WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Fossil Fuels.  

Science.gov (United States)

This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

Crank, Ron

2

76 FR 3587 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional...Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating...Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam...

2011-01-20

3

Financial subsidies to the Australian fossil fuel industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A common claim during international greenhouse gas reduction negotiations has been that domestic emissions cuts will harm national economies. This argument fails to consider the distorting effect of existing financial subsidies and associated incentives to fossil fuel production and consumption provided by governments in most developed countries. These subsidies support a fossil fuel energy sector that is the major contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions and conflict with attempts to expand the role of sustainable energy technologies. Reform of these types of subsidies has the potential to provide substantial gains in economic efficiency as well as reductions in carbon dioxide emissions--a 'no regrets' outcome for the economy and the environment. This paper examines financial subsidies to fossil fuel production and consumption in Australia and estimates the magnitude of the subsidies. Subsidies and associated incentives to fossil fuel production and consumption in Australia are similar to those in the United States and the other countries that have pushed for increased 'flexibility' during international negotiations

2003-01-01

4

Fossil fuels; Fossile Brennstoffe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The CD-ROM contains a bibliographic database comprising about 46,000 documents on all aspects of fossil fuels, most of them in the German language. [German] Die CD-ROM bietet dem Kunden eine Literaturdatenbank, d.h. komfortable Suchmoeglichkeiten mit ca. 46.000 Dokumenten - vorwiegend in deutscher Sprache - aus der Fuelle von wissenschaftlichen und technischen Veroeffentlichungen. (orig.)

NONE

2001-07-01

5

Biotechnology for the mining, metal refining, and fossil fuel processing industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents the papers given at a conference on the biochemical processing of fossil fuels. Topics considered at the conference included the acid leaching of uranium ore materials with microbial catalysis, the biocatalytic production of sulfur from process waste streams, the microbiological desulfurization of coal and its increased monetary value, the microbial desulfurization of fossil fuels, microorganisms, and potential impact of biotechnology on the mining industry

1985-05-28

6

Rethinking Fossil Fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change and fossil fuel use are connected. It would serve the world well to: begin a moratorium on coal-fired power plants; explore and use renewable energy; insist on immediate action from world governments; and penalize industries putting excess CO2 into the atmosphere.

James Hansen (NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies;)

2008-09-09

7

Nuclear Energy R and D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Nuclear Energy R and D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R and D Roadmap, entitled 'Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors', addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R and D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: (1) Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, (2) Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and (3) Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation's energy security through more effective utilization of our country's resources while simultaneously providing economic stability and growth (through predictable energy prices and high value jobs), in an environmentally sustainable and secure manner (through lower land and water use, and decreased byproduct emissions). The reduction in imported oil will also increase the retention of wealth within the U.S. economy while still supporting economic growth. Nuclear energy is the only non-fossil fuel that has been demonstrated to reliably supply energy for a growing industrial economy.

2010-01-01

8

Nuclear Energy R&D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, entitled “Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors”, addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R&D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: • Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, • Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and • Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation’s energy security through more effective utilization of our country’s resources while simultaneously providing economic stability and growth (through predictable energy prices and high value jobs), in an environmentally sustainable and secure manner (through lower land and water use, and decreased byproduct emissions). The reduction in imported oil will also increase the retention of wealth within the U.S. economy while still supporting economic growth. Nuclear energy is the only non-fossil fuel that has been demonstrated to reliably supply energy for a growing industrial economy.

David Petti; J. Stephen Herring

2010-03-01

9

Transcontinental methane measurements: Part 2. Mobile surface investigation of fossil fuel industrial fugitive emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

The potent greenhouse gas, methane, CH4, has a wide variety of anthropogenic and natural sources. Fall, continental-scale (Florida to California) surface CH4 data were collected to investigate the importance of fossil fuel industrial (FFI) emissions in the South US. A total of 6600 measurements along 7020-km of roadways were made by flame ion detection gas chromatography onboard a nearly continuously moving recreational vehicle in 2010. A second, winter survey in Southern California measured CH4 at 2 Hz with a cavity ring-down spectrometer in 2012. Data revealed strong and persistent FFI CH4 sources associated with refining, oil/gas production, a presumed major pipeline leak, and a coal loading plant. Nocturnal CH4 mixing ratios tended to be higher than daytime values for similar sources, sometimes significantly, which was attributed to day/night meteorological differences, primarily changes in the boundary layer height. The highest CH4 mixing ratio (39 ppm) was observed near the Kern River Oil Field, California, which uses steam reinjection. FFI CH4 plume signatures were distinguished as stronger than other sources on local scales. On large (4°) scales, the CH4 trend was better matched spatially with FFI activity than wetland spatial patterns. Qualitative comparison of surface data with SCIAMACHY and GOSAT satellite retrievals showed agreement of the large-scale CH4 spatial patterns. Comparison with inventory models and seasonal winds suggests for some seasons and some portions of the Gulf of Mexico a non-negligible underestimation of FFI emissions. For other seasons and locations, qualitative interpretation is not feasible. Unambiguous quantitative source attribution is more complex, requiring transport modeling.

Leifer, Ira; Culling, Daniel; Schneising, Oliver; Farrell, Paige; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John P.

2013-08-01

10

Supply of fossil heating and motor fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This comprehensive study made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) within the framework of the Energy Economics Fundamentals research programme examines if it can be guaranteed that Swiss industry can be supplied with fossil fuels for heating and transport purposes over the next few decades. The results of a comprehensive survey of literature on the subject are presented, with a major focus being placed on oil. The study examines both pessimistic and optimistic views and also presents an overview of fossil energy carriers and the possibilities of substituting them. Scenarios and prognoses on the availability of fossil fuels and their reserves for the future are presented. Also, new technologies for exploration and the extraction of fossil fuels are discussed, as are international interdependencies that influence supply. Market and price scenarios are presented that take account of a possible increasing scarcity of fossil fuels. The implications for industry and investment planning are examined

2003-01-01

11

Fossil fuel emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An objective of environmental costing is to arrive at a social cost figure expressed in cents per kilowatt hour for each type of electric generation option. This figure can then be applied to incorporate environmental costs in utility planning and resource acquisition procedures to permit selection of the options that are of least cost to society. To arrive at externality costs expressed in cents per kilowatt hour, the analyst must first ascertain the pounds of each pollutant of concern emitted per kilowatt hour for each technology. This chapter addresses air pollutant emissions for fossil fuel-fired power plants. Chapter 5 A.-E. treats the costs to society of each major fossil fuel plant air pollutant in dollars per pound. Then, Chapter 6 A.-C. combines the air emissions figures of this chapter with the cost figures from Chapter 5 to arrive at the cents per kilowatt hour figures that can be used by utilities and regulators. All the above emissions and valuation figures are derived from identified studies reviewed

1991-01-01

12

The legacy of fossil fuels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30?Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production. PMID:21290608

Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

2011-03-01

13

The legacy of fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production.

Armaroli, N.; Balzani, V. [CNR, Bologna (Italy)

2011-03-01

14

Status of fossil fuel reserves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

2005-01-01

15

The future of fossil fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains six chapters by different authors on the topics of our current and future use of fossil fuel. The three chapters in the first part of the book deal with the scientific analysis of the current situation and Part Two covers future possibilities from the perspectives of population growth, ethical and economic considerations. The chapters are: earth rhythms through out geological time; the global carbon-cycle, including the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and geosphere; fossil fuels-global resources; energy conservation and energy alternatives; fossil fuels and future generations; and reducing global carbon emissions: developed versus developing countries. These are the proceedings of the symposium entitled 'The future of fossil fuel', which was cosponsored by the Royal Society of Canada and the University of Calgary. 67 refs., 42 figs., 2 tabs.

Coward, H. (ed.) (Calgary Institute for the Humanities, Calgary, AB (Canada))

1992-01-01

16

Fossil fuel usage and the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Greenhouse Effect and global warming, ozone formation in the troposphere, ozone destruction in the stratosphere, and acid rain are important environmental issues. The relationship of fossil fuel usage to some of these issues is discussed. Data on fossil fuel consumption and the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, and ozone indicate that natural gas provides lower emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen and sulfur oxides than other fossil fuels. Global emissions of methane from the gas industry are significantly less than those from other anthropogenic activities and natural sources, and methane plays an important role along with carbon monoxide and nitric oxide in tropospheric ozone formation. Reductions in any or all of these air pollutants would reduce ozone in the lower atmosphere. Several remedial measures have been or are being implemented in certain countries to reduce fossil fuel emissions. These include removal of emissions from the atmosphere by new biomass growth, fuel substitution by use of cleaner burning fuels for stationary and mobile sources, and fossil fuel combustion at higher efficiencies. It is unlikely that concerted environmental action by all governments of the world will occur soon, but much progress has been made to achieve clean air

1990-04-09

17

Transcontinental Surface Validation of Satellite Observations of Enhanced Methane Anomalies Associated with Fossil Fuel Industrial Methane Emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

A ground-based, transcontinental (Florida to California - i.e., satellite-scale) survey was conducted to understand better the role of fossil fuel industrial (FFI) fugitive emissions of the potent greenhouse gas, methane. Data were collected by flame ion detection gas chromatography (Fall 2010) and by a cavity ring-down sensor (Winter 2012) from a nearly continuously moving recreational vehicle, allowing 24/7 data collection. Nocturnal methane measurements for similar sources tended to be higher compared to daytime values, sometime significantly, due to day/night meteorological differences. Data revealed strong and persistent FFI methane sources associated with refining, a presumed major pipeline leak, and several minor pipeline leaks, a coal loading plant, and areas of active petroleum production. Data showed FFI source emissions were highly transient and heterogeneous; however, integrated over these large-scale facilities, methane signatures overwhelmed that of other sources, creating clearly identifiable plumes that were well elevated above ambient. The highest methane concentration recorded was 39 ppm at an active central valley California production field, while desert values were as low as 1.80 ppm. Surface methane data show similar trends with strong emissions correlated with FFI on large (4° bin) scales and positive methane anomalies centered on the Gulf Coast area of Houston, home to most of US refining capacity. Comparison with SCIAMACHY and GOSAT satellite data show agreement with surface data in the large-scale methane spatial patterns. Positive satellite methane anomalies in the southeast and Mexico largely correlated with methane anthropogenic and wetland inventory models suggests most strong ground methane anomalies in the Gulf of Mexico region were related to dominant FFI input for most seasons. Wind advection played a role, in some cases confounding a clear relationship. Results are consistent with a non-negligible underestimation of the FFI contribution to global methane budgets.; In situ methane concentrations during transcontinental survey Fall 2010.

Leifer, I.; Culling, D.; Schneising, O.; Bovensmann, H.; Buchwitz, M.; Burrows, J. P.

2012-12-01

18

Hydrogen production from fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

State-of-the-art of hydrogen production from fossil sources is briefly reviewed. Production from natural gas is emphasised, some new developments and special procedures are described. The possibilities for 'CO{sub 2}-free' hydrogen production are discussed. On-site production as an option for hydrogen fuel supply is also discussed. 35 refs.

Gaudernack, Bjoern [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)

1998-07-01

19

Sanitary effects of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

2006-01-01

20

NOx emissions from stationary sources in Eastern Europe. Relating NOx emission to the statistical data on fossil fuel consumption and industrial production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the work is to: (1) present the NOx emission estimates from stationary sources in Eastern Europe (2) discuss the NOx emission factors used in various regional emission inventories and (3) relate NOx emissions to statistical data on the consumption of fossil fuels and the production of various industrial goods. The work is a part of a research programme on estimating the NOx emissions from anthrogenic sources in Europe, carried out at the Norwegian Institute for Air Research under contract with the Environmental Protection Agency of the Federal Republic of Germany. Reliability of the results are discussed versus external factors. 1 appendix, 7 tables, 16 references.

Pacyna, J.M.

1988-03-01

 
 
 
 
21

On Prediction of Depreciation Time of Fossil Fuel in Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The fossil fuels play a crucial role in the world energy markets. Demand for fossil fuels become increasingly high and worrisome, because of fossil fuels will be significantly reduced and ultimately exhausted. This study was conducted to predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels in Malaysia and estimate the time remaining before the fossil fuels will finish. Approach: To predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels, the reserves, consumption and prices of fossil fuel will be used. The prediction of fossil fuel reserves were estimated using ratio of fossil fuel reserve versus consumption, Klass Model and Modified Klass Model. The prediction time will give us the opportunity to prepare for the coming energy crisis and discover new energy sources. The results from the analysis will be concluded alongside with the Olduvai Theory and Hubbert Peak Theory. Both of the theories are highly related to the energy crisis. The Olduvai Theory states that the industrial civilization will last for approximately 100 year: circa 1930-2030. As for Hubbert Peak Theory, it can estimate the total amount of fossil fuels available based on the production rate from time to time. Results: Due to the vast usage of petroleum, it will be depleted faster than natural gas and coal. After 14 years, natural gas and coal will replace petroleum as a fossil fuel and coal would then be the major fossil fuels. Based on the results from Hubbert Peak Theory, the rate of production of petroleum has reached the maximum level in 2004 and started to decline since that time; while in the Olduvai theory, it has explained that the life expectancy of the industrial civilization was found to be ended in 2030. Petroleum will be spent over in 2020, followed by natural gas in 2058 and coal around the year 2066. Conclusion: So far, Malaysia has not facing disconnection of electricity as other developed countries. When this happens, it gives the meaning of the end of the industrial civilization where the electric power grids go down and never come back up. If there is no substance that can replace fossil fuels to continue in the industrial civilization, human civilization will be facing the fate of collapse.

Tey Jin Pin

2012-01-01

22

Electricity, fossil fuels and CO2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper assessed technologies and strategies for the control of CO2 emission from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Available technologies and improvements in the power generation sectors can substantially reduce CO2 emissions without banning fossil fuels - at least in the short term. Quantitative estimate show in the implications of e number of alternative strategies on costs, emission and fuel consumptions

1999-06-01

23

The cognitive surplus is made of fossil fuels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

People in the industrial world have a great deal of free time. Clay Shirky has described this free time, considered as a whole, as a vast “cognitive surplus,” and presents many efforts currently under way to use the cognitive surplus for prosocial ends. However, the cognitive surplus came to exist largely as a result of labor–saving devices that run on fossil fuels. Many problems relating to fossil fuels constrain how people can responsibly use the cognitive surplus to addre...

Tomlinson, Bill University Of California; Silberman, M. Six Bureau Of Economic Interpretation

2012-01-01

24

Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since aged carbon in fossil fuel contains no 14C, 14C/C ratios (?14C measured in atmospheric CO2 can be used to estimate CO2 added by combustion and, potentially, provide verification of fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. Sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract dilution by fossil CO2. Therefore, these nuclear sources can bias observation-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 if they are not correctly accounted for or included as a source of uncertainty. We estimate annual 14C emissions from each nuclear site in the world and conduct an Eulerian transport modeling study to investigate the continental-scale, steady-state gradients of ?14C caused by nuclear activities and fossil fuel combustion. Over Europe, North America and East Asia, nuclear enrichment may offset 0–260 % of the fossil fuel dilution in ?14C, corresponding to potential biases of 0 to ?8 ppm in the CO2 attributed to fossil fuel emissions, larger than the bias from respiration in some areas. Growth of 14C emissions increased the potential nuclear bias over 1985–2005. The magnitude of this potential bias is largely independent of the choice of reference station in the context of Eulerian transport and inversion studies, but could potentially be reduced by an appropriate choice of reference station in the context of local-scale assessments.

N. Gruber

2011-05-01

25

Retrofitting for fossil fuel flexibility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Described in this paper are two fossil plant retrofits recently completed by the Public Service Company of New Hampshire that demonstrate the type of planning and execution required for a successful project under the current regulatory and budget constraints. Merrimack Units 1 and 2 are 120 MW and 338 MW nominal cyclone-fired coal units in Bow, New Hampshire. The retrofits recently completed at these plants have resulted in improved particulate emissions compliance, and the fuel flexibility to allow switching to lower sulphur coals to meet current and future SO2 emission limits. Included in this discussion are the features of each project including the unique precipitator procurement approach for the Unit 1 Retrofit, and methods used to accomplish both retrofits within existing scheduled maintenance outages through careful planning and scheduling, effective use of pre-outage construction, 3-D CADD modeling, modular construction and early procurement. Operating experience while firing various coals in the cyclone fired boilers is also discussed

1991-12-04

26

Do alternative energy sources displace fossil fuels?  

Science.gov (United States)

A fundamental, generally implicit, assumption of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports and many energy analysts is that each unit of energy supplied by non-fossil-fuel sources takes the place of a unit of energy supplied by fossil-fuel sources. However, owing to the complexity of economic systems and human behaviour, it is often the case that changes aimed at reducing one type of resource consumption, either through improvements in efficiency of use or by developing substitutes, do not lead to the intended outcome when net effects are considered. Here, I show that the average pattern across most nations of the world over the past fifty years is one where each unit of total national energy use from non-fossil-fuel sources displaced less than one-quarter of a unit of fossil-fuel energy use and, focusing specifically on electricity, each unit of electricity generated by non-fossil-fuel sources displaced less than one-tenth of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity. These results challenge conventional thinking in that they indicate that suppressing the use of fossil fuel will require changes other than simply technical ones such as expanding non-fossil-fuel energy production.

York, Richard

2012-06-01

27

Fossil fuel support mechanisms in Finland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fossil fuel subsidies and other state support for fossil fuels are forbidden by the Kyoto Protocol and other international treaties. However, they are still commonly used. This publication presents and analyses diverse state support mechanisms for fossil fuels in Finland in 2003-2010. Total of 38 support mechanisms are covered in quantitative analysis and some other mechanisms are mentioned qualitatively only. For some mechanisms the study includes a longer historical perspective. This is the case for tax subsidies for crude oil based traffic fuels that have been maintained in Finland since 1965.

Lampinen, Ari

2013-10-15

28

Fructose rich alternative carbon sources for enhanced fossil fuels biodesulfurization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biodesulfurization allows the removal of recalcitrant sulfur from fossil fuels at mild operating conditions with the aid of microorganisms. However the production of biocatalysts still has elevated costs which hinder its industrial application. So the use of agro-industrial by-products and wastes, as alternative carbon sources

2013-01-01

29

On Prediction of Depreciation Time of Fossil Fuel in Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The fossil fuels play a crucial role in the world energy markets. Demand for fossil fuels become increasingly high and worrisome, because of fossil fuels will be significantly reduced and ultimately exhausted. This study was conducted to predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels in Malaysia and estimate the time remaining before the fossil fuels will finish. Approach: To predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels, the reserves, consumption and prices of...

2012-01-01

30

US DOE fossil energy fuel cells program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy's (FE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), in partnership with private industry, educational institutions and national laboratories, is leading the development and demonstration of high efficiency, high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and fuel cell turbine (FCT) hybrid power generation systems for stationary markets including auxiliary power units (A-PUs), distributed generation (DG) and large, coal-based central power plants. The DOE FE fuel cells program has three aspects: the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA), Fuel Cell Coal Based Systems for central power, and the High Temperature Electrochemistry Center (HiTEC). The SECA goal is to decrease SOFC system cost to US$ 400 per kilowatt (M) by 2010 for stationary markets. DOE FE is ultimately concerned with coal-based central power plants such as FutureGen. The goal is to aggregate SECA-type fuel cells into larger systems and to produce a very high efficiency megawatt-class FCT hybrid for testing at FutureGen. The low-cost, US$ 400 kW{sup -1} SECA FCT hybrid is a key component to achieving 60% efficiency by 2020. Advanced aspects of solid oxide technology are part of HiTEC R&D. Technical progress and advances are discussed for all three program aspects.

Williams, M.C.; Strakey, J.; Sudoval, W. [US DOE, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Energy Technology Lab.

2006-09-22

31

Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 14C-free fossil carbon added to atmospheric CO2 by combustion dilutes the atmospheric 14C/C ratio (?14C, potentially providing a means to verify fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. However, sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract this dilution and may bias 14C/C-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 if these nuclear influences are not correctly accounted for. Previous studies have examined nuclear influences on local scales, but the potential for continental-scale influences on ?14C has not yet been explored. We estimate annual 14C emissions from each nuclear site in the world and conduct an Eulerian transport modeling study to investigate the continental-scale, steady-state gradients of ?14C caused by nuclear activities and fossil fuel combustion. Over large regions of Europe, North America and East Asia, nuclear enrichment may offset at least 20% of the fossil fuel dilution in ?14C, corresponding to potential biases of more than ?0.25 ppm in the CO2 attributed to fossil fuel emissions, larger than the bias from plant and soil respiration in some areas. Model grid cells including high 14C-release reactors or fuel reprocessing sites showed much larger nuclear enrichment, despite the coarse model resolution of 1.8°×1.8°. The recent growth of nuclear 14C emissions increased the potential nuclear bias over 1985–2005, suggesting that changing nuclear activities may complicate the use of ?14C observations to identify trends in fossil fuel emissions. The magnitude of the potential nuclear bias is largely independent of the choice of reference station in the context of continental-scale Eulerian transport and inversion studies, but could potentially be reduced by an appropriate choice of reference station in the context of local-scale assessments.

N. Gruber

2011-12-01

32

Novel techniques in fossil fuel mass spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book discusses the techniques of chemical analysis of fossil fuels. Specifically described are methods of mass spectroscopy, gas chromatography, supercritical chromatography applied to evaluate chemical composition of coal extracts, coal liquids and petroleum fractions.

Ashe, T.R.; Wood, K.V.

1989-01-01

33

Fossil fuel consumption and the environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The three major environmental problems caused by the burning of fossil fuels, air pollution, acid rain and the greenhouse effect, are discussed. Current and future patterns of energy consumption to the year 2020 are examined. Fuel substitutes for the most noxious fossil fuels, coal and oil, are considered and their advantages and drawbacks assessed. The substitutes are natural gas, renewable energy, hydro power and nuclear power. Finally, energy conservation, as a fifth option is reviewed. The overall conclusions are that a universal drive towards better fuel efficiency, which already makes economic sense, in tandem with some fuel substitution can forestall the worst effects of global warming for an appreciable period giving time for a determined research effort to commercialize renewable energy and into new ways of using fossil fuels without producing such intractable pollution problems. (UK).

Davison, A.

1989-04-01

34

A Statistical Method for Estimating Missing GHG Emissions in Bottom-Up Inventories: The Case of Fossil Fuel Combustion in Industry in the Bogota Region, Colombia  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of environmentally, socially and financially suitable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation portfolios requires detailed disaggregation of emissions by activity sector, preferably at the regional level. Bottom-up (BU) emission inventories are intrinsically disaggregated, but although detailed, they are frequently incomplete. Missing and erroneous activity data are rather common in emission inventories of GHG, criteria and toxic pollutants, even in developed countries. The fraction of missing and erroneous data can be rather large in developing country inventories. In addition, the cost and time for obtaining or correcting this information can be prohibitive or can delay the inventory development. This is particularly true for regional BU inventories in the developing world. Moreover, a rather common practice is to disregard or to arbitrarily impute low default activity or emission values to missing data, which typically leads to significant underestimation of the total emissions. Our investigation focuses on GHG emissions by fossil fuel combustion in industry in the Bogota Region, composed by Bogota and its adjacent, semi-rural area of influence, the Province of Cundinamarca. We found that the BU inventories for this sub-category substantially underestimate emissions when compared to top-down (TD) estimations based on sub-sector specific national fuel consumption data and regional energy intensities. Although both BU inventories have a substantial number of missing and evidently erroneous entries, i.e. information on fuel consumption per combustion unit per company, the validated energy use and emission data display clear and smooth frequency distributions, which can be adequately fitted to bimodal log-normal distributions. This is not unexpected as industrial plant sizes are typically log-normally distributed. Moreover, our statistical tests suggest that industrial sub-sectors, as classified by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), are also well represented by log-normal distributions. Using the validated data, we tested several missing data estimation procedures, including Montecarlo sampling of the real and fitted distributions, and a per ISIC estimation based on bootstrap-calculated mean values. These results will be presented and discussed in detail. Our results suggest that the accuracy of sub-sector BU emission inventories, particularly in developing regions, could be significantly improved if they are designed and carried out to be representative sub-samples (surveys) of the actual universe of emitters. A large fraction the missing data could be subsequently estimated by robust statistical procedures provided that most of the emitters were accounted by number and ISIC.

Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; Rojas, A. M.; Pulido-Guio, A. D.

2012-12-01

35

Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x108 ha in the case of biofuels from sugarcane or oil palm, and at least 1.8-3.6x109 ha in the case of ethanol from wheat, corn or sugar beet, as produced in industrialized countries. Biofuels from microalgae which are commercially produced with current technologies do not appear to outperform terrestrial plants such as sugarcane in their ability to displace fossil fuels. Whether they will able to do so on a commercial scale in the future, is uncertain.

Lucas Reijnders

2009-02-01

36

Constraints of fossil fuels depletion on global warming projections  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A scientific debate is in progress about the intersection of climate change with the new field of fossil fuels depletion geology. Here, new projections of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and global-mean temperature change are presented, should fossil fuels be exploited at a rate limited by geological availability only. The present work starts from the projections of fossil energy use, as obtained from ten independent sources. From such projections an upper bound, a lower bound and an ensemble mean profile for fossil CO{sub 2} emissions until 2200 are derived. Using the coupled gas-cycle/climate model MAGICC, the corresponding climatic projections out to 2200 are obtained. We find that CO{sub 2} concentration might increase up to about 480 ppm (445-540 ppm), while the global-mean temperature increase w.r.t. 2000 might reach 1.2 deg. C (0.9-1.6 deg. C). However, future improvements of fossil fuels recovery and discoveries of new resources might lead to higher emissions; hence our climatic projections are likely to be underestimated. In the absence of actions of emissions reduction, a level of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system might be already experienced toward the middle of the 21st century, despite the constraints imposed by the exhaustion of fossil fuels. - Highlights: > CO{sub 2} and global temperature are projected under fossil fuels exhaustion scenarios. > Temperature is projected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. C above pre-industrial. > Temperature projections are possibly lower than the IPCC ones. > Fossil fuels exhaustion will not avoid dangerous global warming.

Chiari, Luca, E-mail: chiari@science.unitn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo (Italy); Zecca, Antonio, E-mail: zecca@science.unitn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo (Italy)

2011-09-15

37

Constraints of fossil fuels depletion on global warming projections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A scientific debate is in progress about the intersection of climate change with the new field of fossil fuels depletion geology. Here, new projections of atmospheric CO2 concentration and global-mean temperature change are presented, should fossil fuels be exploited at a rate limited by geological availability only. The present work starts from the projections of fossil energy use, as obtained from ten independent sources. From such projections an upper bound, a lower bound and an ensemble mean profile for fossil CO2 emissions until 2200 are derived. Using the coupled gas-cycle/climate model MAGICC, the corresponding climatic projections out to 2200 are obtained. We find that CO2 concentration might increase up to about 480 ppm (445-540 ppm), while the global-mean temperature increase w.r.t. 2000 might reach 1.2 deg. C (0.9-1.6 deg. C). However, future improvements of fossil fuels recovery and discoveries of new resources might lead to higher emissions; hence our climatic projections are likely to be underestimated. In the absence of actions of emissions reduction, a level of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system might be already experienced toward the middle of the 21st century, despite the constraints imposed by the exhaustion of fossil fuels. - Highlights: ? CO2 and global temperature are projected under fossil fuels exhaustion scenarios. ? Temperature is projected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. C above pre-industrial. ? Temperature projections are possibly lower than the IPCC ones. ? Fossil fuels exhaustion will not avoid dangerous global warming.

2011-09-01

38

When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude oil, coal and gas are the main resources for world energy supply. The size of fossil fuel reserves and the dilemma that 'when non-renewable energy will be diminished' is a fundamental and doubtful question that needs to be answered. This paper presents a new formula for calculating when fossil fuel reserves are likely to be depleted and develops an econometrics model to demonstrate the relationship between fossil fuel reserves and some main variables. The new formula is modified from the Klass model and thus assumes a continuous compound rate and computes fossil fuel reserve depletion times for oil, coal and gas of approximately 35, 107 and 37 years, respectively. This means that coal reserves are available up to 2112, and will be the only fossil fuel remaining after 2042. In the Econometrics model, the main exogenous variables affecting oil, coal and gas reserve trends are their consumption and respective prices between 1980 and 2006. The models for oil and gas reserves unexpectedly show a positive and significant relationship with consumption, while presenting a negative and significant relationship with price. The econometrics model for coal reserves, however, expectedly illustrates a negative and significant relationship with consumption and a positive and significant relationship with price. Consequently, huge reserves of coal and low-level coal prices in comparison to oil and gas make coal one of the main energy substitutions for oil and gas in the future, under the assumption of coal as a clean energy source. (author)

2009-01-01

39

When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude oil, coal and gas are the main resources for world energy supply. The size of fossil fuel reserves and the dilemma that 'when non-renewable energy will be diminished' is a fundamental and doubtful question that needs to be answered. This paper presents a new formula for calculating when fossil fuel reserves are likely to be depleted and develops an econometrics model to demonstrate the relationship between fossil fuel reserves and some main variables. The new formula is modified from the Klass model and thus assumes a continuous compound rate and computes fossil fuel reserve depletion times for oil, coal and gas of approximately 35, 107 and 37 years, respectively. This means that coal reserves are available up to 2112, and will be the only fossil fuel remaining after 2042. In the Econometrics model, the main exogenous variables affecting oil, coal and gas reserve trends are their consumption and respective prices between 1980 and 2006. The models for oil and gas reserves unexpectedly show a positive and significant relationship with consumption, while presenting a negative and significant relationship with price. The econometrics model for coal reserves, however, expectedly illustrates a negative and significant relationship with consumption and a positive and significant relationship with price. Consequently, huge reserves of coal and low-level coal prices in comparison to oil and gas make coal one of the main energy substitutions for oil and gas in the future, under the assumption of coal as a clean energy source

2009-01-01

40

Steam generation: fossil-fired systems: utility boilers; industrial boilers; boiler auxillaries; nuclear systems: boiling water; pressurized water; in-core fuel management; steam-cycle systems: condensate/feedwater; circulating water; water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of development in steam generation is presented. First, fossil-fired systems are described. Progress in the design of utility and industrial boilers as well as in boiler auxiliaries is traced. Improvements in coal pulverizers, burners that cut pollution and improve efficiency, fans, air heaters and economisers are noted. Nuclear systems are then described, including the BWR and PWR reactors, in-core fuel management techniques are described. Finally, steam-cycle systems for fossil-fired and nuclear power plants are reviewed. Condensate/feedwater systems, circulating water systems, cooling towers, and water treatment systems are discussed

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Fossil-fuel constraints on global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2008 and 2009 two papers by Kharecha and Hansen and by Nel and Cooper examined possible fossil energy availability and energy consumption scenarios and consequences for future climate. The papers yield somewhat similar results regarding atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, but they reach substantially different conclusions regarding future climate change. Here, we compare their methods and results. Our work shows that Nel and Cooper's paper significantly underestimates future warming. Nel and Cooper conclude that even if all the available fossil fuels would be burned at the maximum possible rate during this century, the consequent warming would cap at less than 1 C above the 2000 level. We find that - under Nel and Cooper's assumption of an intensive exploitation of fossil fuels - the global temperature in 2100 will likely reach levels which would lead to severely damaging long-term impacts. (author)

Zecca, Antonio; Chiari, Luca [Physics Department, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo TN (Italy)

2010-01-15

42

The Fascinating Story of Fossil Fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

How this energy source was created, its meaning to mankind, our drastically reduced supply, and why we cannot wait for nature to make more are considered. Today fossil fuels supply 96 percent of the energy used but we must find alternate energy options if we are to combat the energy crisis. (BL)

Asimov, Isaac

1973-01-01

43

Clean fuels from fossil sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy availability is determining to sustain the social development, but energy production involves environmental impacts at regional and global level. The central role of oil, natural gas, coal for energy supply will be kept for decades. The development of the engine-fuel combination to satisfy more stringent emissions limitations, is the challenge for an environmentally clean transportation system

2000-01-01

44

Fossil fuel resources and markets; Fossiiliset polttoainevarat ja -markkinat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the report estimations on the development of fossil fuel resources as oil, carbon and natural gas reserves and resources are presented. Also the development of the fossil fuel production, consumption and the market are taken into consideration.

Ruska, M.; Koljonen, T.; Koreneff, G.; Lehtila, A.

2012-05-15

45

Diatoms: a fossil fuel of the future.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-term global climate change, caused by burning petroleum and other fossil fuels, has motivated an urgent need to develop renewable, carbon-neutral, economically viable alternatives to displace petroleum using existing infrastructure. Algal feedstocks are promising candidate replacements as a 'drop-in' fuel. Here, we focus on a specific algal taxon, diatoms, to become the fossil fuel of the future. We summarize past attempts to obtain suitable diatom strains, propose future directions for their genetic manipulation, and offer biotechnological pathways to improve yield. We calculate that the yields obtained by using diatoms as a production platform are theoretically sufficient to satisfy the total oil consumption of the US, using between 3 and 5% of its land area. PMID:24529448

Levitan, Orly; Dinamarca, Jorge; Hochman, Gal; Falkowski, Paul G

2014-03-01

46

Replacement of fossil fuels by hydrogen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Starting from the estimation that the beginning of the exhaustion of fossil fuels must be expected about the year 2040 an alternative plan of energy supply basing on a system of solar hydrogen plantations is developed here. If all the strength of research, development, economy and politics are concentrated in time it should be possible to let this utopia become reality. An important condition for this is the efficiency of photovoltaic energy sources, i.e. diminishing the cell production costs in the long term. This could definitely be possible if the analogy to the rest of semiconductors technology is considered. The basic idea is to convert solar energy with the help of silicon solar cells into terrestrial electrical energy and to use this energy immediately for the electrolytic decomposition of water, i.e. for hydrogen production as primary energy. The realization model globally considers first of all the economic parameters and aims at a smooth replacement of fossil fuels.

Dahlberg, R.

1981-01-01

47

IGT calculates world reserves of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Institute of Gas Technology has published the IGT World Reserves Survey, giving their latest tabulation of world reserves of fossil fuels and uranium. The report contains 120 Tables and 41 Figures. Estimates are provided for proved reserves, resources, current production, and life indexes of the non-renewable energy sources of the US and of the world as a whole. World regional data are also provided in many cases. The data are summarized here. 2 figures, 5 tables

1986-01-01

48

The Government’s financial support for fossil fuel companies is being overlooked  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bob Ward explores the subsidies currently doled out by the government to fossil fuel companies and asks why it has not attracted the same degree of criticism as subsidies for the renewable energy industry.

Ward, Bob

2012-01-01

49

Fossil fuel is king with energy producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Worldwide energy consumption is expected to double today`s levels by 2020, according to the World Energy Council. As diverse energy needs develop, fossil fuels are expected to continue to be the major source for power generation throughout the world. In the United States, utility deregulation is making low-cost fuel and power plant efficiency more important than ever. Electricity generators see both natural gas and coal as the fuels that will allow them to best meet the nation`s future energy needs. Coal will see less increase in its share of electricity generation than natural gas due to the costs associated with meeting the Clean Air Act Amendments` (CAAA) requirements. According to Organizations for Economic Cooperation Development, coal in both the United States and Europe will experience a 12 percent growth by 2010. Even with this somewhat slow growth, coal will remain the nation`s number one fuel for electricity generation well into the next century.

Hansen, T.

1996-11-01

50

Classification of fossil fuels according to structural-chemical characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the basis of a set of linear equations that relate the amount of major elements n{sub E} (E = C, H, O, N, S) in the organic matter of fossil fuels to structural characteristics, such as the number of cycles R, the number of atoms n{sub E}, the number of mutual chemical bonds, the degree of unsaturation of the structure {delta}, and the extent of its reduction B, a structural-chemical classification of fossil coals that is closely related to the parameters of the industrial-genetic classification (GOST 25543-88) is proposed. Structural-chemical classification diagrams are constructed for power-generating coals of Russia; coking coals; and coals designed for nonfuel purposes including the manufacture of adsorbents, synthetic liquid fuel, ion exchangers, thermal graphite, and carbon-graphite materials.

A.M. Gyul' maliev; G.S. Golovin; S.G. Gagarin [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-10-15

51

Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

CO2 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere, the ocean, and the terrestrial biosphere on timescales of a few centuries. However, a sizeable fraction of the CO2 remains in the atmosphere, awaiting a return to the solid earth by much slower weathering processes and deposition of CaCO3. Common measures of the atmospheric lifetime of CO2, including the e-folding time scale, disregard the long tail. Its neglect in the calculation ...

Archer, David; Eby, Michael; Brovkin, Victor; Ridgwell, Andy; Cao, Long; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Caldeira, Ken; Matsumoto, Katsumi; Munhoven, Guy; Montenegro, Alvaro; Tokos, Kathy

2009-01-01

52

Microbial desulphurization and denitrogenation of fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work evaluates the use of microorganisms in the removal of sulphur-containing heterocyclic compounds from high-sulphur crude oil. Relevent literature by Strawinski, Zobell, and Kirsehnbaum is reviewed. A sulphur-containing heterocycle, dibenzothiophene, and high sulphur crude oil are measured. The presence of plasmids in dibenzothiophene oxidation was determined. These studies are extended to select and isolate microorganisms capable of oxidizing carbazole, a nitrogen-containing aromatic compound known to be present in liquid fossil fuel. This work remains at basic research and development level.

Finnerty, W.R.

1982-06-01

53

Fossil fuel conversion--measurement and modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of this program is to understand the chemical and physical mechanisms in coal conversion processes and incorporate this knowledge in computer-aided reactor engineering technology for the purposes of development, evaluation, design, scale-up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. To accomplish this objective, this program will: (1) provide critical data on the physical and chemical processes in fossil fuel gasifiers and combustors; (2) further develop a set of comprehensive codes; and (3) apply these codes to model various types of combustors and gasifiers (fixed-bed, transport reactor, and fluidized-bed for coal and gas turbines for natural gas).

Solomon, P.R.; Smoot, L.D.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Brewster, B.S.; Radulovic, P.T.

1994-10-01

54

Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 14C-free fossil carbon added to atmospheric CO2 by combustion dilutes the atmospheric 14C/C ratio (?14C), potentially providing a means to verify fossil CO2 emissions calculated using economic inventories. However, sources of 14C from nuclear power generation and spent fuel reprocessing can counteract this dilution and may bias 14C/C-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 if these nuclear inf...

Graven, H. D.; Gruber, N.

2011-01-01

55

Traversing the mountaintop: world fossil fuel production to 2050  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the past century, fossil fuels—petroleum liquids, natural gas and coal—were the dominant source of world energy production. From 1950 to 2005, fossil fuels provided 85–93% of all energy production. All fossil fuels grew substantially during this period, their combined growth exceeding the increase in world population. This growth, however, was irregular, providing for rapidly growing per capita production from 1950 to 1980, stable per capita production from 1980 to 2000 and risin...

Nehring, Richard

2009-01-01

56

The environmental dilemma of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide poses an environmental dilemma for fossil fuel energy generation that, unlike other related emissions, cannot be resolved by control technologies alone. Although fossil fuels presently provide the most cost-effective global energy source, and model projections suggest that their use is initiating climatic changes which, while quite uncertain, may induce significant, counter-balancing impacts to water resources, coastal resources, ecological systems, and possibly agricultural production. The climate model indicate that the warming should have begun, and there is some evidence for this occurring, but at a less rapid and more uneven rate than projected. In addition, different climate models are not yet in agreement in their latitudinal or regional predictions, and it will likely require a decade or more for such agreement to develop as high performance computers become available for addressing this ''grand challenge'' problem. Thus, in addition to the prospect for climatic change, the uncertainties of the changes and associated impacts contribute to the dilemma of dealing with the issue. Further, the problem is pervasive and international scope, with different countries and peoples having differing perspectives of technology, development, and environmental responsibility. Dealing with this issue will thus require creativity, commitment, and flexibility

1991-06-16

57

COMPOUND FORMS OF FOSSIL FUEL FLY ASH EMISSIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

A methodology for identifying inorganic compounds in particulate emissions from fossil fuel combustion processes is described. Samples collected from power plants burning coal and oil fuels of different compositions provided a typical range of fly ashes for the investigations. El...

58

Security of supply: a neglected fossil fuel externality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various groups have attempted to set a monetary value on the externalities of fossil fuel usage based on damages caused by emissions of particulates, sulfur dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen and carbon. One externality that has been neglected in this type of analysis, however, is the cost of maintaining a secure supply of fossil fuels. Military expenditures for this purpose are relatively easy to quantify based on US Department of Defense and Office of Management and Budget figures, and amount to between $1 and more than $3 per million Btu, based on total fossil fuel consumption in the US. Open acknowledgment of such expenses would, at the very least, have a profound effect on the perceived competitiveness of all non-fossil fuel technologies. It should also provide a simple and easily comprehended rationale for an energy content (Btu) charge on all fossil fuels. (Author)

1995-01-01

59

A systematic approach to locating opportunities for conversion from fossil fuel to wood residue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A system was developed to determine which industries within the state of South Carolina are possible candidates for conversion from fossil fuel to wood residues. The system has identified over 100 industries that warrant further analysis. This approach is applicable to other states

1991-03-18

60

Status of fossil fuel reserves; Etat des reserves des combustibles fossiles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

Laherrere, J

2005-07-01

 
 
 
 
61

Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x108 ha in the...

