth and socio-economic welfare is only stabilised under optimistic assumptions that demands a paradigm shift in contemporary economic thought and focused attention from policy makers. Fossil fuel depletion also constrains the maximum extent of Global Warming. Carbon emissions from the ERC comply nominally with the B1 scenario, which is the lowest emissions case considered by the IPCC. The IPCC predicts a temperature response within acceptance limits of the Global Warming debate for the B1 scenario. The carbon feedback cycle, used in the IPCC models, is shown as invalid for low-emissions scenarios and an alternative carbon cycle reduces the temperature response for the ERC considerably compared to the IPCC predictions. Our analysis proposes that the extent of Global Warming may be acceptable and preferable compared to the socio-economic consequences of not exploiting fossil fuel reserves to their full technical potential. (author)

Nel, Willem P.; Cooper, Christopher J. [Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, Institute for Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, Johannesburg (South Africa)

2009-01-15

291

Implications of fossil fuel constraints on economic growth and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy Security and Global Warming are analysed as 21st century sustainability threats. Best estimates of future energy availability are derived as an Energy Reference Case (ERC). An explicit economic growth model is used to interpret the impact of the ERC on economic growth. The model predicts a divergence from 20th century equilibrium conditions in economic growth and socio-economic welfare is only stabilised under optimistic assumptions that demands a paradigm shift in contemporary economic thought and focused attention from policy makers. Fossil fuel depletion also constrains the maximum extent of Global Warming. Carbon emissions from the ERC comply nominally with the B1 scenario, which is the lowest emissions case considered by the IPCC. The IPCC predicts a temperature response within acceptance limits of the Global Warming debate for the B1 scenario. The carbon feedback cycle, used in the IPCC models, is shown as invalid for low-emissions scenarios and an alternative carbon cycle reduces the temperature response for the ERC considerably compared to the IPCC predictions. Our analysis proposes that the extent of Global Warming may be acceptable and preferable compared to the socio-economic consequences of not exploiting fossil fuel reserves to their full technical potential.

2009-01-01

292

Spanish Moss as an atmospheric tracer for trace elements from fossil fuel burning power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples of Spanish Moss (Tillandsia usneoides) were analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA), inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectrometry (ICP), and x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) for trace elements as atmospheric environmental monitors. In particular, certain elements thought likely to be contributed to the atmosphere by combustion of fossil fuels were studied in samples collected along two transects, an east/west transect from the Louisiana line west to Dallas and a north/south transect from the Limestone electric Generating Station north to Dallas. Plants were sampled during peak electric generating periods in the summer, as well as following planned outages during the winter months. Se, As and several other volatile species known to concentrate in fly ash particles which are likely to escape power plant collection devices were shown to correlate with downwind directions of plant plumes. Attempts to determine levels of sulfur taken up by the plants which can be attributed to fossil fuel combustion through the use of these marker elements have also be made.

1991-01-01

293

The Estonian national program for sustainable resource development and its connection with teaching about fossil fuels in chemistry courses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conception of sustainable resource development worked out under the initiative of the United Nations (UN) actualizes ideas for improving the health of people and the environment. The needs of people are to he addressed and, simultaneously, natural resources preserved. That is ,why ecological and economic expenses are to he integrated and flow sheets of industrial plants are to be reorganized in order to utilize natural resources in a rational way. The association of Estonia with the resolution of the UN Conference on Environmental Development held in Rio de Janeiro and the resolution of the Estonian Parliament concerning The National Program of Sustainable Development require changes in our lifestyle. Chemical education in schools has to support a change in the way of thinking and many concrete subjects can be connected with the problems of sustainable development. Metallic elements get into the environment mostly with fuel combustion ashes. According to various prognoses, fossil fuel resources will last for a thousand years. This means that more and more metallic compounds are thrown into the environment. Dispersion of metals in the air, water bodies and soil is continuously increasing. Finally, they reach the food chain and to the human body. As a result, toxicosis, illnesses, and inadvisable dislocations in organic life may occur. The trend to use ash as a raw material for metal production is considered to have some prospective economically attractive application. This would be one possible way of sustainable resource development to avoid the increase of environmental pollution and increase production of the corresponding metals.

1996-01-01

294

Detecting the influence of fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon aerosols on near surface temperature changes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Past research has shown that the dominant influence on recent global climate changes is from anthropogenic greenhouse gas increases with implications for future increases in global temperatures. One mitigation proposal is to reduce black carbon aerosol emissions. How much warming can be offset by controlling black carbon is unclear, especially as its influence on past climate has not been previously unambiguously detected. In this study observations of near-surface warming over the last century are compared with simulations using a climate model, HadGEM1. In the simulations black carbon, from fossil fuel and bio-fuel sources (fBC), produces a positive radiative forcing of about +0.25 Wm?2 over the 20th century, compared with +2.52 Wm?2 for well mixed greenhouse gases. A simulated warming of global mean near-surface temperatures over the twentieth century from fBC of 0.14 ± 0.1 K compares with 1.06 ± 0.07 K from greenhouse gases, ?0.58 ± 0.10 K from anthropogenic aerosols, ozone and land use changes and 0.09 ± 0.09 K from natural influences. Using a detection and attribution methodology, the observed warming since 1900 has detectable influences from anthropogenic and natural factors. Fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon is found to have a detectable contribution to the warming over the last 50 yr of the 20th century, although the results are sensitive to the period being examined as fBC is not detected for the later fifty year period ending in 2006. The attributed warming of fBC was found to be consistent with the warming from fBC unscaled by the detection analysis. This study suggests that there is a possible significant influence from fBC on global temperatures, but its influence is small compared to that from greenhouse gas emissions.

G. S. Jones; N. Christidis; P. A. Stott

2011-01-01

295

Detecting the influence of fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon aerosols on near surface temperature changes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Past research has shown that the dominant influence on recent global climate changes is from anthropogenic greenhouse gas increases with implications for future increases in global temperatures. One mitigation proposal is to reduce black carbon aerosol emissions. How much warming can be offset by the aerosol's control is unclear, especially as its influence on past climate has not been previously unambiguously detected. In this study observations of near-surface warming over the last century are compared with simulations using a climate model, HadGEM1. In the simulations black carbon, from fossil fuel and bio-fuel sources (fBC), produces a positive radiative forcing of about + 0.25 Wm?2 over the 20th century, compared with a little under + 2.5 Wm?2 for well mixed greenhouse gases. A simulated warming of global mean near-surface temperatures over the twentieth century from fBC of 0.14 ± 0.1 K compares with 1.06 ± 0.07 K from greenhouse gases, -0.58 ± 0.10 K from anthropogenic aerosols, ozone and land use changes and 0.09 ± 0.09 K from natural influences. Using a detection and attribution methodology, the observed warming since 1900 has detectable influences from anthropogenic and natural factors. Fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon is found to have a detectable contribution to the warming over the last 50 years of the 20th century, although the results are sensitive to a number of analysis choices, and fBC is not detected for the later fifty year period ending in 2006. The attributed warming of fBC was found to be consistent with the warming from the unscaled simulation. This study suggests that there is a possible significant influence from fBC on global temperatures, but its influence is small compared to that from greenhouse gas emissions.

G. S. Jones; N. Christidis; P. A. Stott

2010-01-01

296

Synergic effects of biodiesel in the biodegradability of fossil-derived fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biodiesel is a clean renewable fuel with many environmental advantages. One of the most important is its good biodegradability and ability to dissolve crude oil and its derivatives. In this paper, we used the CO{sub 2} evolution test to study the biodegradability of biodiesel and its mixtures with fossil diesel fuel and gasoline. The biodegradability of biodiesel was higher than 98% after 28 days, while for diesel fuel and gasoline it was 50% and 56%, respectively. In all the cases, biodegradability increased with the addition of biodiesel. To evaluate the synergic effect, the experimental results for the mixtures were compared with a linear combination of the biodegradability values for the pure compounds. The synergic effect was positive in all the cases, demonstrating that biodiesel enhances the biodegradability of both diesel fuel and gasoline by means of cometabolism. The density and viscosity of the mixtures were also evaluated to determine the possibility of collecting them from an affected area. Although both properties increased with the addition of biodiesel, in all the cases the density was lower than that of water and the viscosity was low enough to allow pumpability. (author)

Pasqualino, Jorgelina C.; Montane, Daniel; Salvado, Joan [Rovira i Virgili University, Tarragona (Spain). Department of Chemical Engineering

2006-10-15

297

Prospects for conversion of solar energy into chemical fuels: the concept of a solar fuels industry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is, at present, no solar fuels industry anywhere in the world despite the well-publicized needs to replace our depleting stock of fossil fuels with renewable energy sources. Many obstacles have to be overcome in order to store sunlight in the form of chemical potential, and there are severe barriers to surmount in order to produce energy on a massive scale, at a modest price and in a convenient form. It is also essential to allow for the intermittent nature of sunlight, its diffusiveness and variability and to cope with the obvious need to use large surface areas for light collection. Nonetheless, we have no alternative but to devise viable strategies for storage of sunlight as biomass or chemical feedstock. Simple alternatives, such as solar heating, are attractive in terms of quick demonstrations but are not the answer. Photo-electrochemical devices might serve as the necessary machinery by which to generate electronic charge but the main problem is to couple these charges to the multi-electron catalysis needed to drive energy-storing chemical reactions. Several potential fuels (CO, H?, HCOOH, NH?, O?, speciality organics, etc.) are possible, but the photochemical reduction of CO? deserves particular mention because of ever-growing concerns about overproduction of greenhouse gases. The prospects for achieving these reactions under ambient conditions are considered herein.

Harriman A

2013-08-01

298

Prospects for conversion of solar energy into chemical fuels: the concept of a solar fuels industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is, at present, no solar fuels industry anywhere in the world despite the well-publicized needs to replace our depleting stock of fossil fuels with renewable energy sources. Many obstacles have to be overcome in order to store sunlight in the form of chemical potential, and there are severe barriers to surmount in order to produce energy on a massive scale, at a modest price and in a convenient form. It is also essential to allow for the intermittent nature of sunlight, its diffusiveness and variability and to cope with the obvious need to use large surface areas for light collection. Nonetheless, we have no alternative but to devise viable strategies for storage of sunlight as biomass or chemical feedstock. Simple alternatives, such as solar heating, are attractive in terms of quick demonstrations but are not the answer. Photo-electrochemical devices might serve as the necessary machinery by which to generate electronic charge but the main problem is to couple these charges to the multi-electron catalysis needed to drive energy-storing chemical reactions. Several potential fuels (CO, H?, HCOOH, NH?, O?, speciality organics, etc.) are possible, but the photochemical reduction of CO? deserves particular mention because of ever-growing concerns about overproduction of greenhouse gases. The prospects for achieving these reactions under ambient conditions are considered herein. PMID:23816906

Harriman, Anthony

2013-07-01

299

Proceedings of the APEC seventh technical seminar on clean fossil energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papers are presented under the following session headings: application and development of clean fossil energy alternative fuels; application and development of clean fossil energy for power generation; application and development of clean fossil energy in the industrial sectors; market opportunities for clean fossil energy in the APEC region; and the role of clean fossil energy in addressing global climate change. A list of participants, with their addresses, is included.

