#### Sample records for forced convection heat

1. Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Circular Pipes

Tosun, Ismail

2007-01-01

One of the pitfalls of engineering education is to lose the physical insight of the problem while tackling the mathematical part. Forced convection heat transfer (the Graetz-Nusselt problem) certainly falls into this category. The equation of energy together with the equation of motion leads to a partial differential equation subject to various…

2. Theory of heat transfer with forced convection film flows

Shang, Deyi

2010-01-01

Developing a new treatment of ""Free Convection Film Flows and Heat Transfer"" began in Shang's first monograph and is continued in this monograph. The current book displays the recent developments of laminar forced convection and forced film condensation. It is aimed at revealing the true features of heat and mass transfer with forced convection film flows to model the deposition of thin layers. The novel mathematical similarity theory model is developed to simulate temperature - and concentration - dependent physical processes. The following topics are covered in this book: Mathematical meth

3. Transient heat transfer for forced convection flow of helium gas

The knowledge of forced convection transient heat transfer at various periods of exponential increase of heat input to a heater as a database for understanding the transient heat transfer process in a high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) due to an accident in excess reactivity. The transient heat transfer coefficients for forced convection flow of helium gas over a horizontal cylinder were measured using a forced convection test loop. The platinum heater with a diameter of 1.0 mm was heated by electric current with an exponential increase of Q0 exp(t/ ). It was clarified that the heat transfer coefficient approaches the steady-state one for the period over 1 s, and it becomes higher for the period of shorter than 1 s. The transient heat transfer shows less dependent on the gas flowing velocity when the period becomes very shorter. Semi-empirical correlations for steady state and transient heat transfer were developed based on the experimental data. (authors)

4. Forced convection heat transfer to air/water vapor mixtures

Heat transfer coefficients were measured using both dry air and air/water vapor mixtures in the same forced convection cooling test rig (jet array impingement configurations) with mass ratios of water vapor to air up to 0.23. The primary objective was to verify by direct experiment that selected existing methods for evaluation of viscosity and thermal conductivity of air/water vapor mixtures could be used with confidence to predict heat transfer coefficients for such mixtures using as a basis heat transfer data for dry air only. The property evaluation methods deemed most appropriate require as a basis a measured property value at one mixture composition in addition to the property values for the pure components. 20 references

5. Mechanistic Multidimensional Modeling of Forced Convection Boiling Heat Transfer

Michael Z. Podowski

2009-01-01

Full Text Available Due to the importance of boiling heat transfer in general, and boiling crisis in particular, for the analysis of operation and safety of both nuclear reactors and conventional thermal power systems, extensive efforts have been made in the past to develop a variety of methods and tools to evaluate the boiling heat transfer coefficient and to assess the onset of temperature excursion and critical heat flux (CHF at various operating conditions of boiling channels. The objective of this paper is to present mathematical modeling concepts behind the development of mechanistic multidimensional models of low-quality forced convection boiling, including the mechanisms leading to temperature excursion and the onset of CHF.

6. Numerical study of forced convective heat transfer around airships

Dai, Qiumin; Fang, Xiande

2016-02-01

Forced convective heat transfer is an important factor that affects the thermal characteristics of airships. In this paper, the steady state forced convective heat transfer around an ellipsoid is numerically investigated. The numerical simulation is carried out by commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software over the extended Re range from 20 to 108 and the aspect ratio from 2 to 4. Based on the regression and optimization with software, a new piecewise correlation of the Nusselt number at constant wall temperature for ellipsoid is proposed, which is suitable for applications to airships and other ellipse shaped bodies such as elliptical balloons. The thermal characteristics of a stratospheric airship in midsummer located in the north hemisphere are numerical studied. The helium temperature predicated using the new correlation is compared to those predicted by correlations applicable for spheres and flat plates. The results show that the helium temperature obtained using the new correlation at noon is about 5.4 K lower than that using the correlation of spheres and about 2.1 K higher than that of flat plates.

7. Comparative analysis of heat transfer correlations for forced convection boiling

A critical survey was conducted of the most relevant correlations of boiling heat transfer in forced convection flow. Most of the investigations carried out on partial nucleate boiling and fully developed nucleate boiling have led to the formulation of correlations that are not able to cover a wide range of operating conditions, due to the empirical approach of the problem. A comparative analysis is therefore required in order to delineate the relative accuracy of the proposed correlations, on the basis of the experimental data presently available. The survey performed allows the evaluation of the accuracy of the different calculating procedure; the results obtained, moreover, indicate the most reliable heat transfer correlations for the different operating conditions investigated. This survey was developed for five pressure range (up to 180bar) and for both saturation and subcooled boiling condition

8. CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF INDIAN GOOSEBERRY (EMBLICA OFFICINALIS DRIED IN THREE DIFFERENT FORMS UNDER FORCED CONVECTION MODE

S. I. ANWAR

2012-10-01

Full Text Available In this paper, convective heat transfer coefficient of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis, in three different forms (shreds, slices and pieces, under forced convection mode has been determined. These forms were dried in laboratory drier. Values of constants C and n have been determined using experimental data and regression analysis for calculating values of convective heat transfer coefficient. It was found that the convective heat transfer coefficient varies with form of commodity being dried and decreases as the drying progresses. The value of convective heat transfer coefficient was highest for shredded form (30.39 W/m2oC followed by slices (25.88 W/m2oC and pieces (18.67 W/m2oC when compared at certain final moisture content. The data were also analyzed for per cent uncertainty.

9. Effect of Buoyancy on Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Vertical Channels - a Literature Survey

This report contains a short resume of the available information from various sources on the effect of free convection flow on forced convection heat transfer in vertical channels. Both theoretical and experimental investigations are included. Nearly all of the theoretical investigations are concerned with laminar flow with or without internal heat generation. More consistent data are available for upward flow than for downward flow. Curves are presented to determine whether free convection or forced convection mode of heat transfer is predominant for a particular Reynolds number and Rayleigh number. At Reb > 105 free convection effects are negligible. Downward flow through a heated channel at low Reynolds number is unstable. Under similar conditions the overall heat transfer coefficient for downward flow tends to be higher than that for upward flow

10. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of the Human Body under Forced Convection from Ceiling

Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Rezgals, Lauris; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

2014-01-01

The average convective heat transfer coefficient for a seated human body exposed to downward flow from above was determined. Thermal manikin with complex body shape and size of an average Scandinavian female was used. The surface temperature distribution of the manikin’s body was as the skin...... convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body (hc [W/(m2•K)]) was proposed: hc=4.088+6.592V1.715 for a seated naked body at 20ºC and hc=2.874+7.427V1.345 for a seated naked body at 26ºC. Differences in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body in low air velocity range, V<0.3 m...

11. Experimental investigation of mixed convection heat transfer caused by forced-jets in large enclosure

This research investigates experimentally mixed convection and heat transfer augmentation by forced jets in a large enclosure, at conditions simulating those of actual passive containment cooling systems and scales approaching those of actual containment buildings or compartments. The experiment was designed to measure the key parameters governing the heat transfer augmentation by forced jets and investigate the effects of geometric factors, including the jet diameter, jet injection orientation, interior structures, and enclosure aspect ratio. The tests cover a variety of injection modes leading to flow configurations of interest that contribute to reveal the nature of mixing and stratification phenomena in the containment under accident conditions of interest. The heat transfer of mixed convection can be predicted to be controlled by jet Archimedes number and geometric factors. Using a combining rule for mixed convection and appropriate forced and natural convection models, the correlations of heat transfer augmentation by forced jets are developed and agree well with experimental data. It appears that the jet Archimedes number is the important parameter in characterizing mixed convection heat transfer. The jet injection orientation has a substantial effect on heat transfer while the effect of the jet diameter is very weak. For vertical cooling surfaces, an impinging jet can achieve more effective heat transfer than a buoyant jet. The heat transfer augmentation increases with the reduction of enclosure aspect ratio

12. Forced heat convection in annular spaces; Convection forcee de la chaleur dans les espaces annulaires

Pelce, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

1960-02-15

This report deals with the experimental study of forced heat convection in annular spaces through which flow of air is passing when a uniform heat flux is dissipated across the inner wall. These observations took place chiefly in the region where thermal equilibrium are not yet established. Amongst other things it became apparent that, both in the region where thermal equilibrium conditions are on the way to establishment and where they are already established, the following relationship held good: the longitudinal temperature gradient, either on the wall or in the fluid stream, is proportional to the heat flux dissipated q, and inversely proportional to the average flow rate V: dT/dx = B (q/V). From this result the next step is to express the variations of the local convection coefficient {alpha} (or of the Margoulis number M) in a relationship of the form: 1/M = {psi}(V) + F(x). If this relationship is compared with the classical empirical relationship {alpha} = KV{sup n} (where n is close to 0.8), the relationship: 1/M = {xi}V{sup 1-n} + F(x) is obtained ({xi} is a constant for a given annular space); from this it was possible to coordinate the whole set of experimental results. (author) [French] Il s'agit precisement de l'etude experimentale de la convection forcee de la chaleur dans des espaces annulaires parcourus par de l'air en ecoulement turbulent, lorsqu'on dissipe a travers la paroi interieure un flux de chaleur uniforme. Ces observations ont eu lieu principalement dans la region ou le regime thermique n'est pas encore etabli. Il est apparu, entre autre, qu'il existait, tant dans la region ou le regime thermique est en voie d'etablissement qu'en regime etabli, la relation suivante: le gradient longitudinal des temperatures, que ce soit sur la paroi ou dans l'ecoulement fluide, est proportionnel au flux de la chaleur dissipee q, et inversement proportionnel a la vitesse moyenne V de l'ecoulement: dT/dx = B

13. Effect of Heated Perimeter on Forced Convection Heat Transfer of he i at a Supercritical Pressure

Doi, D.; Shiotsu, M.; Shirai, Y.; Hama, K.

2008-03-01

The forced convection heat transfer coefficients were measured on two pairs of test plates all 6.0 mm in width and located face to face on inner walls of a rectangular duct. Each pair having length of 20 mm and 80 mm, respectively, was connected in series electrically. The rectangular duct was 420 mm in length and 5 mm×6 mm in inner cross section. The experiments were performed for inlet temperatures from 2.2 to 6.5 K, flow velocities from 0.1 to 5.6 m/s, and at a supercritical pressure of 2.8 atm. Comparison of the obtained Nusselt numbers with the former results with a single test plate showed the clear effect of a heated perimeter. Non-dimensional heat transfer equation including the effect of heated perimeter is presented.

14. Forced convection heat transfer correlation for finned plates in a duct

Forced convection heat transfer experiments were conducted for plate-fin in a duct using various fin spacing, fin height, duct width, Reynolds number for Prandtl numbers 2,014. Based upon analogy concept, mass transfer rate were measured instead of heat transfer rates. The heat transfer rates were enhanced with the increase of fin height and decrease of fin spacing as they increase the heat transfer area. Meanwhile, heat transfer rates were impaired with the increase of the duct width as the bypass flows increased to tip clearance region. Forced convection heat transfer correlations were developed for laminar and turbulent flow conditions and for narrow and wide ducts. The work draws attention to the tip clearance on the heat transfer of the finned plate in a duct. (author)

15. Prediction of forced convection heat transfer to Lead-Bismuth-Eutectic

Thiele, Roman

2013-01-01

The goal of this work is to investigate the capabilities of two different commercial codes, OpenFOAM and ANSYS CFX, to predict forced convection heat transfer in low Prandtl number fluids and investigate the sensitivity of these predictions to the type of code and to several input parameters.The goal of the work is accomplished by predicting forced convection heat transfer in two different experimental setups with the codes OpenFOAM and ANSYS CFX using three different turbulence models and va...

16. Numerical Investigation of Nanofluid Forced Convection in Channels with Discrete Heat Sources

Payam Rahim Mashaei; Seyed Mostafa Hosseinalipour; Mehdi Bahiraei

2012-01-01

Numerical simulation is performed to investigate the laminar force convection of Al2O3/water nanofluid in a flow channel with discrete heat sources. The heat sources are placed on the bottom wall of channel which produce much thermal energy that must be evacuated from the system. The remaining surfaces of channel are kept adiabatic to exchange energy between nanofluid and heat sources. In the present study the effects of Reynolds number ( $\\text{Re}=50, 100, 200, 400$ , and ...

17. Nanofluid flow and forced convection heat transfer over a stretching surface considering heat source

Mohammadpour, M.; Valipour, P.; Shambooli, M.; Ayani, M.; Mirparizi, M.

2015-07-01

In this paper, magnetic field effects on the forced convection flow of a nanofluid over a stretching surface in the presence of heat generation/absorption are studied. The equations of continuity, momentum and energy are transformed into ordinary differential equations and solved numerically using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration scheme featuring the shooting technique. Different types of nanoparticles as copper (Cu), silver (Ag), alumina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2) with water as their base fluid has been considered. The influence of significant parameters, such as magnetic parameter, volume fraction of the nanoparticles, heat generation/absorption parameter, velocity ratio parameter and temperature index parameter on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are discussed. The results show that the values of temperature profiles increase with increasing heat generation/absorption and volume fraction of the nanoparticles but they decrease with increasing velocity ratio parameter and temperature index parameter. Also, it can be found that selecting silver as nanoparticle leads to the highest heat transfer enhancement.

18. A NUMERCIAL COMPARISON OF SINGLE-PHASE FORCED CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER BETWEEN ROUND TUBE AND STRAIGHT MICROCHANNEL HEAT EXCHANGERS

P. MOHAJERI KHAMENEH,; I. MIRZAIE,; N. POURMAHMOUD; M.RAHIMI EOSBOEE; S. MAJIDYFAR; Mansoor, M.

2010-01-01

Three dimensional simulations of the single-phase laminar flow and forced convective heat transfer of water in round tube and straight microchannel heat exchangers were investigated numerically. This numerical method was developed to measure heat transfer parameters of round tube and straight microchannel tube geometries. Then, similarities and differences were compared between different geometries. The geometries and operating conditions of those indicated heat exchangers were created using ...

19. Heat transfer enhancement for single phase forced convection

Fiebig, Martin

Goals for heat exchanger design are outlined and performance evaluation criteria are discussed. The flow geometries in heat exchangers, which can be classified as channel or tube flow, are described. The use of finned plates or tubes for channel flow and internally finned tubes or wire coil and twisted tape inserts for tube flow are considered.

20. Convectively Forced Gravity Waves and their Sensitivity to Heating Profile and Atmospheric Structure

Halliday, Oliver; Parker, Douglas; Griffiths, Stephen; Vosper, Simon; Stirling, Alison

2016-04-01

It has been known for some time that convective heating is communicated to its environment by gravity waves. Despite this, the radiation of gravity waves in macro-scale models, which are typically forced at the grid-scale by meso-scale parameterization schemes, is not well understood. We present here theoretical work directed toward improving our fundamental understanding of convectively forced gravity wave effects at the meso-scale, in order to begin to address this problem. Starting with the hydrostatic, non-rotating, 2D, Boussinesq equations in a slab geometry, we find a radiating, analytical solution to prescribed sensible heat forcing for both the vertical velocity and potential temperature response. Both Steady and pulsed heating with adjustable horizontal structure is considered. From these solutions we construct a simple model capable of interrogating the spatial and temporal sensitivity to chosen heating functions of the remote forced response in particular. By varying the assumed buoyancy frequency, the influence of the model stratosphere on the upward radiation of gravity waves, and in turn, on the tropospheric response can be understood. Further, we find that the macro-scale response to convection is highly dependent on the radiation characteristics of gravity waves, which are in turn dependent upon the temporal and spatial structure of the source, and upper boundary condition of the domain.

1. Comparison of heat and mass transfer correlations with forced convective monequilibrium post-CHF experimental data

Forced convective, nonequilibrium post-CHF heat transfer data (766 points) have been obtained at high pressure and low mass flux ranges not previously tested. The data are unique in that the superheated vapor temperature was measured at multiple elevations allowing the direct calculation of vapor generation rates. The data are useful for verification or development of nonequilibrium heat and mass transfer models. Current film boiling heat transfer correlations do not predict the data well. The Dougall-Rohsenow equilibrium correlation is the only one investigated that reasonably predicts the measured wall heat fluxes. Current vapor generation rate models do not adequately predict the measured vapor generation rates

2. MHD forced convective laminar boundary layer flow from a convectively heated moving vertical plate with radiation and transpiration effect.

Uddin, Md Jashim; Khan, Waqar A; Ismail, A I Md

2013-01-01

A two-dimensional steady forced convective flow of a Newtonian fluid past a convectively heated permeable vertically moving plate in the presence of a variable magnetic field and radiation effect has been investigated numerically. The plate moves either in assisting or opposing direction to the free stream. The plate and free stream velocities are considered to be proportional to x(m) whilst the magnetic field and mass transfer velocity are taken to be proportional to x((m-1)/2) where x is the distance along the plate from the leading edge of the plate. Instead of using existing similarity transformations, we use a linear group of transformations to transform the governing equations into similarity equations with relevant boundary conditions. Numerical solutions of the similarity equations are presented to show the effects of the controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as on the friction factor, rate of heat and mass transfer. It is found that the rate of heat transfer elevates with the mass transfer velocity, convective heat transfer, Prandtl number, velocity ratio and the magnetic field parameters. It is also found that the rate of mass transfer enhances with the mass transfer velocity, velocity ratio, power law index and the Schmidt number, whilst it suppresses with the magnetic field parameter. Our results are compared with the results existing in the open literature. The comparisons are satisfactory. PMID:23741295

3. MHD forced convective laminar boundary layer flow from a convectively heated moving vertical plate with radiation and transpiration effect.

Md Jashim Uddin

Full Text Available A two-dimensional steady forced convective flow of a Newtonian fluid past a convectively heated permeable vertically moving plate in the presence of a variable magnetic field and radiation effect has been investigated numerically. The plate moves either in assisting or opposing direction to the free stream. The plate and free stream velocities are considered to be proportional to x(m whilst the magnetic field and mass transfer velocity are taken to be proportional to x((m-1/2 where x is the distance along the plate from the leading edge of the plate. Instead of using existing similarity transformations, we use a linear group of transformations to transform the governing equations into similarity equations with relevant boundary conditions. Numerical solutions of the similarity equations are presented to show the effects of the controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as on the friction factor, rate of heat and mass transfer. It is found that the rate of heat transfer elevates with the mass transfer velocity, convective heat transfer, Prandtl number, velocity ratio and the magnetic field parameters. It is also found that the rate of mass transfer enhances with the mass transfer velocity, velocity ratio, power law index and the Schmidt number, whilst it suppresses with the magnetic field parameter. Our results are compared with the results existing in the open literature. The comparisons are satisfactory.

4. A Study on the Determination of the Seasonal Heat Transfer Coefficient in KURT Under Forced Convection

In a high-level waste (HLW) repository, heat is generated by the radioactive decay of the waste. This can affect the safety of the repository because the surrounding environment can be changed by the heat transfer through the rock. Thus, it is important to determine the heat transfer coefficient of the atmosphere in the underground repository. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient was estimated by measuring the indoor environmental factors in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) under forced convection. For the experiment, a heater of 5 kw capacity, 2 meters long, was inserted through the tunnel wall in the heating section of KURT in order to heat up the inside of the rock to 90 .deg. C, and fresh air was provided by an air supply fan connected to the outside of the tunnel. The results showed that the average air velocity in the heating section after the provision of the air from outside of the tunnel was 0.81 m/s with the Reynolds number of 310,000 ∼ 340,000. The seasonal heat transfer coefficient in the heating section under forced convection was 7.68 W/m2 K in the summer and 7.24 W/mm2 K in the winter

5. Burnout in boiling heat transfer. Part III. High-quality forced-convection systems

This is the final part of a review of burnout during boiling heat transfer. The status of burnout in high-quality forced-convection systems is reviewed, and recent developments are summarized in detail. A general guide to the considerable literature is given. Parametric effects and correlations for water in circular and noncircular ducts are presented. Other topics discussed include transients, steam-generator applications, correlations for other fluids, fouling, and augmentation

6. Effects of vertically ribbed surface roughness on the forced convective heat losses in central receiver systems

Uhlig, Ralf; Frantz, Cathy; Fritsch, Andreas

2016-05-01

External receiver configurations are directly exposed to ambient wind. Therefore, a precise determination of the convective losses is a key factor in the prediction and evaluation of the efficiency of the solar absorbers. Based on several studies, the forced convective losses of external receivers are modeled using correlations for a roughened cylinder in a cross-flow of air. However at high wind velocities, the thermal efficiency measured during the Solar Two experiment was considerably lower than the efficiency predicted by these correlations. A detailed review of the available literature on the convective losses of external receivers has been made. Three CFD models of different level of detail have been developed to analyze the influence of the actual shape of the receiver and tower configuration, of the receiver shape and of the absorber panels on the forced convective heat transfer coefficients. The heat transfer coefficients deduced from the correlations have been compared to the results of the CFD simulations. In a final step the influence of both modeling approaches on the thermal efficiency of an external tubular receiver has been studied in a thermal FE model of the Solar Two receiver.

7. Experimental study on forced convection boiling heat transfer on molten alloy

In order to clarify the characteristics of forced convection boiling heat transfer on molten metal, basic experiments have been carried out with subcooled water flowing on molten Wood's alloy pool surface. In these experiments, water flows horizontally in a rectangular duct. A cavity filled with Wood's alloy is present in a portion of the bottom of the duct. Wood's alloy is heated by a copper conductor at the bottom of the cavity. The experiments have been carried out with various velocities and subcoolings of water, and temperature of Wood's alloy. Boiling curves on the molten alloy surface were obtained and compared with that on a solid heat transfer surface. It is observed that the boiling curve on molten alloy is in a lower superheat region than the boiling curve on a solid surface. This indicates that the heat transfer performance of forced convection boiling on molten alloy is enhanced by increase of the heat transfer area, due to oscillation of the surface and fragmentation of molten alloy

8. The effects of buoyancy on the critical heat flux in forced convection

Brusstar, Matthew J.; Merte, Herman, Jr.

1993-01-01

The critical heat flux (CHF) in forced convection over a flat surface at relatively low flow velocities has been found, not unexpectedly, to depend upon the orientation of the buoyancy. The CHF for R-113 was measured at various heating surface orientations for test section Reynolds numbers ranging between 3000 and 6500. In this flow range, the buoyancy force acting on the vapor generally dominates over the flow inertia, yet the inertia would still be substantial were gravity to be reduced. In the experiments of this study, the CHF is determined for heating surface orientations ranging from 0 deg to 360 deg, for flow velocities between 4 cm/s and 35 cm/s, and for subcoolings between 2.8 C and 22.2 C. The results presented here demonstrate the strong influence of buoyancy at low flow velocities, which diminishes as the flow velocity and subcooling are increased.

9. Analysis of Forced Convection Heat Transfer for Axial Annular Flow of Giesekus Viscoelastic Fluid

Mohseni, Mehdi Moayed; Rashidi, Fariborz; Movagar, Mohammad Reza Khorsand [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2015-02-15

Analytical solutions for the forced convection heat transfer of viscoelastic fluids obeying the Giesekus model are obtained in a concentric annulus under laminar flow for both thermal and hydrodynamic fully developed conditions. Boundary conditions are assumed to be (a) constant fluxes at the walls and (b) constant temperature at the walls. Temperature profiles and Nusselt numbers are derived from dimensionless energy equation. Subsequently, effects of elasticity, mobility parameter and viscous dissipation are discussed. Results show that by increasing elasticity, Nusselt number increases. However, this trend is reversed for constant wall temperature when viscous dissipation is weak. By increasing viscous dissipation, the Nusselt number decreases for the constant flux and increases for the constant wall temperature. For the wall cooling case, when the viscous dissipation exceeds a critical value, the generated heat overcomes the heat which is removed at the walls, and fluid heats up longitudinally.

10. A theoretical prediction of critical heat flux in forced convection boiling during power transients

In this paper, a theoretical prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) during power transients in forced convective boiling is presented. The analysis is restricted to the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) type of CHF at low qualities. The developed theory is compared with the experimental data available in the literature. The agreement is favorable. The results are discussed in terms of the various parameters affecting the transient CHF. This new model also is compared with the semi-empirical transient CHF model in the literature

11. Effect of finite length on forced convection heat transfer from cylinders

Quarmby, A.; Al-Fakhri, A. A. M.

1980-04-01

Forced convection heat transfer from single cylinders of finite length is investigated experimentally with particular reference to the effect of aspect (length/diameter) ratio of the cylinder. It is found that for aspect ratios greater than 4 there is little further effect as aspect ratio increases to infinity. The disagreement between the correlations proposed by Zukauskas (1972) and Morgan (1975) is considered and resolved in favor of the Zukauskas correlation. A correlation is proposed for heat transfer from cylinders of low aspect ratio which in the limit agrees with the correlation for large aspect ratios and with the generally accepted correlation for turbulent heat transfer from isothermal flat plates for small aspect ratios.

12. Heat transfer in pool boiling liquid neon, deuterium and hydrogen, and critical heat flux in forced convection of liquid neon

In the first part, free-convection and nucleate pool boiling heat transfer (up to burn-out heat flux) between a platinum wire of 0.15 mm in diameter in neon, deuterium and hydrogen has been studied at atmospheric pressure. These measurements were continued in liquid neon up to 23 bars (Pc ≅ 26.8 b). Film boiling heat transfer coefficients have been measured in pool boiling liquid neon at atmospheric pressure with three heating wires (diameters 0.2, 0.5, 2 mm). All the results have been compared with existing correlations. The second part is devoted to measurements of the critical heat flux limiting heat transfer with small temperature differences between the wall and the liquid neon flowing inside a tube (diameters 3 x 3.5 mm) heated by joule effect on 30 cm of length. Influences of flow stability, nature of electrical current, pressure, mass flow rate and subcooling are shown. In conclusion, the similarity of the heat transfer characteristics in pool boiling as well as in forced convection of liquid neon and hydrogen is emphasized. (author)

13. Performance of a forced convection solar drier integrated with gravel as heat storage material

Mohanraj, M. [Dr Mahalingam College of Engineering and Technology, Pollachi (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Chandrasekar, P. [Swinburne Univ. of Technology, Sarawak (Malaysia). School of Engineering Sciences

2009-07-01

Sun drying is the most common method used in India to dry agricultural products such as grains, fruits and vegetables. The rate of drying depends on solar radiation, ambient temperature, wind velocity, relative humidity, initial moisture content, type of crops, crop absorptivity and mass product per unit exposed area. However, this method of spreading the crop in a thin layer on the ground has several disadvantages. This paper reported on a study that focused on developing a forced convection solar drier integrated with heat storage materials for drying various agricultural crops. The indirect forced convection solar drier, integrated with gravel as a sensible heat material, was used to dry pineapple slices under conditions similar to those found in Pollachi, India. The performance of the system was discussed along with the drying characteristics, drying rate, and specific moisture extraction rate. The results showed that the moisture content (wet basis) of pineapple was reduced from about 87.5 to 14.5 per cent (equilibrium moisture content) in about 29 hours in the bottom tray and 32 hours in the top tray. The thermal efficiency of the solar air heater was also reviewed. 9 refs., 5 figs.

14. Forced convective and subcooled flow boiling heat transfer to pure water and n-heptane in an annular heat exchanger

Highlights: ► The cooling performance of water and n-heptane is compared during subcooled flow boiling. ► Although n-heptane leaves the heat exchanger warmer it has a lower heat transfer coefficient. ► Flow rate, heat flux and degree of subcooling have direct effect on heat transfer coefficient. ► The predictions of some correlations are evaluated against experimental data. - Abstract: In this research, subcooled flow boiling heat transfer coefficients of pure n-heptane and distilled water at different operating conditions have been experimentally measured and compared. The heat exchanger consisted of vertical annulus which is heated from the inner cylindrical heater with variable heat flux (less than 140 kW/m2). Heat flux is varied so that two different flow regimes from single phase forced convection to nucleate boiling condition are created. Meanwhile, liquid flow rate is changed in the range of 2.5 × 10−5–5.8 × 10−5 m3/s to create laminar up to transition flow regimes. Three subcooling levels including 10, 20 and 30 °C are also considered. Experimental results demonstrated that subcooled flow boiling heat transfer coefficient increases when higher heat flux, higher liquid flow rate and greater subcooling level are applied. Furthermore, influence of the operating conditions on the bubbles generation on the heat transfer surface is also discussed. It is also shown that water is better cooling fluid in comparison with n-heptane

15. Forced convection in a circular duct with periodic boundary conditions and axial heat conduction

Barletta, A.; Rossi di Schio, E. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Energetica, Nucleare e del Controllo Ambientale

2000-07-01

An investigation of the effect of axial heat conduction in the fluid on laminar forced convection is performed in a cylindrical duct with circular cross section. Two different kinds of boundary conditions are analysed: 1, a wall temperature distribution which undergoes a sinusoidal axial variation; 2, a wall heat flux distribution which undergoes a sinusoidal axial variation and such that its mean value is equal to the modulus of the amplitude. Reference is made to the hydrodynamical and thermally developed region, where the temperature distribution is given in case 1 by an axially periodic function and in case 2 by the sum of an axially periodic function and a linear function of the axial coordinate. The temperature distribution within the fluid and the local and mean Nusselt have been evaluated analytically.

16. Assessment of thermal conductivity, viscosity and specific heat of nanofluids in single phase laminar indernal forced convection

Vanapalli, S.; Brake, ter H.J.M.

2013-01-01

Nanofluids are considered for improving the heat exchange in forced convective flow. In literature, the benefit of nanofluids compared to the corresponding base fluid is represented by several figures-of-merit in which the heat transfer benefit and the cost of pumping the fluid are considered. These

17. Reliability comparison of forced and natural convection residual heat removal in the GCFR

Loss of cooling consequences for all breeder cores require an increased reliability of the engineered Residual Heat Removal (RHR) systems provided to assure abundant cooling of the core at decay heat levels. An upflow GCFR core design offers the capability for pressurized decay heat removal by natural convection, thus enhancing core cooling reliability and diversity. A quantitative assessment is presented for the Residual Heat Removal reliability achievable with and without natural convection. The reliability gains due to natural convection are limited by the demand frequency for PCRV depressurization and by the equipment which has to change state in order to establish natural convection. The coolant circulation diversity accomplished with natural convection is a major advantage

18. Forced convective, nonequilibrium, post-CHF heat transfer experimental data and correlation comparison report

Forced convective, postcritical-heat-flux heat transfer experiments with water flowing upward in a vertical tube have been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Thermodynamic nonequilibrium in the form of superheated vapor temperatures was measured at a maximum of three different axial levels. Steady-state experiments were conduced at pressures of 0.2 to 0.7 MPa, mass fluxes of 12 to 24 kg/m2 x s, heat fluxes of 7.7. to 27.5 kW/m2, and test section inlet qualities of 38 to 64%. Quasi-steady-state (slow moving quench front) experiments were conducted at pressures of 0.4 to 7 MPa, mass fluxes of 12 to 70 kg/m2 x s, heat fluxes of 8 to 225 kW/m2, and test section inlet qualities of -7 to 47%. The multiple probe data and the data taken above 0.4 MPa are new data in parameter ranges not previously obtained. Comparison of the data with current vapor generation models and wall heat transfer models yielded unsatisfactory results. This is attributed to the effects of nonequilibrium, quench front quality, and distance from the quench front, which are factors not included in the current models compared

19. Numerical Investigation of Nanofluid Forced Convection in Channels with Discrete Heat Sources

Payam Rahim Mashaei

2012-01-01

Full Text Available Numerical simulation is performed to investigate the laminar force convection of Al2O3/water nanofluid in a flow channel with discrete heat sources. The heat sources are placed on the bottom wall of channel which produce much thermal energy that must be evacuated from the system. The remaining surfaces of channel are kept adiabatic to exchange energy between nanofluid and heat sources. In the present study the effects of Reynolds number (Re=50,100,200,400, and 1000, particle volume fraction (=0 (distilled water, 1 and 4% on the average heat transfer coefficient (h, pressure drop (Δ, and wall temperature ( are evaluated. The use of nanofluid can produce an asymmetric velocity along the height of the channel. The results show a maximum value 38% increase in average heat transfer coefficient and 68% increase in pressure drop for all the considered cases when compared to basefluid (i.e., water. It is also observed that the wall temperature decreases remarkably as Re and ϕ increase. Finally, thermal-hydraulic performance (η is evaluated and it is seen that best performance can be obtained for Re=1000 and =4%.

20. Conceptual Design of Forced Convection Molten Salt Heat Transfer Testing Loop

Manohar S. Sohal; Piyush Sabharwall; Pattrick Calderoni; Alan K. Wertsching; S. Brandon Grover

2010-09-01

This report develops a proposal to design and construct a forced convection test loop. A detailed test plan will then be conducted to obtain data on heat transfer, thermodynamic, and corrosion characteristics of the molten salts and fluid-solid interaction. In particular, this report outlines an experimental research and development test plan. The most important initial requirement for heat transfer test of molten salt systems is the establishment of reference coolant materials to use in the experiments. An earlier report produced within the same project highlighted how thermophysical properties of the materials that directly impact the heat transfer behavior are strongly correlated to the composition and impurities concentration of the melt. It is therefore essential to establish laboratory techniques that can measure the melt composition, and to develop purification methods that would allow the production of large quantities of coolant with the desired purity. A companion report describes the options available to reach such objectives. In particular, that report outlines an experimental research and development test plan that would include following steps: •Molten Salts: The candidate molten salts for investigation will be selected. •Materials of Construction: Materials of construction for the test loop, heat exchangers, and fluid-solid corrosion tests in the test loop will also be selected. •Scaling Analysis: Scaling analysis to design the test loop will be performed. •Test Plan: A comprehensive test plan to include all the tests that are being planned in the short and long term time frame will be developed. •Design the Test Loop: The forced convection test loop will be designed including extensive mechanical design, instrument selection, data acquisition system, safety requirements, and related precautionary measures. •Fabricate the Test Loop. •Perform the Tests. •Uncertainty Analysis: As a part of the data collection, uncertainty analysis will

1. A dry-spot model of critical heat flux applicable to both pool boiling and subcooled forced convection boiling

A study has been performed to predict CHF in pool boiling and subcooled forced convection boiling using the dry-spot model presented by the authors and existing correlations for heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling. Comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for pool boiling of water and subcooled upward forced convection boiling of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes have been performed and the parametric trends of CHF have been investigated. The results of the present study strongly support the validity of physical feature of the present model on the CHF mechanism in pool boiling and subcooled forced convection boiling. To improve the prediction capability of the present model, further works on active site density, bubble departure diameter and suppression factor in subcooled boiling are needed

2. Experimental study of forced convection heat transfer during upward and downward flow of helium at high pressure and high temperature

Francisco Valentin; Narbeh Artoun; Masahiro Kawaji; Donald M. McEligot

2015-08-01

Fundamental high pressure/high temperature forced convection experiments have been conducted in support of the development of a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) with a prismatic core. The experiments utilize a high temperature/high pressure gas flow test facility constructed for forced convection and natural circulation experiments. The test section has a single 16.8 mm ID flow channel in a 2.7 m long, 108 mm OD graphite column with four 2.3kW electric heater rods placed symmetrically around the flow channel. This experimental study presents the role of buoyancy forces in enhancing or reducing convection heat transfer for helium at high pressures up to 70 bar and high temperatures up to 873 degrees K. Wall temperatures have been compared among 10 cases covering the inlet Re numbers ranging from 500 to 3,000. Downward flows display higher and lower wall temperatures in the upstream and downstream regions, respectively, than the upward flow cases due to the influence of buoyancy forces. In the entrance region, convection heat transfer is reduced due to buoyancy leading to higher wall temperatures, while in the downstream region, buoyancyinduced mixing causes higher convection heat transfer and lower wall temperatures. However, their influences are reduced as the Reynolds number increases. This experimental study is of specific interest to VHTR design and validation of safety analysis codes.

3. Turbulent forced convection in a heat exchanger square channel with wavy-ribs vortex generator☆

2015-01-01

Turbulent forced convective heat transfer and flow configurations in a square channel with wavy-ribs inserted diagonally are examined numerical y. The influences of the 30° and 45° flow attack angles for wavy-ribs, blockage ratio, RB=b/H=0.05–0.25 with single pitch ratio, RP=P/H=1 are investigated for the Reynolds number based on the hydraulic diameter of the square channel, Re=3000–20000. The use of the wavy-ribs, which inserted diagonal in the square channel, is aimed to help to improve the thermal performance in heat exchange systems. The finite volume method and SIMPLE algorithm are applied to the present numerical simulation. The results are presented on the periodic flow and heat transfer profiles, flow configurations, heat transfer characteristics and the performance evaluations. The mathematical results reveal that the use of wavy-ribs leads to a higher heat transfer rate and friction loss over the smooth channel. The heat transfer enhancements are around 1.97–5.14 and 2.04–5.27 times over the smooth channel for 30° and 45° attack angles, respectively. However, the corre-sponding friction loss values for 30° and 45° are around 4.26–86.55 and 5.03–97.98 times higher than the smooth square channel, respectively. The optimum thermal enhancement factor on both cases is found at RB=0.10 and the lowest Reynolds number, Re=3000, to be about 1.47 and 1.52, respectively, for 30° and 45° wavy-ribs.

4. On the prediction of single-phase forced convection heat transfer in narrow rectangular channels

In this paper, selected heat transfer correlations for single-phase forced convection are assessed for the case of narrow rectangular channels. The work is of interest in the thermal-hydraulic analysis of the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR), which is a research reactor under construction at CEA-Cadarache (France). In order to evaluate the validity of the correlations, about 300 tests from the SULTAN-JHR database were used. The SULTAN-JHR program was carried out at CEA-Grenoble and it includes different kinds of tests for two different vertical rectangular channels with height of 600 mm and gap of 1.51 and 2.16 mm. The experimental conditions range between 2 - 9 bar for the pressure; 0.5 - 18 m/s for the coolant velocity and 0.5 - 7.5 MW/m2 for the heat flux (whose axial distribution is uniform). Forty-two thermocouples and eight pressure taps were placed at several axial locations, measuring wall temperature and pressure respectively. The analysis focused on turbulent flow with Reynolds numbers between 5.5 x 103 - 2.4 x 105 and Prandtl numbers between 1.5 - 6. It was shown that standard correlations as the Dittus-Boelter and Seider-Tate significantly under-estimate the heat transfer coefficient, especially at high Reynolds number. Other correlations specifically designed for narrow rectangular channels were also taken into account and compared. The correlation of Popov-Petukhov in the form suggested by Siman-Tov still under-estimates the heat transfer coefficient, even if slight improvements could be seen. A better agreement for the tests with gap equal to 2.16 mm could be found with the correlation of Ma and the one of Liang. However the heat transfer coefficient when the gap is equal to 1.51 mm could not be predicted accurately. Furthermore these correlations were based on data at low Reynolds numbers (up to 13000) and low heat flux, so the use of them for SULTAN-JHR may be questionable. According to the authors’ knowledge, existing models of heat transfer

5. Thermodynamic investigation and optimization of laminar forced convection in a rotating helical tube heat exchanger

Highlights: • Variation of total entropy generation is investigated parametrically. • Pareto solution sets for heat transfer and flow friction components are obtained. • Dominant irreversibility component and impact of key variables are discussed. - Abstract: Based on the second law of thermodynamics, an entropy generation investigation is carried out under given dimensionless parameters, i.e. heat exchanger duty, heat flux, with respect to heat transfer and frictional pressure drop in a rotating helical tube heat exchanger with laminar convective flow. The entropy generation from heat transfer across a finite temperature difference – Ψh decreases with increasing Dean number which represents the impact of centrifugal force induced secondary flow in enhancing heat transfer. Another aspect of increasing Dean number is that intensified momentum transfer in the radial direction also raises the entropy generation from frictional pressure drop – Ψf, the superposed effect of which yields a decreasing–increasing trend of the total entropy generation-Ψ, a local minimum located in between. The rotation of the helical tube in streamwise (co-rotation) or counter streamwise (counter-rotation) direction leads to a decrease in Ψh and a increase in Ψf which complicates the situation that whether or where the minimum of total entropy generation exists is dependent on whether Ψ is dominated by Ψh or Ψf or somewhere in between. No difference is discerned between pairs of cases with constant wall temperature and uniform wall heat flux but the same set of variables and parameters. A multi-objective optimization targeting Ψh and Ψf simultaneously is implemented using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II). Five solution sets are selected and compared with the conventional optimization in regard of Ψ distinguishing the Ψh-dominated region from the Ψf-dominated region, the dimensionless variable η1 is found to be the most suitable representative

6. Multirelaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for droplet heating and evaporation under forced convection.

Albernaz, Daniel; Do-Quang, Minh; Amberg, Gustav

2015-04-01

We investigate the evaporation of a droplet surrounded by superheated vapor with relative motion between phases. The evaporating droplet is a challenging process, as one must take into account the transport of mass, momentum, and heat. Here a lattice Boltzmann method is employed where phase change is controlled by a nonideal equation of state. First, numerical simulations are compared to the D(2) law for a vaporizing static droplet and good agreement is observed. Results are then presented for a droplet in a Lagrangian frame under a superheated vapor flow. Evaporation is described in terms of the temperature difference between liquid-vapor and the inertial forces. The internal liquid circulation driven by surface-shear stresses due to convection enhances the evaporation rate. Numerical simulations demonstrate that for higher Reynolds numbers, the dynamics of vaporization flux can be significantly affected, which may cause an oscillatory behavior on the droplet evaporation. The droplet-wake interaction and local mass flux are discussed in detail. PMID:25974585

7. Laminar forced convective/conductive heat transfer by finite element method

The present study is directed at developing a finite element computer program for solution of decoupled convective/conductive heat transfer problems. Penalty function formulation has been used to solve momentum equations and subsequently transient energy equation is solved using modified Crank-Nicolson method. The optimal upwinding scheme has been employed in energy equation to remove oscillations at high Peclet number. (author)

8. Forced Convective Heat Transfer in a Plate Channel Filled with Solid Particles

Pei－XueJiang; Ze－PeiRen; 等

1996-01-01

A numerical study of fluid flow and convective heat transfer in a plate channel filled with solid(metallic)perticles is presented in this paper,The study uses the thermal equilibrium model and a newly developed numerical model which does not assume idealized local thermal equilibrium between the solid particles and the fluid.The numerical simulation results are compared with the experimental data in reference[2].The paper investigates the effects of the assumption of local thermal equilibrium versus non-thermal equilibrium,the thermal conductivity of the solid particles and the particle diameter on convective heat transfer.For the conditions studied.the convective heat transfer and the temperature filed assuming local thermal equilibrium are much different from that for the non-thermal equilibrium assumption when the difference between the solid and fluid thermal conductivities is large,The relative values of the thermal conductivities of the solid particles and the fluid also have a profound effect on the temperature distribution in the channel.The pressure drop decreases as the particle diameter increases and the convective heat transfer coefficient may decrease of increase as the particle diameter increasws depending on the values of ε，λs，λf,λd,αu，ρu.

9. Effect of the magnetic field direction on forced convection heat transfer enhancements in ferrofluids

Cherief, Wahid; Avenas, Yvan; Ferrouillat, Sébastien; Kedous-Lebouc, Afef; Jossic, Laurent; Berard, Jean; Petit, Mickael

2015-07-01

Applying a magnetic field on a ferrofluid flow induces a large increase of the convective heat transfer coefficient. In this paper, the thermal-hydraulic behaviors of two commercial ferrofluids are compared. The variations of both the pressure drop and the heat transfer coefficient due to the magnetic field are measured in the following conditions: square duct, laminar flow and uniform wall heat flux. The square section with two insulated walls allows for the characterization of the effect of the magnetic field direction. The experimental results show that the heat transfer is better enhanced when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the heat flux. In the best case, the local heat transfer coefficient increase is about 75%. On the contrary, another experimental setup shows no enhancement of thermal conductivity when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the heat flux. Contribution to the topical issue "Electrical Engineering Symposium (SGE 2014) - Elected submissions", edited by Adel Razek

10. Convective heat transfer

2014-01-01

Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....

11. Burnout in boiling heat transfer. Part II: subcooled and low quality forced-convection systems

Recent experimental and analytical developments regrading burnout in subcooled and low quality forced-convection systems are reviewed. Much data have been accumulated which clarify the parametric trends and lead to new design correlations for water and a variety of other coolants in both simple and complex geometries. A number of critical experiments and models have been developed to attempt to clarify the burnout mechanism(s) in simpler geometries and power transients

12. Experimental study of heat transfer from porous surface in pool and forced-convection boiling at low pressures

This paper reports on heat transfer coefficients measured for pool and forced-convection boiling on uniformly heated porous surfaces (PCs). Tests were performed for five different porous coatings. Data was obtained for a range of heat fluxes and flow rates. The results showed the strong dependence of heat transfer characteristics on the porous coating properties. It was established that thick coatings with large pores and high porosity are effective in low heat flux area but thin coatings with small pores and low porosity are effective in high heat flux area. Tests of gas injection through the porous wall into the moving liquid were made. The hydraulic resistance through the porous matrix was observed

13. Single-phase liquid flow forced convection under a nearly uniform heat flux boundary condition in microchannels

Lee, Man

2012-02-22

A microchannel heat sink, integrated with pressure and temperature microsensors, is utilized to study single-phase liquid flow forced convection under a uniform heat flux boundary condition. Utilizing a waferbond-and-etch- back technology, the heat source, temperature and pressure sensors are encapsulated in a thin composite membrane capping the microchannels, thus allowing experimentally good control of the thermal boundary conditions. A three-dimensional physical model has been constructed to facilitate numerical simulations of the heat flux distribution. The results indicate that upstream the cold working fluid absorbs heat, while, within the current operating conditions, downstream the warmer working fluid releases heat. The Nusselt number is computed numerically and compared with experimental and analytical results. The wall Nusselt number in a microchannel can be estimated using classical analytical solutions only over a limited range of the Reynolds number, Re: both the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 4 for Re < 1, while the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 0 and 5.3, respectively, for Re > 100. The experimentally estimated Nusselt number for forced convection is highly sensitive to the location of the temperature measurements used in calculating the Nusselt number. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

14. Burnout in boiling heat transfer. II. Subcooled and low-quality forced-convection systems

Recent experimental and analytical developments regarding burnout in subcooled and low-quality forced-convection systems are reviewed. Many data have been accumulated which clarify the parametric trends and lead to new design correlations for water and a variety of other coolants in both simple and complex geometries. A number of critical experiments and models have been developed to attempt to clarify the burnout mechanism(s) in simpler geometries. Other topics discussed include burnout with power transients and techniques to augment burnout. 86 references

15. Forced convective boiling heat transfer of water in vertical rectangular narrow channel

Chen, Chong, E-mail: chenchong_2012@163.com; Gao, Pu-zhen, E-mail: gaopuzhen@hrbeu.edu.cn; Tan, Si-chao; Chen, Han-ying; Chen, Xian-bing

2015-09-15

Highlights: • Chen correlation cannot well predict the coefficient of rectangular channel. • Kim and Mudawar correlation is the best one among the Chen type correlations. • Lazarek and Black correlation predicted 7.0% of data within the ±30% error band. • The new correlation can well predict the coefficient with a small MAE of 14.4%. - Abstract: In order to research the characteristics of boiling flows in a vertical rectangular narrow channel, a series of convective boiling heat transfer experiments are performed. The test section is made of stainless steel with an inner diameter of 2 × 40 mm and heated length of 1100 mm. The 3194 experimental data points are obtained for a heat flux range of 10–700 kW/m{sup 2}, a mass flux range of 200–2400 kg/m{sup 2} s, a system pressure range of 0.1–2.5 MPa, and a quality range of 0–0.8. Eighteen prediction models are used to predict the flow boiling heat transfer coefficient of the rectangular narrow channel and the predicted value is compared against the database including 3194 data points, the results show that Chen type correlations and Lazarek and Black type correlations are not suitable for the rectangular channel very much. The Kim and Mudawar correlation is the best one among the 18 models. A new correlation is developed based on the superposition concept of nucleate boiling and convective boiling. the new correlation is shown to provide a good prediction against the database, evidenced by an overall MAE of 14.4%, with 95.2% and 98.6% of the data falling within ±30% and ±35% error bands, respectively.

16. Forced convective boiling heat transfer of water in vertical rectangular narrow channel

Highlights: • Chen correlation cannot well predict the coefficient of rectangular channel. • Kim and Mudawar correlation is the best one among the Chen type correlations. • Lazarek and Black correlation predicted 7.0% of data within the ±30% error band. • The new correlation can well predict the coefficient with a small MAE of 14.4%. - Abstract: In order to research the characteristics of boiling flows in a vertical rectangular narrow channel, a series of convective boiling heat transfer experiments are performed. The test section is made of stainless steel with an inner diameter of 2 × 40 mm and heated length of 1100 mm. The 3194 experimental data points are obtained for a heat flux range of 10–700 kW/m2, a mass flux range of 200–2400 kg/m2 s, a system pressure range of 0.1–2.5 MPa, and a quality range of 0–0.8. Eighteen prediction models are used to predict the flow boiling heat transfer coefficient of the rectangular narrow channel and the predicted value is compared against the database including 3194 data points, the results show that Chen type correlations and Lazarek and Black type correlations are not suitable for the rectangular channel very much. The Kim and Mudawar correlation is the best one among the 18 models. A new correlation is developed based on the superposition concept of nucleate boiling and convective boiling. the new correlation is shown to provide a good prediction against the database, evidenced by an overall MAE of 14.4%, with 95.2% and 98.6% of the data falling within ±30% and ±35% error bands, respectively

17. Thermal resistance of steam generator tube deposits under single-phase forced-convection and flow-boiling heat transfer

The heat transfer resistance of a porous deposit can be expressed as the sum of two components: one associated with conduction through the fluid-filled deposit and a second associated with surface roughness. This simple relationship appears to hold under both single-phase forced-convection and boiling heat-transfer conditions. The conductive component of the total deposit resistance is always positive, whereas the roughness component is negative. Values for κ and Rroughness measured in this investigation are as follows. Under single-phase forced-convection heat-transfer conditions, κ = 1.3 ± 0.2 W/mK and Rroughness = -4 x 10-6 m2K/W for magnetite deposits. Under flow-boiling heat-transfer conditions, κ = 0.2 to 0.9 W/mK and Rroughness = -36 x 10-6 m2K/W for magnetite deposits, whereas κ = 2.0 W/mK and Rroughness = -43 x 10-6 m2K/W for deposits composed of approximately equal proportions of copper and magnetite. (author)

18. Forced convection on a heated horizontal flat plate with finite thermal conductivity in a non-Darcian porous medium

Luna, N. [Direccion de Operacion Petrolera, Direccion General de Exploracion y Explotacion de Hidrocarburos, Secretaria de Energia, 03100 Mexico DF (Mexico); Mendez, F. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)

2005-07-01

The steady-state analysis of conjugated heat transfer process for the hydrodynamically developed forced convection flow on a heated flat plate embedded in a porous medium is studied. The governing equations for the fluid-saturated porous medium are solved analytically using the integral boundary layer approximation. This integral solution is coupled to the energy equation for the flat plate, where the longitudinal heat conduction effects are taken into account. The resulting equations are then reduced to an integro-differential equation which is solved by regular perturbation techniques and numerical methods. The analytical and numerical predictions for the temperature profile of the plate and appropriate local and average Nusselt numbers are plotted for finite values of the conduction parameter, {alpha}, which represents the presence of the longitudinal heat conduction effects. (authors)

19. Forced convection heat transfer from a wire inserted into a vertically-mounted pipe to liquid hydrogen flowing upward

Forced convection heat transfer from a PtCo wire with a length of 120 mm and a diameter of 1.2 mm that was inserted into a vertically-mounted pipe with a diameter of 8.0 mm to liquid hydrogen flowing upward was measured with a quasi-steady increase of a heat generation rate for wide ranges of flow rate under saturated conditions. The pressures were varied from 0.4 MPa to 1.1 MPa. The non-boiling heat transfer characteristic agrees with that predicted by Dittus-Boelter correlation. The critical heat fluxes are higher for higher flow rates and lower pressures. Effect of Weber number on the CHF was clarified and a CHF correlation that can describe the experimental data is derived based on our correlation for a pipe

20. Symmetry-breaking bifurcations of central forced and heated convection in a spherical fluid shell

Tuckerman, L. S.; Feudel, F.; Bergemann, K.; Egbers, C.; Futterer, B.; Gellert, M.; Hollerbach, R.