Lucas Reijnders

2009-01-01

62

Reliability estimation for multiunit nuclear and fossil-fired industrial energy systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As petroleum-based fuels grow increasingly scarce and costly, nuclear energy may become an important alternative source of industrial energy. Initial applications would most likely include a mix of fossil-fired and nuclear sources of process energy. A means for determining the overall reliability of these mixed systems is a fundamental aspect of demonstrating their feasibility to potential industrial users. Reliability data from nuclear and fossil-fired plants are presented, and several methods of applying these data for calculating the reliability of reasonably complex industrial energy supply systems are given. Reliability estimates made under a number of simplifying assumptions indicate that multiple nuclear units or a combination of nuclear and fossil-fired plants could provide adequate reliability to meet industrial requirements for continuity of service

1977-01-01

63

Future fossil fuel electricity generation in Europe: options and consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study investigates the development of the fossil fuel fired power generation in Europe up to 2030 and identifies the critical factors that influence its evolution. Through the application of the least-cost expansion planning methods, the technology and fuel mix of fossil fuel power plant portfolios emerging from the twenty-four techno-economic scenarios are described. The different scenarios present alternative views for the role of non-fossil fuel power generation, the development of the world fuel and carbon markets and the carbon capture power generating technologies. The study estimates the needs for new fossil fuel capacity and identifies the optimal power plant mix for all possible combinations of the cases mentioned above. The impacts of the resulting portfolios on the objectives of the European energy policy are assessed using as indicators the capital investment fo the construction of the required capacity, the fuel consumption, the composition of the fuel mix, the CO{sub 2} emission levels, and the average production cost of electricity from the fossil fuelled fleet. The report finds that high CO{sub 2} prices need to be maintained and carbon capture technology must be developed and become commercialised. If these conditions re met and medium or high fossil fuel prices prevail, the portfolio of fossil fuel power plants that will be deployed will be compatible wit the European goal for the development of a more sustainable and secure energy system. The key conclusion is that for a sustainable and secure energy system we need to invest, both in the increase of non-fossil fuel power generation and to ensure that carob n capture and storage technologies are ready to be deployed when needed. 46 refs.,

Tzimas, E.; Georgakaki, A.; Peteves, S.D.

2009-07-01

64

U.S. DOE fossil energy fuel cells program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy's (FE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), in partnership with private industry, educational institutions and national laboratories, is leading the development and demonstration of high efficiency, high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and fuel cell turbine (FCT) hybrid power generation systems for stationary markets including auxiliary power units (APUs), distributed generation (DG) and large, coal-based central power plants. The DOE FE fuel cells program has three aspects: the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA), Fuel Cell Coal Based Systems for central power, and the High Temperature Electrochemistry Center (HiTEC). The SECA goal is to decrease SOFC system cost to US$ 400 per kilowatt (kW) by 2010 for stationary markets. DOE FE is ultimately concerned with coal-based central power plants such as FutureGen. The goal is to aggregate SECA-type fuel cells into larger systems and to produce a very high efficiency megawatt-class FCT hybrid for testing at FutureGen. The low-cost, US$ 400kW{sup -1} SECA FCT hybrid is a key component to achieving 60% efficiency by 2020. Advanced aspects of solid oxide technology are part of HiTEC R&D. Technical progress and advances are discussed for all three program aspects. (author)

Williams, Mark C.; Strakey, Joseph; Sudoval, Wayne [US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, 421 Jefferson Street, Morgantown, WV 26501 (United States)

2006-09-22

65

Environmental effects of fossil fuel combustion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fossil fuel which include natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen are the main source of heat and electrical energy. All these fuels contain beside major constituents (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) other materials as metal, sulfur and nitrogen compounds. During the combustion process different pollutants as fly ash, sulfur oxides (SO_2 and SO_3), nitrogen oxides (NO_x NO + NO_2) and volatile organic compounds are emitted. Fly ash contain different trace elements (heavy metals). Gross emission of pollutants is tremendous all over the world. These pollutants are present in the atmosphere in such conditions that they can affect man and his environment. Air pollution caused by the particulate matter and other pollutants not only acts directly on environment but by contamination of water and soil leads to their degradation. Wet and dry deposition of inorganic pollutants leads to acidification of environment. These phenomena affect health of the people, increase corrosion, destroy cultivated soil and forests. Most of the plants, especially coniferous trees are not resistant to sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Following longer exposure leaves wither and fall. Widespread forest damage has been reported in Europe and North America regions. Many cultivated plants are not resistant to these pollutants either especially in the early period vegetation. The mechanisms of pollutants transformation in atmosphere are described by environmental chemistry. An important role in these transformations plays photochemistry. SO_2 and NO_x are oxidized and sulfuric and nitric acids are formed in presence of water vapours, fog and droplets. Other problem discussed connected with human activities is emission of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere. These emissions cause stratospheric ozone depletion, ground level photochemical ozone formation, toxic or carcinogenic human health effects, enhancing the global greenhouse effect, accumulation and persistence in environment. Wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) can be applied for flue gas treatment and SO_2 and NO_x emission control. (author)

1999-01-01

66

Preventative maintenance for fossil fueled power boilers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

American Electric Power (AEP) owns and operates Big Sandy Plant located in Louisa, Kentucky which has two generating units. Unit 1 is a 260 MW coal fired sub critical boiler. Unit 2 is an 800 MW coal fired supercritical boiler. Big Sandy typically has been one of the top plants in boiler availability in the AEP system. In the mid 1990s, in an effort to sustain their success in boiler availability with less manpower and maintenance budget, they worked with EPRI to develop the Boiler-Predictive Maintenance (BPDM) Program, in collaboration with several other member utilities. The Boiler Reliability Optimization program is based on principles, procedures, and standards founded by EPRI's 'Plant Maintenance Optimization' (PMO) program. As such, the key roles (Predictive Maintenance Coordinator, Condition-based monitoring Technology Owners, System Owners, etc.) identified in the PMO process are also key players in the BPDM program. For the BPDM program to be successful, it requires a committed System Owner, a well-trained work force, management support, and an organizational structure which allows for the management of data and free flow of information. Therefore, 'Predictive Maintenance for Fossil Fueled Power Boilers' is intended for plants that have adopted the principles and procedures introduced through a process similar to EPRI's PMO process. 7 figs.

Burton, J.G.; Abbott, P.D. [American Electric Power, Louisa, KY (United States). Big Sandy Plant

2004-07-01

67

On the optimum trend of fossil fuel taxation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The interest rate should fall with global warming. Remedial policy should allow for this endogeneity. In the simplest infinite-horizon model yielding a steady-state, one can derive the trend that an ad valorem fossil fuel tax should take to internalize the externality from emissions. It is negative. If implemented, it would reduce fossil fuel depletion, and raise the rates of interest and growth to the values they would have had without global warming. The case for a falling fossil fuel tax is reinforced by the possibilities of future emission abatement, and learning about the damage emissions do. 6 refs., 3 figs.

Sinclair, P.J.N.

1994-05-01

68

Methane emissions and climate compatibility of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methane contributes directly and indirectly to the additional greenhouse effect caused by human activities. The vast majority of the anthropogenic methane release occurs worldwide in non-fossil sources such as rice cultivation, livestock operations, sanitary landfills and combustion of bio-mass. Methane emissions also occur during production, distribution and utilisation of fossil fuels. Also when considering the methane release and CO2-emissions of processes upstream of combustion, the ranking of environmental compatibility of natural gas, fuel oil and cool remains unchanged. Of all fossil fuels, natural gas contributes the least to the greenhouse effect. (orig.)

1992-01-01

69

Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Almost half of the energy used for beating in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 boilerhouses with a total capacity of 1,071 MW, and about 100,000 home furnaces with a total capacity of about 300 MW. More than 600 boilerhouses and 60 percent of the home furnaces are situated near the city center. These facilities are referred to as ``low emission sources`` because they have low stacks. They are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbons in the city, and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the US Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in Krakow as the ``Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.`` Funding is provided through the US Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe.

Pierce, B.L.; Butcher, T.A.

1994-06-01

70

Does fossil fuel combustion lead to global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tropospheric sulfate aerosols produced by atmospheric oxidation of SO[sub 2] emitted from fossil fuel combustion scatter solar radiation and enhance the reflectivity of clouds. Both effects decrease the absorption of solar radiation by the earth-atmosphere system. This cooling influence tends to offset the warming influence resulting from increased absorption of terrestrial infrared radiation by increased atmospheric concentrations of CO[sub 2]. The sulfate forcing is estimated to be offsetting 70% of the forcing by CO[sub 2] derived from fossil fuel combustion, although the uncertainty of this estimate is quite large--range 28-140%, the latter figure indicating that the present combined forcing is net cooling. Because of the vastly different atmospheric residence times of sulfate aerosol (about a week) and CO[sub 2] (about 100 years), the cooling influence of sulfate aerosol is exerted immediately, whereas most of the warming influence of CO[sub 2] is exerted over more than 100 years. Consequently the total forcing integrated over the entire time the materials reside in the atmosphere is net warming, with the total CO[sub 2] forcing estimate to exceed the sulfate forcing by a factor of 4. The present situation in which the forcing by sulfate is comparable to that by CO[sub 2] is shown to be a consequence of the steeply increasing rates of emission over the industrial era. (author)

Schwartz, S.E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Environmental Chemistry Div.)

1993-12-01

71

Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the 'Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.' Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the 'low emission sources' and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

1995-07-12

72

Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the `Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.` Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the `low emission sources` and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1995-11-01

73

The strategic value of fossil fuels: challenges and responses. Conference proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conference provided a forum for discussing the strategic value of fossil fuels, and the challenges to and responses by the fossil fuels community. Papers are presented under the following headings: plenary sessions; technology deployment; regional trade issues; Eastern-Western European natural gas development; regional electric power interconnections; financing implications for advanced fossil technology deployment; rural energy development; the refinery of the future; coal for sustainable future; collaborative research and development in fossil fuels; international energy collaboration - industry partnership; building institutions in developing countries; global trade barriers; deploying clean coal technology; and global climate change. Summaries of the Working Group discussions and the conference conclusions are included. Selected papers have been abstracted separately on the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

NONE

1996-12-31

74

ADVANCED FOSSIL FUEL AND THE ENVIRONMENT: AN EXECUTIVE REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

This executive-level report gives an overview of some of the more advanced fossil fuel technologies, including several Chemical Coal Cleaning and Liquid Fuels Cleaning methods. Synthetic fuels, Chemically Active Fluid Beds, and Oil Shale are also considered as viable advanced pro...

75

Fossil fuel sustainability index: An application of resource management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief review on use of fossil fuel resources and sustainability is given in this paper. A sustainability index for fossil fuels is developed, which aims to determine the most efficient management of fossil fuel resources for the energy system. The study is conducted for 62 countries, in the presence of independence, lifetime and environmental constraints. The effect of these indicators are then integrated into a single index for oil, natural gas, and coal. Two approaches have been taken. The first one employs equally weighing of each index, where the second one weighs the indices by using principle component analysis. It is concluded that Fossil Fuel Sustainability Index (FFSI) values indicate that countries supporting oil as the one and only major player are condemned to suffer due to incompetent energy policies

2007-05-01

76

Fossil fuel sustainability index: an application of resource management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief review on use of fossil fuel resources and sustainability is given in this paper. A sustainability index for fossil fuels is developed, which aims to determine the most efficient management of fossil fuel resources for the energy system. The study is conducted for 62 countries, in the presence of independence, lifetime and environmental constraints. The effect of these indicators are then integrated into a single index for oil, natural gas, and coal. Two approaches have been taken. The first employs equally weighing of each index, and the second weighs the indices by using principle component analysis. It is concluded that Fossil Fuel Sustainability Index (FFSI) values indicate that countries supporting oil as the one and only major player are condemned to suffer due to incompetent energy policies. 54 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Volkan S. Ediger; Enes Hosgor; A. Nesen Surmeli; Huseyin Tatlidil

2007-05-15

77

Fossil fuel sustainability index: An application of resource management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief review on use of fossil fuel resources and sustainability is given in this paper. A sustainability index for fossil fuels is developed, which aims to determine the most efficient management of fossil fuel resources for the energy system. The study is conducted for 62 countries, in the presence of independence, lifetime and environmental constraints. The effect of these indicators are then integrated into a single index for oil, natural gas, and coal. Two approaches have been taken. The first one employs equally weighing of each index, where the second one weighs the indices by using principle component analysis. It is concluded that Fossil Fuel Sustainability Index (FFSI) values indicate that countries supporting oil as the one and only major player are condemned to suffer due to incompetent energy policies.

Ediger, Volkan S. [Cumhurbaskanligi, Cankaya, 06689 Ankara (Turkey); Hosgoer, Enes [Department of Geological Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Suermeli, A. Nesen [Department of Architecture, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: nesensurmeli@gmail.com; Tatlidil, Hueseyin [Department of Statistics, Hacettepe University, 06530 Ankara (Turkey)

2007-05-15

78

Fossil Fuel Emission Verification Modeling at LLNL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have an established project at LLNL to develop the tools needed to constrain fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions using measurements of the carbon-14 isotope in atmospheric samples. In Figure 1 we show the fossil fuel plumes from Los Angeles and San Francisco for two different weather patterns. Obviously, a measurement made at any given location is going to depend on the weather leading up to the measurement. Thus, in order to determine the GHG emissions from some region using in situ measurements of those GHGs, we use state-of-the-art global and regional atmospheric chemistry-transport codes to simulate the plumes: the LLNL-IMPACT model (Rotman et al., 2004) and the WRFCHEM community code (http://www.wrf-model.org/index.php). Both codes can use observed (aka assimilated) meteorology in order to recreate the actual transport that occurred. The measured concentration of each tracer at a particular spatio-temporal location is a linear combination of the plumes from each region at that location (for non-reactive species). The challenge is to calculate the emission strengths for each region that fit the observed concentrations. In general this is difficult because there are errors in the measurements and modeling of the plumes. We solve this inversion problem using the strategy illustrated in Figure 2. The Bayesian Inference step combines the a priori estimates of the emissions, and their uncertainty, for each region with the results of the observations, and their uncertainty, and an ensemble of model predicted plumes for each region, and their uncertainty. The result is the mathematical best estimate of the emissions and their errors. In the case of non-linearities, or if we are using a statistical sampling technique such as a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique, then the process is iterated until it converges (ie reaches stationarity). For the Bayesian inference we can use both a direct inversion capability, which is fast but requires assumptions of linearity and Gaussianity of errors, or one of several statistical sampling techniques, which are computationally slower but do not require either linearity or Gaussianity (Chow, et al., 2008; Delle Monache, et al., 2008). The emission regions we are using are based on the air-basins defined by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), see Figure 3. The only difference is that we have joined some of the smaller air basins together. The results of a test using 4 days of simulated observations using our ensemble retrieval system are shown in Figure 3 (right). The main source of the variation between the different model configurations arises from the uncertainty in the atmospheric boundary layer parameterization in the WRF model. We are currently developing a capability to constrain the boundary layer height in our carbon-14 work either by weighting the ensemble member results by the accuracy of their boundary layer height (using commercial aircraft observations), or as part of the retrieval process using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) capability.

Cameron-Smith, P; Kosovic, B; Guilderson, T; Monache, L D; Bergmann, D

2009-08-06

79

Methane from fuel combustion and industrial processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview is given of current estimates of global methane emissions from fuel combustion, including non-commercial fuels, and industrial non-combustion sources (so-called industrial processes). The largest contributions appear to be from the combustion of fuelwood and crop residues, with also large uncertainty ranges. On a global basis, road transport and residential coal combustion are relatively minor sources, when compared to fuelwood and crop residues. Of the other sources stationary combustion, other transport and industrial processes, in particular coal combustion and iron and steel manufacturing are of some importance. Based on detailed emission factors for CH4 by fuel type or industrial process and associated activity levels a bottom-up estimate of global source strengths has been prepared and compared with some other recent estimates. Fossil fuel production and transmission, landfills and other waste treatment processes are not considered here. 27 refs., 7 tabs

1993-07-01

80

Geological setting of U.S. fossil fuels.  

Science.gov (United States)

The USA has a special position in terms of fossil fuel development. Not only is it one of the most important nations in terms of resources of oil, gas and coal, but it has also been by far the dominant producer and consumer. In this thorough review of the regional geological environments in which fossil fuels formed in the USA, the authors point to a variety of models of resource occurrence of global interest.-Authors

Masters, C. D.; Mast, R. F.

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Hydrogen production econometric studies. [hydrogen and fossil fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

The current assessments of fossil fuel resources in the United States were examined, and predictions of the maximum and minimum lifetimes of recoverable resources according to these assessments are presented. In addition, current rates of production in quads/year for the fossil fuels were determined from the literature. Where possible, costs of energy, location of reserves, and remaining time before these reserves are exhausted are given. Limitations that appear to hinder complete development of each energy source are outlined.

Howell, J. R.; Bannerot, R. B.

1975-01-01

82

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur.

Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. (Balu) Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; George Farthing; Dan Rowley; Tim R. Armstrong; R.D. Carneim; P.F. Becher; C-H. Hsueh; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

2002-04-30

83

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur

2002-01-01

84

A long-term view of worldwide fossil fuel prices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews a long-term trend of worldwide fossil fuel prices in the future by introducing a new method to forecast oil, natural gas and coal prices. The first section of this study analyses the global fossil fuel market and the historical trend of real and nominal fossil fuel prices from 1950 to 2008. Historical fossil fuel price analysis shows that coal prices are decreasing, while natural gas prices are increasing. The second section reviews previously available price modelling techniques and proposes a new comprehensive version of the long-term trend reverting jump and dip diffusion model. The third section uses the new model to forecast fossil fuel prices in nominal and real terms from 2009 to 2018. The new model follows the extrapolation of the historical sinusoidal trend of nominal and real fossil fuel prices. The historical trends show an increase in nominal/real oil and natural gas prices plus nominal coal prices, as well as a decrease in real coal prices. Furthermore, the new model forecasts that oil, natural gas and coal will stay in jump for the next couple of years and after that they will revert back to the long-term trend until 2018. (author)

2010-03-01

85

Hydrogen Separation Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eltron Research and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. By appropriately changing the catalysts coupled with the membrane, essentially the same system can be used to facilitate alkane dehydrogenation and coupling, aromatics processing, and hydrogen sulfide decomposition.

Roark, Shane E.; Mackay, Richard; Sammells, Anthony F.

2001-11-06

86

Fossil fuels in a sustainable energy future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The coal industry in the United States has become a world leader in safety, productivity, and environmental protection in the mining of coal. The {open_quotes}pick-and-shovel{close_quotes} miner with mangled limbs and black lung disease has been replaced by the highly skilled technicians that lead the world in tons per man-hour. The gob piles, polluted streams, and scared land are a thing of the past. The complementary efforts of the DOE and EPRI-funded programs in coal utilization R&D and the Clean Coal Technology Program commercial demonstrations, have positioned the power generation industry to utilize coal in a way that doesn`t pollute the air or water, keeps electrical power costs low, and avoids the mountains of waste material. This paper reviews the potential for advanced coal utilization technologies in new power generation applications as well as the repowering of existing plants to increase their output, raise their efficiency, and reduce pollution. It demonstrates the potential for these advanced coal-fueled plants to play a complementary role in future planning with the natural gas and oil fired units currently favored in the market place. The status of the US program to demonstrate these technologies at commercial scale is reviewed in some detail.

Bechtel, T.F. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

1995-12-01

87

Biomass gasification - a substitute to fossil fuel for heat application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper addresses case studies of a low temperature and a high temperature industrial heat requirement being met using biomass gasification. The gasification system for these applications consists of an open top down draft reburn reactor lined with ceramic. Necessary cooling and cleaning systems are incorporated in the package to meet the end use requirements. The other elements included are the fuel conveyor, water treatment plant for recirculating the cooling water and adequate automation to start, shut down and control the operations of the gasifier system. Drying of marigold flower, a low temperature application is considered to replace diesel fuel in the range of 125-150 lh{sup -1}. Gas from the 500 kgh{sup -1}, gasifier system is piped into the producer gas burners fixed in the combustion chamber with the downstream process similar to the diesel burner. The high temperature application is for a heat treatment furnace in the temperature range of 873-1200 K. A 300 kgh{sup -1} of biomass gasifier replaces 2000 l of diesel or LDO per day completely. The novelty of this package is the use of one gasifier to energize 16 burners in the 8 furnaces with different temperature requirements. The system operates over 140 h per week on a nearly nonstop mode and over 4000 h of operation replacing fossil fuel completely. The advantage of bioenergy package towards the economic and environmental considerations is presented. (author)

Dasappa, S.; Sridhar, H.V.; Sridhar, G.; Paul, P.J.; Mukunda, H.S. [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India). Center for ASTRA

2003-12-01

88

Total energy analysis of nuclear and fossil fueled power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall thermal efficiencies of electrical power generation were determined for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder, High Temperature Gas Cooled, Boiling Water, and Pressurized Water Reactors and for coal-, oil-, and gas-fired systems. All important energy consuming steps from mining through processing, transporting, and reprocessing the fuels were included in the energy balance along with electrical transmission and thermal losses and energy expenditures for pollution abatement. The results of these studies show that the overall fuel cycle efficiency of the light water nuclear fueled reactors is less than the efficiency of modern fossil fuel cycles. However, the nuclear fuel cycle based on the fast breeder reactors should produce power more efficiently than the most modern supercritical fossil fuel cycles. The high temperature gas cooled reactor has a cycle efficiency comparable to the supercritical coal fuel cycle

1971-01-01

89

Microalgal and terrestrial transport biofuels to displace fossil fuels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x10(8) ha in t...

2009-01-01

90

Preparation and Characterization of Bio Fuel from Industrial Waste  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Disposal of biomass becomes often an environmental issue. A novel method has been developed to convert biomass into solid bio-fuel. Experiments were carried out on preparation of solid fuel pellet from industrial biomass wastes. A maximum calorific value of 22,593KJ/kg has been obtained for the bio-fuel prepared in the present investigation and compared with the fossil fuel coal. The bio-fuel pellets were burnt and the emitted green house gases were critically analyzed.

Abinayah Shree, M. N.; Iyappan, K.; Srinivasakannan, C.

2009-01-01

91

Can Geothermal Power Replace Fossil Fuels?  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of geothermal energy in any capacity is a positive step toward a sustainable energy future. The resource is enormous and has the capacity to supply most future demand for electrical power if technology can meet some substantial challenges. Electrical power from geothermal energy has several compelling characteristics: a small footprint, low emissions, continuous availability, and sustainability. However, a common perception of geothermal energy is that it is available only in a few isolated localities and thus cannot contribute significantly to future electrical power needs. This perception neglects the stored thermal energy available everywhere in the upper 10 km of Earth’s crust. We are investigating the potential for power production in oil-producing sedimentary basins where subsurface temperatures are sufficient for intermediate geothermal resources (90 °C -150 °C) at depths greater than 3 km. Existing estimates of geothermal energy stored at depth in sedimentary formations in the U.S. have been based only on a few aquifers and have not included the greater volume of fluids in oil-bearing formations. We reevaluated the accessible geothermal resource base for the north central US and found that including geothermal fluids in oil-producing formations increased the resource estimate by a factor of eight. Preliminary analysis of other basins indicates that the current estimate of thermal energy in the U.S. (100,000 EJ) may be of the order of 400,000 EJ. This is particularly significant due to recent technological advances leading to commercialization of scalable organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engines. Until recently, ORC systems were available only on an at large scale, i.e., 10s of MW, and had efficiencies of about 10 percent. Currently there are at least five manufacturers making scalable ORC systems in the 50 kW to 1 MW range, and at least one system has an efficiency of about 17 percent and is expected to attain an efficiency in the low 20s as it is scaled up to produce power in the MW range. Values needed for these systems are temperatures of 92+ °C and flow rates of 140-1000 gpm. In a detailed analysis of the North Dakota part of the Williston Basin, we used heat flow, bottom-hole temperatures, and measured temperature gradients to calculate the energy contained within specific formations having temperatures in the range of 100 °C to 150 °C. We find that at a 2% recovery factor, approximately 4500 MW/hr can be recovered at depths of 3-4 km. North Dakota currently produces approximately 3100 MW/hr from non-renewable sources such as coal and petroleum. We conclude that the geothermal resource in the Williston Basin could completely replace fossil fuels as an electrical power supply for North Dakota.

Klenner, R.; Gosnold, W. D.

2009-12-01

92

Application of genetic algorithm (GA) technique on demand estimation of fossil fuels in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective is to investigate Turkey's fossil fuels demand, projection and supplies by using the structure of the Turkish industry and economic conditions. This study develops scenarios to analyze fossil fuels consumption and makes future projections based on a genetic algorithm (GA). The models developed in the nonlinear form are applied to the coal, oil and natural gas demand of Turkey. Genetic algorithm demand estimation models (GA-DEM) are developed to estimate the future coal, oil and natural gas demand values based on population, gross national product, import and export figures. It may be concluded that the proposed models can be used as alternative solutions and estimation techniques for the future fossil fuel utilization values of any country. In the study, coal, oil and natural gas consumption of Turkey are projected. Turkish fossil fuel demand is increased dramatically. Especially, coal, oil and natural gas consumption values are estimated to increase almost 2.82, 1.73 and 4.83 times between 2000 and 2020. In the figures GA-DEM results are compared with World Energy Council Turkish National Committee (WECTNC) projections. The observed results indicate that WECTNC overestimates the fossil fuel consumptions. (author)

Canyurt, Olcay Ersel; Ozturk, Harun Kemal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Pamukkale University, 20070 Kinikli, Denizli (Turkey)

2008-07-15

93

Application of genetic algorithm (GA) technique on demand estimation of fossil fuels in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective is to investigate Turkey's fossil fuels demand, projection and supplies by using the structure of the Turkish industry and economic conditions. This study develops scenarios to analyze fossil fuels consumption and makes future projections based on a genetic algorithm (GA). The models developed in the nonlinear form are applied to the coal, oil and natural gas demand of Turkey. Genetic algorithm demand estimation models (GA-DEM) are developed to estimate the future coal, oil and natural gas demand values based on population, gross national product, import and export figures. It may be concluded that the proposed models can be used as alternative solutions and estimation techniques for the future fossil fuel utilization values of any country. In the study, coal, oil and natural gas consumption of Turkey are projected. Turkish fossil fuel demand is increased dramatically. Especially, coal, oil and natural gas consumption values are estimated to increase almost 2.82, 1.73 and 4.83 times between 2000 and 2020. In the figures GA-DEM results are compared with World Energy Council Turkish National Committee (WECTNC) projections. The observed results indicate that WECTNC overestimates the fossil fuel consumptions. (author)

2008-07-01

94

Application of genetic algorithm (GA) technique on demand estimation of fossil fuels in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective is to investigate Turkey's fossil fuels demand, projection and supplies by using the structure of the Turkish industry and economic conditions. This study develops scenarios to analyze fossil fuels consumption and makes future projections based on a genetic algorithm (GA). The models developed in the nonlinear form are applied to the coal, oil and natural gas demand of Turkey. Genetic algorithm demand estimation models (GA-DEM) are developed to estimate the future coal, oil and natural gas demand values based on population, gross national product, import and export figures. It may be concluded that the proposed models can be used as alternative solutions and estimation techniques for the future fossil fuel utilization values of any country. In the study, coal, oil and natural gas consumption of Turkey are projected. Turkish fossil fuel demand is increased dramatically. Especially, coal, oil and natural gas consumption values are estimated to increase almost 2.82, 1.73 and 4.83 times between 2000 and 2020. In the figures GA-DEM results are compared with World Energy Council Turkish National Committee (WECTNC) projections. The observed results indicate that WECTNC overestimates the fossil fuel consumptions

2008-07-01

95

Modeling CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion using the logistic equation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion have been known to contribute to the greenhouse effect. Research on emission trends and further forecasting their further values is important for adjusting energy policies, particularly those relative to low carbon. Except for a few countries, the main figures of CO2 emission from fossil fuel combustion in other countries are S-shaped curves. The logistic function is selected to simulate the S-shaped curve, and to improve the goodness of fit, three algorithms were provided to estimate its parameters. Considering the different emission characteristics of different industries, the three algorithms estimated the parameters of CO2 emission in each industry separately. The most suitable parameters for each industry are selected based on the criterion of Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE). With the combined simulation values of the selected models, the estimate of total CO2 emission from fossil fuel combustion is obtained. The empirical analysis of China shows that our method is better than the linear model in terms of goodness of fit and simulation risk. -- Highlights: ? Figures of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion in most countries are S-shape curves. ? Using the logistic function to model the S-shape curve. ? Three algorithms are offered to estimate the parameters of the logistic function. ? The empirical analysis from China shows that the logistic equation has satisfactory simulation results.

2011-05-01

96

The future of oil: unconventional fossil fuels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unconventional fossil hydrocarbons fall into two categories: resource plays and conversion-sourced hydrocarbons. Resource plays involve the production of accumulations of solid, liquid or gaseous hydro-carbons that have been generated over geological time from organic matter in source rocks. The character of these hydrocarbons may have been modified subsequently, especially in the case of solids and extra-heavy liquids. These unconventional hydrocarbons therefore comprise accumulations of hydrocarbons that are trapped in an unconventional manner and/or whose economic exploitation requires complex and technically advanced production methods. This review focuses primarily on unconventional liquid hydro-carbons. The future potential of unconventional gas, especially shale gas, is also discussed, as it is revolutionizing the energy outlook in North America and elsewhere. PMID:24298078

Chew, Kenneth J

2014-01-13

97

New Optical Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accomplishments of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants and solid oxide fuel cells are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring.

John Coggin; Tom Flynn; Jonas Ivasauskas; Daniel Kominsky; Carrie Kozikowski; Russell May; Michael Miller; Tony Peng; Gary Pickrell; Raymond Rumpf; Kelly Stinson-Bagby; Dan Thorsen; Rena Wilson

2007-12-31

98

Rehabilitation of fossil fuel power plants; Rehabilitation des centrales thermiques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

65% of the world energy needs are today covered by fossil fuel power plants. Most of them are more than 15 years old and their efficiency is greatly lower than modern units designed to work with combined gas-steam cycles or conventional steam cycles with over-critical parameters. The improvement of the efficiency of these plants will become compulsory in a near future. In this context, the use of gas turbines for the rehabilitation of fossil fuel power plants is one of the best solutions. Various ways exist to combine a gas turbine with an existing steam cycle. This article presents the technical aspects of such combined cycles and illustrate each solution with typical examples encountered in real applications. A case study is made on a 100 MW steam unit in order to compare the different solutions of rehabilitation: 1 - present day situation: use of fossil fuels, characteristics of fossil fuel power plants; 2 - gas-steam combined cycles: thermodynamical considerations, development, classification (thermodynamic coupling, fluids mixing); 3 - combined cycles without post-combustion: rehabilitation, case study; 4 - combined gas-steam cycle with total post-combustion: principle, realisation of new facilities, rehabilitation; 5 - combined gas-steam cycle with parallel disposition: principle, rehabilitation; 6 - case study: 100 MW unit. (J.S.)

Darie, G. [Universite Polytechnique de Bucarest (Romania)

2005-06-01

99

Round table: Quality of life improvements through fossil fuels investment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to cover the increasing energy demand in Turkey efficiently and more economically, diversification of energy resources is essential. In this context, efficient use of fossil fuel resources is a major issue. The power plant projects of the public sector TEAS utilising domestic lignite and imported gas are listed. Integration of flue gas desulphurisation is also important. 1 fig.

Dilli, B.

1999-07-01

100

Energy 4: Fossil Fuels and the Greenhouse Gas Effect  

Science.gov (United States)

This video describes in detail the greenhouse effect and how recovery from energy from fossile fuels results in green house gases. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.

Vanasupa, Linda

 
 
 
 
101

The Formation of Fossil Fuels - Earth: The Operators' Manual  

Science.gov (United States)

This video from Earth: The Operators' Manual describes how fossil fuels are made, and it compares how long it takes to create coal, oil and natural gas (millions of years), with how fast we're using them (hundreds of years). Narrated by Dr. Richard Alley.

Productions, Geoff H.; Manual, Earth: T.

102

Fossil fuels : millions of years in the making  

Science.gov (United States)

What natural processes created oil, coal, and natural gas? This reading, part of a site about the future of energy, describes the conditions under which these fossil fuels were formed. The reading explains that the organisms that went into the making of oil and natural gas are different from the organisms that were converted into coal. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

103

Direct Carbon Conversion: Application to the Efficient Conversion of Fossil Fuels to Electricity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We introduce a concept for efficient conversion of fossil fuels to electricity that entails the decomposition of fossil-derived hydrocarbons into carbon and hydrogen, and electrochemical conversion of these fuels in separate fuel cells. Carbon/air fuel cells have the advantages of near zero entropy change and associated heat production (allowing 100% theoretical conversion efficiency). The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product are invariant, allowing constant EMF and full utilization of fuel in single pass mode of operation. System efficiency estimates were conducted for several routes involving sequential extraction of a hydrocarbon from the fossil resource by (hydro) pyrolysis followed by thermal decomposition. The total energy conversion efficiencies of the processes were estimated to be (1) 80% for direct conversion of petroleum coke; (2) 67% HHV for CH{sub 4}; (3) 72% HHV for heavy oil (modeled using properties of decane); (4) 75.5% HHV (83% LHV) for natural gas conversion with a Rankine bottoming cycle for the H{sub 2} portion; and (5) 69% HHV for conversion of low rank coals and lignite through hydrogenation and pyrolysis of the CH{sub 4} intermediate. The cost of carbon fuel is roughly $7/GJ, based on the cost of the pyrolysis step in the industrial furnace black process. Cell hardware costs are estimated to be less than $500/kW.

Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N; Berry, G; Pasternak, A; Surles, T; Steinberg, M

2001-03-07

104

PERSPECTIVE: Keeping a closer eye on fossil fuel CO2  

Science.gov (United States)

Peter F Nelson The world is watching expectantly as the clock winds down towards the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP15; http://en.cop15.dk/) to be held 7-18 December 2009 in Copenhagen. While most are now convinced of the need for a strong and concerted response to the climate challenge, the exact nature and extent of that response remains uncertain. There is evidence (Barnett 2009) that current estimates of emissions now exceed all but the most extreme emission scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). If that increase in emissions persists then temperature increases of 4 °C by 2060 have been predicted (Barnett 2009). An inevitable result of the potential for such extreme climate change is to advance the need for multiple adaptation strategies to decision making about, for example, infrastructure, urban planning and forest management. These strategies need to do more than incremental adaptation (Barnett 2009); instead transformative approaches may be required to adapt. The timing of the response is also proving to be a critical determining factor in the effectiveness of global actions. Using a simple conceptual model of emissions, Vaughan and co-workers (Vaughan et al 2009) show that avoiding dangerous climate change is more effective if such action begins early. Early action is also more effective than acting more aggressively later (Vaughan et al 2009). Uncertainties, although reduced, are still significant in the science of climate change. The interactions between control of particulate air pollutants and climate change are particularly challenging (Arneth et al 2009, Shindell et al 2009) but many other uncertainties require continuing research. The scientific uncertainties are only one aspect of an intense interdisciplinary, political, economic and cultural dialogue. It is clear that political will, economic interest, target setting for emissions reductions, adaptation, technology and financing (Pan 2009) will all have a major influence on progress to an international agreement. It is important that the political challenges are not underestimated. Long-term observers of the negotiations necessary for global agreements (Inman 2009) are pessimistic about the chances for success at COP15, and argue that agreements between smaller groups of countries may be more effective. China and other developing countries clearly expect greater emission cuts by developed nations as a condition for a successful deal (Pan 2009). Conversely, the constraints on US climate policies are considerable, notably those imposed by fears that an international agreement that does not include equitable emission control measures for developing countries like China and India, will compromise the agreement and reduce its effectiveness (Skodvin and Andresen 2009). In this context the need for earlier, and more reliable, information on emissions is a high priority. Myhre and coworkers (Myhre et al 2009) provide an efficient method for calculating global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion by combining industry statistics with data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC; http://cdiac.ornl.gov/). Recent analyses of carbon dioxide emission data show a worrying acceleration in emissions, beyond even the most extreme IPCC projections, but are based largely on the CDIAC which gives information about emissions released two to three years before real time (Canadell et al 2007, Raupach et al 2007). The approach used by Myhre et al (2009) uses BP annual statistics of fossil fuel consumption and has a much shorter lag, of the order of six months. Of significant concern is that their analysis of the data also reveals that the recent strong increase in fossil fuel CO2 is largely driven by an increase in emissions from coal, most significantly in China. By contrast, emissions from oil and gas continue to follow longer-term historical trends. Earlier and accurate data on CO2 emissions is important for a range of reasons. It allows comparison with the scenarios developed by the IPCC

Nelson, Peter F.

2009-12-01

105

Fossil fuel combined cycle power generation method  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for converting fuel energy to electricity includes the steps of converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one mixed gas stream of lower average molecular weight including at least a first lower molecular weight gas and a second gas, the first and second gases being different gases, wherein the first lower molecular weight gas comprises H.sub.2 and the second gas comprises CO. The mixed gas is supplied to at least one turbine to produce electricity. The mixed gas stream is divided after the turbine into a first gas stream mainly comprising H.sub.2 and a second gas stream mainly comprising CO. The first and second gas streams are then electrochemically oxidized in separate fuel cells to produce electricity. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

Labinov, Solomon D [Knoxville, TN; Armstrong, Timothy R [Clinton, TN; Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN

2008-10-21

106

CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN JAPAN: A MULTIVARIATE APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores whether Japanese economy can continue to grow without extensive dependence on fossil fuels. The paper conducts time series analysis using a multivariate model of fossil fuels, non-fossil energy, labor, stock and GDP to investigate the relationship between fossil fuel consumption and economic growth in Japan. The results of cointegration tests indicate long-run relationships among the variables. Using a vector error-correction model, the study reveals bidirectional causality between fossil fuels and GDP. The results also show that there is no causal relationship between non-fossil energy and GDP. The results of cointegration analysis, Granger causality tests, and variance decomposition analysis imply that non-fossil energy may not necessarily be able to play the role of fossil fuels. Japan cannot seem to realize both continuous economic growth and the departure from dependence on fossil fuels. Hence, growth-oriented macroeconomic policies should be re-examined.

Hazuki Ishida

2013-01-01

107

Hydrogen as a renewable and sustainable solution in reducing global fossil fuel consumption  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for reducing global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions are derived depending primarily upon the exergetic utilization ratios of fossil fuels and hydrogen: the fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency, fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator. These relations incorporate predicted exergetic utilization ratios for hydrogen energy from non-fossil fuel resources such as water, etc., and are used to investigate whether or not exergetic utilization of hydrogen can significantly reduce the fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient (ranging from 1 to +{infinity}) indicating the fossil fuel consumption and contribute to increase the hydrogen based global exergetic indicator (ranging from 0 to 1) indicating the hydrogen utilization at a certain ratio of fossil fuel utilization. In order to verify all these exergetic expressions, the actual fossil fuel consumption and production data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. For the verification of these parameters, the variations of fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator as the functions of fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency and exergetic utilization of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels are analyzed and discussed in detail. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases, the fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient will decrease and the hydrogen based global exergetic indicator will increase. (author)

Midilli, Adnan; Dincer, Ibrahim [Energy Division, Mechanical Engineering Department, Nigde University, 51100 Nigde (Turkey); Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada)

2008-08-15

108

Fossil-Fuel C02 Emissions Database and Exploration System  

Science.gov (United States)

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) quantifies the release of carbon from fossil-fuel use and cement production at global, regional, and national spatial scales. The CDIAC emission time series estimates are based largely on annual energy statistics published at the national level by the United Nations (UN). CDIAC has developed a relational database to house collected data and information and a web-based interface to help users worldwide identify, explore and download desired emission data. The available information is divided in two major group: time series and gridded data. The time series data is offered for global, regional and national scales. Publications containing historical energy statistics make it possible to estimate fossil fuel CO2 emissions back to 1751. Etemad et al. (1991) published a summary compilation that tabulates coal, brown coal, peat, and crude oil production by nation and year. Footnotes in the Etemad et al.(1991) publication extend the energy statistics time series back to 1751. Summary compilations of fossil fuel trade were published by Mitchell (1983, 1992, 1993, 1995). Mitchell's work tabulates solid and liquid fuel imports and exports by nation and year. These pre-1950 production and trade data were digitized and CO2 emission calculations were made following the procedures discussed in Marland and Rotty (1984) and Boden et al. (1995). The gridded data presents annual and monthly estimates. Annual data presents a time series recording 1° latitude by 1° longitude CO2 emissions in units of million metric tons of carbon per year from anthropogenic sources for 1751-2008. The monthly, fossil-fuel CO2 emissions estimates from 1950-2008 provided in this database are derived from time series of global, regional, and national fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (Boden et al. 2011), the references therein, and the methodology described in Andres et al. (2011). The data accessible here take these tabular, national, mass-emissions data and distribute them spatially on a one degree latitude by one degree longitude grid. The within-country spatial distribution is achieved through a fixed population distribution as reported in Andres et al. (1996). This presentation introduces newly build database and web interface, reflects the present state and functionality of the Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Database and Exploration System as well as future plans for expansion.

Krassovski, M.; Boden, T.; Andres, R. J.; Blasing, T. J.