NONE

2000-08-01

300

Determination of heating value of industrial waste for the formulation of alternative fuels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of alternative fuels has become increasingly widespread. They are basically designed based on industrial waste so that they can substitute fossil fuels which start to become scarce. Alternative fuels must meet some criteria, namely an important calorific content, minimum humidity and ash content. When it comes to combustion, the most interesting parameter is the calorific value which represents the thermal energy released during combustion. The experiments that were conducted showed that the calorific value is influenced by other parameters namely moisture and ash content. It was therefore necessary to study the behavior of the heating value in terms of these two parameters in order to establish a relationship that is used to describe the behavior. This is expected to allow a simulation of the calorific value of a mixture of various industrial waste.

Bouabid G.; Nahya D.; Azzi M.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Technological research and development of fossil fuels; Ricerca e sviluppo tecnologico per lo sfruttamento ottimale dei combustibili fossili  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the present document is to supply general information concerning fossil fuels that represent, today and for the near future, the main energy source of our planet. New fossil fuel technologies are in continual development with two principal goals: to decrease environmental impact and increase transformation process efficiency. Examples of this effort are: (1) gas-steam combined cycles integrated with coal gasification plants, or with pressurized-fluidized-bed combustors; (2) new cycles with humid air or coal direct fired turbine, now under development. In the first part of this document the international and national energy situations and trends are shown. After some brief notes on environment problems and alternative fuels, such as biomasses and municipal wastes, technological aspects, mainly relevant to increasing fossil-fueled power plant performances, are examined in greater depth. Finally the research and technological development activities of ENEA (National Agency for New technologies, Energy and the Environment) Engineering Branch in order to improve fossil fuels energy and environmental use are presented.

Minghetti, E.; Palazzi, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

1995-05-01

302

Fossil fuel-fired power generation. Case studies of recently constructed coal- and gas-fired plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To meet future energy demand growth and replace older or inefficient units, a large number of fossil fuel-fired plants will be required to be built worldwide in the next decade. Yet CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fired power generation are a major contributor to climate change. As a result, new plants must be designed and operated at highest efficiency both to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and to facilitate deployment of CO{sub 2} capture and storage in the future. The series of case studies in this report, which respond to a request to the IEA from the G8 Summit in July 2005, were conducted to illustrate what efficiency is achieved now in modern plants in different parts of the world using different grades of fossil fuels. The plants were selected from different geographical areas, because local factors influence attainable efficiency. The case studies include pulverized coal combustion (PCC) with both subcritical and supercritical (very high pressure and temperature) steam turbine cycles, a review of current and future applications of coal-fuelled integrated gasification combined cycle plants (IGCC), and a case study of a natural gas fired combined cycle plant to facilitate comparisons. The results of these analyses show that the technologies for high efficiency (low CO{sub 2} emission) and very low conventional pollutant emissions (particulates, SO{sub 2}, NOx) from fossil fuel-fired power generation are available now through PCC, IGCC or NGCC at commercially acceptable cost. This report contains comprehensive technical and indicative cost information for modern fossil fuel-fired plants that was previously unavailable. It serves as a valuable sourcebook for policy makers and technical decision makers contemplating decisions to build new fossil fuel-fired power generation plants.

Henderson, C. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

2007-10-23

303

Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled â??Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels.â? Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

Michael Petrik; Robert Ruhl

2012-03-31

304

Significant long-term increase of fossil fuel CO2 uptake from reduced marine calcification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analysis of available plankton manipulation experiments demonstrates a previously unrecognized wide range of sensitivities of biogenic calcification to simulated anthropogenic acidification of the ocean, with the "lab rat" of planktic calcifiers, Emiliania huxleyi not representative of calcification generally. We assess the implications of the experimental uncertainty in plankton calcification response by creating an ensemble of realizations of an Earth system model that encapsulates a comparable range of uncertainty in calcification response. We predict a substantial future reduction in marine carbonate production, with ocean CO2 sequestration across the model ensemble enhanced by between 62 and 199 PgC by the year 3000, equivalent to a reduction in the atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 burden at that time of up to 13%. Concurrent changes in ocean circulation and surface temperatures contribute about one third to the overall importance of reduced plankton calcification.

A. Ridgwell; I. Zondervan; J. C. Hargreaves; J. Bijma; T. M. Lenton

2006-01-01

305

Optimal design of geothermal-solar greenhouses for the minimisation of fossil fuel consumption  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Greece has a significant geothermal potential with high enthalpy fields in the Aegean Sea region and low enthalpy fields scattered in specific locations of the country that has not been sufficiently exploited yet. One promising application would be the use of geothermal energy for greenhouse heating. The present work proposes an integrated and analytical methodology for the design of a geothermal-solar greenhouse that minimises the fossil fuels consumption and replaces it with geothermal energy. To that effect, the system modules are modelled analytically and the energy balances of all the system components are formulated. The resulting model is solved and the main design parameters are determined, in order to minimise the entire installation heat losses and the electric energy consumption. A case study is presented where the proposed methodology has been applied with interesting results concerning the technical and financial efficiency of the system. [Author].

Kondili, E. [Optimisation of Production Systems Lab, Mechanical Engineering Department, TEI Piraeus, P.O. Box 41046, Athens 12201 (Greece); Kaldellis, J.K. [Lab of Soft Energy Applications and Environmental Protection, TEI Piraeus, P.O. Box 41046, Athens 12201 (Greece)

2006-06-15

306

The Kyoto Protocol and the fossil fuel markets under different emission trading regimes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The consequences of the Kyoto Protocol for the fossil fuel markets depend on which policy instruments that are used in order to reach the emission targets. This paper uses a numerical model to assess the significance of international emission trading for the oil, coal and gas markets. Three different trading regimes are compared. Particular attention is devoted to the EU proposal about limits on acquisitions and transfers of emission permits. We find that the EU proposal will be non-binding for buyers of emission permits but will significantly constrain the sale of emission permits from Eastern Europe. The EU proposal will increase the level of abatement in Annex B countries and will cause a sharp increase in the price of permits compared to the free trade equilibrium. (author)

Holtsmark, Bjart; Maestad, Ottar

2000-07-01

307

Device for separating CO2 from fossil-fueled power plant emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A gas separation device includes an inner conduit, and a concentric outer conduit. An electrically conductive filter media, preferably a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve, is provided in the annular space between the inner conduit and the outer conduit. Gas flows through the inner conduit and the annular space between the inner conduit and the outer conduit, so as to contact the filter media. The filter media preferentially adsorbs at least one constituent of the gas stream. The filter media is regenerated by causing an electric current to flow through the filter media. The inner conduit and outer conduit are preferably electrically conductive whereby the regeneration of the filter media can be electrically stimulated. The invention is particularly useful for the removal of CO.sub.2 from the exhaust gases of fossil-fueled power plants.

Burchell, Timothy D [Oak Ridge, TN; Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN; Wilson, Kirk A [Knoxville, TN

2002-04-23

308

NOx And CO Prediction In Fossil Fuel Plants By Time Delay Neural Networks  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents a time delay neural network (TDNN) model designed for the predictionof nitrogen oxides (NOx ) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from a fossil fuel powerplant. NOx and CO emissions of the plant are determined as a function of other relatedtime-series such as air flow rates and oxygen levels that are measured during the systemoperation. Correlation analysis is performed on the data to determine the location and thespread of cross-correlation between pairs of variables and this information is used to form avariable tapped delay line at the input of the network. We also introduce a neural networkbased preprocessor which employs an iterative regularization scheme to recover missing portionsof CO data that are censored due to saturation of the measuring device. Predictionafter training with the restored data set is observed to be significantly more accurate.Keywords: Time delay neural networks, environmental application, missing data prediction,NOx and CO pred...

Tulay Adali; Bora Bakal; M. Kemal Sonmez; Reza Fakory

309

RADIOACTIVITY IN THE ATMOSPHERIC EFFLUENTS OF POWER PLANTS THAT USE FOSSIL FUELS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Analysis of the fly ash produced by combustion of pulverized Appalachian coal has shown that a 1000-megawatt coal-burning power plant will discharge into the atmosphere from about 28 millicuries to nearly 1 curie per year of radium-226 and radium-228. An oil-burning plant of similar size will discharge about 0.5 millicurie of radium per year. Comparison of these data with data on the release of fission products from nuclear-powered generating stations shows that when the physical and biological properties of the various radionuclides are taken into consideration, the conventional fossil-fueled plants discharge relatively greater quantities of radioactive materials into the atmosphere than nuclearpowered plants of comparable size.

EISENBUD M; PETROW HG

1964-04-01

310

Chromosome aberrations in employees from fossil-fueled and nuclear-power plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chromosome aberrations were scored in 59 persons from fossil-fueled plants, in 89 persons from nuclear-power plants and in 23 controls. A significant increase in acentric chromosome fragments and dicentric chromosomes compared to the control group was observed in both types of workers. Moreover, the number of abnormal cells was significantly greater in workers of conventional plants than in those of nuclear-power plants. When adjusted for loss of lymphocytes according to a half-life of 3 years, this difference was also significant for the number of dicentric chromosomes observed. A significant effect of length of exposure or of frequency of radiological examinations could be discerned only in the group of workers from conventional plants.

Léonard A; Deknudt G; Léonard ED; Decat G

1984-11-01

311

Climate policy and the optimal extraction of high- and low-carbon fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study how restricting CO{sub 2} emissions affects resource prices and depletion over time. We use a Hotelling-style model with two non-renewable fossil fuels that differ in their carbon content (e.g., coal and natural gas) and in addition are imperfect substitutes in final good production. We show that an economy facing a CO{sub 2} flow-constraint may substitute towards the relatively dirty input. As the economy tries to maximize output per unit of emissions it is not only carbon content that matters: productivity matters as well. With an announced constraint the economy first substitutes towards the less productive input such that more of the productive input is available when constrained. Preliminary empirical results suggest that it is cost-effective to substitute away from dirty coal to cleaner oil or gas, but to substitute from natural gas towards the dirtier input oil.

Smulders, S.; van der Werf, E. [University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada). Dept. of Economics

2008-11-15

312

Climate policy and the optimal extraction of high- and low-carbon fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study how restricting CO2 emissions affects resource prices and depletion over time. We use a Hotelling-style model with two non- renewable fossil fuels that differ in their carbon content (e.g. coal and natural gas) and that are imperfect substitutes in final good production. We study both an unexpected constraint and an anticipated constraint. Both shocks induce intertemporal substitution of resource use. When emissions are unexpectedly restricted, it is cost-effective to use high-carbon resources relatively more (less) intensively on impact if this resource is relatively scarce (abundant). If the emission constraint is anticipated, it is cost-effective to use relatively more (less) of the low-carbon input before the constraint becomes binding, in order to conserve relatively more (less) of the high-carbon input for the period when climate policy is active in case the high-carbon resource is relatively scarce (abundant)

Smulders, S.; Van der Werf, E.