2010-11-01

We study convection in a spherical shell under a gravitational force designed to mimic the GeoFlow microgravity experiment, using a combination of time-dependent simulation and path-following methods. With an outer radius which is twice that of the inner radius, the critical modes are spherical harmonics with l=4, leading generically to transcritical bifurcations involving axisymmetric and octahedral branches, in agreement with predictions by Michel, Ihrig & Golubitsky, Chossat, Matthews, and Busse & Riahi. A secondary bifurcation involving the l=5 mode leads to an additional seven-cell branch. All three steady patterns are simultaneously stable for 7 150 18 710, simulations lead to time-dependent states, some periodic and some chaotic. The period varies greatly: some of the orbits belong to different branches and a global bifurcation is suspected of delimiting the lower limit of periodic states.

1. Forced convection heat transfer to power-law non-Newtonian fluids inside triangular ducts

Chaves, Cleber; Quaresma, Joao; Macedo, Emanuel [Universidade Federal do Para, Campus Universitario do Guama, Chemical and Food Engineering Dept., Belem, PA (Brazil); Pereira, Luiz [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Research and Development Inst., S.J. Campos, SP (Brazil); Lima, Joao [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Natal, RN (Brazil)

2004-07-01

A hybrid analytical-numerical approach based on the Generalized Integral Transform Technique is employed to simulate the laminar forced convection (hydrodynamically fully developed and thermally developing laminar flow) of power-law non-Newtonian fluids inside ducts with arbitrary shaped cross-sections. The analysis is illustrated through consideration of both right angularly and isosceles triangular ducts subjected to constant wall temperature as thermal boundary condition. Reference results for quantities of practical interest such as dimensionless average temperature and Nusselt numbers within the thermal entry region were produced for different values of power-law index and apex angles. Finally, critical comparisons are performed with results available in the literature for direct numerical and approximate approaches. (Author)

2. A NUMERICAL STUDY OF FORCED CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER OVER A SERIES OF FLAT TUBES BETWEEN PARALLEL PLATES

M.M. Rahman

2012-12-01

Full Text Available This paper presents the numerical study on two-dimensional forced convection heat transfer across three in-line flat tubes confined in a channel under incompressible, steady-state conditions. This system is solved in body-fitted coordinates (BFC using the finite volume method (FVM. The constant heat flux is imposed on the surface of the tubes as the thermal boundary conditions. The range of the longitudinal pitch-to-diameter ratio (SL/Ds of 2.0–4.0 is considered, the Reynolds number varies within the range 25–300, and the Prandtl number is taken as 0.7. The temperature contours, local Nusselt number distributions at the tube surface and mean Nusselt number were analyzed. The strength of the heat transfer between the surface of the tubes and the air flow increases with an increase in Reynolds number and pitch-to-diameter ratio.

3. The influence of tip clearance and Prandtl number on turbulent forced convection heat transfer of rectangular fins

Park, Hae-Kyun; Chung, Bum-Jin

2016-02-01

The turbulent forced convection heat transfer of rectangular fins in a duct was investigated by varying the tip clearance and Pr. Mass transfer experiments using a H2SO4-CuSO4 electroplating system were performed based on the analogy between heat and mass transfers. FLUENT 6.3 was used for calculations. Turbulent models were tested and the Reynolds Stress Model was chosen, which showed a 1.15 % discrepancy with the existing correlation for a simple tube flow when Pr = 2, but 13 % when Pr = 2014. For a more complex fin channel, the discrepancy increased up to 30 %. The optimal tip clearances, corresponding to maximum heat transfer rates, did not vary with Pr, which is explained using the temperature contours. The results were also compared with the laminar case where Pr influenced the optimal tip clearance.

4. Convection heat transfer

2013-01-01

Written by an internationally recognized authority on heat transfer and thermodynamics, this second edition of Convection Heat Transfer contains new and updated problems and examples reflecting real-world research and applications, including heat exchanger design. Teaching not only structure but also technique, the book begins with the simplest problem solving method (scale analysis), and moves on to progressively more advanced and exact methods (integral method, self similarity, asymptotic behavior). A solutions manual is available for all problems and exercises.

5. A dry-spot model of critical heat flux and transition boiling in pool and subcooled forced convection boiling

A new dry-spot model for critical heat flux (CHF) is proposed. The new concept for dry area formation based on Poisson distribution of active nucleation sites and the critical active site number is introduced. The model is based on the boiling phenomena observed in nucleate boiling such as Poisson distribution of active nucleation sites and formation of dry spots on the heating surface. It is hypothesized that when the number of bubbles surrounding one bubble exceeds a critical number, the surrounding bubbles restrict the feed of liquid to the microlayer under the bubble. Then a dry spot of vapor will form on the heated surface. As the surface temperature is raised, more and more bubbles will have a population of surrounding active sites over the critical number. Consequently, the number of the spots will increase and the size of dry areas will increase due to merger of several dry spots. If this trend continues, the number of effective sites for heat transport through the wall will diminish, and CHF and transition boiling occur. The model is applicable to pool and subcooled forced convection boiling conditions, based on the common mechanism that CHF and transition boiling are caused by the accumulation and coalescences of dry spots. It is shown that CHF and heat flux in transition boiling can be determined without any empirical parameter based on information on the boiling parameters such as active site density and bubble diameter, etc., in nucleate boiling. It is also shown that the present model well represents actual phenomena on CHF and transition boiling and explains the mechanism on how parameters such as flow modes (pool or flow) and surface wettability influence CHF and transition boiling. Validation of the present model for CHF and transition boiling is achieved without any tuning parameter always present in earlier models. It is achieved by comparing the predictions of CHF and heat flux in transition boiling using measured boiling parameters in nucleate

6. Convective Heat Transfer

Favre-Marinet, Michel

2009-01-01

Convection heat transfer is an important topic both for industrial applications and fundamental aspects. It combines the complexity of the flow dynamics and of the active or passive scalar transport process. It is part of many university courses such as Mechanical, Aeronautical, Chemical and Biomechanical Engineering. The literature on convective heat transfer is large, but the present manuscript differs in many aspects from the existing ones, particularly from the pedagogical point of view. Each chapter begins with a brief yet complete presentation of the related topic. This is followed by a

7. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY FOR HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT BY LAMINAR FORCED CONVECTION FROM HORIZONTAL AND INCLINED TUBE HEATED WITH CONSTANT HEAT FLUX, USING TWO TYPES OF POROUS MEDIA

Thamir K. Jassem

2013-05-01

Full Text Available An experimental forced laminar study was presented in this research for an air flowing through a circular channel for different angles ( ,30o,45o,60o, the channel was heated at constant heat flux , the channel also was packed with steel and glass spheres respectively . The tests were done for three values of Peclets number (2111.71,3945.42,4575.47 with changing the heat flux for each case and five times for each number.The results showed that the dimensionless temperature distribution  will decrease with increasing the dimensionless channel length for all cases with changing Peclet number, heat flux and inclination angles, and its lowest value will be for glass spheres at highest flux, while at lower flux for , and the decreasing in dimensionless temperature was closed for both types of packed at other inclination angles.The study declared that the local Nusselt number decreases with increasing the dimensionless length of the channel for both packeds and for different applied heat flux, also through this study it was declared that the average Nusselt increases as Peclet number increases for both packed. Its value for the glass spheres is greater than the steel spheres with percentage (98.3% at small Peclet, and percentage (97.2% at large Peclet number for the horizontal tube, and (98.3% at small Peclet number and (97.8% at large Peclet number at  .Through this study its was found that average Nusselt number increases along the channel as the heat flux increases, because the bulk temperature will increase as the flow proceeds toward the end of the channel , so the heat transfer coefficient will increase.  It was declared from this study that in the case of the steel packed the heat transfer will occur mainly by conduction, while in the case of glass packed the heat transfer will occur mainly by laminar forced convection, where the lowest Nusselt number (Nu=3.8 was found when the pipe is horizontal and lowest heat flux and lowest Peclet number.

8. Influence of Tip Clearance on Forced Convection Heat Transfer of a Finned Plate in a Duct

Optimizations are required for a proper enhancement of cooling capability. An important phenomenological consideration is to be reveals for a finned plate in a duct. Due to the high friction near the fin region and low friction near the wall region, the forced flow tends to bypass from fin region to wall region. The bypass flow increases the net flow and enhances the heat transfer for a moderate tip clearance which is defined by the distance from the tip of the fin and the wall. Meanwhile for a large tip clearance, most of the flow bypasses and does not contribute the heat transfer and impairs the heat transfer. This study is a preliminary numerical study on the influence of the tip clearance on the heat transfer of the finned plate in a duct. The study aimed at supporting an experimental research exploring the phenomena for a very small tip clearance. Thus material properties and test conditions were chosen to meet the experimental conditions. It investigated the phenomena at Pr of 2,014 and ReS of 58.3. In order to investigate the small tip clearance phenomena, a simple numerical scheme was developed using a commercial CFD code. A case with the same experimental condition was tested using the numerical scheme and the error was about 12%. The results show the clear evidence of the flow bypass from the fin region to wall region, which impair the heat removal capacity of the finned plate in a duct. The study has the relevance with the reactor cavity cooling system performance enhancement activities in the VHTR. The numerical scheme will be tested for narrower and wider tip clearances and find an optimal tip clearance

9. Influence of Tip Clearance on Forced Convection Heat Transfer of a Finned Plate in a Duct

Park, Haekyun; Chung, Bumjin [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

2014-05-15

Optimizations are required for a proper enhancement of cooling capability. An important phenomenological consideration is to be reveals for a finned plate in a duct. Due to the high friction near the fin region and low friction near the wall region, the forced flow tends to bypass from fin region to wall region. The bypass flow increases the net flow and enhances the heat transfer for a moderate tip clearance which is defined by the distance from the tip of the fin and the wall. Meanwhile for a large tip clearance, most of the flow bypasses and does not contribute the heat transfer and impairs the heat transfer. This study is a preliminary numerical study on the influence of the tip clearance on the heat transfer of the finned plate in a duct. The study aimed at supporting an experimental research exploring the phenomena for a very small tip clearance. Thus material properties and test conditions were chosen to meet the experimental conditions. It investigated the phenomena at Pr of 2,014 and ReS of 58.3. In order to investigate the small tip clearance phenomena, a simple numerical scheme was developed using a commercial CFD code. A case with the same experimental condition was tested using the numerical scheme and the error was about 12%. The results show the clear evidence of the flow bypass from the fin region to wall region, which impair the heat removal capacity of the finned plate in a duct. The study has the relevance with the reactor cavity cooling system performance enhancement activities in the VHTR. The numerical scheme will be tested for narrower and wider tip clearances and find an optimal tip clearance.

10. The fractal dimensional analysis of the forced convective heat transfer for fully developed flow in a circular tube with the self-avoiding-random-walking

A forced convective heat transfer correlation is proposed by determine the fractal dimension based on the self-avoiding random walk statistics. Nusselt number measuring the convective heat transfer area is correlated with Reynolds number measuring the line generated by the turbulent eddies. The fractal dimension , νF = 3 over d+2 is derived from the self-avoiding random walking model. The proposed heat transfer correlation here is Nu = C ReνFPr1/3. The present model is well fitted with the Reynolds analogy between the friction factor and the heat transfer correlation

11. Numerical investigation of forced convection of nano fluid flow in horizontal U-longitudinal finned tube heat exchanger

Qasim, S. M.; Sahar, A. F. A.; Firas, A. A.

2015-11-01

A numerical study has been carried out to investigate the heat transfer by laminar forced convection of nanofluid taking Titania (TiO2) and Alumina (Al2O3) as nanoparticles and the water as based fluid in a three dimensional plain and U-longitudinal finned tube heat exchanger. A Solid WORKS PREMIUM 2012 is used to draw the geometries of plain tube heat exchanger or U-longitudinal copper finned tube heat exchanger. Four U-longitudinal copper fins have 100 cm long, 3.8cm height and 1mm thickness are attached to a straight copper tube of 100 cm length, 2.2 cm inner diameter and 2.39 cm outer diameter. The governing equations which used as continuity, momentum and energy equations under assumptions are utilized to predict the flow field, temperature distribution, and heat transfer of the heat exchanger. The finite volume approach is used to obtain all the computational results using commercial ANSYS Fluent copy package 14.0 with assist of solid works and Gambit software program. The effect of various parameters on the performance of heat exchanger are investigated numerically such as Reynolds' number (ranging from 270 to 1900), volume consternation of nanoparticles (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%), type of nanoparticles, and mass flow rate of nanofluid in the hot region of heat exchanger. For 0.8% consternation of nanoparticles, heat transfer has significant enhancement in both nanofluids. It can be found about 7.3% for TiO2 and about 7.5% for Al2O3 compared with the water only as a working fluid.

12. Temperature-dependent conductivity in forced convection of heat exchangers filled with porous media: A perturbation solution

Highlights: • Thermal conductivity is assumed a linear function of temperature. • It occurs due to diffusion-like radiation or a high temperature gradient. • Nusselt number and temperature profiles are obtained based on perturbation method. • Variable conductivity reveals enhancement obtained by porous media more clearly. • Nusselt number changes linearly with a linear change in conductivity. - Abstract: Effects of variation of the thermal conductivity on forced convection in a parallel-plates channel heat exchanger occupied by a fluid saturated porous medium are investigated analytically based on the perturbation methods. Walls of the channel are kept at a constant heat flux. Thermal conductivity of the medium is assumed to be a linear function of temperature (due to moderate radiation heat transfer in cellular foams or temperature dependent conductivity of the material). The Brinkman–Forchheimer–extended Darcy model for the flow field is used. Relations representing the temperature profile and Nusselt number as functions of porous medium shape parameter and thermal conductivity variation parameter are derived. Obtained Nusselt number and temperature profile are studied parametrically. No analytical investigation based on a variable conductivity approach for Brinkman–Forchheimer–extended Darcy model has been previously performed. Results show that a linear increase in the thermal conductivity of the medium results in a semi-linear increase in the Nusselt number

13. On the generalized correlation equation of two phase heat transfer coefficient in forced-convection boiling

Investigation of two-phase heat trnsfer in horizontal pipe flow have led to a new generalized correlation for the heat transfer coefficient. The proposed correlation equation is NUTP=3.04 [Pe]0.8 [Bo]0.6 This correlation was tested againts the existing and experimental data obtained on two-pahse heat transfer covering the entire possible flow regimes in a horizontal pipe flow. The correlation produces satisfactory result. (authors). 13 refs, 12 tabs, 2 figs

14. Study of the equivalent diameter concept for heat transfer by forced convection in annular channels

This work describes a comparative analysis between experimental values of heat transfer coefficients in fully developed turbulent flow for a concentric annular channel, and those calculated with the empirical correlations obtained for tubes by Dittus-Boelter, Sieder and Tate, a modified Colburn equation, and that proposed by Gnielinski which applies the analogy between friction and heat transfer. The coefficients were calculated by means of two different equivalent diameters: 1) The hydraulic equivalent diameter; and 2) The heated equivalent diameter. It was concluded that the hydraulic equivalent diameter gives much better results than the heated equivalent diameter. (Author)

15. Forced Convection Film Boiling Heat Transfer from a Horizontal Cylinder to Liquid Cross-flowing Upward : 1st Report, Saturated Liquid

Ito, Takehiro; Nishikawa, Kaneyasu; Shigechi, Tooru

1981-01-01

Forced convection film boiling heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder to saturated liquid cross-flowing upward is analyzed based on the two-phase boundary-layer theory. Numerical solution of the conservation equations is determined by means of the integral method of boundary-layer for water, ethanol and hexane under the atmospheric pressure. The velocity profile, separation point of the boundary-layer, thickness of the boundary-layer, distribution of the heat transfer coefficients and avera...

16. Heterogeneous nanofluids: natural convection heat transfer enhancement

Bennacer Rachid; Oueslati Fakhreddine

2011-01-01

Abstract Convective heat transfer using different nanofluid types is investigated. The domain is differentially heated and nanofluids are treated as heterogeneous mixtures with weak solutal diffusivity and possible Soret separation. Owing to the pronounced Soret effect of these materials in combination with a considerable solutal expansion, the resulting solutal buoyancy forces could be significant and interact with the initial thermal convection. A modified formulation taking into account th...

17. Sensitivity studies of heat transfer: forced convection across a cylindrical pipe and duct flow

Ferrantelli, Andrea; Viljanen, Martti

2013-01-01

We consider two common heat transfer processes and perform a through sensitivity study of the variables involved. We derive and discuss analytical formulas for the heat transfer coefficient in function of film velocity, air temperature and pipe diameter. The according plots relate to a qualitative analysis of the multi-variable function $h$, according to functional optimization. For each process, we provide with graphs and tables of the parameters of interest, such as the Reynolds number. This method of study and the specific values can constitute a useful reference for didactic purposes.

18. Theoretical models to predict the transient heat transfer performance of HIFAR fuel elements under non-forced convective conditions

Simple theoretical models have been developed which are suitable for predicting the thermal responses of irradiated research fuel elements of markedly different geometries when they are subjected to loss-of-coolant accident conditions. These models have been used to calculate temperature responses corresponding to various non-forced convective conditions. Comparisons between experimentally observed temperatures and calculated values have shown that a suitable value for surface thermal emissivity is 0.35; modelling of the fuel element beyond the region of the fuel plate needs to be included since these areas account for approximately 25 per cent of the thermal power dissipated; general agreement between calculated and experimental temperatures for both transient and steady-state conditions is good - the maximum discrepancy between calculated and experimental temperatures for a HIFAR Mark IV/V fuel element is ∼ 70 deg C, and for an Oak Ridge Reactor (ORR) box-type fuel element ∼ 30 deg C; and axial power distribution does not significantly affect thermal responses for the conditions investigated. Overall, the comparisons have shown that the models evolved can reproduce experimental data to a level of accuracy that provides confidence in the modelling technique and the postulated heat dissipation mechanisms, and that these models can be used to predict thermal responses of fuel elements in accident conditions that are not easily investigated experimentally

19. Experimental study of micro-particle fouling under forced convective heat transfer

2012-12-01

Full Text Available Particulate fouling studies of a hydrocarbon based suspension containing 2 µm alumina particles were performed in an annular heat exchanger having a hydraulic diameter of 14.7 mm. During fouling experiments, the classical asymptotical behavior was observed. It is shown that particle concentration, fluid velocity, and wall temperature have strong influences on the fouling curve and the asymptotic fouling resistance. Furthermore, a mathematical model is developed to formulate the asymptotic fouling resistance in terms of the mass transfer coefficient, thermophoresis velocity, and fluid shear rate. The results demonstrate that the prediction of the new model is in good agreement with the experimental observations.

20. Experimental Study on Forced Convective Heat Transfer with Low Volume Fraction of CuO/Water Nanofluid

Lazarus Godson Asirvatham

2009-03-01

Full Text Available The present work is an experimental study of steady state convective heat transfer of de-ionized water with a low volume fraction (0.003% by volume of copper oxide (CuO nanoparticles dispersed to form a nanofluid that flows through a copper tube. The effect of mass flow rate ranging from (0.0113 kg/s to 0.0139 kg/s and the effect of inlet temperatures at 100C and 17 0C on the heat transfer coefficient are studied on the entry region under laminar flow condition. The results have shown 8% enhancement of the convective heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluid even with a low volume concentration of CuO nanoparticles. The heat transfer enhancement was increased considerably as the Reynolds number increased. Possible reasons for the enhancement are discussed. Nanofluid thermo-physical properties and chaotic movement of ultrafine particles which accelerate the energy exchange process are proposed to be the main reasons for the observed heat transfer enhancement. A correlation for convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids, based on transport property and D/x for 8 mm tube has been evolved. The correlation predicts variation in the local Nusselt number along the flow direction of the nanofluid. A good agreement (±10% is seen between the experimental and predicted results.

1. Numerical study of natural convection dominated heat transfer in a ventilated cavity: Case of forced flow playing simultaneous assisting and opposing roles

Mixed convection heat transfer in a ventilated cavity is numerically studied by solving the mixed convection equations with the Boussinesq approximation. Results are presented in terms of streamlines, isotherms and heat transfer for different combinations of the governing parameters namely, the Reynolds number (10 ≤ Re ≤ 5000), the Rayleigh number (104 ≤ Ra ≤ 106) and the relative height of the openings (B = h'/H' = 1/4). The numerical results show the presence of a maximum interaction between the effects of the forced and natural convection and the existence of different flow regimes. The latter are delineated in the Ra-Re plane and the values of Re separating the different regions are determined and correlated versus Ra

2. Thermal resistance of steam-generator tube deposits under single-phase forced convection and flow-boiling heat transfer

Degradation of the thermal performance of steam generators(SGs) is a serious problem in nuclear power stations throughout the world (Lovett and Dow, 1991). In pressurized-heavy-water reactors (PWHRs), the reduced thermal performance of the SGs is manifested by an increase of the primary coolant reactor inlet header temperature (RIHT). In pressurized-light-water reactors(PWRs), which operate with fixed primary coolant temperature, the loss of thermal performance is manifested by a reduction of the steam pressure. Degradation mechanisms that may contribute to the loss of SG thermal performance include: fouling of the boiler tube inner surfaces (primary-side fouling); fouling of the boiler tube outer surfaces (secondary-side fouling); divider and thermal plate leakage that causes the coolant to bypass either the SG or the integral preheater and fouling of the steam separators. The relative contribution of these various degradation mechanisms to the overall loss of thermal performance is still under investigation. Soulard et al. (1990) examined the relative contributions of tube bundle fouling, divider plate leakage, and thermal plate leakage to the increase in RIHT at the Point Lepreau Generating Station, and concluded that tube fouling contributes to a significant fraction of the loss of thermal performance. Corrosion products deposit on both the inner and outer surfaces of the boiler tubes. Thus a complete understanding of the reasons fro the loss of thermal performance and the development of strategies to mitigate this loss requires a knowledge of the thermal resistance of tube deposits under primary and secondary side heat transfer conditions. We present here the results of measurements of the thermal resistance of primary-side and secondary-side boiler tube deposits performed under single-phase forced convection and flow-boiling conditions, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of the physical properties of the deposit and the mode of heat transfer

3. MHD mixed convection in an inclined lid-driven cavity with opposing thermal buoyancy force: Effect of non-uniform heating on both side walls

Ahmed, Sameh E., E-mail: sameh_sci_math@yahoo.com [Mathematics Department, Faculty of Sciences, South Valley University, 83523 Qena (Egypt); Mansour, M.A. [Department of Mathematics, Assuit University, Faculty of Science, Assuit (Egypt); Mahdy, A., E-mail: mahdy4@yahoo.com [Mathematics Department, Faculty of Sciences, South Valley University, 83523 Qena (Egypt)

2013-12-15

Highlights: • We model MHD mixed convection in an inclined lid-driven cavity. • Increasing the Hartmann number leads to increase the heat transfer rate. • Increasing the inclination angle leads to the increase of the heat transfer rate. • Nusselt number at the left wall, for forced convection case, increases as the amplitude ratio increases. - Abstract: A numerical study of laminar magnetohydrodynamic mixed convection in an inclined lid-driven square cavity with opposing temperature gradients is presented. The vertical sidewalls are assumed to have non-uniform temperature variation while the top and bottom walls are kept insulated with the top surface moving at a constant speed. The transport equations are given in terms of the stream functions-vorticity formulation and are non-dimensionalized and then solved numerically by an accurate finite-volume method. The computation is carried out for wide ranges of the inclination angle (0 ≤ γ ≤ π/2), the Richardson number (0.01 ≤ Ri ≤ 100), the Hartmann number (0 ≤ Ha ≤ 100), the amplitude ratio (0 ≤ ε ≤ 1) and the phase deviation (0 ≤ ϕ ≤ π). The results indicate that the rate of heat transfer along the heated walls is enhanced on increasing either Hartmann number or inclination angle. Average Nusselt number is also, increased with increasing of the amplitude ratio for all values of the phase deviation. The non-uniform heating on both walls provides higher heat transfer rate than non-uniform heating of one wall.

4. MHD mixed convection in an inclined lid-driven cavity with opposing thermal buoyancy force: Effect of non-uniform heating on both side walls

Highlights: • We model MHD mixed convection in an inclined lid-driven cavity. • Increasing the Hartmann number leads to increase the heat transfer rate. • Increasing the inclination angle leads to the increase of the heat transfer rate. • Nusselt number at the left wall, for forced convection case, increases as the amplitude ratio increases. - Abstract: A numerical study of laminar magnetohydrodynamic mixed convection in an inclined lid-driven square cavity with opposing temperature gradients is presented. The vertical sidewalls are assumed to have non-uniform temperature variation while the top and bottom walls are kept insulated with the top surface moving at a constant speed. The transport equations are given in terms of the stream functions-vorticity formulation and are non-dimensionalized and then solved numerically by an accurate finite-volume method. The computation is carried out for wide ranges of the inclination angle (0 ≤ γ ≤ π/2), the Richardson number (0.01 ≤ Ri ≤ 100), the Hartmann number (0 ≤ Ha ≤ 100), the amplitude ratio (0 ≤ ε ≤ 1) and the phase deviation (0 ≤ ϕ ≤ π). The results indicate that the rate of heat transfer along the heated walls is enhanced on increasing either Hartmann number or inclination angle. Average Nusselt number is also, increased with increasing of the amplitude ratio for all values of the phase deviation. The non-uniform heating on both walls provides higher heat transfer rate than non-uniform heating of one wall

5. An experimental comparison between forced convection burn-out in freon 12 flowing vertically upwards through uniformly and non-uniformly heated round tubes

Some correlations of forced convection burn-out data are based on the approximate linearity of the relationship between burn-out heat flux and the channel-averaged quality at the burn-out point. These correlations perform satisfactorily on data obtained from uniformly heated configurations. Therefore the further inference is sometimes made that the burn-out heat flux is uniquely related to the quality, and that the burn-out in non-uniformly heated configurations can be calculated from measurements made with uniform heating. This report presents burn-out data for Freon 12 flowing vertically upwards through both uniformly and non-uniformly heated round tubes. This data shows that the quality at burn-out does depend on the heat flux profile, and that the inference mentioned above is not justified. (author)

6. Forced Convection Film Boiling Heat Transfer from a Horizontal Cylinder to Liquid Cross-flowing Upward : 2nd Report, Subcooled Liquid

Shigechi, Tooru; Ito, Takehiro; Nishikawa, Kaneyasu

1983-01-01

Forced convection film boiling heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder to a subcooled liquid cross-flowing upward is analysed based on the two-phase boundary-layer theory. Numerical solution of the conservation equations is determined for subcooled water, ethanol and hexane under the atmospheric pressure by the method similar to that of the first report for saturated liquid. The velocity profile, the separation point in the vapor film, the thickness of the boundary-layer and the average Nuss...

7. International symposium on transient convective heat transfer: book of abstracts

The international symposium on convective heat transfer was held on 19-23 August 1996, in Cesme, Izmir, Turkey. The spesialists discussed forced convection, heat exchangers, free convection and multiphase media and phase change at the meeting. Almost 53 papers were presented in the meeting

8. A critical review of forced convection heat transfer and pressure drop of Al2O3, TiO2 and CuO nanofluids

Khurana, Deepak; Choudhary, Rajesh; Subudhi, Sudhakar

2016-04-01

Nanofluid is the colloidal suspension of nanosized solid particles like metals or metal oxides in some conventional fluids like water and ethylene glycol. Due to its unique characteristics of enhanced heat transfer compared to conventional fluid, it has attracted the attention of research community. The forced convection heat transfer of nanofluid is investigated by numerous researchers. This paper critically reviews the papers published on experimental studies of forced convection heat transfer and pressure drop of Al2O3, TiO2 and CuO based nanofluids dispersed in water, ethylene glycol and water-ethylene glycol mixture. Most of the researchers have shown a little rise in pressure drop with the use of nanofluids in plain tube. Literature has reported that the pumping power is appreciably high, only at very high particle concentration i.e. more than 5 %. As nanofluids are able to enhance the heat transfer at low particle concentrations so most of the researchers have used less than 3 % volume concentration in their studies. Almost no disagreement is observed on pressure drop results of different researchers. But there is not a common agreement in magnitude and mechanism of heat transfer enhancement. Few studies have shown an anomalous enhancement in heat transfer even at low particle concentration. On the contrary, some researchers have shown little heat transfer enhancement at the same particle concentration. A large variation (2-3 times) in Nusselt number was observed for few studies under similar conditions.

9. Theoretical study to determine the heat transfer by forced convection coefficient in an empirical correlation in single phase, for annular channels

In the heat transfer studies by forced convection, we have few data about behavior of the fluids in an annular channel heated by a concentric pipe, such date is necessary to know the heat transfer coefficient that establish the interchange of energy and the thermic properties of the fluid with the geometry of the flow. In this work the objective, was to compare some empirical correlations that we needed for determinate the heat transfer coefficient for annular channels, where we obtained similar at the theoretical results of an experiment made by Miller and Benforado. It is important to know such coefficients because we can determinate the heat quantity transmitted to a probe zone, in which we simulate a nuclear fuel element that developed huge heat quantity that must be dispersed in short time. We give theoretical data of the heat forced transfer convection and we analyzed the phenomena in annular channels given some empirical correlations employed by some investigators and we analyzed each one. (Author)

10. Experimental Study on Forced Convective Heat Transfer with Low Volume Fraction of CuO/Water Nanofluid

Lazarus Godson Asirvatham; Nandigana Vishal; Senthil Kumar Gangatharan; Dhasan Mohan Lal

2009-01-01

The present work is an experimental study of steady state convective heat transfer of de-ionized water with a low volume fraction (0.003% by volume) of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles dispersed to form a nanofluid that flows through a copper tube. The effect of mass flow rate ranging from (0.0113 kg/s to 0.0139 kg/s) and the effect of inlet temperatures at 10 0 C and 17 0 C on the heat transfer coefficient are studied on the entry region under laminar flow condition. The results have shown 8...

11. Combined free and forced laminar convection in inclined rectangular channels heated from below and cooled from above

Steady-state numerical results for the solution to the non-linear thermal problem of combined free and forced laminar convection in inclined rectangular channels with constant but unequal surface temperature are presented for an incompressible, viscous fluid whose Prandtl number, Pr = 0.73. Fluid properties are assumed constant, except for density variations with temperature. Maximum values exist for the mean friction factor, Nusselt and Stanton numbers when the inclination to the horizontal lies between 300 and 600 for a given Archimedes number, Ar. Also, for any given inclination a unique solution exists when Ar = 0,50. (Author)

12. Dynamical and statistical phenomena of circulation and heat transfer in periodically forced rotating turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection

Sterl, Sebastian; Zhong, Jin-Qiang

2016-01-01

In this paper, we present results from an experimental study into turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection forced externally by periodically modulated unidirectional rotation rates. We find that the azimuthal rotation velocity $\\dot{\\theta}$(t) and thermal amplitude $\\delta$(t) of the large-scale circulation (LSC) are modulated by the forcing, exhibiting a variety of dynamics including increasing phase delays and a resonant peak in the amplitude of $\\dot{\\theta}$(t). We also focus on the influence of modulated rotation rates on the frequency of occurrence $\\eta$ of stochastic cessation/reorientation events, and on the interplay between such events and the periodically modulated response of $\\dot{\\theta}$(t). Here we identify a mechanism by which $\\eta$ can be amplfied by the modulated response and these normally stochastic events can occur with high regularity. We provide a modeling framework that explains the observed amplitude and phase responses, and extend this approach to make predictions for the occurrence ...

13. Heterogeneous nanofluids: natural convection heat transfer enhancement

Oueslati, Fakhreddine Segni; Bennacer, Rachid

2011-12-01

Convective heat transfer using different nanofluid types is investigated. The domain is differentially heated and nanofluids are treated as heterogeneous mixtures with weak solutal diffusivity and possible Soret separation. Owing to the pronounced Soret effect of these materials in combination with a considerable solutal expansion, the resulting solutal buoyancy forces could be significant and interact with the initial thermal convection. A modified formulation taking into account the thermal conductivity, viscosity versus nanofluids type and concentration and the spatial heterogeneous concentration induced by the Soret effect is presented. The obtained results, by solving numerically the full governing equations, are found to be in good agreement with the developed solution based on the scale analysis approach. The resulting convective flows are found to be dependent on the local particle concentration φ and the corresponding solutal to thermal buoyancy ratio N. The induced nanofluid heterogeneity showed a significant heat transfer modification. The heat transfer in natural convection increases with nanoparticle concentration but remains less than the enhancement previously underlined in forced convection case.

14. Heterogeneous nanofluids: natural convection heat transfer enhancement

Bennacer Rachid

2011-01-01

Full Text Available Abstract Convective heat transfer using different nanofluid types is investigated. The domain is differentially heated and nanofluids are treated as heterogeneous mixtures with weak solutal diffusivity and possible Soret separation. Owing to the pronounced Soret effect of these materials in combination with a considerable solutal expansion, the resulting solutal buoyancy forces could be significant and interact with the initial thermal convection. A modified formulation taking into account the thermal conductivity, viscosity versus nanofluids type and concentration and the spatial heterogeneous concentration induced by the Soret effect is presented. The obtained results, by solving numerically the full governing equations, are found to be in good agreement with the developed solution based on the scale analysis approach. The resulting convective flows are found to be dependent on the local particle concentration φ and the corresponding solutal to thermal buoyancy ratio N. The induced nanofluid heterogeneity showed a significant heat transfer modification. The heat transfer in natural convection increases with nanoparticle concentration but remains less than the enhancement previously underlined in forced convection case.

15. Visualization of supercritical fluid pseudo-boiling under forced convection

Supercritical carbon dioxide flow has been visualized by a white light to inspect forced convection heat transfer. A 'pseudo-boiling' phenomenon which occurred in supercritical range for carbon dioxide flow was supposed to cause heat transfer deterioration. The effect of the pseudo-boiling phenomenon to the heat transfer has been investigated by the visualized images in this study. (author)

16. Laminar Mixed Convection Heat Transfer Correlation for Horizontal Pipes

This study aimed at producing experimental results and developing a new heat transfer correlation based upon a semi-empirical buoyancy coefficient. Mixed convection mass transfers inside horizontal pipe were investigated for the pipe of various length-to-diameters with varying Re. Forced convection correlation was developed using a very short cathode. With the length of cathode increase and Re decrease, the heat transfer rates were enhanced and becomes higher than that of forced convection. An empirical buoyancy coefficient was derived from correlation of natural convection and forced convection with the addition of L/D. And the heat transfer correlation for laminar mixed convection was developed using the buoyancy coefficient, it describes not only current results, but also results of other studies. Mixed convection occurs when the driving forces of both forced and natural convections are of comparable magnitude (Gr/Re2∼1). It is classical problem but is still an active area of research for various thermal applications such as flat plate solar collectors, nuclear reactors and heat exchangers. The effect of buoyancy on heat transfer in a forced flow is varied by the direction of the buoyancy force. In a horizontal pipe the direction of the forced and buoyancy forces are perpendicular. The studies on the mixed convections of the horizontal pipes were not investigated very much due to the lack of practical uses compared to those of vertical pipes. Even the definitions on the buoyancy coefficient that presents the relative influence of the forced and the natural convections, are different by scholars. And the proposed heat transfer correlations do not agree

17. Measurement and modelling of forced convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of Al2O3- and SiO2-water nanofluids

Forced convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of SiO2- and Al2O3-water nanofluids were characterized. The experimental facility was composed of thermal-hydraulic loop with a tank with an immersed heater, a centrifugal pump, a bypass with a globe valve, an electromagnetic flow-meter, a 18 kW in-line pre-heater, a test section with band heaters, a differential pressure transducer and a heat exchanger. The test section consists of a 1000 mm long aluminium pipe with an inner diameter of 31.2 mm. Eighteen band heaters were placed all along the test section in order to provide a uniform heat flux. Heat transfer coefficient was calculated measuring fluid temperature using immersed thermocouples (Pt100) placed at both ends of the test section and surface thermocouples in 10 axial locations along the test section (Pt1000). The measurements have been performed for different nanoparticles (Al2O3 and SiO2 with primary size of 11 nm and 12 nm, respectively), volume concentrations (1% v., 5% v.), and flow rates (3 103Re5). Maximum heat transfer coefficient enhancement (300%) and pressure drop penalty (1000%) is obtained with 5% v. SiO2 nanofluid. Existing correlations can predict, at least in a first approximation, the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of nanofluids if thermal conductivity, viscosity and specific heat were properly modelled.

18. 平流层飞艇强迫对流特性数值仿真分析%Numerical research on forced convective heat transfer of stratospheric airships

武江涛; 麻震宇; 侯中喜; 柳兆伟

2016-01-01

During the floating flight,the complex radiation-convection environment remarkably affects the flight performance and security of the stratospheric airship.The forced convection around the stratospheric airship plays an important role in the thermal behavior of the airship.Based on the hypothesis of pure heat conduction inside the airship,a three dimensional CFD model of stratospheric airships was developed and the thermal characteristics of the forced convective heat transfer of the airship were investigated.The distributions of the temperature of skins of the airship and the average temperature of the inner gas were calculated with the variation of the angle of the sun,the wind velocity and the angle of attack. Simulation results can be referenced for the accurate prediction of the thermal behavior of stratospheric airships.%强迫对流换热特性对平流层飞艇热状态有重要影响。以平流层飞艇流线型封闭囊体为研究对象，基于囊体内部纯导热传热的假设，采用计算流体力学方法建立平流层飞艇外部流场三维数值模型，对飞艇外部强迫对流换热特性进行仿真分析，得到了不同太阳照射角度、风速和攻角条件下的飞艇表面温度分布和内部平均温度变化规律，为平流层飞艇热状态预测和热控设计提供参考依据。

19. Experimental and numerical thermohydraulic study of a supercritical helium loop in forced convection under pulsed heat loads

Future fusion reactor devices such as ITER or JT-60SA will produce thermonuclear fusion reaction in plasmas at several millions of degrees. The confinement in the center of the chamber is achieved by very intense magnetic fields generated by superconducting magnets. These coils have to be cooled down to 4.4 K through a forced flow of supercritical helium. The cyclic behavior of the machines leads to pulsed thermal heat loads which will have to be handled by the refrigerator. The HELIOS experiment built in CEA Grenoble is a scaled down model of the helium distribution system of the tokamak JT-60SA composed of a saturated helium bath and a supercritical helium loop. The thesis work explores HELIOS capabilities for experimental and numerical investigations on three heat load smoothing strategies: the use of the saturated helium bath as an open thermal buffer, the rotation speed variation of the cold circulator and the bypassing of the heated section. The developed model describes well the physical evolutions of the helium loop (pressure, temperature, mass flow) submitted to heat loads observed during experiments. Advanced controls have been tested and validated to improve the stability of the refrigerator and to optimize the refrigeration power. (author)

20. Measurement and modelling of forced convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of Al2O3- and SiO2-water nanofluids

Julia, J. E.; Hernández, L.; Martínez-Cuenca, R.; Hibiki, T.; Mondragón, R.; Segarra, C.; Jarque, J. C.

2012-11-01

Forced convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of SiO2- and Al2O3-water nanofluids were characterized. The experimental facility was composed of thermal-hydraulic loop with a tank with an immersed heater, a centrifugal pump, a bypass with a globe valve, an electromagnetic flow-meter, a 18 kW in-line pre-heater, a test section with band heaters, a differential pressure transducer and a heat exchanger. The test section consists of a 1000 mm long aluminium pipe with an inner diameter of 31.2 mm. Eighteen band heaters were placed all along the test section in order to provide a uniform heat flux. Heat transfer coefficient was calculated measuring fluid temperature using immersed thermocouples (Pt100) placed at both ends of the test section and surface thermocouples in 10 axial locations along the test section (Pt1000). The measurements have been performed for different nanoparticles (Al2O3 and SiO2 with primary size of 11 nm and 12 nm, respectively), volume concentrations (1% v., 5% v.), and flow rates (3 103Repressure drop penalty (1000%) is obtained with 5% v. SiO2 nanofluid. Existing correlations can predict, at least in a first approximation, the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of nanofluids if thermal conductivity, viscosity and specific heat were properly modelled.

1. Heat transfer in turbulent mixed convection

The contents of this book are: Basic Equations of Convective Heat Transfer; Basic Information on the Theory of Turbulent Heat Transfer in Flow Near Walls; Heat Transfer in Laminar Mixed Convection; Turbulent Mixed Convection in Boundary Layers; Turbulent Flow and Heat Transfer in Horizontal Channels; Turbulent Flow and Heat Transfer in Vertical Channels; and Gravitational Effects on Heat Transfer in a Single-Phase Fluid Near the Critical Point

2. Terminal project heat convection in thin cylinders

Heat convection in thin cylinders and analysis about natural convection for straight vertical plates, and straight vertical cylinders submersed in a fluid are presented some works carry out by different authors in the field of heat transfer. In the part of conduction, deduction of the equation of heat conduction in cylindrical coordinates by means of energy balance in a control volume is presented. Enthalpy and internal energy are used for the outlining of the equation and finally the equation in its vectorial form is obtained. In the convection part development to calculate the Nusselt number for a straight vertical plate by a forces analysis, an energy balance and mass conservation over a control volume is outlined. Several empiric correlations to calculate the Nusselt number and its relations with other dimensionless numbers are presented. In the experimental part the way in which a prototype rode is assembled is presented measurements of temperatures attained in steady state and in free convection for working fluids as air and water are showed in tables. Also graphs of Nusselt numbers obtained in the experimental way through some empiric correlations are showed (Author)

3. Transition from boiling to two-phase forced convection

The paper presents a method for the prediction of the boundary points of the transition region between fully developed boiling and two-phase forced convection. It is shown that the concept for the determination of the onset of fully developed boiling can also be applied for the calculation of the point where the heat transfer is effected again by the forced convection. Similarly, the criterion for the onset of nucleate boiling can be used for the definition of the point where boiling is completely suppressed and pure two-phase forced convection starts. To calculate the heat transfer coefficient for the transition region, an equation is proposed that applies the boundary points and a relaxation function ensuring the smooth transition of the heat transfer coefficient at the boundaries

4. Effects of internal heat generation, thermal radiation and buoyancy force on a boundary layer over a vertical plate with a convective surface boundary condition

Tasawar Hayat

2011-09-01

Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the effects of internal heat generation, thermal radiation and buoyancy force on the laminar boundary layer about a vertical plate in a uniform stream of fluid under a convective surface boundary condition. In the analysis, we assumed that the left surface of the plate is in contact with a hot fluid whilst a stream of cold fluid flows steadily over the right surface; the heat source decays exponentially outwards from the surface of the plate. The similarity variable method was applied to the steady state governing non-linear partial differential equations, which were transformed into a set of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations and were solved numerically by applying a shooting iteration technique together with a sixth-order Runge–Kutta integration scheme for better accuracy. The effects of the Prandtl number, the local Biot number, the internal heat generation parameter, thermal radiation and the local Grashof number on the velocity and temperature profiles are illustrated and interpreted in physical terms. A comparison with previously published results on similar special cases showed excellent agreement.

5. Forced and natural convection in aggregate-laden nanofluids

A number of experimental and theoretical studies of convective heat transfer in nanofluids (liquid suspensions of nanoparticles, typically with features below 100 nm in size) reveal contrasting results; nanoparticles can either enhance or reduce the convective heat transfer coefficient. These disparate conclusions regarding the influence of nanoparticles on convective heat transfer may arise due to the aggregation of nanoparticles, which is often not considered in studies of nanofluids. Here, we examine theoretically forced and natural convective heat transfer of aggregate-laden nanofluids using Monte Carlo-based models to determine how the aggregate morphology influences the convective heat transfer coefficient. Specifically, in this study, it is first shown that standard heat transfer correlations should apply to nanofluids, and the main influence of the nanoparticles is to alter suspension thermal conductivity, dynamic viscosity, density, specific heat, and thermal expansion coefficient. Aggregated particles in suspension are modeled as quasi-fractal aggregates composed of individual primary particles described by the primary particle radius, number of primary particles, fractal (Hausdorff) dimension, pre-exponential factor, and degree of coalescence between primary particles. A sequential algorithm is used to computationally generate aggregates with prescribed morphological descriptors. Four types of aggregates are considered; spanning the range of aggregate morphologies observed in nanofluids. For each morphological type, the influences of aggregates on nanofluid dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity are determined via first passage-based Brownian dynamics calculations. It is found that depending on both the material properties of the nanoparticles as well as the nanoparticle morphology, the addition of nanoparticles to a suspension can either increase or decrease both the forced and natural convective heat transfer coefficients, with both a 51% increase

6. Approximate physical burnout model for forced convection of saturated fluid

Approximate physical burnout model for forced convection of saturated fluid is considered. Relationships for determining critical heat flux are presented. They correspond satisfactorily with experimental data. Experimental data on burnout in two-phase flow for various fluids including water and helium are presented

7. TWO-DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF FORCED CONVECTION FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN A LAMINAR CHANNEL FLOW

Rajesh Khatri

2012-03-01

Full Text Available In this paper heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics in a channel has been theoretically investigated. In this study, FEM is employed to analyze a fluid flow inside a channel and then solve for the heat flow transfer through the same channel. The fluid flow is expressed by partial differential equation (Poisson’s equation.While, heat transfer is analyzed using the energy equation. The Navier Stokes equations along with the energy equation have been solved by using simple technique. The domain is discretized using 2626 elements and that corresponds to a total number of nodes 2842. The channel has a constant heat flux at the two walls and the threedimensional numerical simulations. Numerical solutions were obtained using commercial software Ansys Fluent. The working fluid was air (Pr=0.7. The local Nusselt numbers are obtained, which can be used inestimation of flow and heat transfer performance in a channel In addition, local Nusselt numbers, velocity magnitude and temperature profiles, and pressure profiles are analyzed. Results showed that both fluid flow and temperature flow are influenced significantly with changing entrance velocity. The overall objective of thispaper is to study the flow characteristics and heat transfer analysis inside a channel while increasing entrance velocity.

8. A review on the thermal hydraulic characteristics of the air-cooled heat exchangers in forced convection

Ankur Kumar; Jyeshtharaj B Joshi; Arun K Nayak; Pallippattu K Vijayan

2015-05-01

In this paper, a review is presented on the experimental investigations and the numerical simulations performed to analyze the thermal-hydraulic performance of the air-cooled heat exchangers. The air-cooled heat exchangers mostly consist of the finned-tube bundles. The primary role of the extended surfaces (fins) is to provide more heat transfer area to enhance the rate of heat transfer on the air side. The secondary role of the fins is to generate vortices, which help in enhancing the mixing and the heat transfer coefficient. In this study, the annular and plate fins are considered, the annular fins are further divided into four categories: (1) plane annular fins, (2) serrated fins, (3) crimped spiral fins, (4) perforated fins, and similarly for the plate fins, the fin types are: (1) plain plate fins, (2) wavy plate fins, (3) plate fins with DWP, and (4) slit and strip fins. In Section 4, the performance of the various types of fins is presented with respect to the parameters: (1) Reynolds number, (2) fin pitch, (3) fin height, (4) fin thickness, (5) tube diameter, (6) tube pitch, (7) tube type, (8) number of tube rows, and (9) effect of dehumidifying conditions. In Section 5, the conclusions and the recommendations for the future work have been given.

9. Modeling of laminar forced convection in spherical- pebble packed beds

There are many parameters that have significant effects on forced convection heat transfer in packed beds, including Reynolds and Prandtl numbers of flow, porosity, pebble geometry, local flow conditions, wall and end effects. In addition, there have been many experimental investigations on forced convection heat transfer in packed beds and each have studied the effect of some of these parameters. Yet, there is not a reliable correlation that includes the effect of main parameters: at the same time, the prediction of precise correct limits for very low and high Reynolds numbers is off hand. In this article a general well-known model of convection heat transfer from isothermal bodies, next to some previous reliable experimental data has been used as a basis for a more comprehensive and accurate correlation to calculate the laminar constant temperature pebble-fluid forced convection heat transfer in a homogeneous saturated bed with spherical pebbles. Finally, for corroboration, the present results are compared with previous works and show a very good agreement for laminar flows at any Prandtl number and all porosities

10. Internally heated convection and Rayleigh-Bénard convection

Goluskin, David

2016-01-01

This Brief describes six basic models of buoyancy-driven convection in a fluid layer: three configurations of internally heated convection and three configurations of Rayleigh-Bénard convection. The author discusses the main quantities that characterize heat transport in each model, along with the constraints on these quantities. This presentation is the first to place the various models in a unified framework, and similarities and differences between the cases are highlighted. Necessary and sufficient conditions for convective motion are given. For the internally heated cases only, parameter-dependent lower bounds on the mean fluid temperature are proven, and results of past simulations and laboratory experiments are summarized and reanalyzed. The author poses several open questions for future study.

11. Analytical prediction of forced convective heat transfer of ﬂuids embedded with nanostructured materials (nanoﬂuids)

V Vasu; K Rama Krishna; A C S Kumar

2007-09-01

Nanoﬂuids are a new class of heat transfer ﬂuids developed by suspending nanosized solid particles in liquids. Larger thermal conductivity of solid particles compared to the base ﬂuid such as water, ethylene glycol, engine oil etc. signiﬁcantly enhances their thermal properties. Several phenomenological models have been proposed to explain the anomalous heat transfer enhancement in nanoﬂuids. This paper presents a systematic literature survey to exploit the characteristics of nanoﬂuids, viz., thermal conductivity, speciﬁc heat and other thermal properties. An empirical correlation for the thermal conductivity of Al2O3 + water and Cu + water nanoﬂuids, considering the effects of temperature, volume fraction and size of the nanoparticle is developed and presented. A correlation for the evaluation of Nusselt number is also developed and presented and compared in graphical form. This enhanced thermophysical and heat transfer characteristics make ﬂuids embedded with nanomaterials as excellent candidates for future applications.

12. Burn-out phenomena of a liquid nitrogen forced convective flow in a tube heated in cosine-distribution

Liquid nitrogen was used as working fluid in a tube heated in cosine distribution to study burn-out phenomena in the present experiment. Two types of burn-out were observed. One occurred when flow pattern changed from churn flow or slug flow to annular flow. Another one is DNB phenomena when the flow was unstable. (author)

13. Tests for removal of decay heat by natural convection

Interim storage technology for spent fuel by dry storage casks have been investigated. The casks are vertically placed in a storage building. The decay heat is removed from the outer cask surface by natural convection of air entering from the building wall to the roof. The air flow pattern in the storage building was governed by the natural driving pressure difference and circulating flow. The purpose of this study is to understand the mechanism of the removal of decay heat from casks by natural convection. The simulated flow conditions in the building were assumed as a natural and forced combined convection and were investigated by the turbulent quantities near wall. (author)

14. A 3-D CFD approach to the mechanistic prediction of forced convective critical heat flux at low quality

Full text of publication follows: The prediction of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in a heat flux controlled boiling heat exchanger is important to assess the maximal thermal capability of the system. In the case of a nuclear reactor, CHF margin gain (using improved mixing vane grid design, for instance) can allow power up-rate and enhanced operating flexibility. In general, current nuclear core design procedures use quasi-1D approach to model the coolant thermal-hydraulic conditions within the fuel bundles coupled with fully empirical CHF prediction methods. In addition, several CHF mechanistic models have been developed in the past and coupled with 1D and quasi-1D thermal-hydraulic codes. These mechanistic models have demonstrated reasonable CHF prediction characteristics and, more remarkably, correct parametric trends over wide range of fluid conditions. However, since the phenomena leading to CHF are localized near the heater, models are needed to relate local quantities of interest to area-averaged quantities. As a consequence, large CHF prediction uncertainties may be introduced and 3D fluid characteristics (such as swirling flow) cannot be accounted properly. Therefore, a fully mechanistic approach to CHF prediction is, in general, not possible using the current approach. The development of CHF-enhanced fuel assembly designs requires the use of more advanced 3D coolant properties computations coupled with a CHF mechanistic modeling. In the present work, the commercial CFD code CFX-5 is used to compute 3D coolant conditions in a vertical heated tube with upward flow. Several CHF mechanistic models at low quality available in the literature are coupled with the CFD code by developing adequate models between local coolant properties and local parameters of interest to predict CHF. The prediction performances of these models are assessed using CHF databases available in the open literature and the 1995 CHF look-up table. Since CFD can reasonably capture 3D fluid

15. Liquid Salts as Media for Process Heat Transfer from VHTR's: Forced Convective Channel Flow Thermal Hydraulics, Materials, and Coating

Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark; Allen, Todd; Corradini, Michael

2012-01-30

on Cr-carbide on the graphite surface. Ni-electroplating dramatically reduced corrosion of alloys, although some diffusion of Fe and Cr were observed occur through the Ni plating. A pyrolytic carbon and SiC (PyC/SiC) CVD coating was also investigated and found to be effective in mitigating corrosion. The KCl-MgCl2 molten salt was less corrosive than FLiNaK fluoride salts for corrosion tests performed at 850oC. Cr dissolution in the molten chloride salt was still observed and consequently Ni-201 and Hastelloy N exhibited the least depth of attack. Grain-boundary engineering (GBE) of Incoloy 800H improved the corrosion resistance (as measured by weight loss and maximum depth of attack) by nearly 50% as compared to the as-received Incoloy 800H sample. Because Cr dissolution is an important mechanism of corrosion, molten salt electrochemistry experiments were initiated. These experiments were performed using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). Using this technique, the reduction potential of Cr was determined against a Pt quasi-reference electrode as well as against a Ni(II)-Ni reference electrode in molten FLiNaK at 650 oC. The integrated current increased linearly with Cr-content in the salt, providing for a direct assessment of the Cr concentration in a given salt of unknown Cr concentration. To study heat transfer mechanisms in these molten salts over the forced and mixed convection regimes, a forced convective loop was constructed to measure heat transfer coefficients, friction factors and corrosion rates in different diameter tubes in a vertical up flow configuration in the laminar flow regime. Equipment and instrumentation for the forced convective loop was designed, constructed, and tested. These include a high temperature centrifugal pump, mass flow meter, and differential pressure sensing capabilities to an uncertainty of < 2 Pa. The heat transfer coefficient for the KCl-MgCl2 salt was measured in two different diameter channels (0.083 and 0.370Ã). In the 0

16. Comparison of Thermal Comfort by Radiant Heating and Convective Heating

Shigeru Imai

2015-01-01

Full Text Available Currently, convective heating with a heat-pump system, which has high energy efficiency, is popular for room heating. However, it is possible that energy savings using convective heating can be further improved using heat pumps that service both occupied and unoccupied spaces. Moreover, convective heating increases vertical temperature gradients in a room; thus, it is hard to say whether occupants are being provided with sufficient thermal comfort. The purpose of this study is to compare the thermal comfort provided by both radiant and convective heating systems. In this study, a small office room was modeled, and then temperature and airflow distributions in the room were calculated by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations using ESP-r (Environmental research simulation software. Furthermore, distributions of Standard Effective Temperatures (SET* were calculated using the air temperature distributions obtained from the CFD simulations, which allows us to compare the thermal comfort provided by convective heating with that provided by radiant heating. The results show that radiant heating can provide satisfactory thermal comfort, even when the room air temperature is low. However, thermal comfort also depends on the temperature of blowing air, and blowing air must reach occupied regions; thus, only radiant heating cannot circulate sufficient air. In contrast, convective heating increases vertical temperature gradients in a room. Therefore, rather than using only radiant or convective heating, it may be more effective to combine them efficiently.