2012-12-01

109

Reducing the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel power plans by exhaust gas treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other pollutants which result from burning fossil fuels has been identified as the major contributor to global warming and climate change. However, for the short term, at least for the next 10-20 years, the world will continue to rely on fossil fuels as the source of primary energy. The challenge for the fossil the fuel industry is to find cost-effective solutions that will reduce the release of CO2 and other pollutants into the atmosphere. The focus of this paper is on the ability to treat the exhaust gas from fossil fuel power plants in order to capture and store the CO2 and remove the other pollutants such as SOx and NOx which are released into the atmosphere. In summary, capture/separation costs represent the largest financial impediment for this type of plants. Hence, efficient, cost-effective capture/separation technologies need to be developed to allow their large-scale use. (author)

2007-01-01

110

Fossil fuel biomarkers in plant waxes as pollution parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hopane and sterane derivatives typical of highly mature sedimentary organic matter, e.g. petroleum, have been identified in several plant species growing near Nancy, France. Analyses of plant waxes by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry over a restricted mass interval (m/z 185-195) allows definition of pollution parameters based on the relative concentration of fossil hopanes versus modern plant n-alkanes. Indeed, such parameters are higher for Pinus nigra growing along a high traffic highway than for Pinus nigra growing in a less polluted suburb area. Molecular pollution parameters based on fossil molecules are thus promising tools for measuring the extent of fossil fuel input into plant and food

Bryselbout, Carine; Henner, Pascale; Lichtfouse, Eric [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, INRA/ENSAIA-INPL, BP 172, 54505 Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France)

1998-10-27

111

Modeling CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel combustion using the logistic equation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel combustion have been known to contribute to the greenhouse effect. Research on emission trends and further forecasting their further values is important for adjusting energy policies, particularly those relative to low carbon. Except for a few countries, the main figures of CO{sub 2} emission from fossil fuel combustion in other countries are S-shaped curves. The logistic function is selected to simulate the S-shaped curve, and to improve the goodness of fit, three algorithms were provided to estimate its parameters. Considering the different emission characteristics of different industries, the three algorithms estimated the parameters of CO{sub 2} emission in each industry separately. The most suitable parameters for each industry are selected based on the criterion of Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE). With the combined simulation values of the selected models, the estimate of total CO{sub 2} emission from fossil fuel combustion is obtained. The empirical analysis of China shows that our method is better than the linear model in terms of goodness of fit and simulation risk.

Meng, M.; Niu, D.X. [North China Electric Power University, Baoding (China)

2011-05-15

112

US fossil fuel technologies for Thailand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy has been encouraging other countries to consider US coal and coal technologies in meeting their future energy needs. Thailand is one of three developing countries determined to be a potentially favorable market for such exports. This report briefly profiles Thailand with respect to population, employment, energy infrastructure and policies, as well as financial, economic, and trade issues. Thailand is shifting from a traditionally agrarian economy to one based more strongly on light manufacturing and will therefore require increased energy resources that are reliable and flexible in responding to anticipated growth. Thailand has extensive lignite deposits that could fuel a variety of coal-based technologies. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors could utilize this resource and still permit Thailand to meet emission standards for sulfur dioxide. This option also lends itself to small-scale applications suitable for private-sector power generation. Slagging combustors and coal-water mixtures also appear to have potential. Both new construction and refurbishment of existing plants are planned. 18 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

Buehring, W.A.; Dials, G.E.; Gillette, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.; Traczyk, P.A.

1990-10-01

113

Oceanic methane hydrates: untapped fossil-fuel reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Years ago, oil explorers had only a superficial idea about the existence of a solid form of natural gas known as methane hydrate, and much less, about its geological mode of occurrence. Intensive explorations undertaken by oceanographers and oil geologists, during the last ten years, many occurrences around the world have come to light. Today, hydrate reserves are supposed to hold more fossil fuel energy than is present in conventional oil, gas and coal deposits

1998-02-25

114

Approaches and potentials for reducing greenhouse effects from fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of energy consumption in 1989, an inventory was made for the original Federal Republic of Germany ('Western Germany') of the carbon dioxide and methane emissions involved in the greenhouse effect for the fossil fuels crude oil, natural gas, coal and lignite. After assessing the various parameters, the report indicates possible approaches to and technical potentials for reducing greenhouse emissions due to use of energy. (orig.) With 70 figs., 144 tabs., 181 refs

1992-01-01

115

A PARAMETRIC STUDY ON EXERGETIC ASPECTS OF HYDROGEN ENERGY IN REDUCING FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a parametric analysis on the exergetic dimension of hydrogen in reducing global fossil fuels consumption. Some key parameters such as fossil fuel based-global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based-global exergetic efficiency, and fossil fuel based-global irreversibility coefficient are proposed and studied in this regard. In order to verify these exergetic parameters, the actual fossil fuel consumption and production data are used as the base data in the analysis. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for the present study, it is assumed that the utilization ratio of hydrogen is practically ranged between 0 and 1. As a result, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases, the fossil fuel based-global irreversibility coefficient will decrease.

Adnan Midilli [Energy Division, Mechanical Engineering Department, Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey); Ibrahim Dincer [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

2008-09-30

116

Sustainable chemical technologies in production of Clean fuels from fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some aspects of the present and the possible future role of sustainable chemical technologies in the production of clean liquid and gaseous fuels from fossil fuels are discussed. The state-of-the-art and the vision of possible sources and alternative routes which may lead to clean fuels from fossil fuels due to the progress in crude oil, natural gas and coal processing are briefly presented. The possible future role of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, methanol synthesis, dimethylether synthesis, and a group of methanol transformation processes is also discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Taniewski, Marian [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Gliwice (Poland)

2008-04-15

117

Carbon dioxide emissions from the use of fossil fuels in Asia: An overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Asian emissions of carbon dioxide from the use of fossil fuels now exceed those from North America or Europe. It is thus essential that the countries of Asia be full and active partners in any global agreement to limit the emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper presents estimated emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use in each of the countries and geographical entities of Asia. The two favored approaches for reducing future emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use are: (i) improving the efficiency of energy use; and (ii) making greater use of less carbon-intensive sources of energy. With respect to energy efficiency, the higher Energy/GNP ratio of developing countries when compared to industrialized countries is frequently cited as evidence of the inefficient use of energy in developing countries. However, this comparison is made using a GNP figure that is calculated using market exchange rates. In contrast, when GNP is based on purchasing power parity, the Energy/GNP ratios for developing countries are similar to the ratios for industrialized countries. Data for some of the larger developing countries of Asia are presented to illustrate this point. The potential for increasing the use of natural gas is also discussed and the proven reserves of natural gas in a number of countries are provided. 8 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

Siddiqi, T.A. [UN ESCAP, Bangkok (Thailand). Environment and Natural Resources Management Div.

1996-06-01

118

Carbon dioxide storage potential in coalbeds: A near-term consideration for the fossil energy industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of using gassy unminable coalbeds for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage while concurrently initiating and enhancing coalbed methane production may be a viable near-term system for industry consideration. Coal is the most abundant and cheapest fossil fuel resource, and it has played a vital role in the stability and growth of the US economy. With the burning of coal in power plants, the energy source is also one of the fuel causing large CO2 emissions. In the near future, coal may also have a role in solving environmental greenhouse gas concerns with increasing CO2 emissions throughout the world. Coal resources may be an acceptable and significant geological sink for storing CO2 emissions in amenable unminable coalbeds while at the same time producing natural gas from gassy coalbeds. Industry proprietary research has shown that the recovery of coalbed methane can be enhanced by the injection of CO2 via well bores into coal deposits. Gassy coals generally have shown a 2:1 coal-absorption selectivity for CO2 over methane which could allow for the potential of targeting unminable coals near fossil fueled power plants to be utilized for storing stack gas CO2. Preliminary technical and economic assessments of this concept appear to merit further research leading to pilot demonstrations in selected regions of the US.

Byrer, C.W.; Guthrie, H.D.

1998-07-01

119

A novel CO2 sequestration system for environmentally producing hydrogen from fossil-fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbers are currently used to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial flue gases in various fossil-fuel based energy production systems. MEA is a highly volatile, corrosive, physiologically toxic, and foul-smelling chemical that requires replacement after 1000 operational hours. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), a novel class of materials with negligible vapor pressures and potentiality as benign solvents, may be the ideal replacement for MEA. Ab initio computational modeling was used to investigate the molecular interactions of ILs with CO2. The energetic and thermodynamic parameters of the RTILs as CO2 solvents are on par with MEA. As viable competitors to the present CO2 separation technology, RTILs may economize the fossil-fuel decarbonization process with the ultimate aim of realizing a green hydrogen economy

2007-06-03

120

Preparation and Characterization of Bio Fuel from Industrial Waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Disposal of biomass becomes often an environmental issue. A novel method has been developed to convert biomass into solid bio-fuel. Experiments were carried out on preparation of solid fuel pellet from industrial biomass wastes. A maximum calorific value of 22,593KJ/kg has been obtained for the bio-fuel prepared in the present investigation and compared with the fossil fuel coal. The bio-fuel pellets were burnt and the emitted green house gases were critically analyzed.

M.N Abinayah Shree

2009-02-01

 
 
 
 
121

Evaluation of conventional power systems. [emphasizing fossil fuels and nuclear energy  

Science.gov (United States)

The technical, economic, and environmental characteristics of (thermal, nonsolar) electric power plants are reviewed. The fuel cycle, from extraction of new fuel to final waste management, is included. Emphasis is placed on the fossil fuel and nuclear technologies.

Smith, K. R.; Weyant, J.; Holdren, J. P.

1975-01-01

122

Fuel Efficiency in Truck Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports range of activities and offer information regarding activities performed at Paccar Inc. truck’s plant in order to reduce of fuel consumption in truck industry. There are six major areas investigated: Aerodynamics, Component Spec’ing, Advanced Technology, Route Management, Driver Behaviour, Proper Maintenance. New technologies to improve vehicle fuel efficiency are also reported.

?tefan Farkas

2010-12-01

123

Fossils  

Science.gov (United States)

This Topic in Depth begins with a Web site from the Royal Ontario Museum called Fossils!-Behind the Scenes at the Museum (1). It gives a light-hearted but informative introduction to what fossils are and how they're formed, collected, and identified. Next, the University of California Museum of Paleontology offers the Web site Learning From the Fossil Record (2), which contains several learning resources and lesson plans. Topics covered include Determining Age of Rocks and Fossils, Fossilization and Adaptation: Activities in Paleontology, and Microfossils. The third site is a US Geological Survey publication entitled Fossils, Rocks, and Time (3). Visitors can learn about succession, geologic time, and other relevant facts about how fossils are studied. The University of Arizona Department of Geosciences maintains the next site, which is entitled Petrified Wood (4). It provides information on Petrified Forest National Park, an interactive look at the process of petrification, and more. Offered by the Museum Victoria, the fifth site, Dating Rocks and Fossils (5), explains the difference between relative and absolute (radiometric) dating. It also includes a chart that gives the various isotopes used, their half-life, daughter isotope, and geologic application. The next site, provided by the BBC and their Walking With Dinosaurs series, is called Fossil Detectives (6). The site describes why dinosaur fossils are so rare, where the best place to find them is, how their age is estimated, and other interesting information that can be found on this page and the rest of the site. Next, from the Florida Museum of Natural History comes the Fossil Preparation and Conservation (7) Web site. A more in-depth and technical description of fossil preparation is presented, including the use of cosolidants, adhesives, and various tools. The last site is from the University of Kentucky Paleontological Society called Photographs of Fossils Found on KPS Fieldtrips (8). As you would expect, the site contains a large categorized list of fossils, each briefly described and linked to its respective photograph.

2002-01-01

124

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eltron Research Inc. and their team members are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, new cermet compositions were tested that demonstrated similar performance to previous materials. A 0.5-mm thick membrane achieved at H{sub 2} transport rate of 0.2 mL/min/cm{sup 2} at 950 C, which corresponded to an ambipolar conductivity of 3 x 10{sup -3} S/cm. Although these results were equivalent to those for other cermet compositions, this new composition might be useful if it demonstrates improved chemical or mechanical stability. Ceramic/ceramic composite membranes also were fabricated and tested; however, some reaction did occur between the proton- and electron-conducting phases, which likely compromised conductivity. This sample only achieved a H{sub 2} transport rate of {approx} 0.006 mL/min/cm{sup 2} and an ambipolar conductivity of {approx}4 x 10{sup -4} S/cm. Chemical stability tests were continued, and candidate ceramic membranes were found to react slightly with carbon monoxide under extreme testing conditions. A cermet compositions did not show any reaction with carbon monoxide, but a thick layer of carbon formed on the membrane surface. The most significant technical accomplishment this quarter was a new high-pressure seal composition. This material maintained a pressure differential across the membrane of {approx} 280 psi at 800 C, and is still in operation.

Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. (Balu) Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; George Farthing; Dan Rowley; Tim R. Armstrong; M.K. Ferber; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

2002-07-30

125

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, mixed proton/electron conductivity and hydrogen transport was measured as a function of metal phase content for a range of ceramic/metal (cermet) compositions. It was found that optimum performance occurred at 44 wt.% metal content for all compositions tested. Although each cermet appeared to have a continuous metal phase, it is believed that hydrogen transport increased with increasing metal content partially due to beneficial surface catalyst characteristics resulting from the metal phase. Beyond 44 wt.% there was a reduction in hydrogen transport most likely due to dilution of the proton conducting ceramic phase. Hydrogen separation rates for 1-mm thick cermet membranes were in excess of 0.1 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, which corresponded to ambipolar conductivities between 1 x 10{sup -3} and 8 x 10{sup -3} S/cm. Similar results were obtained for multiphase ceramic membranes comprised of a proton-conducting perovskite and electron conducting metal oxide. These multi-phase ceramic membranes showed only a slight improvement in hydrogen transport upon addition of a metal phase. The highest hydrogen separation rates observed this quarter were for a cermet membrane containing a hydrogen transport metal. A 1-mm thick membrane of this material achieved a hydrogen separation rate of 0.3 mL/min/cm{sup 2} at only 700 C, which increased to 0.6 mL/min/cm{sup 2} at 950 C.

Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Alexandra Z. LaGuardia; Tom F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Mike J. Holmes; Aaron L. Wagner

2001-10-30

126

The fossil episode  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We build a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model with one-sided substitutability between fossil carbon and biocarbon. One shock only, the discovery of the technology to use fossil fuels, leads to a transition from an initial pre-industrial phase to three following phases: a pure fossil carbon phase, a mixed fossil and biocarbon phase and an absorbing biocarbon phase. The increased competition for biocarbon during phase 3 and 4 leads to increasing food prices. We provide closed form exp...

Hassler, John; Sinn, Hans-werner

2012-01-01

127

Partial replacement of non renewable fossil fuels energy by the use of waste materials as alternative fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports recent investigations on the use of biomass like rice husk, palm kernel shell, saw dust and municipal waste to reduce the use of fossil fuels energy in the cement production. Such waste materials have heat values in the range approximately from 2,000 to 4,000 kcal/kg. These are comparable to the average value of 5800 kcal/kg from fossil materials like coals which are widely applied in many industrial processing. Hence, such waste materials could be used as alternative fuels replacing the fossil one. It is shown that replacement of coals with such waste materials has a significant impact on cost effectiveness as well as sustainable development. Variation in moisture content of the waste materials, however should be taken into account because this is one of the parameter that could not be controlled. During fuel combustion, some amount of the total energy is used to evaporate the water content and thus the net effective heat value is less.

Indrawati, V.; Manaf, A.; Purwadi, G.

2009-09-01

128

Health effects of fossil-fuel combustion products: needed research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An examination is made of the research needed to expand and clarify the understanding of the products of fossil-fuel combustion, chiefly that taking place in stationary sources of power. One of the specific objectives that guided the study on which this report is based was to identify the pollutants potentially hazardous to man that are released into the environment in the course of the combustion of fossil fuels. The hazards of principal concern are those which could cause deleterious, long-term somatic and genetic effects. Another objective was to specify the nature of the research needed to determine the health effects of these pollutants on the general population. Special attention was paid to the interaction of pollutants; the meteorologic and climatic factors that affect the transport, diffusion, and transformation of pollutants; the effects of concentrations of aerosol, particulate, and thermal loads on biologic systems; and the susceptibility of some portions of the population to the effects of pollutants on the skin and cardiovascular, pulmonary, and urinary systems. Other objectives were to evaluate the methods of the proposed research, including analytic and interpretation techniques, to identify fields in which the available scientific information is inadequate for regulatory decision-making and to recommend a research program to meet those deficiencies, and to provide a logical framework within which the necessary information can be developed (the proposed program is presented in terms of subject, methods, and priorities).

1980-01-01

129

Measuring the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economic assessments of the welfare effects of energy insecurity are typically uncertain and fail to provide clear guidance to policy makers. As a result, governments have had little analytical support to complement expert judgment in the assessment of energy security. This is likely to be inadequate when considering multiple policy goals, and in particular the intersections between energy security and climate change mitigation policies. This paper presents an alternative approach which focuses on gauging the causes of energy insecurity as a way to assist policy making. The paper focuses on the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration and distinguishes between the price and physical availability components of energy insecurity. It defines two separate indexes: the energy security price index (ESPI), based on the measure of market concentration in competitive fossil fuel markets, and the energy security physical availability index (ESPAI), based on the measure of supply flexibility in regulated markets. The paper illustrates the application of ESPI and ESPAI with two case studies-France and the United Kingdom-looking at the evolution of both indexes to 2030.

2010-04-01

130

Geochemical controls of vanadium accumulation in fossil fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

High vanadium contents in petroleum and other fossil fuels have been attributed to organic-matter type, organisms, volcanic emanations, diffusion of sea water, and epigenetic enrichment. However, these factors are inadequate to account for the high abundance of vanadium in some fossil fuels and the paucity in others. By examining vanadium deposits in sedimentary rocks with sparse organic matter, constraints are placed on processes controlling vanadium accumulation in organic-rich sediments. Vanadium, as vanadate (V(V)), entered some depositional basins in oxidizing waters from dry, subaerial environments. Upon contact with organic matter in anoxic waters, V(V) is reduced to vanadyl (V(IV)), which can be removed from the water column by adsorption. H2S reduces V(IV) to V(III), which hydrolyzes and precipitates. The lack of V(III) in petroleum suggests that reduction of V(IV) to V(III) is inhibited by organic complexes. In the absence of strong complexing agents, V(III) forms and is incorporated in clay minerals.

Breit, G. N.; Wanty, R. B.

1989-01-01

131

Geochemical controls on vanadium accumulation in fossil fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

High vanadium contents in petroleum and other fossil fuels have been attributed to organic-matter type, organisms, volcanic emanations, diffusion of sea water, and epigenetic enrichment. However, these factors are inadequate to account for the high abundance of vanadium in some fossil fuels and the paucity in others. By examining vanadium deposits in sedimentary rocks with sparse organic matter, constraints are placed on processes controlling vanadium accumulation in organic-rich sediments. Vanadium, as vanadate (V(V)), entered some depositional basins in oxidizing waters from dry, subaerial environments. Upon contact with organic matter in anoxic waters, V(V) is reduced to vanadyl (V(IV)), which can be removed from the water column by adsorption. H2S reduces V(IV) to V(III), which hydrolyzes and precipitates. The lack of V(III) in petroleum suggests that reduction of V(IV) to V(III) is inhibited by organic complexes. In the absence of strong complexing agents, V(III) forms and is incorporated in clay minerals.

Breit, G. N.; Wanty, R. B.

1989-01-01

132

Depletion of fossil fuels and the impacts of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper combines the theory of optimal extraction of exhaustible resources with the theory of greenhouse externalities, to analyze problems of global warming when the supply side is considered. The optimal carbon tax will initially rise but eventually fall when the externality is positively related to the stock of carbon in the atmosphere. It is shown that the tax will start falling before the stock of carbon in the atmosphere reaches its maximum. If there exists a non-polluting backstop technology, it will be optimal to extract and consume fossil fuels even when the price of fossil fuels is equal to the price of the backstop. The total extraction is the same as when the externality is ignored, but in the presence of the greenhouse effect, it will be optimal to slow the extraction and spread it over a longer period. If, on the other hand, the greenhouse externality depends on the rate of change in the atmospheric stock of carbon, the evolution of the optimal carbon tax is more complex. It can even be optimal to subsidize carbon emissions to avoid future rapid changes in the stock of carbon, and therefore future damages. 22 refs., 3 figs.

Hoel, M.; Kverndokk, S. [University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Economics

1996-06-01

133

An econometrics view of worldwide fossil fuel consumption and the role of US  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude oil, coal and gas, known as fossil fuels, play a crucial role in the global economy. This paper proposes new econometrics modelling to demonstrate the trend of fossil fuels consumption. The main variables affecting consumption trends are: world reserves, the price of fossil fuels, US production and US net imports. All variables have been analysed individually for more than half a century. The research found that while the consumption of fossil fuels worldwide has increased trends in the US production and net imports have been dependent on the type of fossil fuels. Most of the US coal and gas production has been for domestic use, which is why it does not have a strong influence on worldwide fossil fuel prices. Moreover, the reserves of fossil fuels have not shown any diminution during the last couple of decades and predictions that they were about to run out are not substantiated. The nominal and real price of fossil fuels was found to change depending on the type. Finally, estimates of three econometric models for the consumption of fossil fuels from 1949 to 2006 are presented which identify the effects of significant variables

2008-02-01

134

Applying Thermodynamics to Fossil Fuels: Heats of Combustion from Elemental Compositions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussed are the calculations of heats of combustions of some selected fossil fuel compounds such as some foreign shale oils and United States coals. Heating values for coal- and petroleum-derived fuel oils are also presented. (HM)

Lloyd, William G.; Davenport, Derek A.

1980-01-01

135

Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950â??2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models.

Gregg, Jay Sterling

2011-01-01

136

Progress performance report of clean uses of fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A one-year USDOE/EPSCOR Traineeship Grant, entitled Clean Uses of Fossil Fuels.'' was awarded to the Kentucky EPSCoR Committee in September 1991 and administered through the the DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee. Ten Traineeships were awarded to doctoral students who are enrolled or accepted into Graduate Programs at either the University of Kentucky or the University of Louisville. The disciplines of these students include Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Physics. The methods used for a statewide proposal solicitation and to award the Traineeships are presented. The review panel and Kentucky DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee involved in awarding the Traineeships are described. A summary of the proposed research to be performed within these awards is presented, along with a description of the qualifications of the faculty and students who proposed projects. Future efforts to increase participation in Traineeship proposals for the succeeding funding period are outlined.

1992-01-01

137

Regulatory taxation of fossil fuels. Theory and policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research on energy taxation is often based on purely theoretical deductions. This paper stays closer to the real world, using empirical data and interpreting results in a political-economic setting of risk and uncertainty. Economic growth in developing countries will boost energy demand, increasing the risk of shortages of oil and natural gas half-way through the next century, and of coal towards the year 2100. Furthermore, there is mounting evidence that emissions of CO2 trigger harmful climate changes. A timely introduction of regulatory taxes will reduce demand for fossil fuels and accelerate the introduction of sustainable technology. The empirical results presented show, moreover, that such taxes may claim a substantial part of the rent on energy extraction for the energy-importing countries. It is argued that optimal control and the avoidance of displacement effects require a tax affecting marginal use, with exceptions to safeguard competitive positions. Exceptions may be scaled down as the jurisdiction is enlarged

1996-10-01

138

Nuclear power as a substitute for fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The challenge in energy policy is to reduce CO2 emissions and the worlds dependence on oil while satisfying a substantially increased demand for energy. Putting aside the still-speculative possibility of sequestering carbon dioxide, this challenge reduces to that of using energy more efficiently and finding substitutes for fossil fuels. Alternatives to fossil fuels fall into two broad categories: Renewable sources. Most of these sources-including hydroelectric power, wind power, direct solar heating, photovoltaic power, and biomass-derive their energy ultimately from the Sun and will not be exhausted during the next billion years. Geothermal energy and tidal energy are also renewable, in this sense, although they do not rely on the sun. However, there is almost an inverse correlation between the extent to which the source b now being used and the size of the potentially trap able resource. Thus, expansion of hydroelectric power (which is substantially used) is constricted by limited sites and environmental objections, whereas wind (for which the resource is large) is as yet less used and thus is not fully proven as a large-scale contributor. Nuclear sources. The two nuclear possibilities are fission and fusion. The latter would be inexhaustible for all practical purposes, but developing an effective fusion system remains an uncertain hope. Fission energy would also have an extremely long time span if breeder reactors arc employed, but with present-day reactors limits on uranium (or thorium) resources could be an eventual problem. At present, fission power faces problems of public acceptance and economic competitiveness. The broad alternatives of renewable energy and nuclear energy can be considered as being in competition, with one or the other to be the dominant choice, or complementary, with both being extensively employed

2008-12-01

139

Implications on the non-fossil fuel obligation for suppliers of electricity from renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This series of Bulletins provides information and advice to generators of electricity from renewable energy sources in relation to the provisions of the Non-fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) under the Electricity Act 1989. Non-fossil fuel sources include nuclear and renewables.

1990-05-01

140

Renewable and nuclear sources of energy decreases of share of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper author presents a statistical data use of nuclear energy, renewable sources and fossil fuels in the share of energy production in the Slovak Republic. It is stated that use of nuclear energy and renewable sources decreases of share of fossil fuels.

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

Renewable and nuclear sources of energy reduce the share of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper author presents a statistical data use of nuclear energy, renewable sources and fossil fuels in the share of energy production in the Slovak Republic. It is stated that use of nuclear energy and renewable sources reduce the share of fossil fuels.

2009-10-01

142

Fossil Fuels. A Supplement to the "Science 100, 101" Curriculum Guide. Curriculum Support Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

When the fossil fuels unit was first designed for Science 101 (the currently approved provincial guide for grade 10 science in Manitoba), Canadian support materials were very limited. Since students are asked to interpret data concerning energy consumption and sources for certain fossil fuels, the need for appropriate Canadian data became obvious.…

Soprovich, William, Comp.

143

The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy Stationary Fuel Cell Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy's (FE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), in partnership with private industries, is leading a program for the development and demonstration of high efficiency solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and fuel cell/turbine hybrid power generation systems for near-term distributed generation markets, with emphasis on premium power and high reliability. NETL is partnering with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in developing new directions for research under the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) initiative to develop and commercialize modular, low cost, and fuel flexible SOFC systems. Through advanced materials, processing and system integration research and development (R&D), the SECA initiative will reduce the fuel cell cost to $400 kW -1 for stationary and auxiliary power unit markets. The SECA industry teams and core program have made significant progress in scale-up and performance. Presidential initiatives are focusing research toward a new hydrogen economy. The movement to a hydrogen economy would accomplish several strategic goals, namely that SOFCs have no emissions, and hence figure significantly in DOE strategies. The SOFC hybrid is a key part of the FutureGen plant, a major new DOE FE initiative to produce hydrogen from coal. The highly efficient SOFC hybrid plant will produce electric power while other parts of the plant could produce hydrogen and sequester CO 2. The produced hydrogen can be used in fuel cell cars and for SOFC distributed generation applications.

Williams, Mark C.; Strakey, Joseph P.; Surdoval, Wayne A.

144

Environmental evidence of fossil fuel pollution in Laguna Chica de San Pedro lake sediments (Central Chile)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes lake sediment spheroidal carbonaceous particle (SCP) profiles from Laguna Chica San Pedro, located in the Biobio Region, Chile (36o 51' S, 73o 05' W). The earliest presence of SCPs was found at 16 cm depth, corresponding to the 1915-1937 period, at the very onset of industrial activities in the study area. No SCPs were found at lower depths. SCP concentrations in Laguna Chica San Pedro lake sediments were directly related to local industrial activities. Moreover, no SCPs were found in Galletue lake (38o 41' S, 71o 17.5' W), a pristine high mountain water body used here as a reference site, suggesting that contribution from long distance atmospheric transport could be neglected, unlike published data from remote Northern Hemisphere lakes. These results are the first SCP sediment profiles from Chile, showing a direct relationship with fossil fuel consumption in the region. Cores were dated using the 21Pb technique. - The lake sediment record of SCPs shows the record of fossil-fuel derived pollution in Central Chile

2006-05-01

145

Selecting industrial fuel-III  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Milwaukee, Wisconsin, industrial company is described whose two powerhouse boilers (converted from coal to natural gas and No. 2 fuel oil) became vulnerable to fuel supply disruption. An analysis was carried out on three options: (1) conversion of the largest and newest C.E. boiler to coal; (2) installation of a new coal-fired boiler; and (3) installation of a new electric boiler. Analysis included considerations of operating costs, manpower, steam demand, investment costs, convertability, air pollution, space requirements, future fuel availability, and future fuel costs. The economic analysis identified the coal conversion alternative as the preferred option. It was concluded that further analysis is required based on the peak steam demand and steam use growth. This future analysis should determine whether a new coal unit is necessary or whether the coal conversion alternative is most desirable. (MJJ)

Richardson, B.

1980-05-01

146

Depletion of fossil fuels and anthropogenic climate change—A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Future scenarios with significant anthropogenic climate change also display large increases in world production of fossil fuels, the principal CO2 emission source. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has also been identified as a future challenge. This chapter reviews the connection between these two issues and concludes that limits to availability of fossil fuels will set a limit for mankind's ability to affect the climate. However, this limit is unclear as various studies have reached quite different conclusions regarding future atmospheric CO2 concentrations caused by fossil fuel limitations. It is concluded that the current set of emission scenarios used by the IPCC and others is perforated by optimistic expectations on future fossil fuel production that are improbable or even unrealistic. The current situation, where climate models largely rely on emission scenarios detached from the reality of supply and its inherent problems are problematic. In fact, it may even mislead planners and politicians into making decisions that mitigate one problem but make the other one worse. It is important to understand that the fossil energy problem and the anthropogenic climate change problem are tightly connected and need to be treated as two interwoven challenges necessitating a holistic solution. - Highlights: ? Review of the development of emission scenarios. ? Survey of future fossil fuel trajectories used by the IPCC emission scenarios. ? Discussions on energy transitions in the light of oil depletion. ? Review of earlier studies of future climate change and fossil fuel limitations.

2013-01-01

147

Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India: I—Fossil fuel combustion  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive, spatially resolved (0.25°×0.25°) fossil fuel consumption database and emissions inventory was constructed, for India, for the first time. Emissions of sulphur dioxide and aerosol chemical constituents were estimated for 1996-1997 and extrapolated to the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) study period (1998-1999). District level consumption of coal/lignite, petroleum and natural gas in power plants, industrial, transportation and domestic sectors was 9411 PJ, with major contributions from coal (54%) followed by diesel (18%). Emission factors for various pollutants were derived using India specific fuel characteristics and information on combustion/air pollution control technologies for the power and industrial sectors. Domestic and transportation emission factors, appropriate for Indian source characteristics, were compiled from literature. SO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion for 1996-1997 were 4.0 Tg SO 2 yr -1, with 756 large point sources (e.g. utilities, iron and steel, fertilisers, cement, refineries and petrochemicals and non-ferrous metals), accounting for 62%. PM 2.5 emitted was 0.5 and 2.0 Tg yr -1 for the 100% and the 50% control scenario, respectively, applied to coal burning in the power and industrial sectors. Coal combustion was the major source of PM 2.5 (92%) primarily consisting of fly ash, accounting for 98% of the "inorganic fraction" emissions (difference between PM 2.5 and black carbon+organic matter) of 1.6 Tg yr -1. Black carbon emissions were estimated at 0.1 Tg yr -1, with 58% from diesel transport, and organic matter emissions at 0.3 Tg yr -1, with 48% from brick-kilns. Fossil fuel consumption and emissions peaked at the large point industrial sources and 22 cities, with elevated area fluxes in northern and western India. The spatial resolution of this inventory makes it suitable for regional-scale aerosol-climate studies. These results are compared to previous studies and differences discussed. Measurements of emission factors for Indian sources are needed to further refine these estimates.

Reddy, M. Shekar; Venkataraman, Chandra

148

Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India. Part 1 - Fossil fuel combustion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comprehensive, spatially resolved (0.25o x 0.25o) fossil fuel consumption database and emissions inventory was constructed, for India, for the first time. Emissions of sulphur dioxide and aerosol chemical constituents were estimated for 1996-1997 and extrapolated to the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) study period (1998-1999). District level consumption of coal/lignite, petroleum and natural gas in power plants, industrial, transportation and domestic sectors was 9411 PJ, with major contributions from coal (54%) followed by diesel (18%). Emission factors for various pollutants were derived using India specific fuel characteristics and information on combustion/air pollution control technologies for the power and industrial sectors. Domestic and transportation emission factors, appropriate for Indian source characteristics, were compiled from literature. SO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion for 1996-1997 were 4.0Tg SO2yr-1, with 756 large point sources (e.g. utilities, iron and steel, fertilisers, cement, refineries and petrochemicals and non-ferrous metals), accounting for 62%. PM2.5 emitted was 0.5 and 2.0Tgyr-1 for the 100% and the 50% control scenario, respectively, applied to coal burning in the power and industrial sectors. Coal combustion was the major source of PM2.5 (92%) primarily consisting of fly ash, accounting for 98% of the 'inorganic fraction' emissions (difference between PM2.5 and black carbon + organic matter) of 1.6Tgyr-1. Black carbon emissions were estimated at 0.1Tgyr-1, with 58% from diesel transport, and organic matter emissions at 0.3Tgyr-1, with 48% from brick-kilns. Fossil fuel consumption and emissions peaked at the large point industrial sources and 22 cities, with elevated area fluxes in northern and western India. The spatial resolution of this inventory makes it suitable for regional-scale aerosol-climate studies. These results are compared to previous studies and differences discussed. Measurements of emission factors for Indian sources are needed to further refine these estimates. (Author)

149

Environmental benchmarking of the largest fossil-fueled electricity generating plants in the U.S  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental management, to be effective, requires performance evaluation and process improvement. This is especially the case in fossil-fueled electricity generating plants. Although eco-efficient management of these types of organizations are critical to local, national and global environmental issues, few studies have focused on performance measurement and eco-efficiency improvements in this industry. This study evaluates the eco-efficiencies of the top 100 major U.S. fossil-fueled electricity generating plants from 1998 data. Using a multi-criteria non-parametric productivity model (data envelopment analysis) efficiency scores are determined. These efficiency scores are treated by a clustering method in identifying benchmarks for improving poorly performing plants. Efficiency measures are based on three resource input measures including boiler generating capacity, total fuel heat used, and total generator capacity, and four output measures including actual energy generated, SO2, NOx, and CO2 emissions. The purpose of this paper is two-fold, to introduce the methodology"s application to eco-efficiency performance measurement and show some characteristics of the benchmarked plants and groups.

Sarkis, Joseph

150

Comparative life cycle assessment of biodiesel and fossil diesel fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biofuels offer clear advantages in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, but do they perform better when we look at all the environmental impacts from a life cycle perspective. In the context of a demonstration project at the Flemish Institute for Technology Research (VITO) on the use of rapeseed methyl ester (RME) or biodiesel as automotive fuel, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of biodiesel and diesel was made. The primary concern was the question as to whether or not the biodiesel chain was comparable to the conventional diesel chain, from an environmental point of view, taking into account all stages of the life cycle of the two products. Additionally, environmental damage costs were calculated, using an impact pathway analysis. This paper presents the results of the two methods for evaluation of environmental impacts of RME and conventional diesel. Both methods are complementary and share the conclusion that although biodiesel has much lower greenhouse gas emissions, it still has significant impacts on other impact categories. The external costs of biodiesel are a bit lower compared to fossil diesel. For both fuels, external costs are significantly higher than the private production cost. (Author)

1998-09-02

151

Economic evaluation of methods to substitute consumption of fossil fuel for nuclear one in power generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technical-and-economic indices of separate and combind processes of thermal and electric power production are compared for different energy sources (heat-only nuclear stations power and heat nuclear stations condensation nuclear power plants, fossil-fuel condensation power plants, fossil-fuel power and heat nuclear stations and fossil-fuel boiler houses). The data on capital outlays, fuel expenses and total reduced costs are presented. The analysis has shown that all versions of nuclear energy development with the use of heat-only nuclear stations in different combinations prove to be less preferable than the version of cogeneration of heat and electric power at power and heat nuclear stations

1986-09-01

152

Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the building/street scale for a large US city  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to advance the scientific understanding of carbon exchange with the land surface, build an effective carbon monitoring system and contribute to quantitatively-based U.S. climate change policy interests, fine spatial and temporal quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions, the primary greenhouse gas, is essential. Called the ‘Hestia Project’, this research effort is the first to use bottom-up methods to quantify all fossil fuel CO2 emissions down to the scale of individual buildings, road segments, and industrial/electricity production facilities on an hourly basis for an entire urban landscape. a large city (Indianapolis, Indiana USA). Here, we describe the methods used to quantify the on-site fossil fuel CO2 emissions across the city of Indianapolis, Indiana. This effort combines a series of datasets and simulation tools such as a building energy simulation model, traffic data, power production reporting and local air pollution reporting. The system is general enough to be applied to any large U.S. city and holds tremendous potential as a key component of a carbon monitoring system in addition to enabling efficient greenhouse gas mitigation and planning. We compare our estimate of fossil fuel emissions from natural gas to consumption data provided by the local gas utility. At the zip code level, we achieve a bias adjusted pearson r correlation value of 0.92 (p<0.001).

Gurney, Kevin R.; Razlivanov, I.; Song, Yang; Zhou, Yuyu; Benes, Bedrich; Abdul- Massih, Michel

2012-08-15

153

Fossil fuels and clean, plentiful energy in the 21st century: The example of coal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many people believe we must quickly wean ourselves from fossil fuels to save the planet from environmental catastrophe, wars and economic collapse. However, we have the technological capability to use fossil fuels without emitting climate-threatening greenhouse gases or other pollutants. The natural transition from conventional oil and gas to unconventional oil, unconventional gas and coal for producing electricity, hydrogen and cleaner-burning fuels will decrease energy dependence on politic...

2007-01-01

154

High efficiency direct carbon and hydrogen fuel cells for fossil fuel power generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen fuel cells have been under advanced development for a number of years and are now nearing commercial applications. Direct carbon fuel cells have not yet reached practical development because of difficulties in fuel and electrolyte configuration. A direct carbon fuel cell is currently being developed which utilizes clean reactive carbon particulates in a molten carbonate salt slurry. Concentrated CO{sub 2} is evolved at the anode and oxygen from air is consumed at the cathode. At temperatures of 750{degree}C to 850{degree}C, a voltage efficiency of 80% has been achieved at a power density of 1Kw/sqM. The clean carbon and hydrogen fuel is produced from (1) natural gas, by thermal decomposition, (2) petroleum, by pyrolysis coking, (3) coal, by sequential hydrogasification and thermal pyrolysis, and (4) biomass, by sequential hydro- and thermal-pyrolysis, and are integrated with direct C and H{sub 2} fuel cells for power cycle estimates. Thermal to electric efficiencies indicate 80% (HHV), 85% (LHV) for petroleum, 75.5% (HHV), 83.4% (LHV) for natural gas and 68.3% (HHV), 70.8% (LHV) for lignite coal. The benefits of integrated combined carbon and hydrogen fuel cell power generation cycles include, (1) more than twice the efficiency of conventional fossil fuel steam plants, (2) reduced power generation cost, especially for increasing fossil fuel cost, (3) reduced CO{sub 2} emission by a factor of 2 or more, and (4) capability for direct sequestration or utilization of the concentrated CO{sub 2} from the direct carbon fuel cell effluent. 8 refs.

Steinberg, M.; Cooper, J.F. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA)

2002-07-01

155

Fuel cells - an attractive option for use in industry. Brennstoffzellen - eine attraktive Option fuer Anwendungen in der Industrie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In energy generation, environmental loads caused by fossil fuels are one of the motivations for the development of effective processes, including new technologies. According to a present assessment, fuel cell engineering can reserve some niches in this decade from the point of view of costs. Technically almost mature is especially the phosphoric acid fuel cell. Its use may make sense in the industrial range, if as an industrial by-product hydrogen-rich gases are available, which can be used as fuel for the fuel cell. In the present contribution, an applied case is described and some statements on the engineering and cost-effectiveness are made. (orig.)

Drenckhahn, W. (Siemens AG Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Erlangen (Germany)); Hassmann, K. (Siemens AG Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Erlangen (Germany)); Lezuo, A. (Siemens AG Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Erlangen (Germany))

1994-09-01

156

Effects of New Fossil Fuel Developments on the Possibilities of Meeting 2C Scenarios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent years have seen an increasing activity in developing new fossil fuel production capacity. This includes unconventional fossil fuels, such as tar sands and shale gas, fossil fuels from remote locations, and fossil fuels with a very large increase in production in the near future. In this report, the impact of such developments on our ability to mitigate climate change is investigated. Our inventory shows that the new fossil fuel developments currently underway consist of 29,400 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 260,000 million barrels of oil and 49,600 million tonnes of coal. The development of these new fossil fuels would result in emissions of 300 billion tonnes of CO2 -equivalent (CO2e) from 2012 until 2050. Until 2050, a 'carbon budget' of 1550 billion tonnes CO2e is still available if we want to of keep global warming below 2C with a 50% probability. For a 75% probability to stay below 2C this budget is only 1050 billion tonnes CO2e. So, the new fossil fuel developments identified in this report consume 20-33% of the remaining carbon budget until 2050. In a scenario where the new fossil fuels are developed, we need to embark on a rapid emission reductions pathway at the latest in 2019 in order to meet the 50% probability carbon budget. Avoiding the development of new fossil fuels will give us until 2025 to start further rapid emission reductions. These calculations are based on the assumption that the maximum emission reduction rate is 4% per year and that the maximum change in emission trend is 0.5 percentage point per year. The starting year for rapid emission reductions depends on the choice of these parameters. A sensitivity analysis shows that, in all cases, refraining from new fossil fuel development allows for a delay of 5 to 8 years before we should embark on a rapid emission reduction pathway. The high investments required for developing new fossil fuels lead to a lock in effect; once developed, these fossil fuels need to be exploited for several decades in order to recuperate investment costs. Since emission reductions need to start soon, i.e. within the next decade, recuperating these costs will be difficult. This will either lead to destruction of capital or not staying within the carbon budget.