2005-07-01

313

Climate policy and the optimal extraction of high- and low-carbon fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We study how restricting CO2 emissions affects resource prices and depletion over time. We use a Hotelling-style model with two non- renewable fossil fuels that differ in their carbon content (e.g. coal and natural gas) and that are imperfect substitutes in final good production. We study both an unexpected constraint and an anticipated constraint. Both shocks induce intertemporal substitution of resource use. When emissions are unexpectedly restricted, it is cost-effective to use high-carbon resources relatively more (less) intensively on impact if this resource is relatively scarce (abundant). If the emission constraint is anticipated, it is cost-effective to use relatively more (less) of the low-carbon input before the constraint becomes binding, in order to conserve relatively more (less) of the high-carbon input for the period when climate policy is active in case the high-carbon resource is relatively scarce (abundant)

2005-01-01

314

Process for gas cleaning after boiler plant for fossil fuels using fabric filter. Verfahren zur Gasreinigung hinter Kesselanlagen fuer fossile Brennstoffe mittels Gewebefilter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention concerns a process for gas cleaning after boiler plant for fossil fuels by means of fabric filters, which are cleaned by compressed air. In order to prevent blowback from the fabric filters to the boiler when cleaning fabric filters by means of compressed air, the invention proposes that simultaneously with the rush of compressed air for cleaning the fabric filter, there should be a rush of compressed in the connecting pipe between the boiler and the fabric filter, which compensates for the rush of compressed air from the fabric filter.

Hoelter, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Gresch, H.; Dewert, H.

1985-07-25

315

Role of the Netherlands in fossil fuel projects of multilateral banks; Nederlandse rol bij fossiele brandstofprojecten van de multilaterale banken  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the study on the title subject is to gain insight in the contribution of the Netherlands to the financing and the reduction of CO2-emission of fossil fuel projects, financed by banks in which the Netherlands participate as shareholder: World Bank; Inter-American Development Bank; African Development Bank; Asian Development Bank; European Investment Bank; European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Fossil fuel projects are projects for the exploitation, transport and or processing of fossil fuels, and projects in fossil-fuel power plants in the time period 1992-2004. [Dutch] Doel van dit rapport is om inzicht te krijgen in het Nederlandse aandeel in financiering en CO2-uitstoot van de fossiele brandstofprojecten die door de volgende multilaterale banken (waarvan Nederland aandeelhouder is) worden gefinancierd: Wereldbank; Inter-American Development Bank; African Development Bank; Asian Development Bank; European Investment Bank; European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Onder fossiele brandstofprojecten worden verstaan projecten voor winning, transport en/of verwerking van aardolie, aardgas en steenkool, en elektriciteitscentrales waar fossiele brandstoffen verstookt worden. Het onderzoek is gericht op fossiele brandstofprojecten die gefinancierd zijn in de periode 1992-2004.

Van Gelder, J.W.; Pols, D. (eds.)

2005-06-15

316

FEASIBILITY OF PRODUCING AND MARKETING BYPRODUCT GYPSUM FROM SO2 EMISSION CONTROL AT FOSSIL-FUEL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study to identify fossil-fuel-fired power plants that might, in competition with existing crude gypsum sources and other power plants, lower the cost of compliance with SO2 regulations by producing and marketing abatement gypsum. In the Eastern U.S.,...

317

Inferring high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 records at continental sites from combined 14CO2 and CO observations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An uncertainty estimate of a purely observational approach to derive hourly regional fossil fuel CO2 offsets ((delta)CO2(foss)) at continental CO2 monitoring sites is presented. Weekly mean 14C-based fossil fuel CO2 mixing ratios and corresponding regional CO offsets ((delta)CO) are proposed to determine weekly mean (delta)CO/(delta)CO2(foss) ratios in order to derive hourly (delta)CO2(foss) mixing ratios from hourly (delta)CO measurements. Respective regional model estimates of CO and CO2(foss) are applied to test this approach and obtain root mean square errors of the correspondingly determined regional hourly fossil fuel CO2 component. The method is further validated with campaign-based observations in Heidelberg. The uncertainty of the proposed method turns out to increase with decreasing fossil fuel CO2 fraction ranging from about 15% up to 40% for continental Europe. Together with the uncertainty of the (delta)CO/(delta)CO2(foss) ratio, which is determined by the precision of the 14CO2 measurement, this method is still more accurate and precise than any model-based approach

2007-01-01

318

Fossil fuels and the global carbon dioxide problem. Disposal and recycling of carbon dioxide may reduce the greenhouse effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greenhouse gas reduction was defined as a global concern at the Kyoto conference of 1997. The emission reduction goals can be reached only if all options for energy saving and emission reduction are used, including disposal or recycling of carbon dioxide in fossil fuel combustion processes.

1999-10-15

319

Contextualizing avian mortality: A preliminary appraisal of bird and bat fatalities from wind, fossil-fuel, and nuclear electricity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article explores the threats that wind farms pose to birds and bats before briefly surveying the recent literature on avian mortality and summarizing some of the problems with it. Based on operating performance in the United States and Europe, this study offers an approximate calculation for the number of birds killed per kWh generated for wind electricity, fossil-fuel, and nuclear power systems. The study estimates that wind farms and nuclear power stations are responsible each for between 0.3 and 0.4 fatalities per gigawatt-hour (GWh) of electricity while fossil-fueled power stations are responsible for about 5.2 fatalities per GWh. While this paper should be respected as a preliminary assessment, the estimate means that wind farms killed approximately seven thousand birds in the United States in 2006 but nuclear plants killed about 327,000 and fossil-fueled power plants 14.5 million. The paper concludes that further study is needed, but also that fossil-fueled power stations appear to pose a much greater threat to avian wildlife than wind and nuclear power technologies.

Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)], E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg

2009-06-15

320

Contextualizing avian mortality. A preliminary appraisal of bird and bat fatalities from wind, fossil-fuel, and nuclear electricity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article explores the threats that wind farms pose to birds and bats before briefly surveying the recent literature on avian mortality and summarizing some of the problems with it. Based on operating performance in the United States and Europe, this study offers an approximate calculation for the number of birds killed per kWh generated for wind electricity, fossil-fuel, and nuclear power systems. The study estimates that wind farms and nuclear power stations are responsible each for between 0.3 and 0.4 fatalities per gigawatt-hour (GWh) of electricity while fossil-fueled power stations are responsible for about 5.2 fatalities per GWh. While this paper should be respected as a preliminary assessment, the estimate means that wind farms killed approximately seven thousand birds in the United States in 2006 but nuclear plants killed about 327,000 and fossil-fueled power plants 14.5 million. The paper concludes that further study is needed, but also that fossil-fueled power stations appear to pose a much greater threat to avian wildlife than wind and nuclear power technologies. (author)

Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

2009-06-15

 
 
 
 
321

Contextualizing avian mortality: A preliminary appraisal of bird and bat fatalities from wind, fossil-fuel, and nuclear electricity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This article explores the threats that wind farms pose to birds and bats before briefly surveying the recent literature on avian mortality and summarizing some of the problems with it. Based on operating performance in the United States and Europe, this study offers an approximate calculation for the number of birds killed per kWh generated for wind electricity, fossil-fuel, and nuclear power systems. The study estimates that wind farms and nuclear power stations are responsible each for between 0.3 and 0.4 fatalities per gigawatt-hour (GWh) of electricity while fossil-fueled power stations are responsible for about 5.2 fatalities per GWh. While this paper should be respected as a preliminary assessment, the estimate means that wind farms killed approximately seven thousand birds in the United States in 2006 but nuclear plants killed about 327,000 and fossil-fueled power plants 14.5 million. The paper concludes that further study is needed, but also that fossil-fueled power stations appear to pose a much greater threat to avian wildlife than wind and nuclear power technologies.

2009-01-01

322

CH/sub 4//CO-emission from fossil fuels global warming potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CO/sub 2/ (carbon dioxide) contributes to the greenhouse effect. Substitution of coal/petroleum fossil fuels to natural gas is one of the options to reduce CO/sub 2/-emissions from the energy system. The specific CO/sub 2/-emission from natural gas is less and the energy conversion efficiency in stationary applications (power plants, boilers) is in general higher compared to coal/petroleum fuels. Natural gas has been identified as a possible transient fuel to delay greenhouse warming. Concerns have been raised about CH/sub 4/-emissions from increased natural gas use (e.g. pipeline leakages). CH/sub 4/ is a greenhouse gas. The infrared absorption of one molecule of CH/sub 4/ is 30 to 35 times as large as the ir absorption of one CO/sub 2/-molecule. This has lead several authors to suggest that leakage of natural gas, even of small quantities, would offset the advantage of its lower CO/sub 2/-emission. However the effective atmospheric lifetime of CO/sub 2/ is longer than of CH/sub 4/. Moreover the atmospheric lifetime of CH/sub 4/ is to some extent determined by the magnitude of CO (carbon monoxide) emissions. CO and CH/sub 4/ compete for .OH as atmospheric sink, although CO itself is not a greenhouse gas (no ir absorption). This report addresses the question whether fuel switching would effect greenhouse effect mitigating strategies if CH/sub 4/ as greenhouse gas is taken into account. The global warming is calculated from current energy related CH/sub 4/- and CO-emissions as 'CO/sub 2/-equivalent'. This is a straight-forward 'back-of-the-envelope' calculation extracted from various recent quantitative synthesis reports on the greenhouse issue. 2 figs., 39 refs., 3 tabs., 1 app.

Okken, P.A.; Kram, T.

1989-07-01

323

The implication for climate change and peak fossil fuel of the continuation of the current trend in wind and solar energy production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Climate change, and more recently, the risk of fossil fuel production being unable to keep pace with demand (peak fossil fuel) are both considered as risks to civilisation, or global risks. In an initial empirical analysis, this paper attempts to answer the following questions, which have often been posed but have not, to our knowledge, been answered empirically at global level. At which date, if unaddressed, will the risks become critical? Given that the substitution of fossil fuels by wind and solar energy is often proposed as a solution to these problems, what is its current aggregate growth rate and is there a plausible future growth rate which would substitute it for fossil fuels before the risks become critical? The study finds that the peak fossil fuel risk will start to be critical by 2020. If however the future growth rate of wind and solar energy production follows that already achieved for the world mobile phone system or the Chinese National Expressway Network the peak fossil fuel risk can be prevented completely. For global warming, the same growth rate provides significant mitigation by reducing carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels to zero by the early 2030s. - Highlights: ? Converging studies show the peak fossil fuel risk likely to be critical by 2020. ? We model the future growth rate of wind and solar energy based on analogous precedents. ? These are the growth rates already achieved by the world mobile phone system and the Chinese National Expressway Network. ? We show that wind and solar energy growth at these rates averts the peak fossil fuel risk. ? For global warming, the scenarios make fossil-fuel CO2 emissions zero by 2030.