17. Experimental investigation of forced convective heat transfer enhancement of γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid in a tube

Noghrehabadi, Aminreza; Pourrajab, Rashid [Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2016-02-15

The effect of nanofluids on heat transfer inside circular tubes under uniform constant heat flux boundary condition was investigated. The working nanofluid was a suspension of γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles of average diameter 20 nm. The heat transfer coefficients were calculated experimentally in the range of 1057 < Re < 2070 with different particle volume concentrations of 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.9%. Increasing the particle volume fraction led to enhancement of the convective heat transfer coefficient. The results show that the average heat transfer coefficient increased 16.8% at 0.9% volume concentration and Reynolds number of 2070 compared with distilled water. In addition, the enhancement of the convective heat transfer was particularly significant in the entrance region and decreased with axial distance. Finally, an empirical correlation for Nusselt number has been proposed for the present range of nanofluids. The mean deviation between the predicted Nusselt number and experimental values for the new correlation is 3.57%.

18. Combined Effect of Buoyancy Force and Navier Slip on MHD Flow of a Nanofluid over a Convectively Heated Vertical Porous Plate

Winifred Nduku Mutuku-Njane; Oluwole Daniel Makinde

2013-01-01

We examine the effect of magnetic field on boundary layer flow of an incompressible electrically conducting water-based nanofluids past a convectively heated vertical porous plate with Navier slip boundary condition. A suitable similarity transformation is employed to reduce the governing partial differential equations into nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are solved numerically by employing fourth-order Runge-Kutta with a shooting technique. Three different water-based nanofl...

19. Two regimes of forced turbulent convection

Eidelman, A; Kleeorin, N; Rogachevskii, I; Sapir-Katiraie, I

2009-01-01

We study experimentally a forced turbulent convection in the Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard apparatus with an additional source of turbulence produced by the two oscillating grids located nearby the side walls of the chamber. Two different regimes have been observed in the forced turbulent convection. When the frequency of the grid oscillations f>2 Hz, the large-scale circulation (LSC) is totally destroyed, and the destruction of the LSC is accompanied by a strong change of the mean temperature distribution. For the very low frequency the thermal structure inside the LSC is inhomogeneous and anisotropic. The hot thermal plumes accumulate at one side of LSC, and cold plumes concentrate at the opposite side of LSC. The mean temperature gradient in the horizontal direction inside the LSC is significantly larger than in the vertical direction. For the high frequency (f > 10 Hz), LSC has not been observed and the mean temperature gradient in the central flow region in the vertical direction, \

20. Thermal interaction between free convection and forced convection along a vertical conducting wall

Shu, Jian-Jun

2015-01-01

A theoretical study is presented in this paper to investigate the conjugate heat transfer across a vertical finite wall separating two forced and free convection flows at different temperatures. The heat conduction in the wall is in the transversal direction and countercurrent boundary layers are formed on the both sides of the wall. The governing equations of this problem and their corresponding boundary conditions are all cast into a dimensionless form by using a non-similarity transformation. These resultant equations with multiple singular points are solved numerically using a very efficient singular perturbation method. The effects of the resistance parameters and Prandtl numbers on heat transfer characteristics are investigated.

1. Effect of the buoyancy force on natural convection in a cubical cavity with a heat source of triangular cross-section

Gibanov, N. S.; Sheremet, M. A.

2016-04-01

Numerical analysis of laminar natural convection inside a cubical cavity with a local heat source of triangular cross-section has been conducted. The mathematical model formulated in dimensionless variables such as "vector potential functions - vorticity vector" has been solved by the finite difference method of the second order accuracy. The three-dimensional temperature fields, 2D streamlines and isotherms in a wide range of the Rayleigh number from 104 to 106 have been presented illustrating variations of the fluid flow and heat transfer.

2. Forced-convection boiling tests performed in parallel simulated LMR fuel assemblies

Forced-convection tests have been carried out using parallel simulated Liquid Metal Reactor fuel assemblies in an engineering-scale sodium loop, the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety facility. The tests, performed under single- and two-phase conditions, have shown that for low forced-convection flow there is significant flow augmentation by thermal convection, an important phenomenon under degraded shutdown heat removal conditions in an LMR. The power and flows required for boiling and dryout to occur are much higher than decay heat levels. The experimental evidence supports analytical results that heat removal from an LMR is possible with a degraded shutdown heat removal system

3. U.S. Department Of Energy's nuclear engineering education research: highlights of recent and current research-II. 4. Studies of Forced-Convection Heat Transfer Augmentation in Large Containment Enclosures

This paper provides information on heat transfer enhancement due to jet mixing inside a cylindrical enclosure. The work addresses conservative heat transfer assumptions regarding mixing and condensation that have typically been incorporated into passive containment design analyses. The current research presents an interesting possibility for increasing decay heat removal of passive containment systems under combined natural and forced convection. Eliminating these conservative assumptions could provide the basis for a change of containment design and reduce the construction cost. It is found that the ratio of forced- and free convection Nusselt numbers can be predicted as a function of the Archimedes number and a correlated factor accounting for jet orientation and enclosure geometry. To use the small-scale tests for large containment design, scale-up methods and criteria are important for matching the key governing parameters and fluid properties. In the present experiment, a cylindrical enclosure was constructed with a vertical wall of 2.29-m diameter and 0.8-m height and a vertically adjustable ceiling. A horizontal copper plate was installed at the bottom to provide an isothermal heating surface. Cold air was injected at several positions with varying pipe diameters and injecting orientations and was removed from the top of the enclosure. The experiment was performed with an extensive set of tests to study the combined natural- and forced convection heat transfer in a cylindrical enclosure mixed by an injected jet. The goals are to evaluate the key parameters governing the heat transfer augmentation by a forced jet and to investigate the effect of geometric factors, including jet diameter, jet injection orientation, and enclosure geometry (aspect ratio). Flow velocity measurement further provides a better understanding of the flow patterns developed inside the enclosure, which will determine the effectiveness of the whole volume mixing process. An additional

4. Enhancement of shell side forced convective heat transfer on the shell-tube type heat exchanger using thin plate-type supports

The shell side heat transfer and pressure drop to water flowing counter were experimentally investigated on the basis of the overall heat transfer coefficient. The investigation was intended to identify ways to get higher performance for the cooler in a BWR nuclear power plant. The following three conclusions were reached in the study. (1) From estimated performance of the heat exchanger using the overall heat transfer coefficient based on the outside area of the tube K0, performance of this heat exchanger was enhanced 92% as compared with the measured performance of the conventional segmental heat exchanger. Assuming that the fouling factor is Rf = 8.6 x 10-2 m2K/kW, the former was enhanced about 23%. (2) The tube side pressure drop ΔPt = 20 kPa and the shell side pressure drop ΔPs = 70 kPa were obtained, and they were within the allowable value ΔPa = 80 kPa. The shell side pressure drop of the standard spacer could be decreased 20% as compared with that of the low pressure drop spacer. (3) The enhancement constant of heat transfer of the low pressure drop spacer with thin plate-type supports was about 1.2 times as large as that of the standard spacer. The heat exchanger with the low pressure drop spacer was about 1.6 times more compact than that using the standard spacer. (author)

5. Optimal Heating Strategies for a Convection Oven

Stigter, J.D.; Scheerlinck, N.; Nicolai, B.M.; Impe, van J.F.

2001-01-01

In this study classical control theory is applied to a heat conduction model with convective boundary conditions. Optimal heating strategies are obtained through solution of an associated algebraic Riccati equation for a finite horizon linear quadratic regulator (LQR). The large dimensional system m

6. Combined effect of buoyancy force and Navier slip on MHD flow of a nanofluid over a convectively heated vertical porous plate.

Mutuku-Njane, Winifred Nduku; Makinde, Oluwole Daniel

2013-01-01

We examine the effect of magnetic field on boundary layer flow of an incompressible electrically conducting water-based nanofluids past a convectively heated vertical porous plate with Navier slip boundary condition. A suitable similarity transformation is employed to reduce the governing partial differential equations into nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are solved numerically by employing fourth-order Runge-Kutta with a shooting technique. Three different water-based nanofluids containing copper (Cu), aluminium oxide (Al2O3), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) are taken into consideration. Graphical results are presented and discussed quantitatively with respect to the influence of pertinent parameters, such as solid volume fraction of nanoparticles (φ), magnetic field parameter (Ha), buoyancy effect (Gr), Eckert number (Ec), suction/injection parameter (f w ), Biot number (Bi), and slip parameter ( β ), on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient, and heat transfer rate. PMID:24222749

7. Double tube heat exchanger with novel enhancement: Part II - single phase convective heat transfer

Tiruselvam, R.; Chin, W.M.; Raghavan, Vijay R. [OYL Sdn. Bhd., Research and Application Department, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2012-08-15

The study is conducted to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics of two new and versatile enhancement configurations in a double tube heat exchanger annulus. The novelty is that they are usable in single phase forced convection, evaporation and condensation. Heat transfer coefficients are determined by the Wilson Plot technique in laminar and turbulent flow and correlations are proposed for Nusselt numbers. Comparisons are then made between heat transfer and flow friction. (orig.)

8. An assessment on forced convection in metal foams

Metal foams are a class of cellular structured materials with open cells randomly oriented and mostly homogeneous in size and shape. In the last decade, several authors have discussed the interesting heat transfer capabilities of these materials as enhanced surfaces for air conditioning, refrigeration, and electronic cooling applications. This paper reports an assessment on the forced convection through metal foams presenting experimental and analytical results carried out during air heat transfer through twelve aluminum foam samples and nine copper foam samples. The metal foam samples present different numbers of pores per linear inch (PPI), which vary between 5 and 40 with a porosity ranging between 0.896–0.956; samples of different heights have been studied. From the experimental measurements two correlations for the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop calculations have been developed. These models can be successfully used to optimize different foam heat exchangers for any given application.

9. THEORY OF SIMILARITY OF ELECTRO MEMBRANE SYSTEMS WITH REGARD TO FORCED, GRAVITATIONAL AND ELECTRO CONVECTION

Kovalenko A. V.

2015-01-01

Full Text Available In the article, we have suggested a general mathematical model of non-stationary and non-isothermal process of a binary electrolyte transfer in dilute solutions in an electro-membrane system (EMS, taking into account the joint action of gravitational convection, forced convection and electro convection in potential dynamic mode. This model is a boundary problem for a system of two-dimensional quasi-linear Navier-Stokes equation and Nernst-Planck-Poisson in partial derivatives equation. We have developed a theory of similarity of the process of heat and mass transfer in electro-membrane systems, specifically, in a desalting channel of electro dialysis apparatus, taking into account joint actions of concentration polarization, space charge, gravity convection, forced convection and electro convection. It is shown that the criterion of electro convection does not directly depend on the initial concentration, and, therefore, electro convection occurs at any initial concentration. At the same time, the criterion of concentration convection linearly dependents on the initial concentration, and, therefore, at high concentrations, concentration convection prevails, while at lower concentrations, the role of gravitational convection begins to fall whereas the role of electro convection increases. The theory of similarity of the process of heat and mass transfer in the desalting channel of electro dialysis apparatus built in this work taking into account the joint action of concentration polarization, space charge, gravity convection, forced convection and electro convection is important for engineering calculations, for scaling the results of experiments in an electro-membrane cell for industrial electro dialysis water desalting apparatus

10. Influence of forced convection on unidirectional growth of crystals

Influence of forced convection on the growth rate of KDP crystal grown by unidirectional method has been investigated. The results were compared with the crystal grown under free convection conditions. To the best of our knowledge the effect of forced convection on unidirectional growth has been reported for the first time. An apparatus was designed and developed for growth of crystals by cooling under forced convection conditions. The growth rate achieved under forced convection was double to that under free convection conditions. Transmittance in the visible region for the crystals grown under the two types of convection regimes was ∼90%. Birefringence and Mach-Zehnder interferometry shows good refractive index homogeneity of the grown crystals.

11. A meshless method for modeling convective heat transfer

Carrington, David B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

A meshless method is used in a projection-based approach to solve the primitive equations for fluid flow with heat transfer. The method is easy to implement in a MATLAB format. Radial basis functions are used to solve two benchmark test cases: natural convection in a square enclosure and flow with forced convection over a backward facing step. The results are compared with two popular and widely used commercial codes: COMSOL, a finite element model, and FLUENT, a finite volume-based model.

12. A heat exchanger between forced flow helium gas at 14 to 18 K and liquid hydrogen at 20 K circulated by natural convection

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) has three 350-mm long liquid hydrogen absorbers to reduce the momentum of 200 MeV muons in all directions. The muons are then re-accelerated in the longitudinal direction by 200 MHz RF cavities. The result is cooled muons with a reduced emittance. The energy from the muons is taken up by the liquid hydrogen in the absorber. The hydrogen in the MICE absorbers is cooled by natural convection to the walls of the absorber that are in turn cooled by helium gas that enters at 14 K. This report describes the MICE liquid hydrogen absorber and the heat exchanger between the liquid hydrogen and the helium gas that flows through passages in the absorber wall

13. Natural convection in a horizontal fluid layer periodically heated from above and below.

Hossain, M Z; Floryan, J M

2015-08-01

Natural convection in a horizontal slot heated from above and from below has been considered. Each heating has a certain spatial distribution. It has been demonstrated that a wide variety of convection patterns can be generated by changing the relative position of both heating patterns. A significant intensification of convection, compared to convection resulting from heating applied at one wall only, results if there is no phase shift between both patterns, while a significant reduction of convection results from the phase shift corresponding to half of the heating wavelength. The system generates a nonzero mean shear stress at each wall for all phase shifts except shifts corresponding to half of and one full heating wavelength. This effect, which is generated within one convection cell, gives rise to a global force which may lead to a thermally induced drift of the walls if such a drift was allowed. PMID:26382511

14. Flow pattern at critical condition in forced convection boiling

An experimental investigation on flow pattern at critical condition (burnout) in forced convection boiling was carried out using R-113 as a working fluid. The test section was an internally heated vertical annular channel with a stainless-steel heater tube of 10 mm O. D. and a glass shroud of 22 mm I. D.. The flow pattern was identified by means of photographic observation and statistical nature of void fraction. Measurements were performed at the pressure 0.3 MPa, mass flux of 500 to 2000 kg/m2s, inlet subcooling of 0 to 58 K. (author)

15. Acoustical Convective Cooling Or Heating

Trinh, Eugene H.; Robey, Judith L.

1988-01-01

Small, efficient ultrasonic device circulates fluid. Vibrating at ultrasonic frequency, piezoelectric driver sets up vortexes transfering heat to or from object in space. Used on Earth to apply localized or concentrated cooling to individual electronic components or other small parts.

16. Natural convection heat transfer in partitioned enclosures

Natural convection heat transfer within rectangular enclosure provided with a partition extended from the vertical heated wall was investigated experimentally. The experiments were carried out with water, for Rayleigh numbers in the range, 2.0 x 10/sup 7/ < Raw < 3.0 x 10/sup 8/, and an aspect ratio H/W = 2. The effect of partition on the fluid flow and temperature fields was investigated by dye-injection flow visualization and by thermocouple probes, respectively. The effect of the partition on the heat transfer across the enclosure was also studied. The slant partition, especially, the downward oriented partition reduces the convective heat transfer in comparison with that of horizontal partition. And only the horizontally projected length of partition, independently of the angle of inclination and the vertically projected length of the slant partition, effects on the Nusselt number Nuw distinctly

17. Free convection film flows and heat transfer

Shang, Deyi

2010-01-01

Presents development of systematic studies for hydrodynamics and heat and mass transfer in laminar free convection, accelerating film boiling and condensation of Newtonian fluids, and accelerating film flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids. This book provides a system of analysis models with a developed velocity component method.

18. Solar Hot Water Heating by Natural Convection.

Noble, Richard D.

1983-01-01

Presents an undergraduate laboratory experiment in which a solar collector is used to heat water for domestic use. The working fluid is moved by natural convection so no pumps are required. Experimental apparatus is simple in design and operation so that data can be collected quickly and easily. (Author/JN)

19. Heat transport in bubbling turbulent convection

Lakkaraju, Rajaram; Stevens, Richard J. A. M.; Oresta, Paolo; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef; Prosperetti, Andrea

2013-01-01

Boiling is an extremely effective way to promote heat transfer from a hot surface to a liquid due to several mechanisms many of which are not understood in quantitative detail. An important component of the overall process is that the buoyancy of the bubbles compounds with that of the liquid to give rise to a much enhanced natural convection. In this paper we focus specifically on this enhancement and present a numerical study of the resulting two-phase Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection process. W...

20. Convective Heat and Mass Transfer in Water at Super—Critical Pressures under Heating or Cooling Conditions in Vertical Tubes

Pei－XueJiang; Ze－PeiRen; 等

1995-01-01

Forced and mixed convection heat and mass transfer are studied numerically for water containing metallic corrosion products in a heated or cooled vertical tube with variable thermophysical properties at super-citical pressures.the fouling mechanisms and fouling models are presented.The influence of variable properties at super-critical pressures on forced or mixed convection has been analyzed.The differences between heat and mass transfer under heating and cooling conditions are discussed.It is found that variable properties,especially buoyancy,greatly influence the fluid flow and heat mass fransfer.

1. Penetrative internally heated convection in two and three dimensions

Goluskin, David

2015-01-01

Convection of an internally heated fluid, confined between top and bottom plates of equal temperature, is studied by direct numerical simulation in two and three dimensions. The unstably stratified upper region drives convection that penetrates into the stably stratified lower region. The fraction of produced heat escaping across the bottom plate, which is one half without convection, initially decreases as convection strengthens. Entering the turbulent regime, this decrease reverses in two dimensions but continues monotonically in three dimensions. The mean fluid temperature, which grows proportionally to the heating rate ($H$) without convection, grows like $H^{4/5}$ when convection is strong in both two and three dimensions. The ratio of the heating rate to the fluid temperature is likened to the Nusselt number of Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection. Simulations are reported for Prandtl numbers between 0.1 and 10 and for Rayleigh numbers (defined in terms of the heating rate) up to $5\\times10^{10}$.

2. Development of a mechanistic model for forced convection subcooled boiling

Shaver, Dillon R.

The focus of this work is on the formulation, implementation, and testing of a mechanistic model of subcooled boiling. Subcooled boiling is the process of vapor generation on a heated wall when the bulk liquid temperature is still below saturation. This is part of a larger effort by the US DoE's CASL project to apply advanced computational tools to the simulation of light water reactors. To support this effort, the formulation of the dispersed field model is described and a complete model of interfacial forces is formulated. The model has been implemented in the NPHASE-CMFD computer code with a K-epsilon model of turbulence. The interfacial force models are built on extensive work by other authors, and include novel formulations of the turbulent dispersion and lift forces. The complete model of interfacial forces is compared to experiments for adiabatic bubbly flows, including both steady-state and unsteady conditions. The same model is then applied to a transient gas/liquid flow in a complex geometry of fuel channels in a sodium fast reactor. Building on the foundation of the interfacial force model, a mechanistic model of forced-convection subcooled boiling is proposed. This model uses the heat flux partitioning concept and accounts for condensation of bubbles attached to the wall. This allows the model to capture the enhanced heat transfer associated with boiling before the point of net generation of vapor, a phenomenon consistent with existing experimental observations. The model is compared to four different experiments encompassing flows of light water, heavy water, and R12 at different pressures, in cylindrical channels, an internally heated annulus, and a rectangular channel. The experimental data includes axial and radial profiles of both liquid temperature and vapor volume fraction, and the agreement can be considered quite good. The complete model is then applied to simulations of subcooled boiling in nuclear reactor subchannels consistent with the

3. Behavior of bubble in subcooled boiling with forced convection, 2

The objective of this research is to observe the bubble behavior in subcooled boiling with forced convection and to investigate the conditions of heaving test with a heater which initiates isolated bubbles and with high speed motion photography. The observation was made at three inlet subcooling of 15, 30 and 45 K with pressure of 0.3 MPa, mass flux of 1000 kg/m2·s, heat flux of 35 kW/m2. At inlet subcooling of 15 K, bubble velocity is nearly constant in the field of visions for upstream and downstream area. But at the higher subcooling, bubble velocity varies greatly and bubble collapse in the camera field. (author)

4. Free surface deformation and heat transfer by thermocapillary convection

Fuhrmann, Eckart; Dreyer, Michael; Basting, Steffen; Bänsch, Eberhard

2016-04-01

Knowing the location of the free liquid/gas surface and the heat transfer from the wall towards the fluid is of paramount importance in the design and the optimization of cryogenic upper stage tanks for launchers with ballistic phases, where residual accelerations are smaller by up to four orders of magnitude compared to the gravity acceleration on earth. This changes the driving forces drastically: free surfaces become capillary dominated and natural or free convection is replaced by thermocapillary convection if a non-condensable gas is present. In this paper we report on a sounding rocket experiment that provided data of a liquid free surface with a nonisothermal boundary condition, i.e. a preheated test cell was filled with a cold but storable liquid in low gravity. The corresponding thermocapillary convection (driven by the temperature dependence of the surface tension) created a velocity field directed away from the hot wall towards the colder liquid and then in turn back at the bottom towards the wall. A deformation of the free surface resulting in an apparent contact angle rather different from the microscopic one could be observed. The thermocapillary flow convected the heat from the wall to the liquid and increased the heat transfer compared to pure conduction significantly. The paper presents results of the apparent contact angle as a function of the dimensionless numbers (Weber-Marangoni and Reynolds-Marangoni number) as well as heat transfer data in the form of a Nusselt number. Experimental results are complemented by corresponding numerical simulations with the commercial software Flow3D and the inhouse code Navier.

5. Coupled heat and mass transfer by mixed convection from a horizontal surface in saturated porous medium

Coupled heat and mass transfer in porous media has many important applications in engineering. These include the migration of moisture in fibrous insulation, the spreading of chemical pollutants in saturated soil, underground disposal of nuclear wastes and the extraction of geothermal energy. Here, similarity solutions are reported for coupled heat and mass transfer by free, forced, and mixed convection from a horizontal surface in a saturated porous medium. The present analysis shows that similarity solutions are possible for a surface maintained at a constant heat flux and mass flux condition. The governing parameters for the problem under consideration are the Lewis number Le, the buoyancy ratio N and mixed convection parameter Ra/Pe3/2. Depending on the values of N and Le, the heat and mass transfer results may range from the asymptotic free convection limit to that of the forced convection limit. The results are presented in terms of the relation between the transfer coefficients and the governing parameters

6. 微矩形槽内的单相强迫对流换热性能实验%Single-Phase Forced Convection Heat Trat Transfer in Micro Rectangular Channels

赵增会; 余建祖

2003-01-01

航空电子设备集成度和封装密度的增加给电子元器件的热控制问题带来了严峻的挑战,微槽散热器是解决航空电子元器件散热的一条有效途径.本文设计制作了6种不同结构尺寸微矩形槽道,采用航空电子设备上最常用的乙醇溶液作为冷却工质,进行了微槽道内单相强迫对流换热性能实验,分析了流体流速、过冷度和微槽结构等对传热特性的影响.%Increase in the integration and package density of aviation electronic equipment provides severe challenge to heat control for electronic components, yet the microchannel radiator offers an efficient method for solving the problem of cooling electronic chips and devices. In this paper, 6 micro rectangle channels with different sizes were designed and fabricated; the experiment of single-phase forced convection heat transfer was conducted with solution of CH\\-5OH, the most commonly used coolant for aviation electronic equipment, flowing through those microchannels. The influences of liquid velocity, degree of coolant supercooling, and configuration of microchannels on the heat transfer characteristics were analyzed respectively.

7. Natural convection heat transfer in Gambrel roofs

Varol, Yasin; Koca, Ahmet [Department of Mechanical Education, Technical Education Faculty, Firat University, TR-23119 Elazig (Turkey); Oztop, Hakan F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Firat University,TR-23119 Elazig (Turkey)

2007-03-15

Buoyancy induced natural convection is investigated with a numerical technique in Gambrel roofs. The geometry adapted to both winter day conditions, the bottom is hot temperature while top is cold, and summer day conditions, bottom is cold and inclined top wall is hot temperature. Governing equations in stream function-vorticity form are solved with finite difference technique and algebraic equations are solved using successive under relaxation (SUR) method. Rayleigh number is taken as parameter which affects the flow and heat transfer. Its value changes between 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 7}. It is found that winterlike boundary conditions are more effective than summerlike boundary conditions on the flow field and heat transfer in the roof. (author)

8. Mixed convection in a horizontal porous duct with a sudden expansion and local heating from below

Results are reported for an experimental and numerical study of forced and mixed convective heat transfer in a liquid-saturated, horizontal porous duct. The cross section of the duct has a sudden expansion with a heated region on the lower surface downstream and adjacent to the expansion. Calculated and measured Nusselt numbers for 0.1 1.5 and Ra/Pe1.5. Calculated Nusselt numbers are very close to those for the bottom-heated flat duct, and this result has several important implications for convective heat and mass transfer in geophysical systems and porous matrix heat exchangers

9. The forced convection flow of a uniform stream over a flat surface with a convective surface boundary condition

Merkin, J. H.; Pop, I.

2011-09-01

The forced convection heat transfer resulting from the flow of a uniform stream over a flat surface on which there is a convective boundary condition is considered. In previous papers [5-8] it was assumed that the convective heat transfer parameter hf associated with the hot surface depended on x, where x measures distance along the surface, so that problem could be reduced to similarity form. Here it is assumed that this heat transfer parameter hf is a constant, with the result that the temperature profiles and overall heat transfer characteristics evolve as the solution develops from the leading edge. The heat transfer near the leading edge (small x), which we find to be dominated by the surface heat flux, the solution at large distances along the surface (large x), which dominated by the surface temperature, are discussed. A numerical solution to the full problem is then obtained for a range of values of the Prandtl number to join these two solution regimes.

10. Modelling of convective heat and mass transfer in rotating flows

Shevchuk, Igor V

2016-01-01

This monograph presents results of the analytical and numerical modeling of convective heat and mass transfer in different rotating flows caused by (i) system rotation, (ii) swirl flows due to swirl generators, and (iii) surface curvature in turns and bends. Volume forces (i.e. centrifugal and Coriolis forces), which influence the flow pattern, emerge in all of these rotating flows. The main part of this work deals with rotating flows caused by system rotation, which includes several rotating-disk configurations and straight pipes rotating about a parallel axis. Swirl flows are studied in some of the configurations mentioned above. Curvilinear flows are investigated in different geometries of two-pass ribbed and smooth channels with 180° bends. The author demonstrates that the complex phenomena of fluid flow and convective heat transfer in rotating flows can be successfully simulated using not only the universal CFD methodology, but in certain cases by means of the integral methods, self-similar and analyt...

11. Endwall convective heat transfer for bluff bodies

Wang, Lei; Salewski, Mirko; Sundén, Bengt; Borg, Andreas; Abrahamsson, Hans

2012-01-01

The endwall heat transfer characteristics of forced flow past bluff bodies have been investigated using liquid crystal thermography (LCT). The bluff body is placed in a rectangular channel with both its ends attached to the endwalls. The Reynolds number varies from 50,000 to 100,000. In this study......, a single bluff body and two bluff bodies arranged in tandem are considered. Due to the formation of horseshoe vortices, the heat transfer is enhanced appreciably for both cases. However, for the case of two bluff bodies in tandem, it is found that the presence of the second bluff body decreases the...... heat transfer as compared to the case of a single bluff body. In addition, the results show that the heat transfer exhibits Reynolds number similarity. For a single bluff body, the Nusselt number profiles collapse well when the data are scaled by Re0.55; for two bluff bodies arranged in tandem, the...

12. Heat transfer in a pipe under asymmetric heating in conditions of forced motion of a sub-heated liquid

Studies results on heat transfer by forced convection of highly sub-heated water in a smooth tube and with a worm feeder under asymmetric heating are presented. Experimental data file on stationary heat transfer during asymmetric tube heating by electron scanning beam with ultimately high density of heat fluxes, exceeding 100 MW/m2, are obtained. Brief description of an approximative model for temperature field calculation, simplifying experimental data processing, is given

13. Investigation of the transition from forced to natural convection in the research reactor Munich II

The new research reactor Munich II (FRM-II), which is under construction at the Technical University Munich, Germany, makes use of a newly developed compact reactor core consisting of a single fuel element, which is assembled of two concentric pipes. Between the fuel element's inner and outer pipe 113 involutely bent fuel plates are placed rotationally symmetric, forming 113 cooling channels of a constant width of 2.2 mm. After a shut down of the reactor, battery supported cooling pumps are started by the reactor safety system in order to remove the decay heat by a downwards directed forced flow. Three hours after they have been started, the cooling pumps are shut down and so-called 'natural convection flaps' are opened by their own weight. Through a flow path, which is provided by the opening of the natural convection flaps, the decay heat is given off to the water in the reactor pool after the direction of the flow has changed and an upwards directed natural convection flow has developed. At the Department for Nuclear and New Energy Systems of the Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany, a test facility has been built in order to confirm the concept of the decay heat removal in the FRM-II, to acquire data of single and two phase natural convection flows and to detect the dry out in a narrow channel. The thermohydraulics of the FRM-II are simulated by an electrically heated test section, which represents one cooling channel of the fuel element. At first experiments have been performed, which simulated the transition from forced to natural convection in the core of the FRM-II, both at normal operation and at a complete loss of the decay heat removal pumps. In case of normal operation, the transition from forced to natural convection takes place single phased. If a complete loss of the active decay heat removal system occurs, the decay heat removal is ensured by a quasi-steady two phase flow. In a second test series minimum heat flux densities leading to pressure pulsations

14. Numerical Simulations of Heat Explosion With Convection In Porous Media

Allali, Karam; Bikany, Fouad; Taik, Ahmed; Volpert, Vitaly

2013-01-01

In this paper we study the interaction between natural convection and heat explosion in porous media. The model consists of the heat equation with a nonlinear source term describing heat production due to an exothermic chemical reaction coupled with the Darcy law. Stationary and oscillating convection regimes and oscillating heat explosion are observed. The models with quasi-stationary and unstationary Darcy equation are compared.

15. A numerical study on the forced convection heat transfer from an isothermal and isoflux sphere in the steady symmetric flow regime

Dhole, S.D.; Chhabra, R.P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Eswaran, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

2006-03-15

The effects of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers on the heat transfer characteristics of an unconfined sphere for different thermal boundary conditions (isothermal and isoflux) on the sphere surface have been investigated numerically by using a finite volume method for the range of conditions as 5=heat transfer correlations are developed for the constant temperature and the constant heat flux boundary conditions on the solid sphere surface in the steady symmetric flow regime. The variation of local Nusselt number on the sphere surface shows the effect of Prandtl number on heat transfer from a sphere in this flow regime. In addition, this work also demonstrates an approach to solve such flow problems using the Cartesian form of the field equations. (author)

16. Performance of a convective, infrared and combined infrared- convective heated conveyor-belt dryer.

El-Mesery, Hany S; Mwithiga, Gikuru

2015-05-01

A conveyor-belt dryer was developed using a combined infrared and hot air heating system that can be used in the drying of fruits and vegetables. The drying system having two chambers was fitted with infrared radiation heaters and through-flow hot air was provided from a convective heating system. The system was designed to operate under either infrared radiation and cold air (IR-CA) settings of 2000 W/m(2) with forced ambient air at 30 °C and air flow of 0.6 m/s or combined infrared and hot air convection (IR-HA) dryer setting with infrared intensity set at 2000 W/m(2) and hot at 60 °C being blown through the dryer at a velocity of 0.6 m/s or hot air convection (HA) at an air temperature of 60 °C and air flow velocity 0.6 m/s but without infrared heating. Apple slices dried under the different dryer settings were evaluated for quality and energy requirements. It was found that drying of apple (Golden Delicious) slices took place in the falling rate drying period and no constant rate period of drying was observed under any of the test conditions. The IR-HA setting was 57.5 and 39.1 % faster than IR-CA and HA setting, respectively. Specific energy consumption was lower and thermal efficiency was higher for the IR-HA setting when compared to both IR-CA and HA settings. The rehydration ratio, shrinkage and colour properties of apples dried under IR-HA conditions were better than for either IR-CA or HA. PMID:25892769

17. Theoretical Convective Heat Transfer Model Developement of Cold Storage Using Taguchi Analysis.

2015-01-01

Energy crisis is one of the most important problems the world is facing now-a-days. With the increase of cost of electrical energy operating cost of cold storage storing is increasing which forces the increased cost price of the commodities that are kept. In this situation if the maximum heat energy(Q) is absorbed by the evaporator inside the cold room through convective heat transfer process in terms of –heat transfer due to convection and heat transfer due to condensation, more ...

18. Optimization of Combined Conductive and Convective Heat Transfer Model of Cold Storage Using Taguchi Analysis

2015-01-01

Energy crisis is one of the most important problems the world is facing now-a-days. With the increase of cost of electrical energy operating cost of cold storage storing is increasing which forces the increased cost price of the commodities that are kept. In this situation if the maximum heat energy (Q) is absorbed by the evaporator inside the cold room through conductive and convective heat transfer process in terms of –heat transfer due to conduction, convection and heat transfe...

19. Mechanical design and fabrication of a heat exchanger. Report of the design and construction of a heat exchanger which will be used in 'Experimental analysis of heat transfer in the boiling in forced convection

To continue with the equipment of the thermal hydraulics laboratory, it was designed thermal and mechanically an heat exchanger, to satisfy the requirements to have circuit that allows to carry out heat transfer experiments. The heat exchanger was manufactured and proven in the workshops of the Prototypes and Models Management, and it is expected that to obtain the foreseen results once completely installed the circuit, in the laboratory of thermal hydraulics of the Management of Nuclear Systems. (Author)

20. Entropy generation around a solid sphere in the forced convection regime

The entropy generation around an isothermal solid sphere subjected to an air stream is calculated for forced convection heat transfer case. Local and average entropy generation terms are calculated. The entropy generated due to heat transfer and due to fluid friction are calculated separately and the relative magnitude for each one is evaluated in the total entropy generation expression. The effect of the controlling parameters on the entropy generation, namely Reynolds number and Eckert number is investigated and discussed. (authors)

1. Internally heated convection beneath a poor conductor

Goluskin, David

2016-01-01

We consider convection in an internally heated layer of fluid that is bounded below by a perfect insulator and above by a poor conductor. The poorly conducting boundary is modelled by a fixed heat flux. Using solely analytical methods, we find linear and energy stability thresholds for the static state, and we construct a lower bound on the mean temperature that applies to all flows. The linear stability analysis yields a Rayleigh number above which the static state is linearly unstable ($R_L$), and the energy analysis yields a Rayleigh number below which it is globally stable ($R_E$). For various boundary conditions on the velocity, exact expressions for $R_L$ and $R_E$ are found using long-wavelength asymptotics. Each $R_E$ is strictly smaller than the corresponding $R_L$ but is within 1%. The lower bound on the mean temperature is proven for no-slip velocity boundary conditions using the background method. The bound guarantees that the mean temperature of the fluid, relative to that of the top boundary, gr...

2. Experimental investigation of forced-convection in a finned rhombic tube of the flat-plate solar collectors

Taherian, Hessam; Yazdanshenas, Eshagh

2006-01-01

Due to scarcity of literature on forced-convection heat transfer in a solar collector with rhombic cross-section absorbing tubes, a series of experiments was arranged and conducted to determine heat transfer coefficient. In this study, a typical rhombic cross-section finned tube of flat-plate col......Due to scarcity of literature on forced-convection heat transfer in a solar collector with rhombic cross-section absorbing tubes, a series of experiments was arranged and conducted to determine heat transfer coefficient. In this study, a typical rhombic cross-section finned tube of flat...

3. Control of convection by dfferent buoyancy forces

Dahley, N; Futterer, B; C. Egbers; 3rd Micro and Nano Flows Conference (MNF2011)

2011-01-01

This paper was presented at the 3rd Micro and Nano Flows Conference (MNF2011), which was held at the Makedonia Palace Hotel, Thessaloniki in Greece. The conference was organised by Brunel University and supported by the Italian Union of Thermofluiddynamics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University of Thessaly, IPEM, the Process Intensification Network, the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, the Heat Transfer Society, HEXAG - the Heat Exchange Action Group, and the Energy Institute. ...

4. Boiling of subcooled water in forced convection

As a part of a research about water cooled high magnetic field coils, an experimental study of heat transfer and pressure drop is made with the following conditions: local boiling in tubes of small diameters (2 and 4 mm), high heat fluxes (about 1000 W/cm2), high coolant velocities (up to 25 meters/s), low outlet absolute pressures (below a few atmospheres). Wall temperatures are determined with a good accuracy, because very thin tubes are used and heat losses are prevented. Two regimes of boiling are observed: the establishment regime and the established boiling regime and the inception of each regime is correlated. Important delays on boiling inception are also observed. The pressure drop is measured; provided the axial temperature distribution of the fluid and the axial distributions of the wall temperatures, in other words the axial distribution of the heat transfer coefficients under boiling and non boiling conditions, at the same heat flux or the same wall temperatures, are taken in account, then total pressure drop can be correlated, but probably under certain limits of void fraction only. Using the same parameters, it seems possible to correlate the experimental values on critical heat flux obtained previously, which show very important effect of length and hydraulic diameter of the test sections. (authors)

5. Local heat transfer coefficients for forced-convection condensation of steam in a vertical tube in the presence of a noncondensable gas

An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the local condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC) of steam in the presence of air or helium flowing downward inside a 46-mm-i.d. vertical tube. The gas-steam mixture flow rate was measured with a calibrated vortex flowmeter before it entered the 2.54-m-long test condenser. Cooling water flow rate in an annulus around the tube was measure with a calibrated rotameter. Temperatures of the cooling water, the gas-steam mixture, and the tube inside and outside surfaces were measured at 0.3-m intervals in the test condenser. Inlet and exit pressures and temperatures of the gas-steam mixture and of the cooling water were also measured. The local heat flux was obtained from the slope of the coolant axial temperature profile and the coolant mass flow rate. It was found that for the same mass fraction of the noncondensable gas, compared with air, helium has a more inhibiting effect on the heat transfer, but for the same molar ratio, air was found to be more inhibiting. An application where there is important is the proposed advanced passive boiling water reactor design (Simplified Boiling Water Reactor), which utilizes the isolation condenser as a main component of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS)

6. Experimental Study on Convective Boiling Heat Transfer in Vertical Narrow Gap Annular Tube

Li Bin; He Anding; Wang Yueshe; Zhou Fangde

2001-01-01

Experiments are conducted to investigate the characteristics of single-phase forced-flow convection and boiling heat transfer of R113 flowing through annular tube with gap of 1, 1.5 and 2.5 mm, and also the visualization test are carried out to get two-phase flow regime. The data show that the Nusselt numbers for the narrow-gap are higher than those predicted by traditional large channel correlation and boiling heat transfer is enhanced. Based on the data obtained in this investigation, correlations for single-phase, forced convection and flow boiling in annular tube of different gap size has been developed.

7. Analysis of natural convection in volumetrically-heated melt pools

Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

1996-12-01

Results of series of studies on natural convection heat transfer in decay-heated core melt pools which form in a reactor lower plenum during the progression of a core meltdown accident are described. The emphasis is on modelling and prediction of turbulent heat transfer characteristics of natural convection in a liquid pool with an internal energy source. Methods of computational fluid dynamics, including direct numerical simulation, were applied for investigation. Refs, figs, tabs.

8. Analysis of natural convection in volumetrically-heated melt pools

Results of series of studies on natural convection heat transfer in decay-heated core melt pools which form in a reactor lower plenum during the progression of a core meltdown accident are described. The emphasis is on modelling and prediction of turbulent heat transfer characteristics of natural convection in a liquid pool with an internal energy source. Methods of computational fluid dynamics, including direct numerical simulation, were applied for investigation

9. Laminar natural convection heat transfer from an inclined cylinder

Laminar natural convection heat transfer from the outside surface of a uniformly heated cylinder (constant heat flux condition) was investigated experimentally at different angles of inclination of the cylinder. General equations for the effect of inclination were determined for both the local and the average heat transfer. (author)

10. Analytical study on coordinative optimization of convection in tubes with variable heat flux

2004-01-01

［1］Guo, Z. Y., Li, D. Y., Wang, B. X., A novel concept for convective heat transfer enhancement, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 1998, 41: 2221-2225.［2］Tao, W. Q., Guo, Z. Y., Wang, B. X., Field synergy principle for enhancing convective heat transfer--extension and numerical verification, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2002, 45: 3849-3856.［3］Guo, Z. Y., Mechanism and control of convective heat transfer--Coordination of velocity and heat flow fields, Chinese Science Bulletin, 2001, 46(7): 596-599.［4］Sellars, J. R., Tribus, M., Klein, J. S., Heat transfer to laminar flow in a round tubes or flat conduit--The Graetz problem extended, Tras. ASME, 1956, 78: 441-448.［5］Kays, W. M., Crawford, M. E., Convective Heat Transfer, 3rd ed., Chapter 9, New York: McGraw-Hill Inc., 1993.［6］Shah, R. K., London, A. L., Laminar Flow Forced Convection in Ducts, Advances in Heat Transfer, New York: Academic Press, 1978.

11. An experimental investigation on combined convective heat transfer of non-Newtonian fluids

Kim, Y.J. [Kongju National University, Kongju (Korea, Republic of)

1995-07-01

A combined convective heat transfer study for non-Newtonian fluids was experimentally performed in uniformly heated horizontal tubes with laminar flow in the thermal entry region. Velocity profiles were fully developed at the entrance of the heated sections in the tubes. Aqueous solutions of sodium carboxymethylcellulose(CMC) were used; their behavior showed a reasonably good fit into the power-law model, {tau}=K{gamma}{sup n}. The test sections were made of copper with inside diameters of 3.823 cm and 5.042 cm and lengths of approximately 300 cm. Most experimental runs displayed noticeable secondary flows caused by buoyancy; when present, secondary flows caused significant increase in the rate of heat transfer over the purely forced-convection case. A correlation, which relates the rate of heat transfer for flows with temperature-dependent properties, free convection effects, and non-Newtonian effects, was suggested. (author). 16 refs., 9 figs.

12. Burn-out analysis. Part I: A burn-out correlation for water in round and rectangular channels uniformly heated at various pressures with forced convection

Macbeth, R.V. [Reactor Development Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

1961-11-15

The practical objective of research on 'burn-out' is a reliable method giving the maximum safe rating for any water cooled reactor. Experimental work, which began at numerous centres about 10 years ago, has been concerned principally with endeavouring to understand the phenomenon as it applies to simple geometries such as round and rectangular channels. Many millions of pounds have been spent on this work and several thousand separate experimental results obtained. This considerable effort has achieved little real success in providing an explanation of 'burn-out' however. Many conflicting views have arisen and correlations so far developed have been shown to give calculated 'burn-out' heat fluxes varying by a factor of the order of 5> when applied to a typical reactor situation. While some uncertainty may be due to experimental variations, inadequate analytical effort is considered to be the primary cause of the present confused situation. To overcome this various analytical studies are being initiated by the Reactor Development Division at Winfrith and a detailed plan is being evolved for bringing effort to bear on certain fundamental aspects of boiling which have been neglected and which in some oases will require the development of special experimental techniques. This report describes the result of some work already carried out. It concerns an initial examination made on a large group of 'burn-out' data and describes the development of a correlation which predicts 'burn-out' heat fluxes to within an R.M.S. error of less than 10% over a very wide range of operating conditions including pressure. (author)

13. A numerical study of Li-SF6 wick combustion - Forced and mixed convective burning

Damaso, R. C.; Chen, L.-D.

1992-01-01

A numerical study is conducted to study Li-SF6 wick diffusion flames under mixed convective burning conditions at a pressure of 0.01 MPa. Both planar and cylindrical wicks are considered. The model is based on a conserved scalar approach. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of particular parameters on the burning rate and heat transfer. The flat-plate solution yields a fuel mass burning rate per unit surface area following the x exp -1/2 dependence of the classical similarity solution, where x is the streamwise distance. Cylindrical wick geometries yield enhanced burning rates over planar wicks. For the case of mixed convective burning, the burning rate results approach either the forced or natural convective burning limits as ambient streamwise velocity is changed. Critical Richardson numbers specifying these burning limits are determined for a given condition. Reducing gravity results in a lower burning rate because the influence of natural convection is diminished. Under reduced gravity of 1/1000 of the sea-level value, mixed convective burning nearly resembles forced convection.

14. Heat removal by natural convection in a RPR reactor

In this paper natural convection in RPR reactor is analysed. The effect of natural convection valves size on cladding temperature is studied. The reactor channel heat transfer problem is solved using finite elements in a two-dimensional analysis. Results show that two valves with Φ = 0.16 m are suited to keep coolant and cladding temperatures below 730C. (author)

15. Mixed convection flow over a vertical plate with localized heating (cooling), magnetic field and suction (injection)

Chamkha, AJ; Takhar, HS; G. Nath

2004-01-01

An analysis is carried out to study the effects of localized heating (cooling), suction (injection), buoyancy forces and magnetic field for the mixed convection flow on a heated vertical plate. The localized heating or cooling introduces a finite discontinuity in the mathematical formulation of the problem and increases its complexity. In order to overcome this difficulty, a non-uniform distribution of wall temperature is taken at finite sections of the plate. The nonlinear coupled parabolic ...

16. Convection heat transfer from discrete heat sources in a liquid cooled rectangular channel

Bhowmik, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dhaka University of Engineering and Technology, Gazipur 1700 (Bangladesh); Tso, C.P. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia); Tou, K.W.; Tan, F.L. [School of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

2005-11-01

Steady-state experiments are performed to study general convective heat transfer from an in-line four simulated electronic chips in a vertical rectangular channel using water as the working fluid. The experimental data covers a wide range for laminar flow under natural, mixed and forced convection conditions with Reynolds number based on channel hydraulic diameter ranging from 40 to 2220 and Reynolds number based on heat source length ranging from 50 to 2775, respectively. The heat flux ranges from 0.1W/cm{sup 2} to 0.6W/cm{sup 2}. The inlet water temperature is at 24{sup o}C. The effect of heat fluxes, flow rates and geometrical parameters such as chip number are investigated. The experimental results indicate that the heat transfer coefficient is strongly affected by Reynolds number and fully-developed values of heat transfer coefficient are reached before the first chip. Empirical correlations are developed for relations using Nusselt number, Reynolds number and Grashof number, based on channel hydraulic diameter. (author)

17. Convection heat transfer from discrete heat sources in a liquid cooled rectangular channel

Steady-state experiments are performed to study general convective heat transfer from an in-line four simulated electronic chips in a vertical rectangular channel using water as the working fluid. The experimental data covers a wide range for laminar flow under natural, mixed and forced convection conditions with Reynolds number based on channel hydraulic diameter ranging from 40 to 2220 and Reynolds number based on heat source length ranging from 50 to 2775, respectively. The heat flux ranges from 0.1 W/cm2 to 0.6 W/cm2. The inlet water temperature is at 24 deg. C. The effect of heat fluxes, flow rates and geometrical parameters such as chip number are investigated. The experimental results indicate that the heat transfer coefficient is strongly affected by Reynolds number and fully-developed values of heat transfer coefficient are reached before the first chip. Empirical correlations are developed for relations using Nusselt number, Reynolds number and Grashof number, based on channel hydraulic diameter

18. Time evolution simulation of heat removal in a small water tank by natural convection

Freitas, Carlos Alberto de, E-mail: carlos.freitas1950@hotmail.com [Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil); Jachic, Joao; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes, E-mail: jjachic@ien.gov.br, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2013-07-01

One of the cooling modes for any source of heat such as in a shutdown nuclear core is the natural convection. The design specifications of any cooling pool can only be done when the removal heat rate and the corresponding mass flow rate is reasonably established. In our simulation scheme, we assumed that the body forces acting in the cubic water cell are: the weight, the drag force and the integrated pressure forces on the horizontal surfaces, the viscosity shear forces on the vertical surfaces and also a special viscosity drag force due to the mass dislocation along a Bernoulli type current tube outside the motive region. For a suitable time step, the uprising convection velocity is determined by an implicit and also by an explicit solution algorithm. The resulting differential equation depends on updating specific mass, dynamic viscosity and constant pressure heat coefficient with the last known temperature in the cell that absorbed heat. Numerical calculation software was performed using MATLAB’s technical computing language and then applied for a heat generation plate simulating a spent fuel assembler from a shutdown nuclear core. The results show time evolution of convection, terminal velocity and water temperature distribution. Pool dimension as well as pool level decrement are also determined for various air exhausting system conditions and heat rate of the spent fuel plate being cooled. (author)

19. Enhancement of laminar convective heat transfer using microparticle suspensions

Zhu, Jiu Yang; Tang, Shiyang; Yi, Pyshar; Baum, Thomas; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Ghorbani, Kamran

2016-04-01

This paper investigates the enhancement of convective heat transfer within a sub-millimetre diameter copper tube using Al2O3, Co3O4 and CuO microparticle suspensions. Experiments are conducted at different particle concentrations of 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 wt% and at various flow rates ranging from 250 to 1000 µl/min. Both experimental measurements and numerical analyses are employed to obtain the convective heat transfer coefficient. The results indicate a significant enhancement in convective heat transfer coefficient due to the implementation of microparticle suspensions. For the case of Al2O3 microparticle suspension with 5.0 wt% concentration, a 20.3 % enhancement in convective heat transfer coefficient is obtained over deionised water. This is comparable to the case of Al2O3 nanofluid at the same concentration. Hence, there is a potential for the microparticle suspensions to be used for cooling of compact integrated systems.

20. Natural convective heat transfer from short inclined cylinders

Oosthuizen, Patrick H

2014-01-01

Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Short Inclined Cylinders  examines a heat transfer situation of significant, practical importance not adequately dealt with in existing textbooks or in any widely available review papers. Specifically, the book introduces the reader to recent studies of natural convection from short cylinders mounted on a flat insulated base where there is an “exposed” upper surface. The authors considers the effects of the cylinder cross-sectional shape, the cylinder inclination angle, and the length-to-cross sectional size of the cylinder. Both numerical and experimental studies are discussed and correlation equations based on the results of these studies are reviewed. This book is ideal for professionals involved with thermal management and related systems, researchers, and graduate students in the field of natural convective heat transfer, instructors in graduate level courses in convective heat transfer.