Meindertsma, W.; Blok, K.

2012-12-15

157

High Efficiency Direct Carbon and Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Fossil Fuel Power Generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen he1 cells have been under development for a number of years and are now nearing commercial applications. Direct carbon fuel cells, heretofore, have not reached practical stages of development because of problems in fuel reactivity and cell configuration. The carbon/air fuel cell reaction (C + O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2}) has the advantage of having a nearly zero entropy change. This allows a theoretical efficiency of 100 % at 700-800 C. The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product do not change during consumption of the fuel. Consequently, the EMF is invariant; this raises the possibility of 100% fuel utilization in a single pass. (In contrast, the high-temperature hydrogen fuel cell has a theoretical efficiency of and changes in fuel activity limit practical utilizations to 75-85%.) A direct carbon fuel cell is currently being developed that utilizes reactive carbon particulates wetted by a molten carbonate electrolyte. Pure COZ is evolved at the anode and oxygen from air is consumed at the cathode. Electrochemical data is reported here for the carbon/air cell utilizing carbons derived from he1 oil pyrolysis, purified coal, purified bio-char and petroleum coke. At 800 O C, a voltage efficiency of 80% was measured at power densities of 0.5-1 kW/m2. Carbon and hydrogen fuels may be produced simultaneously at lugh efficiency from: (1) natural gas, by thermal decomposition, (2) petroleum, by coking or pyrolysis of distillates, (3) coal, by sequential hydrogasification to methane and thermal pyrolysis of the methane, with recycle of the hydrogen, and (4) biomass, similarly by sequential hydrogenation and thermal pyrolysis. Fuel production data may be combined with direct C and H2 fuel cell operating data for power cycle estimates. Thermal to electric efficiencies indicate 80% HHV [85% LHV] for petroleum, 75.5% HHV [83.4% LHV] for natural gas and 68.3% HHV [70.8% LHV] for lignite coal. Possible benefits of integrated carbon and hydrogen fuel cell power generation cycles are: (1) increased efficiency by a factor of up to 2 over many conventional fossil fuel steam plants, (2) reduced power generation cost, especially for increasing fossil fuel cost, (3) reduced CO2 emission per kWh, and (4) direct sequestration or reuse (e.g., in enhanced oil or NG recovery) of the CO{sub 2} product.

Steinberg, M; Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N

2002-01-02

158

The road to independence :a study of reducing fossil fuel import dependency for private land transport on Mauritius  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Imported fossil fuels accounted for 83.8% of the primary energy demand on Mauritius in 2011. 36.4% of the fossil fuels imported were used in the transport sector. This thesis examines how Mauritius can reduce their import dependency on fossil fuels for private land transport by use of biofuels and electric vehicles. Nine models for possible fuel consumption in private land transport are used. These models are based on three different fuel intensities and three different average distances ...

Paulen, Synnøve Lill

2013-01-01

159

Towards constraints on fossil fuel emissions from total column carbon dioxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We assess the large-scale, top-down constraints on regional fossil fuel emissions provided by observations of atmospheric total column CO2, XCO2. Using an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM with underlying fossil emissions, we determine the influence of regional fossil fuel emissions on global XCO2 fields. We quantify the regional contrasts between source and upwind regions and probe the sensitivity of atmospheric XCO2 to changes in fossil fuel emissions. Regional fossil fuel XCO2 contrasts can exceed 0.7 ppm based on 2007 emission estimates, but have large seasonal variations due to biospheric fluxes. Contamination by clouds reduces the discernible fossil signatures. Nevertheless, our simulations show that atmospheric fossil XCO2 can be tied to its source region and that changes in the regional XCO2 contrasts scale linearly with emissions. We test the GCM results against XCO2 data from the GOSAT satellite. Regional XCO2 contrasts in GOSAT data generally scale with the predictions from the GCM, but the comparison is limited by the moderate precision of and relatively few observations from the satellite. We discuss how this approach may be useful as a policy tool to verify national fossil emissions, as it provides an independent, observational constraint.

G. Keppel-Aleks

2013-04-01

160

Impact on food productivity by fossil fuel independence - A case study of a Swedish small-scale integrated organic farm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The large-scale industrial agriculture that provides the majority of food at present is dependent upon fossil fuels in the form of tractor fuel, mineral fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation. Yet, the age of cheap and abundant fossil fuels will likely come to an end within the coming decades. In this case study, the productivity of a small-scale farm (8 ha arable land, 5.5 ha meadow, 3.5 ha pasture and 18 ha forest) independent on fossil fuels by using organic methods and draught horse power was investigated. The aim was to quantify its productivity when the animal composition and possible alternatives to tractive power were varied. After an analysis of possible solutions, three scenarios for tractive power were selected: draught horse power, diesel tractor, and combination of draught horse power and rapeseed oil fueled tractor. A model that calculates the amount of food available at the farm in terms of meat, milk egg, and crops, converts it into energy units and calculates how many people can be supplied from the farm was developed. The most reasonable of the scenarios studied was when draught horse power was combined with tractor (and combine harvester) driven on locally produced rapeseed oil. Then the farm will have access to all advantages with the tractor and harvester, e.g., timeliness in harvest and lifting heavy loads, and the renewability and efficiency of draught horse power on smaller fields, and lighter operations. This system was able to support between 66 and 82 persons depending on crop yields, milk yields, meat production, fuel demand for the tractor, and availability of forest grazing. Most likely the production capacity lands on ability to support approximately 68 - 70 persons, and the farm may require fossil fuels to support more than 80 persons. If all farmland globally was to be operated with the same productivity, this would be enough for supplying the global population with food at present.

Johansson, Sheshti [Dept. of Energy and Technology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Belfrage, Kristina [Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Olsson, Mats [Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

2013-02-15

 
 
 
 
161

Fuel switch from fossil to 100% biomass on tangential fired PC boiler  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some power plants must use different coals, biomass or even waste fuel. Thus, modern combustion processes must be fuel flexible, be able to accommodate charging fuel supplies and reduce the negative effects of fuel blends by enabling direct co-firing. A Rotating Opposed Fired Air (ROFA) system, that is a boosted over-fire air system, is discussed. Experience with fossil fuels firing is then described. 20 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Blasiak, W.; Ryding, M.; Ekensteen, K.; Joensson, B. [Nalco Mobotec Europe, Goeteborg (Sweden)

2008-07-01

162

Time-dependent climate benefits of using forest residues to substitute fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study we analyze and compare the climate impacts from the recovery, transport and combustion of forest residues (harvest slash and stumps), versus the climate impacts that would have occurred if the residues were left in the forest and fossil fuels used instead. We use cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) as an indicator of climate impacts, and we explicitly consider the temporal dynamics of atmospheric carbon dioxide and biomass decomposition. Over a 240-year period, we find that CRF is significantly reduced when forest residues are used instead of fossil fuels. The type of fossil fuel replaced is important, with coal replacement giving the greatest CRF reduction. Replacing oil and fossil gas also gives long-term CRF reduction, although CRF is positive during the first 10-25 years when these fuels are replaced. Biomass productivity is also important, with more productive forests giving greater CRF reduction per hectare. The decay rate for biomass left in the forest is found to be less significant. Fossil energy inputs for biomass recovery and transport have very little impact on CRF. -- Highlights: ? Cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) can measure climate impacts of dynamic systems. ? Climate impact is reduced when forest slash and stumps are used to replace fossil fuels. ? Forest biofuels may cause short-term climate impact, followed by long-term climate benefit. ? Forest residues should replace coal to avoid short-term climate impact. ? Fossil energy used for biofuel recovery and transport has very little climate impact.

2011-07-01

163

Economic growth, CO{sub 2} emissions, and fossil fuels consumption in Iran  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental issues have attracted renewed interest and more attention during recent years due to climatic problems associated with the increased levels of pollution and the deterioration of the environmental quality as a result of increased human activity. This paper investigates the causal relationships between economic growth, carbon emission, and fossil fuels consumption, using the relatively new time series technique known as the Toda-Yamamoto method for Iran during the period 1967-2007. Total fossil fuels, petroleum products, and natural gas consumption are used as three proxies for energy consumption. Empirical results suggest a unidirectional Granger causality running from GDP and two proxies of energy consumption (petroleum products and natural gas consumption) to carbon emissions, and no Granger causality running from total fossil fuels consumption to carbon emissions in the long run. The results also show that carbon emissions, petroleum products, and total fossil fuels consumption do not lead to economic growth, though gas consumption does. (author)

Lotfalipour, Mohammad Reza; Falahi, Mohammad Ali; Ashena, Malihe [Department of Economics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-12-15

164

Modelling renewable supply chain for electricity generation with forest, fossil, and wood-waste fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a multiple objective model to large-scale and long-term industrial energy supply chain scheduling problems is considered. The problems include the allocation of a number of fossil, peat, and wood-waste fuel procurement chains to an energy plant during different periods. This decision environment is further complicated by sequence-dependent procurement chains for forest fuels. A dynamic linear programming model can be efficiently used for modelling energy flows in fuel procurement planning. However, due to the complex nature of the problem, the resulting model cannot be directly used to solve the combined heat and electricity production problem in a manner that is relevant to the energy industry. Therefore, this approach was used with a multiple objective programming model to better describe the combinatorial complexity of the scheduling task. The properties of this methodology are discussed and four examples of how the model works based on real-world data and optional peat fuel tax, feed-in tariff of electricity and energy efficiency constraints are presented. The energy industry as a whole is subject to policy decisions regarding renewable energy production and energy efficiency regulation. These decisions should be made on the basis of comprehensive techno-economic analysis using local energy supply chain models. -- Highlights: ? The energy policy decisions are made using comprehensive techno-economic analysis. ? Peat tax, feed-in tariff and energy efficiency increases renewable energy production. ? The potential of peat procurement deviates from the current assumptions of managers. ? The dynamic MOLP model could easily be adapted to a changing decision environment.

2011-10-01

165

Phase equilibria for high-boiling fossil-fuel distillates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental procedure is described for characterizing high-boiling, distillable fossil-fuel mixtures. A mixture is first separated into narrow-boiling fractions using a spinning-band column operating at low pressure and high reflux. Each fraction is characterized by structural properties as given by the number of atoms per average molecule for the following: carbon, aromatic-, ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..-, and ..gamma..-hydrogen; hydroxyl, ether oxygen; primary and secondary amines, pyridinic nitrogen; and thiophenic sulphur. Phase-equilibrium measurements were made for the crude-oil fractions using closed, constant-volume equilibrium cells. The reported measurements include vapor-pressures of eight fractions and the solubilities of methane, ethane, and carbon dioxide in one fraction. The measurements were made at sub-atmospheric pressures and from 20/sup 0/C to the lower of the atmospheric boiling point of the fraction of 300/sup 0/C. Liquid densities for the fractions were measured over the same temperature range for use in calculating gas solubilities by mass balance. The Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation of state is used to calculate phase equilibria for the systems. Equation-of-state constants are calculated from structural-characterization data. Limited experimental data indicate that vapor pressure calculations for petroleum fractions based on structural data are comparable to those based on specific gravity and normal boiling point. The results of this study suggest that for petroleum fractions, structural data for characterization do not provide significantly improved correlation of vapor pressures when that correlation is based on a simple model like the Soave equation. For effective utilization of structural characterization data, it appears necessary to base correlations on a more realistic molecular model that is more suitable for mixtures of large molecules.

Alexander, G.L.

1985-01-01

166

INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem.

J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

2001-07-13

167

INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology.

J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

2001-10-31

168

Destabilizing Investment in the Americas. Public Funding for Fossil Fuels After Rio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary is given of ongoing research by the Sustainable Energy and Economy Network into the financing of fossil fuel and renewables/energy efficiency by U.S. institutions and multilateral development banks in the Americas since 1992, the year of the last Earth Summit. These institutions have been key financers of many of the region's most destructive fossil fuel projects over the past decade

2002-01-01

169

Low energy buildings – the basis for realizing the strategy for independency of fossil fuels in 2050  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper introduces how low energy buildings can be developed, designed, optimized, constructed and operated in the future and thereby make a significant contribution to the realization of aim of the energy policy of EU: to become independent of fossil fuels in 2050. The paper describes how low energy buildings can become independent of fossil fuels in 2020 based on the following activities. Innovation of building components and systems with improved energy performance. Heating o...

Svendsen, Svend

2012-01-01

170

Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 4: Energy from fossil fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

The conversion of fossil-fired power plants now burning oil or gas to burn coal is discussed along with the relaxation of air quality standards and the development of coal gasification processes to insure a continued supply of gas from coal. The location of oil fields, refining areas, natural gas fields, and pipelines in the U.S. is shown. The technologies of modern fossil-fired boilers and gas turbines are defined along with the new technologies of fluid-bed boilers and MHD generators.

Williams, J. R.

1974-01-01

171

Co-contaminated sites: Biodegradation of fossil fuels in the presence of PCBs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sites are often co-contaminated with fossil fuels making biodegradation of the fossil fuel components of two PCB-contaminated sites: (1) a former racing Drag Strip soil contaminated with Aroclor 1242 and (2) a sediment from Silver Lake contaminated with Aroclor 1260. The sandy surface soil at the Drag Strip site contains 1.9% organic carbon and 1.5% fossil fuel component. Analysis of the solvent-extractable organic fraction, by alumina column chromatography, shows the distribution of organics to be 91.2% hydrocarbons, 7.8% polars, and 1.1% asphaltenes. This oil is extremely weathered and contains few readily biodegradable components. Enrichments have yielded undefined mixed cultures of bacteria capable of extensive degradation of components of both the Drag Strip and Silver Lake site materials. One culture, enriched from a creosote-contaminated soil adjacent to a utility pole, transformed approximately 28% and 37% (by weight) of the Drag Strip and Silver Lake oils, respectively. While the presence of fossil fuels has been shown to inhibit aerobic PCB degradation, the studies show that the presence of PCBs negatively impacts fossil fuel biodegradation. Continuing studies will examine the nature of PCB inhibition of fossil fuel biodegradation

1995-04-24

172

Co-contaminated sites: Biodegradation of fossil fuels in the presence of PCBs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sites are often co-contaminated with fossil fuels making biodegradation of the fossil fuel components of two PCB-contaminated sites: (1) a former racing Drag Strip soil contaminated with Aroclor 1242 and (2) a sediment from Silver Lake contaminated with Aroclor 1260. The sandy surface soil at the Drag Strip site contains 1.9% organic carbon and 1.5% fossil fuel component. Analysis of the solvent-extractable organic fraction, by alumina column chromatography, shows the distribution of organics to be 91.2% hydrocarbons, 7.8% polars, and 1.1% asphaltenes. This oil is extremely weathered and contains few readily biodegradable components. Enrichments have yielded undefined mixed cultures of bacteria capable of extensive degradation of components of both the Drag Strip and Silver Lake site materials. One culture, enriched from a creosote-contaminated soil adjacent to a utility pole, transformed approximately 28% and 37% (by weight) of the Drag Strip and Silver Lake oils, respectively. While the presence of fossil fuels has been shown to inhibit aerobic PCB degradation, the studies show that the presence of PCBs negatively impacts fossil fuel biodegradation. Continuing studies will examine the nature of PCB inhibition of fossil fuel biodegradation.

Morris, P.J. [Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology; Shelton, M.E.; Chapman, P.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States). Gulf Breeze Environmental Research Lab.

1995-12-31

173

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e., maps; how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10 % uncertainty (95 % confidence interval. Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. This manuscript concludes that carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion continue to increase with time and that while much is known about the overall characteristics of these emissions, much is still to be learned about the detailed characteristics of these emissions.

R. J. Andres

2012-05-01

174

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps; how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% confidence interval. Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50%. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

R. J. Andres

2012-01-01

175

Studies on the effects of atmospheric contamination due to fossil-fuel combustion in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological studies have been conducted since 1961 to investigate health effects of sulphur dioxide in industrial areas of Japan where fossil-fuel power stations are located. The dose-response relationship between prevalence rates of chronic bronchitis and sulphur dioxide was established. The annual value of sulphur dioxide concentrations estimated by the national network of air pollutant measurements decreased from the peak value of 0.059 ppm in 1967 to 0.017 ppm in 1978. However, the atmospheric concentration of nitrogen dioxide estimated by the national network indicated an annual value of 0.022 ppm in 1968, but the annual value in 1978 was slightly increased to 0.027 ppm. It was therefore considered important to study the health effects of nitrogen dioxide. In six different areas in Japan with varying atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, an extensive epidemiological survey was conducted with 12,717 school-children 6 to 12 years old during the period 1979 to 1981. The prevalence rate of asthma was estimated to be 4.7% for males and 2.1% for females in the high NO2 concentration area, and 1.9% for males and 0.9% for females in the low NO2 concentration area. For asthmalike symptoms, 12.2% for males and 11.9% for females was observed at the high NO2 concentration area, and 7.1% for males and 5.9% for females in the low NO2 concentration area. The natural radioactivity from fossil-fuel power plants as well as risk/benefit comparisons are also discussed. In decision-making on environmental protection and safety, it should be carefully considered whether a reduction of one type of risk might increase another type of risk. Not only the risk-reduction industries but also the construction and operation of the risk-reduction system may not be completely riskless

1981-06-26

176

New method of calculating calorific values from elemental compositions of fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new method of calculating the calorific values of fossil fuels from their chemical composition has been developed, based on the concept that heats of reaction of stoichiometric fuel-oxidizer systems are rectilinearly related with the total oxidizing or reducing valencies of the mixture. The calorific value of fossil fuels has been shown to be directly related to the net reducing valencies of the fuel. The proposed method is simple and compares favourably with the other prominent methods reported in the literature. (9 refs.)

Jain, S.R.; Sundararajan, R.

1981-11-01

177

News from the fuel elements industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article deals successively with: the re-structuring of the PWR fuel industry in France, with the setting up of Fragema and Cogema Framatome Combustible; Fragema products, from standard fuel assembly to the development of a new advanced fuel assembly; Framatome's experience with PWR fuel; fuel performances in the light of requirements imposed by network needs follow-up; devices developed by Fragema for on-site analysis of irradiated fuel

1981-01-01

178

What are the likely roles of fossil fuels in the next 15, 50, and 100 years, with or without active controls on greenhouse gas emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the industrial revolution, the production and utilization of fossil fuels have been an engine driving economic and industrial development in many countries worldwide. However, future reliance on fossil fuels has been questioned due to emerging concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and its potential contribution to global climate change (GCC). While substantial uncertainties exist regarding the ability to accurately predict climate change and the role of various greenhouse gases, some scientists and policymakers have called for immediate action. As a result, there have been many proposals and worldwide initiatives to address the perceived problem. In many of these proposals, the premise is that CO{sub 2} emissions constitute the principal problem, and, correspondingly, that fossil-fuel combustion must be curtailed to resolve this problem. This paper demonstrates that the worldwide fossil fuel resource base and infrastructure are extensive and thus, will continue to be relied on in developed and developing countries. Furthermore, in the electric generating sector (the focus of this paper), numerous clean coal technologies (CCTs) are currently being demonstrated (or are under development) that have higher conversion efficiencies, and thus lower CO{sub 2} emission rates than conventional coal-based technologies. As these technologies are deployed in new power plant or repowering applications to meet electrical load growth, CO{sub 2} (and other GHG) emission levels per unit of electricity generated will be lower than that produced by conventional fossil-fuel technologies. 37 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs.

Kane, R.L. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (USA)); South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1990-01-01

179

The dominance of fossil fuels: technical and resource limitations to alternative energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technological and physical resource gap between fossil fuels and alternative energy sources, and the world`s continued reliance on fossil fuels, was discussed. It was noted that this dependence will result in rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and that economic measures such as price and tax increases of fossil fuels, will have little impact on eliminating that threat. The most promising way to slow down the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was considered to be to implement greater use of non-fossil energy and alternative energy technologies. Some of these alternative energy technologies were: (1) fission of atomic nuclei as a source of energy, (2) fusion of atomic nuclei as a source of energy, (3) solar energy converted to hydrogen, (4) ethanol by fermentation from sugar, (5) methanol from wood, (6) hydroelectric power, (7) wind power, (8) geothermal power, and (9) ocean thermal power. 32 refs., 14 tabs., 9 figs.

Lightfoot, H.D.; Green, C. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Centre for Climate and Global Change Research

1992-05-01

180

Biomass gasification--a substitute to fossil fuel for heat application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper addresses case studies of a low temperature and a high temperature industrial heat requirement being met using biomass gasification. The gasification system for these applications consists of an open top down draft reburn reactor lined with ceramic. Necessary cooling and cleaning systems are incorporated in the package to meet the end use requirements. The other elements included are the fuel conveyor, water treatment plant for recirculating the cooling water and adequate automation to start, shut down and control the operations of the gasifier system. Drying of marigold flower, a low temperature application is considered to replace diesel fuel in the range of 125-150 l h{sup -1}. Gas from the 500 kg h{sup -1}, gasifier system is piped into the producer gas burners fixed in the combustion chamber with the downstream process similar to the diesel burner. The high temperature application is for a heat treatment furnace in the temperature range of 873-1200 K. A 300 kg h{sup -1} of biomass gasifier replaces 2000 l of diesel or LDO per day completely. The novelty of this package is the use of one gasifier to energize 16 burners in the 8 furnaces with different temperature requirements. The system operates over 140 h per week on a nearly nonstop mode and over 4000 h of operation replacing fossil fuel completely. The advantage of bioenergy package towards the economic and environmental considerations is presented.

Dasappa, S.; Sridhar, H.V.; Sridhar, G.; Paul, P.J.; Mukunda, H.S

2003-12-01

 
 
 
 
181

Comparison between the marginal protection costs in fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This communication compares the sanitary risks (for the public) and the protection costs in fossil-fuel power plants and nuclear power reactors. It is concluded that the sanitary risks and the annual protection costs are higher for the classical fuel plants. For the marginal protection costs conclusions are not definite. (B.G.)

1980-03-14

182

BIOMASS AND FOSSIL FUEL TO METHANOL AND CARBON VIA THE HYDROCARB PROCESS  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discusses the production of methanol and carbon from biomass and fossil fuels, utilizing the Hydrocarbon process. This process has the potential to minimize dependence on imported fuels for the transportation and utility sectors by increasing the yield and reducing the ...

183

OVERVIEW OF POLLUTION FROM COMBUSTION OF FOSSIL FUELS IN BOILERS OF THE UNITED STATES  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes the fossil-fuel-fired boiler population of the U.S. It presents data on the number and capacity of boilers for categories most relevant to producing pollution. Information presented includes: type of fuel burned (coal, residual oil, distillate oil, natural ga...

184

Hydrogen generation from biogenic and fossil fuels by autothermal reforming  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrogen generation for fuel cell systems by reforming technologies from various fuels is one of the main fields of investigation of the Fraunhofer ISE. Suitable fuels are, on the one hand, gaseous hydrocarbons like methane, propane but also, on the other hand, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline and alcohols, e.g., ethanol as biogenic fuel. The goal is to develop compact systems for generation of hydrogen from fuel being suitable for small-scale membrane fuel cells. The most recent work is related to reforming according to the autothermal principle — fuel, air and steam is supplied to the reactor. Possible applications of such small-scale autothermal reformers are mobile systems and also miniature fuel cell as co-generation plant for decentralised electricity and heat generation. For small stand-alone systems without a connection to the natural gas grid liquid gas, a mixture of propane and butane is an appropriate fuel.

Rampe, Thomas; Heinzel, Angelika; Vogel, Bernhard

185

Trends in research and development of advanced fossil fuel technologies for electric power generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the end of World War II, electrical generation has increased dramatically worldwide. Fossil fuels account presently for over 70% of the energy input for US electricity generation. Coal provides about three-fourths of the fossil fuel contribution. If no energy policy changes occur, by the year 2010 in the USA over three-fourths of all electricity generation will be fuelled by fossil fuels. As a corrective measure, a National Energy Strategy (NES) has been proposed that will change US energy policies by reducing the expected annual electricity requirements. The NES also forecasts a larger role for nuclear energy and for renewables for power generation needs, with less emphasis on the use of fossil fuels because expected growth in the use of fossil fuels raises concerns about possible health and environmental effects. The switch to new efficient and environmentally superior electricity generating technologies will permit growth while ensuring that the environment is protected. This paper provides an overview of the new advanced technologies for power generation. 10 figs

1991-05-13

186

Market power in the market for greenhouse gas emission permits :the interplay with the fossil fuel markets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol is likely to leave Russia and other Eastern European countries with market power in the market for emission permits. Ceteris paribus, this will raise the permit price above the competitive permit price. However, Russia is also a large exporter of fossil fuels. A high price on emission permits may lower the producer price on fossil fuels. Thus, if Russia coordinates its permit market and fossil fuel market policies, market power will not necessarily lead to...

Hagem, Cathrine; Mæstad, Ottar

2002-01-01

187

Market power in the market for greenhouse gas emissions permits: The interplay with the fossil fuel markezs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol is likely to leave Russia and other Eastern European countries with market power in the market for emission permits. Ceteris paribus, this will raise the permit price above the competitive permit price. However, Russia is also a large exporter of fossil fuels. A high price on emission permits may lower the producer price on fossil fuels. Thus, if Russia coordinates its permit market and fossil fuel market policies, market power will not necessarily lead to...

Hagem, Cathrine; Mæstad, Ottar

2002-01-01

188

Carry-over of fossil fuel impurities during processes of upgrading and utilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental constraints on future fossil fuel utilization, e.g., requirements to minimize solid wastes and fugitive aerosol emissions including acidic components, require that additional information such as the trace element content of fuel stocks and the fate of trace components during processing for fuel extraction, up-grading and combustion, continue to be sought. Among the methods suited for fossil fuel trace analysis, the nuclear-based techniques. INAA, photon activation (IPAA) and PIXE have been adapted in this laboratory. Results obtained by several nuclear methods are compared in accuracy and application to coals and their derivative products and residues, including studies on pilot plant coal hydroliquefaction, and on Canadian coal fired electric generating units and to several Canadian peats. Results obtained for thermal coals and their ashes, synfuel and other heavy oil feedstocks are presented. The results indicate that appreciable fractions of Al, As, Ba, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, and the halogens are carried over into the liquid fuels and some tendency is seen for similar behavior among groups or families of elements which have distinctive associations with mineral components in fossil fuels. The capabilities of radioanalytical techniques to contribute to fossil fuel studies both at the research stage (such as pilot plant coal conversion) and at the full-scale level of thermal station power production are reviewed

1984-04-01

189

Importance of hydrogen fuels as sustainable alternative energy for domestic and industrial applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy demand is increasing continuously due to rapid growth in population and industrialization development. As a result greenhouse gases especially CO{sub 2} produced by the combustion of fossil fuels cause depletion of fossil fuels and deterioration of environmental conditions worldwide. The goal of global energy sustainability implies the replacement of all fossil fuels by renewable energy sources . Hydrogen fuel is one of the sustainable energy sources can be available by conversion of biomass into biological hydrogen gas and ethanol. Rate of biomass generation in domestic wastes in Iranian culture is high. Therefore there is suitable potential for hydrogen generation in rural and urban areas of Iran. On the other hand energy extraction from these fossil fuels causes pollution and diseases. Globally, hydrogen is already produced in significant quantities (around 5 billion cubic metres per annum). It is mainly used to produce ammonia for fertiliser (about 50%), for oil refining (37%), methanol production (8%) and in the chemical and metallurgical industries (4%). On the other hand, increase in emissions rates of greenhouse gases, i.e., CO{sub 2} present a threat to the world climate. Also new legislation of Iran has been approved the higher costs of conventional fuels for consuming in vehicles for reduction of greenhouse gases reduction as environmental policies. Demand is rising in all cities of Iran for cleaner fuels such as mixed fuels and natural gas, but unfortunately they are exporting to foreign countries or the required technologies are not available and economically option. Nuclear industries in Iran are also small and expanding only slowly. So importance of alternative energies as hydrogen powers are increasing daily. Presently both major consumers of domestic and industrial such as plants and manufacturers are using fossil fuels for their process that consequently contribute to the global warming and climate change. This paper reviews these options, with reference not only to greenhouse gases but also to welfare increasing. (author)

Sharifan, H.R. [Dept. of Environment and Energy, Islamic Azad Univ., Science and Research Campus, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: hsharifan@gmail.com; Banan, N. [Department of Environmental Science, Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davari, A. [Dept. of Environmental Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Univ. of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2009-07-01

190

Importance of hydrogen fuels as sustainable alternative energy for domestic and industrial applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy demand is increasing continuously due to rapid growth in population and industrialization development. As a result greenhouse gases especially CO2 produced by the combustion of fossil fuels cause depletion of fossil fuels and deterioration of environmental conditions worldwide. The goal of global energy sustainability implies the replacement of all fossil fuels by renewable energy sources . Hydrogen fuel is one of the sustainable energy sources can be available by conversion of biomass into biological hydrogen gas and ethanol. Rate of biomass generation in domestic wastes in Iranian culture is high. Therefore there is suitable potential for hydrogen generation in rural and urban areas of Iran. On the other hand energy extraction from these fossil fuels causes pollution and diseases. Globally, hydrogen is already produced in significant quantities (around 5 billion cubic metres per annum). It is mainly used to produce ammonia for fertiliser (about 50%), for oil refining (37%), methanol production (8%) and in the chemical and metallurgical industries (4%). On the other hand, increase in emissions rates of greenhouse gases, i.e., CO2 present a threat to the world climate. Also new legislation of Iran has been approved the higher costs of conventional fuels for consuming in vehicles for reduction of greenhouse gases reduction as environmental policies. Demand is rising in all cities of Iran for cleaner fuels such as mixed fuels and natural gas, but unfortunately they are exporting to foreign countries or the required technologies are not available and economically option. Nuclear industries in Iran are also small and expanding only slowly. So importance of alternative energies as hydrogen powers are increasing daily. Presently both major consumers of domestic and industrial such as plants and manufacturers are using fossil fuels for their process that consequently contribute to the global warming and climate change. This paper reviews these options, with reference not only to greenhouse gases but also to welfare increasing. (author)

2009-05-03

191

Towards constraints on fossil fuel emissions from total column carbon dioxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We assess the large-scale, top-down constraints on regional fossil fuel emissions provided by observations of atmospheric total column CO2, XCO2. Using an atmospheric GCM with underlying fossil emissions, we determine the influence of regional fossil fuel emissions on global XCO2 fields. We quantify the regional contrasts between source and upwind regions and probe the sensitivity of atmospheric XCO2 to changes in fossil fuel emissions. Regional fossil fuel XCO2 contrasts can exceed 0.7 ppm based on 2007 emission estimates, but have large seasonal variations due to biospheric fluxes. Contamination by clouds reduces the discernible fossil signatures. Nevertheless, our simulations show that atmospheric fossil XCO2 can be tied to its source region and that changes in the regional XCO2 contrasts scale linearly with emissions. We test the GCM results against XCO2 data from the GOSAT satellite. Regional XCO2 contrasts in GOSAT data generally scale with the predictions from the GCM, but the comparison is limited by the moderate precision of and relatively few observations from the satellite. We discuss how this approach may be useful as a policy tool to verify national fossil emissions, as it provides an independent, observational constraint.

G. Keppel-Aleks

2012-11-01

192

Comparative study on systems of residual water treatment in the process industry by evaporation, using fossils fuels or solar energy; Estudio comparativo sobre sistemas de tratamiento de aguas residuales de la industria de procesamiento por evaporacion, utilizando combustibles fosiles o energia solar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The residual water treatment of the process industry, nowadays is an imminent necessity in our country. In the present study two different forms are considered to concentrate residual waters: multiple effect evaporation and solar evaporation. The use of solar evaporation lagoons is a good possibility to conserving energy by means of the diminution of fossil fuel consumption. The design basis of the evaporation systems via multiple effect, as well as solar evaporation, the results of the respective sizing and the estimation of the corresponding costs are presented. A practical case is described on the cooking of cotton linters (flock) [Spanish] El tratamiento de aguas residuales de la industria de proceso, hoy en dia es una necesidad inminente en nuestro pais. En el presente trabajo se consideran dos formas distintas para concentrar las aguas residuales: evaporacion de multiple efecto y evaporacion solar. El empleo de lagunas de evaporacion solar es una buena posibilidad para conseguir el ahorro de energia mediante disminucion del consumo de combustibles fosiles. Se presentan las bases de diseno de los sistemas de evaporacion via multiple efecto, asi como solar, los resultados del dimensionamiento respectivo y la estimacion de los costos correspondientes. Se describe un caso practico sobre el cocido de linters de algodon (borra)

Landgrave Romero, Julio; Canseco Contreras, Jose [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM (Mexico)

1996-07-01

193

Fossil fuel biomarkers in plant waxes as pollution parameters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hopane and sterane derivatives typical of highly mature sedimentary organic matter, e.g. petroleum, have been identified in several plant species growing near Nancy, France. Analyses of plant waxes by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry over a restricted mass interval (m/z 185-195) allows definition of pollution parameters based on the relative concentration of fossil hopanes versus modern plant n alkanes. Indeed, such parameters are higher for Pinus nigra growing along a high traffic highwa...

Bryselbout, Carine; Henner, Pascale; Lichtfouse, Eric

1998-01-01

194

Trends in global, regional and Australian CO2 emissions from fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A recent analysis of global and regional trends in C02 emissions from fossil fuels (Raupach etal. 2007) found that emissions growth has accelerated at global scale from 1% pa through the 1990s to over 3% pa through 2000-2004, and that a major driver of this increase was a reversal of the earlier declining trend in the carbon intensity of the economy. This poster first reviews the global findings and then places Australian C02 emissions in a global context, as follows: Australia, with 0.32% of the world population, contributes 1.43% of C02 emissions from fossil fuels. Australia's per capita emissions in 2004 were 4.5 times the global average, just below the value for the USA; Australia's carbon intensity of energy (fossil fuel burned per unit of energy produced) is 20% higher than the world average, and 25 to 30% higher than values for the USA, Europe and Japan. Therefore, the energy efficiency of fossil fuel use is significantly lower in Australia than in these other developed countries. Australia's carbon intensity of GDP (fossil fuel burned per dollar of GDP) is 25% higher than the world average. It is a little higher than the USA and nearly double that of Europe and Japan. Therefore, the overall carbon efficiency of the economy, per unit of fossil fuel used, is about half that for Europe and Japan. Over the last 25 years, the average growth rate of Australian emissions was approximately twice the growth rate for the world as a whole, twice the growth rate for the USA and Japan, and five times the growth rate for Europe. The rate of improvement (decline) in the carbon intensity of GDP for Australia is lower than in the USA and Europe

2007-10-02

195

Co-combustion of Fossil Fuels and Waste  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Ph.D. thesis deals with the alternative and high efficiency methods of using waste-derived fuels in heat and power production. The focus is on the following subjects: 1) co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel (SRF) under pulverized fuel combustion conditions; 2) dust-firing of straw and the utilization of a waste-derived material as an additive; 3) the combustion of a

Wu, Hao

2011-01-01

196

Fossil and non-fossil solid fuels loss of gasification reactivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the perspective of the internationally established state-of-art, the paper surveys the contribution of Italian research groups in the development of the most advanced and environmentally compatible technologies for power generation from solid fuels and based on gasification or combustion at sub- or nearly-stoichiometric conditions

1999-09-01

197

Material Flow Analysis of Fossil Fuels in China during 2000–2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the relationship between the supply and demand of fossil fuels is on edge in the long run, the contradiction between the economic growth and limited resources will hinder the sustainable development of the Chinese society. This paper aims to analyze the input of fossil fuels in China during 2000–2010 via the material flow analysis (MFA) that takes hidden flows into account. With coal, oil, and natural gas quantified by MFA, three indexes, consumption and supply ratio (C/S ratio), reso...

Wang, Sheng; Dai, Jing; Su, Meirong

2012-01-01

198

Beyond Kyoto :CO2 permit prices and the markets for fossil fuels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyses the markets for fossil fuels given that the limits that the Kyoto Protocol sets on CO2 emissions from Annex B countries extend beyond 2008-2012. To our knowledge we are the first to apply a forward-looking model with endogenous prices for fossil fuels in analysis of specific CO2 emission targets, under different assumptions concerning OPEC behaviour. We calculate both the time-path of the international permit prices needed for the Kyoto targets as well as the implications ...

Lindholt, Lars

1999-01-01

199

Interaction of carbon reduction and green energy promotion in a small fossil-fuel importing economy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the incidence of carbon-reduction and green-energy promotion policies in an open fossil-fuel importing general equilibrium economy. The focus is on mixed price-based or quantity-based policies. Instruments directed toward promoting green energy are shown to reduce also carbon emissions and vice versa. Their direct effects are stronger than their side effects, the more so, the greater is the elasticity of substitution in consumption between energy and the consumption good. We calculate the effects of variations in individual policy parameters, especially on energy prices and welfare costs, and determine the impact of exogenous fossil-fuel price shocks on the economy. (orig.)

2009-08-01

200

Creating a Global Grid of Distributed Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions from Nighttime Satellite Imagery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The potential use of satellite observed nighttime lights for estimating carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions has been demonstrated in several previous studies. However, the procedures for a moderate resolution (1 km2 grid cells) global map of fossil fuel CO2 emissions based on nighttime lights are still in the developmental phase. We report on the development of a method for mapping distributed fossil fuel CO2 emissions (excluding electric power utilities) at 30 arc-seconds or approximately 1 km2 r...

Tilottama Ghosh; Elvidge, Christopher D.; Sutton, Paul C.; Baugh, Kimberly E.; Daniel Ziskin; Tuttle, Benjamin T.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modern food production depends on limited natural resources for providing energy and fertilisers. We assess the fossil fuel dependency for the Danish food production system by means of Food Energy Returned on fossil Energy Invested (Food-EROI and by the use of energy intensive nutrients from imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing and transportation, 0.25 J of food energy is produced; 0.28 when crediting for produced bioenergy. Furthermore, nutrients in commercial fertiliser and imported feed account for 84%, 90% and 90% of total supply of N, P and K, respectively. We conclude that the system is unsustainable because it is embedded in a highly fossil fuel dependent system based on a non-circular flow of nutrients. As energy and thus nutrient constraints may develop in the coming decades, the current system may need to adapt by reducing use of fossil energy at the farm and for transportation of food and feed. An operational strategy may be to relocalise the supply of energy, nutrients, feed and food.

Hanne Østergård

2013-08-01

202

Market power in the market for greenhouse gas emission permits - the interplay with the fossil fuel markets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol is likely to leave Russia and other Eastern European countries with market power in the market for emission permits. Ceteris paribus, this will raise the permit price above the competitive permit price. However, Russia is also a large exporter of fossil fuels. A high price on emission permits may lower the producer price on fossil fuels. Thus, if Russia co-ordinates its permit market and fossil fuel market policies, market power will not necessarily lead to a higher permit price. Fossil fuel producers may also exert market power in the permit market, provided they conceive the permit price to be influenced by their production volumes. If higher volumes drive up the permit price Russian fuel producers may become more aggressive relative to their competitors in the fuel markets. If the sale of fuels is co-ordinated with the sale of permits. The result is reversed if high fuel production drives the permit price down. (Author)

2002-01-01

203

Review of nuclear sources of non-fossil chemical fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High energy radiation from nuclear fission can be utilized either directly as fission fragment energy in a chemonuclear reactor or indirectly as neutron, gamma, and beta energy from isotopic sources. The two basic fuels that can be generated are hydrogen from water and carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide from carbon dioxide. Nuclear based electrical energy derived from standard steam and gas power cycles or from more advanced cycles such as MHD can be utilized to power electrolytic cells or electric discharges. In electrolytic cells, water can be used as a primary source of fuel or converted to a number of other fuels including ammonia, methanol, methane, hydrazine, acetylene, and others.

Steinberg, M.

1972-01-01

204

Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model's parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed

1992-01-01

205

Steam-reforming of fossil fuels and wastes to produce energy and chemicals without greenhouse gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Worldwide concern has demanded a re-examination of the energy- and chemical-producing plants that use fossil fuel sources and release large quantities of greenhouse gases. Plant retrofits with steam-reformer/gasifiers will increase plant efficiencies, improve economics and avoid releasing troublesome amounts of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide. In this paper, the authors describe and illustrate the several new steam-reforming/gasification plants that are processing waste streams and fossil fuels. These plants range in size from 1 ton/day to 2,000 tons/day. They are commercial and economically successful. These new concepts can be used to both upgrade fossil plants for improved economics while eliminating the release of greenhouse gases. By aggressively retrofitting old coal plants and sequestering CO{sub 2}, a 15% reduction in 1990 CO{sub 2} emissions can be met by the US by 2010.

Galloway, T.R.