2012-01-01

324

Feeling the heat : oilsands producers tentatively peer outside the box in their search for green alternatives to fossil fuel consumption  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Green alternatives to fossil fuel consumption were explored. Researchers are now suggesting that there is the potential to sustainably produce enough biomass in western Canada to satisfy the energy requirements of Alberta's oil sands industry. Sources of biomass include forestry waste; fast-growing wood willows; mountain pine beetle damaged stocks; and agricultural crops and switchgrass. The biomass can be used in co-combustion processes with coal or petro-coke, or through various means of gasification, which can also generate streams of hydrogen for upgrading bitumen. However, transportation of the biomass remains a significant obstacle to its widespread use. Studies have suggested that pipelines could be constructed to transport wood pellets in coal slurries, while syngas could be pumped through the natural gas system. The use of biomass is expected to offset environmental impacts caused by oil sands development, as any carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) released into the atmosphere is equivalent to that sequestered in new forests and agricultural crops. Oil and gas producers are now considering the use of biomass stocks in future developments, and a consortium of major oil and gas developers is also considering the use of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) for use in deep heat mining processes. In EGS, a pair of deep wells are drilled into basement rock, where superheated water is pumped through fractures and up the second well. It was concluded that EGS has not yet been proven commercially, and demonstration projects are needed to advance the technology. 6 figs.

Smith, M.

2007-09-15

325

Cost-effective policy instruments for greenhouse gas emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution through bioenergy production in Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Climate change mitigation and security of energy supply are important targets of Austrian energy policy. Bioenergy production based on resources from agriculture and forestry is an important option for attaining these targets. To increase the share of bioenergy in the energy supply, supporting policy instruments are necessary. The cost-effectiveness of these instruments in attaining policy targets depends on the availability of bioenergy technologies. Advanced technologies such as second-generation biofuels, biomass gasification for power production, and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) will likely change the performance of policy instruments. This article assesses the cost-effectiveness of energy policy instruments, considering new bioenergy technologies for the year 2030, with respect to greenhouse gas emission (GHG) reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Instruments that directly subsidize bioenergy are compared with instruments that aim at reducing GHG emissions. A spatially explicit modeling approach is used to account for biomass supply and energy distribution costs in Austria. Results indicate that a carbon tax performs cost-effectively with respect to both policy targets if BECCS is not available. However, the availability of BECCS creates a trade-off between GHG emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Biofuel blending obligations are costly in terms of attaining the policy targets. - Highlights: ? Costs of energy policies and effects on reduction of CO2 emissions and fossil fuel consumption. ? Particular focus on new bioenergy production technologies such as second generation biofuels. ? Spatially explicit techno-economic optimization model. ? CO2 tax: high costs for reducing fossil fuel consumption if carbon capture and storage is available. ? Biofuel policy: no significant reductions in CO2 emissions or fossil fuel consumption.

2011-01-01

326

Cost-effective policy instruments for greenhouse gas emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution through bioenergy production in Austria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Climate change mitigation and security of energy supply are important targets of Austrian energy policy. Bioenergy production based on resources from agriculture and forestry is an important option for attaining these targets. To increase the share of bioenergy in the energy supply, supporting policy instruments are necessary. The cost-effectiveness of these instruments in attaining policy targets depends on the availability of bioenergy technologies. Advanced technologies such as second-generation biofuels, biomass gasification for power production, and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) will likely change the performance of policy instruments. This article assesses the cost-effectiveness of energy policy instruments, considering new bioenergy technologies for the year 2030, with respect to greenhouse gas emission (GHG) reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Instruments that directly subsidize bioenergy are compared with instruments that aim at reducing GHG emissions. A spatially explicit modeling approach is used to account for biomass supply and energy distribution costs in Austria. Results indicate that a carbon tax performs cost-effectively with respect to both policy targets if BECCS is not available. However, the availability of BECCS creates a trade-off between GHG emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Biofuel blending obligations are costly in terms of attaining the policy targets. - Highlights: > Costs of energy policies and effects on reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and fossil fuel consumption. > Particular focus on new bioenergy production technologies such as second generation biofuels. > Spatially explicit techno-economic optimization model. > CO{sub 2} tax: high costs for reducing fossil fuel consumption if carbon capture and storage is available. > Biofuel policy: no significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions or fossil fuel consumption.

Schmidt, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.schmidt@boku.ac.at [Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Leduc, Sylvain [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Dotzauer, Erik [Maelardalen University, P.O. Box 883, SE-72123 Vaesteras (Sweden); Schmid, Erwin [Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)

2011-06-15

327

A numerical analysis of worldwide CO{sub 2} emissions based on fossil fuels and effects on atmospheric warming in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The climate system of the earth, globally and locally, obviously has been changed from pre-industrial period to present. Some of the changes are due to human activities where the vital role has been played by the emission. Fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, oil), the raw materials for energy, play an effective and determining role in the development and sustenance of industrial development, as well as in the energy planning in all major countries. When global and regional geographies are evaluated from the geo-strategic and geo-political points of view, it is clearly seen that among all fossil fuels, coal is distributed more 'equally' in ratio than oil and natural gas reserves. Coal is gradually gaining importance for countries that do not have energy resources, have limited ones, or have resources on the verge of exhaustion. With the latest environmentally-friendly technological innovations in the field of burning-storing CO2 emissions in thermal power plants and given today's emphasis on the principle of 'sustainable development,' it is an undeniable fact that coal will continue to be a significant primary energy resource in the future, both in Turkey and around the world. In this study, in order to numerically calculate the impact of CO2 from fossil fuel consumption on global warming and the process of climate change, a global scale numerical evaluation has been constructed. The evaluation utilizes the 'total primary energy supply (TPES) - CO2 emission' from 136 countries in 2004 together with such basic indicators as 'TPES/capita' and 'ton CO2/capita'. The potential CO2 emission for the year 2030 has also been estimated. Moreover, to maintain the integrity of the subject under study, the distribution of thermal power plants utilizing fossil fuels among the differing geographical regions of Turkey, the relationship between forests (F) in these regions, and the average annual increase in temperature ({delta}T) between 1975-92 and 1993-2006 have also been examined. Data was taken from 133 macro-climatic meteorological stations within the scope of this study.

Tokgoz, Nuray

2007-07-01

328

An overview of alternative fossil fuel price and carbon regulation scenarios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The benefits of the Department of Energy's research and development (R&D) efforts have historically been estimated under business-as-usual market and policy conditions. In recognition of the insurance value of R&D, however, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) have been exploring options for evaluating the benefits of their R&D programs under an array of alternative futures. More specifically, an FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group (the Working Group) has proposed to EERE and FE staff the application of an initial set of three scenarios for use in the Working Group's upcoming analyses: (1) a Reference Case Scenario, (2) a High Fuel Price Scenario, which includes heightened natural gas and oil prices, and (3) a Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario. The immediate goal is to use these scenarios to conduct a pilot analysis of the benefits of EERE and FE R&D efforts. In this report, the two alternative scenarios being considered by EERE and FE staff--carbon cap-and-trade and high fuel prices--are compared to other scenarios used by energy analysts and utility planners. The report also briefly evaluates the past accuracy of fossil fuel price forecasts. We find that the natural gas prices through 2025 proposed in the FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group's High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable based on current natural gas prices and other externally generated gas price forecasts and scenarios. If anything, an even more extreme gas price scenario might be considered. The price escalation from 2025 to 2050 within the proposed High Fuel Price Scenario is harder to evaluate, primarily because few existing forecasts or scenarios extend beyond 2025, but, at first blush, it also appears reasonable. Similarly, we find that the oil prices originally proposed by the Working Group in the High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable, if not conservative, based on: (1) the current forward market for oil, (2) current oil prices, (3) externally generated oil price forecasts, and (4) the historical difficulty in accurately forecasting oil prices. Overall, a spread between the FE-EERE High Oil Price and Reference scenarios of well over $8/bbl is supported by the literature. We conclude that a wide range of carbon regulation scenarios are possible, especially within the time frame considered by EERE and FE (through 2050). The Working Group's Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario is found to be less aggressive than many Kyoto-style targets that have been analyzed, and similar in magnitude to the proposed Climate Stewardship Act. The proposed scenario is more aggressive than some other scenarios found in the literature, however, and ignores carbon banking and offsets and does not allow nuclear power to expand. We are therefore somewhat concerned that the stringency of the proposed carbon regulation scenario in the 2010 to 2025 period will lead to a particularly high estimated cost of carbon reduction. As described in more detail later, we encourage some flexibility in the Working Group's ultimate implementation of the Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario. We conclude by identifying additional scenarios that might be considered in future analyses, describing a concern with the proposed specification of the High Fuel Price Scenario, and highlighting the possible difficulty of implementing extreme scenarios with current energy modeling tools.

Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2004-10-01

329

An assessment of econometric models applied to fossil fuel power generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main purpose of this report is to provide a general view of those studies, in which the econometric approach is applied to the selection of fuel in fossil fired power generation, focusing the attention to the key role played by the fuel prices. The report consists of a methodological analysis and a survey of the studies available in literature. The methodological analysis allows to assess the adequateness of the econometric approach, in the electrical power utilities policy. With this purpose, the fundamentals of microeconomics, which are the basis of the econometric models, are pointed out and discussed, and then the hypotheses, which are needed to be assumed for complying the economic theory, are verified in their actual implementation in the power generation sector. The survey of the available studies provides a detailed description of the Translog and Logit models, and the results achieved with their application. From these results, the estimated models show to fit the data with good approximation, a certain degree of interfuel substitution and a meaningful reaction to prices on demand side.

2001-01-01

330

Improvement of CO2 emission estimates from the non-energy use of fossil fuels in the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimates of carbon dioxide emissions originating from the non-energy use of fossil fuels are generally considered to be a rather uncertain part in greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories. For this reason, the NEAT (Non-energy use Emission Accounting Tables) model has been developed which represents a bottom-up carbon flow analysis to calculate the CO2 emissions that originate from the non-energy use of fossil fuels. The NEAT model also provides estimates for the total fossil CO2 emissions by deducting the non-energy use carbon storage from the total fuel consumption. In this study, an extended version of the NEAT model (NEAT 2.0) has been developed and applied to the Netherlands for the period 1993-1999. For this analysis, confidential production and trade statistics were provided by Statistics Netherlands (CBS) within the CEREM framework. The main conclusion of this study is that the total fossil CO2 emissions are very likely to be overestimated in the official CO2 emission inventories for the Netherlands (as reported to the UNFCCC). According to the NEAT model, the total fossil CO2 emissions in the Netherlands range between 158-173 Mt CO2 (varying per year), whereas the results according to the IPCC Reference Approach (IPCC-RA, a top down method based on the total primary energy supply in a country) are 2.9-7.5 Mt CO2 (2-7%) higher. The difference results from a different estimate for non-energy use carbon storage that is deducted from the total primary energy supply to yield an estimate for total national CO2 emissions of fossil origin.