1. Numerical Analysis and Prediction of Unsteady Forced Convection over a Sharp and Rounded Edged Square Cylinder

Prasenjit Dey

2016-01-01

Full Text Available An unsteady two-dimensional forced convection over a square cylinder with sharp and rounded corner edge is numerically analyzed for the low Reynolds number laminar flow regime. In this study, the analysis is carried out for Reynolds number (Re in the range of 80 to 180 with Prandtl number (Pr variation from 0.01 to 1000 for various corner radius (r=0.50, 0.51, 0.54, 0.59, 0.64 and 0.71. The lateral sides of the computational domain are kept constant to maintain the blockage as 5%. Heat transfer due to unsteady forced convection has been predicted by Artificial Neural network (ANN. The present ANN is trained by the input and output data which has been acquired from the numerical simulation, performed in finite volume based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD commercial software FLUENT. The heat transfer characteristics over the sharp and rounded corner square cylinder are evaluated by analyzing the local Nusselt number (Nulocal, average Nusselt number (Nuavg at various Reynolds number, Prandtl numbers and for various corner radii. It is found that the heat transfer rate of a circular cylinder can be enhanced by 12% when Re is varying and 14% when Prandtl number is varying by introducing a new cylinder geometry of corner radius r=0.51. It is found that the unsteady forced convection heat transfer over a cylinder can be predicted appropriately by ANN. It is also observed that the back propagation ANN can predict the heat transfer characteristics of forced convection very quickly compared to a standard CFD method.

2. Natural Convection Heat Transfer in a Rectangular Liquid Metal Pool With Bottom Heating and Top Cooling

An experimental study is performed to investigate the natural convection heat transfer characteristics with subcooled coolant to create engineering database for basic applications in a lead alloy cooled reactor. Tests are performed in the ALTOS (Applied Liquid-metal Thermal Operation Study) apparatus as part of MITHOS (Metal Integrated Thermo Hydrodynamic Operation System). A relationship is determined between the Nusselt number Nu and the Rayleigh number Ra in the liquid metal rectangular pool. Results are compared with correlations and experimental data in the literature. Given the similar Ra condition, the present test results for Nu of the liquid metal pool with top subcooling are found to be similar to those predicted by the existing correlations or experiments. The current test results are utilized to develop natural convection heat transfer correlations applicable to low Prandtl number Pr fluids that are heated from below and cooled by the external coolant above. Results from this study are slated to be used in designing BORIS (Battery Optimized Reactor Integral System), a small lead cooled modular fast reactor for deployment at remote sites cycled with MOBIS (Modular Optimized Brayton Integral System) for electricity generation, tied with NAVIS (Naval Application Vessel Integral System) for ship propulsion, joined with THAIS (Thermochemical Hydrogen Acquisition Integral System) for hydrogen production, and coupled with DORIS (Desalination Optimized Reactor Integral System) for seawater desalination. Tests are performed with Wood's metal (Pb-Bi-Sn-Cd) filling a rectangular pool whose lower surface is heated and upper surface cooled by forced convection of water. The test section is 20 cm long, 11.3 cm high and 15 cm wide. The simulant has a melting temperature of 78 deg. C. The constant temperature and heat flux condition was realized for the bottom heating once the steady state had been met. The test parameters include the heated bottom surface temperature

3. Analysis of streamwise conduction in forced convection of microchannels using fin approach

Suhandran MUNIANDY; Yew Mun HUNG

2011-01-01

The effects induced by streamwise conduction on the thermal characteristics of forced convection for single-phase liquid flow in rectangular microchannel heat sinks under imposed constant wall temperature have been studied.By employing the fin approach in the first law of analysis,models with and without streamwise conduction term in the energy equation were developed for hydrodynamically and thermally fully-developed flow under local thermal non-equilibrium for the solid and fluid phases.These two models were solved to obtain closed form analytical solutions for the fluid and solid temperature distributions and the analysis emphasized details of the variations induced by the streamwise conduction on the fluid temperature distributions.The effects of the Peclet number,aspect ratio,and thermal conductivity ratio on the thermal characteristics of forced convection in microchannel heat sinks were analyzed and discussed.This study reveals the conditions under which the effect of streamwise conduction is significant and should not be neglected in the forced convective heat transfer analysis ofmicrochannel heat sinks.

4. Driving convection by a temperature gradient or a heat current

Matura, P.; Luecke, M

2006-01-01

Bifurcation properties, stability behavior, dynamics, and the heat transfer of convection structures in a horizontal fluid layer that is driven away from thermal equilibrium by imposing a vertical temperature difference are compared with those resulting from imposing a heat current. In particular oscillatory convection that occurs in binary fluid mixtures in the form of travelling and standing waves is determined numerically for the two different driving mechanisms. Conditions are elucidated ...

5. The effect of turbulent velocity fluctuations on the convective heat transfer to droplets subjected to evaporation and thermolysis

Guo, Ning; Finnerman, Oskar; Ström, Henrik

2016-06-01

The effect of turbulent velocity fluctuations on the convective heat transfer to single droplets in a turbulent channel flow are investigated numerically. It is found that for properties relevant to typical liquid spray applications, the convective heat transfer is enhanced with increasing droplet size and bulk Reynolds number. The combined effect of convective heat transfer enhancement and increased driving forces for heat and mass transfer due to droplet dispersion is thereafter investigated for a commercial spray application. The probability distribution functions of droplet properties in the spray are found to be significantly affected by the presence of turbulent velocity fluctuations in the carrier phase.

6. Heat transfer of laminar mixed convection of liquid

Shang, De-Yi

2016-01-01

This book presents a new algorithm to calculate fluid flow and heat transfer of laminar mixed convection. It provides step-by-step tutorial help to learn quickly how to set up the theoretical and numerical models of laminar mixed convection, to consider the variable physical properties of fluids, to obtain the system of numerical solutions, to create a series of formalization equations for the convection heat transfer by using a curve-fitting approach combined with theoretical analysis and derivation. It presents the governing ordinary differential equations of laminar mixed convection, equivalently transformed by an innovative similarity transformation with the description of the related transformation process. A system of numerical calculations of the governing ordinary differential equations is presented for the water laminar mixed convection. A polynomial model is induced for convenient and reliable treatment of variable physical properties of liquids. The developed formalization equations of mixed convec...

7. Some Aspects Concerning Convective Circulation Mode of Heat Transfer in Furnace to Wood Heat Treatment

2007-01-01

The paper presented the most aspects of convective circulate mode of heat transfer : heat transfer through the boundary layer formed at the surface of the heat generator; heat transfer in the heat carrier and heat transfer through the boundary layer formed at the heated surface

8. Analysis of forced convective transient boiling by homogeneous model of two-phase flow

Transient forced convective boiling is of practical importance in relation to the accident analysis of nuclear reactor etc. For large length-to-diameter ratio, the transient boiling characteristics are predicted by transient two-phase flow calculations. Based on homogeneous model of two-phase flow, the transient forced convective boiling for power and flow transients are analysed. Analytical expressions of various parameters of transient two-phase flow have been obtained for several simple cases of power and flow transients. Based on these results, heat flux, velocity and time at transient CHF condition are predicted analytically for step and exponential power increases, and step, exponential and linear velocity decreases. The effects of various parameters on heat flux, velocity and time at transient CHF condition have been clarified. Numerical approach combined with analytical method is proposed for more complicated cases. Solution method for pressure transient are also described. (author)

9. Solution of heat removal from nuclear reactors by natural convection

Zitek Pavel

2014-03-01

Full Text Available This paper summarizes the basis for the solution of heat removal by natural convection from both conventional nuclear reactors and reactors with fuel flowing coolant (such as reactors with molten fluoride salts MSR.The possibility of intensification of heat removal through gas lift is focused on. It might be used in an MSR (Molten Salt Reactor for cleaning the salt mixture of degassed fission products and therefore eliminating problems with iodine pitting. Heat removal by natural convection and its intensification increases significantly the safety of nuclear reactors. Simultaneously the heat removal also solves problems with lifetime of pumps in the primary circuit of high-temperature reactors.

10. Performance characteristics of a thermal energy storage module - A transient PCM/forced convection conjugate analysis

Cao, Y.; Faghri, A.

1991-01-01

The performance of a thermal energy storage module is simulated numerically. The change of phase of the phase-change material (PCM) and the transient forced convective heat transfer for the transfer fluid with low Prandtl numbers are solved simultaneously as a conjugate problem. A parametric study and a system optimization are conducted. The numerical results show that module geometry is crucial to the design of a space-based thermal energy storage system.

11. Flow patterns and heat transfer in electro-thermo-convection

In this article we study the electro-thermo-convective phenomena in a dielectric liquid layer placed between two electrodes and subjected to the simultaneous action of an electric field and a thermal gradient. The full set of coupled equations: Navier-Stokes, Electro-Hydro-Dynamic (EHD) and Heat Transfer equations are directly solved in a 2D cavity using a finite volume method. In order to characterize the influence of the electric field on heat transfer we first heat the liquid till the thermal steady state is obtained and then apply the electric potential and charge are injected from the lower electrode. Two cases of heating are considered: from the lower electrode and from a lateral wall (left or right). We show that both flow pattern and Nusselt number strongly depend on the following non-dimensional characteristic parameters: electrical parameter, Rayleigh number, Prandtl number and mobility parameter. The development of the convective motion passing from a purely thermal convection to a purely electrical convection is investigated as well as the number of electro-thermo-convective rolls. As a consequence of the analysis of the combined effect of electric and thermal fields on the flow structure and on Nusselt number, we have also evaluated the heat transfer enhancement due to electro-convection.

12. A Study on the Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in a Vertical Cylinder Using Electroplating System

Hydrogen economy has drawn public attentions as a promising future energy source. Hydrogen is a non-petroleum-based, non-toxic, renewable and clean burning energy source. Hydrogen is the secondary energy, which means that it is produced by consuming the first energy such as coal, gas, petroleum etc. This again means that it is clean so long as it is produced by clean methods. One of the promising production methods of hydrogen is to use the heat from an HTGR(High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor), a next generation nuclear reactor for a safe and reliable operation as well as for efficient and economic generation of energy. The knowledge of detailed heat transfer phenomena in gaseous phase emerges as an important factor for HTGR, where buoyancy effect plays a significant role. Large and expensive test facilities are to be constructed to assess the detailed mixed convection phenomena. However, using analogy concept, heat transfer system can be transformed to mass transfer system and vice versa. If a simple mass transfer system could be devised, and the experimental solution from that system could be obtained, then this could theoretically lead to a solution for a similar heat transfer system. In this study, a copper electroplating system was selected as the mass transfer system. A copper electroplating system with limiting current technique has a good advantage to simulate heat transfer system as mass transfer coefficient, analogous with heat transfer coefficient, can be directly obtained from the information of the bulk concentration and electric current between electrodes. This study simulated the mixed convective heat transfer phenomena in a vertical cylinder using copper electroplating system. The mixed convection phenomenon is observed when the forced and natural convections are of comparable magnitudes in one system. The mixed convection is classified as laminar and turbulent flows depending on the exchange mechanism and also as buoyancy aided and buoyancy

13. Forcings and Feedbacks on Convection in the 2010 Pakistan Flood: Modeling Extreme Precipitation with Interactive Large-Scale Ascent

2016-01-01

Extratropical extreme precipitation events are usually associated with large-scale flow disturbances, strong ascent and large latent heat release. The causal relationships between these factors are often not obvious, however, and the roles of different physical processes in producing the extreme precipitation event can be difficult to disentangle. Here, we examine the large-scale forcings and convective heating feedback in the precipitation events which caused the 2010 Pakistan flood within the Column Quasi-Geostrophic framework. A cloud-revolving model (CRM) is forced with the large-scale forcings (other than large-scale vertical motion) computed from the quasi-geostrophic omega equation with input data from a reanalysis data set, and the large-scale vertical motion is diagnosed interactively with the simulated convection. Numerical results show that the positive feedback of convective heating to large-scale dynamics is essential in amplifying the precipitation intensity to the observed values. Orographic li...

14. Natural convection of nanofluids over a convectively heated vertical plate embedded in a porous medium

In this paper, the natural convective flow of nanofluids over a convectively heated vertical plate in a saturated Darcy porous medium is studied numerically. The governing equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations by using appropriate similarity variables, and they are numerically solved using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method associated with the Gauss-Newton method. The effects of parametric variation of the Brownian motion parameter (Nb), thermophoresis parameter (Nt) and the convective heating parameter (Nc) on the boundary layer profiles are investigated. Furthermore, the variation of the reduced Nusselt number and reduced Sherwood number, as important parameters of heat and mass transfer, as a function of the Brownian motion, thermophoresis and convective heating parameters is discussed in detail. The results show that the thickness of the concentration profiles is much lower than the temperature and velocity profiles. For low values of the convective heating parameter (Nc), as the Brownian motion parameter increases, the non-dimensional wall temperature increases. However, for high values of Nc, the effect of the Brownian motion parameter on the non-dimensional wall temperature is not significant. As the Brownian motion parameter increases, the reduced Sherwood number increases and the reduced Nusselt number decreases. (author)

15. Natural convection of nanofluids over a convectively heated vertical plate embedded in a porous medium

Ghalambaz, M.; Noghrehabadi, A.; Ghanbarzadeh, A., E-mail: m.ghalambaz@gmail.com, E-mail: ghanbarzadeh.a@scu.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-04-15

In this paper, the natural convective flow of nanofluids over a convectively heated vertical plate in a saturated Darcy porous medium is studied numerically. The governing equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations by using appropriate similarity variables, and they are numerically solved using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method associated with the Gauss-Newton method. The effects of parametric variation of the Brownian motion parameter (Nb), thermophoresis parameter (Nt) and the convective heating parameter (Nc) on the boundary layer profiles are investigated. Furthermore, the variation of the reduced Nusselt number and reduced Sherwood number, as important parameters of heat and mass transfer, as a function of the Brownian motion, thermophoresis and convective heating parameters is discussed in detail. The results show that the thickness of the concentration profiles is much lower than the temperature and velocity profiles. For low values of the convective heating parameter (Nc), as the Brownian motion parameter increases, the non-dimensional wall temperature increases. However, for high values of Nc, the effect of the Brownian motion parameter on the non-dimensional wall temperature is not significant. As the Brownian motion parameter increases, the reduced Sherwood number increases and the reduced Nusselt number decreases. (author)

16. Convective heat transfer around vertical jet fires: An experimental study

Highlights: ► Experiments were carried out to analyze convection around a vertical jet fire. ► Convection heat transfer is enhanced increasing the flame length. ► Nusselt number grows with higher values of Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. ► In subsonic flames, Nusselt number increases with Froude number. ► Convection and radiation are equally important in causing a domino effect. - Abstract: The convection heat transfer phenomenon in vertical jet fires was experimentally analyzed. In these experiments, turbulent propane flames were generated in subsonic as well as sonic regimes. The experimental data demonstrated that the rate of convection heat transfer increases by increasing the length of the flame. Assuming the solid flame model, the convection heat transfer coefficient was calculated. Two equations in terms of adimensional numbers were developed. It was found out that the Nusselt number attains greater values for higher values of the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, the Froude number was analyzed only for the subsonic flames where the Nusselt number grows by this number and the diameter of the orifice.

17. Convective heat transfer around vertical jet fires: An experimental study

Kozanoglu, Bulent, E-mail: bulentu.kozanoglu@udlap.mx [Universidad de las Americas, Puebla (Mexico); Zarate, Luis [Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla (Mexico); Gomez-Mares, Mercedes [Universita di Bologna (Italy); Casal, Joaquim [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain)

2011-12-15

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experiments were carried out to analyze convection around a vertical jet fire. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Convection heat transfer is enhanced increasing the flame length. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nusselt number grows with higher values of Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In subsonic flames, Nusselt number increases with Froude number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Convection and radiation are equally important in causing a domino effect. - Abstract: The convection heat transfer phenomenon in vertical jet fires was experimentally analyzed. In these experiments, turbulent propane flames were generated in subsonic as well as sonic regimes. The experimental data demonstrated that the rate of convection heat transfer increases by increasing the length of the flame. Assuming the solid flame model, the convection heat transfer coefficient was calculated. Two equations in terms of adimensional numbers were developed. It was found out that the Nusselt number attains greater values for higher values of the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, the Froude number was analyzed only for the subsonic flames where the Nusselt number grows by this number and the diameter of the orifice.

18. Formulation of nano fluids for natural convective heat transfer applications

Wen Dongsheng [Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: d.wen@leeds.ac.uk; Ding Yulong [Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

2005-12-15

The paper is concerned about formulation of aqueous based nanofluids and its application under natural convective heat transfer conditions. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are dispersed in distilled water through electrostatic stabilization mechanisms and with the aid of a high shear mixing homogenizer. Nanofluids formulated in such a way are found very stable and are used to investigate their heat transfer behaviour under the natural convection conditions. The preliminary results are presented in this paper. Both transient and steady heat transfer coefficients are measured and the results show a systematic decrease in the natural convective heat transfer coefficient with increasing particle concentration. This is in contradiction to the initial expectation. Possible reasons for the observations are discussed.

19. Reynolds stress and heat flux in spherical shell convection

Käpylä, P J; Guerrero, G; Brandenburg, A; Chatterjee, P

2010-01-01

Context. Turbulent fluxes of angular momentum and heat due to rotationally affected convection play a key role in determining differential rotation of stars. Aims. We compute turbulent angular momentum and heat transport as functions of the rotation rate from stratified convection. We compare results from spherical and Cartesian models in the same parameter regime in order to study whether restricted geometry introduces artefacts into the results. Methods. We employ direct numerical simulations of turbulent convection in spherical and Cartesian geometries. In order to alleviate the computational cost in the spherical runs and to reach as high spatial resolution as possible, we model only parts of the latitude and longitude. The rotational influence, measured by the Coriolis number or inverse Rossby number, is varied from zero to roughly seven, which is the regime that is likely to be realised in the solar convection zone. Cartesian simulations are performed in overlapping parameter regimes. Results. For slow ...

20. Thermal Performance of Convective-Radiative Heat Transfer in Porous Fins

Majid SHAHBABAEI

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Forced and natural convection in porous fins with convective coefficient at the tips under radiation and convection effects are investigated in this paper. Aluminum and copper as fin materials are investigated. In forced and natural convection, air and water are applied as working fluids, respectively. In order to solve this nonlinear equation, Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM and Variational Iteration Method (VIM are used. To verify the accuracy of the methods, a comparison is made to the exact solution (BVP. In this work, the effects of porosity parameter (, Radiation parameter (α and Temperature-Ratio parameter (µ on non-dimensional temperature distribution for both of the flows are shown. The results show that the effects of (α and (µ on temperature distribution in natural convection are based on porosity and in forced convection are uniform, approximately. Also, it is shown that both VIM and HPM are capable of being used to solve this nonlinear heat transfer equation.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.64

1. Mixed convection in inclined lid driven cavity by Lattice Boltzmann Method and heat flux boundary condition

Laminar mixed convective heat transfer in two-dimensional rectangular inclined driven cavity is studied numerically by means of a double population thermal Lattice Boltzmann method. Through the top moving lid the heat flux enters the cavity whereas it leaves the system through the bottom wall; side walls are adiabatic. The counter-slip internal energy density boundary condition, able to simulate an imposed non zero heat flux at the wall, is applied, in order to demonstrate that it can be effectively used to simulate heat transfer phenomena also in case of moving walls. Results are analyzed over a range of the Richardson numbers and tilting angles of the enclosure, encompassing the dominating forced convection, mixed convection, and dominating natural convection flow regimes. As expected, heat transfer rate increases as increases the inclination angle, but this effect is significant for higher Richardson numbers, when buoyancy forces dominate the problem; for horizontal cavity, average Nusselt number decreases with the increase of Richardson number because of the stratified field configuration

2. Numerical study of the influence of the convective heat transfer on the dynamical behaviour of a phase change material wall

In construction, the use of Phase Change Materials (PCM) allows the storage/release of energy from solar radiation and internal loads. The application of such materials for lightweight construction (e.g., a wood house) makes it possible to improve thermal comfort and reduce energy consumption. The heat transfer process between the wall and the indoor air is convection. In this paper, we have developed a numerical model to evaluate several convective heat transfer correlations from the literature for natural, mixed and forced convection flows. The results show that the convective heat transfer highly influences the storage/release process in case of PCM walls. For the natural convection, the numerical results are highly dependent on the correlation used and the results may vary up to 200%. In the case of mixed and forced convection flows, the higher is the velocity, the more important is the storage capacity. - Highlights: → We study effect of inside convection correlation on energy stored in PCM wall. → We developed a 1D conduction model for multilayer walls, with phase change material. → Correlations have been constructed for mixed convection in all flow regimes. → Up to 200% variation of energy stored in PCM layer, depending on convection correlation. → Ventilation can increase the energy stored in the PCM layer.

3. Numerical investigation of natural convection heat transfer from multiple heat sources in a square enclosure

S. Venkatachalapathy; Udayakumar, M.

2010-01-01

Natural convection cooling using air as a fluid is commonly used in the cooling of electronic equipment and many other devices. In this work, a three-dimensional numerical study of natural convection heat transfer from multiple protruding heat sources simulating electronic components is conducted. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, FLUENT is used in this analysis. A 4 by 5 array of heat sources are embedded in the bottom wall of an adiabatic square enclosure. The heat sources with a...

4. Quantitative measurement of void fraction in a forced convective flow boiling by using neutron radiography

The void fraction in a forced convective flow boiling is very important information for understanding the characteristics of the boiling two-phase flow. Consequently, many experimental investigations have been carried out to obtain the local void fraction so far, but the detail data among the whole of the test-section has not been enough. Especially, the data under subcooled condition are quite limited. In this study, the void fraction distribution in a forced convective boiling was quantitatively measured by using the thermal neutron radiography. These results were compared with several existing void fraction correlations. Although these correlations show a good agreements with experimental results under low heat flux condition, there is no suitable correlation to estimate the void fraction under non-thermal equilibrium condition. (author)

5. Convective heat transfer around vertical jet fires: an experimental study.

Kozanoglu, Bulent; Zárate, Luis; Gómez-Mares, Mercedes; Casal, Joaquim

2011-12-15

The convection heat transfer phenomenon in vertical jet fires was experimentally analyzed. In these experiments, turbulent propane flames were generated in subsonic as well as sonic regimes. The experimental data demonstrated that the rate of convection heat transfer increases by increasing the length of the flame. Assuming the solid flame model, the convection heat transfer coefficient was calculated. Two equations in terms of adimensional numbers were developed. It was found out that the Nusselt number attains greater values for higher values of the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, the Froude number was analyzed only for the subsonic flames where the Nusselt number grows by this number and the diameter of the orifice. PMID:21962859

6. Convective Heat Exchange in Downward Moving Liquid under Conditions of Over-Critical Pressures

G. I. Isaev

2014-01-01

The paper presents some results of experimental investigations on convective heat exchange to laminar n-heptane flow under conditions of over-critical pressure. The case has been considered when directions of forced and free motion are mutually opposite.Under condition tc ≥ tm some specific heat exchange modes being peculiar for the area of over-critical pressure have been determined.On the basis of experimental data on n-heptane heat exchange recommendations for the evaluation of heat exchan...

7. Convective Heat Transfer in the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor of the Space Transportation System

Ahmad, Rashid A.; Cash, Stephen F. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

This simulation involved a two-dimensional axisymmetric model of a full motor initial grain of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) of the Space Transportation System (STS). It was conducted with CFD (computational fluid dynamics) commercial code FLUENT. This analysis was performed to: a) maintain continuity with most related previous analyses, b) serve as a non-vectored baseline for any three-dimensional vectored nozzles, c) provide a relatively simple application and checkout for various CFD solution schemes, grid sensitivity studies, turbulence modeling and heat transfer, and d) calculate nozzle convective heat transfer coefficients. The accuracy of the present results and the selection of the numerical schemes and turbulence models were based on matching the rocket ballistic predictions of mass flow rate, head end pressure, vacuum thrust and specific impulse, and measured chamber pressure drop. Matching these ballistic predictions was found to be good. This study was limited to convective heat transfer and the results compared favorably with existing theory. On the other hand, qualitative comparison with backed-out data of the ratio of the convective heat transfer coefficient to the specific heat at constant pressure was made in a relative manner. This backed-out data was devised to match nozzle erosion that was a result of heat transfer (convective, radiative and conductive), chemical (transpirating), and mechanical (shear and particle impingement forces) effects combined.

8. A new method for simultaneous measurement of convective and radiative heat flux in car underhood applications

Khaled, M.; Garnier, B.; Harambat, F.; Peerhossaini, H.

2010-02-01

A new experimental technique is presented that allows simultaneous measurement of convective and radiative heat flux in the underhood. The goal is to devise an easily implemented and accurate experimental method for application in the vehicle underhood compartment. The new method is based on a technique for heat-flux measurement developed by the authors (Heat flow (flux) sensors for measurement of convection, conduction and radiation heat flow 27036-2, © Rhopoint Components Ltd, Hurst Green, Oxted, RH8 9AX, UK) that uses several thermocouples in the thickness of a thermal resistive layer (foil heat-flux sensor). The method proposed here uses a pair of these thermocouples with different radiative properties. Measurements validating this novel technique are carried out on a flat plate with a prescribed constant temperature in both natural- and forced-convection flow regimes. The test flat plate is instrumented by this new technique, and also with a different technique that is intrusive but very accurate, used as reference here (Bardon J P and Jarny Y 1994 Procédé et dispositif de mesure transitoire de température et flux surfacique Brevet n°94.011996, 22 February). Discrepancies between the measurements by the two techniques are less than 10% for both convective and radiative heat flux. Error identification and sensitivity analysis of the new method are also presented.

9. A general theoretical principle for single-phase convection heat transfer enhancement

2009-01-01

The main methods of single-phase convection heat transfer enhancement are analyzed in this paper, and the unity of contradiction between heat transfer enhancement and energy consumption(or exergy destruction)is expounded.The thermodynamic relationship between heat(or exergy)transfer efficiency and energy consumption(or exergy destruction)as well as driving forces is established,and a general theoretical principle for single-phase convection heat transfer enhancement is further obtained. The principle shows that temperature gradient field distribution and velocity field distribution constrain each other,and that the optimum heat transfer efficiency can be obtained when they are synergetic.If the level of the synergy of temperature gradient field distribution with velocity field distribution is determined,the relative uniform temperature gradient is required,and vice versa.The principle also shows the relationship of relative temperature gradient with specific heat and coefficient of heat conductivity.The deduced results can be used as a theoretical guidance for single-phase convection heat transfer enhancement and optimum design of heat exchangers.

10. Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies

Canaan, R.E.

1995-12-01

Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array.

11. Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies

Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array

12. Conjugate conduction-convection heat transfer with a high-speed boundary layer

Shope, Frederick L.

1994-04-01

A space-marching boundary-layer program has been extensively modified to model conjugate conduction-convection heat transfer for the case of co-flowing high-speed gas and liquid coolant. Solid body conduction is modeled as one-dimensional, constant property heat transfer. The coolant is modeled empirically as a bulk fluid with combined forced convection and subcooled nucleate boiling. The flow solver was modified to solve the group of conjugate boundary equations simultaneously and implicitly with the existing momentum and energy equations for the gas. The resulting conjugate conduction-convection program has been applied to analysis of failure of a backside water-cooled nozzle for a high enthalpy, supersonic wind tunnel. The computational results have been used to establish that the primary failure mode is nucleate-boiling burnout and to propose a numerical burnout limit applicable to the specific nozzle configuration.

13. External Forced Convection Enhancement using a Corona Discharge

Go, David B.; Maturana, Raul A.; Fisher, Timothy S.; Garimella, Suresh V.

2007-01-01

An ionic wind is formed when air ions generated by a corona discharge are accelerated by an electric field and exchange momentum with neutral air molecules, causing air flow. Because ionic winds can generate flow with no moving parts, they offer an attractive method for enhancing the heat transfer from a surface that would otherwise only be cooled by natural convection and/or radiation. In the presence of an external, flat plate flow, ionic winds distort the boundary layer such that local hea...

14. Heat transfer by natural convection into an horizontal cavity

At this thesis it is studied the heat transfer by natural convection in an horizontal cavity, it is involved a boiling's part that is described the regimes and correlations differences for boiling's curve. It is designed a horizontal cavity for realize the experimental part and it's mention from equipment or instrumentation to succeed in a experimentation that permits to realize the analysis of heat transfer, handling as water fluid at atmospheric pressure and where it's present process from natural convection involving part boiling's subcooled. The system consists of heater zone submerged in a horizontal cavity with water. Once part finished experimental with information to obtained it's proceeded to obtain a correlation, realized starting from analysis dimensionless such as: Jakob, Bond and Grasoft (Boiling) besides of knows in natural convection: Prandtl and Nusselt. The mathematical model explains the behavior for natural convection continued part boiling's subcooled. It is realize analysis graphics too where it's show comparing with Globe Dropkin and Catton equations by natural convection with bottom heating. (Author)

15. Numerical simulation of mixed convection in a rectangular enclosure with different numbers and arrangements of discrete heat sources

The objective of this paper is to numerically investigate the cooling performance of electronic devices with an emphasis on the effects of the arrangement and number of electronic components. The analysis uses a two dimensional rectangular enclosure under combined natural and forced convection flow conditions and considers a range of Raleigh numbers. Heat sources in the enclosure generate the natural convection flow and an externally sourced air stream through the enclosure generates the forced convection flow. The results show that increasing the Raleigh number significantly improves the enclosure heat transfer process. At low Raleigh numbers, placing more heat sources within the enclosure reduces the heat transfer rate from the sources and consequently increases their overall maximum temperature. The arrangement and the number of heat sources have a considerable contribution to the cooling performance. However, increasing the Raleigh number reduces this contribution. (author)

16. Convective heat transfer to water near the critical region in horizontal rectangular ducts

Fluid flow and heat transfer in horizontal ducts are strongly coupled with large changes in thermodynamic and transport properties near the critical region as well as the gravity force. Numerical analysis has been carried out to investigate convective heat transfer in horizontal rectangular ducts for water near the thermodynamic critical point. Convective heat transfer characteristics, including velocity, temperature, and the properties as well as local heat transfer coefficients along the ducts are compared with effect of proximity on the critical point. When there is flow acceleration because of a density decrease, convective heat transfer characteristics in the ducts show transition behavior between liquid like and gas like phases. There is a large variation in the local heat transfer coefficient distributions at the top, side, and bottom surfaces, and close to the pseudocritical temperature, a peak in the heat transfer coefficient distribution resulting from improved turbulent transport is observed. The Nusselt number distribution depends on pressure and duct aspect ratio, while the Nusselt number peak rapidly increases as the pressure approaches the critical pressure. The predicted Nusselt number is also compared with other heat transfer correlations

17. Investigating Convective Heat Transfer with an Iron and a Hairdryer

Gonzalez, Manuel I.; Lucio, Jesus H.

2008-01-01

A simple experimental set-up to study free and forced convection in undergraduate physics laboratories is presented. The flat plate of a domestic iron has been chosen as the hot surface, and a hairdryer is used to generate an air stream around the plate. Several experiments are proposed and typical numerical results are reported. An analysis and…

18. Determination of drying kinetics and convective heat transfer coefficients of ginger slices

Akpinar, Ebru Kavak; Toraman, Seda

2015-12-01

In the present work, the effects of some parametric values on convective heat transfer coefficients and the thin layer drying process of ginger slices were investigated. Drying was done in the laboratory by using cyclone type convective dryer. The drying air temperature was varied as 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and the air velocity is 0.8, 1.5 and 3 m/s. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The drying data were fitted to the twelve mathematical models and performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R 2), reduced Chi-square (χ 2) and root mean square error between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. The effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy were calculated using an infinite series solution of Fick's diffusion equation. The average effective moisture diffusivity values and activation energy values varied from 2.807 × 10-10 to 6.977 × 10-10 m2/s and 19.313-22.722 kJ/mol over the drying air temperature and velocity range, respectively. Experimental data was used to evaluate the values of constants in Nusselt number expression by using linear regression analysis and consequently, convective heat transfer coefficients were determined in forced convection mode. Convective heat transfer coefficient of ginger slices showed changes in ranges 0.33-2.11 W/m2 °C.

19. Heat transfer mechanisms in bubbly Rayleigh-Benard convection

Oresta, Paolo; Lohse, Detlef; Prosperetti, Andrea

2008-01-01

The heat transfer mechanism in Rayleigh-Benard convection in a liquid with a mean temperature close to its boiling point is studied through numerical simulations with point-like vapor bubbles, which are allowed to grow or shrink through evaporation and condensation and which act back on the flow both thermally and mechanically. It is shown that the effect of the bubbles is strongly dependent on the ratio of the sensible heat to the latent heat as embodied in the Jacob number Ja. For very small Ja the bubbles stabilize the flow by absorbing heat in the warmer regions and releasing it in the colder regions. With an increase in Ja, the added buoyancy due to the bubble growth destabilizes the flow with respect to single-phase convection and considerably increases the Nusselt number.

20. A contribution to incipient boiling in the case of subcooled boiling with forced convection

The literature gives contradictory statements about incipient subcooled boiling. To clear up these contradictions it seems important to study the effect of different thermo- and hydrodynamic parameters, like heating surface load, system pressure, local supercooling, and flowrate. Further influencing quantities investigated here are the concentration dissolved gases and the surface condition of the heat surface. To carry out the experimental investigations a measuring method which has already been used by Mayinger applied. With this method, incipient boiling can be determined as the first measurable heat transfer improvement in comparison with single-phase forced convection. Besides, photographs sould make it possible to give statements on the quantity and size of the bubbles on the heating surface. (orig./GL)

1. Measurement of the Convective Heat-Transfer Coefficient

Conti, Rosaria; Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Fiordilino, Emilio

2014-01-01

We propose an experiment for investigating how objects cool down toward the thermal equilibrium with their surroundings. We describe the time dependence of the temperature difference of the cooling objects and the environment with an exponential decay function. By measuring the thermal constant t, we determine the convective heat-transfer…

2. Heat convection in a set of three vertical cylinders

Experimental results on temperature and heat flow in a set of three vertical cylinders with internal generation of heat, water submerged and in free convection are presented in this work . Temperature distribution, Nusselt number and convective coefficient (h) for each rod, developed for the distance between the axis of cylinders in vertical position, as a consequence of the application of power in its outside, are analyzed. Experimental information about heat transfer by free convection in vertical cylinders and surfaces is analyzed. Information of the several author who have carried out studies about the heat transfer on vertical cylinders was compiled, and the proposed equations with the experimental data obtained in the thermo fluids laboratory of National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) were tested. The way in which separation distance, s, distribution temperature array, Nusselt number, and convective coefficient calculated for the proposed channel with the Keyhani, Dutton and experimental equations are tabulated and they are plotted for each power value and for each separation between rods. The scheme of the used equipment and the experimentation description as well as the observations of tests and graphical results are included. (Author)

3. Simulation of convective heat exchange in the subduction zone

Solov'ev, S. V.

2013-09-01

Results of the mathematical simulation of the convective heat exchange in the process of movement of a lithospheric plate colliding with a continental plate and submerging into the mantle in the subduction zone under conditions where the free fall acceleration in the mantle changes by the linear law are presented.

4. External heating of a flat plate in a convective flow

Treviño, César; Liñán Martínez, Amable

1984-01-01

The steady-state and íransient processes of the exteinal heating of a flat píate under a convective flow is studied in thís paper, with inclusión of the axial heat conduction tíirough the píate. The balance equations reduce to a single integro-differential equation with only one parameter, a, denoting the ratio of the ability of the píate tocarry heat inthestreamwisedirectionto the abilityof the gas tocarry heat outof the píate. The two Iímits of a good conducting plate ([alpha]-»[infinite]) ...

5. Network model of free convection within internally heated porous media

A hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA) in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) may result in the formation of an internally heated debris bed. Considerable attention has been given to postulated mechanisms by which such beds may be cooled. It is the purpose of the work described to demonstrate a method for computing the heat transfer from such a bed to the overlying sodium pool due to single-phase, free convection

6. Relating Convective and Stratiform Rain to Latent Heating

Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, Stephen; Zeng, Xiping; Shige, Shoichi; Takayabu, Yukari

2010-01-01

The relationship among surface rainfall, its intensity, and its associated stratiform amount is established by examining observed precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR). The results show that for moderate-high stratiform fractions, rain probabilities are strongly skewed toward light rain intensities. For convective-type rain, the peak probability of occurrence shifts to higher intensities but is still significantly skewed toward weaker rain rates. The main differences between the distributions for oceanic and continental rain are for heavily convective rain. The peak occurrence, as well as the tail of the distribution containing the extreme events, is shifted to higher intensities for continental rain. For rainy areas sampled at 0.58 horizontal resolution, the occurrence of conditional rain rates over 100 mm/day is significantly higher over land. Distributions of rain intensity versus stratiform fraction for simulated precipitation data obtained from cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations are quite similar to those from the satellite, providing a basis for mapping simulated cloud quantities to the satellite observations. An improved convective-stratiform heating (CSH) algorithm is developed based on two sources of information: gridded rainfall quantities (i.e., the conditional intensity and the stratiform fraction) observed from the TRMM PR and synthetic cloud process data (i.e., latent heating, eddy heat flux convergence, and radiative heating/cooling) obtained from CRM simulations of convective cloud systems. The new CSH algorithm-derived heating has a noticeably different heating structure over both ocean and land regions compared to the previous CSH algorithm. Major differences between the new and old algorithms include a significant increase in the amount of low- and midlevel heating, a downward emphasis in the level of maximum cloud heating by about 1 km, and a larger variance between land and ocean in

7. Intensification of Convective Heat Transfer in Heating Device of Mobile Heating System with BH-Heat Generator

N. Nesenchuk

2013-01-01

Full Text Available Directions pertaining to intensification of convective heat transfer in a soft heating device have been experimentally investigated  in the paper and the most efficient one has been selected that is creation of artificial roughness on the device surface. The considered heating device for a heat supply system of a mobile object has been made of soft polymer material (polyvinyl chloride. Following  evaluation results of  heat exchange intensification a criteria equation has been obtained for calculation of external heat transfer with due account of heat transfer intensification.

8. Mixed Convective Peristaltic Flow of Water Based Nanofluids with Joule Heating and Convective Boundary Conditions.

Hayat, Tasawar; Nawaz, Sadaf; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Rafiq, Maimona

2016-01-01

Main objective of present study is to analyze the mixed convective peristaltic transport of water based nanofluids using five different nanoparticles i.e. (Al2O3, CuO, Cu, Ag and TiO2). Two thermal conductivity models namely the Maxwell's and Hamilton-Crosser's are used in this study. Hall and Joule heating effects are also given consideration. Convection boundary conditions are employed. Furthermore, viscous dissipation and heat generation/absorption are used to model the energy equation. Problem is simplified by employing lubrication approach. System of equations are solved numerically. Influence of pertinent parameters on the velocity and temperature are discussed. Also the heat transfer rate at the wall is observed for considered five nanofluids using the two phase models via graphs. PMID:27104596

9. Optimization of fin geometry in heat convection with entransy theory

The entransy theory developed in recent years is used to optimize the aspect ratio of a plate fin in heat convection. Based on a two-dimensional model, the theoretical analysis shows that the minimum thermal resistance defined with the concept of entransy dissipation corresponds to the maximum heat transfer rate when the temperature of the heating surface is fixed. On the other hand, when the heat flux of the heating surface is fixed, the minimum thermal resistance corresponds to the minimum average temperature of the heating surface. The entropy optimization is also given for the heat transfer processes. It is observed that the minimum entropy generation, the minimum entropy generation number, and the minimum revised entropy generation number do not always correspond to the best heat transfer performance. In addition, the influence factors on the optimized aspect ratio of the plate fin are also discussed. The optimized ratio decreases with the enhancement of heat convection, while it increases with fin thermal conductivity increasing. (general)

10. Heat transport in bubbling turbulent convection

Lakkaraju, R.; Stevens, R.J.A.M.; Oresta, P.; Verzicco, R.; Lohse, D.; Prosperetti, A.

2013-01-01

Boiling is an extremely effective way to promote heat transfer from a hot surface to a liquid due to numerous mechanisms, many of which are not understood in quantitative detail. An important component of the overall process is that the buoyancy of the bubble compounds with that of the liquid to giv

11. Conjugate problems in convective heat transfer

Dorfman, Abram S

2009-01-01

The conjugate heat transfer (CHT) problem takes into account the thermal interaction between a body and fluid flowing over or through it, a key consideration in both mechanical and aerospace engineering. Presenting more than 100 solutions of non-isothermal and CHT problems, this title considers the approximate solutions of CHT problems.

12. On the Asymptotic Approach to Thermosolutal Convection in Heated Slow Reactive Boundary Layer Flows

Stanford Shateyi; Precious Sibanda; Motsa, Sandile S.

2008-01-01

The study sought to investigate thermosolutal convection and stability of two dimensional disturbances imposed on a heated boundary layer flow over a semi-infinite horizontal plate composed of a chemical species using a self-consistent asymptotic method. The chemical species reacts as it diffuses into the nearby fluid causing density stratification and inducing a buoyancy force. The existence of significant temperature gradients near the plate surface results in additional buoyancy and decrea...

13. Convective heat flux from hydrothermal system: First monitoring results at La Fossa of Vulcano

Diliberto, I. S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Finizola, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Madonia, P.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Aubert, M.; Université Blaise Pascal et CNRS-LMV

2005-01-01

Fluids circulating inside hydrothermal systems drive thermal and kinetic energy to balance the acting forces. Convective heat flux variations can be affected either by change in regional tectonic factor and by magma migration, both processes accountable for volcanic risk. The thermal release on quiescent volcano is not negligible if compared to that associated to eruptions, according to balances on hydrothermal activity and eruptive activity (Nuccio & Valenza, 1986, Chiodini et al., 2001). Mo...

14. Numerical Analysis and Prediction of Unsteady Forced Convection over a Sharp and Rounded Edged Square Cylinder

Prasenjit Dey; Ajoy Das

2016-01-01

An unsteady two-dimensional forced convection over a square cylinder with sharp and rounded corner edge is numerically analyzed for the low Reynolds number laminar flow regime. In this study, the analysis is carried out for Reynolds number (Re) in the range of 80 to 180 with Prandtl number (Pr) variation from 0.01 to 1000 for various corner radius (r=0.50, 0.51, 0.54, 0.59, 0.64 and 0.71). The lateral sides of the computational domain are kept constant to maintain the blockage as 5%. Heat tr...

15. Effect of radiation on the laminar convective heat transfer through a layer of highly porous medium

A numerical investigation is reported of the coupled forced convective and radiative transfer through a highly porous medium. The porosity range investigated is high enough that the fluid inertia terms in the momentum equation cannot be neglected; i.e., the simple form of Darcy's law is invalid. The geometry studied is a plane layer of highly porous medium resting on one impermeable boundary and exposed to a two-dimensional laminar external flow field. The objective is to determine the effective overall heat transfer coefficients for such a geometry. The results are applicable to diverse situations, including insulation batts exposed to external flow, the heat loss and drying rates of grain fields and forest areas, and the drying of beds of porous material exposed to convective and radiative heating

16. Theoretical Convective Heat Transfer Model Developement of Cold Storage Using Taguchi Analysis.

2015-01-01

Full Text Available Energy crisis is one of the most important problems the world is facing now-a-days. With the increase of cost of electrical energy operating cost of cold storage storing is increasing which forces the increased cost price of the commodities that are kept. In this situation if the maximum heat energy(Q is absorbed by the evaporator inside the cold room through convective heat transfer process in terms of –heat transfer due to convection and heat transfer due to condensation, more energy has to be wasted to maintain the evaporator space at the desired temperature range of 2- 8 degree centigrade. In this paper we have proposed a theoretical heat transfermodel of convective heat transfer incold storage using Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. Velocity of air(V, Temperature difference(dT, RelativeHumidity(RHare the basic variable and three ranges are taken each of them in the model development. Graphical interpretations from the model justifies the reality

17. Analysis of flow instabilities in forced-convection steam generator

2006-01-01

Because of the practical importance of two-phase instabilities, substantial efforts have been made to date to understand the physical phenomena governing such instabilities and to develop computational tools to model the dynamics. The purpose of this study is to present a numerical model for the analysis of flow-induced instabilities in forced-convection steam generator. The model is based on the assumption of homogeneous two-phase flow and thermodynamic equilibrium of the phases. The thermal capacity of the heater wall has been included in the analysis. The model is used to analyze the flow instabilities in the steam generator and to study the effects of system pressure, mass flux, inlet temperature and inlet/outlet restriction, gap size, the ratio of do /di, and the ratio of qi/qo on the system behavior.

18. Second Law Analysis in Convective Heat and Mass Transfer

A. Ben Brahim

2006-02-01

Full Text Available This paper reports the numerical determination of the entropy generation due to heat transfer, mass transfer and fluid friction in steady state for laminar double diffusive convection, in an inclined enclosure with heat and mass diffusive walls, by solving numerically the mass, momentum, species conservation and energy balance equations, using a Control Volume Finite-Element Method. The influences of the inclination angle, the thermal Grashof number and the buoyancy ratio on total entropy generation were investigated. The irreversibilities localization due to heat transfer, mass transfer and fluid friction is discussed for three inclination angles at a fixed thermal Grashof number.

19. Experimental-theoretical analysis of laminar internal forced convection with nanofluids

Cerqueira, Ivana G.; Cotta, Renato M. [Lab. of Transmission and Technology of Heat-LTTC. Mechanical Eng. Dept. - POLI and COPPE/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: cotta@mecanica.coppe.ufrj.br; Mota, Carlos Alberto A. [Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas - CNPq, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: carlosal@cnpq.br; Nunes, Jeziel S. [INPI, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: jeziel@inpi.gov.br

2010-07-01

This work reports fundamental experimental-theoretical research related to heat transfer enhancement in laminar channel flow with nanofluids, which are essentially modifications of the base fluid with the dispersion of metal oxide nanoparticles. The theoretical work was performed by making use of mixed symbolic-numerical computation (Mathematica 7.0 platform) and a hybrid numerical-analytical methodology (Generalized Integral Transform Technique - GITT) in accurately handling the governing partial differential equations for the heat and fluid flow problem formulation with temperature dependency in all the thermophysical properties. Experimental work was also undertaken based on a thermohydraulic circuit built for this purpose, and sample results are presented to verify the proposed model. The aim is to illustrate detailed modeling and robust simulation attempting to reach an explanation of the controversial heat transfer enhancement observed in laminar forced convection with nanofluids. (author)

20. The effect of heat generation in inclined slats on the natural convective heat transfer from an isothermal heated vertical plate

Natural convective heat transfer from a wide heated vertical isothermal plate with adiabatic surfaces above and below the heated surface has been considered. There are a series of equally spaced vertical thin, flat surfaces (termed 'slats') near the heated surface, these surfaces being, in general, inclined to the heated surface. There is, in general, a uniform heat generation in the slats. The slats are pivoted about their centre-point and thus as their angle is changed, the distance of the tip of the slat from the plate changes. The situation considered is an approximate model of a window with a vertical blind, the particular case where the window is hotter than the room air being considered. The heat generation in the slats in this situation is the result of solar radiation passing through the window and falling on and being absorbed by the slats of the blind. The flow has been assumed to be laminar and steady. Fluid properties have been assumed constant except for the density change with temperature that gives rise to the buoyancy forces. The governing equations have been written in dimensionless form and the resulting dimensionless equations have been solved using a commercial finite-element package. The solution has the following parameters: (1) the Rayleigh number (2) the Prandtl number (3) the dimensionless heat generation rate in the slats per unit frontal area (4) the dimensionless distance of the slat center point (the pivot point) from the surface (5) the dimensionless slat size (6) the dimensionless slat spacing (7) the angle of inclination of the slats. Because of the application that motivated the study, results have only been obtained for a Prandtl number of 0.7. The effect of the other dimensionless variables on the mean dimensionless heat transfer rate from the heated vertical surface has been examined. (author)

1. Natural convection heat transfer of water in a horizontal circular gap

SU Guanghui; Kenichiro Sugiyama; WU Yingwei

2007-01-01

An experimental study on the natural convection heat transfer on a horizontal downward facing heated surface in a water gap was carried out under atmospheric pressure conditions. A total of 700 experimental data points were correlated using Rayleigh versus Nusselt number in various forms, based on different independent variables. The effects of different characteristic lengths and film temperatures were discussed. The results show that the buoyancy force acts as a resistance force for natural convecti on beat transfer ona downward facing horizontal heated surface in a confined space. For the estimation of the natural convection heat transfer under the present conditions, empirical correlations in which Nusselt number is expressed as a function of the Rayleigh number, or both Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers, may be used. When it is accurately predicted, the Nusselt number is expressed as a function of the Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers, as well as the gap width-to-heated surface diameter ratio; and uses the temperature difference between the heated surface and the ambient fluid in the definition of Rayleigh number. The characteristic length is the gap size and the film temperature is the average fluid temperature.

2. Silk cocoon drying in forced convection type solar dryer

The thin layer silk cocoon drying was studied in a forced convection type solar dryer. The drying chamber was provided with several trays on which the cocoons loaded in thin layer. The hot air generated in the solar air heater was forced into drying chamber to avoid the direct exposure of sunlight and UV radiation on cocoons. The drying air temperature varied from 50 to 75 oC. The cocoon was dried from the initial moisture content of about 60-12% (wb). The drying data was fitted to thin layer drying models. Drying behaviour of the silk cocoon was best fitted with the Wang and Singh drying model. Good agreement was obtained between predicted and experimental values. Quality of the cocoons dried in the solar dryer was at par with the cocoons dried in the conventional electrical oven dryer in term of the silk yield and strength of the silk. Saving of electrical energy was about 0.75 kWh/kg cocoons dried. Economic analysis indicated that the NPV of the solar dryer was higher and more stable (against escalation rate of electricity) as compare to the same for electrical oven dryer. Due to simplicity in design and construction and significant saving of operational electrical energy, solar cocoon dryer seems to be a viable option.

3. Aerial measurements of convection cell elements in heated lakes

Villa-Aleman, E.; Salaymeh, S. R.; Brown, T. B.; Garrett, A. J.; Nichols, L. S.; Pendergast, M. M.

2008-03-01

Power plant-heated lakes are characterized by a temperature gradient in the thermal plume originating at the discharge of the power plant and terminating at the water intake. The maximum water temperature discharged by the power plant into the lake depends on the power generated at the facility and environmental regulations on the temperature of the lake. Besides the observed thermal plume, cloud-like thermal cells (convection cell elements) are also observed on the water surface. The size, shape and temperature of the convection cell elements depends on several parameters such as the lake water temperature, wind speed, surfactants and the depth of the thermocline. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Clemson University are collaborating to determine the applicability of laboratory empirical correlations between surface heat flux and thermal convection intensity. Laboratory experiments at Clemson University have demonstrated a simple relationship between the surface heat flux and the standard deviation of temperature fluctuations. Similar results were observed in the aerial thermal imagery SRNL collected at different locations along the thermal plume and at different elevations. SRNL will present evidence that the results at Clemson University are applicable to cooling lakes.

4. Convective Heat Transfer Scaling of Ignition Delay and Burning Rate with Heat Flux and Stretch Rate in the Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus

Olson, Sandra

2011-01-01

To better evaluate the buoyant contributions to the convective cooling (or heating) inherent in normal-gravity material flammability test methods, we derive a convective heat transfer correlation that can be used to account for the forced convective stretch effects on the net radiant heat flux for both ignition delay time and burning rate. The Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus (ELSA) uses an inverted cone heater to minimize buoyant effects while at the same time providing a forced stagnation flow on the sample, which ignites and burns as a ceiling fire. Ignition delay and burning rate data is correlated with incident heat flux and convective heat transfer and compared to results from other test methods and fuel geometries using similarity to determine the equivalent stretch rates and thus convective cooling (or heating) rates for those geometries. With this correlation methodology, buoyant effects inherent in normal gravity material flammability test methods can be estimated, to better apply the test results to low stretch environments relevant to spacecraft material selection.