1998-07-01

206

Environmental review for the conversion of Bellefonte Nuclear Plant to fossil fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Tennessee Valley Authority recently issued for public review a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the conversion of the unfinished Bellefonte Nuclear Plant to fossil fuel. The DEIS was structured to support three tiers of decision making. Tier 1 is to decide between the No-Action Alternative, which is to leave Bellefonte as a partially completed nuclear plant into the indefinite future, and the Proposed Action Alternative, which is to proceed with converting Bellefonte to fossil fuel. Tier 2 is to select one of five conversion options. In the DEIS, TVA indicated no preference among the five competing fossil conversion options. The five conversion pathways would fully repower the plant consistent with fossil fuel availability, would use commercially ready systems and technologies and be designed to fully utilize the capacity of transmission lines serving Bellefonte. Conversion options addressed were pulverized coal (PC), natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), IGCC with joint production of electricity and chemicals, and an option, which combines elements of NGCC and IGCC with coproduction. Tier 3 involves decisions about eight sub-option choices, basically types of processes, equipment, and modes of operation, which is part of two or more conversion options. An example of a sub-option choice would be the type of gasifier that would be used in conversion options involving coal or petroleum coke gasification. Other sub-option choices addressed in the DEIS were natural gas pipeline corridors; fuels, feedstocks, and by-products transportation modes; types of combustion turbines; solid fuels; types of boilers for conventional coal-fired options; chemical production mixes; and modes of onsite solid fuel conveyance. The impact of constructing and operating each proposed fossil conversion option at Bellefonte were evaluated for 18 environmental resource and economic categories.

Carter, R.; Rucker, H.; Summers, R.

1998-07-01

207

High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quantification of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO{sub 2} measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of {approx}100 km{sup 2} and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the 'Vulcan' inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km{sup 2} and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product, completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions. Comparison to the global 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach.

Gurney, Kevin R.; Mendoza, Daniel L.; Zhou, Yuyu; Fischer, Marc L.; Miller, Chris C.; Geethakumar, Sarath; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2009-03-19

208

Fossils harbor climate clues and fuel debate over glacier stability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf near McMurdo Station in Antarctica, scientists have discovered fossils of well preserved wood and a mixture of microscopic marine organisms, dating from the Eocene epoch. This discovery promises significant clues to the onset of glaciation in Antarctica. Geologists believe that this discovery may shed light on Antarctica's link to world climate and help predict future climatic change. Debate centers around when glaciation first became extensive, 15 or 20 million years ago, and whether or not the ice sheet was dynamic and responsive to small fluctuations in climate or stable and able to lock up massive amounts of the world's water. 7 refs.

1993-06-01

209

Optimization of low sulfur jerusalem artichoke juice for fossil fuels biodesulfurization process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most of the world’s energy is generated from the burning of fossil fuels such as oil and its derivatives. When burnt, these fuels release into the atmosphere volatile organic compounds, sulfur as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and the fine particulate matter of metal sulfates. These are pollutants which can be responsible for bronchial irritation, asthma attacks, cardio-pulmonary diseases and lung cancer mortality, and they also contribute for the occurrence of acid rains and the increase of the hole...

2013-01-01

210

Impacts of Wind and Solar on Fossil-Fueled Generators: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High penetrations of wind and solar power will impact the operations of the remaining generators on the power system. Regional integration studies have shown that wind and solar may cause fossil-fueled generators to cycle on and off and ramp down to part load more frequently and potentially more rapidly. Increased cycling, deeper load following, and rapid ramping may result in wear-and-tear impacts on fossil-fueled generators that lead to increased capital and maintenance costs, increased equivalent forced outage rates, and degraded performance over time. Heat rates and emissions from fossil-fueled generators may be higher during cycling and ramping than during steady-state operation. Many wind and solar integration studies have not taken these increased cost and emissions impacts into account because data have not been available. This analysis considers the cost and emissions impacts of cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generation to refine assessments of wind and solar impacts on the power system.

Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Agan, D.; Lefton, S.

2012-08-01

211

Potential high temperature corrosion problems due to co-firing of biomass and fossil fuels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the past few years, considerable high temperature corrosion problems have been encountered when firing biomass in power plants due to the high content of potassium chloride in the deposits. Therefore, to combat chloride corrosion problems cofiring of biomass with a fossil fuel has been undertaken. This results in potassium chloride being converted to potassium sulphate in the

Montgomery, Melanie; Vilhelmsen, T.; Jensen, S. A.

2009-01-01

212

Comprehensive exergetic and economic comparison of PWR and hybrid fossil fuel-PWR power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A typical 1000 MW Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant and two similar hybrid 1000 MW PWR plants operate with natural gas and coal fired fossil fuel superheater-economizers (Hybrid PWR-Fossil fuel plants) are compared exergetically and economically. Comparison is performed based on energetic and economic features of three systems. In order to compare system at their optimum operating point, three workable base case systems including the conventional PWR, and gas and coal fired hybrid PWR-Fossil fuel power plants considered and optimized in exergetic and exergoeconomic optimization scenarios, separately. The thermodynamic modeling of three systems is performed based on energy and exergy analyses, while an economic model is developed according to the exergoeconomic analysis and Total Revenue Requirement (TRR) method. The objective functions based on exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses are developed. The exergetic and exergoeconomic optimizations are performed using the Genetic Algorithm (GA). Energetic and economic features of exergetic and exergoeconomic optimized conventional PWR and gas and coal fired Hybrid PWR-Fossil fuel power plants are compared and discussed comprehensively.

2010-07-01

213

Energy 3: Fossil Fuel Use and its Consequences - The Carbon Cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

This video goes through the carbon cycle and describes how using fossil fuels threatens the foundation of the aquatic global food chain. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.

Vanasupa, Linda

214

New improved standard for electron probe determination of organic sulfur in fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on petroleum coke that is stable under an electron beam and contains a uniform sulfur content. Hence, it is a suitable standard for analysis of organic sulfur content of coal. It should be as applicable for analysis of organic sulfur in other fossil fuels. This standard is available for distribution.

Harris, L.A.; Raymond, R. Jr.; Gooley, R.

1980-01-01

215

FEASIBILITY STUDY OF COPROCESSING OF FOSSIL FUELS WITH BIOMASS BY THE HYDROCARB PROCESS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes and gives results of an assessment of a new process concept for the production of carbon and methanol from fossil fuels. he Hydrocarb Process consists of the hydrogasification of carbonaceous material to produce methane, which is subsequently thermally decomp...

216

EPA/IFP EUROPEAN WORKSHOP ON THE EMISSION ON NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION  

Science.gov (United States)

The report summarizes the proceedings of an EPA/Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) cosponsored workshop addressing direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from fossil fuel combustion. The third in a series, it was held at the IFP in Rueil-Malmaison, France, on June 1-2, 1988. Increas...

217

Fossil and non-fossil solid fuels loss of gasification reactivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the perspective of the internationally established state-of-art, the paper surveys the contribution of Italian research groups in the development of the most advanced and environmentally compatible technologies for power generation from solid fuels and based on gasification or combustion at sub- or nearly-stoichiometric conditions. [Italian] Il lavoro passa in rassegna le ricerche dei gruppi italiani impegnati nello sviluppo delle tecnologie piu' avanzate e a piu basso impatto ambientale per la generazione di potenza a partire dall'impiego di combustibili solidi e basate su processi di gassificazione o di combustione a condizione substechiometriche o prossime allo stechiometrico. Si analizza anche il quadro piu' generale dello stato delle conoscenze acquisite dalla ricerca internazionale.

Salatino, P.; Senneca, O. [Neaples Univ. Federico Secondo, Neaples (Italy). Dipt. di Ingneria Chimica; COnsiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Neaples (Italy). Ist. di Ricerche sulla Combustione; Tognotti, L. [PIsa Univ., Pisa (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica

1999-09-01

218

Co-combustion of Fossil Fuels and Waste  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Ph.D. thesis deals with the alternative and high efficiency methods of using waste-derived fuels in heat and power production. The focus is on the following subjects: 1) co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel (SRF) under pulverized fuel combustion conditions; 2) dust-firing of straw and the utilization of a waste-derived material as an additive; 3) the combustion of a biomass residue rich in phosphorus. Co-combustion of coal and SRF was conducted in an entrained flow reactor (EFR). The work revealed that when coal was co-fired with up to 25 wt% SRF, the burnout and the emissions of SO2 and NO were decreased with increasing share of SRF, probably due to the combustion characteristics of the SRF and/or the interactions between the SRF and the coal in co-combustion. The Cl content in the fly ash was very low (

Wu, Hao

2011-01-01

219

Assessment of industrial applications for fuel cell cogeneration systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The fuel cell energy systems are designed with and without a utility connection for emergency back-up power. Sale of electricity to the utility during periods of low plant demand is not considered. For each of the three industrial applications, conceptual designs were also developed for conventional utility systems relying on purchased electric power and fossil-fired boilers for steam/hot water. The capital investment for each energy system is estimated. Annual operating costs are also determined for each system. These cost estimates are converted to levelized annual costs by applying appropriate economic factors. The breakeven electricity price that would make fuel cell systems competitive with the conventional systems is plotted as a function of naphtha price. The sensitivity of the breakeven point to capital investment and coal price is also evaluated.

Stickles, R. P.; Oneill, J. K.; Smith, E. H.

1978-01-01

220

Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Modern food production depends on limited natural resources for providing energy and fertilisers. We assess the fossil fuel dependency for the Danish food production system by means of Food Energy Returned on fossil Energy Invested (Food-EROI) and by the use of energy intensive nutrients from imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing and transportation, 0.25 J of food energy is produced; 0.28 when crediting for produced bioenergy. Furthermore, nutrients in commercial fertiliser and imported feed account for 84%, 90% and 90% of total supply of N, P and K, respectively. We conclude that the system is unsustainable because it is embedded in a highly fossil fuel dependent system based on a non-circular flow of nutrients. As energy and thus nutrient constraints may develop in the coming decades, the current system may need to adapt by reducing use of fossilenergy at the farm and for transportation of food and feed. An operational strategy may be to relocalise the supply of energy, nutrients, feed and food.

Markussen, Mads Ville; �stergård, Hanne

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Global environmental implications of fossil fuels as an energy source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The most serious challenge facing the coal industry today is that of global atmospheric change, especially global warming. This paper discusses the basics of the 'greenhouse effect', how governments are dealing with this issue, and an environmental action plan currently being developed in Canada. 6 figs.

Reid, J.D. (Environment Canada (Canada). Atmospheric Environment Services)

1989-12-01

222

Technical considerations in repowering a nuclear plant for fossil fueled operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Repowering involves replacement of the reactor by a fossil fuel source of steam. This source can be a conventional fossil fueled boiler or the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) on a gas turbine exhaust. The existing steam turbine plant is used to the extent possible. Alternative fuels for repowering a nuclear plant are coal, natural gas and oil. In today's world oil is not usually an alternative. Selection of coal or natural gas is largely a matter of availability of the fuel near the location of the plant. Both the fossil boiler and the HRSG produce steam at higher pressures and temperatures than the throttle conditions for a saturated steam nuclear turbine. It is necessary to match the steam conditions from the new source to the existing turbine as closely as possible. Technical approaches to achieve a match range from using a topping turbine at the front end of the cycle to attemperation of the throttle steam with feedwater. The electrical output from the repowered plant is usually greater than that of the original nuclear fueled design. This requires consideration of the ability to use the excess electricity. Interfacing of the new facility with the existing turbine plant requires consideration of facility layout and design. Site factors must also be considered, especially for a coal fired boiler, since rail and coal handling facilities must be added to a site for which these were not considered. Additional site factors that require consideration are ash handling and disposal

1996-03-10

223

Applications of the thermogravimetric analysis in the study of fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of coal and resid liquids and coal and resid solid residues, produced in coal liquefaction and coal- derived resid hydroprocessing in SCTBR (short contact time batch reactor), provides a sensitive, rapid, reproducible means of studying kinetics and mechanisms of fossil fuel conversion processes. SimDis TGA and custom built TGA system for distillation provide unique means to characterize liquid fuels for boiling point distribution. TGA provides information about various weight loss processes that can be a reflection of physical and chemical structure of fossil fuel samples. This technique can also yield TG scanning parameters, such as volatile matter, fixed carbon, ash, etc., for monitoring the conversion processes. One example is onset and rate of retrograde reactions during coal liquefaction.

Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie; Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

1996-12-31

224

N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship, on a global basis, between the amount of N fixed by chemical, biological or atmospheric processes entering the terrestrial biosphere, and the total emission of nitrous oxide (N2O, has been re-examined, using known global atmospheric removal rates and concentration growth of N2O as a proxy for overall emissions. The relationship, in both the pre-industrial period and in recent times, after taking into account the large-scale changes in synthetic N fertiliser production and deforestation, is consistent, showing an overall conversion factor of 3–5%. This factor is covered only in part by the ~1% of "direct" emissions from agricultural crop lands estimated by IPCC (2006, or the "indirect" emissions cited therein. This means that the extra N2O entering the atmosphere as a result of using N to produce crops for biofuels will also be correspondingly greater than that estimated just on the basis of IPCC (2006. When the extra N2O emission from biofuel production is calculated in "CO2-equivalent" global warming terms, and compared with the quasi-cooling effect of "saving" emissions of fossil fuel derived CO2, the outcome is that the production of commonly used biofuels, such as biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from corn (maize, can contribute as much or more to global warming by N2O emissions than cooling by fossil fuel savings. Crops with less N demand, such as grasses and woody coppice species have more favourable climate impacts. This analysis only considers the conversion of biomass to biofuel. It does not take into account the use of fossil fuel on the farms and for fertilizer and pesticide production, but it also neglects the production of useful co-products. Both factors partially compensate each other. This needs to be analyzed in a full life cycle assessment.

A. R. Mosier

2007-08-01

225

Fossil fuels in a changing climate: how to protect the world's climate by ending the use of coal, oil and gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of analysis conducted for Greenpeace reported in this document show that contrary to the message from the fossil fuel industries and some governments, that future energy security is dependent on a continuing increase in the use of oil, coal, gas and nuclear energy, it is not only possible to phase out the use of fossil fuels but this is also achievable in a relatively short timescale. The analysis was based on the computer modelling of energy technologies and policies, linked to the related impact on the world's climate. In the analysis, global carbon dioxide emissions from world fossil fuel use fall by more than 50% within 40 years, and 100% by the year 2100. The phase-out of fossil fuels is made possible by the rapid implementation of energy efficiency, together with extensive use of clean renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass, small-scale hydro and geothermal power. Renewable energy currently delivering 14% of global energy supply, could provide more than 60% by 2030, and all the world's energy needs by 2100. Nuclear power could be phased out by 2100. Greenpeace believes that new policies are needed to see the world on the path of a cleaner energy future. Strong protocols are needed to the international climate convention to set targets on energy efficiency and reneable energy for signatory countries as well as providing funding to allow the south to participate effectively

1994-01-01

226

Timing is everything : along the fossil fuel transition pathway.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

People save for retirement throughout their career because it is virtually impossible to save all you'll need in retirement the year before you retire. Similarly, without installing incremental amounts of clean fossil, renewable or transformative energy technologies throughout the coming decades, a radical and immediate change will be near impossible the year before a policy goal is set to be in place. Therefore, our research question is,To meet our desired technical and policy goals, what are the factors that affect the rate we must install technology to achieve these goals in the coming decades?' Existing models do not include full regulatory constraints due to their often complex, and inflexible approaches to solve foroptimal' engineering instead ofrobust' and multidisciplinary solutions. This project outlines the theory and then develops an applied software tool to model the laboratory-to-market transition using the traditional technology readiness level (TRL) framework, but develops subsequent and a novel regulatory readiness level (RRL) and market readiness level (MRL). This tool uses the ideally-suited system dynamics framework to incorporate feedbacks and time delays. Future energy-economic-environment models, regardless of their programming platform, may adapt this software model component framework ormodule' to further vet the likelihood of new or innovative technology moving through the laboratory, regulatory and market space. The prototype analytical framework and tool, called the Technology, Regulatory and Market Readiness Level simulation model (TRMsim) illustrates the interaction between technology research, application, policy and market dynamics as they relate to a new or innovative technology moving from the theoretical stage to full market deployment. The initial results that illustrate the model's capabilities indicate for a hypothetical technology, that increasing the key driver behind each of the TRL, RRL and MRL components individually decreases the time required for the technology to progress through each component by 63, 68 and 64%, respectively. Therefore, under the current working assumptions, to decrease the time it may take for a technology to move from the conceptual stage to full scale market adoption one might consider expending additional effort to secure regulatory approval and reducing the uncertainty of the technology's demand in the marketplace.

Kobos, Peter Holmes; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Malczynski, Leonard A.

2013-10-01

227

World energy demand: a continuing role for fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors reviews world energy damand, focusing on the Asia-Pacific region which holds most interest for Australian energy exports, mainly of steam coal for electricity generation and form liquefied natural gas. Actions that Australia needs to take to successfully capitalise on its position as an important supplier of energy to Asia are discussed. These include the need for competitiveness through best practice and continuous improvement, improving safety, reducing heavy tax and other government imports on the industry, developing clean coal combustion techniques, and investing in energy efficiency. 8 figs.

Charlton, R. [Shell Australia Limited (Australia)

1994-12-31

228

Sources of variation in ?13C of fossil fuel emissions in Salt Lake City, USA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The isotopic composition of fossil fuels is an important component of many studies of C sources and sinks based on atmospheric measurements of CO2. In C budget studies, the isotopic composition of crude petroleum and CH4 are often used as a proxy for the isotopic composition of CO2 emissions from combustion. In this study, the C isotope composition (?13C) of exhaust from the major fossil fuel emission sources in Salt Lake City, USA, was characterized with 159 measurements of vehicle exhaust of various types and eight measurements of residential furnace exhaust. These two sources were found to be isotopically distinct, and differed from global-scale estimates based on average values for crude petroleum and CH4. Vehicle-specific factors such as engine load and operation time had no effect on ?13C of vehicle exhaust. A small difference was found between the mean ?13C of vehicle exhaust collected randomly from different vehicles and the mean ?13C of gasoline collected from multiple fueling stations representing major gasoline distributors in Salt Lake City and the surrounding area. However, a paired comparison of ?13C of exhaust and gasoline for six different vehicles did not show any consistent C isotope fractionation during vehicle combustion. The mean ?13C of crude petroleum processed for local distribution differed slightly from refined gasoline collected at multiple fueling stations, but time lags between processing and transportation cannot be ruled out as an uncontrollable contributing factor. Measured isotope ratios were then combined with fuel consumption statistics to predict the annual cycle of ?13C of fossil fuel emissions for the Salt Lake City metropolitan area. The results showed that the isotopic composition of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion varied by almost 3 per mille over the course of the 2002 calendar year. This study illustrates that on a regional scale, the isotopic composition of fossil fuel emissions shows a high degree of both spatial and temporal variability that may influence characterization of C sources and sinks with atmospheric measurements

2007-04-01

229

Nuclear activation methods for the characterization of fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review is presented on the use of neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the analyses of coal, oil shale, tar sands and petroleum. Fast NAA has been widely used for the determination of oxygen, and to a limited extent, of other elements such as nitrogen and silicon. Reactor NAA followed by instrumental counting, and in specific cases, after radiochemical separations is discussed. Thermal and epithermal neutrons are both used. Limited use of the /sup 252/Cf source has been made in fuel analysis. A complementary technique to NAA is the photon activation analysis with linear accelerator. It can determine over thirty elements, many of them not possible to do by NAA. Round-robin analyses of standard coal, fly ash, or oil shale samples indicate that nuclear activation methods are comparable in accuracy and precision to X-ray fluorescence or atomic spectrometric methods for most elements.

Nadkarni, R.A. (Exxon, Research and Engineering Co., Baytown TX (USA))

1984-10-01

230

Diagnosis of Heat Exchanger Tube Failure in Fossil Fuel Boilers Through Estimation of Steady State Operating Conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimation of operating conditions for fossil fuel boiler heat exchangers is often required due to changes in working conditions, design modifications and especially for monitoring performance and failure diagnosis. Regular heat exchangers in fossil fuel boilers are composed of tube banks through which water or steam flow, while hot combustion (flue) gases flow outside the tubes. This work presents a top-down approach to operating conditions estimation based on field measurements. An example for a 350 MW unit superheater is thoroughly discussed. Integral calculations based on measurements for all unit heat exchangers (reheaters, superheaters) were performed first. Based on these calculations a scheme of integral conservation equations (lumped parameter) was then formulated at the single tube level. Steady state temperatures of superheater tube walls were obtained as a main output, and were compared to the maximum allowable operating temperatures of the tubes material. A combined lumped parameter - CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics, FLUENT code) approach constitutes an efficient tool in certain cases. A brief report of such a case is given for another unit superheater. We conclude that steady state evaluations based on both integral and detailed simulations are a valuable monitoring and diagnosis tool for the power generation industry

1998-05-19

231

Analysis of the uncertainty associated with national fossil fuel CO2 emissions datasets for use in the global Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS) and carbon budgets  

Science.gov (United States)

High resolution quantification of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions has become essential in research aimed at understanding the global carbon cycle and supporting the verification of international agreements on greenhouse gas emission reductions. The Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS) was used to estimate global fossil fuel carbon emissions at 0.25 degree from 1992 to 2010. FFDAS quantifies CO2 emissions based on areal population density, per capita economic activity, energy intensity and carbon intensity. A critical constraint to this system is the estimation of national-scale fossil fuel CO2 emissions disaggregated into economic sectors. Furthermore, prior uncertainty estimation is an important aspect of the FFDAS. Objective techniques to quantify uncertainty for the national emissions are essential. There are several institutional datasets that quantify national carbon emissions, including British Petroleum (BP), the International Energy Agency (IEA), the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC). These four datasets have been "harmonized" by Jordan Macknick for inter-comparison purposes (Macknick, Carbon Management, 2011). The harmonization attempted to generate consistency among the different institutional datasets via a variety of techniques such as reclassifying into consistent emitting categories, recalculating based on consistent emission factors, and converting into consistent units. These harmonized data form the basis of our uncertainty estimation. We summarized the maximum, minimum and mean national carbon emissions for all the datasets from 1992 to 2010. We calculated key statistics highlighting the remaining differences among the harmonized datasets. We combine the span (max - min) of datasets for each country and year with the standard deviation of the national spans over time. We utilize the economic sectoral definitions from IEA to disaggregate the national total emission into specific sectors required by FFDAS. Our results indicated that although the harmonization performed by Macknick generates better agreement among datasets, significant differences remain at national total level. For example, the CO2 emission span for most countries range from 10% to 12%; BP is generally the highest of the four datasets while IEA is typically the lowest; The US and China had the highest absolute span values but lower percentage span values compared to other countries. However, the US and China make up nearly one-half of the total global absolute span quantity. The absolute span value for the summation of national differences approaches 1 GtC/year in 2007, almost one-half of the biological "missing sink". The span value is used as a potential bias in a recalculation of global and regional carbon budgets to highlight the importance of fossil fuel CO2 emissions in calculating the missing sink. We conclude that if the harmonized span represents potential bias, calculations of the missing sink through forward budget or inverse approaches may be biased by nearly a factor of two.

Song, Y.; Gurney, K. R.; Rayner, P. J.; Asefi-Najafabady, S.

2012-12-01

232

More diesel generation could further fossil fuel economy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following the introduction last year of their Seahorse medium-speed diesel engine, the manufacturers, Hawthorn Leslie (Engineers) Ltd., of Newcastle upon Tyne, have made an extensive analysis of the resource effectiveness of diesel-driven generating sets. Though directed towards the raising of funds to construct a demonstration power plant in the UK, the analysis is relevant elsewhere. In addition, the firm has now developed an energy recovery package for use with the basic engine to further improve the overall thermal efficiency of the system. Looked at in a British context, the basis of Hawthorn Leslie's case is this. The importance of coal in electicity generation is evidence of its value as a national resource. Now that North Sea oil has emerged as a national energy resource, it must be used to the greatest effect; this means building diesel power stations to take over the mid-load cycle of utility operations. The analysis compares five prime movers: gas turbines, diesel engines, and steam turbines powered by oil- or coal-fired boilers, or thermal reactors. Capital and fixed running costs are shown. The diesel engine is the most efficient prime mover for electricity generation. With this novel energy recovery principle, greater utilization of fuel energy can be realized if direct heating is not required. (MCW)

Jeffs, E.

1976-05-01

233

Renewable energy potential as an alternative to fossil fuels in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Clean, domestic and renewable energy is commonly accepted as the key for future life, not only for Turkey but also for the world. All nations, regardless of their degree of development, are trying to develop and apply technologies that will enable them to use renewable energy sources in the most efficient way. Turkey`s geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these sources. Because of this and the fact that it has limited fossil fuel resources, a gradual shift from fossil fuels to renewables seems to be serious and the sole alternative for the country. Turkey`s renewable energy source potential and their present use are here evaluated based on the available data. (author)

Ediger, V.S. [Turkish Petroleum Corp., Ankara (Turkey); Kentel, E. [Nigde University, Aksaray (Turkey). Aksaray Engineering Faculty

1999-05-01

234

Applications of biotechnology in the fossil fuel sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented of the effects of micoorganisms on petroleum industry operations and on the potentially significant applications of biotechnology in that sector. Detrimental aspects of microbial activity include the biodegradation of petroleum products and petrochemical products, microbially influenced corrosion, and microbial souring of oil reservoirs by sulfate reducing bacteria. Beneficial aspects include microbially enhanced oil recovery, the mapping of the presence of ethane oxidizing bacteria as an exploration tool, the use of bacterial systems for plugging during hydraulic fracturing, microbially stimulated oil production, microbial dewaxing, use of biopolymers such as xanthan in drilling muds, microbial surfactants and emulsifiers for use in pipelining of viscous oils, microbial upgrading of oil, manufacture of biodegradable products, and bioremediation of contaminated sites. Microbially enhanced oil recovery technologies, well and tank cleaning operations based on microbial formulations, and microbial-based well stimulation and cleaning operations have already reached field trial success, with commercial success in several cases. The hottest area of application in the 1990s will undoubtedly be in the area of biological remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites and emissions. 39 refs

1993-10-28

235

Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project was to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. A family of hydrogen separation membranes was developed including single phase mixed conducting ceramics, ceramic/ceramic composites, cermet membranes, cermet membranes containing a hydrogen permeable metal, and intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. Each membrane type had different operating parameters, advantages, and disadvantages that were documented over the course of the project. Research on these membranes progressed from ceramics to cermets to intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. During this progression performance was increased from 0.01 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2} up to 423 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2}. Eltron and team membranes not only developed each membrane type, but also membrane surface catalysis and impurity tolerance, creation of thin film membranes, alternative applications such as membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation, demonstration of scale-up testing, and complete engineering documentation including process and mechanical considerations necessary for inclusion of Eltron membranes in a full scale integrated gasification combined cycle power plant. The results of this project directly led to a new $15 million program funded by the Department of Energy. This new project will focus exclusively on scale-up of this technology as part of the FutureGen initiative.

Carl R. Evenson; Shane E. Roark

2006-03-31

236

Nitrogen compounds in pressurised fluidised bed gasification of biomass and fossil fuels:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fossil fuels still dominate the energy supply in modern societies. The resources, however, are depleting. Therefore, other energy sources are to be exploited further within this century. Biomass is one of the practically CO2 neutral, renewable contributors to the future energy production. Nowadays many modern, high efficiency (combined) power and heat producing systems using biomass are or become commercially available. One promising route to efficient power and heat supply is the Integrated ...

2005-01-01

237

SOME POSSIBILITIES OF USING BIOGAS AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO FOSSIL FUELS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In present time, the global energy production is mostly dependant on the fossil sources of energy (oil, natural gases and coals). Compared to classic fuels, biogas resulted from anaerobe digestion is permanently renewable, because it is obtained  of biomass. As a result, the biogas produced through anaerobe digestion will not only improve the energetic balance of one country, but it will bring an important contribution on preserving natural resources and improving the environmental co...

Mariana Dumitru; Mirela Stanciu; Marius Bibu

2013-01-01

238

The UK non-fossil-fuel obligation - only helping the easy winners  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After reviewing the factual status of the renewable energy projects which have formed part of the non fossil fuel obligation within the UK Electricity Act of 1989, it is argued that most success in stimulating renewable technologies has been obtained for those with relatively few hurdles to overcome such as sewage gas and landfill gas. Specific criticisms are made which future renewable energy tranches could overcome. (UK).

Anon.

1992-07-31

239

Spatial relationships of sector-specific fossil fuel CO2 emissions in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantification of the spatial distribution of sector-specific fossil fuel CO2 emissions provides strategic information to public and private decision makers on climate change mitigation options and can provide critical constraints to carbon budget studies being performed at the national to urban scales. This study analyzes the spatial distribution and spatial drivers of total and sectoral fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the state and county levels in the United States. The spatial patterns of absolute versus per capita fossil fuel CO2 emissions differ substantially and these differences are sector-specific. Area-based sources such as those in the residential and commercial sectors are driven by a combination of population and surface temperature with per capita emissions largest in the northern latitudes and continental interior. Emission sources associated with large individual manufacturing or electricity producing facilities are heterogeneously distributed in both absolute and per capita metrics. The relationship between surface temperature and sectoral emissions suggests that the increased electricity consumption due to space cooling requirements under a warmer climate may outweigh the savings generated by lessened space heating. Spatial cluster analysis of fossil fuel CO2 emissions confirms that counties with high (low) CO2 emissions tend to be clustered close to other counties with high (low) CO2 emissions and some of the spatial clustering extends to multistate spatial domains. This is particularly true for the residential and transportation sectors, suggesting that emissions mitigation policy might best be approached from the regional or multistate perspective. Our findings underscore the potential for geographically focused, sector-specific emissions mitigation strategies and the importance of accurate spatial distribution of emitting sources when combined with atmospheric monitoring via aircraft, satellite and in situ measurements.

Zhou, Yuyu; Gurney, Kevin Robert

2011-09-01

240

Pareto optimality in the extraction of fossil fuels and the greenhouse effect: a note  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This note generalizes the Solow-Stiglitz efficiency condition for natural resources to the problem of fossil fuel extraction with a greenhouse effect. The generalized optimality condition suggests that the greenhouse effect implies overextraction in the sense of leaving future generations a wrongly composed wealth portfolio with too few natural resources relative to man-made capital. This judgment is independent of society?s ethical preferences concerning the well-being of future generat...

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Potential high temperature corrosion problems due to co-firing of biomass and fossil fuels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the past years, considerable high temperature corrosion problems have been encountered when firing biomass in power plants due to the high content of potassium chloride in the deposits. Therefore to combat chloride corrosion problems co-firing of biomass with a fossil fuel has been undertaken. This results in potassium chloride being converted to potassium sulphate in the combustion chamber and it is sulphate rich deposits that are deposited on the vulnerable metallic surf...

Montgomery, Melanie; Vilhelmsen, T.; Jensen, S. A.

2008-01-01

242

Fossil fuel extraction and climate policy: A review of the green paradox with endogenous resource exploration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Policies aimed at reducing emissions from fossil fuels may increase climate damages. This Green Paradox emerges if resource owners increase near-term extraction in fear of stricter future policy measures. Hans-Werner Sinn (2008) showed that the paradox occurs when increasing resource taxes are applied within a basic exhaustible resource model. This article highlights that the emergence of the Green Paradox within this framework relies on the non-existence of a backstop technology and fixed fo...

O?sterle, Ines

2012-01-01

243

Comparative studies on Ar and He closed-cycle MHD power plants combined with fossil fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Comparative studies on Ar and He closed-cycle MHD power plants combined with fossil fuel are performed. The sizes of a regenerative heat exchanger and a boiler are expected to be smaller for He than for Ar. The pressure loss of a working gas in a regenerative heat exchanger is reduced for He. The purification subsystem for He is expected to be more compact and economical than that for Ar; but a larger compressor is required for He than for Ar. (author)

1985-01-01

244

Efficient management of insecure fossil fuel Imports through taxing (!) domestic green energy?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A small open economy produces a consumer good, green and black energy, and imports fossil fuel at an uncertain price. Unregulated competitive markets are shown to be inefficient. The implied market failures are due to the agents' attitudes toward risk, to risk shifting and the uniform price for both types of energy. Under the plausible assumptions that consumers are prudent and at least as risk averse as the producers of black energy, the risk can be efficiently managed by taxing emissions an...

Eichner, Thomas; Pethig, Ru?diger

2010-01-01

245

Interaction of carbon reduction and green energy promotion in a small fossil-fuel importing economy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the incidence of carbon-reduction and green-energy promotion policies in a general equilibrium small open economy that depends on imports of fossil fuels. The focus is on mixed policies that are either price based (emissions taxes and producer price subsidies for green energy) or quantity based (schemes of trading emissions and green certificates). Policy instruments directed head-on toward promoting green energy are shown to also reduce carbon emissions and vice versa but the direct...

Pethig, Ru?diger; Wittlich, Christian

2009-01-01

246

Social Costs of Air Pollution and Fossil Fuel Use – A Macroeconomic Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Economic activity and environmental conditions are related to each other in several ways. Production and consumption may pollute the environment, and at the same time the state of the environment may affect the production capacity of the economy. Thus, it follows that studying social costs of air pollution should be handled within an integrated model. Moreover, air pollution mostly stems from the use of fossil fuels, which also brings about other non-environmental externalities, particularly ...

Rosendahl, Knut Einar

1998-01-01

247

The influence of economic growth, population, and fossil fuel scarcity on energy investments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the dynamics of energy investments and clean energy Research and Development (R&D) using a scenario-based modeling approach. Starting from the global scenarios proposed in the RoSE model ensemble experiment, we analyze the dynamics of investments under different assumptions regarding economic and population growth as well as availability of fossil fuel resources, in the absence of a climate policy. Our analysis indicates that economic growth and the speed of income converg...

Cian, Enrica; Sferra, Fabio; Tavoni, Massimo

2013-01-01

248

Efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation: Data selection and trends  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper studies patenting dynamics in efficiency improving electricity generation technologies as an important indicator of innovation activity. We build a novel database of worldwide patent applications in efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation and then analyse patenting trends over time and across countries. We find that patenting has mostly been stable over time, with a recent decreasing trend. OECD countries represent the top innovators and the top mar...

Lanzi, Elisa; Verdolini, Elena; Hae?scic, Ivan

2011-01-01

249

The industrial production of fuel elements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors deal successively with the industrial production of fuel elements for power reactors of the natural uranium-graphite-gas type, and more particularly for the EDF power stations, and with the industrial production of fuel elements containing enriched uranium designed for swimming-pool type reactors. 1. part: advanced fuel elements for the EDF reactors. After recalling the characteristics of the fuel elements now being produced industrially for the Marcoule and Chinon reactors, the authors give the various steps leading to the industrial production of a new type of fuel element both as concerns the can, and in certain cases the graphite sleeve, and the fuel itself. As for as the production of the fuel is concerned, they describe the various operations, stressing the original aspects of the production and of the equipment such as: - casting in hot moulds, - thermal treatments, of Uranium containing 1% in weight molybdenum, - welding of the pellets for closing the tubes of uranium, - canning, - controls in the various steps. As far as can production is concerned they show why the extruded can was replaced by a machined can and give a few characteristics of the equipment used as well as the controls effected. They give also some details concerning the production and machining of the sleeves. After recalling the state of the nuclear fuel industry in France in mid-1964 the authors stress the economic aspects of the production of fuel elements. They show the relative importance of capital costs on the cost price of the fuel itself and examine the various items involved. They analyse the cost price of a completed fuel element using present date knowledge. In conclusion the authors show the particular points which should be the subject of future efforts in order to decrease the cost of a production which is perhaps delicate but now will define, and review the development of this new industrial branch. 2. part: industrial production of fuel elements for swimming-pool type reactors. The authors show how the problem of the industrial production of rolled fuel elements has been solved in France, and give the three steps involved: 1 - Assembly of the plates made in the U.S.A., 2 - Rolling of the cores made in the U.S.A. to obtain the plates, 3 - Fabrication of the U-Al alloy and production of the cores. They then recall briefly the characteristics of the different fuel elements now in production. A description is given of the various stages of the production including information about the equipment; stress is laid on the extent of the controls carried out at each stage. In conclusion the authors consider the future development of this type of production taking into account the improvements planned and those which are possible. (authors)

1964-01-01

250

Estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels combustion in the main sectors of selected countries 1971-1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculations of sectoral CO_2 emissions from fossil fuel burning in the period 1971-1990 were done for the 15 countries at the top of the list of nations ordered by decreasing contribution to global emissions, namely: United States of America, Soviet Union, People's Republic of China, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom, India, Poland, Canada, France, Italy, German Democratic Republic, South Africa, Mexico and Czechoslovakia. In addition, the CO_2 emission of two groups of industrialized countries, namely the OECD and the European Economic Community (EEC) were calculated. The main recommendations of the IPCC/OECD current methodology have been adopted for the calculations, with the principal exception that CO_2 emissions from the use of bunker fuels have not been included in the national estimates. The sectors are: 1. Transformations. Total emissions and the part stemming from power plants 2. Industry (excluding Feedstocks) 3. Transportation 4. Agriculture 5. Residential 6. Commerce and Public Services 7. Non-specified Other 8. Non-Energy Use 9. Feedstocks (in Industry). Data are presented in tables and diagrams. (orig./KW)

1993-06-01

251

Model calculations of competing climatic effects of SO2 and CO2 in fossil fuel combustion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fossil fuel combustion has two competing effects on the climate system, a warming due to the emission of CO2 and other trace gases and a cooling due to sulphate particles formed from the SO2 emission. A detailed parameterization of the relationship between fossil fuel burning and the SO2 effect on backscattering and cloud albedo is implemented in a one-dimensional radiative-convective model for assessing the climatic impact. The results show that at present the cooling induced by the combined effect of SO2 completely counteracts the CO2 greenhouse warming. The model predicts that by the year 2060 the SO2-induced cooling reduces warming due to CO2 by 66% in the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) scenario Business-as-Usual (BAU) and by 27% in the IPCC scenario D. Attempts to slow-pace the fossil fuel burning will decrease the SO2 concentration, which could further increase global warming. (author). 26 refs., 7 figs

1995-06-25

252

Environmental impact of fossil fuel utilization in the thermal power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon dioxide causes green house effect, has been considered as a pollutant source of our safe environment. Since combustion of fossil fuel may create tremendous amount of carbon dioxide, detecting any pollutant sources would be important to eliminate the pollution sources. Evaluation of smoke dispersion that has been generated by a power plant utilizing fossil fuel is the objective of this paper. The concentration of NO, and SO, in the soil, have been analyzed from a distance of 3 to 4 km far from power plant. The experimental results shown. that the concentration of toxic gases was a little above the international standards. Replacement of fossil fuel by natural gas caused NO, concentration to be developed in the atmosphere, therefore usage of natural gas is limited by environmental protection agencies. Beside the nuclear power plant, the power generated by other sources. are limited. Electric power generated by water dam is not a major contribution of electric power demand. Therefore generation of electricity by any other energy sources, which are friendly to the environment, is recommended. Other sources of energy, such as wind power, solar energy, geothermal, ocean thennal and renewable source of energy can be considered safe for the environment. The goal of environmental management system would be to meet the minimum requirements were established and demanded by the local environmental protection agency or international standard organization (ISO-14000). (Author)

1999-11-08

253

Clean uses of fossil fuels. Progress performance report, September 29, 1991--January 25, 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Science and engineering doctoral students performing energy related research were supported by a USDOE/ESPCoR Traineeship grant awarded to the Kentucky EPSCoR Committee. The grant, administered by the KY DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee, focused on research having the general description of {open_quotes}Clean Uses of Fossil Fuels{close_quotes}. The value of the grant was $500,000 for three years duration, beginning September 30, 1991 and ending September 29, 1994. Ten PhD students were selected for support during the first year of the Traineeship. Upon reviewing coursework and research progress of the students at the end of the first year, the KY DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee awarded a second year of support at the same $25,000/year funding level. A total of 12 students will have been supported during the duration of the grant as a consequence of one student completing his degree during the support period and of one student deciding that she wanted to complete only a Masters rather than a PhD degree. The students supported were at either the University of Kentucky or the University of Louisville - the two PhD, science and engineering granting universities within the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The disciplines of these students included Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Physics. The methods used for the initial statewide solicitation for student support, the annual review of the students progress for support renewal, and a summary of progress and impact of the awards after two years are presented. It is shown that the Traineeships presented opportunities to: perform high quality research; initiate interactions between different scientific disciplines and departments; develop collaborations at national DOE laboratories, universities outside of Kentucky and industries; and establish research ideas for submittal to funding agencies.

Stencel, J.M.

1994-01-25

254

Alternative fuels in the cement industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper demonstrates some simple ideas by which the cement industry can contribute to a sustainable society by recovering energy from waste streams and by showing that the use of these fuels is an important tool in maintaining a viable business in the UK. (author)

Weller, P. [Castle Cement (United Kingdom)

1998-09-01

255

Evaluation of fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for identification of nitrogen-containing compounds in fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The applicability of fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB/MS) to the analysis of fossil fuel materials has been explored by acquiring FAB mass spectra of 20 nitrogenous bases and a base fraction from anthracene oil.

Grigsby, R.D.

1982-06-01

256

Subsidies to Different Energy Types: Fossil Fuels, Renewables, Nuclear and Biofuels | Global Subsidies Initiative  

... The review highlights the paucity of consistent information and data on subsidies to electricity generation. It also highlights the limitations of global estimates, concluding that robust national estimates are necessary to proceed with further evaluation. Subsidies to Liquid Transport Fuels: A comparative review of estimates 15 September 2011 Subsidies to Liquid Transport Fuels: A comparative review of estimates (PDF - 766.4 KB) The ... The review highlights the paucity of consistent information and data on subsidies to biofuels and conventional transport fuels. It also highlights the limitations of global estimates for subsidies, concluding that robust national estimates are necessary to proceed with further evaluation of subsidies. Navigation Home About Us GSI Team GSI in the News News Subsidy Watch Blog Research Fossil-fuel subsidies Biofuel subsidies Cost-Effectiveness Assessments EU biofuel policy and palm ...