2003-01-01

331

Towards Robust Energy Systems Modeling: Examinging Uncertainty in Fossil Fuel-Based Life Cycle Assessment Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing concerns about the environmental impacts of fossil fuels used in the U.S. transportation and electricity sectors have spurred interest in alternate energy sources, such as natural gas and biofuels. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methods can be used to estimate the environmental impacts of incumbent energy sources and potential impact reductions achievable through the use of alternate energy sources. Some recent U.S. climate policies have used the results of LCAs to encourage the use of low carbon fuels to meet future energy demands in the U.S. However, the LCA methods used to estimate potential reductions in environmental impact have some drawbacks. First, the LCAs are predominantly based on deterministic approaches that do not account for any uncertainty inherent in life cycle data and methods. Such methods overstate the accuracy of the point estimate results, which could in turn lead to incorrect and (consequent) expensive decision-making. Second, system boundaries considered by most LCA studies tend to be limited (considered a manifestation of uncertainty in LCA). Although LCAs can estimate the benefits of transitioning to energy systems of lower environmental impact, they may not be able to characterize real world systems perfectly. Improved modeling of energy systems mechanisms can provide more accurate representations of reality and define more likely limits on potential environmental impact reductions. This dissertation quantitatively and qualitatively examines the limitations in LCA studies outlined previously. The first three research chapters address the uncertainty in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with petroleum-based fuels, natural gas and coal consumed in the U.S. The uncertainty in life cycle GHG emissions from fossil fuels was found to range between 13 and 18% of their respective mean values. For instance, the 90% confidence interval of the life cycle GHG emissions of average natural gas consumed in the U.S was found to range between -8 to 9% (17%) of the mean value of 66 g CO2e/MJ. Results indicate that uncertainty affects the conclusions of comparative life cycle assessments, especially when differences in average environmental impacts between two competing fuels/products are small. In the final two research chapters of this thesis, system boundary limitations in LCA are addressed. Simplified economic dispatch models for are developed to examine changes in regional power plant dispatch that occur when coal power plants are retired and when natural gas prices drop. These models better reflect reality by estimating the order in which existing power plants are dispatched to meet electricity demand based on short-run marginal costs. Results indicate that the reduction in air emissions are lower than suggested by LCA studies, since they generally do not include the complexity of regional electricity grids, predominantly driven by comparative fuel prices. For instance, comparison, this study estimates 7-15% reductions in emissions with low natural gas prices. Although this is a significant reduction in itself, it is still lower than the benefits reported in traditional life cycle comparisons of coal and natural gas-based power (close to 50%), mainly due to the effects of plant dispatch.

Venkatesh, Aranya

332

Atmospheric observations of carbon monoxide and fossil fuel CO2 emissions from East Asia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Flask samples from two sites in East Asia, Tae-Ahn Peninsula, Korea (TAP), and Shangdianzi, China (SDZ), were measured for trace gases including CO2, CO and fossil fuel CO2(CO(2)ff, derived from Delta(CO2)-C-14 observations). The five-year TAP record shows high CO(2)ff when local air comes from the Korean Peninsula. Most samples, however, reflect air masses from Northeastern China with lower CO(2)ff. Our small set of SDZ samples from winter 2009/2010 have strongly elevated CO(2)ff. Biospheric CO2 contributes substantially to total CO2 variability at both sites, even in winter when non-fossil CO2 sources (including photosynthesis, respiration, biomass burning and biofuel use) contribute 20-30% of the total CO2 enhancement. Carbon monoxide (CO) correlates strongly with CO(2)ff. The SDZ and TAP far-field (China influenced) samples have CO: CO(2)ff ratios (R-CO:CO2ff) of 47 +/- 2 and 44 +/- 3 ppb/ppm respectively, consistent with recent bottom-up inventory estimates and other observational studies. Locally influenced TAP samples fall into two distinct data sets, ascribed to air sourced from South Korea and North Korea. The South Korea samples have low R-CO:CO2ff of 13 +/- 3 ppb/ppm, slightly higher than bottom-up inventories, but consistent with emission ratios for other developed nations. We compare our CO(2)ff observations with modeled CO(2)ff using the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model convolved with a bottom-up CO(2)ff emission inventories. The modeled annual mean CO(2)ff mole fractions are consistent with our observations when the model inventory includes the reported 63% increase in Chinese emissions from 2004 to 2010, whereas a model version which holds Chinese emissions flat is unable to replicate the observations.

Turnbull, Jocelyn C.; Tans, Pieter P.

2011-01-01

333

Fuel oils for domestic and industrial heating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heating fuel oils are characterized in all countries according to their viscosity. They can be classified in two main groups according to their fields of application; i.e. domestic and industrial fuel oils. Heating fuel oils of the various countries are described, i.e. production, composition, grades, names, specifications, characteristics.

Heinemann, W.; Krienke, C.F.

1980-06-01

334

The Canadian fuel cell and hydrogen industry: a capabilities guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Major improvements in efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions, urban pollution, and quality of life are likely to be derived from the global fuel cell and hydrogen industry. Canada is in an ideal position to capitalize on the global leadership position and the expertise developed by Canadian companies. Specifically, Canadian companies are leaders in the development and commercialization of fuel cell, hydrogen and related technologies. This document describes most fuel cell types and their components and systems supply in terms of systems integration, fueling systems, fuel production, storage and delivery. Engineering and financial services are also described. Approximately 1,800 people are directly employed in Canada by the fuel cell industry which is primarily located in British Columbia. Critical information on a number of key companies and organizations active in Canada in the fuel cell industry was provided in this document. Participating corporations and organizations provided the information contained in this guide.

NONE

2003-09-01

335

Creating a Global Grid of Distributed Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions from Nighttime Satellite Imagery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The potential use of satellite observed nighttime lights for estimating carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions has been demonstrated in several previous studies. However, the procedures for a moderate resolution (1 km2 grid cells) global map of fossil fuel CO2 emissions based on nighttime lights are still in the developmental phase. We report on the development of a method for mapping distributed fossil fuel CO2 emissions (excluding electric power utilities) at 30 arc-seconds or approximately 1 km2 resolution using nighttime lights data collected by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS). A regression model, Model 1, was initially developed based on carbon emissions from five sectors of the Vulcan data produced by the Purdue University and a nighttime satellite image of the U.S. The coefficient derived through Model 1 was applied to the global nighttime image but it resulted in underestimation of CO2 emissions for most of the world’s countries, and the states of the U.S. Thus, a second model, Model 2 was developed by allocating the distributed CO2 emissions (excluding emissions from utilities) using a combination of DMSP-OLS nighttime image and population count data from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) LandScan grid. The CO2 emissions were distributed in proportion to the brightness of the DMSP nighttime lights in areas where lighting was detected. In areas with no DMSP detected lighting, the CO2 emissions were distributed based on population count, with the assumption that people who live in these areas emit half as much CO2 as people who live in the areas with DMSP detected lighting. The results indicate that the relationship between satellite observed nighttime lights and CO2 emissions is complex, with differences between sectors and variations in lighting practices between countries. As a result it is not possible to make independent estimates of CO2 emissions with currently available coarse resolution panchromatic satellite observed nighttime lights. However, the nighttime lights image in conjunction with the population grid can help in more accurate disaggregation of national CO2 emissions to a moderate resolution spatial grid.

Tilottama Ghosh; Christopher D. Elvidge; Paul C. Sutton; Kimberly E. Baugh; Daniel Ziskin; Benjamin T. Tuttle

2010-01-01

336

Industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

2007-12-01

337

Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Phase 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vortec has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment-as confirmed by both ANS 16.1 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and did not leach to the environment as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC subsystem design.

1994-01-01

338

Integral power evaluation in fossil fuel power plants; Evaluacion energetica integral en unidades de centrales termoelectricas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this occasion, a methodology is presented that carries out an integral energy evaluation of fossil fuel power plants units (FFPPU) with the purpose of determining the root of the significant decrements of power produced soon after the annual maintenance service. This proposal, besides identifying the origin of the energy efficiency problems, offers information about the contributions of each one of the involved equipment in the total decrement of the unit. With this methodology, the maintenance focuses in the equipment that contributes to the greater energy loss. This document presents such methodology along with its application in a real case, results and necessary remedial actions, demonstrating that its application offers bases for the investment in corrective measures. [Spanish] En esta ocasion se presenta una metodologia que efectua una evaluacion energetica integral de las unidades de centrales termoelectricas (UCT) con el fin de determinar la raiz de los decrementos de potencia significativos producidos luego del servicio anual de mantenimiento. Dicha propuesta, ademas de identificar el origen de los problemas de eficiencia energetica, brinda informacion acerca de las aportaciones de cada uno de los equipos involucrados al decremento total de la unidad. Con esta metodologia, el mantenimiento se enfoca a los equipos que contribuyen a la mayor perdida de potencia. Este documento exhibe tal metodologia junto con su aplicacion en un caso real, resultados y las acciones correctivas necesarias, demostrando que su aplicacion ofrece bases para una inversion futura en medidas correctivas.

Figueroa I, Luis R; Sanchez H, Laura E; Rodriguez M, Jose H [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Nebradt G, Jesus [Unidad de Investigacion y Desarrollo de la Subdireccion de Generacion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, (Mexico)

2006-07-01

339

The Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power Plant - from vision to reality.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sufficient supply of energy without fossil fuels is not possible the next fifty years. Thus, we must find a solution to use coal, without endangering the environment. Carbon Capture and Storage, CCS, might be the answer. At a cost of about 20 Euro/ton CO{sub 2}, there exist technologies, which can be ready for commercial application in 2020. After that, even more cost effective technologies will be developed. To reduce emissions by more than half until 2050, cannot be reached without CCS. However, CCS is very powerful, but not the only tool. All ways to reduce emissions, including renewables and nuclear must be used. To put emphasis behind the words, Vattenfall has started an R and D program to develop technology for CCS in a ten year program. As part of that, Vattenfall is building a Pilot Plant including all process steps from coal input to liquid CO{sub 2}. It will be ready in 2008. In parallel, preparations for a demonstration plant are ongoing. It will be a coal fired full size plant with storage on shore. That will be ready for operation in 2015. (auth)

Stroemberg, L.; Sauthoff, M.

2007-07-01

340

The effects of hygroscopicity of fossil fuel combustion aerosols on mixed-phase clouds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fossil fuel black carbon and organic matter (ffBC/OM) are often emitted together with sulfate, which coats the surface of these particles and changes their hygroscopicity. Observational studies show that the hygroscopicity of soot particles can modulate their ice nucleation ability. To address this, we implemented a scheme that uses 3 levels of soot hygroscopicity (hydrophobic, hydrophilic and hygroscopic) and used laboratory data to specify their ice nuclei abilities. The new scheme results in significant changes to anthropogenic forcing in mixed-phase clouds. The net forcing in off-line studies varies from 0.111 to 1.059 W m?2 depending on the ice nucleation capability of hygroscopic soot particles. The total anthropogenic cloud forcing and whole-sky forcing with the new scheme is 0.06 W m?2 and ?2.45 W m?2, respectively, but could be more positive if hygroscopic soot particles are allowed to nucleate ice particles. The change in liquid water path dominates the anthropogenic forcing in mixed-phase clouds.