5. Magnetohydrodynamic Fully Developed Combined Convection Flow between Vertical Plates Heated Asymmetrically

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fully developed flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid in a vertical channel during combined convection, with asymmetric heating of the wall, under the influence of a constant pressure gradient and in the presence of an uniform transverse magnetic field, is studied. Exact solution of the governing equation is obtained in a closed form. The solution in a dimensionless form contains two pertinent flow parameters, viz. M (the Hartmann number) and Gr (the Grashof number). The limiting cases of a MHD forced and free convection are analysed, what has not been done earlier in the literature. The occurrence of flow reversal indicates that there arises a flow reversal at the cold wall when rT=1 while, for rT<1, no flow reversal is possible in the absence of magnetic forces. (author)

6. Forced convection of ammonia. 2. part.: gaseous ammonia - very high wall temperatures (1000 to 3000 K)

Heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop of gaseous ammonia in forced convection are experimentally determined. The fluid flows (mass flow rate 0.6 to 2.4 g/s) in a long tungsten tube (di = 2.8 mm, de = 5.1 mm, L = 700 mm) electrically heated. The temperature of the wall reaches 3000 deg. K and the fluid 2500 deg. K; maximum heat flux 530 w/cm2. Ammonia is completely dissociated and the power necessary for dissociation reaches 30 per cent of the total power exchanged. Inlet pressure varies between 6 and 16 bars and the maximum pressure drop in the tube reaches 15 bars. Two regimes of dissociation have been shown: catalytic and homogeneous and the variation of dissociation along the length of the tube is studied. The measured heat transfer coefficients may be about 10 times these calculated by the means of classical formulae. A correlation of experimental results using enthalpy as a driving force for heat transmission is presented. Pressure drops may be calculated by the means of a classical friction factor. (authors)

7. Mixed convection boundary layer flow over a vertical cylinder with prescribed surface heat flux

Ishak, Anuar [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail: anuar_mi@ukm.my

2009-05-15

The steady mixed convection boundary layer flow along a vertical cylinder with prescribed surface heat flux is investigated in this study. The free stream velocity and the surface heat flux are assumed to vary linearly with the distance from the leading edge. Both the case of the buoyancy forces assisting and opposing the development of the boundary layer are considered. Similarity equations are derived, their solutions being dependent on the mixed convection parameter, the curvature parameter, as well as of the Prandtl number. Dual solutions are found to exist for both buoyancy assisting and opposing flows. It is also found that the boundary layer separation is delayed for a cylinder compared to a flat plate.

8. Mixed Convection Flow of Casson Nanofluid over a Stretching Sheet with Convectively Heated Chemical Reaction and Heat Source/Sink

T. Hayat

2015-01-01

Full Text Available The present study addresses the mixed convection flow of non-Newtonian nanofluid over a stretching surface in presence of thermal radiation, heat source/sink and first order chemical reaction. Casson fluid model is adopted in the present study. Magnetic field contribution is incorporated in the momentum equation whereas the aspects of nanoparticles are considered in the energy and concentration equations. Convective boundary conditions for both heat and mass transfer are utilized. Similarity transformations are employed to reduce the partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. Series solutions of the resulting problem are obtained. Impacts of all the physical parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration fields are analyzed graphically. Numerical values of different involved parameters for local skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are obtained and discussed.

9. Heat transport measurements in turbulent rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection

Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Yuanming [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

We present experimental heat transport measurements of turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection with rotation about a vertical axis. The fluid, water with Prandtl number ({sigma}) about 6, was confined in a cell which had a square cross section of 7.3 cm x 7.3 cm and a height of 9.4 cm. Heat transport was measured for Rayleigh numbers 2 x 10{sup 5} < Ra < 5 x 10{sup 8} and Taylor numbers 0 < Ta < 5 x 10{sup 9}. We show the variation of normalized heat transport, the Nusselt number, at fixed dimensional rotation rate {Omega}{sub D}, at fixed Ra varying Ta, at fixed Ta varying Ra, and at fixed Rossby number Ro. The scaling of heat transport in the range 10{sup 7} to about 10{sup 9} is roughly 0.29 with a Ro dependent coefficient or equivalently is also well fit by a combination of power laws of the form a Ra{sup 1/5} + b Ra{sup 1/3} . The range of Ra is not sufficient to differentiate single power law or combined power law scaling. The overall impact of rotation on heat transport in turbulent convection is assessed.

10. Convective heat transfer analysis in aggregates rotary drum reactor

Heat transport characterisation inside rotary drum dryer has a considerable importance linked to many industrial applications. The present paper deals with the heat transfer analysis from experimental apparatus installed in a large-scale rotary drum reactor applied to the asphalt materials production. The equipment including in-situ thermal probes and external visualization by mean of infrared thermography gives rise to the longitudinal evaluation of inner and external temperatures. The assessment of the heat transfer coefficients by an inverse methodology is resolved in order to accomplish a fin analysis of the convective mechanism inside baffled (or flights) rotary drum. The results are discussed and compared with major results of the literature. -- Highlights: ► A thermal and flow experimentation is performed on a large-scale rotary drum. ► Four working points is chosen in the frame of asphalt materials production. ► Evaluation of the convective transfer mechanisms is calculated by inverse method. ► The drying stage is performed in the combustion area. ► Wall/aggregates heat exchanges have a major contribution in the heating stage

11. Environmental Forcing of Super Typhoon Paka's (1997) Latent Heat Structure

Rodgers, Edward B.; Olson, William; Halverson, Jeff; Simpson, Joanne; Pierce, Harold

1999-01-01

The distribution and intensity of total (i.e., combined stratified and convective processes) rainrate/latent heat release (LHR) were derived for tropical cyclone Paka during the period 9-21 December, 1997 from the F-10, F-11, F-13, and F-14 Defense Meteorological Satellite Special Sensor Microwave/Imager and the Tropical Rain Measurement Mission Microwave Imager observations. These observations were frequent enough to capture three episodes of inner core convective bursts that preceded periods of rapid intensification and a convective rainband (CRB) cycle. During these periods of convective bursts, satellite sensors revealed that the rainrates/LHR: 1) increased within the inner eye wall region; 2) were mainly convectively generated (nearly a 65% contribution), 3) propagated inwards; 4) extended upwards within the middle and upper-troposphere, and 5) became electrically charged. These factors may have caused the eye wall region to become more buoyant within the middle and upper-troposphere, creating greater cyclonic angular momentum, and, thereby, warming the center and intensifying the system. Radiosonde measurements from Kwajalein Atoll and Guam, sea surface temperature observations, and the European Center for Medium Range Forecast analyses were used to examine the necessary and sufficient condition for initiating and maintaining these inner core convective bursts. For example, the necessary conditions such as the atmospheric thermodynamics (i.e., cold tropopause temperatures, moist troposphere, and warm SSTs [greater than 26 deg]) suggested that the atmosphere was ideal for Paka's maximum potential intensity (MPI) to approach super-typhoon strength. Further, Paka encountered weak vertical wind shear (less than 15 m/s ) before interacting with the westerlies on 21 December. The sufficient conditions, on the other hand, appeared to have some influence on Paka's convective burst, but the horizontal moisture flux convergence values in the outer core were weaker than

12. Investigation of combined free and forced convection in a 2 x 6 rod bundle during controlled flow transients

Bates, J.M.; Khan, E.U.

1980-10-01

An experimental study was performed to obtain local fluid velocity and temperature measurements in the mixed (combined free and forced) convection regime for specific flow coastdown transients. A brief investigation of steady-state flows for the purely free-convection regime was also completed. The study was performed using an electrically heated 2 x 6 rod bundle contained in a flow housing. In addition a transient data base was obtained for evaluating the COBRA-WC thermal-hydraulic computer program (a modified version of the COBRA-IV code).

13. Convective Heat Transfer Analysis in Fluid Flow with Turbulence Promoters with Heat Pipes

Theodor Mateescu

2007-01-01

Full Text Available The present paper proposes the analysis and the simulation of the convection heat transfer into the fluid flow with turbulence promoters utilizing heat pipes. The study is based on the necesity of the unconventional energy forms capitalization, increasing of the energy efficiency and leads to the energy consumtion decrease in concordance with the sustainable development concept.

14. Non-Darcian forced convection analysis in an annulus partially filled with a porous material

Chikh, S.; Boumedien, A.; Bouhadef, K. [USTHB, Bab Ezzouar (Algeria). Inst. de Genie Mecanique; Lauriat, G. [CNAM, Paris (France). Lab. de Thermique

1995-12-01

Numerical solutions are presented for fully developed forced convection in concentric annuli partially filled with a porous medium. The porous medium is attached at the inner cylinder, which is maintained at uniform heat flux or at uniform wall temperature while the outer cylinder is adiabatic. The Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy model was used to model the flow inside the porous medium. The dependence of the fluid flow and heat transfer on several parameters of the problem is thoroughly documented. The inertia coefficient at which the inertial effects reduce the flow rate by 5% is determined as a function of the Darcy number for various thicknesses of the porous substrate. It is also shown that a critical thickness at which the value of the Nusselt number reaches a minimum does not exist if the effective thermal conductivity of the fluid-saturated porous medium is much higher than the fluid conductivity.

15. A preliminary study on the mixed convection heat transfer in a horizontal pipe

Chae, Myeong Seon; Chung, Bum Jin [Jeju Nat' l Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

Mixed convection phenomena have applications in heat exchangers designed for viscous liquids, pipelines used for transporting oil, and heat exchangers for gas flows and have been investigated for numerical study. The experimental studies on the topic are rare due to the limited practical uses. The definitions on the buoyancy coefficient that represent the relative influence of the forced and the natural convection are different by scholars. When the fluid passes through a horizontal heated pipe, the secondary flow patterns of the flows moving upward along inner wall and downward through the centerline of the pipe, appear. Two symmetric counter rotating, spiraling axial flows around the vertical centerline and the heat transfer of the bottom is higher due to the unstable stratification. This study is preliminary experiments for laminar and turbulent mixed convection for horizontal pipe geometries. The diameter of the pipe was 0.026m and lengths were ranging from 0.03m to 0.50m varying the Reynolds number. Experiments were carried out using a copper sulfate electroplating system was adopted for mass transfer based on the analogy concept.

16. Core flows and heat transfer induced by inhomogeneous cooling with sub- and supercritical convection

Dietrich, W.; Hori, K.; Wicht, J.

2016-02-01

The amount and spatial pattern of heat extracted from cores of terrestrial planets is ultimately controlled by the thermal structure of the lower rocky mantle. Using the most common model to tackle this problem, a rapidly rotating and differentially cooled spherical shell containing an incompressible and viscous liquid is numerically investigated. To gain the physical basics, we consider a simple, equatorial symmetric perturbation of the CMB heat flux shaped as a spherical harmonic Y11 . The thermodynamic properties of the induced flows mainly depend on the degree of nonlinearity parametrised by a horizontal Rayleigh number Rah =q∗ Ra , where q∗ is the relative CMB heat flux anomaly amplitude and Ra is the Rayleigh number which controls radial buoyancy-driven convection. Depending on Rah we identify and characterise three distinctive flow regimes through their spatial patterns, heat transport and flow speed scalings: in the linear conductive regime the radial inward flow is found to be phase shifted 90° eastwards from the maximal heat flux as predicted by a linear quasi-geostrophic model for rapidly rotating spherical systems. The advective regime is characterised by an increased Rah where nonlinearities become significant, but is still subcritical to radial convection. There the upwelling is dispersed and the downwelling is compressed by the thermal advection into a spiralling jet-like structure. As Rah becomes large enough for the radial convection to set in, the jet remains identifiable on time-average and significantly alters the global heat budget in the convective regime. Our results suggest, that the boundary forcing not only introduces a net horizontal heat transport but also suppresses the convection locally to such an extent, that the net Nusselt number is reduced by up to 50%, even though the mean CMB heat flux is conserved. This also implies that a planetary core will remain hotter under a non-homogeneous CMB heat flux and is less well mixed. A

17. Why convective heat transport in the solar nebula was inefficient

Cassen, P.

1993-01-01

The radial distributions of the effective temperatures of circumstellar disks associated with pre-main sequence (T Tauri) stars are relatively well-constrained by ground-based and spacecraft infrared photometry and radio continuum observations. If the mechanisms by which energy is transported vertically in the disks are understood, these data can be used to constrain models of the thermal structure and evolution of solar nebula. Several studies of the evolution of the solar nebula have included the calculation of the vertical transport of heat by convection. Such calculations rely on a mixing length theory of transport and some assumption regarding the vertical distribution of internal dissipation. In all cases, the results of these calculations indicate that transport by radiation dominates that by convection, even when the nebula is convectively unstable. A simple argument that demonstrates the generality (and limits) of this result, regardless of the details of mixing length theory or the precise distribution of internal heating is presented. It is based on the idea that the radiative gradient in an optically thick nebula generally does not greatly exceed the adiabatic gradient.

18. Effect of greenhouse on crop drying under natural and forced convection I: Evaluation of convective mass transfer coefficient

In this paper, a study of convective mass transfer coefficient and rate of moisture removal from cabbage and peas for open sun drying and inside greenhouse drying has been performed as a function of climatic parameters. The hourly data for the rate of moisture removal, crop temperature, relative humidity inside and outside the greenhouse and ambient air temperature for complete drying have been recorded. The experiments were conducted after the crop harvesting season from September to December 2001. These data were used for determination of the coefficient of convective mass transfer and then for development of the empirical relation of convective mass transfer coefficient with drying time under natural and forced modes. The empirical relations with convective mass transfer for open and greenhouse drying have been compared. The convective mass transfer coefficient was lower for drying inside the greenhouse with natural mode as compared to open sun drying. Its value was doubled under the forced mode inside the greenhouse drying compared to natural convection in the initial stage of drying

19. Natural convection heat transfer below downward facing horizontal surfaces

The laminar steady-state natural convection below an infinite strip and below a circular plate, heated at their bottom sides, has been calculated analytically for a uniform surface temperature as well as for a uniform surface heat flux. This convection is driven by the non-uniform temperature distribution near the edges of the plate. This particular feature makes the problem a basically elliptic one, a fact that was not taken into account in earlier studies. In contrast to the flow near inclined heated plates the horizontal situation cannot be described by a boundary layer theory alone. Similarity solutions have been obtained employing the method of matched asymptotic expansions. A potential flow or a Stokes' flow with an unknown upstream velocity is taken as the outer expansion and a boundary layer flow as the inner expansion. Both expansions are matched by an energy balance in the region near the stagnation point at the plate center. In this way the unknown upstream velocity is fixed. This iterative procedure is first restricted to the limiting cases of low and high Prandtl numbers. Then an interpolation of these asymptotes yields heat transfer correlations for arbitrary Prandtl numbers. In comparison to earlier approximations these results are independent of any empirical boundary layer profiles and are based on experimental data to a very limited extend. (orig.)

20. Natural convection of ferrofluids in partially heated square enclosures

Selimefendigil, Fatih, E-mail: fatih.selimefendigil@cbu.edu.tr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celal Bayar University, 45140 Manisa (Turkey); Öztop, Hakan F., E-mail: hfoztop1@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technology Faculty, Fırat University, 23119 Elazığ (Turkey); Al-Salem, Khaled, E-mail: kalsalem@ksu.edu.sa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

2014-12-15

In this study, natural convection of ferrofluid in a partially heated square cavity is numerically investigated. The heater is located to the left vertical wall and the right vertical wall is kept at constant temperature lower than that of the heater. Other walls of the square enclosure are assumed to be adiabatic. Finite element method is utilized to solve the governing equations. The influence of the Rayleigh number (10{sup 4}≤Ra≤5×10{sup 5}), heater location (0.25H≤y{sub h}≤0.75H), strength of the magnetic dipole (0≤γ≤2), horizontal and vertical location of the magnetic dipole (−2H≤a≤−0.5H, 0.2H≤b≤0.8H) on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are investigated. It is observed that different velocity components within the square cavity are sensitive to the magnetic dipole source strength and its position. The length and size of the recirculation zones adjacent to the heater can be controlled with magnetic dipole strength. Averaged heat transfer increases with decreasing values of horizontal position of the magnetic dipole source. Averaged heat transfer value increases from middle towards both ends of the vertical wall when the vertical location of the dipole source is varied. When the heater location is changed, a symmetrical behavior in the averaged heat transfer plot is observed and the minimum value of the averaged heat transfer is attained when the heater is located at the mid of vertical wall. - Highlights: • Free convection of ferrofluids in a partially heated cavity is numerically studied. • Velocities are sensitive to the magnetic dipole source strength and its position. • Averaged Nu increases with decreasing x-location values of the magnetic dipole. • Averaged Nu increases from middle towards ends when y-location of dipole changes.

1. Liquid oil painting: Free and forced convection in an enclosure with mechanical and thermal forcing

Sheard, Gregory J; King, Martin P

2012-01-01

A fluid dynamics video is linked to this article, which have been submitted to the Gallery of Fluid Motion as part of the 65th American Physical Society meeting of the Division of Fluid Dynamics, held in San Diego, California, USA, over 17-20 November 2012. The video serves to visualize flows generated in a rectangular enclosure that are subjected to both mechanical and thermal forcing through a common horizontal boundary. This system exhibits features consistent with either horizontal convection or lid-driven cavity flows depending on the ratio between thermal and mechanical stirring, and three different cases are visualized in the linked videos.

2. Origin of Knudsen forces on heated microbeams

Zhu, Taishan

2010-09-09

The presented work probes the fundamentals of Knudsen forces. Using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, the flows induced by temperature inhomogeneity within a representative configuration and the Knudsen force acting on a heated microbeam are captured as functions of Knudsen number in the entire flow regime. Both flow strength and Knudsen force peak in the transition regime and negative Knudsen force absent in experimental data is observed. The mechanisms of the thermally induced flows and Knudsen forces are studied. It has been found that thermal edge flow is the main driven source for the formation of the Knudsen force on microbeams and domain configuration plays an important role in the process.

3. Numerical simulation and experimental investigation of natural convection heat transfer of molten salt around fine wire

LU; YuanWei; LI; XiaoLi; LI; Qiang; WU; YuTing; MA; ChongFang

2013-01-01

In order to get the natural convection heat transfer mechanism of molten salt, the experimental investigation of natural convective heat transfer of LiNO3was studied after it was simulated by numerical calculation. Experiment was carried out on the nat-ural convection heat transfer of air and water around the fine wire using the method of Joule heating. The results showed that the natural convection heat transfer of air and water around the fine wire agreed well with Fand’s correlation. Based on the aforementioned experiment, the natural convection heat transfer of molten salt LiNO3was studied by experiment and the same results were got. Therefore, the natural convection heat transfer of molten salt can be calculated by Fand’s correlation, which takes into consideration the effect of viscosity dissipation.

4. INTEGRAL TRANSFORM SOLUTION FOR THE FORCED CONVECTION OF HERSCHEL-BULKLEY FLUIDS IN CIRCULAR TUBES AND PARALLEL-PLATES DUCTS

J. N. N. QUARESMA

1998-03-01

Full Text Available The thermal entry region in laminar forced convection of Herschel-Bulkley fluids is solved analytically through the integral transform technique, for both circular and parallel-plates ducts, which are maintained at a prescribed wall temperature or at a prescribed wall heat flux. The local Nusselt numbers are obtained with high accuracy in both developing and fully-developed thermal regions, and critical comparisons with previously reported numerical results are performed.

5. MHD Natural convection in the localized heat sources of an inclined trapezoidal Nanofluid-filled enclosure

M. A. Mansour

2013-09-01

Full Text Available The effects of magnetic force, acting vertically downward on natural convection within a nanofluid filled tilted trapezoidal enclosure saturated with an electrically conducting fluid have been investigated numerically. The bottom wall of the enclosure is subjected to a constant cold temperature and the top wall experiences a heat source whereas the remaining sidewalls are kept adiabatic. The physical problems are represented mathematically by different sets of governing equations along with the corresponding boundary conditions. By using approximations of finite difference method, the non-dimensional governing equations are discritized. For natural convection the influential parameters are Rayleigh number Ra, the rotational angle of the enclosure and the Hartmann number Ha, through which different thermo-fluid characteristics inside the enclosure are obtained. In the present study, the obtained results are presented in terms of streamlines, isotherms and average Nusselt number along the heat source. The result shows that with increasing Ha, the diffusive heat transfer become prominent even though Rayleigh number increases. Optimum heat transfer rate is obtained at higher values of Ra in the absence of magnetic force.

6. Dimensionless analysis of bubble departure frequency in forced convective subcooled boiling flow

Forced convective subcooled boiling flow experiments were conducted in a vertical upward annular channel. Water was used as the testing fluid, and the tests were performed at atmospheric pressure. A high-speed digital video camera was applied to capture the dynamics of the bubble nucleation process. Bubble departure frequencies were obtained from the video for a total of 58 test conditions. The non-dimensional analysis was performed on the current data as well as available data from literature. Existing models and correlations were compared with the experimental data of bubble waiting time, growth time, and departure frequency. The correlations developed for pool boiling flow do not work well for forced convective subcooled boiling flow, while the models proposed for subcooled boiling flow can not predict the bubble departure frequency in wide experimental ranges. Dimensionless bubble departure frequency is correlated with non-dimensional nucleate boiling heat flux. The new correlation agrees reasonably well with existing experimental data at lower wall superheat. (author)

7. THEORY OF SIMILARITY OF ELECTRO MEMBRANE SYSTEMS WITH REGARD TO FORCED, GRAVITATIONAL AND ELECTRO CONVECTION

Kovalenko A. V.; Pismenskiy A. V.; Urtenov M. K.

2015-01-01

In the article, we have suggested a general mathematical model of non-stationary and non-isothermal process of a binary electrolyte transfer in dilute solutions in an electro-membrane system (EMS), taking into account the joint action of gravitational convection, forced convection and electro convection in potential dynamic mode. This model is a boundary problem for a system of two-dimensional quasi-linear Navier-Stokes equation and Nernst-Planck-Poisson in partial derivatives equation. We ha...

8. Thermo capillary and buoyancy convection in a fluid locally heated on its free surface; Convection thermocapillaire et thermogravitaire dans un fluide chauffe localement sur sa surface libre

Favre, E.

1997-09-26

coupled buoyancy and thermo-capillary convection lead to a convective motion of the interface liquid/gas which drastically changes the heat and mass transfer across the liquid layer. Two experiments were considered, depending on the fluid: oil or mercury. The liquid is set in a cooled cylindrical vessel, and heated by a heat flux across the center of the free surface. The basic flow, in the case of oil, is a torus. When the heat parameter increases, a stationary flow appears as petals or rays when the aspect ratio. The lateral confinement selects the azimuthal wavelength. In the case of petals-like flow, a sub-critical Hopf bifurcation is underlined. The turbulence is found to be weak, even for the largest values of the Marangoni number (Ma = 1.3 10{sup 5}). In the case of mercury, the thermo-capillary effect is reduced to zero to impurities at the surface which have special trajectories we describe and compare to a simpler experiment. Only the buoyancy forces induce a unstationary, weakly turbulent flow as soon as the heating power exceeds 4W (Ra = 4.5 10{sup 3}, calculated with h = 1 mm). The past part concerns the analysis of the effect on the flow of the boundary conditions, the geometry, the Prandtl number and the buoyancy force with the help of the literature. Results concerning heat transfer, in particular the exponent of the law Nusselt number vs. heating power, were compared with available data. (author) 115 refs.

9. RELAP5/MOD3 simulation for steam condensation under forced convection conditions

Experimental and theoretical investigations were conducted by a team in the Department of Nuclear Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to determine the effects of noncondensable gases on steam condensation under forced convection conditions. The main objective of this study was to determine the condensation heat transfer coefficient of the steam in the presence of noncondensable gases, such as air and helium. In particular, the work was aimed at predicting the in-tube steam condensation rate as applied to the analysis of the isolation condensers of the proposed simplified boiling water reactor. The RELAP5 code uses laminar (Nusselt correlation) and turbulent film condensation (Carpenter ampersand Colburn correlation) heat transfer correlations in the absence of noncondensable gases, whichever is maximum. A reduction factor that is a function of the noncondensable gas concentration is being used to take into account the effect of the noncondensable gas on the condensation heat transfer coefficient. The properties for the gaseous phase are calculated assuming a Gibbs-Dalton mixture of steam and an ideal noncondensable gas. Since the experimental data are limited in the open literature, the MIT experimental program gives us an opportunity to assess the RELAP5 code against the separate-effects test data. The MIT test facility was simulated using the RELAP5 code for steam condensation in the presence of air under forced convection conditions. This paper presents RELAP5 simulation results of the MIT test facility for various inlet air mass fractions with fixed mixture inlet temperature by comparing with the MIT experimental data

10. Experimental study of an upward sub-cooled forced convection in a rectangular channel

2016-07-01

The upward sub-cooled forced convection in a rectangular channel is investigated experimentally. The aim of the present work is the studying of the local heat transfer phenomena. Concerning the experimentation: the n-pentane is used as a working fluid, the independent variables are: the velocity in the range from 0.04 to 0.086 m/s and heat flux density with values between 1.8 and 7.36 W/cm2. The results show that the local Nusselt number distribution is not uniform along the channel; however, uniformity is observed in the mean Nusselt number for Reynolds under 1600. On the other hand, a new correlation to predict the local fluid temperature is established as a function of local wall temperature. The wall's heat is dissipated under the common effect of the sub-cooled regime; therefore, the local heat transfer coefficient is increased. The study of the thermal equilibrium showed that for Reynolds less than 1500; almost all of the heat flux generated by the heater cartridges is absorbed by the fluid.

11. The Role of the Velocity Gradient in Laminar Convective Heat Transfer through a Tube with a Uniform Wall Heat Flux

Wang, Liang-Bi; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiao-Xia

2009-01-01

This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of convective heat transfer. For this purpose, the reason why thermal diffusivity should be placed before the Laplacian operator of the heat flux, and the role of the velocity gradient in convective heat transfer are analysed. The background to these analyses is that, when the energy…

12. Droplet combustion experiments in varying forced convection using microgravity environment

Mitsuya, Masaki [Tokyo Gas Corporation, 1-5-20 Kaigan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0022 (Japan); Hanai, Hironao [Chiba University of Science, 3 Shiomi-cho, Choshi, Chiba 288-0025 (Japan); Sakurai, Satoru [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Ogami, Yasuhiro [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Kobayashi, Hideaki [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: kobayashi@ifs.tohoku.ac.jp

2005-12-15

A new microscopic model of the interaction between droplet flames and fine vortex tubes which compose a coherent structure of turbulence was developed. Three non-dimensional numbers were introduced to extend the length scale and time scale so as to be suitable for microgravity experiments using droplets of combustion of about 1 mm in diameter. An experimental apparatus for combustion of a single droplet and that of an array of two droplets in varying airflow was developed, and experiments were performed in microgravity and normal gravity at pressures up to 2.0 MPa for n-nonane and ethanol as fuels. Variations of the instantaneous burning rate constant, K {sub i}, in response to the varying flow velocity was successfully observed. At high pressure, the effects of droplet Reynolds number Re on K {sub i} was clearly seen, while the effects of natural convection, which increases K {sub i} with Re, was seen in normal gravity even in the forced airflows. As for the experiments on combustion of an array of two droplets, K {sub i} reduction of the downstream droplet became weak when the flow direction was varied. However, the K {sub i} reduction of the downstream droplet for flow direction variations was clearly seen for n-nonane droplets but almost not for ethanol droplets. The interaction mechanism between upstream and downstream droplets is considered to result from the elimination of oxidizer supply to the downstream droplet, indicating strong interaction effects of n-nonane droplets for a stoichiometric oxygen-fuel ratio of n-nonane (i.e., 14.0) greater than that of ethanol (i.e., 3.0)

13. Droplet combustion experiments in varying forced convection using microgravity environment

A new microscopic model of the interaction between droplet flames and fine vortex tubes which compose a coherent structure of turbulence was developed. Three non-dimensional numbers were introduced to extend the length scale and time scale so as to be suitable for microgravity experiments using droplets of combustion of about 1 mm in diameter. An experimental apparatus for combustion of a single droplet and that of an array of two droplets in varying airflow was developed, and experiments were performed in microgravity and normal gravity at pressures up to 2.0 MPa for n-nonane and ethanol as fuels. Variations of the instantaneous burning rate constant, K i, in response to the varying flow velocity was successfully observed. At high pressure, the effects of droplet Reynolds number Re on K i was clearly seen, while the effects of natural convection, which increases K i with Re, was seen in normal gravity even in the forced airflows. As for the experiments on combustion of an array of two droplets, K i reduction of the downstream droplet became weak when the flow direction was varied. However, the K i reduction of the downstream droplet for flow direction variations was clearly seen for n-nonane droplets but almost not for ethanol droplets. The interaction mechanism between upstream and downstream droplets is considered to result from the elimination of oxidizer supply to the downstream droplet, indicating strong interaction effects of n-nonane droplets for a stoichiometric oxygen-fuel ratio of n-nonane (i.e., 14.0) greater than that of ethanol (i.e., 3.0)

14. Development and performance evaluation of forced convection potato solar dryer

This research paper deals with the design development and testing of a forced convection solar dryer, for drying and converting to flour of high moisture content vegetables like potatoes. The angle of solar collector was made adjustable for the absorption of maximum solar radiation by the absorber plate. The air flow rate was controlled by adjustable gate valve to find the optimum flow rate for dehydration of the product. The penetration of solar radiation raised the temperature of the absorber plate of the dryer to 110 deg. C during the operation under stagnation or no load conditions. The maximum air temperature attained in the solar air heater, under this condition was 80 deg. C. The dryer was loaded with 12 Kg of blanched potato chips having an initial moisture content of 89.75%, and the final desired moisture content of 6.95% was achieved within five hours without losing the color of potato chips, while the moisture contents reduction was from 89.75% to 33.75% for five hours in open sun drying under shade. The drying cost for 1 Kg of potatoes was calculated as Rs. 245 and it was Rs. 329 in the case of an electric dryer. The life span of the solar dryer was assumed to be 20 years. The cumulative present worth of annual savings over the life of the solar dryer was calculated for blanched potato chips drying, and it turned out be Rs.163177.67/- which was much higher than the capital cost of the dryer (Rs. 25000). The payback period was calculated as 0.89 years, which was also very small considering the life of the system (20 years). (author)

15. Convective Heat Transfer of Magnetic Nanofluids in a Microtube

Kuo Jung Lo

2015-05-01

Full Text Available This paper conducts an analysis of convective heat transfer of magnetic nanofluids in an isothermally heated microtube. The main purpose is to investigate the influences of particle volume fraction and external magnetic field strength on the fluid velocity, temperature, pressure, pressure drop, flow drag, and heat transfer rate. Firstly, a flow and heat transfer model is built. A water-based magnetite (Fe3O4 nanofluid is then pre-pared, and a thermal flow test system is further de-signed, so as to verify the theoretical model with experimental data. Finally, the thermal flow fields and the corresponding characteristics are numerically analyzed by using the marching implicit (MI procedure. The results reveal that when the particle volume fraction is increased, the average flow drag also increases while the average heat transfer rate goes down. Furthermore, as the external magnetic field strength is increased, the average flow drag rises and the average heat transfer rate also rises in the general case.

16. Natural convection of ferrofluids in partially heated square enclosures

Selimefendigil, Fatih; Öztop, Hakan F.; Al-Salem, Khaled

2014-12-01

In this study, natural convection of ferrofluid in a partially heated square cavity is numerically investigated. The heater is located to the left vertical wall and the right vertical wall is kept at constant temperature lower than that of the heater. Other walls of the square enclosure are assumed to be adiabatic. Finite element method is utilized to solve the governing equations. The influence of the Rayleigh number (104≤Ra≤5×105), heater location (0.25H≤yh≤0.75H), strength of the magnetic dipole (0≤γ≤2), horizontal and vertical location of the magnetic dipole (-2H≤a≤-0.5H, 0.2H≤b≤0.8H) on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are investigated. It is observed that different velocity components within the square cavity are sensitive to the magnetic dipole source strength and its position. The length and size of the recirculation zones adjacent to the heater can be controlled with magnetic dipole strength. Averaged heat transfer increases with decreasing values of horizontal position of the magnetic dipole source. Averaged heat transfer value increases from middle towards both ends of the vertical wall when the vertical location of the dipole source is varied. When the heater location is changed, a symmetrical behavior in the averaged heat transfer plot is observed and the minimum value of the averaged heat transfer is attained when the heater is located at the mid of vertical wall.

17. Control of forced downward flow on the natural convection in a cylindrical annulus

Mixed convective heat transfer characteristics in narrow cylindrical annulus gap were investigated both experimentally and analytically. Experimentally, using atmospheric air, heat removal characteristics of downward flow for preventing natural convection were examined. Varying temperature boundary conditions, natural circulation was artificially produced in some local flow path such as central pipe as well as annulus gap. By injecting cold air from upper plenum, its effect on natural convection avoidance and resultant favorable heat transfer were confirmed even under small flow rate condition. In parallel, a computer code based on flow-network model was qualified. After comparisons of the code predictions with atmospheric air test results, natural circulation control could be analyzed successfully. (author)

18. On the Development of the Convective Boundary Layer in a Shear-Free Thermally Forced Stably Stratified Fluid Setting: a 2D and 3D Experimental Investigation Using Image Analysis Techniques Coupled with Temperature Measurements

DORE, VALENTINA

2010-01-01

The motion of buoyancy driven plumes is, on all scales, the most common heat and momentum transfer mechanism in geophysical flows, well known as Free Convection. Similarly, density stratification due to heating inequalities is also an ordinary scenario in nature. Free Convection phenomenon coupled with a density stratified fluid setting leads to the so-called Penetrative Free Convection (PFC). When a fluid, in static equilibrium, is stably stratified a thermal forcing can produce an unstable ...

19. Magnetic Field Effect on Natural Convection Flow with Internal Heat Generation using Fast  –  Method

M.A. Taghikhani

2015-01-01

Full Text Available The magnetic field effect on laminar natural convection flow is investigated in a filled enclosure with internal heat generation using two-dimensional numerical simulation. The enclosure is heated by a uniform volumetric heat density and walls have constant temperature. A fixed magnetic field is applied to the enclosure. The dimensionless governing equations are solved numerically for the stream function, vorticity and temperature using finite difference method for various Rayleigh (Ra and Hartmann (Ha numbers in MATLAB software. The stream function equation is solved using fast Poisson's equation solver on a rectangular grid (POICALC function in MATLAB, voricity and temperature equations are solved using red-black Gauss-Seidel and bi-conjugate gradient stabilized (BiCGSTAB methods respectively. The results show that the strength of the magnetic field has significant effects on the flow and temperature fields. For the square cavity, the maximum temperature reduces with increasing Ra number. It is also observed that at low Ra number, location of the maximum temperature is at the centre of the cavity and it shifts upwards with increase in Ra number. Circulation inside the enclosure and therefore the convection becomes stronger as the Ra number increases while the magnetic field suppresses the convective flow and the heat transfer rate. The ratio of the Lorentz force to the buoyancy force (Ha2/Ra is as an index to compare the contribution of natural convection and magnetic field strength on heat transfer.

20. Convective heat and mass transfer in rotating disk systems

Shevchuk, Igor V. [MBtech Powertrain GmbH, Fellbach-Schmiden (Germany)

2009-07-01

The book describes results of investigations of a series of convective heat-and-mass transfer problems in rotating-disk systems, namely, over free rotating disks, under conditions of transient heat transfer, solid-body rotation of fluid, orthogonal flow impingement onto a disk, swirl radial flow between parallel co-rotating disks, in cone-disk systems and for Prandtl and Schmidt numbers larger than one. Methodology used included integral methods, self-similar and approximate analytical solutions, as well as CFD. The book is aimed at the professional audience of academic researchers, industrial R and D engineers, university lecturers and graduate/postgraduate students working in the area of rotating-disk systems. (orig.)

1. Marangoni mixed convection flow with Joule heating and nonlinear radiation

Hayat, Tasawar [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Shaheen, Uzma; Shafiq, Anum [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, Ahmed [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Asghar, Saleem [Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

2015-07-15

Marangoni mixed convective flow of Casson fluid in a thermally stratified medium is addressed. Flow analysis has been carried out in presence of inclined magnetic field. Heat transfer analysis is discussed in the presence of viscous dissipation, Joule heating and nonlinear thermal radiation. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are first converted into ordinary differential systems and then developed the convergent series solutions. Flow pattern with the influence of pertinent parameters namely the magnetic parameter, Casson fluid parameter, temperature ratio parameter, stratification parameter, Prandtl number, Eckert number and radiation parameter is investigated. Expression of local Nusselt number is computed and analyzed. It is found that the Nusselt number decreases by increasing magnetic parameter, temperature ratio parameter, angle of inclination and stratification parameter. Moreover the effect of buoyancy parameter on the velocity distribution is opposite in both the opposing and assisting flow phenomena. Thermal field and associated layer thickness are enhanced for larger radiation parameter.

2. Marangoni mixed convection flow with Joule heating and nonlinear radiation

Marangoni mixed convective flow of Casson fluid in a thermally stratified medium is addressed. Flow analysis has been carried out in presence of inclined magnetic field. Heat transfer analysis is discussed in the presence of viscous dissipation, Joule heating and nonlinear thermal radiation. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are first converted into ordinary differential systems and then developed the convergent series solutions. Flow pattern with the influence of pertinent parameters namely the magnetic parameter, Casson fluid parameter, temperature ratio parameter, stratification parameter, Prandtl number, Eckert number and radiation parameter is investigated. Expression of local Nusselt number is computed and analyzed. It is found that the Nusselt number decreases by increasing magnetic parameter, temperature ratio parameter, angle of inclination and stratification parameter. Moreover the effect of buoyancy parameter on the velocity distribution is opposite in both the opposing and assisting flow phenomena. Thermal field and associated layer thickness are enhanced for larger radiation parameter

3. Experimental investigation on steam condensation in the presence of air and helium: forced convection conditions

Bucci, M., E-mail: matteo.bucci@cea.fr [Univ. of Pisa, DIMNP, Pisa (Italy); CEA Saclay, CEA/DEN/DANS/DM2S/SFME/LETR (France); Ambrosini, W.; Forgione, N. [Univ. of Pisa, DIMNP, Pisa (Italy); Lioce, D [Univ. of Pisa, DIMNP, Pisa (Italy); Westinghouse Electric Belguim, Nivelles (Belgium)

2011-07-01

This paper discusses the results obtained from recent experimental investigations devoted to the study of steam condensation in the presence of air and a light noncondensable gas. The experiments are intended to provide data for the validation of engineering models and CFD codes. The original experimental data herein discussed focus on forced convection turbulent boundary layer conditions and involve atmospheric pressure, different conditions for mixture velocity (from 1.5 to 3.5 m/s), mixture composition (form 0 to 75 per cent of the light species in the overall amount of noncondensable gases) and two nominal electrical power supply of the steam generator. The experimental data are qualified against correlations based on the heat and mass transfer analogy and to the predictions obtained by an in house condensation model implemented in a commercial CFD code. (author)

4. Experimental investigation on steam condensation in the presence of air and helium: forced convection conditions

This paper discusses the results obtained from recent experimental investigations devoted to the study of steam condensation in the presence of air and a light noncondensable gas. The experiments are intended to provide data for the validation of engineering models and CFD codes. The original experimental data herein discussed focus on forced convection turbulent boundary layer conditions and involve atmospheric pressure, different conditions for mixture velocity (from 1.5 to 3.5 m/s), mixture composition (form 0 to 75 per cent of the light species in the overall amount of noncondensable gases) and two nominal electrical power supply of the steam generator. The experimental data are qualified against correlations based on the heat and mass transfer analogy and to the predictions obtained by an in house condensation model implemented in a commercial CFD code. (author)

5. A theoretical study of the spheroidal droplet evaporation in forced convection

Li, Jie, E-mail: leejay1986@163.com; Zhang, Jian

2014-11-07

In many applications, the shape of a droplet may be assumed to be an oblate spheroid. A theoretical study is conducted on the evaporation of an oblate spheroidal droplet under forced convection conditions. Closed-form analytical expressions of the mass evaporation rate for an oblate spheroid are derived, in the regime of controlled mass-transfer and heat-transfer, respectively. The variation of droplet size during the evaporation process is presented in the regime of shrinking dynamic model. Comparing with the droplets having the same surface area, an increase in the aspect ratio enhances the mass evaporation rate and prolongs the burnout time. - Highlights: • Fully algebraic solutions for the spheroidal droplet evaporation rate is obtained. • We examine the effect of aspect ratio on the droplet evaporation. • We propose a calculation method of Nusselt number for spheroidal droplet.

6. Mixed Convection Heat Transfer on the Outside of a Vertical Cylinder

An experimental study was made of turbulent heat transfer from a vertical cylinder placed in a square channel. The flow medium was water flowing upwards. Basic differential equations governing the mixed flow heat transfer phenomena in a vertical annulus are presented. A dimensional analysis is done to find the dimensionless variables affecting the relative magnitude of the effect of buoyancy on forced convection heat transfer. Dimensionless equations correlating the experimental data ana incorporating a buoyancy parameter of the form Gr/Re2 are presented. Reynolds number range covered is 690 to 129,500 and the Rayleigh num- ber range covered is 109 to 4.2 x 1013 . Effect of different length parameters, like hydraulic diameter and distance of the measuring point from the inlet of the test section, on dimensionless equations are studied

7. Mixed convection in a channel provided with heated porous blocks of various shapes

The present work is a numerical simulation of laminar mixed convective in a two-dimensional parallel-plate channel provided with porous blocks of various shapes. The upper plate is thermally insulated while the blocks, heated from below, are attached on the lower one. The Brinkman-Forchheimer extended Darcy model with the Boussinesq approximation is adopted for the flow in the porous regions. The governing equations with the appropriate boundary conditions are solved by the control volume method. The influence of the buoyancy force intensity, the porous blocks shape going from the rectangular shape to the triangular shape, their height, the porous medium permeability, the Reynolds number and the thermal conductivity ratio is analyzed. The results reveal essentially, that the shape of the blocks can alter substantially the flow and heat transfer characteristics. In addition, it is shown that judicious choices of these parameters can lead to high heat transfer rates with a moderate increase of pressure drop.

8. Investigation of the Influence of Free Convection on the Heat Transfer of Cylinders with Different Aspect Ratios

C. Henselowsky; H.C. Kuhlmann; H.J. Rath

2001-01-01

The heat transfer from an electrically heated cylinder (wire) of finite length to the surrounding fluid can be divided into heat radiation, conduction and convection. A technical application of these cylinders with typical di mensions of 1-2 mm length and a few micrometers diameter is the Hot-Wire-Anemometry. This systematic study should clarify the influence of free convection to three dimensional heat transfer of cylinders. For this aim it is planned to investigate Reynolds numbers below Re = 1 (creeping flow). For this reason measurements should be done under lg in the earth laboratory and also under microgravity (μg) conditions. Comparisons of these meas urements under otherwise same conditions allows to distinguish between the pure convection heat transfer and the contributions due to conduction and other effects.For measurements underμg the Drop Tower Bremen can be used as research facility. Due to the fast response of convection to changes in the gravity conditions the Drop Tower is an ideal and cost efficient experimental tool.The experimental setup is build to operate at velocity range of 0-1 m/s which includes the whole range of con vection from pure free convection at 0 m/s over mixed convection up to pure forced convection at velocities abo ve about 0.15 m/s. This velocity region corresponds to a range of the Reynolds number of Re = 0 - 0.18 for a cylinder of 5 μ m diameter at Tf= 140℃ in air at an ambient temperature of about 21℃.

9. Numerical Study of Laminar Flow Forced Convection of Water-Al2O3 Nanofluids under Constant Wall Temperature Condition

Hsien-Hung Ting; Shuhn-Shyurng Hou

2015-01-01

This numerical study is aimed at investigating the forced convection heat transfer and flow characteristics of water-based Al2O3 nanofluids inside a horizontal circular tube in the laminar flow regime under the constant wall temperature boundary condition. Five volume concentrations of nanoparticle, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 vol.%, are used and diameter of nanoparticle is 40 nm. Characteristics of heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt number, and pressure drop are reported. The results show that h...

10. Free convection film flows and heat transfer laminar free convection of phase flows and models for heat-transfer analysis

Shang, De-Yi

2012-01-01

This book presents recent developments in our systematic studies of hydrodynamics and heat and mass transfer in laminar free convection, accelerating film boiling and condensation of Newtonian fluids, as well as accelerating film flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids (FFNF). These new developments provided in this book are (i) novel system of analysis models based on the developed New Similarity Analysis Method; (ii) a system of advanced methods for treatment of gas temperature- dependent physical properties, and liquid temperature- dependent physical properties; (iii) the organically combined models of the governing mathematical models with those on treatment model of variable physical properties; (iv) rigorous approach of overcoming a challenge on accurate solution of three-point boundary value problem related to two-phase film boiling and condensation; and (v) A pseudo-similarity method of dealing with thermal boundary layer of FFNF for greatly simplifies the heat-transfer analysis and numerical calculati...

11. Convective Heating of the LIFE Engine Target During Injection

Target survival in the hostile, high temperature xenon environment of the proposed Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) engine is critical. This work focuses on the flow properties and convective heat load imposed upon the surface of the indirect drive target while traveling through the xenon gas. While this rarefied flow is traditionally characterized as being within the continuum regime, it is approaching transition where conventional CFD codes reach their bounds of operation. Thus ANSYS, specifically the Navier-Stokes module CFX, will be used in parallel with direct simulation Monte Carlo code DS2V and analytically and empirically derived expressions for heat transfer to the hohlraum for validation. Comparison of the viscous and thermal boundary layers of ANSYS and DS2V were shown to be nearly identical, with the surface heat flux varying less than 8% on average. From the results herein, external baffles have been shown to reduce this heat transfer to the sensitive laser entrance hole (LEH) windows and optimize target survival independent of other reactor parameters.

12. Natural convection heat transfer for a staggered array of heated, horizontal cylinders within a rectangular enclosure

This thesis presents the results of an experimental investigation of natural convection heat transfer in a staggered array of heated cylinders, oriented horizontally within a rectangular enclosure. The main purpose of this research was to extend the knowledge of heat transfer within enclosed bundles of spent nuclear fuel rods sealed within a shipping or storage container. This research extends Canaan's investigation of an aligned array of heated cylinders that thermally simulated a boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel assembly sealed within a shipping or storage cask. The results are presented in terms of piecewise Nusselt-Rayleigh number correlations of the form Nu = C(Ra)n, where C and n are constants. Correlations are presented both for individual rods within the array and for the array as a whole. The correlations are based only on the convective component of the heat transfer. The radiative component was calculated with a finite-element code that used measured surface temperatures, rod array geometry, and measured surface emissivities as inputs. The correlation results are compared to Canaan's aligned array results and to other studies of natural convection in horizontal tube arrays

13. Natural convection heat transfer for a staggered array of heated, horizontal cylinders within a rectangular enclosure

Triplett, C.E.

1996-12-01

This thesis presents the results of an experimental investigation of natural convection heat transfer in a staggered array of heated cylinders, oriented horizontally within a rectangular enclosure. The main purpose of this research was to extend the knowledge of heat transfer within enclosed bundles of spent nuclear fuel rods sealed within a shipping or storage container. This research extends Canaans investigation of an aligned array of heated cylinders that thermally simulated a boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel assembly sealed within a shipping or storage cask. The results are presented in terms of piecewise Nusselt-Rayleigh number correlations of the form Nu = C(Ra){sup n}, where C and n are constants. Correlations are presented both for individual rods within the array and for the array as a whole. The correlations are based only on the convective component of the heat transfer. The radiative component was calculated with a finite-element code that used measured surface temperatures, rod array geometry, and measured surface emissivities as inputs. The correlation results are compared to Canaans aligned array results and to other studies of natural convection in horizontal tube arrays.

14. Diabatically Forced Frontogenesis Near Surface As Trigger For The Release of Strong Convection

Kurz, Manfred

One prerequisite for the formation of mesoscale convective systems is the existance of moist potentially unstable air masses in the lower troposphere. For the release of the instability, however, often an ascending motion is necessary in order to destroy stable layers on top of the moist air which would prevent convection, and to bring the air to saturation. In this respect the macroscale ascent ahead of an approaching upper trough may function as trigger for the release of convection. Another favourable process is the ascending motion of the warm air within circulations across a frontal zone which undergoes a frontogenesis either in the horizontal wind field or by diabatic effects. During summer time real fronts between different air masses are often ill defined over the continent, and circulatory motions in their neighbourhood remain rather weak. There is, however, a mechanism which may lead to the formation of a very strong temperature contrast near surface within short time. That happens at the edge of larger cloud and precipitation areas during day time due to the different diabatic heat fluxes across the cloud edge: Whereas the temperature below the cloud masses remains more or less constant or is even reduced by evaporation of falling rain, it rapidly increases due to heating from the ground in the area with no or only few clouds. As consequence of this diabatically forced frontogenesis a solenoidally direct circulation across the newly established frontal zone is released with ascent of the heated air, descent of the cooler air and an ageostrophic motion from the cold towards the warm air near surface. At the same time the pressure rises - at least relatively - in the cold air and falls in the warm air so that a pressure gradient is built up between both air masses. If the warm air is potentially unstable, the ascent within the circulation may lead to the release of the instability and the formation of convective clouds ahead of the cloud edge and parallel

15. Free and forced convective cooling of pipe-type electric cables. Volume 1: forced cooling of cables. Final report

Chato, J.C.; Crowley, J.M.

1981-05-01

A multi-faceted research program has been performed to investigate in detail several aspects of free and forced convective cooling of underground electric cable systems. There were two main areas of investigation. The first one reported in this volume dealt with the fluid dynamic and thermal aspects of various components of the cable system. In particular, friction factors for laminar flow in the cable pipes with various configurations were determined using a finite element technique; the temperature distributions and heat transfer in splices were examined using a combined analytical numerical technique; the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of cable pipes in the transitional and turbulent flow regime were determined experimentally in a model study; and full-scale model experimental work was carried out to determine the fluid dynamic and thermal characteristics of entrance and exit chambers for the cooling oil. The second major area of activity, reported in volume 2, involved a feasibility study of an electrohydrodynamic pump concept utilizing a traveling electric field generated by a pumping cable. Experimental studies in two different configurations as well as theoretical calculations showed that an electrohydrodynamic pump for the moving of dielectric oil in a cable system is feasible.

16. Fast Prediction Method for Steady-State Heat Convection

Wáng, Yì

2012-03-14

A reduced model by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and Galerkin projection methods for steady-state heat convection is established on a nonuniform grid. It was verified by thousands of examples that the results are in good agreement with the results obtained from the finite volume method. This model can also predict the cases where model parameters far exceed the sample scope. Moreover, the calculation time needed by the model is much shorter than that needed for the finite volume method. Thus, the nonuniform POD-Galerkin projection method exhibits high accuracy, good suitability, and fast computation. It has universal significance for accurate and fast prediction. Also, the methodology can be applied to more complex modeling in chemical engineering and technology, such as reaction and turbulence. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

17. Experimental investigation of turbulent mixed convection in the wake of a heated sphere

The axisymmetric wake of a heated sphere under conditions of turbulent mixed convection is investigated in the water test section FLUTMIK. The sphere is located in a vertical channel with forced convective upward flow. The influence of buoyancy forces to the flow field is studied by comparison with the unheated wake. The theoretical fundamentals describing turbulent flows and different versions of the k-ε turbulence model extended by buoyancy terms are described in detail. The quantities to be determined experimentally are derived. The temperature and the components of the velocity vector in axial and radial directions are measured simultaneously by means of a thermocouple probe and a two component, two color laser Doppler anemometer. The flow quantities are determined at axial distances between 5 and 106 sphere diameters. The functional principle and the basis of the laser Doppler anemometer are explained. The mean velocity, the mean temperature, the intensities of their fluctuations and the turbulent exchange quantities of momentum and heat transport are calculated. The decay laws of the quantities along the axis of the channel and the radial profiles are indicated and discussed. The applicability of the experimental results of the axisymmetric buoyancy influenced turbulent wake with respect to the turbulence models presented are shown. (orig.)

18. Forced Convection Flow of Nanofluids Past Power Law Stretching Horizontal Plates

2012-02-01

Full Text Available In the present work, we studied a nonsimilar solution of steady forced convection boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a nanofluid past a stretching horizontal plate. One-phase model has been used for this study. The nonsimilarity equations are solved numerically. We considered a nanofluid consists of AL2O3 as a nanoparticles and water as a base fluid. The volume fraction of nanoparticles is considered in the range 0 ≤ ø ≤ 0.2. with prandtl number pr = 6.2 for the water working as a regular fluid. The parameters which governing the solution are volume fraction of nanoparticles , stretching plate parameter ξ and power law index N. We investigated the effect of these parameters on the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, velocity and temperature profiles. We found that heat transfer rate and skin fraction increased when ø increased. On the other hand, we concluded that the increase in ξ and N made heat transfer rate increases and skin fraction decreases.