257

Biomass use as energy potential additional to the fossil fuels; A biomassa como potencial energetico adicional aos combustiveis fosseis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An alternative way for reducing environmental problems generated by the large-scale use of fossil fuels is the rational and sustainable use of biomass, a renewable energy source, which can contribute for controlling regional and global environment conditions. This work describes in general, the use of biomass in Brazil and some alternatives to increase its competitiveness against fossil fuels in the energy market. (author) 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Bezzon, Guilherme; Luengo, Carlos A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instito de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

1998-12-31

258

Climate change adaptation, damages and fossil fuel dependence. An RETD position paper on the costs of inaction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (RETD) agreement initiated this project to advance the understanding of the ''Costs of Inaction'', i.e. the costs of climate change adaptation, damages and fossil fuel dependence. A quantitative estimate was developed as well as a better understanding of the knowledge gaps and research needs. The project also included some conceptual work on how to better integrate the analyses of mitigation, adaptation, damages and fossil fuel dependence in energy scenario modelling.

Katofsky, Ryan; Stanberry, Matt; Hagenstad, Marca; Frantzis, Lisa

2011-07-15

259

Presence of estrogenic activity from emission of fossil fuel combustion as detected by a recombinant yeast bioassay  

Science.gov (United States)

Estrogenic activities of emission samples generated by fossil fuel combustion were investigated with human estrogen receptor (ER) recombinant yeast bioassay. The results showed that there were weak but clear estrogenic activities in combustion emissions of fossil fuels including coal, petroleum, and diesel. The estrogenic relative potency (RP) of fossil fuel combustion was the highest in petroleum-fired car, followed by coal-fired stove, diesel-fired agrimotor, coal-fired electric power station. On the other hand, the estrogenic relative inductive efficiency (RIE) was the highest in coal-fired stove and coal-fired electric power station, followed by petroleum-fired car and diesel-fired agrimotor. The estrogenic activities in the sub-fractions from chromatographic separation of emitted materials were also determined. The results indicated that different chemical fractions in these complex systems have different estrogenic potencies. The GC/MS analysis of the emission showed that there were many aromatic carbonyls, big molecular alcohol, PAHs and derivatives, and substituted phenolic compounds and derivatives which have been reported as environmental estrogens. The existence of estrogenic substances in fossil fuel combustion demands further investigation of their potential adverse effects on human and on the ecosystem. The magnitude of pollution due to global usage of fossil fuels makes it imperative to understand the issue of fossil fuel-derived endocrine activities and the associated health risks, particularly the aggregated risks stemmed from exposure to toxicants of multiple sources.

Wang, Jingxian; Wu, Wenzhong; Henkelmann, Bernhard; You, Li; Kettrup, Antonius; Schramm, Karl-Werner

260

FutureGen: Stepping-Stone to Sustainable Fossil-Fuel Power Generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy's FutureGen Initiative. The nearly $1 billion government-industry project is a stepping-stone toward future coal-fired power plants that will produce hydrogen and electricity with zero-emissions, including carbon dioxide. The 275-megawatt FutureGen plant will initiate operations around 2012 and employ advanced coal gasification technology integrated with combined cycle electricity generation, hydrogen production, and carbon capture and sequestration. The initiative is a response to a presidential directive to develop a hydrogen economy by drawing upon the best scientific research to address the issue of global climate change. The FutureGen plant will be based on cutting-edge power generation technology as well as advanced carbon capture and sequestration systems. The centerpiece of the project will be coal gasification technology that can eliminate common air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides and convert them to useable by-products. Gasification will convert coal into a highly enriched hydrogen gas, which can be burned much more cleanly than directly burning the coal itself. Alternatively, the hydrogen can be used in a fuel cell to produce ultra-clean electricity, or fed to a refinery to help upgrade petroleum products. Carbon sequestration will also be a key feature that will set the Futuregen plant apart from other electric power plant projects. The initial goal will be to capture 90 percent of the plant's carbon dioxide, but capture of nearly 100 percent may be possible with advanced technologies. Once captured, the carbon dioxide will be injected as a compressed fluid deep underground, perhaps into saline reservoirs. It could even be injected into oil or gas reservoirs, or into unmineable coal seams, to enhance petroleum or coalbed methane recovery. The ultimate goal for the FutureGen plant is to show how new technology can eliminate environmental concerns over the future use of coal--the most abundant fossil fuel in the United States with supplies projected to last 250 years. FutureGen's co-production of power and hydrogen will also serve as a stepping-stone to an environmentally sustainable energy future.

Zitney, S.E.

2006-11-01

 
 
 
 
261

Long-term tradeoffs between nuclear- and fossil-fuel burning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A global energy/economics/environmental (E3) model has been adapted with a nuclear energy/materials model to understand better open-quotes top-levelclose quotes, long-term trade offs between civilian nuclear power, nuclear-weapons proliferation, fossil-fuel burning, and global economic welfare. Using a open-quotes business-as-usualclose quotes (BAU) point-of-departure case, economic, resource, proliferation-risk implications of plutonium recycle in LAIRs, greenhouse-gas-mitigating carbon taxes, and a range of nuclear energy costs (capital and fuel) considerations have been examined. After describing the essential elements of the analysis approach being developed to support the Los Alamos Nuclear Vision Project, preliminary examples of parametric variations about the BAU base-case scenario are presented. The results described herein represent a sampling from more extensive results collected in a separate report. The primary motivation here is: (a) to compare the BAU basecase with results from other studies; (b) to model on a regionally resolved global basis long-term (to year ?2100) evolution of plutonium accumulation in a variety of forms under a limited range of fuel-cycle scenarios; and (c) to illustrate a preliminary connectivity between risks associated with nuclear proliferation and fossil-fuel burning (e.g., greenhouse-gas accumulations)

1996-11-08

262

Long-term tradeoffs between nuclear- and fossil-fuel burning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A global energy/economics/environmental (E{sup 3}) model has been adapted with a nuclear energy/materials model to understand better {open_quotes}top-level{close_quotes}, long-term trade offs between civilian nuclear power, nuclear-weapons proliferation, fossil-fuel burning, and global economic welfare. Using a {open_quotes}business-as-usual{close_quotes} (BAU) point-of-departure case, economic, resource, proliferation-risk implications of plutonium recycle in LAIRs, greenhouse-gas-mitigating carbon taxes, and a range of nuclear energy costs (capital and fuel) considerations have been examined. After describing the essential elements of the analysis approach being developed to support the Los Alamos Nuclear Vision Project, preliminary examples of parametric variations about the BAU base-case scenario are presented. The results described herein represent a sampling from more extensive results collected in a separate report. The primary motivation here is: (a) to compare the BAU basecase with results from other studies; (b) to model on a regionally resolved global basis long-term (to year {approximately}2100) evolution of plutonium accumulation in a variety of forms under a limited range of fuel-cycle scenarios; and (c) to illustrate a preliminary connectivity between risks associated with nuclear proliferation and fossil-fuel burning (e.g., greenhouse-gas accumulations).

Krakowski, R.A.

1996-12-31

263

Hydrogen production from fossil fuels with carbon capture and storage based on chemical looping systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper analyzes innovative processes for producing hydrogen from fossil fuels conversion (natural gas, coal, lignite) based on chemical looping techniques, allowing intrinsic CO{sub 2} capture. This paper evaluates in details the iron-based chemical looping system used for hydrogen production in conjunction with natural gas and syngas produced from coal and lignite gasification. The paper assesses the potential applications of natural gas and syngas chemical looping combustion systems to generate hydrogen. Investigated plant concepts with natural gas and syngas-based chemical looping method produce 500 MW hydrogen (based on lower heating value) covering ancillary power consumption with an almost total decarbonisation rate of the fossil fuels used. The paper presents in details the plant concepts and the methodology used to evaluate the performances using critical design factors like: gasifier feeding system (various fuel transport gases), heat and power integration analysis, potential ways to increase the overall energy efficiency (e.g. steam integration of chemical looping unit into the combined cycle), hydrogen and carbon dioxide quality specifications considering the use of hydrogen in transport (fuel cells) and carbon dioxide storage in geological formation or used for EOR.

Cormos, C.C. [University of Babes Bolyai, Cluj Napoca (Romania)

2011-05-15

264

Comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of biodiesel and fossil diesel fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complementary to VlTO's demonstration project on the use of biodiesel as engine fuel (including on the road emission measurements) in Flanders, Belgium, a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) has been carried out for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and fossil diesel fuel. The primary concern of this study is the question as to whether or not the production of biodiesel is comparable to the production of fossil diesel fuel from an environmental point of view, taking into account all stages of the life cycle of these two products. The study covers: (1) a description of the LCA methodology used; (2) a definition of the goal and scope of the study: (3) an inventory of the consumption of energy and materials and the discharges to the environment, from the cradle to the grave, for both alternative fuels: (4) a comparative impact assessment; and (5) the interpretation of the results. The results of this comparative LCA can be used in the final decision making process next to the results of a social and economical assessment. 6 refs

1997-12-01

265

Fuel Cells in the Coal Energy Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In march 1998 at the conference ?Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems? in Clearwater, USA representatives of U.S. Department of Energy presented the vision 21 focused on the electricity generation from coal for 21st century. The goal is a powerplant with the ability to produce the electricity from coal with the efficiency approaching 60% (higher heating value and emission levels of one-tenth of today´s technologies, The CO2 capture and permanent sequestration at the cost of $15/ton of CO2, and a cost of electricity of 3 cents per kilowatt-hour. The goal is believed to be achievable by the first quarter of the next century. The vision 21 is presented with several possible concepts. One of them is based on coal gasification with following hydrogen separation. The obtained hydrogen is used as a fuel for the cogeneration unit with fuel cells. The remaining gas can be liquefied and utilised as a fuel in the automotive industry or further chemically processed. The concept has several important features. Firstly, a very clean low cost electricity production. Secondly, it is comprised of fuel processing section and power processing section. The two sections need not to be co-located. In the world of the deregulated electricity generation this offers a major advantage. The technologies of fuel processing section ? coal gasification and hydrogen separation have been successfully developed in the last two decades. A specificity of the fuel processing section of this concept is to obtain hydrogen rich gas with very low concentrations of substances, as CO, which cause a poisoning of electrodes of fuel cells leading to the decreasing fuel cells efficiency. Fuel cells, specially highly efficient coal-gas SOFC and MCFC, are expected to be commercially available by 2020. The natural-gas MCFC and SOFC plants should enter the commercial marketplace by the year 2002.

Kolat Peter

1998-09-01

266

Industrial trends in the fuel cycle towards fuel cost reduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to remain competitive, the challenge to electrical generating nuclear utilities is to reduce their kWh costs through an optimization of their fuel management: - The front-end of the fuel cycle: Natural Uranium, conversion, enrichment and fabrication is under a severe international competition. - For the back-end, long term views of countries volontarily committed to a strong nuclear program made them to select the closed cycle option including recycling of extracted fissile materials and saving Natural Uranium and enrichment services. The once-through scheme is being studied in countries not resolutely engaged toward Nuclear Energy, but industrial stages for that option are not yet presently reached. - R. and D. programs under progress in a number of countries and dealing with major segments of fuel cycle, show fuel costs decreasing trends, in particular in enrichment and reprocessing services

1989-01-01

267

Fossil Fuels -  

...support for upstream oil activities in three Canadian provinces: Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Newfoundland and Labrador Search Publications Search IISD    IISD Home Our Knowledge ...support for upstream oil activities in three Canadian provinces: Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Newfoundland and Labrador » David Sawyer, Seton Stiebert, IISD, ...the value and impact of oil production subsidies in Alberta, Saskatchewan and Newfoundland & Labrador. This detailed analysis is the first of ...support for upstream oil activities in three Canadian provinces: Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Newfoundland and LabradorIISD Publication Twitter Facebook StumbleUpon Digg Delicious LinkedIn Highlighted Report ...

268

Reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells  

Science.gov (United States)

PEM fuel cell systems are considered as a sustainable option for the future transport sector in the future. There is great interest in converting current hydrocarbon based transportation fuels into hydrogen rich gases acceptable by PEM fuel cells on-board of vehicles. In this paper, we compare the results of our simulation studies for 100 kW PEM fuel cell systems utilizing three different major reforming technologies, namely steam reforming (SREF), partial oxidation (POX) and autothermal reforming (ATR). Natural gas, gasoline and diesel are the selected hydrocarbon fuels. It is desired to investigate the effect of the selected fuel reforming options on the overall fuel cell system efficiency, which depends on the fuel processing, PEM fuel cell and auxiliary system efficiencies. The Aspen-HYSYS 3.1 code has been used for simulation purposes. Process parameters of fuel preparation steps have been determined considering the limitations set by the catalysts and hydrocarbons involved. Results indicate that fuel properties, fuel processing system and its operation parameters, and PEM fuel cell characteristics all affect the overall system efficiencies. Steam reforming appears as the most efficient fuel preparation option for all investigated fuels. Natural gas with steam reforming shows the highest fuel cell system efficiency. Good heat integration within the fuel cell system is absolutely necessary to achieve acceptable overall system efficiencies.

Ersoz, Atilla; Olgun, Hayati; Ozdogan, Sibel

269

Industrial recycling and alternative fuel program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This pilot study will create an industrial recycling and alternative fuel opportunity for the Department of Energy (USDOE) as well as establish a partnership with the US Postal Service (USPS) and private industry. The core goals of the partnership between the USDOE, USPS, and industry are to simultaneously increase business success while, driving down pollution and waste. Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) is developing a baseline to integrate current industrial needs with the waste to energy concept for the Department of Energy. The overall benefit in this partnering venture will demonstrate that federal agencies can operated effectively and efficiently using innovative technologies to meet environmental, economic and stakeholder concerns and needs. A current Waste to Energy Project at Savannah River Operations will be discussed as the basis of this paper and the pilot project.

Handy, G.C.; Mackmull, S.J.; Johnson, S.V.

1998-07-01

270

Industrial experience of irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the moment and during the next following years, France and La Hague plant particularly, own the greatest amount of industrial experience in the field of reprocessing, since this experience is referred to three types of reactors, either broadly spread all through the world (GCR and LWR) or ready to be greatly developed in the next future (FBR). Then, the description of processes and technologies used now in France, and the examination of the results obtained, on the production or on the security points of view, are a good approach of the actual industrial experience in the field of spent fuel reprocessing. (author)

1981-10-30

271

Comparing the social costs of biofuels and fossil fuels: A case study of Vietnam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biofuel substitution for fossil fuels has been recommended in the literature and promoted in many countries; however, there are concerns about its economic viability. In this paper we focus on the cost-effectiveness of fuels, i.e., we compare the social costs of biofuels and fossil fuels for a functional unit defined as 1 km of vehicle transportation. We base our empirical results on a case study in Vietnam and compare two biofuels and their alternative fossil fuels: ethanol and gasoline, and biodiesel and diesel with a focus on the blends of E5 and E10 for ethanol, and B5 and B10 for biodiesel. At the discount rate of 4%, ethanol substitution for gasoline in form of E5 or E10 saves 33% of the social cost of gasoline if the fuel consumption of E5 and E10 is the same as gasoline. The ethanol substitution will be cost-effective if the fuel consumption of E5 and E10, in terms of L km?1, is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline by more than 1.7% and 3.5% for E5 and E10 respectively. The biodiesel substitution would be cost-effective if the fuel consumption of B5 and B10, in terms of L km?1 compared to diesel, would decrease by more than 1.4% and 2.8% for B5 and B10 respectively at the discount rate of 4%. -- Highlights: •We examine cost-effectiveness of biofuels under efficiency levels of blends. •Cassava-based ethanol used as E5 saves 33% of social cost compared to gasoline. •Ethanol is cost-effective if E5 consumption per km is less than 1.017 times gasoline consumption. •Jatropha-based biodiesel used as B5 or B10 is currently not cost-effective in comparison to diesel. •Biodiesel would be cost-effective if B5 consumption per km would be less than 0.986 times diesel consumption

2013-07-01

272

Fuel-cycle fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of corn and cellulosic ethanol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of corn-based ethanol as an automotive fuel to displace petroleum-based gasoline in an effort to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was discussed. Some past studies have shown increased GHG emissions from corn ethanol when energy use and emissions by up-stream production activities for corn ethanol were taken into account. Other studies have shown that the use of ethanol reduces GHG emissions. In this study, a thorough analysis of fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emissions of corn ethanol was conducted. The major issues under study were: (1) energy and chemical use intensity of corn farming, (2) N2O emissions from nitrogen fertilizer in corn fields, (3) energy use intensity at ethanol plants, and (4) energy and emission credits of co-products of corn ethanol. Results showed that the use of E85 from corn reduces fossil energy use by 35 to 40 per cent compared to gasoline and GHG are reduced by 16 to 28 per cent. Fuel-cycle energy and GHG emission impacts of cellulosic ethanol was also examined. It was shown that the use of E85 produced from biomass reduces fossil energy use by 80 per cent and eliminates GHG emissions of petroleum-based gasoline. 1 tab., 11 figs

1998-06-11

273

Fuel-cycle fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of corn and cellulosic ethanol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of corn-based ethanol as an automotive fuel to displace petroleum-based gasoline in an effort to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was discussed. Some past studies have shown increased GHG emissions from corn ethanol when energy use and emissions by up-stream production activities for corn ethanol were taken into account. Other studies have shown that the use of ethanol reduces GHG emissions. In this study, a thorough analysis of fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emissions of corn ethanol was conducted. The major issues under study were: (1) energy and chemical use intensity of corn farming, (2) N{sub 2}O emissions from nitrogen fertilizer in corn fields, (3) energy use intensity at ethanol plants, and (4) energy and emission credits of co-products of corn ethanol. Results showed that the use of E85 from corn reduces fossil energy use by 35 to 40 per cent compared to gasoline and GHG are reduced by 16 to 28 per cent. Fuel-cycle energy and GHG emission impacts of cellulosic ethanol was also examined. It was shown that the use of E85 produced from biomass reduces fossil energy use by 80 per cent and eliminates GHG emissions of petroleum-based gasoline. 1 tab., 11 figs.

Wang, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Transportation Research

1998-11-01

274

Problems of attracting nuclear energy resources in order to provide economical and rational consumption of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solution of problems related to increasing costs of fossil fuels and application of nuclear energy in the industrial sector could be the development and commercialization of high temperature nuclear reactors, as the majority of power consuming industrial processes demand that the temperature of heat carrier generated to be in the range from 900-1000 deg. C. In the Soviet Union the strategy adopted for solving energy supply problems was named 'nuclear-hydrogen power engineering and technologies'. Based on analytic research and taking into account the present state of the art, the new alternative energy sources, e.g. nuclear ones, should be introduced into the industry by the following steps: development and mastering of stable operation of high-temperature nuclear reactors; search of rational technical solutions for heat discharge from nuclear reactors; utilisation of meet the power demand of existing production plants; complete substitution of organic raw materials burned now with nuclear energy; review the conditions and development of organizational and engineering solutions acceptable for implementing the nuclear energy in commercial processes

1989-06-21

275

N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship, on a global basis, between the amount of N fixed by chemical, biological or atmospheric processes entering the terrestrial biosphere, and the total emission of nitrous oxide (N2O), has been re-examined, using known global atmospheric removal rates and concentration growth of N2O as a proxy for overall emissions. For both the pre-industrial period and in recent times, after taking into account the large-scale changes in synthetic N fertiliser production, we find an overall conversion factor of 3-5% from newly fixed N to N2O-N. We assume the same factor to be valid for biofuel production systems. It is covered only in part by the default conversion factor for "direct" emissions from agricultural crop lands (1%) estimated by IPCC (2006), and the default factors for the "indirect" emissions (following volatilization/deposition and leaching/runoff of N: 0.35-0.45%) cited therein. However, as we show in the paper, when additional emissions included in the IPCC methodology, e.g. those from livestock production, are included, the total may not be inconsistent with that given by our "top-down" method. When the extra N2O emission from biofuel production is calculated in "CO2-equivalent" global warming terms, and compared with the quasi-cooling effect of "saving" emissions of fossil fuel derived CO2, the outcome is that the production of commonly used biofuels, such as biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from corn (maize), depending on N fertilizer uptake efficiency by the plants, can contribute as much or more to global warming by N2O emissions than cooling by fossil fuel savings. Crops with less N demand, such as grasses and woody coppice species, have more favourable climate impacts. This analysis only considers the conversion of biomass to biofuel. It does not take into account the use of fossil fuel on the farms and for fertilizer and pesticide production, but it also neglects the production of useful co-products. Both factors partially compensate each other. This needs to be analyzed in a full life cycle assessment.

Crutzen, P. J.; Mosier, A. R.; Smith, K. A.; Winiwarter, W.

2008-01-01

276

Solar paraboloid concentrating modules, applications, and conceptual design for solar and fossil fueled hybrid bakery systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the development of geometric configurations and detailed constructural design aspects of point-focus paraboloid (dish) concentrator modules equipped with cavity solar receiver and two-axis solar tracking system. Also, it high-lights the advantages and disadvantages of two different types of paraboloid solar concentrator and receiver assemblies and high-temperature energy systems incorporated in the layout of a solar and fossil fuel assisted bakery design to meet the needs of a small community of 2,000 people.

Sungu, Sabri; Vu, H.V.; Srisantithum, C. [California State Univ., Long Beach, CA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Gunal, N. [California State Univ., Long Beach, CA (United States). Engineering Technology Dept.

1992-12-31

277

Carbon sequestration from fossil fuels and biomass - long-term potentials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon sequestration and disposal from fossil fuels combustion is gaining attraction as a means to deal with climate change. However, CO2 emissions from biomass combustion can also be sequestered. If that is done, biomass energy with carbon sequestration (BECS) would become a net negative carbon sink that would at the same time deliver carbon free energy (heat, electricity or hydrogen) to society. Here we estimate some global technoeconomical potentials for BECS, and we also present some rough economics of electricity generation with carbon sequestration

2001-10-26

278

Economic evaluations of HTGR applications to fossil-fuel conversion processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary is given of the results of economic evaluations of the application of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor-process heat (HTGR-PH) to coal and oil-shale conversion processes, with emphasis on potential fossil-fuel savings by substituting nuclear heat. Processes for direct coal liquefaction, coal gasification, surface retorting of oil shale, and reforming of natural gas are examined. Potential market needs for the HTGR-PH to the year 2020 are estimated. The core helium temperatures desirable, and attainable, for these applications are discussed. (author)

1982-09-20

279

Comparative analysis of monetary estimates of external environmental costs associated with combustion of fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Public utility commissions in a number of states have begun to explicitly treat costs of environmental externalities in the resource planning and acquisition process (Cohen et al. 1990). This paper compares ten different estimates and regulatory determinations of external environmental costs associated with fossil fuel combustion, using consistent assumptions about combustion efficiency, emissions factors, and resource costs. This consistent comparison is useful because it makes explicit the effects of various assumptions. This paper uses the results of the comparison to illustrate pitfalls in calculation of external environmental costs, and to derive lessons for design of policies to incorporate these externalities into resource planning. 38 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

Koomey, J.

1990-07-01

280

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1981  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress accomplished during the quarter ending September 1981 is reported under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (reservoir characterization and evaluation, recovery projects, reservoir access, extraction technology, recovery processes and process implementation); liquid processing (characterization, thermodynamics, and process technology); utilization (energy conversion - adaptive engineering, combustion systems assessment, and heat engines/heat recovery); and project integration and technology transfer. Special reports include: air drilling research; fluid injection in reservoirs; target reservoirs in Permian Basin suitable for CO/sub 2/ flooding; heavy oil technology; and the fate of used motor oil/results of a survey.

Linville, B. (ed.)

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Interaction of carbon reduction and green energy promotion in a small fossil-fuel importing economy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the incidence of carbon-reduction and green-energy promotion policies in an open fossil-fuel importing general equilibrium economy. The focus is on mixed price-based or quantity-based policies. Instruments directed toward promoting green energy are shown to reduce also carbon emissions and vice versa. Their direct effects are stronger than their side effects, the more so, the greater is the elasticity of substitution in consumption between en-ergy and the consumption good. We calcula...

Pethig, Ru?diger; Wittlich, Christian

2009-01-01

282

Challenges of efficient and clean use of fossil fuels for power production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Constantly increasing resource efficiency together with the broad introduction of CCS technologies is fundamental for a continuous use of fossil fuels in power generation against the background of up-coming requirements for CO2 emission reduction. In principle, CCS means up-grading conventional power plant technology with proven CO2 removal processes. However, this leads to additional losses, auxiliary power demand and cost. System integration, development or at least adaption of components and processes are the main requirements in this context. Different technology solutions and recent developments will be addressed as well as challenges when implementing in demonstration projects.

Vortmeyer, Nicolas; Zimmermann, Gerhard

2010-09-15

283

Importance of fossil fuel emission uncertainties over Europe for CO2 modeling: model intercomparison  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inverse modeling techniques used to quantify surface carbon fluxes commonly assume that the uncertainty of fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2 emissions is negligible and that intra-annual variations can be neglected. To investigate these assumptions, we analyzed the differences between four fossil fuel emission maps with spatial and temporal differences over Europe and their impact on the model simulated CO2 concentration. Large temporal flux variations characterize the hourly fields (~40% and ~80% for the seasonal and diurnal cycles, peak-to-peak and annual country totals differ by 10% on average and up to 40% for some countries (i.e., The Netherlands. These emissions have been prescribed to seven different transport models, resulting in 28 different FFCO2 concentrations fields. The modeled FFCO2 concentration time series at surface sites using time-varying emissions show larger seasonal cycles (+2 ppm at the Hungarian tall tower (HUN and smaller diurnal cycles in summer (?1 ppm at HUN than when using constant emissions. The concentration range spanned by all simulations varies between stations, and is generally larger in winter (up to ~10 ppm peak-to-peak at HUN than in summer (~5 ppm. The contribution of transport model differences to the simulated concentration std-dev is 2–3 times larger than the contribution of emission differences only, at typical European sites used in global inversions. These contributions to the hourly (monthly std-dev's amount to ~1.2 (0.8 ppm and ~0.4 (0.3 ppm for transport and emissions, respectively. First comparisons of the modeled concentrations with 14C-based fossil fuel CO2 observations show that the large transport differences still hamper a quantitative evaluation/validation of the emission inventories. Changes in the estimated monthly biosphere flux (Fbio over Europe, using two inverse modeling approaches, are relatively small (less that 5% while changes in annual Fbio (up to ~0.15 Gt C/yr are only slightly smaller than the differences in annual emission totals and around 30% of the mean European ecosystem carbon sink. These results point to an urgent need to improve not only the transport models but also the assumed spatial and temporal distribution of fossil fuel emission maps.

F. Delage

2009-03-01

284

Numerical analysis of injector flow and spray characteristics from diesel injectors using fossil and biodiesel fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Fluid-dynamic simulation of injection process with biodiesel and diesel fuel. ? Coupling of Eulerian and Lagrangian spray CFD simulations. ? Effects of hole shaping: conical versus cylindrical and edge rounding effects. ? Prediction of spray characteristics improved using inner nozzle flow data. ? Explanation of mass flow differences depending on hole shape and fuel type. -- Abstract: The aim of the paper is the comparison of the injection process with two fuels, a standard diesel fuel and a pure biodiesel, methyl ester of soybean oil. Multiphase cavitating flows inside injector nozzles are calculated by means of unsteady CFD simulations on moving grids from needle opening to closure, using an Eulerian–Eulerian two-fluid approach which takes into account bubble dynamics. Afterward, spray evolutions are also evaluated in a Lagrangian framework using results of the first computing step, mapped onto the hole exit area, for the initialization of the primary breakup model. Two nozzles with cylindrical and conical holes are studied and their behaviors are discussed in relation to fuel properties. Nozzle flow simulations highlighted that the extent of cavitation regions is not much affected by the fuel type, whereas it is strongly dependent on the nozzle shape. Biodiesel provides a slightly higher mass flow in highly cavitating nozzles. On the contrary using hole shaped nozzles (to reduce cavitation) diesel provides similar or slightly higher mass flow. Comparing the two fuels, the effects of different viscosities and densities play main role which explains these behaviors. Simulations of the spray evolution are also discussed highlighting the differences between the use of fossil and biodiesel fuels in terms of spray penetration, atomization and cone-angle. Usage of diesel fuel in the conical convergent nozzle gives higher liquid penetration.

2012-09-01

285

Global and latitudinal estimates of {delta}{sup 13}C from fossil-fuel consumption and cement manufacture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This database contains estimates of the annual mean value of {delta}{sup 13}C of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and cement manufacture for 1860 to 1992 and estimates of the value of {delta}{sup 13}C for one-degree-latitude bands for the years 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 1991, and 1992. These estimates of the carbon isotopic signature account for the changing mix of fossil fuels used at different times and for the different geographic origins of those fuels.

Andres, B. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bischof, S. [Connecticut College, New London, CT (United States)

1996-12-31

286

Reducing global warming through the provision of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concern has increased in recent years regarding the rising atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and its potential effect on future global climate. One element of strategies for the reduction of CO2 emissions would be to increase the proportion of energy derived from non-fossil energy sources. This option has led to renewed interest in the use of hydrogen as an energy vector which could facilitate the transfer of non-fossil energy into a wider range of end-use sectors. To assess, in this context, the potential role of non-fossil-fuel hydrogen (NFFH), published information on the costs and performance of technologies for the production, storage, distribution and utilisation of hydrogen has been reviewed in this study. These data have been used in a model of the UK energy system to investigate the potential contributions of the various hydrogen technologies, over a 50 year timeframe, and with different levels of constraint imposed on the rate of CO2 release. Finally, to set these reduced CO2 release rates in the context of the resultant reduction in global warming commitment, a further modelling study has been made to estimate the residual transient warming to 2050, assuming the world as a whole follows the same CO2 emission profiles as modelled for the UK. This 259 page report of the study contains extensive tables of data and references, and a glossary of terms, units and conversion factors. (author)

1993-01-01

287

High-molecular-mass substances in resinites as possible precursors of specific hydrocarbons in fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A critical review of the literature concerning the composition of high-molecular-mass (HMM) substances in fossil resins, or resinites, indicated that rigorous assignments of chemical structures of resins of gymnosperm origin have not been performed. Detailed knowledge of the structures of such macromolecules is needed to fully understand their diagenetic and catagenetic behaviour. Therefore a representative set of fossil gymnosperm resins (Victoria, Australia) was investigated. HMM substances were separated from the low-molecular-mass (LMM) substances and studied for their structures and thermal breakdown products. The LMM compounds consist mainly of tricyclic carboxylic acids. The presence of C[sub 40]-compounds which were tentatively identified as dimeric communic acids is shown. Specific compounds that are formed upon flash pyrolysis of the HMM substances were tentatively identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Their proposed structures indicate that the basic structural unit of the macromolecule consists of a diterpenoid carboxylic acid with a labdatriene carbon skeleton. This is in agreement with literature in which the gymnosperm resinous macromolecules are described as polycommunic acids. Prolonged heating of the resinite and the separated HMM substances yields predominantly bi- and tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which are often encountered in fossil fuels. 47 refs., 11 figs.

Aarssen, B.G.K. van.; de Leeuw, J.W. (Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Organic Geochemistry Unit)

1992-12-01

288

Examining advanced fossil-fueled technologies with a utility capacity-planning model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the second part of a two-phase study that investigated the capabilities of capacity-planning models to characterize advanced, fossil-fuel-fired, electrical generating technologies in least-cost expansion plans. The overall objective was to identify a modeling tool that would give the US Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy the capability to analyze a broad spectrum of issues that are evolving in the capacity-planning area, using an approach with procedures similar to those followed by electric utilities. In Phase 1, capacity expansion models were reviewed and selected. In Phase 2, the chosen model was exercised with selected case studies, results were examined, and sensitivities to technology characterizations and modeling procedures were identified. Phase 2 began early in 1986, and a final draft of this report on the Phase 2 work was prepared in April 1987. The technology characterizations and cost estimates provided therein reflected the best estimates as of mid-1986. Although these characterizations and cost estimates have changed since this work was originally performed, the purpose of this report is still relevant -- to demonstrate the capabilities and sensitivities of capacity planning models in analyzing advanced fossil energy technologies. Therefore, because the goal is to emphasize the procedural aspects of expansion planning rather than present any final conclusions about the advanced technologies, the cost and performance estimates have not been updated for this final publication of the report. 29 refs., 3 figs., 14 tabs.

VanKuiken, J.C.; Hamilton, B.P.

1989-04-01

289

Exploring the Ability of Inverse Methods to Isolate the Fossil Fuel Emission Signal from Atmospheric CO2 Measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Inverse methods to estimate carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes utilize atmospheric measurements of CO2 concentrations coupled with an atmospheric transport model to trace sources and sinks to upwind locations. Atmospheric measurements integrate all processes, both biospheric and anthropogenic, and thus inverse methods offer a complete picture in terms of estimating CO2 flux budgets. Separating these signals into their respective components has been done in the past by assuming the fossil fuel component to be perfectly known from bottom-up inventories and solving for the remaining natural flux. Because fossil fuels emissions are not perfectly known everywhere, errors can accumulate and fluxes can be incorrectly aliased onto the biospheric component. The use of co-emitted tracers such as CO, CH4, and 14C have also been used to parse out the fossil fuel component; however, challenges remain in accurately determining corresponding emissions factors. Recently, inverse methods have been offered as a tool to separate anthropogenic CO2 emissions from the natural CO2 flux signal. The feasibility of this approach is investigated through an examination of the information content provided by atmospheric measurements. The goals of this study are to answer the following questions: (1) From atmospheric CO2 measurements, can we independently identify the fossil fuel signal for different seasons and regions? (2) How does an expanded measurement network help to better isolate the fossil fuel emissions signal? The analysis uses a geostatistical inverse modeling scheme and a variable selection procedure to assess the feasibility of using inverse methods to separate the fossil fuel emissions signal from the biospheric signal. The focus of this study is not on estimating biospheric and fossil fuel fluxes per se, but rather exploring whether the atmospheric measurements currently provide sufficient information to pursue such a goal. The variable selection procedure uses the Bayesian Information Criteria to determine the best subset of explanatory variables that help to inform the spatial and temporal distribution of CO2 fluxes. The superset of candidate variables includes a suite of biospheric variables (evapotranspiration, specific humidity, temperature, etc…) and fossil fuel inventories disaggregated by region and month. The ability to isolate the fossil fuel emission signal from the atmospheric CO2 measurements is assessed by examining whether the fossil fuel inventory information is selected as being relevant for inferring the flux signal in specific regions and months. The study uses a spatial domain of North America with a 1 by 1 degree spatial resolution and a period of one year with a 3-hourly temporal resolution. Analyses using both real and synthetic data cases are carried out using monitoring networks with 9 and 35 towers with continuous observations of CO2 (representative of the 2004 and 2008 networks). While an expanded measurement network is shown to help separate the fossil fuel signature, isolating the fossil fuel signal in the summer months remains a challenge for all regions within North America. This work highlights the need both for methodological advancement in inversion studies when trying to isolate the fossil fuel component from the biospheric component as well as improved data coverage by in-situ or remote observations.

Shiga, Y. P.; Michalak, A. M.; Yadav, V.; Gourdji, S. M.

2012-12-01

290

Decarbonization of fossil fuels as a strategy to control global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the world reaching near-total consensus on the seriousness of the global warming impacts, and on the urgency to halt further warming, R & D efforts have intensified many-fold to find ways and means of global warming control. One of the avenues being explored is 'decarbonization' of fossil fuel use by either decarbonizing the fuels before they are burnt or by capturing the CO{sub 2} they emit on combustion. In this paper the various available options are reviewed in the context of their economic and environmental viability. It emerges that even as the goal is very enchanting, the possibility of it's realization appears remote. It also follows that the only sure method of reducing greenhouse gas emissions presently available to humankind is by reducing consumption of energy and other resources.

Abbasi, T.; Abbasi, S.A. [Pondicherry Central University, Pondicherry (India)

2011-05-15

291

Fossil fuels: technical, economical and political challenges for 2030-2050  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This panorama takes stock on the international energy actuality in 2003 and discusses the instability of the geo-political context of the energy and the part of the fossil fuels for the future years 2030-2050. The following topics were presented: activities and market for the exploration-production, refining and petrochemistry, the world gas trade situation, the petroleum supply and demand, the Iraq, the diesel in the USA, the investments and the depletion, long-dated evolutions of motors and fuels, implementing of the european directive concerning the market of tradable permits of CO2, the carbon sequestration, hydrogen the energy of the future and the biofuels in Europe. (A.L.B.)

2004-02-05

292

A movable trigger: Fossil fuel CO2 and the onset of the next glaciation  

Science.gov (United States)

The initiation of northern hemisphere ice sheets in the last 800 kyr appears to be closely controlled by minima in summer insolation forcing at 65°N. Beginning from an initial typical interglacial pCO2 of 280 ppm, the CLIMBER-2 model initiates an ice sheet in the Northern Hemisphere when insolation drops 0.7 ? (standard deviation) or 15 W/m2 below the mean. This same value is required to explain the history of climate using an orbitally driven conceptual model based on insolation and ice volume thresholds (Paillard, 1998). When the initial baseline pCO2 is raised in CLIMBER-2, a deeper minimum in summertime insolation is required to nucleate an ice sheet. Carbon cycle models indicate that ˜25% of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion will remain in the atmosphere for thousands of years, and ˜7% will remain beyond one hundred thousand years (Archer, 2005). We predict that a carbon release from fossil fuels or methane hydrate deposits of 5000 Gton C could prevent glaciation for the next 500,000 years, until after not one but two 400 kyr cycle eccentricity minima. The duration and intensity of the projected interglacial period are longer than have been seen in the last 2.6 million years.

Archer, David; Ganopolski, Andrey

2005-05-01

293

Quantifying hazardous species in particulate matter derived from fossil-fuel combustion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analysis protocol that combines X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy with selective leaching has been developed to examine hazardous species in size-segregated particulate matter (PM) samples derived from the combustion of fossil fuels. The protocol has been used to identify and determine quantitatively the amounts of three important toxic species in combustion-derived PM: viz., nickel sulfides in residual oil fly ash (ROFA) PM, and Cr(VI) and As(III) species in coal fly ash PM. Although it has been assumed that these toxic species might exist in PM derived from fossil-fuel combustion, the results presented here constitute the first direct determination of them in combustion-derived PM and their potential bioavailability. Detailed information on the presence of these toxic species in PM samples is of significant interest to epidemiological and toxicological studies of the health effects of both source and ambient PM. Additionally, information is obtained on insoluble forms that may be useful for source attribution and on the distribution of phases between size fractions that may be related to formation mechanisms of specific toxic species during combustion. 50 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman; William P. Linak; C. Andrew Miller [CFFS/CME, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (USA)

2004-03-15

294

The effect of retrofitting Portuguese fossil fuel power plants with CCS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A map of mainland Portugal with potential CO2 source-sink matching was created. ? Four existing Portuguese power plants were simulated with and without CCS. ? Effect of CCS retrofit on performance and costs at each power plant was studied. ? The incremental COE was estimated at around 46 $/MW h for NGCC plants. ? The incremental COE was estimated at around 61 $/MW h for PC plants. -- Abstract: This work assesses the retrofit potential of existing Portuguese fossil fuel power plants with post-combustion CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology. The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was used to provide a systematic techno-economic analysis of the cost of emission control equipment, the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and other key parameters which may change when CCS is implemented at a fossil fuel power plant. The results indicate that CCS requires a large capital investment and significantly increases the levelized cost of electricity. However, the economic viability of CCS increases with higher CO2 prices. The breakeven CO2 price for plants with and without CCS was estimated at $85–$140/t of CO2 depending on the technical parameters of the individual plants.

2013-01-01

295

Periods that created fossil fuels and their origin. Kaseki nenryo sosei jidai to sono seiin. 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It was intended to elucidate processes of root materials having changed into fossil fuels. To do this, an inference was first made on the construction of the globe and the mechanism of the root materials having creeped into it. The earth is a sphere having a radiums of 6400 km, mass of 5.97[times]10[sup 24] kg, and an average density of 5.52/cm[sup 3], consisted of the crust, the mantle and the core. After its birth in 4.6 billion years ago, the earth passed the Archeozoic era and the Proterozoic era. In the Paleozoic era of 6 to 2.3 hundred million years ago, planktons, insects, and teleosts propagated, and cycads and coniferous plants grew thickly. This period corresponds to the times such root materials as petroleum and coal were created initially and stored. From 2.3 hundred million to 70 million years ago is the Mesozoic era, a golden age for reptiles as well as marine plankton and onshore plants. This is the later creation and storage period for the root materials. Most of the present fossil fuel were created in periods from the Paleozoic era to the Mesozoic era. Thereafter up to the contemporary period of the Cenozoic era, young oil fields and coal fields have been formed. 6 figs., 1 tab.

Hirato, M.

1992-12-01

296

Is there a future for UK power generation without fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been said that the world's only truly inexhaustible energy sources are solar and nuclear. This is a key factor directing attention towards the day when fossil fuels will have been eliminated for all practical purposes from the electrical generation scene. Such a statement raises many issues but, in the end, a balance has to be struck so that environmental, social and commercial factors are optimised in an acceptable manner. The nuclear debate will doubtless continue until technological advances permit effective decoupling of power generation and weapons manufacture. However, one thing is virtually certain and that is that world and UK electrical demands will increase at the expense of other energy forms. Whilst it is true that solar and nuclear sources are virtually inexhaustible there are practical difficulties, mainly concerned with management and control of a generation mix to which the suppliers of commercial electricity are at present unaccustomed. Storage on a greatly increased scale will be required and nuclear power plants may have to be operated at lower load factors. It is concluded that there is a future for electricity generation in the UK without fossil fuels. (U.K.)