Y. Yun; J. E. Penner; O. Popovicheva

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

On-line elemental analysis of fossil fuel process streams by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

METC is continuing development of a real-time, multi-element plasma based spectrometer system for application to high temperature and high pressure fossil fuel process streams. Two versions are under consideration for development. One is an Inductively Coupled Plasma system that has been described previously, and the other is a high power microwave system. The ICP torch operates on a mixture of argon and helium with a conventional annular swirl flow plasma gas, no auxiliary gas, and a conventional sample stream injection through the base of the plasma plume. A new, demountable torch design comprising three ceramic sections allows bolts passing the length of the torch to compress a double O-ring seal. This improves the reliability of the torch. The microwave system will use the same data acquisition and reduction components as the ICP system; only the plasma source itself is different. It will operate with a 750-Watt, 2.45 gigahertz microwave generator. The plasma discharge will be contained within a narrow quartz tube one quarter wavelength from a shorted waveguide termination. The plasma source will be observed via fiber optics and a battery of computer controlled monochromators. To extract more information from the raw spectral data, a neural net computer program is being developed. This program will calculate analyte concentrations from data that includes analyte and interferant spectral emission intensity. Matrix effects and spectral overlaps can be treated more effectively by this method than by conventional spectral analysis.

Chisholm, W.P.

1995-06-01

342

Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains flyash and other particulate. The flyash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The flyash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured flyash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled.

Yang, Wen-Ching (Murrysville, PA); Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

1997-01-01

343

Efficacy of monitoring in situ bioremediation of fossil fuel using the Mesocosm system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] With in situ bioremediation applications being recommended frequently out of practical and economic necessity, cost-efficient and effective implementation strategies need to be developed and/or refined. At the same time, unequivocal approaches for demonstrating in situ bioremediation of target contaminants need to be established. Toward this end, the authors have developed and refined innovative in situ soil and groundwater bioremediation strategies on a pilot and full-scale, including monitoring approaches using stable carbon isotope biogeochemistry to assess progress during in situ bioremediation of fossil fuels (more specifically PAHs and BTEX). To evaluate rigorously and assess these technologies, the authors have initiated mesocosm studies. The Mesocosm system is installed at the Process Engineering Facility, US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. This system integrates two technologies: a modification of the proven UVB technology, which creates a vertical groundwater circulation, and an in situ bioreactor. Incorporated into this system are four soil columns of approximately two meter height with a diameter of 60 cm, allowing them to model and test the efficacy of monitoring and biodegradation in a controlled environment. Parallel field studies currently at two sites will comparatively define the fate and effect of parent compounds and biotransformation products for mass balances (by monitoring natural abundance stable carbon isotope ratios 13C/12C using a GC/IRMS, the fate of organic compounds can be measured)

1995-01-01

344

Using environmentally safe schemes of water treatment in fossil-fuel power stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses effects of water pollution in fossil-fuel power plants by salt introduced to water in the process of reducing water hardness by cation exchange. The method is characterized by high salt consumption necessary for filter regeneration and by intensive discharge of salty water into surface water. Efficient methods of reducing salt content in water are analyzed. Two major schemes are presented: water desalination with dry salt and water as the final product or with desalted water and brine with a high concentration of salt in water. Flowsheets of both systems are given. Operation of the systems, major stages, machines and equipment as well as the technology are characterized. Results of water desalination using both methods are compared. Economic aspects such as investment, operating cost and desalination for 1l of water are discussed. Desalination scheme consists of the following stages. Mechanically filtered water enters electrodialysis concentrators in stages. Deep water desalination occurs in ion exchangers. Acid and alkali regeneration waters neutralize one another and are concentrated in electrodialysis concentrators. Desalinated water is used for the second time and thickened salt solution (from 150 to 200 g/l) is processed in an evaporator. In the second scheme water entering the desalination system is initially treated in a cation exchange system. The second system permits more desalination. (2 refs.) (In Russian)

Vysotskii, S.P.

1981-06-01

345

Effective utilization of fossil fuels for low carbon world -- IGCC and high performance gas turbine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions is required to minimize the effect of hydrocarbon based power generation on global warming. In pursue of this objective, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries is dedicating considerable efforts on two different ways to reduce the environmental impact. The first one involves gas turbine performance improvement by raising firing temperature for Natural-gas and LNG applications. In this regard, the latest J class gas turbine was designed to operate at 1600 deg C and expected combined cycle efficiency in excess of 60%. The other approach involves the use of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants to burn solid fuel like coal.

Ishii, Hiromi; Hashimoto, Takao; Sakamoto, Koichi; Komori, Toyoaki; Kishine, Takashi; Shiozaki, Shigehiro

2010-09-15

346

The Development of Methanol Industry and Methanol Fuel in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2007, China firmly established itself as the driver of the global methanol industry. The country became the world's largest methanol producer and consumer. The development of the methanol industry and methanol fuel in China is reviewed in this article. China is rich in coal but is short on oil and natural gas; unfortunately, transportation development will need more and more oil to provide the fuel. Methanol is becoming a dominant alternative fuel. China is showing the rest of the world how cleaner transportation fuels can be made from coal.

Li, W.Y.; Li, Z.; Xie, K.C. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

2009-07-01

347

ELECTRICITY SUPPLY, FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION, CO2 EMISSIONS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: IMPLICATIONS AND POLICY OPTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the causal relationship among electricity supply, fossil fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Nigeria for the period 1971-2009, in a multivariate framework.Using the bound test approach to cointegration, we found a short-run as well as a long-run relationship among the variables with a positive and statistically significant relationship between CO2 emissions and fossil fuel consumption. The findings also indicate that economic growth is associated with increased CO2 emissions while a positive relationship exists between electricity supply and CO2 emissions revealing the poor nature of electricity supply in Nigeria. Further, the Granger causality test results indicate that electricity supply has not impacted significantly on economic growth in Nigeria. The results also strongly imply that policies aimed at reducing carbon emissions in Nigeria will not impede economic growth. The paper therefore concludes that a holistic energy planning and investment in energy infrastructure is needed to drive economic growth. In the long-run however, it is possible to meet the energy needs of the country, ensure sustainable development and at the same time reduce CO2 emissions by developing alternatives to fossil fuel consumption, the main source of CO2 emissions.

Chibueze Eze Nnaji; Jude O. Chukwu; Moses Nnaji

2013-01-01

348

Alternative fuels mixture in cement industry kilns employing Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the works accomplished in the optimization area in the cement industry are addressed to solve problems just considering only one variable, forgetting that it includes too many variables and they act at the same time. Among the main variables it can be mentioned the quality of the final product, the environmental ones, the costs along the process and the reduction of the fossil fuels (primary) employed through the use of alternative fuels (secondary), among others. The present work intends to build a mathematical model using optimization tools seeking to improve the cement production process foreseeing what can happen with the clinker and the emissions when the industrial residues co-processing technology is used as alternative or secondary fuel. In the optimization process a new approach called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is employed, which is based on the Cauchy and Gauss distribution considering several process restrictions such as the specific fuel consumption, the cement quality and the environmental impact. The results obtained with PSO were precise and promising and they were compared with the classical Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP). It was also possible to evaluate the levels of primary fuels substitution through the alternative or secondary ones.

Ricardo C. Carpio; Francisco de Sousa Júnior; Leandro dos Santos Coelho; Rogério José da Silva

2008-01-01

349

The politics of environment and acid rain in the Federal Republic of Germany: forests versus fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In June 1982 the Federal Government of the FRG reversed its international position on 'acid rain' and, by joining Sweden, set in motion pressures for cleaning up industrial emissions within the EEC, especially of sulphur dioxide from fossil-fuel burning power stations. This paper deals with the reasons behind this conversion and as such is a case study in environmental decision-making. This report analyses the pressures inside the Federal Republic which forced air pollution to the top of the environmental agenda in the early 1980s and describes the processes by which air pollution controls in general and the GFAVo (Ordinance on Large Firing Installations or Large Combustion Plants, Grossfeuerungsanlagenverordnung) in particular were adopted. This requires reference to both the societal context, the West German energy sector and official policies for both energy and pollution control. The turbulence of German domestic politics between 1981 and 1983 is described as an essential ingredient of policy formation. The strong regional dimensional of German policy and politics, always important, is emphasised and relates to the unequal geographical distribution of both forests and nuclear capacity. Waldsterben (or forest die-back), the still not fully understood illness of forests in Central Europe observed since the late 1970s, was very quickly ascribed to acid rain and in particular to emissions of sulphur dioxide from power stations. Both the Schmidt and Kohl administrations found in acid rain abatement policy a solution to the perceived conflict between energy and environment. This in turn allowed government to ignore, avoid or postpone confronting even more controversial and fundamentally destabilising German 'eco-issues': the future of nuclear power, the presence of foreign nuclear and chemical weapons and, above all, the nature and direction of economic growth.

Boehmer-Christiansen, S.

1989-09-01

350

INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION. FINAL REPORT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology.

2001-01-01

351

Distributions of fossil fuel originated CO2 in five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) according to the ?14C in ginkgo leaves  

Science.gov (United States)

We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus) leaf samples at five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) in 2009 to obtain the regional distribution of fossil fuel originated CO2 (fossil fuel CO2) in the atmosphere. Regions assumed to be free of fossil fuel CO2 were also selected, namely Mt. Chiak, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Jiri, Anmyeon Island, and Jeju Island and ginkgo leaf samples were collected in those areas during the same period. The ?14C values of the samples were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the fossil fuel CO2 ratios in the atmosphere were obtained in the five metropolitan areas. The average ratio of fossil fuel CO2 in Seoul was higher than that in the other four cities. The leaves from the Sajik Tunnel in Seoul recorded the highest FFCTC (fossil fuel CO2 over total CO2 in atmosphere), 13.9 ± 0.5%, as the air flow of the surrounding neighborhood of the Sajik Tunnel was blocked.

Park, J. H.; Hong, W.; Park, G.; Sung, K. S.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, Y. E.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, H. W.; Kim, G. D.; Woo, H. J.