19. Direct numerical simulation of liquid sodium droplet combustion in forced convection air flow

In case of sodium leakage in liquid metal fast breeder reactor, the liquid sodium comes out in droplet form from a pipe accompanied with ignition and combustion Combustion heat and reaction products might affect integrity of steel liners in piping rooms. A direct numerical simulation code, COMET, is developed to simulate the combustion of a liquid sodium droplet. The extended MAC method coupled with a higher-order upwind scheme is used to calculate reacting compressible flow. Multicomponent counter diffusion of chemical species, mass and energy transfer by sodium evaporation, and heat transfer by radiation and thermal conductivity are calculated coupling with the flow. Chemical reaction of sodium, oxygen and water vapor is calculated by using the equation-solving methods of equilibrium constants. Thermodynamic properties of the mixed gas are evaluated based on the molecular transport theories. By using COMET, the single droplet combustion of liquid sodium in forced convection air flow is numerically simulated. Spatial distributions such as combustion heat, temperature, pressure, and chemical species behaviors such as formation, decomposition and transport are analyzed and discussed. The change of the droplet diameter agrees closely with the d-square law that has been experimentally observed and theoretically derived. (author)

20. Natural convection in asymmetric triangular enclosures heated from below

Triangular enclosures are typical configurations of attic spaces found in residential as well as industrial pitched-roof buildings. Natural convection in triangular rooftops has received considerable attention over the years, mainly on right-angled and isosceles enclosures. In this paper, a finite volume CFD package is employed to study the laminar air flow and temperature distribution in asymmetric rooftop-shaped triangular enclosures when heated isothermally from the base wall, for aspect ratios (AR) 0.2 ≤ AR ≤ 1.0, and Rayleigh number (Ra) values 8 × 105 ≤ Ra ≤ 5 × 107. The effects of Rayleigh number and pitch angle on the flow structure and temperature distributions within the enclosure are analysed. Results indicate that, at low pitch angle, the heat transfer between the cold inclined and the hot base walls is very high, resulting in a multi-cellular flow structure. As the pitch angle increases, however, the number of cells reduces, and the total heat transfer rate progressively reduces, even if the Rayleigh number, being based on the enclosure height, rapidly increases. Physical reasons for the above effect are inspected

1. Optimal Heat Transport in Rayleigh-B\\'enard Convection

Sondak, David; Waleffe, Fabian

2015-01-01

Steady flows that optimize heat transport are obtained for two-dimensional Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection with no-slip horizontal walls for a variety of Prandtl numbers $Pr$ and Rayleigh number up to $Ra\\sim 10^9$. Power law scalings of $Nu\\sim Ra^{\\gamma}$ are observed with $\\gamma\\approx 0.31$, where the Nusselt number $Nu$ is a non-dimensional measure of the vertical heat transport. Any dependence of the scaling exponent on $Pr$ is found to be extremely weak. On the other hand, the presence of two local maxima of $Nu$ with different horizontal wavenumbers at the same $Ra$ leads to the emergence of two different flow structures as candidates for optimizing the heat transport. For $Pr \\lesssim 7$, optimal transport is achieved at the smaller maximal wavenumber. In these fluids, the optimal structure is a plume of warm rising fluid which spawns left/right horizontal arms near the top of the channel, leading to downdrafts adjacent to the central updraft. For $Pr > 7$ at high-enough Ra, the optimal structure is a...

2. Simulation study of turbulent convective heat transfer enhancement in heated tube flow using TiO2-water nanofluid

Simulation by convenient software, the same as FLUENT, was used to predict the friction factor and Nusselt number for forced convection heat transfer of TiO2-water nanofluid. The range of Reynolds number is from 10000 to 100000 to be turbulent flow in a horizontal straight tube with heat flux 5000 w/m2 around it. The volume fraction of nanoparticle was (0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1%) and diameter of particle is 27 nm. The results show that the friction factor and Nusselt number are increasing with increasing of volume fraction. Results compared with the experimental data available in literature and there are good agreements

3. Numerical Simulations of Heat ExplosionWith Convection In Porous Media

Allali, Karam; Bikany, Fouad; Taik, Ahmed; Volpert, Vitaly

2013-01-01

In this paper we study the interaction between natural convection and heat explosion in porous media. The model consists of the heat equation with a nonlinear source term describing heat production due to an exothermic chemical reaction coupled with the Darcy law. Stationary and oscillating convection regimes and oscillating heat explosion are observed. The models with quasi-stationary and unstationary Darcy equation are compared.

4. Microwave heating device for internal heating convection experiments, applied to Earth's mantle dynamics

We report the design, construction, and performances of a microwave (MW) heating device for laboratory experiments with non-contact, homogeneous internal heating. The device generates MW radiation at 2.47 GHz from a commercial magnetron supplied by a pulsed current inverter using proprietary, feedback based command and control hardware and software. Specially designed MW launchers direct the MW radiation into the sample through a MW homogenizer, devised to even the MW power distribution into the sample's volume. An adjustable MW circuit adapts the MW generator to the load (i.e., the sample) placed in the experiment chamber. Dedicated heatsinks maintain the MW circuits at constant temperature throughout the experiment. Openings for laser scanning for image acquisition with a CCD camera and for the cooling circuits are protected by special MW filters. The performances of the device are analyzed in terms of heating uniformity, long term output power stability, and load matching. The device is used for small scale experiments simulating Earth's mantle convection. The 30 × 30 × 5 cm3 convection tank is filled with a water‑based viscous fluid. A uniform and constant temperature is maintained at the upper boundary by an aluminum heat exchanger and adiabatic conditions apply at the tank base. We characterize the geometry of the convective regime as well as its bulk thermal evolution by measuring the velocity field by Particle Image Velocimetry and the temperature field by using Thermochromic Liquid Crystals

5. Microwave heating device for internal heating convection experiments, applied to Earth's mantle dynamics

Surducan, E.; Surducan, V.; Neamtu, C., E-mail: camelia.neamtu@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies (INCDTIM), 67-103 Donat St., 400293, Cluj‑Napoca (Romania); Limare, A.; Di Giuseppe, E. [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP), Univ. Paris Diderot, UMR CNRS 7154, 1 rue Jussieu, 75005, Paris (France)

2014-12-15

We report the design, construction, and performances of a microwave (MW) heating device for laboratory experiments with non-contact, homogeneous internal heating. The device generates MW radiation at 2.47 GHz from a commercial magnetron supplied by a pulsed current inverter using proprietary, feedback based command and control hardware and software. Specially designed MW launchers direct the MW radiation into the sample through a MW homogenizer, devised to even the MW power distribution into the sample's volume. An adjustable MW circuit adapts the MW generator to the load (i.e., the sample) placed in the experiment chamber. Dedicated heatsinks maintain the MW circuits at constant temperature throughout the experiment. Openings for laser scanning for image acquisition with a CCD camera and for the cooling circuits are protected by special MW filters. The performances of the device are analyzed in terms of heating uniformity, long term output power stability, and load matching. The device is used for small scale experiments simulating Earth's mantle convection. The 30 × 30 × 5 cm{sup 3} convection tank is filled with a water‑based viscous fluid. A uniform and constant temperature is maintained at the upper boundary by an aluminum heat exchanger and adiabatic conditions apply at the tank base. We characterize the geometry of the convective regime as well as its bulk thermal evolution by measuring the velocity field by Particle Image Velocimetry and the temperature field by using Thermochromic Liquid Crystals.

6. Forced convection flow boiling and two-phase flow phenomena in a microchannel

Na, Yun Whan

2008-07-01

The present study was performed to numerically analyze the evaporation phenomena through the liquid-vapor interface and to investigate bubble dynamics and heat transfer behavior during forced convective flow boiling in a microchannel. Flow instabilities of two-phase flow boiling in a microchannel were studied as well. The main objective of this research is to investigate the fundamental mechanisms of two-phase flow boiling in a microchannel and provide predictive tools to design thermal management systems, for example, microchannel heat sinks. The numerical results obtained from this study were qualitatively and quantitatively compared with experimental results in the open literature. Physical and mathematical models, accounting for evaporating phenomena through the liquid-vapor interface in a microchannel at constant heat flux and constant wall temperature, have been developed, respectively. The heat transfer mechanism is affected by the dominant heat conduction through the thin liquid film and vaporization at the liquid-vapor interface. The thickness of the liquid film and the pressure of the liquid and vapor phases were simultaneously solved by the governing differential equations. The developed semi-analytical evaporation model that takes into account of the interfacial phenomena and surface tension effects was used to obtain solutions numerically using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The effects of heat flux 19 and wall temperature on the liquid film were evaluated. The obtained pressure drops in a microchannel were qualitatively consistent with the experimental results of Qu and Mudawar (2004). Forced convective flow boiling in a single microchannel with different channel heights was studied through a numerical simulation to investigate bubble dynamics, flow patterns, and heat transfer. The momentum and energy equations were solved using the finite volume method while the liquid-vapor interface of a bubble is captured using the VOF (Volume of Fluid

7. Gravity Wave Forcing of the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere: Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending Vertically (MaCWAVE)

Fritts, David C.

2004-01-01

The specific objectives of this research effort included the following: 1) Quantification of gravity wave propagation throughout the lower and middle atmosphere in order to define the roles of topographic and convective sources and filtering by mean and low-frequency winds in defining the wave field and wave fluxes at greater altitudes; 2) The influences of wave instability processes in constraining wave amplitudes and fluxes and generating turbulence and transport; 3) Gravity wave forcing of the mean circulation and thermal structure in the presence of variable motion fields and wave-wave interactions, since the mean forcing may be a small residual when wave interactions, anisotropy, and momentum and heat fluxes are large; 4) The statistical forcing and variability imposed on the thermosphere at greater altitudes by the strong wave forcing and interactions occurring in the MLTI.

8. Flow reversal and heat transfer of fully developed mixed convection in vertical channels

Cheng, Chin-Hsiang; Kou, Hong-Sen; Huang, Wen-Hsiung

1990-07-01

The present analysis is concerned with flow reversal phenomena and heat transfer characteristics of the fully developed laminar combined free and forced convection in the heated vertical channels. Three fundamental combinations of thermal boundary conditions on the respective wall surface (namely isoflux-isoflux, isoflux-isothermal, and isothermal-isothermal) are considered separately so as to investigate extensively their distinct influence on the flow pattern. Results of the velocity distribution and temperature distribution as well as the Nusselt number in terms of bulk mean temperature are carried out. Based on the analytical solutions obtained, flow reversal adjacent to the relatively colder wall is found to exist within the channel as Re/Gr is below a threshold value related to the thermal boundary conditions. Parameter zones for the occurrence of reversed flow are presented. Comparisons and verification are made using the existing numerical solutions at locations far downstream of developing flow.

9. Describing the Heat Transport of Turbulent Rayleigh--B\\'enard Convection by POD methods

Lülff, Johannes

2015-01-01

Rayleigh--B\\'enard convection, which is the buoyancy-induced motion of a fluid enclosed between two horizontal plates, is an idealised setup to study thermal convection. We analyse the modes that transport the most heat between the plates by computing the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of numerical data. Instead of the usual POD ansatz of finding modes that describe the energy best, we propose a method that is optimal in describing the heat transport. Thereby, we can determine the modes with the major influence on the heat transport and the coherent structures in the convection cell. We also show that in lower-dimensional projections of numerical convection data, the newly developed modes perform consistently better than the standard modes. We then use this method to analyse the main modes of three-dimensional convection in a cylindrical vessel as well as two-dimensional convection with varying Rayleigh number and varying aspect ratio.

10. Momentum and heat transfer of an upper-convected Maxwell fluid over a moving surface with convective boundary conditions

Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Iqbal, Z., E-mail: zahidiqbal_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mustafa, M. [Research Centre for Modeling and Simulation, National University of Sciences and Technology, Sector H-12, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

2012-11-15

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boundary layer flow of an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a moving surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Convective boundary conditions have been used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Series solutions are obtained by homotopy analysis method (HAM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Graphical results for various interesting parametric values. - Abstract: This study discusses the flow and heat transfer in an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a moving surface in the presence of a free stream velocity. The convective boundary conditions have been handled. Similarly transformations are invoked to convert the partial differential equations governing the steady flow of a Maxwell fluid into an ordinary differential system. This system is solved by a homotopic approach. The effects of influential parameters such as Deborah number ({beta}), Prandtl number (Pr), Eckert number (Ec), suction parameter (S) and ratio ({lambda}) have been thoroughly examined.

11. Coupled heat and mass transfer in a convective tunnel dryer

The mechanism of drying in a convective tunnel dryer with air heated in solar collectors was approached first experimentally with a pilot laboratory unit, then numerically taking into account the coupled heat and mass transfers. In the present study, several experimental essays were conducted followed by the adoption of a simulation tool describing the opening conditions of the tunnel dryer and a behavioural model that can be of great interest in the design and the automation of such industrial units. Indeed, behavioural models of thermodynamic system are characterised by the interactions of a large number of complex phenomenon, which call for various types of energy. This dynamic feature requires a modeling approach, using physical phenomenon such as energy storage. energy transformation and energy dissipation as data. The pseudo-bond graph methodology was used in modelling the drying system. This methodology was very suitable for thermo fluid process. It accepts the use of elements that do not exist in the traditional bond graph methods. An explicit pseudo-bond graph model who describes the process of water evaporation under the tray is studies in this paper and the governing equations are determined using bond graph properties.(Author)

12. Adjoint optimization of natural convection problems: differentially heated cavity

Saglietti, Clio; Schlatter, Philipp; Monokrousos, Antonios; Henningson, Dan S.

2016-06-01

Optimization of natural convection-driven flows may provide significant improvements to the performance of cooling devices, but a theoretical investigation of such flows has been rarely done. The present paper illustrates an efficient gradient-based optimization method for analyzing such systems. We consider numerically the natural convection-driven flow in a differentially heated cavity with three Prandtl numbers (Pr=0.15{-}7 ) at super-critical conditions. All results and implementations were done with the spectral element code Nek5000. The flow is analyzed using linear direct and adjoint computations about a nonlinear base flow, extracting in particular optimal initial conditions using power iteration and the solution of the full adjoint direct eigenproblem. The cost function for both temperature and velocity is based on the kinetic energy and the concept of entransy, which yields a quadratic functional. Results are presented as a function of Prandtl number, time horizons and weights between kinetic energy and entransy. In particular, it is shown that the maximum transient growth is achieved at time horizons on the order of 5 time units for all cases, whereas for larger time horizons the adjoint mode is recovered as optimal initial condition. For smaller time horizons, the influence of the weights leads either to a concentric temperature distribution or to an initial condition pattern that opposes the mean shear and grows according to the Orr mechanism. For specific cases, it could also been shown that the computation of optimal initial conditions leads to a degenerate problem, with a potential loss of symmetry. In these situations, it turns out that any initial condition lying in a specific span of the eigenfunctions will yield exactly the same transient amplification. As a consequence, the power iteration converges very slowly and fails to extract all possible optimal initial conditions. According to the authors' knowledge, this behavior is illustrated here

13. A review on analytical techniques for natural convection investigation in a heated closed enclosure: Case study

2015-01-01

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical analysis of a few convection problems. The investigations were started from the geometry of a classic muffle manufactured furnace. During this analytical study, different methodologies have been carefully chosen in order to compare and evaluate the effects of applying different analytical methods of the convection heat transfer processes. In conclusion, even if there are available a lot of analytical methods, natural convection in enclosed enclosures can be studied correctly only with numerical analysis. Also, in this article is presented a case study on natural convection application in a closed heated enclosure.

14. Heat Transfer Convection in The Cooking of Apple Using a Solar Cooker Box-Type

In this work, experimental results to determine the convection heat transfer coefficient in the cooking process of apple using a solar cooker box-type are presented. Experimental data of temperatures for water, surface and central point of the apple were used. To determine the convection coefficient, the apple was modelled as a sphere. The temperatures evolution was defined using thermocouples located at water, surface and central point in the vegetables. Using heat transfer convection equations in transitory state and the temperatures measured, the Biot number and the convection coefficient were determined

15. Energetic dynamics of a rotating horizontal convection model with wind forcing

Zemskova, Varvara; White, Brian; Scotti, Alberto

2015-11-01

We present a new test case for rotating horizontal convection, where the flow is driven by differential buoyancy forcing along a horizontal surface. This simple model is used to understand and quantify the influence of surface heating and cooling and wind stress on the Meridional Overturning Circulation. The domain is a rectangular basin with surface cooling at both ends (the poles) and surface warming in the middle (equatorial) region. To model the effect of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, reentrant channel is placed near the Southern pole. Free-slip boundary conditions are imposed in the closed box, while zonally periodic boundary conditions are enforced in the channel. The problem is solved numerically using a 3D DNS model based on a finite-volume AMR solver for the Boussinesq Navier-Stokes equations with rotation. The relative contributions of surface buoyancy and wind forcing and the energetic balance are analyzed at a Rayleigh number of 108 and a relatively high aspect ratio of [5, 10, 1] in zonal, meridional and vertical directions, respectively. The overall dynamics, including large-scale overturning, baroclinic eddying, and turbulent mixing are investigated using the local Available Potential Energy framework introduced in [Scotti and White, J. Fluid Mech., 2014]. This research is part of the Blue Waters sustained-petascale computing project, supported by the NSF (awards OCI-0725070, ACI-1238993 and ACI-14-44747) and the state of Illinois.

16. Experimental investigation of an indirect-mode forced convection solar dryer for drying thymus and mint

Graphical abstract: Photograph of the experimental set-up. - Highlights: • Thermal performance of an indirect-mode solar dryer is investigated. • Mathematical models are obtained for thin layer drying of thymus and mint. • Both thymus and mint show the constant and falling rate drying periods. - Abstract: An indirect-mode forced convection solar dryer was designed and fabricated. The thermal performance of the solar dryer under Tanta (latitude, 30° 47′ N and longitude, 31° E) prevailing weather conditions was experimentally investigated. The system consists of a double pass v-corrugated plate solar air heater connected to a drying chamber. A blower was used to force the heated air to the drying chamber. Drying experiments were performed for thymus (initial moisture content 95% on wet basis) and mint (initial moisture content 85% on wet basis) at an initial temperature of 29 °C. The final moisture contents for thymus and mint were reached after 34 and 5 h, respectively. Fourteen mathematical models of thin layer drying were tested to specify the suitable model for describing the drying behavior of the studied products. It was found that, Midilli and Kucuk model is convenient to describe the thin layer solar drying of mint. However, the Page and modified Page models were found to be the best among others for describing the drying curves of thymus

17. Numerical investigations on the turbulent forced convection of nanofluids flow in a triangular-corrugated channel

M.A. Ahmed

2015-09-01

Full Text Available In this paper, turbulent forced convection of nanofluids flow in triangular-corrugated channels is numerically investigated over Reynolds number ranges of 1000–5000. Four different types of nanofluids which are Al2O3, CuO, SiO2 and ZnO–water with nanoparticles diameters in the range of 30–70 nm and the range of nanoparticles volume fraction from 0% to 4% have been considered. The governing equations of mass, momentum and energy are solved using finite volume method (FVM. The low Reynolds number k–ε model of Launder and Sharma is adopted as well. It is found that the average Nusselt number, pressure drop, heat transfer enhancement, thermal–hydraulic performance increase with increasing in the volume fraction of nanoparticles and with decreasing in the diameter of nanoparticles. Furthermore, the SiO2–water nanofluid provides the highest thermal–hydraulic performance among other types of nanofluids followed by Al2O3, ZnO and CuO–water nanofluids. Moreover, the pure water has the lowest heat transfer enhancement as well as thermal–hydraulic performance.

18. Vortex shedding and heat transfer dependence on effective Reynolds number for mixed convection around a cylinder in cross flow

Bhattacharyya, S.; Singh, Ashok

2010-01-01

The influence of surface heating of a circular cylinder on the wake structure and heat transfer in the range of Reynolds number (Re) for which parallel vortex shedding occurs, is investigated numerically for different values of the buoyancy parameter, Gr. The role of buoyancy induced baroclinic...... vorticity on the wake formation is addressed in the present study. The variation of Strouhal number and Nusselt number with the 'effective Reynolds number', is analyzed for different values of cylinder to free stream temperature ratio. Both Strouhal number and the rate of heat transfer increases...... monotonically with the increase of the effective Reynolds number. The validity of the correlations, which have been established by several authors, between the effective Reynolds number and Strouhal/ Nusselt number for forced convection, is examined in the mixed convection regime. The curves between the...

19. Flow characteristics of NSRR forced convection testing rigs at void generation

This report describes the out-of-pile test results to study the characteristics of two phase flow that occurs in the testing rigs to be used in the NSRR forced convection tests. In the tests a void generation was simulated by blowing air into the testing rigs assembled equivalently to the ones used in the in-pile forced convection test. Behavior of flow velocity was measured by drag-disc type flowmeters as the functions of initial flow velocity at the testing section and air flow rate blew into the section. Through the tests and the analyses, the following conclusions are obtained; the large flow depressions observed in the previous forced convection tests were caused by the pump cavitation; the prevention of the pump cavitation was achieved by lowering the pump position; the by-pass flow gave the slightest effect on the flow behavior around the fuel. (author)

20. Study on forced air convection cooling for electronic assemblies

2008-01-01

The slotted fin concept was employed to improve the air cooling performance of plate-fin in heat sinks.Numerical simulations of laminar heat transfer and flow pressure drop were conducted for the integral plate fin,discrete plate fin and discrete slotted fin heat sinks.It is found that the performance of the discrete plate fin is better than that of the integral continuum plate fin and the performance of slotted fin is better than that of the discrete plate fin at the same pumping power of the fan.A new type of heat sink characterized by discrete and slotted fin surfaces with thinner fins and smaller spaces between fins is then proposed.Preliminary computation shows that this type of heat sink may be useful for the next generation of higher thermal load CPUs.The limit of cooling capacity for air-cooling techniques was also addressed.

1. A NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELD ON HEAT CONVECTION WITH VARIABLE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

2008-01-01

Full Text Available In some studies, the effect of magnetic field on heat convection has been investigated given that physical properties are constant regardless of temperature. The effect of magnetic field on heat convection and fluids whose physical properties change by temperature has been investigated in this study as physical properties of fluids change by the effect of temperature. Momentum, continuity and energy equations including electromagnetic force affecting the fluid were used in the solution. Temperatures at axial and radial directions and Nusselt numbers were calculated depending on magnetic field intensity and other physical properties of fluid by solving the equation system written in cylindrical coordinates system by means of one of the numerical methods which is finite difference method. According to results, velocity and temperature of the cooled fluid decreased following an increase in the intensity of magnetic field placed vertically to flow direction. As determined in the previous one, this study also indicated that the increase in Reynolds number increases Nusselt number, and increasing the effect of magnetic field decreases Nusselt number. The theoretical results of the present study are in conformity with the results of our previous one.

2. Unsteady free convection from a heated sphere in the presence of internal heat generation or absorption

This paper is concerned with an unsteady, laminar, free convective flow over a heated sphere with the effect of internal heat generation/absorption. The dimensionless governing equations have been solved employing the finite difference method as well as a perturbation method for short time and an asymptotic method for long time. We examine the effects of the physical parameters, such as, the Prandtl number, Pr, and the heat generation/absorption parameter, γ, on the friction factor and heat transfer rate as well as the velocity and temperature profiles. It is observed that when the Prandtl number, Pr, is increased, the friction factor decreases while the heat transfer rate increases. In the presence of internal heat generation, the friction factor increases while the heat transfer rate reduces. The reverse pattern is found with the heat absorption parameter. The momentum and thermal boundary layers become thicker with an increase of the heat generation parameter. A comparison among the numerical solutions, the perturbation solutions for short time and the asymptotic solutions for long time has been presented which provides a good agreement among the solutions. (authors)

3. Negative Knudsen force on heated microbeams

Zhu, Taishan

2011-11-18

Knudsen force acting on a heated microbeam adjacent to a cold substrate in a rarefied gas is a mechanical force created by unbalanced thermal gradients. The measured force has its direction pointing towards the side with a lower thermal gradient and its magnitude vanishes in both continuum and free-molecule limits. In our previous study, negative Knudsen forces were discovered at the high Knudsen regime before diminishing in the free-molecule limit. Such a phenomenon was, however, neither observed in experiment [A. Passian et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 124503 (2003)], nor captured in the latest numerical study [J. Nabeth et al., Phys. Rev. E 83, 066306 (2011)]. In this paper, the existence of such a negative Knudsen force is further confirmed using both numerical simulation and theoretical analysis. The asymptotic order of the Knudsen force near the collisionless limit is analyzed and the analytical expression of its leading term is provided, from which approaches for the enhancement of negative Knudsen forces are proposed. The discovered phenomenon could find its applications in novel mechanisms for pressure sensing and actuation.

4. [Constitutive correlations for wire-wrapped subchannel analysis under forced and mixed convection conditions]. Part II

A new version of the ENERGY series code, ENERGY-IV, was written for predicting coolant temperature distributions in wire-wrapped rod assemblies used in the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor. The ENERGY-IV Code is applicable to both steady-state forced and mixed convection operation for a single isolated assembly. (The SUPERENERGY Code, [Basehore (1980)] is applicable to core wide forced convection analysis.) ENERGY-IV is an empirical code designed to be fast running. Hence the core designer can use it as an inexpensive thermal hydraulic design or diagnosis tool

5. Simultaenous heat and mass transfer under unsteady mixed convection along a vertical slender cylinder embedded in a porous medium

Unsteady laminar mixed convection flow (combined free and forced convection flow) along a vertical slender cylinder embedded in a porous medium under the combined buoyancy effect of thermal and species diffusion has been studied. The effect of the permeability of the medium as well as the magnetic field has been included in the analysis. The partial differential equations with three independent variables governing the flow have been solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme in combination with the quasilinearization technique. Computations have been carried out for accelerating, decelerating and oscillatory free stream velocity distributions. The effects of the permeability of the medium, buoyancy forces, transverse curvature and magnetic field on skin friction, heat transfer and mass transfer have been studied. It is found that the effect of free stream velocity distribution is more pronounced on the skin friction than on the heat and mass transfer. The permeability and magnetic parameters increase the skin friction, but reduce the heat and mass transfer. The skin friction, heat transfer and mass transfer are enhanced due to the buoyancy forces and curvature parameter. The heat transfer is strongly dependent on the viscous dissipation parameter and the Prandtl number, and the mass transfer on the Schmidt number. (orig.)

6. Solutions manual and computer programs for physical and computational aspects of convective heat transfer

Cebeci, Tuncer

1989-01-01

This book is designed to accompany Physical and Computational Aspects of Convective Heat Transfer by T Cebeci and P Bradshaw and contains solutions to the exercises and computer programs for the numerical methods contained in that book Physical and Computational Aspects of Convective Heat Transfer begins with a thorough discussion of the physical aspects of convective heat transfer and presents in some detail the partial differential equations governing the transport of thermal energy in various types of flows The book is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students of aeronautical, chemical, civil and mechanical engineering It can also serve as a reference for the practitioner

7. Studies on forced convection nanofluid flow in circular conduits

2012-01-01

An experimental system was developed and used to study the nanofluid flow and heat transfer in circular conduits. Experiments were performed for a variety of nanofluid flow features in the system. Results obtained from the study show that the heat transfer rate for flow of the base fluid is less than that of the nanofluid used in the study. It was also found that the observed relationship between molecular diffusivity of momentum and the molecular diffusivity of thermal energy at the macrosca...

8. Forced convection along a wall. Liquid metals application

From the experimental results in pipes, heated with constant wall heat flux, the dynamical and thermal structure of the wall region of a turbulent flow is studied. We can show that, for high values of Reynolds and Peclet numbers, logarithmic profiles of velocity and temperature exist. A continuous description of the wall is obtained with the use of simple modelisation. The study of the thermal wall region structure is then made in the case of a liquid metal flow

9. Analysis of steady state combined forced and free convection data in rod bundles

Fuel and blanket assemblies in an LMFBR are subjected to a wide range of power and power gradients during their life in the reactor. To accommodate these changes the assemblies operate in a wide range of flow regimes extending from forced convection, turbulent flow, to mixed convection, laminar flow. At low flow conditions the transverse temperature gradient in an assembly is considerably flattened because of energy redistribution by not only wire-wrap mixing and thermal conduction but also by flow redistribution because of buoyancy-induced crossflow. This has significance in LMFBR design. For the mixed convection regime of bundle operation, the transverse velocity profiles within a bundle change axially because of buoyancy-induced crossflow. It was therefore decided to use the ENERGY II and ENERGY III computer programs for the analysis of the rod bundle mixed convection data

10. About the possible options for models of convective heat transfer in closed volumes with local heating source

Maksimov Vyacheslav I.

2015-01-01

Full Text Available Results of mathematical modeling of convective heat transfer in air area surrounded on all sides enclosing structures, in the presence of heat source at the lower boundary of the media are presented. Solved the system of differential equations of unsteady Navier-Stokes equations with the appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The process of convective heat transfer is calculated using the models of turbulence Prandtl and Prandtl-Reichard. Takes into account the processes of heat exchange region considered with the environment. Is carried out the analysis of the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient at interfaces “air – enclosures”. The distributions average along the gas temperature range are obtained.

11. Efficiency of Heat Transfer in Turbulent Rayleigh-Benard Convection

Urban, Pavel; Musilová, Věra; Skrbek, L.

2011-01-01

Roč. 107, č. 1 (2011), 014302:1-4. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB200650902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : natural convection * thermal convection Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 7.370, year: 2011

12. Numerical investigation of natural convection heat transfer in volumetrically heated spherical segments

Numerical analysis of natural convection inside a heat generated fluid was performed for four different spherical geometries that match the experimental vessels used by Asfia et al. [5-7]. The transient calculations were performed with the CFX 5.7 fluid dynamic software. The simulations show that the highest heat flux is just below the rim of the cavity and it can be 50 times higher than at the bottom. Based on the numerical results, the local values of heat transfer coefficient and the distributions of global Nusselt number were calculated. The present, three-dimensional simulation results were compared with the numerical results of Mayinger et al. [3] and Reineke et al. [4], and with the experimental data of Asfia et al. [5-7]. The agreement between the results that is well inside the experimental scatter verifies the selected modeling approach. (author)

13. Heat transfer coefficient correlation for convective boiling inside plain and micro fin tubes using genetic algorithms

Two-phase flow heat transfer has been exhaustively studied over recent years. However, in this field several questions remain unanswered. Heat transfer coefficient prediction related to nucleate and convective boiling have been studied using different approaches, numerical, analytical and experimental. In this work, an experimental analysis, data representation and heat transfer coefficient prediction on two-phase heat transfer on nucleate and convective boiling are presented. An empirical correlation is obtained based on genetic algorithms search engine over a dimensional analysis of the two-phase flow heat transfer problem. (author)

14. Heat Transfer in MHD Mixed Convection Flow of a Ferrofluid along a Vertical Channel.

Aaiza Gul

Full Text Available This study investigated heat transfer in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD mixed convection flow of ferrofluid along a vertical channel. The channel with non-uniform wall temperatures was taken in a vertical direction with transverse magnetic field. Water with nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4 was selected as a conventional base fluid. In addition, non-magnetic (Al2O3 aluminium oxide nanoparticles were also used. Comparison between magnetic and magnetite nanoparticles were also conducted. Fluid motion was originated due to buoyancy force together with applied pressure gradient. The problem was modelled in terms of partial differential equations with physical boundary conditions. Analytical solutions were obtained for velocity and temperature. Graphical results were plotted and discussed. It was found that temperature and velocity of ferrofluids depend strongly on viscosity and thermal conductivity together with magnetic field. The results of the present study when compared concurred with published work.

15. Heat Transfer in MHD Mixed Convection Flow of a Ferrofluid along a Vertical Channel.

Gul, Aaiza; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan; Khalid, Asma; Khan, Arshad

2015-01-01

This study investigated heat transfer in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection flow of ferrofluid along a vertical channel. The channel with non-uniform wall temperatures was taken in a vertical direction with transverse magnetic field. Water with nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) was selected as a conventional base fluid. In addition, non-magnetic (Al2O3) aluminium oxide nanoparticles were also used. Comparison between magnetic and magnetite nanoparticles were also conducted. Fluid motion was originated due to buoyancy force together with applied pressure gradient. The problem was modelled in terms of partial differential equations with physical boundary conditions. Analytical solutions were obtained for velocity and temperature. Graphical results were plotted and discussed. It was found that temperature and velocity of ferrofluids depend strongly on viscosity and thermal conductivity together with magnetic field. The results of the present study when compared concurred with published work. PMID:26550837

16. On the Asymptotic Approach to Thermosolutal Convection in Heated Slow Reactive Boundary Layer Flows

Stanford Shateyi

2008-01-01

Full Text Available The study sought to investigate thermosolutal convection and stability of two dimensional disturbances imposed on a heated boundary layer flow over a semi-infinite horizontal plate composed of a chemical species using a self-consistent asymptotic method. The chemical species reacts as it diffuses into the nearby fluid causing density stratification and inducing a buoyancy force. The existence of significant temperature gradients near the plate surface results in additional buoyancy and decrease in viscosity. We derive the linear neutral results by analyzing asymptotically the multideck structure of the perturbed flow in the limit of large Reynolds numbers. The study shows that for small Damkohler numbers, increasing buoyancy has a destabilizing effect on the upper branch Tollmien-Schlichting (TS instability waves. Similarly, increasing the Damkohler numbers (which corresponds to increasing the reaction rate has a destabilizing effect on the TS wave modes. However, for small Damkohler numbers, negative buoyancy stabilizes the boundary layer flow.

17. The computer code CONDIF-01 (release 2) for transient convective-conductive heat transfer

CONDIF-01 is a finite element computer code developed at J.R.C. Ispra to solve natural and forced convection problems, for use in Post Accident Heat Removal studies following a hypothetical fast-reactor core meltdown. The new version of the code is capable of analysing problems in which there exists initially a liquid (solid) region which may change phase to solid (liquid), as time proceeds. A variant of the enthalpy method is employed to model the phase change process. The presence of structures enclosing the liquid (solid) region is accounted for, but such structures are assumed to remain in the solid phase. Plane and axisymmetric situations may be analysed. The essential characteristics of the code are outlined here. This report gives instructions for preparing input data to CONDIF-01, release 2, and describes two test problems in order to illustrate both the input and the output of the code

18. Conjugate mixed convection in the entrance region of a symmetrically heated vertical channel with thick walls

Conjugate mixed convection with buoyancy assisted laminar flow in the entrance region of a vertical channel is considered numerically. The problem is solved by a finite volume method for a thick walled, two-regional channel which has constant and uniform outside wall temperatures. The effects of wall thermal conduction as well as assisted buoyancy force on the flow and heat transfer are discussed in detail. Results are presented for a Prandtl number of 0.7, solid-to-fluid thermal conductivity ratios of 1≤ k* < ∞, wall thickness-to-channel length ratios of 0≤ l* ≤5, Reynolds numbers of 200≤ Re ≤1000, and for various Grashof numbers. The critical buoyancy parameter (Gr/Re), above which the flow reversal occurs, increases linearly with the increasing l*/k*, while it is independent on the Reynolds number. (authors)

19. Convective heat transfer and flow characteristics of Cu-water nanofluid

LI; Qiang(李强); XUAN; Yimin(宣益民)

2002-01-01

An experimental system is built to investigate convective heat transfer and flow characteristics of the nanofluid in a tube. Both the convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor of Cu-water nanofluid for the laminar and turbulent flow are measured. The effects of such factors as the volume fraction of suspended nanoparticles and the Reynolds number on the heat transfer and flow characteristics are discussed in detail. The experimental results show that the suspended nanoparticles remarkably increase the convective heat transfer coefficient of the base fluid and show that the friction factor of the sample nanofluid with the low volume fraction of nanoparticles is almost not changed. Compared with the base fluid, for example, the convective heat transfer coefficient is increased about 60% for the nanofluid with 2.0 vol% Cu nanoparticles at the same Reynolds number. Considering the factors affecting the convective heat transfer coefficient of the nano- fluid, a new convective heat transfer correlation for nanofluid under single-phase flows in tubes is established. Comparison between the experimental data and the calculated results indicate that the correlation describes correctly the energy transport of the nanofluid.

20. Theoretical investigations of the transition from bubble boiling to film boiling at forced convection

The model laws for the initial film boiling at forced convection are realized in vertical tubes. The local conditions in the investigated area were regarded to be most effective and sufficient for the description. The theory was confirmed by experimental data. (orig.)

1. Rotating turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection subject to harmonically forced flow reversals

Geurts, Bernard J.; Kunnen, Rudie P.J.

2014-01-01

The characteristics of turbulent flow in a cylindrical Rayleigh–Bénard convection cell which can be modified considerably in case rotation is included in the dynamics. By incorporating the additional effects of an Euler force, i.e., effects induced by non-constant rotation rates, a remarkably strong

2. Heat transfer augmentation of magnetohydrodynamics natural convection in L-shaped cavities utilizing nanofluids

Sourtiji Ehsan

2012-01-01

Full Text Available A numerical study of natural convection heat transfer through an alumina-water nanofluid inside L-shaped cavities in the presence of an external magnetic field is performed. The study has been carried out for a wide range of important parame­ters such as Rayleigh number, Hartmann number, aspect ratio of the cavity and solid volume fraction of the nanofluid. The influence of the nanoparticle, buoyancy force and the magnetic field on the flow and temperature fields have been plotted and discussed. The results show that after a critical Rayleigh number depending on the aspect ratio, the heat transfer in the cavity rises abruptly due to some significant changes in flow field. It is also found that the heat transfer enhances in the presence of the nanoparticles and increases with solid volume fraction of the nanofluid. In addition, the performance of the nanofluid utilization is more effective at high Ray­leigh numbers. The influence of the magnetic field has been also studied and de­duced that it has a remarkable effect on the heat transfer and flow field in the cavity that as the Hartmann number increases the overall Nusselt number is significantly decreased specially at high Rayleigh numbers.

3. A Numerical Solution of Natural Convection Heat Transfer in an Enclosure with a Corrugated Surface

One of the most important application of corrugated surfaces in nuclear reactors is the cooling towers in the secondary loop for heat dissipation of the primary cycle. In this paper a numerical solution of natural convection heat transfer in an enclosure with a corrugated surface is presented with air as a working fluid. The enclosure is formed of three flat surfaces and a corrugated surface. The corrugated and top surfaces are respectively heated and cooled isothermally. The side flat surfaces are maintained adiabatically. The effects of geometrical parameters, such as the aspect ratio, inclination I angle and shape of corrugation on heat transfer rate are presented. The solution scheme is based on two dimensional model which is governed by continuity, momentum, and energy equation and simplified through the Boussinesque approximation for buoyancy forces. The solution scheme employs an algebraic transformation of the enclosure geometry that maps the physical domain into a rectangular domain to avoid the task of numerically generating boundary fitted coordinates. Stream function-vorticity formulation is used, a finite element technique is then developed and employed to solve the mathematical model. The numerical results obtained from the present model are compared with the available published experimental and numerical results and a good agreement is observed. Based on the numerical results, the average Nusselt number is correlated with Rayleigh number, amplitude Aspect ratio and number of corrugatio .

4. Simulation of Convective Heat-Transfer Coefficient in a Buried Exchanger

Taoufik Mnasri

2008-01-01

Full Text Available This study presents analytical models allowing to study a forced convection laminar flow in non-established dynamic and thermic regimes. We treated a flow in a bitubular exchanger in permanent thermal contact with a semi-infinite medium, such as the ground. The wall temperature as well as the wall heat flux evolve in the course of time until a quasi-steady mode. The theoretical method is original because it uses Green's functions method to determine the analytical solutions of the heat propagation equation on the wall during the heating phase. These analytical solutions allow to identify the temperature distribution versus time. The complexity of the system geometry as well as the infinity of the medium surrounding the exchanger make the traditional methods of numerical resolution unable to solve the problem. We used, to solve it, the finite volume method coupled with the finite element method at the boundary. We studied the effect of Reynolds number, the fluid entry temperature and the transfer duration on the axial evolution of the heat transfer coefficient. We illustrated also the profile of the temperature field in the fluid medium.

5. A study on sodium pool combustion phenomena under forced or natural convection airflow

Full text of publication follows: Sodium pool fire is a design basis accident of sodium-cooled fast reactor. In this study, a numerical method for axisymmetric two-dimensional modeling of sodium pool fire has been developed. Flow dynamics calculation is based on SIMPLE method. It considers coupling of thermal-hydraulics, chemical reaction and aerosol dynamics equations. One assumes chemical equilibrium is valid for the chemical reaction because the reaction rate seems to be higher than mass transfer. The aerosol dynamic equation is solved for multi-group diameters classes. Also low Reynolds number two equation turbulence model for fluid flow and zero equation turbulence model for temperature field are used in the computer code. From the present two-dimensional computation, phenomena of sodium pool fire are understood such as flow and temperature fields and aerosol mass distribution of various sizes for forced and natural convection airflow situations. It has been found that the burning rate and aerosol release fraction calculated by the numerical methodology are in agreement with experimental data. The burning rate varies along with the radial direction by a factor of 20 and the mass and heat transfer around the pool edges is maximum and most influential. The thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the near-surface region are very important to determine sodium pool fire consequence such as burning rate and aerosol emission. (authors)

6. Forced convection of ferro-fluids in a vented cavity with a rotating cylinder

In this study, numerical investigation of the forced convection of ferro-fluid in a square cavity with ventilation ports in the presence of an adiabatic rotating cylinder is carried out. The governing equations are solved with a finite element based solver. The effects of Reynolds number (20 ≤ Re ≤ 400), angular rotational speed of the cylinder (-500 ≤ Ω ≤ 500), strength and location of the magnetic dipole (0 ≤ γ ≤ 250), (0.2 ≤ a ≤ 0.8, -0.8 ≤ b ≤ -0.2) on the flow and thermal fields are numerically studied. It is observed that the length and size of the recirculation zones can be controlled with magnetic dipole strength and angular rotational speed of the cylinder. When the magnetic dipole is closer to the bottom wall of the cavity, flow is accelerated towards the bottom wall with larger influence area. The increasing values of the angular rotational speed of the cylinder in the clockwise direction enhance the heat transfer

7. Lorentz force actuation of a heated atomic force microscope cantilever

We report Lorentz force-induced actuation of a silicon microcantilever having an integrated resistive heater. Oscillating current through the cantilever interacts with the magnetic field around a NdFeB permanent magnet and induces a Lorentz force that deflects the cantilever. The same current induces cantilever heating. With AC currents as low as 0.2 mA, the cantilever can be oscillated as much as 80 nm at resonance with a DC temperature rise of less than 5 °C. By comparison, the AC temperature variation leads to a thermomechanical oscillation that is about 1000 times smaller than the Lorentz deflection at the cantilever resonance. The cantilever position in the nonuniform magnetic field affects the Lorentz force-induced deflection, with the magnetic field parallel to the cantilever having the largest effect on cantilever actuation. We demonstrate how the cantilever actuation can be used for imaging, and for measuring the local material softening temperature by sensing the contact resonance shift. (paper)

8. The effect of Coriolis force on nonlinear convection in a porous medium

D. H. Riahi

1994-09-01

Full Text Available Nonlinear convection in a porous medium and rotating about vertical axis is studied in this paper. An upper bound to the heat flux is calculated by the method initiated first by Howard [6] for the case of infinite Prandtl number.

9. MHD Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in a Vertical Channel with Temperature-Dependent Transport Properties

2015-01-01

Full Text Available An analysis is carried out to study the effects of temperature-dependent transport properties on the fully developed free and forced MHD convection flow in a vertical channel. In this model, viscous and Ohmic dissipation terms are also included. The governing nonlinear equations (in non-dimensional form are solved numerically by a second order finite difference scheme. A parametric study is performed in order to illustrate the interactive influences of the model parameters; namely, the magnetic parameter, the variable viscosity parameter, the mixed convection parameter, the variable thermal conductivity parameter, the Brinkmann number and the Eckert number. The velocity field, the temperature field, the skin friction and the Nusselt number are evaluated for several sets of values of these parameters. For some special cases, the obtained numerical results are compared with the available results in the literature: Good agreement is found. Of all the parameters, the variable thermo-physical transport property has the strongest effect on the drag, heat transfer characteristics, the stream-wise velocity, and the temperature field.

10. Preliminary Numerical Analysis of Convective Heat Transfer Loop Using MARS Code

be provided with expected results for the single-phase and forced convective phenomena. For the future study, different materials for the heating part are considered, such as other metals or silicon carbide (SiC) tube, which is a candidate material of fuel claddings for current and next-generation reactors

11. Scale/Analytical Analyses of Freezing and Convective Melting with Internal Heat Generation

Ali S. Siahpush; John Crepeau; Piyush Sabharwall

2013-07-01

Using a scale/analytical analysis approach, we model phase change (melting) for pure materials which generate constant internal heat generation for small Stefan numbers (approximately one). The analysis considers conduction in the solid phase and natural convection, driven by internal heat generation, in the liquid regime. The model is applied for a constant surface temperature boundary condition where the melting temperature is greater than the surface temperature in a cylindrical geometry. The analysis also consider constant heat flux (in a cylindrical geometry).We show the time scales in which conduction and convection heat transfer dominate.

12. Numerical investigation of natural convection heat transfer in a three-dimensional annular enclosure

Yung, Chain-Nan; de Witt, Kenneth J.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.

Natural convective flow and heat transfer in a three-dimensional annular enclose have been investigated numerically. The analysis uses dimensionless equations of continuity, momentum, and energy in Cartesian coordinates, which are cast into a generalized curvilinear system and solved by using a prediction-correction algorithm. For short horizontal cylinders, the local heat transfer rate is found to decrease sharply near the end walls due to convective velocity suppression; the overall heat transfer rate is less than that predicted by a two-dimensional model. Heat transfer rates are presented as a function of the Rayleigh number and compared with the available experimental data.

13. A reassessment of the heat transport by variable viscosity convection with plates and lids

The heat transport by a viscous fluid with temperature dependent viscosity has been studied numerically. As opposed to previous models, the top surface of the fluid clearly defines a tectonic plate with horizontally uniform velocity and subduction. Past studies failed to incorporate plates, the heat transport is as efficient as Rayleigh-Benard convection with constant viscosity; there is a strong buffering between internal temperature and heat loss. Past studies of parameterized convection which incorporated parameters indicative of strong buffering between internal temperature and total heat output still provide the most physically plausible representation of the Earth's thermal evolution

14. Scaling criteria for modeling natural- and forced-convection loops

Nuclear reactor safety regulations have required extensive thermal-hydraulic testing of simulated reactor systems and components. In view of the inherent difficulties associated with full-scale testing, scale models for prototype systems have been extensively used to predict the behavior of nuclear reactor systems during normal and abnormal operations as well as under accident conditions. Several studies have been performed to establish similarity relations between a prototype and scale model. It is the purpose of the present study to develop scaling criteria for a forced and natural circulation loop under single- and/or two-phase flow conditions, and to apply the criteria to obtain the preliminary conceptual design parameters for the B and W 2 x 4 loop system. The 2 x 4 loop scaled system contains representative components of all thermal-hydraulic systems considered important in performing tests to obtain data representative of the response of the prototype plant

15. GEOFLOW: simulation of convection in a spherical shell under central force field

P. Beltrame

2006-01-01

Full Text Available Time-dependent dynamical simulations related to convective motion in a spherical gap under a central force field due to the dielectrophoretic effect are discussed. This work is part of the preparation of the GEOFLOW-experiment which is planned to run in a microgravity environment. The goal of this experiment is the simulation of large-scale convective motion in a geophysical or astrophysical framework. This problem is new because of, on the one hand, the nature of the force field (dielectrophoretic effect and, on another hand, the high degree of symmetries of the system, e.g. the top-bottom reflection. Thus, the validation of this simulation with well-known results is not possible. The questions concerning the influence of the dielectrophoretic force and the possibility to reproduce the theoretically expected motions in the astrophysical framework, are open. In the first part, we study the system in terrestrial conditions: the unidirectional Earth's force is superimposed on the central dielectrophoretic force field to compare with the laboratory experiments during the development of the equipment. In the second part, the GEOFLOW-experiment simulations in weightless conditions are compared with theoretical studies in the astrophysical framework's, in the first instance a fluid under a self-gravitating force field. We present complex time-dependent dynamics, where the dielectrophoretic force field causes significant differences in the flow compared to the case that does not involve this force field.

16. Convective heat transfer from a heated elliptic cylinder at uniform wall temperature

Kaprawi, S.; Santoso, Dyos [Mechanical Department of Sriwijaya University, Jl. Raya Palembang-Prabumulih Km. 32 Inderalaya 50062 Ogan Ilir (Indonesia)

2013-07-01

This study is carried out to analyse the convective heat transfer from a circular and an elliptic cylinders to air. Both circular and elliptic cylinders have the same cross section. The aspect ratio of cylinders range 0-1 are studied. The implicit scheme of the finite difference is applied to obtain the discretized equations of hydrodynamic and thermal problem. The Choleski method is used to solve the discretized hydrodynamic equation and the iteration method is applied to solve the discretized thermal equation. The circular cylinder has the aspect ratio equal to unity while the elliptical cylinder has the aspect ratio less than unity by reducing the minor axis and increasing the major axis to obtain the same cross section as circular cylinder. The results of the calculations show that the skin friction change significantly, but in contrast with the elliptical cylinders have greater convection heat transfer than that of circular cylinder. Some results of calculations are compared to the analytical solutions given by the previous authors.

17. Simulations of Future Heat stress in the Northeast in a Convection Resolving Model

Huber, M.; Buzan, J. R.; Komurcu, M.; Krishnan, S.; McCabe, E.

2015-12-01

Heat stress is a chiefly a byproduct of temperature and humidity extremes and can be phrased in terms of wetbulb or dewpoint temperature. Consequently, it is a buoyancy related atmospheric variable which could alternatively be expressed as something like subcloud layer entropy or convective available potential energy (CAPE). Expressed in this latter way, predicting heat stress extreme events is equivalent to understanding the distribution of events in which convection is inhibited. Our goal in this study is to use a convection resolving model (the Weather Research and Forecasting Model at 3km grid spacing) to predict heat stress in future climate scenarios. The primary benefit relative to simply using a global climate model output is the removal of the ad hoc treatment of convective inhibition imposed by parameterization of convection in course resolution simulations. We focus on heat stress metrics relevant for humans and livestock within the Northeast of the U.S. and demonstrate the difference in projected heat stress engendered by explicitly resolving convection.

18. Convection in layered porous media: A comparison of boundary heating methods

Convection in a horizontal, doubly layered porous medium has been investigated numerically. A two-dimensional, time dependent model has been developed to compute heat transfer in a saturated porous medium that is locally heated from either above or below. The primary objective is to ascertain how these modes of heating can be differentiated via an examination of the heat transfer results. Both natural and mixed convection are considered. For mixed convection in which a uniform horizontal flow is assumed to enter the domain, the qualitative relation between the Rayleigh and Peclet numbers is obtained over a large range for each. The effect of the length of the heating zone on the flow structure is also examined. The permeability ratio and the ratio of the thermal conductivity of the two layers is also allowed to vary, thus giving the computing Nusselt numbers a broad range of applicability in geophysical and engineered systems

19. Study on natural convection heat transfer in vertical annular space of a double coaxial cylinder

Water cooling panels are adopted as a vessel cooling system of a high temperature-engineering test reactor (HTTR) to cool the reactor core indirectly by natural convection and thermal radiation. In this study, we carried out experiments on natural convection heat transfer coupled with thermal radiation in vertical annular space of a double coaxial cylinder in order to investigate heat transfer characteristics in vertical annular space between the reactor pressure vessel and the cooling panels of the HTTR. In the present experiments, Rayleigh number based on the width of the vertical space was set to be 6.8 x 105 6 for helium and 4.2 x 107 8 for nitrogen. This report described about the heat transfer coefficient of natural convection in the vertical space and the effect of thermal radiation of the transferred heat. As a result, a heat transfer coefficient of natural convection coupled with thermal radiation was obtained as functions of Rayleigh number, aspect ratio of the space, temperature and emissivities on the heated and cooled walls. In addition to the experiments, numerical analyses were performed on the combined phenomena of natural convection and thermal radiation in the space. The numerical results were in good agreement with the experimental ones regarding the temperature on the heated and cooled walls. (author)

20. Natural convection heat transfer in vertical triangular subchannel in Zirconia-water nanofluid

Tandian, N. P.; Alkharboushi, A. A. K.; Kamajaya, K.

2015-09-01

Natural convection heat transfer in vertical triangular sub-channel has important role in cooling mechanism of the APWR and the PHWR nuclear reactors. Unfortunately, natural convection correlation equations for such geometry are scarcely available. Recent studies showed that ZrO2-water nanofluid has a good prospect to be used in the nuclear reactor technology due to its low neutron absorption cross section. Although several papers have reported transport properties of ZrO2-water nanofluids, practically there is no correlation equation for predicting natural convection heat transfer in a vertical triangular sub-channel in ZrO2-water nanofluid. Therefore, a study for finding such heat transfer correlation equation has been done by utilizing Computational Fluid Dynamics software and reported in this paper. In the study, natural convection heat transfer in a vertical triangular sub-channel has been simulated at several values of heat transfer flux within 9.1 to 30.9 kW/m2 range and ZrO2 concentrations of 0 (pure water), 0.27, and 3 volume-% of ZrO2. The study shows that the ZrO2 concentration has no significant influence to the natural convection heat transfer at those concentration levels. The obtained theoretical heat transfer correlation equations were verified through experiment, and they showed very similar results. The correlation equations are reported in this paper.