1983-01-01

297

Soot in Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary clays worldwide: is it really derived from fossil fuel beds close to Chicxulub?  

Science.gov (United States)

High soot contents have been reported in Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (KPB) clays worldwide. One of the interpretations suggests this material comes from combustion of fossil fuels such as crude oil, coal or oil shales near the Chicxulub impact site. Combustion was triggered by the KPB impactor. In this Note, I show that the estimated mass of crude oil (or fossil hydrocarbons in general) burned (ca. 1017-1019 g), based on the average amount of soot (0.0022-0.012 g cm-2) or elemental carbon (0.011 g cm-2) found at the marine KPB sites, contradicts the fossil hydrocarbons hypothesis.

Premovi?, Pavle I.

2012-09-01

298

Building-specific quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions in an urban domain: the case of Indianapolis, US  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in interpreting atmospheric CO2 measurements in addition to providing critical emissions mitigation information. Recent research and decision-support has placed emphasis on quantification of emissions for urban domes with sector specificity. Here we present results of the Hestia Project, an effort aimed at quantifying fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the building and road segment scale for the city of Indianapolis as part of the INFLUX experiment. To calculate CO2 emissions for buildings, we use a combination of county-level estimation from the Vulcan Project and distribute those emissions via an allocation method that utilizes a building energy simulation tool - eQuest (DOE). eQUEST is based on a series of building typologies and has a large number of input variables in order to quantify energy consumption. The simulation process uses default values when the actual data are inaccessible or non-existent. Our method is based on the construction of 22 commercial, 18 industrial, and 8 residential building types. This classification requires specification of building vintages and sizes. To calculate the total floor area of buildings from building heights, remote sensing data are used. The DOEs regional energy surveys, CBECS, RECS and MECS data for the East North Central Census Division, are used to calibrate hourly profiles for different building types. Previous published results for Indianapolis have been substantially updated by using additional data on natural gas pipelines. A more accurate, statistically-based building height assessment has been made using improved lidar data. The reclassification procedure converting Assessor's parcel types into Hestia prototypes, has been revised and improved. More accurate statistics have been calculated and corresponding diagrams and thematic maps have been prepared. Development of a powerful user-friendly information system for decision-makers is in process. That system will allow city environmental managers and regional planning agencies to make analyses of CO2 emissions for inquired sector and period. Of the townships in Indianapolis, Central Township has the largest emissions through the whole year while Wayne is the largest Industrial emitter. The commercial sector building emissions peak during at 7:30 am and 5 pm while the residential sector has peaks at 6 am and 6 pm. The Industrial sector has one peak at 1:30 pm. The relative proportions of those peaks vary with seasons of year. In contrast, their positions in monthly and diurnal profiles appear stable.

Razlivanov, I.; Gurney, K. R.; Zhou, Y.; Turnbull, J. C.; Sweeney, C.; Guenther, D.; Karion, A.; Davis, K. J.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Shepson, P. B.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Lehman, S. J.; Tans, P. P.

2011-12-01

299

Importance of hydrogen fuels as sustainable alternative energy for domestic and industrial applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to rapid growth in population and industrialized development, energy demand is continuously increasing. Global energy sustainability requires the replacement of all fossil fuels by renewable energy sources. Hydrogen fuel is a potentially sustainable energy source that can be available by conversion of biomass into biological hydrogen gas and ethanol. The rate of biomass generation from domestic waste in Iran is high. Therefore, there is a suitable potential for hydrogen generation in rural and urban areas of Iran. This paper discussed the importance of renewable energy in Iran and biomass as new opportunities for generation of renewable energy. Renewable energy for climate change mitigation was also presented. Other topics that were addressed included hydrogen as fuel; fuel cells; hydrogen storage technologies; biomass, biogas, hydrogen energy and fuel cells; and biomass. The sustainability concept was also described. It was concluded that by developing a hydrogen energy system, Iran's energy security can be increased. 17 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

Sharifan, H.R. [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Environment and Energy; Banan, N. [Islamic Azad Univ., Arsanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Environmental Science; Davari, A. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Environmental Science, Faculty of Natural Resources

2009-07-01

300

Detecting the influence of fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon aerosols on near surface temperature changes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Past research has shown that the dominant influence on recent global climate changes is from anthropogenic greenhouse gas increases with implications for future increases in global temperatures. One mitigation proposal is to reduce black carbon aerosol emissions. How much warming can be offset by the aerosol's control is unclear, especially as its influence on past climate has not been previously unambiguously detected. In this study observations of near-surface warming over the last century are compared with simulations using a climate model, HadGEM1. In the simulations black carbon, from fossil fuel and bio-fuel sources (fBC, produces a positive radiative forcing of about + 0.25 Wm?2 over the 20th century, compared with a little under + 2.5 Wm?2 for well mixed greenhouse gases. A simulated warming of global mean near-surface temperatures over the twentieth century from fBC of 0.14 ± 0.1 K compares with 1.06 ± 0.07 K from greenhouse gases, -0.58 ± 0.10 K from anthropogenic aerosols, ozone and land use changes and 0.09 ± 0.09 K from natural influences. Using a detection and attribution methodology, the observed warming since 1900 has detectable influences from anthropogenic and natural factors. Fossil fuel and bio-fuel black carbon is found to have a detectable contribution to the warming over the last 50 years of the 20th century, although the results are sensitive to a number of analysis choices, and fBC is not detected for the later fifty year period ending in 2006. The attributed warming of fBC was found to be consistent with the warming from the unscaled simulation. This study suggests that there is a possible significant influence from fBC on global temperatures, but its influence is small compared to that from greenhouse gas emissions.

G. S. Jones

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
301

Health effects and related standards for fossil-fuel and geothermal power plants. Volume 6 of health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. [In California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report reviews health effects and related standards for fossil-fuel and geothermal power plants, emphasizing impacts which may occur through emissions into the atmosphere, and treating other impacts briefly. Federal regulations as well as California state and local regulations are reviewed. Emissions are characterized by power plant type, including: coal-fired, oil-fired, gas-fired, combined cycle and advanced fossil-fuel plants; and liquid and vapor geothermal systems. Dispersion and transformation of emissions are treated. The state of knowledge of health effects, based on epidemiological, physiological, and biomedical studies, is reviewed.

Case, G.D.; Bertolli, T.A.; Bodington, J.C.; Choy, T.A.; Nero, A.V.

1977-01-01

302

Industrial thermoforming simulation of automotive fuel tanks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An industrial thermoforming simulation with regard to automotive plastic fuel tanks is presented including all relevant process stages. The radiative and conductive heat transfer during the reheat stage, the deformation and stress behaviour during the forming stage, and the final cooling stage are simulated. The modelling of the thermal and rheological behaviour of the involved material is investigated in greater detail. By means of experimental data it is found that modelling of the phase transition during the process is highly important for predicting correct wall thickness distributions. (author)

Wiesche, S. aus der [Kautex Textron GmbH and Co., Bonn (Germany)

2004-11-01

303

Comparative analysis of structural concrete Quality Assurance practices on nine nuclear and three fossil fuel power plant construction projects. Final summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary of two reports, COO/4120-1 and COO/4120-2, is given. A comparative analysis was made of the Quality Assurance practices related to the structural concrete phase on nine nuclear and three fossil fuel power plant projects which are (or have been) under construction in the United States in the past ten years. For the nuclear projects the analysis identified the response of each Quality Assurance program to the applicable criteria of 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix B as well as to the pertinent regulatory requirements and industry standards. For the fossil projects the analysis identified the response of each Quality Assurance program to criteria similar to those which were applicable in the nuclear situation. The major emphasis was placed on the construction aspects of the structural concrete phase of each project. The engineering and design aspects were examined whenever they interfaced with the construction aspects

1978-01-01

304

Radiocarbon observations in atmospheric CO2: Determining fossil fuel CO2 over Europe using Jungfraujoch observations as background  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monthly mean 14CO2 observations at two regional stations in Germany (Schauinsland observatory, Black Forest, and Heidelberg, upper Rhine valley) are compared with free tropospheric background measurements at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps) to estimate the regional fossil fuel CO2 surplus at the regional stations. The long-term mean fossil fuel CO2 surplus at Schauinsland is 1.31 ± 0.09 ppm while it is 10.96 ± 0.20 ppm in Heidelberg. No significant trend is observed at both sites over the last 20 years. Strong seasonal variations of the fossil fuel CO2 offsets indicate a strong seasonality of emissions but also of atmospheric dilution of ground level emissions by vertical mixing

2008-03-01

305

Options for the Swedish steel industry - Energy efficiency measures and fuel conversion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The processes of iron and steel making are energy intensive and consume large quantities of electricity and fossil fuels. In order to meet future climate targets and energy prices, the iron and steel industry has to improve its energy and resource efficiency. For the iron and steel industry to utilize its energy resources more efficiently and at the same time reduce its CO2 emissions a number of options are available. In this paper, opportunities for both integrated and scrap-based steel plan...

Johansson, Maria; So?derstro?m, Mats

2011-01-01

306

Prospects for conversion of solar energy into chemical fuels: the concept of a solar fuels industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is, at present, no solar fuels industry anywhere in the world despite the well-publicized needs to replace our depleting stock of fossil fuels with renewable energy sources. Many obstacles have to be overcome in order to store sunlight in the form of chemical potential, and there are severe barriers to surmount in order to produce energy on a massive scale, at a modest price and in a convenient form. It is also essential to allow for the intermittent nature of sunlight, its diffusiveness and variability and to cope with the obvious need to use large surface areas for light collection. Nonetheless, we have no alternative but to devise viable strategies for storage of sunlight as biomass or chemical feedstock. Simple alternatives, such as solar heating, are attractive in terms of quick demonstrations but are not the answer. Photo-electrochemical devices might serve as the necessary machinery by which to generate electronic charge but the main problem is to couple these charges to the multi-electron catalysis needed to drive energy-storing chemical reactions. Several potential fuels (CO, H?, HCOOH, NH?, O?, speciality organics, etc.) are possible, but the photochemical reduction of CO? deserves particular mention because of ever-growing concerns about overproduction of greenhouse gases. The prospects for achieving these reactions under ambient conditions are considered herein. PMID:23816906

Harriman, Anthony

2013-08-13

307

Industrial aspects of spent fuel storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of its programme for expanding the reprocessing facilities at the La Hague plant, Cogema has entrusted the Societe generale pour les techniques nouvelles with the task of constructing the new installations required for the storage and reprocessing of spent fuel from French and foreign PWR and BWR plants. The main industrial aspects of the design and operation of the following reception and storage facilities are described: the NPH facility (Nouvelles Piscines de La Hague) which has been in operation since February 1981, the T0 facility (dry unloading) and the storage ponds C,D and E. Also described are the techniques used for reprocessing spent fuel transport casks in the NPH facility (reception, preparation for unloading, decontamination after removal from the pond), the auxiliary functions of the facility (water treatment, control of the installations), and some of the special devices that have been installed. The T0 facility now under construction is described; each facility will be used for the dry unloading of transport casks as of 1985. Finally, the salient characteristics are given of the four storage ponds, each of which can accommodate 2000 t of spent initial uranium fuel. A number of prototypes are used in the installations making up the reception and storage facilities. The most important of these are described: spent fuel transfer equipment, heat exchangers, handling equipment, etc. Facility construction costs are then compared. In conclusion, the experience gained at La Hague in the reception and treatment of LWR spent fuel transport casks is described and an explanation is given of how this experience is reflected in the design of the facilities for future UP2-800 and UP3 plants. (author)

1982-09-13

308

Additive and fuel mixture to prevent corrosion and ash deposition in plants operated with fossil fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The patent claim refers to an additive to prevent corrosion and ash deposition in oils, steam boilers, diesel engines and gas turbines where fuel oils with ash content are used. The additive consists of a silicon and a magnesium compound. According to the invention, the ratio SiO/sub 2/:MgO is higher than 2:1. The magnesium compound is magnesium acetate, chloride, sulfonate, naphthenate, oleate or octoate, while the silicon compound is an organic silicon compound. At least 0.05 parts by weight of combined SiO/sub 2/ and MgO equivalent per part by weight of ash are added to the fuel. When using the fuel in gas turbines with vanadium and/or alkali metal as impurities, at least two parts by weight of magnesium per part by weight of vanadium and at least two parts by weight of silicon per part by weight of alkali metal are added to the fuel.

Scott, J.F.

1977-01-27

309

Future contracts in the nuclear fuel industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a modern futures market, standardized contracts for future delivery of a commodity are traded through an exchange that establishes contract terms and the rules of trading. The futures contract itself is simply an agreement between a buyer and a seller in which the seller is obligated to deliver and the buyer is obligated to accept a predetermined quantity of a specified commodity at a given location on a certain date in the future for a set price. Organized futures markets aid in price discovery; provide a risk management tool for those with commercial interests in a commodity; create speculative opportunities; and contribute to competitiveness, efficiency, and fairness in trading. There are, at present, no standardized futures contracts in the nuclear fuel industry, although the concept has been discovered for years. The idea has been raised again recently in relation to the disposition of Russian uranium. Some adaptation of traditional futures contracts, traded on an exchange composed of nuclear fuel industry participants, could provide many of the benefits found in other commodity futures markets

1995-07-01

310

Toxic and hazardous air pollutants from co-firing biomass fuels, fossil fuels, MSW and RDF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Toxic and hazardous pollutants are defined and then are considered from the perspective of pollutants which enter the combustion process with the fuel (principally the metals and metallic compounds) and pollutants which are formed as products of incomplete combustion. Control strategies are reviewed through the entire process including fuel preparation and storage, combustion control and the application of air pollution control devices. Measurement techniques for specific toxic and hazardous air pollutants are discussed

1991-03-18

311

Determination of heating value of industrial waste for the formulation of alternative fuels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of alternative fuels has become increasingly widespread. They are basically designed based on industrial waste so that they can substitute fossil fuels which start to become scarce. Alternative fuels must meet some criteria, namely an important calorific content, minimum humidity and ash content. When it comes to combustion, the most interesting parameter is the calorific value which represents the thermal energy released during combustion. The experiments that were conducted showed that the calorific value is influenced by other parameters namely moisture and ash content. It was therefore necessary to study the behavior of the heating value in terms of these two parameters in order to establish a relationship that is used to describe the behavior. This is expected to allow a simulation of the calorific value of a mixture of various industrial waste.

Bouabid G.

2013-09-01

312

Atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 record in Debrecen city during the winter of 2008  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Fossil fuel CO2 content in the air of a major Hungarian city (Debrecen) was determined using together measurement of CO2 mixing ratio and radiocarbon (14C) content of air. In this project we developed a high precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station in Debrecen. An integrating sampling system (developed by ATOMKI) was applied for radiocarbon measurements. One sampler was installed in Debrecen station and two independent 14CO2 sampling line were installed 300 km far from Debrecen at Hegyhatsal station as independent background references, where high precision atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurement is also running since 1997. During the winter of 2008/09 we measured the mixing ratio and radiocarbon content of atmospheric CO2 at Debrecen and the reference station simultaneously. It was concluded that trends in CO2 mixing ratio variations in time are very similar at the three different sampling points (3 m above ground in Debrecen, 10 m and 115 m above ground in Hegyhatsal). Air quality in Debrecen during September of 2008 seemed to be relatively clear from the point of view of its CO2 content at least When winter came closer in October, with lover outside temperature and less sunshine hours the CO2 content of air was increased in general at all the three sampling points, but this effect was more intensive closer to the ground level. According our radiocarbon observations it was clearly indicated that there was not significant amount of fossil fuel CO2 in the air of Debrecen during September in 2008. But during the winter of 2008/09 the ?14C value of atmospheric CO2 of Debrecen decreased with more than 40 per mill relative to September's results, and according our calculations it was caused by about 20 ppm fossil fuel CO2 which appeared as a surplus amount in the air above the September level (Figure 1.). Acknowledgements This research project was supported by Hungarian NSF (Ref No. OTKA-F69029) and Isotoptech Zrt.

2009-01-01

313

Options for the Swedish steel industry - Energy efficiency measures and fuel conversion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The processes of iron and steel making are energy intensive and consume large quantities of electricity and fossil fuels. In order to meet future climate targets and energy prices, the iron and steel industry has to improve its energy and resource efficiency. For the iron and steel industry to utilize its energy resources more efficiently and at the same time reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions a number of options are available. In this paper, opportunities for both integrated and scrap-based steel plants are presented and some of the options are electricity production, fuel conversion, methane reforming of coke oven gas and partnership in industrial symbiosis. The options are evaluated from a system perspective and more specific measures are reported for two Swedish case companies: SSAB Strip Products and Sandvik AB. The survey shows that both case companies have great potentials to reduce their CO{sub 2} emissions.

Johansson, M.T.; Soderstrom, M. [Linkoping University, Linkoping (Sweden). Dept. of Management & Engineering

2011-01-15

314

Fossil fuel-fired power generation. Case studies of recently constructed coal- and gas-fired plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To meet future energy demand growth and replace older or inefficient units, a large number of fossil fuel-fired plants will be required to be built worldwide in the next decade. Yet CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fired power generation are a major contributor to climate change. As a result, new plants must be designed and operated at highest efficiency both to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and to facilitate deployment of CO{sub 2} capture and storage in the future. The series of case studies in this report, which respond to a request to the IEA from the G8 Summit in July 2005, were conducted to illustrate what efficiency is achieved now in modern plants in different parts of the world using different grades of fossil fuels. The plants were selected from different geographical areas, because local factors influence attainable efficiency. The case studies include pulverized coal combustion (PCC) with both subcritical and supercritical (very high pressure and temperature) steam turbine cycles, a review of current and future applications of coal-fuelled integrated gasification combined cycle plants (IGCC), and a case study of a natural gas fired combined cycle plant to facilitate comparisons. The results of these analyses show that the technologies for high efficiency (low CO{sub 2} emission) and very low conventional pollutant emissions (particulates, SO{sub 2}, NOx) from fossil fuel-fired power generation are available now through PCC, IGCC or NGCC at commercially acceptable cost. This report contains comprehensive technical and indicative cost information for modern fossil fuel-fired plants that was previously unavailable. It serves as a valuable sourcebook for policy makers and technical decision makers contemplating decisions to build new fossil fuel-fired power generation plants.

Henderson, C. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

2007-10-23

315

The Kyoto Protocol and the fossil fuel markets under different emission trading regimes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences of the Kyoto Protocol for the fossil fuel markets depend on which policy instruments that are used in order to reach the emission targets. This paper uses a numerical model to assess the significance of international emission trading for the oil, coal and gas markets. Three different trading regimes are compared. Particular attention is devoted to the EU proposal about limits on acquisitions and transfers of emission permits. We find that the EU proposal will be non-binding for buyers of emission permits but will significantly constrain the sale of emission permits from Eastern Europe. The EU proposal will increase the level of abatement in Annex B countries and will cause a sharp increase in the price of permits compared to the free trade equilibrium. (author)

2000-01-01

316

Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); Summers, Cathy A. (Albany, OR); Gerdemann, Steve (Albany, OR); Oryshchyn, Danylo B. (Philomath, OR); Turner, Paul (Independence, OR); Patrick, Brian R. (Chicago, IL)

2011-10-18

317

Significant long-term increase of fossil fuel CO2 uptake from reduced marine calcification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analysis of available plankton manipulation experiments demonstrates a previously unrecognized wide range of sensitivities of biogenic calcification to simulated anthropogenic acidification of the ocean, with the "lab rat" of planktic calcifiers, Emiliania huxleyi not representative of calcification generally. We assess the implications of the experimental uncertainty in plankton calcification response by creating an ensemble of realizations of an Earth system model that encapsulates a comparable range of uncertainty in calcification response. We predict a substantial future reduction in marine carbonate production, with ocean CO2 sequestration across the model ensemble enhanced by between 62 and 199 PgC by the year 3000, equivalent to a reduction in the atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 burden at that time of up to 13%. Concurrent changes in ocean circulation and surface temperatures contribute about one third to the overall importance of reduced plankton calcification.

J. Bijma

2006-11-01

318

Fossil fuel characterization using laser desorption mass spectrometry: Applications and limitations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laser desorption mass spectroscopy (LDMS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI) are applicable to the high molecular weight compounds in fossil fuels which resist intact ionization. LD or MALDI of coals and extracts do not show reproducible ion intensity over mass 2000. This paper describes the scope and limitations of LD and MALD in time-of-flight mass spectrometers applied to high molecular weight molecules such as proteins and polymers. Coal was also analyzed. It is concluded that the sample preparation step is perhaps the most important part in MALDI. Observed high mass ions in coal may be from contaminant proteins. Optimal matrices must be found. Finally, the mass spectrum is senstive to number average molecular weight; a low value, however, does not preclude presence of high molecular weight species.

Hunt, J.E.; Winans, R.E.

1995-08-01

319

Invasion of fossil-fuel CO/sub 2/ into the ocean  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Uptake of fossil-fuel CO/sub 2/ by the ocean is calculated using one-dimensional box-diffusion-type ocean models and two-dimensional isopycnal ventilation-type models. The total uptake of CO/sub 2/ using the individual box-diffusion model calibrated for different regions of the ocean is essentially the same as that predicted by the original Oeschger global box-diffusion model. A modified box-diffusion model with deep-water formation, upwelling, nutrient cycling, and two separate vertical-mixing rates predict an uptake about 25% higher. The temperate thermocline model of the North Atlantic indicates that the two-dimensional isopycnal ventilation model may not necessarily take up more excess CO/sub 2/ than the one-dimensional vertical-mixing-type model.

Peng, T.H.

1983-01-01

320

Character and transformation of pollutants from major fossil fuel energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is concerned with factors influencing ecosystem effects of air pollutants from major fossil-fuel energy sources. Chemical speciation of major effluents, the variations in source term associated with type of source, and other factors which influence the characteristics of the effluent at the source/atmosphere interface are discussed. The major current and potential sources of energy-derived pollutant burdens, and projected future patterns of energy production are reviewed. In addition, factors controlling transformation of pollutants during atmospheric transport are described. The most critical controlling factors are identified, as are the major effluent constituents for which transformation is most significant. The chemical species which ultimately reach the atmosphere/vegetation interface are described with regard to their relative potential for effects on terrestrial ecosystems.

Shriner, D. S.; McLaughlin, S. B.; Baes, C. F.

1977-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

Vapor pressures and saturated-liquid densities of heavy fossil-fuel fractions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements are reported for vapor pressures and saturated liquid densities of characterized fossil-fuel fractions. Vapor pressures were measured for 12 fractions and densities for 30 fractions. The fractions originated from crude oils, coal liquid, and tar sands. Initial atmospheric boiling points of the fractions range from 492 to 700 K. Vapor pressures to 575 K were measured by using an ebulliometer; between 1 and 7 wt % of the sample was vaporized during these measurements. Saturated liquid densities were measured between 292 and 578 K by using sealed glass cells heated in an air bath. For most samples, the measured properties showed only small observable effects of cracking. The data reported may be useful for testing correlations used in process-design calculations.

Schwarz, B.J.; Wilhelm, J.A.; Prausnitz, J.M.

1988-11-01

322

Solid fossil-fuel recovery by electrical induction heating in situ - A proposal  

Science.gov (United States)

A technique, termed electrical induction heating, is proposed for in situ processes of energy production from solid fossil fuels, such as bitumen production from underground distillation of oil sand; oil by underground distillation of oil shale; petroleum from heavy oil by underground mobilization of heavy oil, from either residues of conventional liquid petroleum deposits or new deposits of viscous oil; methane and coal tar from lignite and coal deposits by underground distillation of coal; and generation of electricity by surface combustion of low calorific-value gas from underground coke gasification by combustion of the organic residue left from the underground distillation of coal by induction heating. A method of surface distillation of mined coking coal by induction heating to produce coke, methane, and coal tar is also proposed.

Fisher, S.

1980-04-01

323

Isotopic measurements of atmospheric methane in Los Angeles, California, USA: Influence of “fugitive” fossil fuel emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have suggested that CH4 emissions in Los Angeles and other large cities may be underestimated. We utilized stable isotopes (13C and D) and radiocarbon (14C) to investigate sources of CH4 in Los Angeles, California. First, we made measurements of ?13C and ?D of various CH4 sources in urban areas. Fossil fuel CH4 sources (oil refineries, power plants, traffic, and oil drilling fields) had ?13C values between -45 and -30‰ and dD values between -275 and -100‰, whereas biological CH4 (cows, biofuels, landfills, sewage treatment plants, and cattle feedlots) had ?13C values between -65 and -45‰ and ?D values between -350 and -275‰. We made high-altitude observations of CH4 concentration using continuous tunable laser spectroscopy measurements combined with isotope analyses (13C, 14C, and D) of discrete samples to constrain urban CH4 sources. Our data indicate that the dominant source of CH4 in Los Angeles has a ?13C value of approximately -41.5‰ and a ?D value between -229 and -208‰. ?14C of CH4 in urban air samples ranged from +262 to +344‰ (127.1 to 134.9 pMC), depleted with respect to average global background CH4. We conclude that the major source of CH4 in Los Angeles is leakage of fossil fuels, such as from geologic formations, natural gas pipelines, oil refining, and/or power plants. More research is needed to constrain fluxes of CH4 from natural gas distribution and refining, as this flux may increase with greater reliance on natural gas and biogas for energy needs.

Townsend-Small, Amy; Tyler, Stanley C.; Pataki, Diane E.; Xu, Xiaomei; Christensen, Lance E.

2012-04-01

324

Experimental method for measuring solubilities of heavy fossil-fuel fractions in compressed gases to 100 bar and 300/sup 0/C  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new experimental method has been developed to measure solubilities of narrow-boiling, heavy fossil-fuel fractions in compressed gases. Solubilities are determined from the volume of gas required to vaporize completely a small, measured mass of fossil-fuel sample. This method has been used successfully for several heavy solutes dissolved in compressed methane.

Monge, A.; Prausnitz, J.M.

1981-11-01

325

Control of SO2 and NOx emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants: Research and practice of TPRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The generation of electric power in China has been dominated by coal for many years. By the end of 1990, total installed generating capacity reached 135 GW, of which fossil fuel-fired plants accounted for 74 percent. The total electricity generated reached 615 TWh, with fossil fuels accounting for 80.5 percent. About 276 million tons of raw coal are consumed in these fossil fuel-burning units per year, accounting for about 25 percent of the total output of the country. According to the government, by the year 2000, the total installed capacity of Chinese power systems should be at least 240 GW, of which fossil fuels will account for about 77 percent. The coal required for power generation will increase to about 530 million tons per year, accounting for about 38 percent of the total coal output. So, it is obvious that coal consumed in coal-fired power plants occupies a very important place in the national fuel balance. The current environmental protection standards, which are based on ground-level concentrations of pollutants, do not effectively lead to the control of pollution emission concentrations or total SO2 emissions. Due to the practical limitations of the Chinese economy, there is a limited capability to introduce advanced sulfur emission control technologies. Thus, except for the two 360 MW units imported from Japan for the Luohuang Power Plant in Shichuan province, all the other fossil fuel-fired units have not yet adopted any kind of SO2 removal measures. The Luohuang units are equipped with Mitsubishi limestone flue gas desulfurization systems. Because of the lack of effective pollution control technologies, large areas of the country have been seriously polluted by SO2, and some of them even by acid rain

1993-01-01

326

Contextualizing avian mortality: A preliminary appraisal of bird and bat fatalities from wind, fossil-fuel, and nuclear electricity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article explores the threats that wind farms pose to birds and bats before briefly surveying the recent literature on avian mortality and summarizing some of the problems with it. Based on operating performance in the United States and Europe, this study offers an approximate calculation for the number of birds killed per kWh generated for wind electricity, fossil-fuel, and nuclear power systems. The study estimates that wind farms and nuclear power stations are responsible each for between 0.3 and 0.4 fatalities per gigawatt-hour (GWh) of electricity while fossil-fueled power stations are responsible for about 5.2 fatalities per GWh. While this paper should be respected as a preliminary assessment, the estimate means that wind farms killed approximately seven thousand birds in the United States in 2006 but nuclear plants killed about 327,000 and fossil-fueled power plants 14.5 million. The paper concludes that further study is needed, but also that fossil-fueled power stations appear to pose a much greater threat to avian wildlife than wind and nuclear power technologies.

Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)], E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg

2009-06-15

327

DEVELOPMENT OF SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION SOURCES  

Science.gov (United States)

The report documents the technical approach and results achieved while developing a grab sampling method and an automated, on-line gas chromatography method suitable to characterize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fossil fuel combustion sources. he two methods developed have b...

328

Hydrogenation of Indonesian and Australian coals under low pressure hydrogen (6-10 MPa) on Fossil Fuel Institute technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data on hydrogenation of Indonesian and Australian coals in the presence of tetralin and oil paste-forming agent at low-pressure hydrogen (6 and 10 MPa) using Fossil Fuel Institute technology are given in this report. The fitness of indicated coals as feedstock for the production of liquid products is estimated. 3 tabs.

Maloletnev, A.S.; Krichko, A.A.; Mazneva, O.A.; Kaneko, T.; Kageyama, Y.; Shimasaki, K. [Fossil Fuel Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1998-07-01

329

FEASIBILITY OF PRODUCING AND MARKETING BYPRODUCT GYPSUM FROM SO2 EMISSION CONTROL AT FOSSIL-FUEL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study to identify fossil-fuel-fired power plants that might, in competition with existing crude gypsum sources and other power plants, lower the cost of compliance with SO2 regulations by producing and marketing abatement gypsum. In the Eastern U.S.,...

330

Inferring high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 records at continental sites from combined 14CO2 and CO observations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An uncertainty estimate of a purely observational approach to derive hourly regional fossil fuel CO2 offsets ((delta)CO2(foss)) at continental CO2 monitoring sites is presented. Weekly mean 14C-based fossil fuel CO2 mixing ratios and corresponding regional CO offsets ((delta)CO) are proposed to determine weekly mean (delta)CO/(delta)CO2(foss) ratios in order to derive hourly (delta)CO2(foss) mixing ratios from hourly (delta)CO measurements. Respective regional model estimates of CO and CO2(foss) are applied to test this approach and obtain root mean square errors of the correspondingly determined regional hourly fossil fuel CO2 component. The method is further validated with campaign-based observations in Heidelberg. The uncertainty of the proposed method turns out to increase with decreasing fossil fuel CO2 fraction ranging from about 15% up to 40% for continental Europe. Together with the uncertainty of the (delta)CO/(delta)CO2(foss) ratio, which is determined by the precision of the 14CO2 measurement, this method is still more accurate and precise than any model-based approach

2007-02-01

331

Role of the Netherlands in fossil fuel projects of multilateral banks; Nederlandse rol bij fossiele brandstofprojecten van de multilaterale banken  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the study on the title subject is to gain insight in the contribution of the Netherlands to the financing and the reduction of CO2-emission of fossil fuel projects, financed by banks in which the Netherlands participate as shareholder: World Bank; Inter-American Development Bank; African Development Bank; Asian Development Bank; European Investment Bank; European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Fossil fuel projects are projects for the exploitation, transport and or processing of fossil fuels, and projects in fossil-fuel power plants in the time period 1992-2004. [Dutch] Doel van dit rapport is om inzicht te krijgen in het Nederlandse aandeel in financiering en CO2-uitstoot van de fossiele brandstofprojecten die door de volgende multilaterale banken (waarvan Nederland aandeelhouder is) worden gefinancierd: Wereldbank; Inter-American Development Bank; African Development Bank; Asian Development Bank; European Investment Bank; European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Onder fossiele brandstofprojecten worden verstaan projecten voor winning, transport en/of verwerking van aardolie, aardgas en steenkool, en elektriciteitscentrales waar fossiele brandstoffen verstookt worden. Het onderzoek is gericht op fossiele brandstofprojecten die gefinancierd zijn in de periode 1992-2004.

Van Gelder, J.W.; Pols, D. (eds.)

2005-06-15

332

Fossil fuels and the global carbon dioxide problem. Disposal and recycling of carbon dioxide may reduce the greenhouse effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greenhouse gas reduction was defined as a global concern at the Kyoto conference of 1997. The emission reduction goals can be reached only if all options for energy saving and emission reduction are used, including disposal or recycling of carbon dioxide in fossil fuel combustion processes

1999-10-15

333

Creation of industrial-scale MOX fuel fabrication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Rosatom Corporation's innovative development plans the high-density fuel development projects are combined with industrial-scale development and introduction of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The need for the MOX fuel fabrication to be created is further dictated by the treaty between Russia and the United States calling for 34 tonnes of weapon-grade plutonium to be disposed. The vibration compaction technology to create the fuel stacks for rods to be used in fast reactors is described. The industrial-scale MOX fuel fabrication is set at the MCC. The core of the under-construction BN-800 reactor unit at Beloyarsk will include MOX fuel assemblies.

2012-01-01

334

Fossil fuels: technical, economical and political challenges for 2030-2050; Combustibles fossiles: enjeux techniques, economiques et politiques a l'horizon 2030-2050  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This panorama takes stock on the international energy actuality in 2003 and discusses the instability of the geo-political context of the energy and the part of the fossil fuels for the future years 2030-2050. The following topics were presented: activities and market for the exploration-production, refining and petrochemistry, the world gas trade situation, the petroleum supply and demand, the Iraq, the diesel in the USA, the investments and the depletion, long-dated evolutions of motors and fuels, implementing of the european directive concerning the market of tradable permits of CO{sub 2}, the carbon sequestration, hydrogen the energy of the future and the biofuels in Europe. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2004-07-01

335

An overview of alternative fossil fuel price and carbon regulation scenarios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The benefits of the Department of Energy's research and development (R&D) efforts have historically been estimated under business-as-usual market and policy conditions. In recognition of the insurance value of R&D, however, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) have been exploring options for evaluating the benefits of their R&D programs under an array of alternative futures. More specifically, an FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group (the Working Group) has proposed to EERE and FE staff the application of an initial set of three scenarios for use in the Working Group's upcoming analyses: (1) a Reference Case Scenario, (2) a High Fuel Price Scenario, which includes heightened natural gas and oil prices, and (3) a Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario. The immediate goal is to use these scenarios to conduct a pilot analysis of the benefits of EERE and FE R&D efforts. In this report, the two alternative scenarios being considered by EERE and FE staff--carbon cap-and-trade and high fuel prices--are compared to other scenarios used by energy analysts and utility planners. The report also briefly evaluates the past accuracy of fossil fuel price forecasts. We find that the natural gas prices through 2025 proposed in the FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group's High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable based on current natural gas prices and other externally generated gas price forecasts and scenarios. If anything, an even more extreme gas price scenario might be considered. The price escalation from 2025 to 2050 within the proposed High Fuel Price Scenario is harder to evaluate, primarily because few existing forecasts or scenarios extend beyond 2025, but, at first blush, it also appears reasonable. Similarly, we find that the oil prices originally proposed by the Working Group in the High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable, if not conservative, based on: (1) the current forward market for oil, (2) current oil prices, (3) externally generated oil price forecasts, and (4) the historical difficulty in accurately forecasting oil prices. Overall, a spread between the FE-EERE High Oil Price and Reference scenarios of well over $8/bbl is supported by the literature. We conclude that a wide range of carbon regulation scenarios are possible, especially within the time frame considered by EERE and FE (through 2050). The Working Group's Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario is found to be less aggressive than many Kyoto-style targets that have been analyzed, and similar in magnitude to the proposed Climate Stewardship Act. The proposed scenario is more aggressive than some other scenarios found in the literature, however, and ignores carbon banking and offsets and does not allow nuclear power to expand. We are therefore somewhat concerned that the stringency of the proposed carbon regulation scenario in the 2010 to 2025 period will lead to a particularly high estimated cost of carbon reduction. As described in more detail later, we encourage some flexibility in the Working Group's ultimate implementation of the Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario. We conclude by identifying additional scenarios that might be considered in future analyses, describing a concern with the proposed specification of the High Fuel Price Scenario, and highlighting the possible difficulty of implementing extreme scenarios with current energy modeling tools.

Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2004-10-01

336

A numerical analysis of worldwide CO{sub 2} emissions based on fossil fuels and effects on atmospheric warming in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The climate system of the earth, globally and locally, obviously has been changed from pre-industrial period to present. Some of the changes are due to human activities where the vital role has been played by the emission. Fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, oil), the raw materials for energy, play an effective and determining role in the development and sustenance of industrial development, as well as in the energy planning in all major countries. When global and regional geographies are evaluated from the geo-strategic and geo-political points of view, it is clearly seen that among all fossil fuels, coal is distributed more 'equally' in ratio than oil and natural gas reserves. Coal is gradually gaining importance for countries that do not have energy resources, have limited ones, or have resources on the verge of exhaustion. With the latest environmentally-friendly technological innovations in the field of burning-storing CO2 emissions in thermal power plants and given today's emphasis on the principle of 'sustainable development,' it is an undeniable fact that coal will continue to be a significant primary energy resource in the future, both in Turkey and around the world. In this study, in order to numerically calculate the impact of CO2 from fossil fuel consumption on global warming and the process of climate change, a global scale numerical evaluation has been constructed. The evaluation utilizes the 'total primary energy supply (TPES) - CO2 emission' from 136 countries in 2004 together with such basic indicators as 'TPES/capita' and 'ton CO2/capita'. The potential CO2 emission for the year 2030 has also been estimated. Moreover, to maintain the integrity of the subject under study, the distribution of thermal power plants utilizing fossil fuels among the differing geographical regions of Turkey, the relationship between forests (F) in these regions, and the average annual increase in temperature ({delta}T) between 1975-92 and 1993-2006 have also been examined. Data was taken from 133 macro-climatic meteorological stations within the scope of this study.

Tokgoz, Nuray

2007-07-01

337

ORSIM, Nuclear Fuel, Fossil Fuel Hydroelectric Power Plant Cost and Economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of problem or function: ORSIM is an electric power generating system integration model which simulates the multi-year operation of a mixed power system consisting of fossil, nuclear, hydroelectric, and pumped-storage units. For any specified refueling schedule for nuclear units and future load forecast, the model determines a plan of operation for the system which attempts to minimize the total discounted operating cost over a specified study period. The analysis considers the effects of forced outages, spinning reserve operating constraints, and scheduled introduction and retirement of generating stations. The model determines a maintenance schedule for the non-nuclear stations (nuclear stations are maintained during refueling outages) and the optimum allocation of energy-fixed nuclear and hydroelectric resources. It calculates the expected energy generated by each station in the system, by period over the planning horizon, based on input or calculated incremental operating cost. It also calculates the expected loss-of- load probability and un-served energy demand for each period in the planning horizon. An optimum operating plan, designed to minimize the discounted total production cost, is then calculated, as are the costs of operating each station in the system and the discounted total production cost for the derived plan of operation. 2 - Method of solution: ORSIM searches for a particular mode of operation which, over a multi-year planning horizon, will minimize the total system operating cost of a particular electric power generation system discounted to the beginning of the planning horizon. It does this by: (a) calculating the planned maintenance outages for all units; (b) estimating the incremental discounted cost of energy produced by each station in the system for every subinterval of the planning horizon; (c) utilizing the incremental discounted costs of energy generation to calculate, via probabilistic simulation, the economic optimum energies generated by each station in the system in each subinterval of the planning horizon; (d) utilizing these expected energies in a feedback loop to calculate the total discounted operation cost and to produce a new set of incremental discounted costs, thereby setting the stage for the next iteration. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of: 90 nuclear stations, 90 must-run stations (i.e., stations which must operate at a specified capacity level when available), 90 two-piece stations (i.e., stations considered to be divided into two capacity blocks in the loading order calculation), 90 stations per system, 90 maintenance seasons

1984-01-01

338

Towards Robust Energy Systems Modeling: Examinging Uncertainty in Fossil Fuel-Based Life Cycle Assessment Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing concerns about the environmental impacts of fossil fuels used in the U.S. transportation and electricity sectors have spurred interest in alternate energy sources, such as natural gas and biofuels. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methods can be used to estimate the environmental impacts of incumbent energy sources and potential impact reductions achievable through the use of alternate energy sources. Some recent U.S. climate policies have used the results of LCAs to encourage the use of low carbon fuels to meet future energy demands in the U.S. However, the LCA methods used to estimate potential reductions in environmental impact have some drawbacks. First, the LCAs are predominantly based on deterministic approaches that do not account for any uncertainty inherent in life cycle data and methods. Such methods overstate the accuracy of the point estimate results, which could in turn lead to incorrect and (consequent) expensive decision-making. Second, system boundaries considered by most LCA studies tend to be limited (considered a manifestation of uncertainty in LCA). Although LCAs can estimate the benefits of transitioning to energy systems of lower environmental impact, they may not be able to characterize real world systems perfectly. Improved modeling of energy systems mechanisms can provide more accurate representations of reality and define more likely limits on potential environmental impact reductions. This dissertation quantitatively and qualitatively examines the limitations in LCA studies outlined previously. The first three research chapters address the uncertainty in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with petroleum-based fuels, natural gas and coal consumed in the U.S. The uncertainty in life cycle GHG emissions from fossil fuels was found to range between 13 and 18% of their respective mean values. For instance, the 90% confidence interval of the life cycle GHG emissions of average natural gas consumed in the U.S was found to range between -8 to 9% (17%) of the mean value of 66 g CO2e/MJ. Results indicate that uncertainty affects the conclusions of comparative life cycle assessments, especially when differences in average environmental impacts between two competing fuels/products are small. In the final two research chapters of this thesis, system boundary limitations in LCA are addressed. Simplified economic dispatch models for are developed to examine changes in regional power plant dispatch that occur when coal power plants are retired and when natural gas prices drop. These models better reflect reality by estimating the order in which existing power plants are dispatched to meet electricity demand based on short-run marginal costs. Results indicate that the reduction in air emissions are lower than suggested by LCA studies, since they generally do not include the complexity of regional electricity grids, predominantly driven by comparative fuel prices. For instance, comparison, this study estimates 7-15% reductions in emissions with low natural gas prices. Although this is a significant reduction in itself, it is still lower than the benefits reported in traditional life cycle comparisons of coal and natural gas-based power (close to 50%), mainly due to the effects of plant dispatch.