2013-01-01

352

Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Phase 1 report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Krakow is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland. It is situated in the south of the country on the banks of the Vistula River. From the 11th until the 17th centuries, it was the capital of Poland. Today, Krakow is a city of 750,000 residents, one of the largest centers of higher education, an important industrial center, and is of particular importance because of the number and kinds of historic buildings and sites. For this reason, Krakow was included by the UNESCO in the list of the world`s cultural heritages. For about three decades, significant air pollution has been one of Krakow`s most serious problems. Because the city is situated in the Vistula River valley, it is poorly ventilated and experiences a high concentration of air pollutants. The quality of air in Krakow is affected mainly by industry (Sendzimir Steelworks, energy industry, chemical plants), influx from the Silesian industrial region (power plants, metallurgy), transboundary pollution (Ostrava - Czech Republic), and local sources of low pollution, i.e. more than 1,000 boiler houses using solid fuels and more than 100,000 coal-fired home stoves. These local sources, with low stacks and almost no pollution-control equipment, are responsible for about 35-40% of the air pollution. This report presents phase I results of a program to reduce pollution in krakow. Phase I was to gather information on emissions and costs, and to verify assumptions on existing heating methods and alternatives.

Butcher, T.; Pierce, B. [eds.

1995-06-01

353

Effective use of fuel and energy resources in industrial furnaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The basic indicators of the operation of furnaces are examined. The effect of the organizational and technological factors on fuel expenditures is shown. An evaluation is conducted of each of the energy conservation measures. The presented material helps to establish reserves for increasing the effectiveness of using fuel in industrial furnaces of different enterprises.

Borzunov, V.P.; Borisov, V.A.; Litvin, Yu.G.; Popov, I.P.

1981-01-01

354

Characteristics of particulate emissions from a diesel generator fueled with varying blends of biodiesel and fossil diesel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the particulate matter (PM), particle-bound carbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from a diesel-engine generator fuelled with blends of pure fossil diesel oil (D100) and varying percentages of waste-edible-oil biodiesel (W10, 10 vol %; W20, 20 vol %; W30, 30 vol %; and W50, 50 vol %) under generator loads of 0, 1.5, and 3 kW. On average, the PM emission factors of all blends was 30.5 % (range, 13.7-52.3 %) lower than that of D100 under the tested loads. Substituting pure fossil diesel oil with varying percentages of waste-edible-oil biodiesel reduced emissions of particle-bound total carbon (TC) and elemental carbon (EC). The W20 blend had the lowest particle-bound organic carbon (OC) emissions. Notably, W10, W20, and W30 also had lower Total-PAH emissions and lower total equivalent toxicity (Total-BaP(eq)) compared to D100. Additionally, the brake-specific fuel consumption of the generator correlated positively with the ratio of waste-edible-oil biodiesel to pure fossil diesel. However, generator energy efficiency correlated negatively with the ratio of waste-edible-oil biodiesel to pure fossil diesel.

Tsai JH; Chen SJ; Huang KL; Lee WJ; Kuo WC; Lin WY

2011-01-01

355

Risk and investment in the fuel cell industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The energy industry is one of the building blocks of the new economy. Currently, the global energy industry is going through a transformation from high carbon content fuels like crude oil to less carbon content fuels like natural gas and hydrogen. Fuel cells are the backbone of the hydrogen economy. Advances in fuel cell technology have the potential to improve the living standards of people in all countries. New sources of financial capital, however, remain a problem. In the fuel cell industry, the future of a firm often depends upon the success or failure of a few key products. This tends to make these firms very risky to invest in and, as a result, makes it difficult for these firms to secure financial investment capital. Oil price movements remain one very important source of risk to fuel cell companies. Conventional wisdom suggests that higher oil prices stimulate interest in alternative energy sources like fuel cells and the stock prices of publicly traded fuel cell companies tend to perform well when oil prices are high. Lower oil prices, however, have the opposite effect. Consequently, oil price movements may affect the rates of return of the companies currently in the fuel cell industry. In this paper, we empirically analyze the stock price sensitivity of a sample of fuel cell companies to oil price risk. In particular, we look at both the impact and magnitude of oil price changes on fuel cell stock prices. Both symmetric and asymmetric oil price changes are considered. Our results indicate that oil price risk is not an important source of risk that impacts the equity returns of fuel cell companies. We find that market risk factors are much more important. We then offer suggestions on how to manage this risk. These results are useful for managers, investors, policy makers, and others who are interested in the strategic management, financing and risk management of firms building the hydrogen economy. (author)

2004-01-01

356

An overview of the Korean cement industry and fuel sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presentation, outlined in 20 slides/overheads, gives an overview of the cement industry in Korea, listing cement companies, number of kilns, capacity, cement production (2000 to 2003) sales and consumption. The fuels used by the different companies are listed. Besides coal, pet coke and tire chip, waste oil and plastic waste is used. The ratio of coal to alternative fuels is decreasing steadily (96.68% coal in 2001 and 89.1% in 2004 (expected)). The disadvantages of pet coke and alternative fuels compared to coal are discussed. The final part of the presentation discussed consumption of coal in the cement industry in Korea (production, sources of imports, and price).

Kang, K.Y. [Tong Yang Major Corporation (Republic of Korea)

2004-07-01

357

Fuel oils for domestic and industrial purposes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Viscosity and density of domestic fuel oils in the North of Europe are different from the South. Environmental regulations are expressed in sulphur content standards. Description of different fields of application and type denominations in the USA and European countries.

Heinemann, W.; Krienke, C.F.

1980-07-01

358

Fueling industrial biotechnology growth with bioethanol  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Industrial biotechnology is the conversion of biomass via biocatalysis, microbial fermentation, or cell culture to produce chemicals, materials, and/or energy. Industrial biotechnology processes aim to be cost-competitive, environmentally favorable, and self-sustaining compared to their petrochemica...

Otero, JM; Panagiotou, G; Olsson, L

359

Hydrogen fed fuel cell power plants for the chemical industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Given the operational results of over 1,200,000 hours of operation achieved by the world-wide fleet of natural gas fed 200 kW packaged PC25 phosphoric acid fuel cell plants, the technology has a huge potential of becoming an interesting option for power generation with hydrogen-containing waste streams in the chemical industry. In fact 800--900 kW and larger hydrogen fuel cell modules can be derived from present 200 kW natural gas plants, for multi-units installations in the range 1 to 15 MW global power output. Notwithstanding present high fuel cell costs, they can be economically viable in favorable conditions of high electricity prices and low hydrogen feed value. Expected short term cost reduction with progress in the learning curve, would make them attractive in a widespread of applications, such as in chlor-alkali industry, petrochemical industry and all other hydrogen handling industries.

Bozzoni, T.; Caserza, G. [CLC Ansaldo, Genova (Italy)

1997-07-01

360

Fuels for rotary kilns of the cement industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Up to the 1973 oil crises, mainly heavy fuel oil, and in some cases natural gas, was used by the German cement industry for generating process heat. Fuel costs account for nearly 50% of the total cost of cement production, and a low-cost substitute fuel was searched for. Today, also coal dust and brown coal dust are used, both of which are similar to methane in their combustion properties. Recently, also petrol coke has been employed. The properties, preparation and storage of these fuels are presented and compared. (MOS).

Schaefer, H.G.

1988-10-01

 
 
 
 
361

New Schemes for Hydrogen Production via Decarbonization of Fossil Fuels featuring Carbon Capture and Storage of the CO2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently the integrated RTD project DYNAMIS was assigned by the European Commission to elaborate on prospective schemes for hydrogen production from fossil fuels combined with capture and storage of the CO2 in geological structures. Forming a part of the European Research Area under the 6. Framework Programme, DYNAMIS is set to draw upon European proficiency in identifying and ranking plausible technologies to derive hydrogen and electric power from gaseous, liquid and solid fossil fuels - mainly via pre-combustion decarbonization techniques. The paper reveals candidate processing schemes, and assumes the associated risk in a European context. Crucial is the assessment of key technologies versus yield, cost and emission index, and also the availability and flexibility of the primary energy sources. Further assumptions and criteria are entailed regarding the selection of technology and the location of a targeted plant vis-a-vis the market place for hydrogen, the fuel source and the primary energy demand, as well as the transport of the CO2 from capture to possible storage sites on European territory. (authors)

2006-01-01

362

The cost of energy analysis and energy planning for emerging, fossil fuel power plants based on the climate change scenarios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper studies the cost of energy (COE) for several emerging, fossil fuel power plants such as an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant, and a pulverized coal (PC) power plant under three different scenarios defined by the International Energy Agency (IEA). In order to compare the COE for each power plant more realistically, the concept of the 20-year levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was used. Since previous LCOE analyses did not consider the changes in fuel price and CO{sub 2} prices, the reliability of previous LCOE results is not good enough to be acceptable for future energy planning. In this study, modified LCOEs, which consider the changes in fuel and CO{sub 2} prices with respect to the different scenarios were suggested in order to increase the reliability of the economic comparisons of emerging, fossil power plants. In addition, energy planning was done in order to present the applicability of the proposed calculation method for the COE.

Park, K.; Shin, D.; Yoon, E.S. [Automatic & Systems Research Institute, Seoul (Republic of Korea)

2011-05-15

363

Impact of scientific uncertainties in predicting global warming from burning fossil fuels on the present energy policy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Existing scientific uncertainties make the global warming issue still not taken seriously by energy policies worldwide. Improved energy efficiency alone is not sufficient, and other measures are also required to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from burning fossil fuels. In searching for these, both industrialised and developing countries are involved, but the latter might become the loosers again, as their emission rights needed for development could be limited. A comprehensive analysis of recent developments on the subject is presented, with particular attention paid to a large number of scientific uncertainties in predicting global warming and climate changes due to emissions of CO{sub 2}. 17 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

Mesarovic, M. [Energoprojekt-Entel, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

1997-12-31

364

Investigations of the influence of fossil-fuel power plants on environments from view points of air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of the big fossil-fuel power plants on air pollution has been shown exemplified by three Polish power plants: Turow, Kozienice and Belchatow. The monitoring system of SO2, NOx and flying ash applied in the ambient area of each of them has been presented. Changes in air quality during a several years period as well as in the environment degradation have been described and discussed. Technical measures to improve the situation and to diminish environment hazard being planned to apply in these three power plants also been discussed. 3 refs

1993-01-01

365

Consequences of size increases and thermodynamic constraints on steam-powerplant availability: comparison between nuclear and fossil-fueled units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By comparing the two largest thermoelectric units recently brought into operation in Italy (i.e., a 660-MWsub(e) fossil-fueled supercritical unit and an 860-MWsub(e) nuclear direct cycle BWR), we obtain information on the effects of size limits on powerplant availability. We assume that torsional vibrations are among the most severe causes of damage, while short circuits at the generator terminals cause the most serious fault in a power-station. Computer-aided simulation of the dynamical behaviour of the two units shows the nuclear unit to be less severely stressed, thus producing longer life and better long-term reliability. (author)

1983-01-01

366

Use of Chia Plant to Monitor Urban Fossil Fuel CO2 Emission: An Example From Irvine, CA in 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

?14CO2 is a unique tracer for quantifying anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, monitoring 14CO2 change and distribution in an urban environment is challenging because of its large spatial and temporal variations. We have tested the potential use of a chia plant (Salvia hispanica) as an alternative way to collect a time-integrated CO2 sample for radiocarbon analysis. The results show that ?14C of the new growth of chia sprouts and chia leaves are consistent with the ?14C of air samples collected during the growing period, indicating the new growth has no inherited C from seeds and thus records atmospheric 14CO2. Time-integrated air samples and chia leaf samples significantly reduced the noises of ?14CO2 in an urban environment. We report here an example of monitoring 14CO2 change in Irvine, CA from Mar 2010 to Mar 2011 utilizing such a method. The results showed a clear seasonal cycle with high (close to remote air background level) ?14C in summer and low ?14C in winter months in this urban area. Excess (above remote air background) fossil fuel CO2 was calculated to be closed to 0 ppm in June to about 16 ppm from November 2010 to February 2011. Monthly mean ?14CO2 was anti-correlated with monthly mean CO mixing ratio, indicating ?14CO2 is mainly controlled by fossil fuel CO2 mixing with clean on-shore marine air. In summary, this study has shown encouraging result that chia plant can be potentially used as a convenient and inexpensive sampling method for time-integrated atmospheric 14CO2. Combined with other annual plants this provides the opportunity to map out time-integrated fossil fuel-derived CO2 in major cities at low cost. This in turn can be used to: 1) establish a baseline for fossil fuel emissions reductions in cities in the future; 2) provide invaluable information for validating emission models.