1. The role of a convective surface in models of the radiative heat transfer in nanofluids

Highlights: • The role of a convective surface in modelling with nanofluids is investigated over a wedge. • Surface convection significantly controls the rate of heat transfer in nanofluid. • Increased volume fraction of nanoparticles to the base-fluid may not always increase the rate of heat transfer. • Effect of nanoparticles solid volume fraction depends on the types of constitutive materials. • Higher heat transfer in nanofluids is found in a moving wedge rather than in a static wedge. - Abstract: Nanotechnology becomes the core of the 21st century. Nanofluids are important class of fluids which help advancing nanotechnology in various ways. Convection in nanofluids plays a key role in enhancing the rate of heat transfer either for heating or cooling nanodevices. In this paper, we investigate theoretically the role of a convective surface on the heat transfer characteristics of water-based nanofluids over a static or moving wedge in the presence of thermal radiation. Three different types of nanoparticles, namely copper Cu, alumina Al2O3 and titanium dioxide TiO2 are considered in preparation of nanofluids. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are made dimensionless with the similarity transformations. Numerical simulations are carried out through the very robust computer algebra software MAPLE 13 to investigate the effects of various pertinent parameters on the flow field. The obtained results presented graphically as well as in tabular form and discussed from physical and engineering points of view. The results show that the rate of heat transfer in a nanofluid in the presence of thermal radiation significantly depends on the surface convection parameter. If the hot fluid side surface convection resistance is lower than the cold fluid side surface convection resistance, then increased volume fraction of the nanoparticles to the base fluid may reduces the heat transfer rate rather than increases from the surface of the wedge to the

2. Convective heat and mass transfer in MHD mixed convection flow of Jeffrey nanofluid over a radially stretching surface with thermal radiation

M BILAL ASHRAF; T HAYAT; A ALSAEDI; S A SHEHZAD

2015-01-01

Mixed convection flow of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Jeffrey nanofluid over a radially stretching surface with radiative surface is studied. Radial sheet is considered to be convectively heated. Convective boundary conditions through heat and mass are employed. The governing boundary layer equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations. Convergent series solutions of the resulting problems are derived. Emphasis has been focused on studying the effects of mixed convection, thermal radiation, magnetic field and nanoparticles on the velocity, temperature and concentration fields. Numerical values of the physical parameters involved in the problem are computed for the local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are computed.

3. An experimental investigation of natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent-fuel assemblies

Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent-fuel assembly during transport and some dry storage scenarios. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations that can be used to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent-fuel systems and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of correlations of convective Nusselt number, which are defined in terms of the maximum and average assembly temperatures. The correlations have been corrected for radiation heat transfer using a numerical technique. The data suggest the presence of conduction and convection regimes, distinguished by a critical Rayleigh number. The correlation of the convection regime suggests turbulent flow conditions. Predictions of maximum assembly temperature using the presented correlations are compared with additional experimental data obtained in a horizontal enclosed rod bundle. Further comparisons are made with predictions from the widely used Wooten-Epstein equation and a recently developed theoretical approach based on an effective thermal conductivity model. Favorable results are obtained, especially for thermal conditions that favor natural convection, such as relatively low enclosure temperatures and above-standard atmospheric pressure

4. Open Channel Natural Convection Heat Transfer on a Vertical Finned Plate

Park, Joo Hyun; Heo, Jeong Hwan; Chung, Bum Jin [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

2013-10-15

The natural convection heat transfer of vertical plate fin was investigated experimentally. Heat transfer systems were replaced by mass-transfer systems, based on the analogy concept. The experimental results lie within the predictions of the existing heat transfer correlations of plate-fin for the natural convections. An overlapped thermal boundary layers caused increasing heat transfer, and an overlapped momentum boundary layers caused decreasing heat transfer. As the fin height increases, heat transfer was enhanced due to increased inflow from the open side of the fin spacing. When fin spacing and fin height are large, heat transfer was unaffected by the fin spacing and fin height. Passive cooling by natural convection becomes more and more important for the nuclear systems as the station black out really happened at the Fukushima NPPs. In the RCCS (Reactor Cavity Cooling System) of a VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor), natural convection cooling through duct system is adopted. In response to the stack failure event, extra cooling capacity adopting the fin array has to be investigated. The finned plate increases the surface area and the heat transfer increases. However, the plate of fin arrays may increase the pressure drop and the heat transfer decreases. Therefore, in order to enhance the passive cooling with fin arrays, the parameters for the fin arrays should be optimized. According to Welling and Wooldridge, a natural convection on vertical plate fin is function of Gr, Pr, L, t, S, and H. The present work investigated the natural convection heat transfer of a vertical finned plate with varying the fin height and the fin spacing. In order achieve high Rayleigh numbers, an electroplating system was employed and the mass transfer rates were measured using a copper sulfate electroplating system based on the analogy concept.

5. Mixed convection heat transfer inside a differentially heated square enclosure in presence of a rotating heat conducting cylinder

Alam, Muntasir; Kamruzzaman, Ahsan, Faraz; Hasan, Mohammad Nasim

2016-07-01

A numerical study of mixed convection heat transfer phenomena in a square cavity containing a heat conducting rotating cylinder has been investigated. A discrete isoflux heater is placed at the bottom wall of the enclosure while the top wall is kept adiabatic. Left and right sidewalls of the enclosure are assumed to be maintained at constant low temperature. A two-dimensional solution for steady laminar mixed convection flow is obtained by using the finite element scheme based on the Galerkin method of weighted residuals for different rotating speeds of the cylinder varying over the range of 0-1000 keeping the Rayleigh number fixed at 5×104 and the Prandtl number at 0.7. The effects of rotating speeds of the cylinder, its radius and conductivity ratio of the rotating cylinder and working fluid on the streamlines, isotherms, local Nusselt number, average Nusselt number and other heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena are investigated. The results indicate that the flow field, temperature distribution and heat transfer rate are dependent on rotating speeds and cylinder size. However, it has been observed that the effect of conductivity ratio is not so prominent.

6. Impact of tidal heating on the onset of convection in Enceladus' ice shell

Behounkova, Marie; Tobie, Gabriel; Choblet, Gael; Cadek, Ondrej

2013-04-01

Observations of Enceladus by the Cassini spacecraft indicated that its south pole is very active, with jets of water vapor and ice emanating from warm tectonic ridges. Convective processes in the ice shell are commonly advocated to explain the enhanced activity at the south pole. The conditions under which convection may occur on Enceladus are, however, still puzzling. According to the estimation of Barr and McKinnon (2007) based on scaling laws, convection may initiate in Enceladus' ice shell only for grain size smaller than 0.3 mm, which is very small compared to the grain size observed on Earth in polar ice sheets for similar temperature and stress conditions (2-4mm). Moreover, Bahounková et al. (2012) showed that such enhanced activity periods associated with thermal convection and internal melting should be brief (~ 1 - 10Myrs) and should be followed by relatively long periods of inactivity (~ 100Myrs), with a probable cessation of thermal convection. In order to constrain the likelihood and periodicity of enhanced activity periods, the conditions under which thermal convection may restart are needed to be investigated. In particular, the goal is to understand how tidal heating, especially during periods of elevated eccentricity, may influence the onset of convection. To answer this question, 3D simulations of thermal convection including a self-consistent computation of tidal dissipation using the code Antigone (Bahounková et al., 2010, 2012) were performed, a composite non-Newtonian rheology (Goldsby and Kohlstedt, 2001) and Maxwell-like rheology mimicking Andrade model were considered. Our simulations show that the onset of convection may occur in Enceladus' ice shell only for ice grain size smaller or equal than 0.5 mm in absence of tidal heating. Tidal dissipation shifts the critical grain size for convection up to values of 1-1.5 mm. The convection is initiated in the polar region due to enhanced tidal dissipation in this area and remains in the

7. Convective heat transfer coefficients for exterior building surfaces: Existing correlations and CFD modelling

Convective heat transfer at exterior building surfaces has an impact on the design and performance of building components such as double-skin facades, solar collectors, solar chimneys and ventilated photovoltaic arrays, and also affects the thermal climate and cooling load in urban areas. In this study, an overview is given of existing correlations of the exterior convective heat transfer coefficient (CHTC) with the wind speed, indicating significant differences between these correlations. As an alternative to using existing correlations, the applicability of CFD to obtain forced CHTC correlations is evaluated, by considering a cubic building in an atmospheric boundary layer. Steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations are performed and, instead of the commonly used wall functions, low-Reynolds number modelling (LRNM) is used to model the boundary-layer region for reasons of improved accuracy. The flow field is found to become quasi independent of the Reynolds number at Reynolds numbers of about 105. This allows limiting the wind speed at which the CHTC is evaluated and thus the grid resolution in the near-wall region, which significantly reduces the computational expense. The distribution of the power-law CHTC-U10 correlation over the windward and leeward surfaces is presented (U10 = reference wind speed at 10 m height). It is shown that these correlations can be accurately determined by simulations with relatively low wind speed values, which avoids the use of excessively fine grids for LRNM, and by using only two or three discrete wind speed values, which limits the required number of CFD simulations.

8. Unsteady laminar flow with convective heat transfer through a rotating curved square duct with small curvature

Mondal, Rabindra Nath; Roy, Titob; Shaha, Poly Rani; Yanase, Shinichiro

2016-07-01

Unsteady laminar flow with convective heat transfer through a curved square duct rotating at a constant angular velocity about the center of curvature is investigated numerically by using a spectral method, and covering a wide range of the Taylor number -300≤Tr≤1000 for the Dean number Dn = 1000. A temperature difference is applied across the vertical sidewalls for the Grashof number Gr = 100, where the outer wall is heated and the inner wall cooled, the top and bottom walls being adiabatic. Flow characteristics are investigated with the effects of rotational parameter, Tr, and the pressure-driven parameter, Dn, for the constant curvature 0.001. Time evolution calculations as well as their phase spaces show that the unsteady flow undergoes through various flow instabilities in the scenario multi-periodic → chaotic → steady-state → periodic → multi-periodic → chaotic', if Tr is increased in the positive direction. For negative rotation, however, time evolution calculations show that the flow undergoes in the scenario multi-periodic → periodic → steady-state', if Tr is increased in the negative direction. Typical contours of secondary flow patterns and temperature profiles are obtained at several values of Tr, and it is found that the unsteady flow consists of two- to six-vortex solutions if the duct rotation is involved. External heating is shown to generate a significant temperature gradient at the outer wall of the duct. This study also shows that there is a strong interaction between the heating-induced buoyancy force and the centrifugal-Coriolis instability in the curved channel that stimulates fluid mixing and consequently enhances heat transfer in the fluid.

9. Effects of forced wall vibration on the onset of flow instability and critical heat flux in uniformly-heated microchannels

Stromberger, Jorg Hermann

Numerous experimental and theoretical investigations on two-phase flow instability and burnout in heated microchannels have been reported in the literature. However none of these investigations deals with the possible effects of wall vibrations on such flow boiling processes within microchannels. Fluid-structure interaction in ultra high power density systems cooled by high velocity single phase forced convection in microchannels may result in vibration amplitudes that are a significant fraction of the diameter of the channel. Such vibrations may significantly impact vapor bubble dynamics at the wall and, hence, the limiting heat fluxes corresponding to the onset of flow instability and/or burnout. The primary purpose of this research was to experimentally quantify the effect of forced wall vibration on the onset of flow instability (OFI) and the critical heat flux (CHF) in uniformly-heated annular microchannels. The secondary interest of this investigation was to compare the experimental data collected in the single-phase regime to commonly used single-phase forced convection correlations. Experimental data acquired in the flow boiling regime were to be utilized to confirm the validity of common flow boiling correlations for microchannel flow. The influence of forced wall vibration on subcooled single-phase forced convection and flow boiling was examined. The Georgia Tech Microchannel Test Facility (GTMTF) was modified to allow such experiments to be conducted at controlled values of transverse wall vibration amplitudes and accelerations for a range of frequencies. The channel demand curves were obtained for various inner and outer surface heat fluxes. Experiments were conducted for broad ranges of transverse wall vibration amplitudes over a range of frequencies. The experiments conducted in this investigation provide designers of high power density systems cooled by forced convection in microchannels with the appropriate data and correlations to confidently

10. Convective Heat Transfer Augmentation by Flexible fins in Laminar Channel Pulsating flow

Joshi, Rakshitha U; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh

2015-01-01

Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) of thin flexible fins coupled with convective heat transfer has applications in energy harvesting and in understanding functioning of several biological systems. We numerically investigate FSI of the thin flexible fins involving large-scale flow-induced deformation as a potential heat transfer enhancement technique. An in-house, strongly-coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) solver is employed in which flow and structure solvers are based on sharp-interface immersed boundary and finite element method, respectively. We consider twin flexible fins in a heated channel with laminar pulsating cross flow. The vortex ring past the fin sweep higher sources of vorticity generated on the channel walls out into the downstream - promoting the mixing of the fluid. The moving fin assists in convective mixing, augmenting convection in bulk and at the walls; and thereby reducing thermal boundary layer thickness and improving heat transfer at the channel walls. The thermal augmentation is...

11. Anomalous heat transport and condensation in convection of cryogenic helium

Urban, Pavel; Schmoranzer, D.; Hanzelka, Pavel; Sreenivasan, K. R.; Skrbek, L.

2013-01-01

Roč. 110, č. 20 (2013), s. 8036-8039. ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP203/12/P897 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : two-phase convection * temperature inversion * condensation * rain formation Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 9.809, year: 2013

12. Natural convection in water along a vertical plate with constant surface heat flux

An experimental investigation of natural convection in water along a vertical plate with constant surface heat flux is described. The results show the effects of the variation of the physical properties on heat transfert especially in the transition regime. In this regime, all the exprimental datas are correlated by a single law which includes the variation of viscosity and the critical Rayleigh number

13. Flow and Convective Heat Transfer of Cylinder Misaligned from Aerodynamic Axis of Cyclone Flow

I. L. Leukhin

2014-06-01

Full Text Available The paper provides and analyzes results of experimental investigations on physical specific features of hydrodynamics and convective heat transfer of a cyclone flow with a group of round cylinders located symmetrically relative to its aerodynamic axis, calculative equations for average and local heat transfer factors at characteristic sections of cylinder surface.

14. Influence of the Coriolis force on flux tubes rising through the solar convection zone

In order to study the effect of the Coriolis force due to solar rotation on rising magnetic flux, the authors consider a flux ring, azimuthally symmetric around the rotation axis, starting from rest at the bottom of the convection zone, and then follow the trajectory of the flux ring as it rises. If it is assumed that the flux ring remains azimuthally symmetric during its ascent, then the problem can be described essentially in terms of two parameters: the value of the initial magnetic field in the ring when it starts, and the effective drag experienced by it. For field strengths at the bottom of the convection zone of order 10,000 G or less, it is found that the Coriolis force plays a dominant role and flux rings starting from low latitudes at the bottom are deflected and emerge at latitudes significantly poleward of sunspot zones. 40 references

15. Understanding forced convective drying of apple tissue: Combining neutron radiography and numerical modelling

Aregawi, Wondwosen; Defraeye, Thijs; Saneinejad, Saba; Vontobel, Peter; Lehmann, Eberhard; Carmeliet, Jan; Verboven, Pieter; Derome, Dominique; Nicolai, Bart

2014-01-01

A multiphysics model for biological materials, coupling nonlinear viscoelastic deformation to water transport, was used to study forced convective drying of apple tissue samples (cv. Maigold). The accuracy of the model was verified with quantitative neutron radiography experiments, by comparing the total water loss, the transient water distribution profiles and the mechanical deformation. Both model simulations and experiments showed that the largest moisture gradients occurred at the air-tis...

16. Comparison between Two Local Thermal Non Equilibrium Criteria in Forced Convection through a Porous Channel

2015-01-01

Two criteria are used and compared to investigate the local thermal equilibrium assumption in a forced convection through a porous channel. The first criterion is based on the maximum local temperature difference between the solid and fluid phases, while the second is based on the average of the local differences between the temperature of the solid phase and the fluid phase. For this purpose, the momentum and energy equations based on the Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer and the local thermal non ...

17. Effect of Coriolis force on thermomagnetic convection in a ferrofluid saturating porous medium: A weakly nonlinear stability analysis

Nanjundappa, C.E., E-mail: cenanju@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Dr. Ambedkar Institute of Technology, Bangalore-560 056 (India); Shivakumara, I.S., E-mail: shivakumarais@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560 001 (India); Prakash, H.N., E-mail: prakashahn83@gmail.com [Government Pre-University College, B H Road, Tumkur-572 102 (India)

2014-12-15

We investigate the influence of Coriolis force on the onset of thermomagnetic convection in ferrofluid saturating a porous layer in the presence of a uniform vertical magnetic field using both linear and weakly non-linear analyses. The modified Brinkman–Forchheimer-extended Darcy equation with Coriolis term has been used to describe the fluid flow. The linear theory based on normal mode method is considered to find the criteria for the onset of stationary thermomagnetic Convection and weakly non-linear analysis based on minimal representation of truncated Fourier series analysis containing only two terms has been used to find the Nusselt number Nu as functions of time. The range of thermal Rayleigh number R beyond which the bifurcation becomes subcritical increases with increasing Λ, Da{sup −1} and Ta. The global quantity of the heat transfer rate decreases by increasing the Taylor number Ta. The results obtained, during the above analyses, have been presented graphically and the effects of various parameters on heat and mass transfer have been discussed. Finally, we have drawn the steady streamlines for various parameters.

18. Effect of Coriolis force on thermomagnetic convection in a ferrofluid saturating porous medium: A weakly nonlinear stability analysis

We investigate the influence of Coriolis force on the onset of thermomagnetic convection in ferrofluid saturating a porous layer in the presence of a uniform vertical magnetic field using both linear and weakly non-linear analyses. The modified Brinkman–Forchheimer-extended Darcy equation with Coriolis term has been used to describe the fluid flow. The linear theory based on normal mode method is considered to find the criteria for the onset of stationary thermomagnetic Convection and weakly non-linear analysis based on minimal representation of truncated Fourier series analysis containing only two terms has been used to find the Nusselt number Nu as functions of time. The range of thermal Rayleigh number R beyond which the bifurcation becomes subcritical increases with increasing Λ, Da−1 and Ta. The global quantity of the heat transfer rate decreases by increasing the Taylor number Ta. The results obtained, during the above analyses, have been presented graphically and the effects of various parameters on heat and mass transfer have been discussed. Finally, we have drawn the steady streamlines for various parameters

19. Experimental investigation of convective structure evolution and heat transfer in quasi-steady evaporating liquid films

Kimball, J. T.; Hermanson, J. C.; Allen, J. S.

2012-05-01

The stability, convective structure, and heat transfer characteristics of upward-facing, evaporating, thin liquid films were studied experimentally. Dichloromethane, chloroform, methanol, and acetone films with initial thicknesses of 2-5 mm were subjected to constant levels of superheating until film rupture occurred (typically at a thickness of around 50 μm). The films resided on a temperature controlled, polished copper plate incorporated into a closed pressure chamber free of non-condensable gasses. The dynamic film thickness was measured at multiple points using a non-intrusive ultrasound ranging system. Instability wavelength and convective structure information was obtained using double-pass schlieren imaging. The sequence of the convective structures as the film thins due to evaporation is observed to be as follows: (1) large, highly variable cells, (2) concentric rings and spirals, and (3) apparent end of convection. The transition from large, variable cells to concentric rings and spirals occurs at a Rayleigh number of 4800 ± 960. The apparent end of convection occurs at a Rayleigh number of 1580 ± 180. At the cessation of convection, the Nusselt number is nearly unity, indicating that there is little heat transfer in the film due to convection. In films where the Rayleigh number is above this transitional value, the Nusselt number increases with increasing Rayleigh number. The current results suggest that the equilibrium condition at the evaporating surface suppresses surface temperature variation, effectively eliminating thermocapillary-driven instability.

20. Bounds on heat transport in Rayleigh's and related models of Bénard convection

Doering, Charles R.; Souza, Andre N.; Wen, Baole; Chini, Gregory P.; Kerswell, Richard R.

2015-11-01

We present new upper limits on convective heat transport in both the full and several low-dimensional Galerkin truncations of Rayleigh's 1916 model of buoyancy-driven Bénard convection using both the so-called background method as well as optimal control variational techniques. Research supported in part by by NSF Awards PHY-1205219, PHY-1338407, PHY-1443836, PHY-1533555 and DMS-1515161.

1. Interaction of radiation and free convection on a heated vertical plate - Experiment and analysis

Webb, B. W.

1990-01-01

An experimental and analytical study has been conducted in order to explore the interaction between laminar free convective and radiative transport from an isolated vertical plate with isoflux heating. The analysis focuses on buoyancy-driven free convection from this vertical plate which is coupled to radiation through the thermal boundary condition. Model predictions are compared with both experimental results and the analysis conducted by Cess (1964), in order to illustrate those areas where the perturbation technique deviated from the present solution.

2. Specialists' meeting on evaluation of decay heat removal by natural convection

Decay heat removal by natural convection (DHRNC) is essential to enhancing the safety of liquid metal fast reactors (LMFRs). Various design concepts related to DHRNC have been proposed and experimental and analytical studies have been carried out in a number of countries. The purpose of this Specialists' Meeting on 'Decay Heat Removal by Natural Convection' organized by the International Working Group on Fast Reactors IAEA, is to exchange information about the state of the art related to methodologies on evaluation of DHRNC features (experimental studies and code developments) and to discuss problems which need to be solved in order to evaluate DHRNC properly and reasonably. The following main topical areas were discussed by delegates: Overview; Experimental studies and code validation; Design study. Two main DHR systems for LMFR are under consideration: (i) direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS) with immersed DFIX in main vessel, intermediate sodium loop and sodium-air heat exchanger; and (ii) auxiliary cooling system which removes heat from the outside surface of the reactor vessel by natural convection of air (RVACS). The practicality and economic viability of the use of RVACS is possible up to a modular type reactor or a middle size reactor based on current technology. For the large monolithic plant concepts DRACS is preferable. The existing experimental results and the codes show encouraging results so that the decay heat removal by pure natural convection is feasible. Concerning the objective, 'passive safety', the DHR by pure natural convection is essential feature to enhance the reliability of DHR

3. Magnetic flux tubes and transport of heat in the convection zone of the sun

This thesis consists of five papers dealing with transport of heat in the solar convection zone on the one hand, and with the structure of magnetic flux tubes in the top of the convection zone on the other hand. These subjects are interrelated. For example, the heat flow in the convection zone is disturbed by the presence of magnetic flux tubes, while exchange of heat between a flux tube and the convection zone is important for the energy balance of such a tube. A major part of this thesis deals with the structure of small magnetic flux tubes. Such small tubes (diameters less than about 2'') carry most of the flux appearing at the solar surface. An attempt is made to construct models of the surface layers of such small tubes in sufficient detail to make a comparison with observations possible. Underlying these model calculations is the assumption that the magnetic elements at the solar surface are flux tubes in a roughly static equilibrium. The structure of such tubes is governed by their pressure equilibrium, exchange of heat with the surroundings, and transport of heat by some modified form of convection along the tube. The tube models calculated are compared with observations

4. Experimental study of Cu-water nanofluid forced convective flow inside a louvered channel

Khoshvaght-Aliabadi, M.; Hormozi, F.; Zamzamian, A.

2015-03-01

Heat transfer enhancement plays a very important role for energy saving in plate-fin heat exchangers. In the present study, the influences of simultaneous utilization of a louvered plate-fin channel and copper-base deionized water nanofluid on performance of these exchangers are experimentally explored. The effects of flow rate (2-5 l/min) and nanoparticles weight fraction (0-0.4 %) on heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics are determined. Experimental results indicate that the use of louvered channel instead of the plain one can improve the heat transfer performance. Likewise, addition of small amounts of copper nanoparticles to the base fluid augments the convective heat transfer coefficient remarkably. The maximum rise of 21.7 % in the convective heat transfer coefficient is observed for the 0.4 % wt nanofluid compared to the base fluid. Also, pumping power for the base fluid and nanofluids are calculated based on the measured pressure drop in the louvered channel. The average increase in pumping power is 11.8 % for the nanofluid with 0.4 % wt compared to the base fluid. Applied performance criterion shows a maximum performance index of 1.167 for the nanofluid with 0.1 % wt Finally, two correlations are proposed for Nusselt number and friction factor which fit the experimental data with in ±10 %.

5. Application of He's homotopy perturbation method to boundary layer flow and convection heat transfer over a flat plate

Esmaeilpour, M.; Ganji, D. D.

2007-12-01

In this Letter, the problem of forced convection over a horizontal flat plate is presented and the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) is employed to compute an approximation to the solution of the system of nonlinear differential equations governing on the problem. It has been attempted to show the capabilities and wide-range applications of the homotopy perturbation method in comparison with the previous ones in solving heat transfer problems. The obtained solutions, in comparison with the exact solutions admit a remarkable accuracy. A clear conclusion can be drawn from the numerical results that the HPM provides highly accurate numerical solutions for nonlinear differential equations.

6. Convective heat transfer in a micropolar fluid over an unsteady stretching surface

Prasad, K. V.; Vaidya, H.; Vajravelu, K.

2016-05-01

An unsteady boundary layer free convective flow and heat transfer of a viscous incompressible, microploar fluid over a vertical stretching sheet is investigated. The stretching velocity is assumed to vary linearly with the distance along the sheet. Two equal and opposite forces are impulsively applied along the x-axis so that the sheet is stretched, keeping the origin fixed in the micropolar fluid. The transformed highly non-linear boundary layer equations are solved numerically by an implicit finite difference scheme for the transient, state from the initial to the final steady-state. To validate the numerical method, comparisons are made with the available results in the literature for some special cases and the results are found to be in good agreement. The obtained numerical results are analyzed graphically for the velocity, the microrotation, and the temperature distribution; whereas the skin friction, the couple stress coefficient and the Nusselt number are tabulated for different values of the pertinent parameters. Results exhibit a drag reduction and an increase in the surface heat transfer rate in the micropolar fluid flow compared to the Newtonian fluid flow.

7. Transformation strain based method for characterization of convective heat transfer from shape memory alloy wires

While shape memory alloys (SMAs) have many actuation benefits, their frequencies are commonly restricted by slow cooling times caused by limitations in convective heat transfer. To increase the cooling speed and at the same time reduce excess power consumption from overheating, it is critical to understand the heat transfer from SMA wires. This requires accurate surface temperature measurement under a fixed input power, which is difficult to obtain using traditional methods because of the nature of SMAs (thin wires, large strains, heat activation, ambient environment, etc). This paper introduces a non-invasive technique for calculating the convective coefficient for SMAs by employing the temperature-induced transformation strain of SMAs to estimate the surface temperature. This method was experimentally validated for measurement of the convective coefficient in air where infrared cameras can operate, and then used to indirectly measure the convective coefficient across a range of commonly utilized SMA wire diameters and ambient media where traditional methods are limited. Formulated empirical correlations to the collected data provide a mathematical relationship to calculate the convective coefficient in material models which serve as better estimates of convection, and may be used for optimization of SMA actuators for increased frequency performance while ensuring that power draw is minimized

8. Laboratory grey cast iron continuous casting line with electromagnetic forced convection support

J. Szajnar

2010-07-01

Full Text Available The article describes the construction of a 20 mm diameter grey cast iron ingots continuous casting laboratory line. This line is made ofthree main units: melting unit (induction furnace, casting unit and the pulling unit. In order to improve the homogeneity of themicrostructure of ingots (by applying forced convection of liquid metal during the crystallization process in this case a crystallizer system generating the forced movement of liquid metal based on a system of electrical power windings of the AC specific frequency. Thissolution allowed to obtain a homogeneous microstructure of the continuous casting of cast iron EN-GJL-200 species.

9. Thermal histories of convective earth models and constraints on radiogenic heat production in the earth

Thermal histories have been calculated for simple models of the earth which assume that heat is transported by convection throughout the interior. The application of independent constraints to these solutions limits the acceptable range of the ratio of present radiogenic heat production in the earth to the present surface heat flux. The models use an empirical relation between the rate of convective heat transport and the temperature difference across a convecting fluid. This is combined with an approximate proportionality between effective mantle viscosity and T/sup -n/, where T is temperature and it is argued that n is about 30 throughout the mantle. The large value of n causes T to be strongly buffered against changes in the earth's energy budget and shortens by an order of magnitude the response time of surface heat flux to changes in energy budget as compared to less temperature-dependent heat transport mechanisms. Nevertheless, response times with n=30 are still as long as 1 or 2 b.y. Assuming that the present heat flux is entirely primordial (i.e., nonradiogenic) in a convective model leads back to unrealistically high temperatures about 1.7 b.y. ago. Inclusion of exponentially decaying (i.e., radiogenic) heat sources moves the high temperatures further into the past and leads to a transition from 'hot' to 'cool' calculated thermal histories for the case when the present rate of heat production is near 50% of the present rate of heat loss. Requiring the calculated histories to satisfy minimal geological constraints limits the present heat production/heat loss ratio to between about 0.3 and 0.85. Plausible stronger constraints narrow this range to between 0.45 and 0.65. These results are compatible with estimated radiogentic heat production rates in some meteorites and terrestrial rocks, with a whole-earth K/U ratio of 1--2 x 104 giving optimal agreement

10. Stability analysis of Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a cylinder with internal heat generation

Wang, Bo-Fu; Zhou, Lin; Wan, Zhen-Hua; Ma, Dong-Jun; Sun, De-Jun

2016-07-01

The flow instabilities of Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a cylinder with effect of uniform internal heat source are investigated numerically. The instabilities of the static state and of axisymmetric flows are investigated by linear stability analysis. The convection threshold depends on the strength of internal heat source q and the aspect ratio of the cylinder Γ . The stability of axisymmetric flows is strongly affected by these two parameters, as well as the Prandtl number Pr. Depending on the value of q , three regimes are identified: weak internal heating, moderate internal heating, and strong internal heating regime. In a weak internal heating regime, the instability characteristics are similar to Rayleigh-Bénard convection. In a moderate internal heating regime, intense interaction of buoyancy instability and hydrodynamic instability result in complex instability curves. When q is large enough, the internal heating effect overwhelms the boundary heating effect. Specifically, the influence of Pr on instability is studied at a moderate internal heat strength q =6.4 . An extremely multivalued stability curve is observed. At most five critical Rayleigh numbers can be determined for the axisymmetry-breaking instability at a certain Prandtl number. An axisymmetric unsteady instability mode is observed as well. By nonlinear simulation, the oscillatory flow patterns are obtained, and the axisymmetry-breaking bifurcation of the unsteady toroidal flow is studied.

11. Luminaries-level structure improvement of LEDs for heat dissipation enhancement under natural convection

Ke Wu; Le Wang; Yi-Bo Yu; Zhi-Yi Huang; Pei Liang

2013-12-01

Heat dissipation enhancement of LED luminaries is of great significance to the large-scale application of LED. Luminaries-level structure improvement by the method of boring through-hole is adopted to intensify heat dissipation. Furthermore, the natural convection heat transfer process of LED luminaries is simulated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model before and after the structural modification. As shown by computational results, boring through-hole is beneficial to develop bottomto-top natural convection, eliminate local circumfluence, and finally form better flow pattern. Analysis based on field synergy principle shows that boring through-hole across LED luminaries improves the synergy between flow field and temperature field, and effectively decreases the thermal resistance of luminaries-level heat dissipation structure. Under the same computational conditions, by luminaries-level structure improvement the highest temperature of heat sink is decreased by about 8° C and the average heat transfer coefficient is increased by 45.8%.

12. Numerical studies of convective heat transfer in an inclined semi-annular enclosure

Wang, L.-W.; Chai, A.-T.; Yung, C.-N.; Rashidnia, N.

1989-01-01

Natural convection heat transfer in a two-dimensional differentially heated semiannular enclosure is studied. The enclosure is isothermally heated and cooled at the inner and outer walls, respectively. A commercial software based on the SIMPLER algorithm was used to simulate the velocity and temperature profiles. Various parameters that affect the momentum and heat transfer processes were examined. These parameters include the Rayleigh number, Prandtl number, radius ratio, and the angle of inclination. A flow regime extending from conduction-dominated to convection-dominated flow was examined. The computed results of heat transfer are presented as a function of flow parameter and geometric factors. It is found that the heat transfer rate attains a minimum when the enclosure is tilted about +50 deg with respect to the gravitational direction.

13. Numerical studies of convective heat transfer in an inclined semiannular enclosure

Wang, Lin-Wen; Yung, Chain-Nan; Chai, An-Ti; Rashidnia, Nasser

1989-01-01

Natural convection heat transfer in a two-dimensional differentially heated semiannular enclosure is studied. The enclosure is isothermally heated and cooled at the inner and outer walls, respectively. A commercial software based on the SIMPLER algorithm was used to simulate the velocity and temperature profiles. Various parameters that affect the momentum and heat transfer processes were examined. These parameters include the Rayleigh number, Prandtl number, radius ratio, and the angle of inclination. A flow regime extending from conduction-dominated to convection-dominated flow was examined. The computed results of heat transfer are presented as a function of flow parameter and geometric factors. It is found that the heat transfer rate attains a minimum when the enclosure is tilted about +50 deg with respect to the gravitational direction.

14. NUMERICAL STUDY ON MIXED CONVECTIVE FLOW IN A SOLAR COLLECTOR

2002-01-01

In a solar energy heat collector forced convection and free convection will occur concurrently. In this paper, the mixed convective flow was investigated. The dimensionless equation was derived and the results was verified by experiments. The numerical solution shows that error is less than 5% if the effect of free convection is ignored.

15. Local Convective Boiling Heat Transfer And Pressure Drop Of Nanofluid In Narrow Rectangular Channels

Boudouh, Mounir; Gualous, Hasna Louahlia; De Labachelerie, Michel

2010-01-01

Abstract This paper reports an experimental study on convective boiling heat transfer of nanofluids and de-ionized water flowing in a multichannels. The test copper plate contains 50 parallel rectangular minichannels of hydraulic diameter 800 ?m. Experiments were performed to characterize the local heat transfer coefficients and surface temperature using copper-water nanofluids with very small nanoparticles concentration. Axial distribution of local heat transfer is estimated using...

16. Analysis of natural convective heat transfer of nano coated aluminium fins using Taguchi method

Senthilkumar, R.; Nandhakumar, A. J. D.; Prabhu, S.

2013-01-01

Rectangular aluminium fins were preferred for analysis and coated by carbon nano tubes using PVD to enhance the heat transfer rate of fins. Convective heat transfer rates for coated and non-coated surfaces were calculated and compared. The temperature and heat transfer characteristics were investigated using Nusselt, Grashof, Prandtl and Rayleigh numbers and also optimized by Taguchi method and ANOVA analysis. The average percentage of increase in fin efficiency is 5 %.

17. Combined effect of thermal dispersion and variable viscosity of non-darcy convection heat transfer in a fluidsaturated porous medium

El-Amin, Mohamed

2013-01-01

In this paper, the effects of thermal dispersion and variable viscosity on the non-Darcy free, mixed, and forced convection heat transfer along a vertical flat plate embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium are investigated. Forchheimer extension is employed in the flow equation to express the non-Darcy model. The fluid viscosity varies as an inverse linear function of temperature. The coefficient of thermal diffusivity has been assumed to be the sum of the molecular diffusivity and the dynamic diffusivity due to mechanical dispersion. Similarity solutions of the governing equations, for an isothermally heated plate, are obtained. Effects of the physical parameters, which govern the problem, on the rate of heat transfer in terms of Nusselt number, the slip velocity, and the boundary layer thickness, for the two cases Darcy and non-Darcy, are shown on graphs or entered in tables. © 2013 by Begell House, Inc.

18. Experimental study of cooling BIPV modules by forced convection in the air channel

Highlights: • An experimental setup for studying the effects of forced convection on cell temperature. • The induced velocity within the forced convection channel significantly affects the PV cooling. • Correlations for the Ross coefficient, module temperature, efficiency, and power output. • Prediction of the thermal behavior of the PV module in BIPV configurations. - Abstract: The efficiency of photovoltaic systems depends mainly on the cell temperature. Frequently, the PV collectors are installed on the top of the building. One cost effective method to regulate the temperature of rooftop integrated photovoltaic panels is to provide an open air channel beneath the panel. The cell temperature of these PV modules is very much influenced by the capability of ventilating this channel. The ventilation may be modified by different factors such as the wind velocity, the air gap size, and the forced convection induced by a fan or by a conventional air conditioning system. This paper describes an experimental setup to study the influence of the air gap size and the forced ventilation on the cell temperature (and consequently on the electrical efficiency of the PV module) of a BIPV configuration, for different values of the incident solar radiation, ambient temperatures, and aspect ratios, as well as for several forced ventilation conditions. Semi empirical correlations for the Ross coefficient, module temperature, electrical efficiency, and power output are proposed, showing a good agreement with respect to experimental measurements. A critical channel aspect ratio close to 0.11 can be considered to minimize overheating of PV devices. For a duct velocity Vv = 6 m/s, a power output increase of 19% is observed over the natural ventilation case (Vv = 0.5 m/s)

19. Mathematical Simulation of Convective Heat Transfer in the Low-Temperature Storage of Liquefied Natural Gas

Shestakov Igor A.

2015-01-01

Full Text Available The article shows the results of mathematical modeling of convective heat transfer in the low-temperature storage of liquefied natural gas. Regime of natural convection in an enclosure with different intensity of the heat flux at the external borders are investigated. Was examined two-dimensional nonstationary problem within the model of Navier-Stokes in dimensionless variables “vorticity - stream function - temperature”. Distributions of hydrodynamic parameters and temperatures that characterize the basic regularities of the processes are obtained. Circulating flows are determined and carried out the analysis of vortices formation mechanism and the temperature distribution in solution at conditions of natural convection when the Grashof number (Gr = 106. A significant influence of heat transfer rate on solutions boundary on flow structure and temperature field in LNG storage tanks.

20. Evaluation of convective heat transfer coefficient of various crops in cyclone type dryer

Akpinar, E. Kavak [Mechanical Engineering Department, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)]. E-mail: eakpinar@firat.edu.tr

2005-09-15

In this paper, an attempt was made to evaluate the convective heat transfer coefficient during drying of various crops and to investigate the influences of drying air velocity and temperature on the convective heat transfer coefficient. Drying was conducted in a convective cyclone type dryer at drying air temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 deg. C and velocities of 1 and 1.5 m/s using rectangle shaped potato and apple slices (12.5 x 12.5 x 25 mm) and cylindrical shaped pumpkin slices (35 x 5 mm). The temperature changes of the dried crops and the temperature of the drying air were measured during the drying process. It was found that the values of convective heat transfer coefficient varied from crop to crop with a range 30.21406 and 20.65470 W/m{sup 2} C for the crops studied, and it was observed that the convective heat transfer coefficient increased in large amounts with the increase of the drying air velocity but increased in small amounts with the rise of the drying air temperature.

1. Evaluation of convective heat transfer coefficient of various crops in cyclone type dryer

In this paper, an attempt was made to evaluate the convective heat transfer coefficient during drying of various crops and to investigate the influences of drying air velocity and temperature on the convective heat transfer coefficient. Drying was conducted in a convective cyclone type dryer at drying air temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 deg. C and velocities of 1 and 1.5 m/s using rectangle shaped potato and apple slices (12.5 x 12.5 x 25 mm) and cylindrical shaped pumpkin slices (35 x 5 mm). The temperature changes of the dried crops and the temperature of the drying air were measured during the drying process. It was found that the values of convective heat transfer coefficient varied from crop to crop with a range 30.21406 and 20.65470 W/m2 C for the crops studied, and it was observed that the convective heat transfer coefficient increased in large amounts with the increase of the drying air velocity but increased in small amounts with the rise of the drying air temperature

2. Consistent calculation of heat fluxes through solid boundaries applied to natural convection problems

Calculations of heat fluxes through cooled/heated walls from CFD results have become of great importance in many industrial applications. The objective of this work is to present a consistent numerical technique to compute heat fluxes through isothermal boundaries. In the present paper, we consider a stabilized PSPG/SUPG finite element scheme for the steady Navier-Stokes equations for variable density flows. Three variants are considered which differ by the treatment of the convective terms in the momentum and energy equations, i.e. a convective formulation, a corrected convective formulation and a conservative formulation. A pseudo Newton method is employed as non linear solver. A numerical technique to compute the boundary heat fluxes consistent with the finite element formulation is then presented, as well as the expression obtained using the gradient of the finite element approximation Th To illustrate the effect of the formulation, numerical simulations of natural convection of air in 2D and 3D cubic cavities with large temperature differences between opposite walls are carried out. The effects of the finite element formulation, of the expression for the calculation of the heat flux and of mesh refinement are presented. The results demonstrate the superior accuracy and convergence of the proposed numerical technique for the heat flux computation.

3. Effects of Nonequilibrium at Edge of Boundary Layer on Convective Heat Transfer to a Blunt Body

Goekcen, Tahir; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

This investigation is a continuation of a previous study on nonequilibrium convective heat transfer to a blunt body. In the previous study, for relatively high Reynolds number flows, it was found that: nonequilibrium convective heat transfer to a blunt body is not strongly dependent on freestream parameters, provided that the thermochemical equilibrium is reached at the edge of boundary layer; and successful testing of convective heat transfer in an arc-jet environment is possible by duplicating the surface pressure and total enthalpy. The nonequilibrium convective heat transfer computations are validated against the results of Fay and Riddell/Goulard theory. Present work investigates low Reynolds number conditions which are typical in an actual arc-jet flow environment. One expects that there will be departures from the Fay and Riddell/Goulard result since certain assumptions of the classical theory are not satisfied. These departures are of interest because the Fay and Riddell/Goulard formulas are extensively used in arc-jet testing (e.g., to determine the enthalpy of the flow and the catalytic efficiency of heat shield materials). For practical sizes of test materials, density of the test flow (and Reynolds number) in an arc-jet is such that thermochemical equilibrium may not be reached at the edge of boundary layer. For blunt body flows of nitrogen and air, computations will be presented to show the effects of thermochemical nonequilibrium at the boundary layer edge on nonequilibrium heat transfer.

4. Thermal Sizing of Heat Exchanger Tubes for Air Natural Convective Cooling System of Emergency Cooling Tank

For the long operation of secondary passive cooling system, however, water level goes down by evaporation in succession at emergency cooling tank. At the end there would be no place to dissipate heat from condensation heat exchanger. Therefore, steam cooling heat exchanger is put on the top of emergency cooling tank to maintain appropriate water level by collecting evaporating steam. Steam cooling heat exchanger is installed inside an air chimney and evaporated steam is cooled down by air natural convection. In this study, thermal sizing of steam cooling heat exchanger under air natural convection was conducted by TSCON program for the design of experimental setup as shown in Fig. 2. Thermal sizing of steam cooling heat exchanger tube under air natural convection was conducted by TSCON program for the design of experimental setup. 25 - 1' tubes which has a length 1687 mm was determined as steam cooling heat exchanger at 2 kW heat load and 100 liter water pool in emergency cooling tank (experimental limit condition). The corresponding width of two tubes is 50 mm and has 5 by 5 tube array for heat exchanger

5. Simplified Modelling of the Infrared Heating Involving the Air Convection Effect before the Injection Stretch Blowing Moulding of PET Preform

Luo, Y; Chevalier, Luc; Utheza, Françoise; Nicolas, Xavier

2014-01-01

International audience Initial heating conditions and temperature effects (heat transfer with air and mould, self-heating, conduction) have important influence during the ISBM process of PET preforms. The numerical simulation of infrared (IR) heating taking into account the air convection around a PET preform is very time-consuming even for 2D modelling. This work proposes a simplified approach of the coupled heat transfers (conduction, convection and radiation) in the ISBM process based o...

6. Heat Transfer Analysis of Passive Residual Heat Removal Heat Exchanger under Natural Convection Condition in Tank

Qiming Men

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Aiming at the heat transfer calculation of the Passive Residual Heat Removal Heat Exchanger (PRHR HX, experiments on the heat transfer of C-shaped tube immerged in a water tank were performed. Comparisons of different correlation in literatures with the experimental data were carried out. It can be concluded that the Dittus-Boelter correlation provides a best-estimate fit with the experimental results. The average error is about 0.35%. For the tube outside, the McAdams correlations for both horizontal and vertical regions are best-estimated. The average errors are about 0.55% for horizontal region and about 3.28% for vertical region. The tank mixing characteristics were also investigated in present work. It can be concluded that the tank fluid rose gradually which leads to a thermal stratification phenomenon.

7. Estimation of Heating Device‘s Convective Heat Transfer of Heat Supply Systems with Rotational Heat Generator

A. Nesenchuk

2014-09-01

Full Text Available In this article, on the base of heat exchange analysis in heat supply systems with rotational heat generator, a calculated formula for estimation of heat transfer from the surface of heating device is obtained, taking into account its probability (random orientation in space. It is shown the most probable position of heating devices in heating system of mobile object.

8. Estimation of Heating Device‘s Convective Heat Transfer of Heat Supply Systems with Rotational Heat Generator

A. Nesenchuk; I. Iokova; T. Rizova; P. Lasij; D. Shklovchik; Z. Aidarova

2014-01-01

In this article, on the base of heat exchange analysis in heat supply systems with rotational heat generator, a calculated formula for estimation of heat transfer from the surface of heating device is obtained, taking into account its probability (random) orientation in space. It is shown the most probable position of heating devices in heating system of mobile object.

9. Evaluation of T-111 forced-convection loop tested with lithium at 13700C

A T-111 alloy (Ta--8 percent W--2 percent Hf) forced-convection loop containing molten lithium was operated 3000 h at a maximum temperature of 13700C. Flow velocities up to 6.3 m/s were used. The results obtained in this forced-convection loop are very similar to those observed in lower velocity thermal-convection loops of T-111 containing lithium. Weight changes were determined at 93 positions around the loop. The maximum dissolution rate occurred at the maximum wall temperature of the loop and was less than 1.3 μ m/year. Mass transfer of hafnium, nitrogen, and, to a lesser extent, carbon occurred from the hotter to cooler regions. Exposed surfaces in the highest temperature region were found to be depleted in hafnium to a depth of 60 μ m with no detectable change in tungsten content. There was some loss in room-temperature tensile strength for specimens exposed to lithium at 13700C, attributable to depletion of hafnium and nitrogen and to attendant grain growth. (U.S.)

10. Numerical study of natural convection of a heat-generating fluid in nuclear reactor safety problems

Unsteady natural convection of a heat-generating fluid in axisymmetric enclosures (cylindrical and downward-facing hemispherical) with isothermal walls is investigated numerically in the present work. This problem is considered from the stand point of solving the problem of molten corium retention at the vessel bottom of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The peculiarities of convective heat transfer are studied in a wide range of Prandtl and Rayleigh numbers for laminar and transitional to turbulence regimes of fluid motion. The turbulent regime is not considered in this study. The predictions are compared with the numerical and experimental results of other scientists. (author)

11. Numerical Study of Laminar Flow Forced Convection of Water-Al2O3 Nanofluids under Constant Wall Temperature Condition

Hsien-Hung Ting

2015-01-01

Full Text Available This numerical study is aimed at investigating the forced convection heat transfer and flow characteristics of water-based Al2O3 nanofluids inside a horizontal circular tube in the laminar flow regime under the constant wall temperature boundary condition. Five volume concentrations of nanoparticle, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 vol.%, are used and diameter of nanoparticle is 40 nm. Characteristics of heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt number, and pressure drop are reported. The results show that heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids increases with increasing Reynolds number or particle volume concentration. The heat transfer coefficient of the water-based nanofluid with 2 vol.% Al2O3 nanoparticles is enhanced by 32% compared with that of pure water. Increasing particle volume concentration causes an increase in pressure drop. At 2 vol.% of particle concentration, the pressure drop reaches a maximum that is nearly 5.7 times compared with that of pure water. It is important to note that the numerical results are in good agreement with published experimental data.

12. A methodology to determine boundary conditions from forced convection experiments using liquid crystal thermography

2016-05-01

This paper reports the results of an experimental study to estimate the heat flux and convective heat transfer coefficient using liquid crystal thermography and Bayesian inference in a heat generating sphere, enclosed in a cubical Teflon block. The geometry considered for the experiments comprises a heater inserted in a hollow hemispherical aluminium ball, resulting in a volumetric heat generation source that is placed at the center of the Teflon block. Calibrated thermochromic liquid crystal sheets are used to capture the temperature distribution at the front face of the Teflon block. The forward model is the three dimensional conduction equation which is solved within the Teflon block to obtain steady state temperatures, using COMSOL. Match up experiments are carried out for various velocities by minimizing the residual between TLC and simulated temperatures for every assumed loss coefficient, to obtain a correlation of average Nusselt number against Reynolds number. This is used for prescribing the boundary condition for the solution to the forward model. A surrogate model obtained by artificial neural network built upon the data from COMSOL simulations is used to drive a Markov Chain Monte Carlo based Metropolis Hastings algorithm to generate the samples. Bayesian inference is adopted to solve the inverse problem for determination of heat flux and heat transfer coefficient from the measured temperature field. Point estimates of the posterior like the mean, maximum a posteriori and standard deviation of the retrieved heat flux and convective heat transfer coefficient are reported. Additionally the effect of number of samples on the performance of the estimation process has been investigated.

13. Numerical analysis of natural convection heat transfer in the shielded canister for the spent fuel

PHOENICS-3.2, a three-dimension CFD code is used to research the natural convection heat transfer characters in the horizontal dry shielded canister for the spent fuel assemblies. The computational results are compared with the published experimental and computational results. The results are satisfactory. The parameters of 200 MW Nuclear Heating Reactor are used in the calculations to study the feasibility of the dry shielded canister's application in Nuclear Heating Reactor. Nitrogen and water are chosen as working fluid. In comparison of the heat transfer results of these two kinds of working fluids, nitrogen and water it is found that water is the better choice for Nuclear Heating Reactor

14. Determining convective heat transfer coefficient using phoenics software package

Kostikov, A.; Matsevity, Y. [Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov (Ukraine)

1997-12-31

The two methods of determination of such important quantity of heat exchange on a body surface using PHOENICS are suggested in the presentation. The first method consists in a post-processing of results of conjugate heat transfer problem solved by PHOENICS. The second one is solving an inverse heat conduction problem for solid body using PHOENICS. Comparative characteristic of these two methods is represented. (author) 4 refs.

15. Direct numerical simulation and modeling of turbulent natural convection in a vertical differentially heated slot

The main objectives of this thesis are the direct numerical simulation of natural convection in a vertical differentially heated slot and the improvements of second-order turbulence modelling. A three-dimensional direct numerical simulation code has been developed in order to gain a better understanding of turbulence properties in natural convection flows. This code has been validated in several physical configurations: non-stratified natural convection flows (conduction solution), stratified natural convection flows (double boundary layer solution), transitional and turbulent Poiseuille flows. For the conduction solution, the turbulent regime was reached at a Rayleigh number of 1*105 and 5.4*105. A detailed analysis of these results has revealed the principal qualities of the available models but has also pointed our their shortcomings. This data base has been used in order to improve the triple correlations transport models and to select the turbulent time scales suitable for such flows. (author). 122 refs., figs., tabs., 4 appends

16. Analysis of a convection loop for GFR post-LOCA decay heat removal

A computer code (LOCA-COLA) has been developed at MIT for steady state analysis of convective heat transfer loops. In this work, it is used to investigate an external convection loop for decay heat removal of a post-LOCA gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR). The major finding is that natural circulation cooling of the GFR is feasible under certain circumstances. Both helium and CO2 cooled system components are found to operate in the mixed convection regime, the effects of which are noticeable as heat transfer enhancement or degradation. It is found that CO2 outdoes helium under identical natural circulation conditions. Decay heat removal is found to have a quadratic dependence on pressure in the laminar flow regime and linear dependence in the turbulent flow regime. Other parametric studies have been performed as well. In conclusion, convection cooling loops are a credible means for GFR decay heat removal and LOCA-COLA is an effective tool for steady state analysis of cooling loops. (authors)

17. Numerical simulation heat transfer by natural convection in liquid metal with a sinusoidal temperature

Missoum, Abdelkrim; Elmir, Mohamed; Bouanini, Mohamed; Belkacem, Abdellah; Draoui, Belkacem

2016-03-01

This study focuses on the numerical simulation of heat transfer by natural convection in a rectangular enclosure, filled with a liquid metal (low Prandtl number) partially heated from below with a sinusoidal temperature. The value of the study lies in its involvement in the crystal growth for the manufacture of semiconductors and electronics cooling. Indeed, the occurrence of convection during crystal growth can lead to in homogeneities that lead to striations and defects that affect the quality of the crystals obtained by the Bridgman techniques or Chochrawlski. Temperature of the oscillations, due to the instabilities of the convective flow in the liquid metal, also induces non-uniform cooling in the solidification front. Convection is then studied in order to reduce it. A modelling of the problem in two dimensions was conducted using Comsol computer code that is based on the finite element method, by varying the configuration of the control parameters, namely, the Rayleigh number, the nature of fluid (Prandtl number) and amplitude of temperature on heat transfer rate (Nusselt number) on convective structures that appear.