Venkatesh, Aranya

339

Atmospheric observations of carbon monoxide and fossil fuel CO2 emissions from East Asia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Flask samples from two sites in East Asia, Tae-Ahn Peninsula, Korea (TAP), and Shangdianzi, China (SDZ), were measured for trace gases including CO2, CO and fossil fuel CO2(CO(2)ff, derived from Delta(CO2)-C-14 observations). The five-year TAP record shows high CO(2)ff when local air comes from the Korean Peninsula. Most samples, however, reflect air masses from Northeastern China with lower CO(2)ff. Our small set of SDZ samples from winter 2009/2010 have strongly elevated CO(2)ff. Biospheric CO2 contributes substantially to total CO2 variability at both sites, even in winter when non-fossil CO2 sources (including photosynthesis, respiration, biomass burning and biofuel use) contribute 20-30% of the total CO2 enhancement. Carbon monoxide (CO) correlates strongly with CO(2)ff. The SDZ and TAP far-field (China influenced) samples have CO: CO(2)ff ratios (R-CO:CO2ff) of 47 +/- 2 and 44 +/- 3 ppb/ppm respectively, consistent with recent bottom-up inventory estimates and other observational studies. Locally influenced TAP samples fall into two distinct data sets, ascribed to air sourced from South Korea and North Korea. The South Korea samples have low R-CO:CO2ff of 13 +/- 3 ppb/ppm, slightly higher than bottom-up inventories, but consistent with emission ratios for other developed nations. We compare our CO(2)ff observations with modeled CO(2)ff using the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model convolved with a bottom-up CO(2)ff emission inventories. The modeled annual mean CO(2)ff mole fractions are consistent with our observations when the model inventory includes the reported 63% increase in Chinese emissions from 2004 to 2010, whereas a model version which holds Chinese emissions flat is unable to replicate the observations.

Turnbull, Jocelyn C.; Tans, Pieter P.

2011-01-01

340

Transforming fossil fuel energy to electricity using MHD with a rare-gas working fluid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The combination of a source of combustion products and a closed cycle containing a rare gas is a very attractive idea since, to the extent that the problem of the heat transfer from the combustion products to the rare gas is solved, it is possible to enjoy the particular advantages of the open or the closed cycle while avoiding their disadvantages. It is not difficult to produce thermal energy at high temperatures in an open cycle. On the other hand, the design of ducts for operation over long periods of time and the treatment of the combustion products in the medium-temperature heat exchangers and at the seed removal stage pose difficult technological problems for which it may not be possible to find economic solutions. In the closed cycle, on the other hand, the technological problems do not seem to be crucial since the operating temperatures are lower and the gases are far less corrosive. Problems arise when one attempts to link a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor to an MHD system as system pressures are incompatible. However, the existence of a heat exchanger capable of transferring to a rare gas, at about 2000°C, thermal energy obtained by the combustion at atmospheric pressure of fossil fuels with air would: (a) Solve the problem of increasing the efficiency with which the energy released by the combustion of the fossil substances is converted into electricity, a problem which research workers are trying to tackle using Open-cycle systems; (b) Permit the study of closed-cycle problems at full scale before a series of high- temperature converters is launched. In the first part of the paper the authors examine a heat exchanger design that meets these requirements. In the second part they consider the general characteristics of power plants built around such heat exchangers and assess their conversion efficiency. In the third part they study in detail a specific commercial power station project. (author)

1968-11-01

 
 
 
 
341

Industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

2007-12-01

342

Determination of fossil fraction of refuse derived fuel by the selective dissolution method in calorific value basis:Development of simplified method.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Determination of net CO2 emissions from combustion of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) is not straight forward due to the heterogeneous nature of the fuel. The fossil fraction of the fuel is an essential parameter for the determination of net CO2 emissions. In the present study, the fossil fraction of RDF is determined by means of the Selective Dissolution Method (SDM) in calorific value basis. Seven artificially made RDF mixtures were tested using this method. The mixtures were prepared by mixing d...

Ariyaratne, Hiromi Wijesinghe; Asgautsen, Øyvind; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Eine, Kristin; Tokheim, Lars Andre

2012-01-01

343

Determination of fossil fraction of refuse derived fuel by the selective dissolution method in calorific value basis: Development of simplified method.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Determination of net CO2 emissions from combustion of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) is not straight forward due to the heterogeneous nature of the fuel. The fossil fraction of the fuel is an essential parameter for the determination of net CO2 emissions. In the present study, the fossil fraction of RDF is determined by means of the Selective Dissolution Method (SDM) in calorific value basis. Seven artificially made RDF mixtures were tested using this method. The mixtures were prepa...

Ariyaratne, Hiromi Wijesinghe; Asgautsen, Øyvind; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Eine, Kristin; Tokheim, Lars Andre

2012-01-01

344

Application-oriented fundamental investigations on pressurized conversion of solid, fossil fuels. Final report; Anwendungsgerichtete Grundlagenuntersuchungen zur Umsetzung fester fossiler Brennstoffe unter Druck. Schlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within this project, fundamental data on process conditions and hot gas cleaning issues covering both oxidizing and reducing thermal conversion of solid, fossil fuels under elevated pressure were acquired. Investigations were performed using two domestic coals, a hard coal and a brown coal. The project`s objective was to provide fundamental and transferable results for the new coal conversion technologies Pressurized Pulverized Coal Combustion, Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion and Integrated Coal Gasification. Two test rigs, a Pressurized Entrained Flow Reactor and a Pressurized Fluidized Bed Reactor were planned, designed and constructed. By choosing these two types of reactors the whole range of pressurized fuel conversion (temperatures, residence times and particle loads) could be covered. The influence of the relevant parameters (temperature, residence time, pressure) on flue gas (respectively product gas) composition, especially for the early stage of fuel conversion, was determined. In addition, experiments on pollutant emission (N compounds and alkali vapors) were performed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Innerhalb dieses Vorhabens wurden prozess- und gasreinigungsseitige Grundlagen fuer die oxidierende bzw. reduzierende Umsetzung fester fossiler Brennstoffe unter Druck erarbeitet, wobei jeweils eine heimische Stein- und Braunkohle eingesetzt wurde. Ziel des Projektes war es, fuer die sich in der Entwicklung bzw. Demonstration befindlichen Verfahren grundlegende und uebertragbare Versuchsergebnisse bereitzustellen. Das Vorhaben umfasste Planung, Konstruktion und Bau der Versuchsanlagen sowie die Durchfuehrung der Versuche. Durch die Wahl der zwei Versuchsanlagen - Flugstromreaktor und Wirbelschichtreaktor - wurde das gesamt Spektrum der thermischen Umsetzung unter Druck hinsichtlich Temperaturen, Verweilzeiten und Feststoffbeladung abgedeckt. Der Einfluss der wichtigsten Parameter - Temperatur, Verweilzeit, Druck auf die Rauchgas- bzw. Produktgaszusammensetzung - wurde vor allem im Fruehbereich der thermischen Umsetzung untersucht. Darueberhinaus wurden Experimente zum Emissionsverhalten von Schadstoffen (N-Komponenten und Alkalidaempfe) durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

Hein, K.R.G.; Spliethoff, H.; Bauer, C.; Nagel, H.; Reichelt, T.; Klaiber, C.; Kuner, C.; Leyer, J.

1998-04-30

345

Creating a Global Grid of Distributed Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions from Nighttime Satellite Imagery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The potential use of satellite observed nighttime lights for estimating carbon-dioxide (CO2 emissions has been demonstrated in several previous studies. However, the procedures for a moderate resolution (1 km2 grid cells global map of fossil fuel CO2 emissions based on nighttime lights are still in the developmental phase. We report on the development of a method for mapping distributed fossil fuel CO2 emissions (excluding electric power utilities at 30 arc-seconds or approximately 1 km2 resolution using nighttime lights data collected by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS. A regression model, Model 1, was initially developed based on carbon emissions from five sectors of the Vulcan data produced by the Purdue University and a nighttime satellite image of the U.S. The coefficient derived through Model 1 was applied to the global nighttime image but it resulted in underestimation of CO2 emissions for most of the world’s countries, and the states of the U.S. Thus, a second model, Model 2 was developed by allocating the distributed CO2 emissions (excluding emissions from utilities using a combination of DMSP-OLS nighttime image and population count data from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE LandScan grid. The CO2 emissions were distributed in proportion to the brightness of the DMSP nighttime lights in areas where lighting was detected. In areas with no DMSP detected lighting, the CO2 emissions were distributed based on population count, with the assumption that people who live in these areas emit half as much CO2 as people who live in the areas with DMSP detected lighting. The results indicate that the relationship between satellite observed nighttime lights and CO2 emissions is complex, with differences between sectors and variations in lighting practices between countries. As a result it is not possible to make independent estimates of CO2 emissions with currently available coarse resolution panchromatic satellite observed nighttime lights. However, the nighttime lights image in conjunction with the population grid can help in more accurate disaggregation of national CO2 emissions to a moderate resolution spatial grid.

Benjamin T. Tuttle

2010-12-01

346

The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 7: Nonreplenishable natural resources: Minerals, fossil fuels and geothermal energy sources  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of remotely-sensed information to the mineral, fossil fuel, and geothermal energy extraction industry is investigated. Public and private cost savings are documented in geologic mapping activities. Benefits and capabilities accruing to the ERS system are assessed. It is shown that remote sensing aids in resource extraction, as well as the monitoring of several dynamic phenomena, including disturbed lands, reclamation, erosion, glaciation, and volcanic and seismic activity.

Lietzke, K. R.

1974-01-01

347

Contamination of seafood by radioactivity produced from burning of coal and other fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The environmental impact of radioactivity produced from fossil fuel combustion is investigated. A brief review is given of previous work. The latest calculation of the Oak Ridge group shows that a power plant using coal, which contains 1 ppm of U and 2 ppm of Th, gives a radioactive dose comparable to, or greater than that of a nuclear reactor, even if the dust is removed by up to 99%. A review of the experimental data is given. It is emphasized that "2"1"0Pb and "2"1"0Po, because of their volatility, are expected to be released at much higher rates than other radioactivities and that they are strongly concentrated in marine organisms so that their effect on the Japanese living on seafood may be considerable. An estimate is made for the hazard of "2"1"0Po through the foodchain of marine organisms. Although the uncertainties are still very large, the effect of "2"1"0Po on the Japanese is found to be significant. The collective dose of a 1,000 MW coal-fired power plant in Japan is estimated to be 320 - 16,000 man-rem/year, which should be compared with 20 man-rem/year in the results of the Oak Ridge group, which do not include this foodchain. Comparison with nuclear energy is made. Although the absolute value of the coal-fired power plant is still much smaller than the natural background, its maximum value is three times as large as the total fuel cycle of the full-scale nuclear electricity generation, so its social implications cannot be overlooked. (author)

1979-05-12

348

Comparison of radiative forcing impacts of the use of wood, peat, and fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study investigates the greenhouse impacts and the relevant time factors of the use of peat and wood for energy production and compares them with those of fossil fuels. Emissions and sinks of the whole energy production chain and subsequent use of the wood or peat production site are taken into account. The radiative forcing caused by energy production is used as a measure for the greenhouse impact. Economical considerations are not included. Radiative forcing is calculated for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The real emissions of energy production are calculated by subtracting the emissions of non-use from the emissions of energy production. All the emissions are given as a function of time, i.e. their evolution over time is taken into account. At this point the estimates for some emission developments are quite crude and should be considered exemplary. The studied energy production chains can be divided roughly into three groups, if the greenhouse impact caused by continuous energy production of hundred years is considered. In this case forest residues, planted stands and unused merchantable wood cause the least radiative forcing per unit of primary energy generated. Natural gas and peat from cultivated peatland form the middle group. According to the calculations coal and conventional peat cause the greatest greenhouse impact

1994-06-01

349

Integral power evaluation in fossil fuel power plants; Evaluacion energetica integral en unidades de centrales termoelectricas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this occasion, a methodology is presented that carries out an integral energy evaluation of fossil fuel power plants units (FFPPU) with the purpose of determining the root of the significant decrements of power produced soon after the annual maintenance service. This proposal, besides identifying the origin of the energy efficiency problems, offers information about the contributions of each one of the involved equipment in the total decrement of the unit. With this methodology, the maintenance focuses in the equipment that contributes to the greater energy loss. This document presents such methodology along with its application in a real case, results and necessary remedial actions, demonstrating that its application offers bases for the investment in corrective measures. [Spanish] En esta ocasion se presenta una metodologia que efectua una evaluacion energetica integral de las unidades de centrales termoelectricas (UCT) con el fin de determinar la raiz de los decrementos de potencia significativos producidos luego del servicio anual de mantenimiento. Dicha propuesta, ademas de identificar el origen de los problemas de eficiencia energetica, brinda informacion acerca de las aportaciones de cada uno de los equipos involucrados al decremento total de la unidad. Con esta metodologia, el mantenimiento se enfoca a los equipos que contribuyen a la mayor perdida de potencia. Este documento exhibe tal metodologia junto con su aplicacion en un caso real, resultados y las acciones correctivas necesarias, demostrando que su aplicacion ofrece bases para una inversion futura en medidas correctivas.

Figueroa I, Luis R; Sanchez H, Laura E; Rodriguez M, Jose H [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Nebradt G, Jesus [Unidad de Investigacion y Desarrollo de la Subdireccion de Generacion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, (Mexico)

2006-07-01

350

Fossil-fueled power plants as a source of atmospheric carbon monoxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Elevated carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in excess of those derived from emissions inventories have been observed in plumes from one gas- and coal-fired pokier plant and three of four lignite coal-fired electric utility power plants observed in cast and central Texas. Observations of relevated CO on days characterized by differing wind directions show that CO emissions from the lignite plants were relatively constant over time and cannot be ascribed to separate sources adjacent to the power plants. These three plants were found to be emitting CO at rates 22 to 34 times those tabulated in State and Federal emissions inventories. Elevated CO emissions from the gas- and coal-fired plant were highly variable on time scales of hours to days, in one case changing by a factor of 8 within an hour. Three other fossil-fueled power plants, including one lignite-fired plant observed during this study, did not emit substantial amounts of CO, suggesting that a combination of plant operating conditions and the use of lignite coal may contribute to the enhanced emissions. Observed elevated CO emissions from the three lignite plants, if representative of average operating conditions, represent an additional 30% of the annual total CO emissions from point sources for the state of Texas.

Nicks, D.K.; Holloway, J.S.; Ryerson, T.B.; Dissly, R.W.; Parrish, D.D.; Frost, G.J.; Trainer, M.; Donnelly, S.G.; Schauffler, S.; Atlas, E.L.; Hubler, G.; Sueper, D.T.; Fehsenfeld, F.C. [NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States). Aeron Lab.

2003-02-01

351

Enhancement of carburization/oxidation resistance in fossil fuel environments through alloy compositional optimization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carburization resistance of numerous heat resistant alloys has been evaluated in equilibrated atmospheres having a wide range of oxygen potentials. This paper attempts to characterize and explain alloy performance in these simulated fossil fuel environments on the basis of alloy content and scale characteristics and discusses means of further improvements in performance. A survey of current information regarding scale characteristics of wrought nickel-base alloys is also presented. Typical carburizing service environments contain at least some level of oxygen. Such applications include heat treating, ethylene pyrolysis, coal conversion, activated carbon production and steam hydrocarbon reforming. Carburization usually plays some role in the ultimate failure of an alloy; it often compromises creep and fatigue life and/or ductility. Conversely, creep, fatigue and thermal cycling can cause protective scales to crack and spall, thereby compromising carburization resistance. To maximize carburization resistance in future alloys, attention must be paid not only to corrosion performance in static environments but also to scale-alloy compatibility, growth stresses, creep and thermal gradient stresses, and inward and outward diffusion coefficients, and scale repairability.

Baker, B.A.; Smith, G.D.; Tassen, C.S. [INCO Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV (United States)

1996-08-01

352

Long-term management strategies for sulfur associated with fossil fuel development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sulphur management strategies were discussed. Forecasts have indicated that there will be a global surplus of sulphur in the near future as a result of the sulphur produced during fossil fuel utilization. Past strategies for dealing with sulphur surpluses have included the production of sulphur blocks. However, environmental regulations may prevent the above-ground storage of sulphur. Sulphur becomes porous when exposed to the air, and undergoes phase changes when solidified that can cause sulphur blocks to become porous and brittle. Two approaches are used to address the integrity of sulphur blocks: placement of the blocks below grade; and capping the blocks with materials to control levels of exposure. During a recent field study, blocks were buried to a depth of over 5 meters, and the temperature of the block was reduced to 5 degrees C. High density clays were used to reduced water flow. The bacterial activity of the thiobacilli was reduced to a low level and freeze-thaw cycles were eliminated. Pilot programs are also being conducted to determine if sulphur can be safely stored in subterranean formations. Various new acid gas separation technologies include cryogenic fractionating and controlled freeze zone processes. Target reservoirs for acid gas injection include depleted sour gas or oil formations. Sulphur can also be burned to generate heat. It was concluded that new core flood experiments are being conducted to generate viscosity data for sulphur and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) mixtures under pressure. 13 refs., 9 figs.

Davis, P. [Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2008-07-01

353

Accumulation of fossil fuels and metallic minerals in active and ancient rift lakes  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of active and ancient rift systems around the world suggests that accumulations of fossil fuels and metallic minerals are related to the interactions of processes that form rift valleys with those that take place in and around rift lakes. The deposition of the precursors of petroleum, gas, oil shale, coal, phosphate, barite, Cu-Pb-Zn sulfides, and uranium begins with erosion of uplifted areas, and the consequent input of abundant nutrients and solute loads into swamps and tectonic lakes. Hot springs and volcanism add other nutrients and solutes. The resulting high biological productivity creates oxidized/reduced interfaces, and anoxic and H2S-rich bottom waters which preserves metal-bearing organic tissues and horizons. In the depositional phases, the fine-grained lake deposits are in contact with coarse-grained beach, delta, river, talus, and alluvial fan deposits. Earthquake-induced turbidites also are common coarse-grained deposits of rift lakes. Postdepositional processes in rifts include high heat flow and a resulting concentration of the organic and metallic components that were dispersed throughout the lakebeds. Postdepositional faulting brings organic- and metal-rich sourcebeds in contact with coarse-grained host and reservoir rocks. A suite of potentially economic deposits is therefore a characteristic of rift valleys. ?? 1983.

Robbins, E. I.

1983-01-01

354

The economic viability of nuclear power in a fossil-fuel-rich country: Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper assesses the economic viability of investment in nuclear power generation in Australia in the future and, in addition, domestic factors which may influence government policy towards such investments. It argues that the structure of the grid in Eastern Australia and the nature of the existing generator mix would require nuclear technology that has similar attributes to current combined cycle gas technology; i.e. modular construction of (relatively) small generating units, load following capability, low unit capital cost, and a general acceptance by the Australian public. The current generation of nuclear plants possesses none of these attributes. Therefore this paper concludes that it is only technology with similar characteristics to some Generation IV nuclear technology concepts that has the potential to be part of Australia's energy mix after 2030. - Research highlights: ? Prospects for nuclear power in Australia. ? Highly sensitive to discount rates. ? Liberalised electricity market not conducive to long-term investments in power sector. ? Nuclear's external costs relatively low compared with fossil fuels. ? Public opposition a major issue.

2011-03-01

355

Efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation: Data selection and trends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper studies patenting dynamics in efficiency improving electricity generation technologies as an important indicator of innovation activity. We build a novel database of worldwide patent applications in efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation and then analyse patenting trends over time and across countries. We find that patenting has mostly been stable over time, with a recent decreasing trend. OECD countries represent the top innovators and the top markets for technology. Some non-OECD countries, and particularly China, are also very active in terms of patenting activity in this sector. The majority of patents are first filed in OECD countries and only then in BRIC and other non-OECD countries. BRIC and other non-OECD countries apply for patents that are mostly marketed domestically, but BRIC countries represent important markets for patent duplication of OECD inventions. These results are indicative of significant technology transfer in the field of efficiency-improving technologies for electricity production. - Highlights: > We study innovation in efficiency-improving electricity generation technologies. > Relevant patents are identified and used as an indicator of innovation. > We show that there is significant technology transfer in this field. > Most patents are first filed in OECD countries and then in non-OECD countries. > Patents in non-OECD countries are mostly marketed domestically.

Lanzi, Elisa [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (Italy); Verdolini, Elena, E-mail: elena.verdolini@feem.it [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (Italy); Universita Cattolica, del Sacro Cuore di Milano (Italy); Hascic, Ivan [OECD Environment Directorate (France)

2011-11-15

356

INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION. SUMMARY REPORT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem

2001-01-01

357

Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Phase 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vortec has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment-as confirmed by both ANS 16.1 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and did not leach to the environment as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC subsystem design.

1994-01-01

358

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

2008-08-13

359

Efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation: Data selection and trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper studies patenting dynamics in efficiency improving electricity generation technologies as an important indicator of innovation activity. We build a novel database of worldwide patent applications in efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation and then analyse patenting trends over time and across countries. We find that patenting has mostly been stable over time, with a recent decreasing trend. OECD countries represent the top innovators and the top markets for technology. Some non-OECD countries, and particularly China, are also very active in terms of patenting activity in this sector. The majority of patents are first filed in OECD countries and only then in BRIC and other non-OECD countries. BRIC and other non-OECD countries apply for patents that are mostly marketed domestically, but BRIC countries represent important markets for patent duplication of OECD inventions. These results are indicative of significant technology transfer in the field of efficiency-improving technologies for electricity production. - Highlights: ? We study innovation in efficiency-improving electricity generation technologies. ? Relevant patents are identified and used as an indicator of innovation. ? We show that there is significant technology transfer in this field. ? Most patents are first filed in OECD countries and then in non-OECD countries. ? Patents in non-OECD countries are mostly marketed domestically.

2011-11-01

360

A Global Land Use and Biomass Approach to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Fossil Fuel Use and to Preserve Biodiversity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As average growth consumptions per capita and world population will continue to grow, the promotion of sustainable developments during the next half a century implies to take into account environmental aspects, local potentialities and futures changes in population as well climatic, economic and social factors. At the global level, land and fossil fuel availability per capita, capacity of absorption of greenhouse gas emissions are considered the most important environmental factors. Whereas a...

Riedacker, Arthur

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Documented international enquiry on solid sedimentary fossil fuels; Coal: definitions, classifications, reserves-resources and energy potential  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper deals with all solid sedimentary fossil fuels, i.e. coal, the main one for geological reserves and resources, peat, and oil shales. Definitions of coal ( < 50% ash) and coal seam (thickness and depth limits) are examined in view of an international agreement regarding new concepts for a common reserves and resources evaluation using the same nomenclature. The 50% ash limit, already adopted by UN-ECE for coal definition, allows the creation of a new category—the organic ...

Alpern, B.; Lemos Sousa, M. J.

2002-01-01

362

Flow cytometric method for cell viability evaluation of Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B in fossil fuels biodesulfurization processes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The most commonly method used for sulfur removal from fossil fuels is hydrodesulfurization, a physico-chemical process at very high temperatures and pressures. An alternative to this process is biodedesulfurization (BDS), a microbiological process that works at atmospheric pressure and temperature making it easier to work with and less expensive. It also as the advantage of easily desulfurizing recalcitrant sulfur compounds which are hard to remove by hydrodesulfurization [1]. Several bacteri...

Teixeira, A. V.; Silva, Tiago P.; Silva, Teresa Lopes Da; Paixa?o, Susana M.; Alves, Lui?s Manuel

2013-01-01

363

ELECTRICITY SUPPLY, FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION, CO2 EMISSIONS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: IMPLICATIONS AND POLICY OPTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the causal relationship among electricity supply, fossil fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Nigeria for the period 1971-2009, in a multivariate framework.Using the bound test approach to cointegration, we found a short-run as well as a long-run relationship among the variables with a positive and statistically significant relationship between CO2 emissions and fossil fuel consumption. The findings also indicate that economic growth is associated with increased CO2 emissions while a positive relationship exists between electricity supply and CO2 emissions revealing the poor nature of electricity supply in Nigeria. Further, the Granger causality test results indicate that electricity supply has not impacted significantly on economic growth in Nigeria. The results also strongly imply that policies aimed at reducing carbon emissions in Nigeria will not impede economic growth. The paper therefore concludes that a holistic energy planning and investment in energy infrastructure is needed to drive economic growth. In the long-run however, it is possible to meet the energy needs of the country, ensure sustainable development and at the same time reduce CO2 emissions by developing alternatives to fossil fuel consumption, the main source of CO2 emissions.

Chibueze Eze Nnaji

2013-01-01

364

Plasma Technologies for Effective and Ecological Incineration of Fossil Fuels and Their Mixtures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An outlook on plasma technologies and their mixtures utilization is examined, these technologies are based on use of electro arc plasma and include oil-free firing up of boilers, stabilization of combustion (lighting) of low-grade coals and their mixtures, stabilizing of liquid slag yield in slag-tap furnaces, plasma gasification and complex processing of solid fuels, utilization of heavy wastes of deep processing of oil and other industrial wastes. Plasma technologies are not sensible to the quality of initial fuels and their mixtures and provide their effective burning with concurrent decrease in CO2, NOx, SOx, V2O5 emissions into environment and decrease of unburned carbon. Plasma technologies of oil-free firing up and flame stabilization have been already realized in 26 coal-fired boilers of 75-670 ton/h steam output at 15 Thermal Power Stations (TPS) in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, China, Korea, Slovakia and Mongolia. Amounts of unburned carbon were reduced 1,5-2 times, emissions of nitrogen and sulphur oxides were reduced 1.5 times. When utilizing plasma technologies of solid fuel burning at TPS CO2 emissions may be reduced by 10-15 gr. Per 1 kWh of produced electric power at the cost of decrease in amounts of unburned carbon by 40-50%. Plasma technologies utilization in power engineering allows to reduce a severe impact on environment at conservation of high technical and economical indexes on TPS. (author)

2003-01-01

365

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM EFFECTS, ANALYTICAL METHODS AND TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN ADVANCED FOSSIL-FUEL PROCESSING EFFLUENTS. VOLUME 2  

Science.gov (United States)

Advance fossil-fuel processing operations, including oil-shale retorting, coal gasification, coal liquifaction and tar-sands recovery, can result in chemically complex aqueous waste effluents. This bibliography compiles much of the recent literature (including 1979) concerning ef...

366

The EU research strategy towards zero emission fossil fuel power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the research strategy put in place by the Directorate General for Research of the European Commission in the field of the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions. This is first placed in the general context of the Commission energy policies. This section covers the main policy actions and instruments relevant to energy policy, that is namely the climate change issue, the introduction of renewable energy sources, the security of energy supply, the promotion of energy efficiency and the opening of energy markets. The paper then concentrates on the research policies of the Commission, mainly the European Research Area concept and its number one instrument, the Framework Programmes for research and technological development. The rational and the analysis supporting the ERA are covered, as well as the structure and the implementation modalities of the Framework Programmes. Initial ideas for the 7{sup th} framework programme covering the years 2006-2013 are debated. The paper then goes into some details of past and present projects in CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration and shows how they are organised and how they fit into the above-mentioned research policy, while contributing to the successful deployment of the Commission energy policies. These projects represent a portfolio of the order of 130 mE of research and technological development. Emphasis is put on the new integrated projects and networks of excellence resulting from the calls for proposal of FP6 in this field. The new technology platform on zero emission fossil fuel power plants is presented, in its organisation, working methods, objectives and achievements - mainly its vision and the corresponding strategic research agenda and strategic deployment agenda. (orig.)

Dechamps, P. [European Commission, Directorate General for research Energy Conversion and Transport Unit, Brussels (Belgium)

2006-07-01

367

Comparison of AB2588 multipathway risk factors for California fossil-fuel power stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Substances released from power plants may travel through various exposure pathways resulting in human health and environmental risks. The stack air emission`s primary pathway is inhalation from the ambient air. Multipathway factors (adjustment factors to the inhalation risk) are used to evaluate the importance of non-inhalation pathways (such as ingestion and dermal contact). The multipathway factor for a specific substance is the health risk by all pathways divided by the inhalation health risk for that substance. These factors are compared for fossil fuel power stations that submitted regulatory risk assessments in compliance with California Toxic Hot Spots Act (AB2588). Substances representing the largest contributions to the cancer risk are of primary concern: arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium (+6), formaldehyde, nickel, lead, selenium, and PAHs. Comparisons of the chemical-specific multipathway factors show the impacts of regulatory policy decisions on the estimated health risk for trace substances. As an example, point estimates of the soil mixing depth, varying from 1 cm to 15 cm, relate to the relative importance of the pathway. For the deeper mixing depths, the root-zone uptake by homegrown tomato plants (for assumed consumption rate of 15% for San Diego) may result in high multipathway factors for several trace metals. For shallower mixing depths, soil ingestion may become the dominant non-inhalation pathway. These differences may lead to significantly different risk estimates for similar facilities located at different California locations such as to be under local regulatory authorities. The overall multipathway factor for the total cancer risk is about 2, much smaller than some of the chemical-specific factors. Science-based multipathway analysis should reduce much of the concern that may be due to policy-based decisions on pathway selection and high-value point-estimates of the parameters.

Gratt, L.B. [IWG Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Levin, L. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

368

Comparison of AB2588 multipathway risk factors for California fossil-fuel power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Substances released from power plants may travel through various exposure pathways resulting in human health and environmental risks. The stack air emission's primary pathway is inhalation from the ambient air. Multipathway factors (adjustment factors to the inhalation risk) are used to evaluate the importance of non-inhalation pathways (such as ingestion and dermal contact). The multipathway factor for a specific substance is the health risk by all pathways divided by the inhalation health risk for that substance. These factors are compared for fossil fuel power stations that submitted regulatory risk assessments in compliance with California Toxic Hot Spots Act (AB2588). Substances representing the largest contributions to the cancer risk are of primary concern: arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium (+6), formaldehyde, nickel, lead, selenium, and PAHs. Comparisons of the chemical-specific multipathway factors show the impacts of regulatory policy decisions on the estimated health risk for trace substances. As an example, point estimates of the soil mixing depth, varying from 1 cm to 15 cm, relate to the relative importance of the pathway. For the deeper mixing depths, the root-zone uptake by homegrown tomato plants (for assumed consumption rate of 15% for San Diego) may result in high multipathway factors for several trace metals. For shallower mixing depths, soil ingestion may become the dominant non-inhalation pathway. These differences may lead to significantly different risk estimates for similar facilities located at different California locations such as to be under local regulatory authorities. The overall multipathway factor for the total cancer risk is about 2, much smaller than some of the chemical-specific factors. Science-based multipathway analysis should reduce much of the concern that may be due to policy-based decisions on pathway selection and high-value point-estimates of the parameters

1997-06-08

369

INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION. FINAL REPORT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology

2001-01-01

370

Carbon storage versus fossil fuel substitution: a climate change mitigation option for two different land use categories based on short and long rotation forestry in India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Short rotation bioenergy crops for energy production are considered an effective means to mitigate the greenhouse effect, mainly due to their ability to substitute fossil fuels. Alternatively, carbon can be sequestered and stored in the living biomass. This paper compares the two land use categories (forest land and non-forest land) for two management practices (short rotation vs. long rotation) to study mitigation potential of afforestation and fossil fuel substitution as compared to carbon ...

Kaul, M.; Mohren, G. M. J.; Dadhwal, V. K.

2010-01-01

371

Brazil dominates global fuel ethanol industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brazil is on its way to become oil self-sufficient this year and will meet its demand for fuel by increasing production from petroleum and ethanol. Flex-fuel cars that run on both gasoline and ethanol make up three-fourths of new car sales in Brazil. Brazilian companies are aiming to double their exports of ethanol by 2010

2006-01-01

372

Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Phase 1 report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Krakow is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland. It is situated in the south of the country on the banks of the Vistula River. From the 11th until the 17th centuries, it was the capital of Poland. Today, Krakow is a city of 750,000 residents, one of the largest centers of higher education, an important industrial center, and is of particular importance because of the number and kinds of historic buildings and sites. For this reason, Krakow was included by the UNESCO in the list of the world`s cultural heritages. For about three decades, significant air pollution has been one of Krakow`s most serious problems. Because the city is situated in the Vistula River valley, it is poorly ventilated and experiences a high concentration of air pollutants. The quality of air in Krakow is affected mainly by industry (Sendzimir Steelworks, energy industry, chemical plants), influx from the Silesian industrial region (power plants, metallurgy), transboundary pollution (Ostrava - Czech Republic), and local sources of low pollution, i.e. more than 1,000 boiler houses using solid fuels and more than 100,000 coal-fired home stoves. These local sources, with low stacks and almost no pollution-control equipment, are responsible for about 35-40% of the air pollution. This report presents phase I results of a program to reduce pollution in krakow. Phase I was to gather information on emissions and costs, and to verify assumptions on existing heating methods and alternatives.

Butcher, T.; Pierce, B. [eds.

1995-06-01

373

Governmental interventions in the energy market. Study of the Dutch level playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy conservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study has made an inventory of 53 governmental interventions in the Dutch energy market. Moreover, the consequences for the playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy saving have been quantified. It shows that the government still stimulates the use of energy and fossil fuels more than it stimulates use of renewable energy sources. Policy that focuses on decreasing the price differences between sustainable and fossil should therefore focus on the phase-out of this support and subsequently on bridging the remaining financial gap.

2011-01-01

374

The chemical industry, a novel market NICHE for fuel cells?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chemical industry may be seen as a market for fuel cells. Fuel cells can be applied to upgrade by-product hydrogen. Fuel cell stacks may be fully integrated in the process system design to enhance the chemical process performance. In this case the arrangement of stacks is one of the unit operations which the chemical process is composed of. Finally trigeneration systems may be designed to produce chemicals, power and heat simultaneously, as equally important commercial products. Identification of novel market opportunities in the chemical industry can be done by a three-step method. The economic feasibility largely depends on stack lifetime and stack capital cost.

Dijkema, G.P.J. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Grievink, J.; Luteijn, C.P.; Weijnen, M.P.C. [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Delft (Netherlands)

1996-12-31

375

Test equipment for the fuel cell industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Astris has been active in fuel cell research and development for over twenty years. There was a limited selection of available test equipment for fuel cell electrodes, cells and stacks. To meet the specific requirements of this work, Astris created and continues to develop its own test equipment. Beginning with the all-analog model TL1 Test Load in the mid-eighties and its companion, digital Resistance Free Voltmeter, Astris researchers focused on use of the 'resistance free' method of reading the electrochemical potentials as an important diagnostic and research tool. A test cell for fuel cell and battery electrodes, QUICKCELL QC200 was added soon thereafter. Later, model TL3 digital test load became the workhorse of Astris fuel cell laboratories in Canada and in Europe, and was also the first instrument offered for sale to the fuel cell and battery R and D community. Beginning with model TL4, Astris test loads took advantage of microprocessor intelligence, to increase their functionality and versatility, and to make them suitable for computer control and data collection. The paper describes the further evolution of hardware and software for fuel cell and battery testing laboratories, highlighting the features of the current models TL5 Test Load and TESTMASTER Data Acquisition and Control Program. (author)

2004-09-25

376

Isotope- and tracer-based measurements of fossil fuel and biospheric carbon dioxide in Paris during winter 2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Measurements of the mole fraction of the CO2 and its isotopes were performed in Paris during the MEGAPOLI winter campaign (January–February 2010. Radiocarbon (14CO2 measurements were used to identify the relative contributions of 77% CO2 from fossil fuel consumption (CO2ff from liquid and gas combustion and 23% from biospheric CO2 (CO2 from the use of biofuels and from human and plant respiration: CO2bio. These percentages correspond to average mole fractions of 26.4 ppm and 8.2 ppm for CO2ff and CO2bio, respectively. The 13CO2 analysis indicated that gas and liquid fuel contributed 70% and 30%, respectively, of the CO2 emission from fossil fuel use. Continuous measurements of CO and NOx and the ratios CO/CO2ff and NOx/CO2ff derived from radiocarbon measurements during four days make it possible to estimate the fossil fuel CO2 contribution over the entire campaign. The ratios CO/CO2ff and NOx/CO2ff are functions of air mass origin and exhibited daily ranges of 7.9 to 14.5 ppb ppm?1 and 1.1 to 4.3 ppb ppm?1, respectively. These ratios are sufficiently consistent with different emission inventories given the uncertainties of the different approaches.

M. Lopez

2013-01-01

377

Partial replacement of fossil fuel in a cement plant: risk assessment for the population living in the neighborhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

In cement plants, the substitution of traditional fossil fuels not only allows a reduction of CO(2), but it also means to check-out residual materials, such as sewage sludge or municipal solid wastes (MSW), which should otherwise be disposed somehow/somewhere. In recent months, a cement plant placed in Alcanar (Catalonia, Spain) has been conducting tests to replace fossil fuel by refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from MSW. In July 2009, an operational test was progressively initiated by reaching a maximum of partial substitution of 20% of the required energy. In order to study the influence of the new process, environmental monitoring surveys were performed before and after the RDF implementation. Metals and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in soil, herbage, and air samples collected around the facility. In soils, significant decreases of PCDD/F levels, as well as in some metal concentrations were found, while no significant increases in the concentrations of these pollutants were observed. In turn, PM(10) levels remained constant, with a value of 16?gm(-3). In both surveys, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks derived from exposure to metals and PCDD/Fs for the population living in the vicinity of the facility were within the ranges considered as acceptable according to national and international standards. This means that RDF may be a successful choice in front of classical fossil fuels, being in accordance with the new EU environmental policies, which entail the reduction of CO(2) emissions and the energetic valorization of MSW. However, further long-term environmental studies are necessary to corroborate the harmlessness of RDF, in terms of human health risks. PMID:20709362

Rovira, Joaquim; Mari, Montse; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

2010-10-15

378

Hydrogen fed fuel cell power plants for the chemical industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Given the operational results of over 1,200,000 hours of operation achieved by the world-wide fleet of natural gas fed 200 kW packaged PC25 phosphoric acid fuel cell plants, the technology has a huge potential of becoming an interesting option for power generation with hydrogen-containing waste streams in the chemical industry. In fact 800--900 kW and larger hydrogen fuel cell modules can be derived from present 200 kW natural gas plants, for multi-units installations in the range 1 to 15 MW global power output. Notwithstanding present high fuel cell costs, they can be economically viable in favorable conditions of high electricity prices and low hydrogen feed value. Expected short term cost reduction with progress in the learning curve, would make them attractive in a widespread of applications, such as in chlor-alkali industry, petrochemical industry and all other hydrogen handling industries.

Bozzoni, T.; Caserza, G. [CLC Ansaldo, Genova (Italy)

1997-07-01

379

The energy demand and the impact by fossil fuels use in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, from 1988 to 2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Temporary variation for the demand of refining products which are used in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is presented. Its consequent energy contribution is evaluated from 1988 to 2000. The annual estimation was integrated from a detailed inventory of fuels volume, so as the calculus of its respective energy equivalence. The fuel quality specifications, which have been required by regional Air Quality authority for controlling emissions to the atmosphere, are also presented for the same period. The evolution demand of fuels, in term of volume, quality and its energy contribution for this area, is compared with the national demand. On this regard, fuel pool differs in each bound and the demand along the same period has been increasing on both regions but at different rates, with 21% at MCMA and 31% countrywide. In 2000, the MCMA demanded 14% of the internal refining products volume sales, which represented 17% of the energy contribution to the country for those fuels. Likewise, the energy use coefficient (GJ per capita) was applied to compare this region with country trends. During 1996 and up to 2000, the MCMA presented slightly minor energy use per capita, than the rest of the country, and this period was distinguished also for using cleaner fuels and for obtaining improvements in air quality. On the other hand, MCMA and country greenhouse gases emissions will increase because of their fossil fuel dependence, so several mitigation measures must be implemented in the next decades

2006-12-01

380

Pragmatic policy options for monitoring the movement of carbon dioxide derived from fossil and bio-fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At a municipal level it was required to determine the course of environmental action that would respond to international directives regarding air quality control through interference in carbon dioxide movement. Two options were considered, namely bio-fuels and ecological compensation. The bio-fuel option was examined by way of ethanol produced from sugar cane. The compensation option was examined by way of the creation of a petroleum forest that would capture fossil fuel derived carbon dioxide. It inquired into the tree population needed to make the compensation theory work in practice. Worldwide scenarios were established, from which ideas for local administrations were then derived. The carbon dioxide cycle for ethanol was shown to close. To achieve complete ecological compensation, it was found necessary that each person plant 37 trees every 20 years. The arable land required was estimated as 4.0 and 2.5% of the globally available area for the two options, respectively. (orig.)

Fehr, M.; Costa, A.L.S.; Martins, A.P.; Oliveira, P.C.A.; Silva, M.K.A. [Federal University at Uberlandia, P.O. Box 811, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil)

2011-02-15