Xu, X.; Stills, A.; Trumbore, S.; Randerson, J. T.; Yi, J.

2011-12-01

367

Analysis of river Jiu water pollution due to operation of Rovinari, Turceni and Paroseni fossil fuel power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Important quantities of ash and breeze resulting from combustion of fossil fuels used in Rovinari, Turceni and Paroseni power plants were evacuated by hydraulic transport into decant ponds for the primary treatment. Waste waters resulting from hydrotransport have large suspension concentrations and, occasionally, strong alkaline pH values. Periodically, accidental pollutions affected the river Jiu and large areas of agricultural lands. The paper presents the analysis results of waste water pH, suspensions and fixed residue. The causes of river Jiu pollution are discussed and measures to reduce its effects are suggested. (authors)

1995-01-01

368

Chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna of acridine, a representative azaarene present in synthetic fossil fuel products and waste waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Acridine has a moderately acute toxicity to Daphnia magna (2.3 mg/l, 48 h LC50 compared with 30 mg/l for phenol). Daphnia reproduction was stimulated by acridine at no-observed-effect concentrations less than or equal to 0.4 mg/l. The no-observed-effect concentration for acridine was approximately the same as those for chromium, atrazine and some surfactants. At concentrations immediately below those of the 48 h LC50 acridine partially immobilises Daphnia magna. The results are considered useful in determining the potential environmental hazard to aquatic biota of releases of acridine in effluents from advanced fossil-fuel activities.

Parkhurst, B.R.

1981-01-01

369

The Hestia Project: High Spatial Resolution Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Quantification at Hourly Scale in Indianapolis, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to advance the scientific understanding of carbon exchange with the land surface and contribute to sound, quantitatively-based U.S. climate change policy interests, quantification of greenhouse gases emissions drivers at fine spatial and temporal scales is essential. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions, the primary greenhouse gases, has become a key component to cost-effective CO2 emissions mitigation options and a carbon trading system. Called the ‘Hestia Project’, this pilot study generated CO2 emissions down to high spatial resolution and hourly scale for the greater Indianapolis region in the USA through the use of air quality and traffic monitoring data, remote sensing, GIS, and building energy modeling. The CO2 emissions were constructed from three data source categories: area, point, and mobile. For the area source emissions, we developed an energy consumption model using DOE/EIA survey data on building characteristics and energy consumption. With the Vulcan Project’s county-level CO2 emissions and simulated building energy consumption, we quantified the CO2 emissions for each individual building by allocating Vulcan emissions to roughly 50,000 structures in Indianapolis. The temporal pattern of CO2 emissions in each individual building was developed based on temporal patterns of energy consumption. The point sources emissions were derived from the EPA National Emissions Inventory data and effluent monitoring of electricity producing facilities. The mobile source CO2 emissions were estimated at the month/county scale using the Mobile6 combustion model and the National Mobile Inventory Model database. The month/county scale mobile source CO2 emissions were downscaled to the “native” spatial resolution of road segments every hour using a GIS road atlas and traffic monitoring data. The result is shown in Figure 1. The resulting urban-scale inventory can serve as a baseline of current CO2 emissions and should be of immediate use to city environmental managers and regional industry as they plan emission mitigation options and project future emission trends. The results obtained here will also be a useful comparison to atmospheric CO2 monitoring efforts from the top-down. Figure 1. Location of the study area, the building level and mobile CO2 emissions, and an enlarged example neighborhood

Zhou, Y.; Gurney, K. R.

2009-12-01

370

Risk and investment in the fuel cell industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transformation of the global energy industry from high carbon content fuels to less carbon content fuels like natural gas and hydrogen, and the implications of that transformation to risk and investment are discussed. The conventional view that high oil prices stimulate interest in alternative energy sources such as hydrogen fuel cells, and that oil price fluctuations affect the rates of return of companies in the fuel cell industry is examined, using the multi-factor Arbitrage Pricing Theory model that allows for unconditional and conditional risk factors. Results indicate that oil price risk is negligible as a source of risk impacting on the equity returns of fuel cell companies. Market risk factors have been found to be much more significant, suggesting that over the time period studied (the last 10 years) the fortunes of fuel cell companies tended to follow the boom and bust cycle of the technology bubble, and investors have come to view the fuel cell companies as being similar to other high technology companies. Accordingly, the authors recommend that investors use a portfolio approach to diversify risk when investing in fuel cell companies, i.e. allocate only a small proportion of investment funds to fuel cell companies. With respect to managers, investors and policy makers who are interested in the strategic management, financing and risk management of firms building the hydrogen economy, the authors advise the use of 'real options', an investment tool that is very pertinent to firms in the hydrogen fuel cell sector. Greater cooperation between governments, industry and the universities, along the lines of Michigan's NextEnergy Center, a research facility for developing and demonstrating alternative energy technologies, is also recommended. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

Henriques, I.; Sadorsky, P. [York University, Schulich School of Business, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2004-07-01

371

Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025. Other potential benefits of the demonstration include developing a passive technology for water treatment for trace metal and nutrient release reductions, using power plant by-products to improve coal mine land reclamation and carbon sequestration, developing wildlife habitat and green-space around production facilities, generating Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) credits for the use of process water, and producing wood products for use by the lumber and pulp and paper industry. Project activities conducted during the five year project period include: Assessing tree cultivation and other techniques used to sequester carbon; Project site assessment; Greenhouse studies to determine optimum plant species and by-product application; Designing, constructing, operating, monitoring, and evaluating the CCWESTRS system; and Reporting (ongoing). The ability of the system to sequester carbon will be the primary measure of effectiveness, measured by accessing survival and growth response of plants within the CCWESTRS. In addition, costs associated with design, construction, and monitoring will be evaluated and compared to projected benefits of other carbon sequestration technologies. The test plan involves the application of three levels each of two types of power plant by-products--three levels of FGD gypsum mulch, and three levels of ash pond irrigation water. This design produces nine treatment levels which are being tested with two species of hardwood trees (sweet gum and sycamore). The project is examining the effectiveness of applications of 0, 8-cm, and 15-cm thick gypsum mulch layers and 0, 13 cm, and 25 cm of coal fly ash water for irrigation. Each treatment combination is being replicated three times, resulting in a total of 54 treatment plots (3 FGD gypsum levels X 3 irrigation water levels x 2 tree species x 3 replicates). Survival and growth response of plant species in terms of sequestering carbon in plant material and soil will be the primary measure of effectiveness of each treatment. Additionally, the ability of the site soils and unsaturated zone su

P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

2005-08-30

372

Fossil fuel and hydrocarbon conversion using hydrogen-rich plasmas. Topical report February 1994--February 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments were made on use of H and CH plasmas for converting waste materials and heavy oils to H-rich transportation fuels. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted with an industrial microwave generator and a commercial microwave oven. A continuously circulating reactor was constructed for conducting experiments on flowing oils. Experiments on decomposition of scrap tires showed that microwave plasmas can be used to decompose scrap tires into potentially useful liquid products. In a batch experiment using a commercial microwave oven, about 20% of the tire was converted to liquid products in about 9 minutes. Methane was decomposed in a microwave plasma to yield a liquid products composed of various compound types; GC/MS analyses identified unsaturated compounds including benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, methyl and ethyl naphthalene, small amounts of larger aromatic rings, and olefinic compounds. Experiments on a crude oil in a continuously flowing reactor showed that distillate materials are produced using H and CH plasmas. Also, the recycle oils had an overall carbon aromaticity lower than that of starting feed material, indicating that some hydrogenation and methanation had taken place in the recycle oils.

NONE

1995-02-01

373

The refining industry and the future of the fuel oils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fuel oils consumption decrease in France since 1970, because of the two petroleum crisis, the nuclear energy competition and the air pollution. The fuel oils industry is then looking other export possibilities. This report aims to offer a first approach of the problem and presents the main challenges. The first part is devoted to the technical context (definition, production and outlet. The second part presents the environmental context and the fuel oils market. In the third part the market is studied at the world scale, in the fourth at the french scale and in the fifth at the scale of other countries as United States, Japan and european Union. A synthesis tables is given in the last part to compare and propose some hypothesis concerning the future of fuel oils and the french refining industry. (A.L.B.)

2004-01-01

374

Industry of nuclear fuel cycle: Status and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The nuclear industry in Russia was started in the late forties and early fifties, it was aimed at solving certain defense problems. During 1948-1949, the first plant for enriching uranium 235U and an industrial complex for obtaining and reprocessing plutonium for the defense applications were put into operation. By 1991, the country had 47 plants having a total rated power of 37 GW, i.e., 12.5% of the total power generated in the country. After the Chernobyl' accident, the plans for starting new NPPs were curtailed. Towards the end of this century, the total power generation of all the nuclear power plants of the country is estimated at ?60 GW. In view of the decreased volume of the nuclear equipment, processing of the concentrated uranium for defense purposes was stopped and, consequently, at the present time, the nuclear industry has a capacity exceeding the requirements of the internal market. The author examines in detail the infrastructure of the nuclear industry that is based on the concept of a closed fuel cycle consisting of reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel using the unburnt uranium, plutonium, and other isotopes separated from it. It includes recovery and processing of the uranium ores, production of uranium hexafluoride, its enrichment to yield 235U, production of the fuel assemblies (FA), radiochemical processing of the spent nuclear fuel, and reprocessing and open-quotes buryingclose quotes of the radioactive waste materials and the spent nuclear fuel that is not suitable for regeneration. This article includes section on (1) recovery and processing of uranium ores, (2) production of enriched uranium, (3) production of fuel assemblies, control elements, and rolled zirconium alloys, (4) radiochemical processing of spent fuel, and (5) prospects of the Russian nuclear industry through the year 2000

1992-01-01