18. Natural convection heat transfer from a long heated vertical cylinder to an adjacent air gap of concentric and eccentric conditions

Hosseini, R.; Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Alipour, M.; Rosendahl, Lasse

2012-01-01

In this work, the natural convection heat transfer from a long vertical electrically heated cylinder to an adjacent air gap is experimentally studied. The aspect and diameter ratios of the cylinder are 55.56 and 6.33, respectively. The experimental measurements were obtained for a concentric...... condition and six eccentricities from 0.1 to 0.92 at five different heat fluxes. The surface temperature of the heated rod is measured at different heights, and the Nusselt number is calculated at the temperature measurement locations. A correlation is suggested to determine the Nusselt number based on the...

19. Mixed Convection Flow and Heat Transfer of Micropolar Fluid in a Vertical Channel with Symmetric and Asymmetric Wall Heating Conditions

Patil Mallikarjun B; Chandrali Baishya

2016-01-01

Analytical solutions for fully developed mixed convection flow of a micro polar fluid with heat generation or heat absorption in a parallel plate vertical channel with symmetric and asymmetric wall temperature distribution has been presented. The two boundaries of the channel are kept either at equal or at different temperatures as isothermal-isothermal, isoflux-isothermal and isothermal-isoflux cases. Reverse flow conditions are observed with increase in micro vortex viscosity. M...

20. Convective and conduction heat transfer study on a mig-type electron gun

A convective and conducting heat transfer study of a magnetron injection electron gun has been made to minimize the temperature distribution in the gun elements while keeping the required operating temperature at 10000 C of the emitter. Appropriate materials were selected to reduce thermal losses and to improve the gun design from a constructional point of view aiming at extending the capabilities of the electron gun. A thermal probe to determine the air velocity and the convective heat transfer coefficient has been constructed to determine the external boundary condition of the ceramic shell and external flanges. A study the contact resistance for all the gun elements has been made to minimize the conduction thermal losses. A software has been used to simulate a thermal model considering the three processes of thermal transfer, namely, conduction, convection and radiation and the influence of the physical properties of the materials used. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

1. Experimental study for convective heat transfer of staged tube bundles

The lack of potable water is one of the most serious problems the world is facing at present. SMART which is a 330 MWt advanced integral PWR, was developed by the KAERI for electricity generation and seawater desalination. SMART adopted a passive system to enhance its safety. The passive system can passively remove a decay heat from a reactor core to an emergency cooldown tank through the heat exchanger. Tube bundles of the heat exchanger, which is submerged in an emergency cooldown tank, transfer heat to an emergency cooldown tank by natural circulation. Heat transfer tests for the upward straight tube bundle were performed to confirm the capability of the SMART design under natural circulation conditions. The heat transfer at the tube bundle was affected by the fluid temperature in the emergency cooldown tank and the radial location of tube bundle. However, it had nearly the same value at the inlet region regardless of the tube location. The average heat transfer at the tube bundle was slightly higher than that at the single tube. (author)

2. Micro-channel convective boiling heat transfer with flow instabilities

Flow boiling heat transfer in micro-channels has attracted much interest in the past decade, and is currently a strong candidate for high performance compact heat sinks, such as those required in electronics systems, automobile air conditioning units, micro-reactors, fuel cells, etc. Currently the literature presents numerous experimental studies on two-phase heat transfer in micro-channels, providing an extensive database that covers many different fluids and operating conditions. Among the noteworthy elements that have been reported in previous studies, is the sensitivity of micro-channel evaporators to oscillatory two-phase instabilities. These periodic fluctuations in flow and pressure drop either result from the presence of upstream compressibility, or are simply due to the interaction among parallel channels in multi-port systems. An oscillating flow presents singular characteristics that are expected to produce an effect on the local heat transfer mechanisms, and thus on the estimation of the two-phase heat transfer coefficients. The present investigation illustrates results for flow boiling of refrigerants R-134a, R-236fa, and R-245fa in a 510 μm circular micro-channel, exposed to various degrees of oscillatory compressible volume instabilities. The data describe the main features of the fluctuations in the temperatures of the heated wall and fluid, and draw attention to the differences in the measured unstable time-averaged heat transfer coefficients with respect to those for stable flow boiling. (author)

3. Diffusion, Fluxes, Friction Forces, and Joule Heating in Two-Temperature Multicomponent Magnetohydrodynamics

Chang, C. H.

1999-01-01

The relationship between Joule heating, diffusion fluxes, and friction forces has been studied for both total and electron thermal energy equations, using general expressions for multicomponent diffusion in two-temperature plasmas with the velocity dependent Lorentz force acting on charged species in a magnetic field. It is shown that the derivation of Joule heating terms requires both diffusion fluxes and friction between species which represents the resistance experienced by the species moving at different relative velocities. It is also shown that the familiar Joule heating term in the electron thermal energy equation includes artificial effects produced by switching the convective velocity from the species velocity to the mass-weighted velocity, and thus should not be ignored even when there is no net energy dissipation.

4. Dynamos driven by weak thermal convection and heterogeneous outer boundary heat flux

Sahoo, Swarandeep; Sreenivasan, Binod; Amit, Hagay

2016-01-01

We use numerical dynamo models with heterogeneous core-mantle boundary (CMB) heat flux to show that lower mantle lateral thermal variability may help support a dynamo under weak thermal convection. In our reference models with homogeneous CMB heat flux, convection is either marginally supercritical or absent, always below the threshold for dynamo onset. We find that lateral CMB heat flux variations organize the flow in the core into patterns that favour the growth of an early magnetic field. Heat flux patterns symmetric about the equator produce non-reversing magnetic fields, whereas anti-symmetric patterns produce polarity reversals. Our results may explain the existence of the geodynamo prior to inner core nucleation under a tight energy budget. Furthermore, in order to sustain a strong geomagnetic field, the lower mantle thermal distribution was likely dominantly symmetric about the equator.

5. The Reynolds analogy for the mixed convection over a vertical surface with prescribed heat flux

Magyari, E.; Pop, I.

2009-03-01

The steady mixed convection boundary layer flow over a vertical surface with prescribed heat flux is revisited in this Note. The subset of solutions which can be obtained with the aid of the Reynolds analogy is discussed in a close relationship with the dual solutions reported by Merkin and Mahmood [1] for impermeable, and more recently by Ishak et al. [2], for permeable surfaces.

6. An analytical solution to the one-dimensional heat conduction-convection equation in soil

Heat transfer in soil occurs by conduction and convection. Infiltrating water affects soil temperature distributions, and measuring soil temperature distributions below infiltrating water can provide a signal for the flux of water. In earlier work a sine wave function (hereinafter referred to as the...

7. Reinforcing Concepts of Transient Heat Conduction and Convection with Simple Experiments and COMSOL Simulations

Mendez, Sergio; AungYong, Lisa

2014-01-01

To help students make the connection between the concepts of heat conduction and convection to real-world phenomenon, we developed a combined experimental and computational module that can be incorporated into lecture or lab courses. The experimental system we present requires materials and apparatus that are readily accessible, and the procedure…

8. Industrial Application of Topology Optimization for Combined Conductive and Convective Heat Transfer Problems

Zhou, Mingdong; Alexandersen, Joe; Sigmund, Ole;

2016-01-01

This paper presents an industrial application of topology optimization for combined conductive and convective heat transfer problems. The solution is based on a synergy of computer aided design and engineering software tools from Dassault Systemes. The considered physical problem of steady...... conceptual design proposals. Several design examples with verication results are presented to demonstrate the applicability....

9. Use of Artificial Neural Networks for Prediction of Convective Heat Transfer in Evaporative Units

Romero-Méndez Ricardo

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Convective heat transfer prediction of evaporative processes is more complicated than the heat transfer prediction of single-phase convective processes. This is due to the fact that physical phenomena involved in evaporative processes are very complex and vary with the vapor quality that increases gradually as more fluid is evaporated. Power-law correlations used for prediction of evaporative convection have proved little accuracy when used in practical cases. In this investigation, neural-network-based models have been used as a tool for prediction of the thermal performance of evaporative units. For this purpose, experimental data were obtained in a facility that includes a counter-flow concentric pipes heat exchanger with R134a refrigerant flowing inside the circular section and temperature controlled warm water moving through the annular section. This work also included the construction of an inverse Rankine refrigeration cycle that was equipped with measurement devices, sensors and a data acquisition system to collect the experimental measurements under different operating conditions. Part of the data were used to train several neural-network configurations. The best neural-network model was then used for prediction purposes and the results obtained were compared with experimental data not used for training purposes. The results obtained in this investigation reveal the convenience of using artificial neural networks as accurate predictive tools for determining convective heat transfer rates of evaporative processes.

10. Experiments of natural convection to evaluate heat transfer in the spent fuel dry storage facilities

This paper describes heat transfer characteristics of natural convection in three kinds of storage facility: cask, vault and silo systems. Experiments of measuring velocity and temperature profiles in the boundary layer were performed. With these results, the performance of each storage containers been evaluated. (author)

11. Experimental study of drying kinetics by forced convection of aromatic plants

Belghit, A.; Boutaleb, B.C. [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et Energetique, Marrakech (Morocco). Faculte des Sciences Semlalia; Kouhila, M. [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire, Marrakech (Morocco). Ecole Normale Superieure

2000-08-01

This paper has the objectives to determine the isotherms of sorption and the drying kinetics of verbena, which is the most consumed aromatic plant in Morocco. The experiments undertaken consist of examining the effects of drying air velocity, temperature of drying air and air moisture content on the drying kinetics of verbena in a laboratory drying tunnel working by forced convection. The results verified, with good reproducibility, that temperature is the main factor in controlling the rate of drying. The expression of the drying rate is determined empirically from the characteristic curve of drying. (author)

12. Solar drying of whole mint plant under natural and forced convection

Y.I. Sallam; ALY, M. H.; A.F. Nassar; Mohamed, E. A.

2015-01-01

Two identical prototype solar dryers (direct and indirect) having the same dimensions were used to dry whole mint. Both prototypes were operated under natural and forced convection modes. In the case of the later one the ambient air was entered the dryer with the velocity of 4.2 m s−1. The effect of flow mode and the type of solar dryers on the drying kinetics of whole mint were investigated. Ten empirical models were used to fit the drying curves; nine of them represented well the solar dryi...

13. A perturbation solution for forced convection in a porous-saturated duct

Hooman, K.

2008-01-01

Fully developed forced convection through a porous medium bounded by two isoflux parallel plates is investigated analytically on the basis of a Brinkman-Forchheimer model. The matched asymptotic expansion method is applied for small values of the Darcy number. For the case of large Darcy number the solution for the Brinkman-Forchheimer momentum equation is found in terms of an asymptotic expansion. With the velocity distribution determined, the energy equation is solved using the same asymptotic technique. The results for limiting cases are found to be in good agreement with those available in the literature and the numerical results obtained here.

14. Thermal modeling of the forced convection Sandwich Greenhouse drying system for rubber sheets

Highlights: • Sandwich Greenhouse is designed for better quality and efficiency of rubber sheet drying. • Thermal models are developed to predict the convection heat transfer coefficient. • The models are validated and show good agreement with the actual experimental data. • The proposed greenhouse can maintain 40–60 °C, suitable for rubber sheet drying. • This greenhouse can bring down the moisture content to 2.8% in fewer than 2 days. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel “Sandwich Greenhouse” for rubber sheet drying is proposed. Using solar energy as the only heat source instead of traditional smoke house that requires firewood, it eliminates shortcomings such as skilled labor monitoring requirement, possible fire hazard, and darken-color rubber sheets due to soot particle contamination. Our greenhouse is specially designed to retain solar energy within, while minimizing the heat loss to the outside environment. The mathematical models are developed to predict the convection mass transfer coefficient and to study the thermal behavior during the drying of rubber sheets under our proposed greenhouse design. Validated with experimental observations, the models show good agreement with the actual experimental data. The experiment demonstrates an effectiveness of our proposed Sandwich Greenhouse, as the temperature of the rubber sheet is 15 °C and 5 °C higher than the ambient temperature during the daytime and nighttime, respectively. As a result, the moisture content of the rubber sheets can decrease from 36.4% to 2.8% in fewer than 2 days

15. Influence of the convective surface transfer coefficients on the Heat, Air, and Moisture (HAM) building performance

Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten

2009-01-01

Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in buildings assume constant boundary conditions for the temperature and relative humidity of the neighbouring air and for the surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients. These assumptions may introduce errors in the predicted...... HAM conditions. The paper focuses on the influence of the interior surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients, and investigates its effect on the hygrothermal performance. The parameter study showed that the magnitude of the convective surface transfer coefficients have a relatively large...... influence on the predicted hygrothermal conditions at the surface of a building component and on the heat and vapour exchange with the indoor environment....

16. Parametric numerical investigaion of natural convection in a heat-generating fluid with phase transitions

Aksenova, A.E.; Chudanov, V.V.; Strizhov, V.F.; Vabishchevich, P.N. [Institute of Nuclear Safety Russian Academy Science, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-09-01

Unsteady natural convection of a heat-generating fluid with phase transitions in the enclosures of a square section with isothermal rigid walls is investigated numerically for a wide range of dimensionless parameters. The quasisteady state solutions of conjugate heat and mass transfer problem are compared with available experimental results. Correlation relations for heat flux distributions at the domain boundaries depending on Rayleigh and Ostrogradskii numbers are obtained. It is shown that generally heat transfer is governed both by natural circulation and crust formation phenomena. Results of this paper may be used for analysis of experiments with prototypic core materials.

17. Burnout experiment in subcooled forced-convection boiling of water for beam dumps of a high power neutral beam injector

Experimental studies were made on burnout heat flux in highly subcooled forced-convection boiling of water for the design of beam dumps of a high power neutral beam injector for Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokamak-60. These dumps are composed of many circular tubes with two longitudinal fins. The tube was irradiated with nonuniformly distributed hydrogen ion beams of 120 to 200 kW for as long as 10 s. The coolant water was circulated at flow velocities of 3 to 7.5 m/s at exit pressures of 0.4 to 0.9 MPa. The burnout and film-boiling data were obtained at local heat fluxes of 8 to 15 MW/m2. These values were as high as 2.5 times larger than those for the circumferentially uniform heat flux case with the same parameters. These data showed insensitivity to local subcooling as well as to pressure, and simple burnout correlations were derived. From these results, the beam dumps have been designed to receive energetic beam fluxes of as high as 5 MW/m2 with a margin of a factor of 2 for burnout

18. Two-phase numerical model for thermal conductivity and convective heat transfer in nanofluids

Kondaraju Sasidhar; Lee Joon Sang

2011-01-01

Abstract Due to the numerous applications of nanofluids, investigating and understanding of thermophysical properties of nanofluids has currently become one of the core issues. Although numerous theoretical and numerical models have been developed by previous researchers to understand the mechanism of enhanced heat transfer in nanofluids; to the best of our knowledge these models were limited to the study of either thermal conductivity or convective heat transfer of nanofluids. We have develo...

19. MHD unsteady free convective Walter’s memory flow with constant suction and heat sink

M. V. Ramana Murthy; G. Noushima Humera; Rafiuddin,; M. Chenna Krishan Reddy

2007-01-01

The study of unsteady hydromagnetic free convective memory flow of incompressible and electrically conducting fluids past an infinite vertical porous plate in the presence of constant suction and heat absorbing sinks have been made. Approximate solutions have been derived for the mean velocity, mean temperature, mean skin-friction and mean rate of heat transfer using multi-parameter perturbation technique. It is observed that magnetic field strength decreases the mean velocity of the fluid. A...

20. Convective Heat Transfer Enhancement in Nanofluids: Real Anomaly or Analysis Artifact?

Prabhat, Naveen; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen

2012-01-01

The nanofluid literature contains many claims of anomalous convective heat transfer enhancement in both turbulent and laminar flow. To put such claims to the test, we have performed a critical detailed analysis of the database reported in 12 nanofluid papers (8 on laminar flow and 4 on turbulent flow). The methodology accounted for both modeling and experimental uncertainties in the following way. The heat transfer coefficient for any given data set was calculated according to the established...

1. MHD Free Convection from an Isothermal Truncated Cone with Variable Viscosity and Internal Heat Generation (Absorption)

A.H.Srinivasa,; A.T. Eswara

2016-01-01

This paper presents a study of MHD free convection flow of an electrically conducting incompressible fluid with variable viscosity about an isothermal truncated cone in the presence of heat generation or absorption. The fluid viscosity is assumed to vary as a inverse linear function of temperature. The non-linear coupled partial differential equations governing the flow and heat transfer have been solved numerically by using an implicit finite - difference scheme along with quasil...

2. Free Convective Heat Transfer From A Vertical Surface For The Case Of Linearly Varying Thermal Potential

Parvataneni

2013-01-01

The present theoretical investigation deals with the problem of free convective heat transfer from a vertical plate having linear temperature gradient along its surface to the surrounding thermally stratified fluid. Integral method of analysis is adopted to investigate the effect of four parameters viz., the gradients of temperature in the fluid and the wall, Grashof number and Prandtl number on heat transfer coefficients. It is observed from the numerical results that an increase in the su...

3. Natural convection of the localized heat sources of T-shaped nanofluid-filled enclosures

Mansour, M. A.

2013-01-01

Natural convection fluid flow and heat transfer inside T-shaped enclosures filled with Cu-Waternanofluid has been investigated numerically using finite difference method. A parametric study was conducted and effects of pertinent parameters such as Rayleigh number, the aspect ratio of the T-shaped enclosure, and the volume fraction of the Cu nanoparticles on the flow and temperature fields and the rate of heat transfer inside the enclosure were investigated. It was found from the obtained resu...

4. Longwave Marangoni convection in a binary liquid layer heated from above: weakly nonlinear analysis

Shklyaev, Sergey [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm 614013 (Russian Federation); Nepomnyashchy, Alexander A, E-mail: nepom@math.technion.ac.il, E-mail: shklyaev@yandex.ru [Department of Mathematics, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2014-08-01

Nonlinear regime of longwave surface-tension-driven convection in a layer of binary mixture heated from above is considered. Under the assumption of the small Biot number, which corresponds to the almost heat insulated free surface, we derive the nonlocal amplitude equation. Analysis of pattern selection demonstrates that hexagons emerge subcritically and up-hexagons are stable within the entire domain of their existence. Squares become stable if the absolute value of the Marangoni number exceeds a certain value. (paper)

5. CFD numerical simulation of air natural convection over a heated cylindrical surface

Flori, M.; Vîlceanu, L.

2015-06-01

In this study a CFD numerical simulation is used to describe the fluid flow and heat transfer in air surrounding a heated horizontal cylinder. The model is created in 2D space dimension involving a finite element solver of Navier-Stokes equations. As natural convection phenomenon is induced by a variable fluid density field with temperature rising, the Boussinesq approximation was coupled to the model.

6. Evaluation of heat removal system by natural convection in spent fuel dry storage facilities

To use dry storage technology in a large capacity storage facility, it is necessary to have an optimum heat removal design. To optimize such a design, it is important to evaluate the natural cooling efficiency and the limit of the cooling system by natural convection, and to establish the analytical method. For the purposes of this study, the evaluation method of a heat removal system at the cask, vault and silo storage facility is developed. 3 figs

7. Thermal performance of a porus radial fin with natural convection and radiative heat losses

Darvishi M.T.

2015-01-01

Full Text Available An analytic (series solution is developed to describe the thermal performance of a porous radial fin with natural convection in the fluid saturating the fin and radiation heat loss from the top and bottom surfaces of the fin. The HAM results for the temperature distribution and base heat flux are compared with the direct numerical results and found to be very accurate.

8. Numerical simulation considering an entrainment on a natural convection boundary layer along a vertical heated wall

Fire models use a wall function in the calculation of the heat transfer rate between the heated wall and a fluid. The function is constructed from the empirical properties in a natural convection boundary layer along a vertical plate. It is effective in the view of time-saving for calculations; however, the heat transfer rate of the natural convection boundary layer is not simple as the functions because a laminar, turbulent and transition regions coexist. With the growth of computational resources, the near-wall region, where the wall function is no more effective, will be directly resolved. This report focuses on the accuracy of the large eddy simulation on the natural convection boundary layer without the use of the wall function. As a result, the transition region from laminar to turbulent flow fairly depended on the grid resolutions of the stream wise direction, and the Subgrid-scale model's effect on this uncertainty is still pending. However, with sufficiently high grid resolution, the results of the heat transfer rate and the profile of the flow field agreed well with the experiments. In addition, the visualization of the spatial temperature distribution revealed the transition from laminar to turbulent flow. The existing information about the heat transfer rate is confined to a scale of laboratory experiment. This is smaller than the very large scale disasters in and outside the power plant. The investigation about the heat transfer rate in such a very large scale flow field will be the next goal. (author)

9. Microwave-based laboratory experiments for internally-heated mantle convection

The thermal evolution of terrestrial planets is mainly controlled by the amount of radioactive heat sources in their mantle, and by the geometry and efficiency of solid state thermo-chemical convection within. So far, these systems have been studied using numerical methods only and cross validation by laboratory analogous experiments has not been conducted yet. To fill this gap we perform the first laboratory experiments of mantle convection driven by microwave-generated internal heating. We use a 30×30×5 cm3 experimental tank filled with 0.5 % Natrosol in water mixture (viscosity 0.6 Pa.s at 20°C). The fluid is heated from within by a microwave device that delivers a uniform volumetric heating from 10 to 70 kW/m3; the upper boundary of the fluid is kept at constant temperature, whereas the lower boundary is adiabatic. The velocity field is determined with particle image velocimetry and the temperature field is measured using thermochromic liquid crystals which enable us to charaterize the geometry of the convective regime as well as its bulk thermal evolution. Numerical simulations, conducted using Stag-3D in 3D cartesian geometry, reproduce the experimental setup (i.e., boundary conditions, box aspect ratio, temperature dependence of physical parameters, internal heating rate). The successful comparison between the experimental and numerical results validates our approach of modelling internal heating using microwaves

10. Microwave-based laboratory experiments for internally-heated mantle convection

Limare, A.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Vilella, K.; Farnetani, C. G.; Kaminski, E.; Jaupart, C. [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris-Diderot, CNRS, 1 rue Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Surducan, E.; Surducan, V.; Neamtu, C. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

2013-11-13

The thermal evolution of terrestrial planets is mainly controlled by the amount of radioactive heat sources in their mantle, and by the geometry and efficiency of solid state thermo-chemical convection within. So far, these systems have been studied using numerical methods only and cross validation by laboratory analogous experiments has not been conducted yet. To fill this gap we perform the first laboratory experiments of mantle convection driven by microwave-generated internal heating. We use a 30×30×5 cm{sup 3} experimental tank filled with 0.5 % Natrosol in water mixture (viscosity 0.6 Pa.s at 20°C). The fluid is heated from within by a microwave device that delivers a uniform volumetric heating from 10 to 70 kW/m{sup 3}; the upper boundary of the fluid is kept at constant temperature, whereas the lower boundary is adiabatic. The velocity field is determined with particle image velocimetry and the temperature field is measured using thermochromic liquid crystals which enable us to charaterize the geometry of the convective regime as well as its bulk thermal evolution. Numerical simulations, conducted using Stag-3D in 3D cartesian geometry, reproduce the experimental setup (i.e., boundary conditions, box aspect ratio, temperature dependence of physical parameters, internal heating rate). The successful comparison between the experimental and numerical results validates our approach of modelling internal heating using microwaves.

11. Bibliography on augmentation of convective heat and mass transfer

Heat transfer augmentation has developed into a major specialty area in heat transfer research and development. A bibliography of world literature on augmentation is presented. The literature is classified into passive augmentation techniques, which require no external power, and active techniques, which do require external power. The fourteen techniques are grouped in terms of their application to the various modes of heat transfer. Mass transfer is included for completeness. Key words are included with each citation for technique/mode identification. The total number of publications cited is 1,967, including 75 surveys of various techniques and 42 papers on performance evaluation of passive techniques. Patents are not included as they will be the subject of a future topical report

12. Bibliography on augmentation of convective heat and mass transfer

Bergles, A.E.; Webb, R.L.; Junkhan, G.H.; Jensen, M.K.

1979-05-01

Heat transfer augmentation has developed into a major specialty area in heat transfer research and development. A bibliography of world literature on augmentation is presented. The literature is classified into passive augmentation techniques, which require no external power, and active techniques, which do require external power. The fourteen techniques are grouped in terms of their application to the various modes of heat transfer. Mass transfer is included for completeness. Key words are included with each citation for technique/mode identification. The total number of publications cited is 1,967, including 75 surveys of various techniques and 42 papers on performance evaluation of passive techniques. Patents are not included as they will be the subject of a future topical report.

13. Numerical computations of natural convection heat transfer in irregular geometries

Glakpe, E. K.

1987-01-01

This report explains the determination of buoyancy driven flow characteristics and heat transfer in enclosures of complex geometrical shapes. Applications of buoyancy driven flows can be found in solar collector devices, energy conservation technologies, cooling of micro-electronic chips, and nuclear reactor spent fuel shipping configurations. The problem is further complicated when three dimensional effects, non-Boussinesq effects, turbulence, and heat transfer by radiation are accounted for in the overall balance of energy transfer. This study developed a capability to model and predict the heat transfer and flow characteristics in shipping cask configurations involving light water and fast reactor fuel assemblies. We explored the complex flow phenomena involved in these configurations to develop numerical prediction capabilities to obtain data for the design and/or thermal analysis of such shipping casks.

14. Study of Convective Heat Transfer at Vertical Cylinder Arranged in Nuclear Reactor or Heat Exchanger Using CFD Code

Convective heat transfer at subchannel in vertical cylinder arranged is very useful in many engineering application, include the design and operation of heat exchanger, steam generator and nuclear reactor safety. It is important to learn characteristic of fluid flow in subchannel before learn convective heat transfer in subchannel. In this research, theoretical study of flow characteristic in subchannel has been carried out by using CFD code. The subchannel is square arrangement and consist of nine cylinder heater with 2.54 cm diameter and P/D ratio of 1.5. For the inlet velocity are 0.01 m/s, 0.02 m/s and 0.03 m/s, the result of CFD analysis indicated that fully developed region is formed at 0.2 m below the reference axis. The velocity of coolant in the center of subchannel is faster than in the edge of subchannel. (author)

15. Analysis of decay heat removal by natural convection in PFBR

PFBR is a 500 MWe, 1200 MWt pool type LMFBR. In order to assure reliable decay heat removal, four totally independent Safety Grade Decay Heat Removal Systems (SGDHRS) which removes heat directly from the hot pool, is provided. Each of the SGDHRS comprises of a hot pool dipped decay heat exchanger (DHX), a sodium - air heat exchanger (AHX) at a suitable elevation and associated piping and circuits. This paper brings out the step by step approach that have been taken to decide on the preliminary sizing of the SGDHRS components, and static and transient analysis to assess the adequacy of the Decay Heat Removal capacity of the SGDHRS during the worst of the foreseen design basis conditions. The maximum values the important safety related temperatures viz., clad hotspot, hot pool top surface, reactor inlet, fuel subassembly outlets etc., would reach, can be obtained only through a comprehensive transient analysis. In order to get quick and reasonably meaningful results, one dimensional thermal-hydraulics models for the core, hot and cold pools, IHX, DHX, AHX and various pipings were developed and a code DHDYN formulated. With this a total power failure situation followed by initiations of DHR half an hour later was studied and the results revealed the following: (i) clad hotspot temperature in the in-vessel stored spent fuel subassemblies could be held below 800 deg. C only if primary sodium flow through these subassemblies are increased up to three times the originally allocated flow in the design, (ii) hotpool top zone temperature reaches 572 deg. C, (iii) reactor inlet temperature reaches 482 deg. C, (iv) the hot pool top zone temperature cools down to 450 deg. C in about 25 h. Thus these results satisfactorily established the adequacy of the sizing and the capability of the SGDHRS. DHDYN code is also used to study the RAMONA water experiments conducted in Germany. Initial results available has brought out the conservative nature of the DHDYN predictions as compared

16. Modeling of heat transfer in cooling towers with natural convection

Zuniga-Gonzalez, Israel; Maršík, František

Gdansk : IFFM Publishers, 2005 - (Mikielewicz, J.; Butrymowicz, D.; Trela, M.; Cieśliński, J.), s. 585-592 ISBN 83-88237-90-X. [HEAT 2005 : International Conference on Transport Phenomena in Multiphase Systems. Gdansk (PL), 26.06.2005-30.06.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/02/0364; GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/2536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : cooling tower * heat transfer * evaporative cooling Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

17. Mixed convective heat transfer to Sisko fluid over a radially stretching sheet in the presence of convective boundary conditions

Khan, Masood; Malik, Rabia, E-mail: rabiamalik.qau@gmail.com; Munir, Asif [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

2015-08-15

In this article, the mixed convective heat transfer to Sisko fluid over a radially stretching surface in the presence of convective boundary conditions is investigated. The viscous dissipation and thermal radiation effects are also taken into account. The suitable transformations are applied to convert the governing partial differential equations into a set of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations. The analytical solution of the governing problem is obtained by using the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Additionally, these analytical results are compared with the numerical results obtained by the shooting technique. The obtained results for the velocity and temperature are analyzed graphically for several physical parameters for the assisting and opposing flows. It is found that the effect of buoyancy parameter is more prominent in case of the assisting flow as compared to the opposing flow. Further, in tabular form the numerical values are given for the local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number. A remarkable agreement is noticed by comparing the present results with the results reported in the literature as a special case.

18. Impacts of cloud overlap assumptions on radiative budgets and heating fields in convective regions

Wang, XiaoCong; Liu, YiMin; Bao, Qing

2016-01-01

Impacts of cloud overlap assumptions on radiative budgets and heating fields are explored with the aid of a cloud-resolving model (CRM), which provided cloud geometry as well as cloud micro and macro properties. Large-scale forcing data to drive the CRM are from TRMM Kwajalein Experiment and the Global Atmospheric Research Program's Atlantic Tropical Experiment field campaigns during which abundant convective systems were observed. The investigated overlap assumptions include those that were traditional and widely used in the past and the one that was recently addressed by Hogan and Illingworth (2000), in which the vertically projected cloud fraction is expressed by a linear combination of maximum and random overlap, with the weighting coefficient depending on the so-called decorrelation length Lcf. Results show that both shortwave and longwave cloud radiative forcings (SWCF/LWCF) are significantly underestimated under maximum (MO) and maximum-random (MRO) overlap assumptions, whereas remarkably overestimated under the random overlap (RO) assumption in comparison with that using CRM inherent cloud geometry. These biases can reach as high as 100 Wm- 2 for SWCF and 60 Wm- 2 for LWCF. By its very nature, the general overlap (GenO) assumption exhibits an encouraging performance on both SWCF and LWCF simulations, with the biases almost reduced by 3-fold compared with traditional overlap assumptions. The superiority of GenO assumption is also manifested in the simulation of shortwave and longwave radiative heating fields, which are either significantly overestimated or underestimated under traditional overlap assumptions. The study also pointed out the deficiency of constant assumption on Lcf in GenO assumption. Further examinations indicate that the CRM diagnostic Lcf varies among different cloud types and tends to be stratified in the vertical. The new parameterization that takes into account variation of Lcf in the vertical well reproduces such a relationship and

19. Comment on Influence of convective boundary condition on double diffusive mixed convection from a permeable vertical surface, by P.M. Patil, E. Momoniat, S. Roy, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 70 (2014) 313-321

Pantokratoras, Asterios

2014-01-01

In the above paper the authors treat the boundary layer flow along a stationary, vertical, permeable, flat plate within a vertical free stream. Fluid is sucked or injected through the vertical plate. The fluid species concentration at the plate is constant and different from that of the ambient fluid. It is also assumed that the plate is heated by convection from another fluid with constant temperature with a constant heat transfer coefficient. The temperature and species concentration difference between the plate and the ambient fluid creates buoyancy forces and the flow is characterized as mixed convection. The partial differential equations of the boundary layer flow (Eqs. 1-4 in their paper) are transformed and subsequently are solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme in combination with a quasi-linearization technique. The quasi-linearization technique is a Newton-Raphson method. The results are presented in 12 figures.

20. Numerical comparison of convective heat transfer augmentation devices used in cooling channels of hypersonic vehicles

1994-01-01

Hypersonic vehicles are exposed to extreme thermal conditions compared to subsonic aircraft; therefore, some level of thermal management is required to protect the materials used. Normally, hypersonic vehicles experience the highest temperatures in the nozzle throat, and aircraft and propulsion system leading edges. Convective heat transfer augmentation techniques can be used in the thermal management system to increase heat transfer of the cooling channels in those areas. The techniques studied in this report are pin-fin, offset-fin, ribbed and straight roughened channel. A smooth straight channel is used as the baseline for comparing the techniques. SINDA '85, a lumped parameter finite difference thermal analyzer, is used to model the channels. Subroutines are added to model the fluid flow assuming steady one dimensional compressible flow with heat addition and friction. Correlations for convective heat transfer and friction are used in conjunction with the fluid flow analysis mentioned. As expected, the pin-fin arrangement has the highest heat transfer coefficient and the largest pressure drop. All the other devices fall in between the pin-fin and smooth straight channel. The selection of the best heat augmentation method depends on the design requirements. A good approach may be a channel using a combination of the techniques. For instance, several rows of pin-fins may be located at the region of highest heat flux, surrounded by some of the other techniques. Thus, the heat transfer coefficient is maximized at the region of highest heat flux while the pressure drop is not excessive.

1. Channel orientation and geometry influence on heat transfer with two-phase forced flow of nitrogen

Klimenko, V. V.; Fyodorov, M. V.; Fomichyov, Yu. A.

The results of an investigation of tube diameter and orientation influence on two-phase forced flow heat transfer of nitrogen are presented. In vertical channels a diameter effect is revealed in a transition from convective to less intensive nucleate boiling when the Froude number of a mixture, Fr m = w m(gd) - 1/2 decreases from 40 to 10. On the contrary, in horizontal non-stratified flow, the reduction of the Frm number is accompanied by heat transfer enhancement in the upper part of the channel because of the formation of a thin liquid film there. This leads to a notable increase (20-30%), averaged over the cross-section, of heat transfer coefficient in the nucleate boiling region. If Frm ≳ 40 then geometry and orientation do not affect the heat transfer coefficient which can be calculated using the Klimenko correlation.

2. Convective heat transfer correlations for molten core debris pools growing in concrete

The heat and mass transfer processes taking place in volumetrically-heated pools are of interest because of their relevance in post accident heat removal analyses for fast reactors. Earlier studies on volumetrically-heated pools have focused on natural convection phenomena. These, however, do not apply for molten core debris pools growing in concrete since large amounts of gas will be released by the concrete. These gases will vigorously mix the pool. Knowledge of the heat transfer rates at the pool boundaries is necessary in order to assess the passive core retention capability of the concrete support structure below the reactor vessel. Hence, the main objectives of this investigation have been to experimentally simulate the gas evolution process at the pool boundaries and determine the effect of gas release on the heat transfer rates along the boundaries. Nusselt-type correlations have been obtained for the downward, sideward, and upward heat transfer rates

3. Critical heat flux for free convection boiling in thin rectangular channels

A review of the experimental data on free convection boiling critical heat flux (CHF) in vertical rectangular channels reveals three mechanisms of burnout. They are the pool boiling limit, the circulation limit, and the flooding limit associated with a transition in flow regime from churn to annular flow. The dominance of a particular mechanism depends on the dimensions of the channel. Analytical models were developed for each free convection boiling limit. Limited agreement with data is observed. A CHF correlation, which is valid for a wide range of gap sizes, was constructed from the CHFs calculated according to the three mechanisms of burnout. 17 refs., 7 figs

4. Convection in a nematic liquid crystal with homeotropic alignment and heated from below

Ahlers, G. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

Experimental results for convection in a thin horizontal layer of a homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal heated from below and in a vertical magnetic field are presented. A subcritical Hopf bifurcation leads to the convecting state. There is quantitative agreement between the measured and the predicted bifurcation line as a function of magnetic field. The nonlinear state near the bifurcation is one of spatio-temporal chaos which seems to be the result of a zig-zag instability of the straight-roll state.

5. Mixed Convection Flow and Heat Transfer of Micropolar Fluid in a Vertical Channel with Symmetric and Asymmetric Wall Heating Conditions

Patil Mallikarjun B

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Analytical solutions for fully developed mixed convection flow of a micro polar fluid with heat generation or heat absorption in a parallel plate vertical channel with symmetric and asymmetric wall temperature distribution has been presented. The two boundaries of the channel are kept either at equal or at different temperatures as isothermal-isothermal, isoflux-isothermal and isothermal-isoflux cases. Reverse flow conditions are observed with increase in micro vortex viscosity. Micro polar fluids display reduction in heat transfer rate.

6. A numerical investigation of natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent-fuel assemblies

A numerical investigation of natural convection heat transfer is carried out for a single, horizontal, spent-fuel assembly in an environment typical of spent-fuel transportation systems as well as some dry storage/disposal scenarios. The objective is to predict computationally the convective heat transfer trends for horizontal spent fuel and to compare the results to data taken in a supporting experimental effort. The predicted data consist of thermal and flow fields throughout the assembly for a wide range of Rayleigh number, as well as numerically obtained Nusselt-number data that are correlated as a function of Rayleigh number. Both laminar and turbulent approaches are examined for a Boussinesq fluid with Pr = 0.7. The data predict the existence of a conduction-dominated regime, a transition regime, and a convection regime. Compared with the laminar approach, a significant improvement in the predicted Nusselt number is obtained for large Rayleigh numbers when a turbulence model is employed. This lends additional support to the experimental evidence that a transition to turbulent flow occurs for Rayleigh numbers greater than 107. Overall, the numerically predicted heat transfer trends compare well with previously obtained experimental data, and the computed assembly Nusselt numbers generally reside within the range of experimental uncertainty. The predicted thermal and flow fields further provide a numerical flow visualization capability that enhances the understanding of natural convection in horizontal spent fuel and allows improved physical interpretation of the experimental data

7. Reappraising the relationships between physics students' mental models and predictions: An example of heat convection

Chiou, Guo-Li

2013-06-01

Although prediction is claimed to be a prime function of mental models, to what extent students can run their mental models to make predictions of physical phenomena remains uncertain. The purpose of this study, therefore, was first to investigate 30 physics students’ mental models of heat convection, and then to examine the relationship between their mental models and predictions of convection-related phenomena. A series of semistructured interviews was conducted to probe the participants’ mental models and predictions of heat convection, and the constant comparative method was adopted for data analysis. The results reveal that the participants held a variety of mental models of heat convection, and nearly half held flawed mental models rather than a scientifically compatible one. In addition, while many participants attempted to run their mental models to make a prediction at the beginning stage of solving an interview problem, the relationship between the models and predictions became increasingly complex as the problem solving process continued. The relationships between mental models and predictions, however, could be better understood by considering the completeness of a mental model, the scale of analyzing mental models, and the retrieval of different formats of mental representations.

8. Study on the natural convection heat transfer characteristics in the air duct

Kim, Y. K.; Lee, Y. B.; Choi, S. K.; Hwang, J. S.; Nam, H. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1997-12-31

Temperature distribution measurements in the mockup apparatus of reactor vessel were performed to determine the effective thermal conductivity of porous media with different geometry and to obtain the experimental data for the heat transfer processes by natural convection occurring in the air duct. The temperature distributions at four separated sections with different arrangements of porous media have different slopes according to the geometrical configuration. From the measured temperature distribution, effective thermal conductivity have been derived using the least square fitting method. The test at air duct was performed to the high heat removal at 3.4kW/m{sup 2} by the natural convection from the outer wall to the air. And also the temperature distributions in the sir duct agree well with the 1/7th power-law turbulent temperature distribution. The obtained heat transfer data have been compared with the Shins and Siegers correlations. 10 refs., 6 figs. (Author)

9. Heat transfers in a double-skin roof ventilated by natural convection in summer time

Biwole, Pascal; Pompeo, C

2013-01-01

The double-skin roofs investigated in this paper are formed by adding a metallic screen on an existing sheet metal roof. The system enhances passive cooling of dwellings and can help diminishing power costs for air conditioning in summer or in tropical and arid countries. In this work, radiation, convection and conduction heat transfers are investigated. Depending on its surface properties, the screen reflects a large amount of oncoming solar radiation. Natural convection in the channel underneath drives off the residual heat. The bi-dimensional numerical simulation of the heat transfers through the double skin reveals the most important parameters for the system's efficiency. They are, by order of importance, the sheet metal surface emissivity, the screen internal and external surface emissivity, the insulation thickness and the inclination angle for a channel width over 6 cm. The influence of those parameters on Rayleigh and Nusselt numbers is also investigated. Temperature and air velocity profiles on seve...

10. Convective heat transfer to Sisko fluid over a rotating disk

Munir, Asif

2016-01-01

This article deals with study of the steady flow and heat transfer characteristics of Sisko fluid over a rotating infinite disk. The flow and heat transfer aspects are thoroughly investigated encompassing highly shear thinning/thickening Sisko fluids. The modeled boundary layer equations are reduced to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using the appropriate transformation. The resulting equations are then solved numerically by shooting method in the domain . The numerical data for the velocity and temperature fields are graphically sketched and effects of the relevant parameters are discussed in detail. In addition, the velocity gradients at the disk surface and the local Nusselt number for different values of the pertaining parameters are given in tabulated form. Further, the flow and temperature fields of power-law and Newtonian fluids are also compared with those Sisko fluid. Moreover, a comparison with previously published work, as a special case of the problem, has been provided and t...

11. Asymptotic solution for heat convection-radiation equation

Mabood, Fazle; Ismail, Ahmad Izani Md [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Khan, Waqar A. [Department of Engineering Sciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, PN Engineering College, Karachi, 75350 (Pakistan)

2014-07-10

In this paper, we employ a new approximate analytical method called the optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) to solve steady state heat transfer problem in slabs. The heat transfer problem is modeled using nonlinear two-point boundary value problem. Using OHAM, we obtained the approximate analytical solution for dimensionless temperature with different values of a parameter ε. Further, the OHAM results for dimensionless temperature have been presented graphically and in tabular form. Comparison has been provided with existing results from the use of homotopy perturbation method, perturbation method and numerical method. For numerical results, we used Runge-Kutta Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method. It was found that OHAM produces better approximate analytical solutions than those which are obtained by homotopy perturbation and perturbation methods, in the sense of closer agreement with results obtained from the use of Runge-Kutta Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method.

12. Convective heat transfer fouling of aqueous solutions on modified surfaces

Janabi, Abdullah K. O. Al-

2011-01-01

The present research study was part of the European project "MEDESOL" entitled "Seawater desalination by innovative solar-powered membrane-distillation system". The project aimed at developing a stand-alone desalination unit to produce fresh water with a maximum of 50 m3/day. Several components such as suitable membrane and efficient solar collectors had to be developed as well as a plate heat exchanger for a maximum life expectancy with least deposition occurrence on its surfaces. The contri...

13. Heat Transfer and Flows of Thermal Convection in a Fluid-Saturated Rotating Porous Medium

Jianhong Kang

2015-01-01

Full Text Available Thermal convection at the steady state for high Rayleigh number in a rotating porous half space is investigated. Taking into account the effect of rotation, Darcy equation is extended to incorporate the Coriolis force term in a rotating reference frame. The velocity and temperature fields of thermal convection are obtained by using the homotopy analysis method. The influences of Taylor number and Rayleigh number on the Nusselt number, velocity profile, and temperature distribution are discussed in detail. It is found that the Nusselt number decreases rapidly with the increase of Taylor number but tends to have an asymptotic value. Besides, the rotation can give rise to downward flow in contrast with the upward thermal convection.

14. Convective heat transfer and experimental icing aerodynamics of wind turbine blades

Wang, Xin

The total worldwide base of installed wind energy peak capacity reached 94 GW by the end of 2007, including 1846 MW in Canada. Wind turbine systems are being installed throughout Canada and often in mountains and cold weather regions, due to their high wind energy potential. Harsh cold weather climates, involving turbulence, gusts, icing and lightning strikes in these regions, affect wind turbine performance. Ice accretion and irregular shedding during turbine operation lead to load imbalances, often causing the turbine to shut off. They create excessive turbine vibration and may change the natural frequency of blades as well as promote higher fatigue loads and increase the bending moment of blades. Icing also affects the tower structure by increasing stresses, due to increased loads from ice accretion. This can lead to structural failures, especially when coupled to strong wind loads. Icing also affects the reliability of anemometers, thereby leading to inaccurate wind speed measurements and resulting in resource estimation errors. Icing issues can directly impact personnel safety, due to falling and projected ice. It is therefore important to expand research on wind turbines operating in cold climate areas. This study presents an experimental investigation including three important fundamental aspects: (1) heat transfer characteristics of the airfoil with and without liquid water content (LWC) at varying angles of attack; (2) energy losses of wind energy while a wind turbine is operating under icing conditions; and (3) aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil during a simulated icing event. A turbine scale model with curved 3-D blades and a DC generator is tested in a large refrigerated wind tunnel, where ice formation is simulated by spraying water droplets. A NACA 63421 airfoil is used to study the characteristics of aerodynamics and convective heat transfer. The current, voltage, rotation of the DC generator and temperature distribution along the airfoil

15. Numerical analysis of heat transfer by conduction and natural convection in loose-fill fiberglass insulation--effects of convection on thermal performance

Delmas, A.A.; Wilkes, K.E.

1992-04-01

A two-dimensional code for solving equations of convective heat transfer in porous media is used to analyze heat transfer by conduction and convection in the attic insulation configuration. The particular cases treated correspond to loose-fill fiberglass insulation, which is characterized by high porosity and air permeability. The effects of natural convection on the thermal performance of the insulation are analyzed for various densities, permeabilities, and thicknesses of insulation. With convection increasing the total heat transfer through the insulation, the thermal resistance was found to decrease as the temperature difference across the insulating material increases. The predicted results for the thermal resistance are compared with data obtained in the large-scale climate simulator at the Roof Research Center using the attic test module, where the same phenomenon has already been observed. The way the wood joists within the insulation influence the start of convection is studied for differing thermophysical and dynamic properties of the insulating material. The presence of wood joists induces convection at a lower temperature difference.

16. Mixed convection boundary layer flow over a horizontal elliptic cylinder with constant heat flux

Javed, Tariq; Ahmad, Hussain; Ghaffari, Abuzar

2015-12-01

Mixed convection boundary layer flow of a viscous fluid over a horizontal elliptic cylinder with a constant heat flux is investigated numerically. The governing partial differential equations are transformed to non-dimensional form and then are solved by an efficient implicit finite different scheme known as Keller-box method. The solutions are expressed in the form of skin friction and Nusselt number, which are plotted against the eccentric angle. The effect of pertinent parameters such as mixed convection parameter, aspect ratio (ratio of lengths of minor axis to major axis), and Prandtl number on skin friction and Nusselt number are illustrated through graphs for both blunt and slender orientations. The increase in the value of mixed convection parameter results in increase in skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number for blunt as well as slender orientations.

17. Transient conjugated mixed-convective heat transfer in a vertical plate channel with one wall heated discretely

Tsay, Y. L.

This study presents a numerical solution of the unsteady conjugated mixed-convection heat transfer in a vertical plate channel with one wall suddenly subjected to either isoflux or isothermal discrete heat sources. The effects of the dimensionless heat source length H1, the dimensionless spacing between heat sources H2, the dimensionless channel length L, the dimensionless heated-plate thickness Bl, the wall-to-fluid conductivity ratio K and the ratio of Grashof number to Reynolds number Gr/Re on the interface heat flux, Nusselt number and bulk fluid temperature are discussed in detail. Results show that the discrete heating can cause the heat transfer direction conversely from the fluid to the heated plate during the transient period, which is more significant for the cases with larger L and H2. For the system with isoflux discrete heat sources, the time required to reach the steady-state is shorter for larger H2. While the trend is reverse for system with isothermal discrete heat sources. Additionally, a higher ratio of the input energy is axially conducted through the plate wall from heated sections to unheated regions for a larger H2 and Bl or smaller L.

18. Transient conjugated mixed-convective heat transfer in a vertical plate channel with one wall heated discretely

Tsay, Y.L. [Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering National Huwei Institute of Technology Huwei, Yuenlin (Taiwan)

1999-10-01

This study presents a numerical solution of the unsteady conjugated mixed-convection heat transfer in a vertical plate channel with one wall suddenly subjected to either isoflux or isothermal discrete heat sources. The effects of the dimensionless heat source length H{sub 1}, the dimensionless spacing between heat sources H{sub 2}, the dimensionless channel length L, the dimensionless heated-plate thickness B{sub l}, the wall-to-fluid conductivity ratio K and the ratio of Grashof number to Reynolds number Gr/Re on the interface heat flux, Nusselt number and bulk fluid temperature are discussed in detail. Results show that the discrete heating can cause the heat transfer direction conversely from the fluid to the heated plate during the transient period, which is more significant for the cases with larger L and H{sub 2}. For the system with isoflux discrete heat sources, the time required to reach the steady-state is shorter for larger H{sub 2}. While the trend is reverse for system with isothermal discrete heat sources. Additionally, a higher ratio of the input energy is axially conducted through the plate wall from heated sections to unheated regions for a larger H{sub 2} and B{sub l} or smaller L. (orig.)

19. Numerical and experimental investigation of natural convection from horizontal heated cylinders

2012-01-01

List of papers. Papers I-V are removed from the thesis due to copyright restrictions. Paper I: Grafsrønningen S., Jensen A. & Reif. B.A.P. 2011. PIV investigation of buoyant plume from natural convection heat transfer above a horizontal heated cylinder. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 54, 4975 4987. doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2011.07.011 Paper II: Grafsrønningen S. & Jensen A. 2012. Simultaneous PIV/LIF measurements of a transitional buoyant plume above a horizontal cy...

20. Free Convective Heat Transfer From A Vertical Surface For The Case Of Linearly Varying Thermal Potential

Parvataneni

2013-09-01

Full Text Available The present theoretical investigation deals with the problem of free convective heat transfer from a vertical plate having linear temperature gradient along its surface to the surrounding thermally stratified fluid. Integral method of analysis is adopted to investigate the effect of four parameters viz., the gradients of temperature in the fluid and the wall, Grashof number and Prandtl number on heat transfer coefficients. It is observed from the numerical results that an increase in the surface temperature gradient would result in higher heat transfer coefficients than those observed in isothermal wall case.

1. Conjugated Effect of Joule Heating and Magnetohydrodynamic on Laminar Convective Heat Transfer of Nanofluids Inside a Concentric Annulus in the Presence of Slip Condition

Moshizi, S. A.; Pop, I.

2016-07-01

In the current study, the conjugated effect of Joule heating and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) on the forced convective heat transfer of fully developed laminar nanofluid flows inside annular pipes, under the influence of MHD field, has been investigated. The temperature and nanoparticle distributions at both the inner and outer walls are assumed to vary in the direction of the fluid. Furthermore, owing to the nanoparticle migrations in the fluid, a slip condition becomes far more important than the no-slip condition of the fluid-solid interface, which appropriately represents the non-equilibrium region near the interface. The governing equations—obtained by employing the Buongiorno's model for nanofluid in cylindrical coordinates—are converted into two-point ordinary boundary value differential equations and solved numerically. The effects of various controlling parameters on the flow characteristics, the average Nusselt number and the average Sherwood number have been assessed in detail. Additionally, the effect of the inner to outer diameter ratio on the heat and mass transfer rate has been studied. The results obtained indicate that, in the presence of a magnetic field when the fluid is electrically conductive, heat transfer will be reduced significantly due to the influences of Joule heating, while the average mass transfer rate experiences an opposite trend. Moreover, the increase in the slip velocity on both the walls causes the average heat transfer to rise and the average mass transfer to decrease.

2. Book of short papers : International symposium on convective heat and mass transfer in sustainable energy Conv - 09. Volume 1

This book contains the short papers from the International Symposium on Convective heat and Mass Transfer in sustainable Energy ( Conv-09), organized on behalf of the International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer, it was held on April 26- 1st May, In Hammamet, Tunisia. The objective of this conference is to bring together researchers in a forum to exchange innovative ideas, methods and results, and visions of the future related to the general theme of convective heat and mass transfer

3. Book of short papers : International symposium on convective heat and mass transfer in sustainable energy conv - 09. Volume 2

This book contains the short papers from the International Symposium on convective heat and Mass Transfer in sustainable Energy ( conv-09), organized on behalf of the International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer, it was held on April 26- 1st May, In Hammamet, Tunisia. The objective of this conference is to bring together researchers in a forum to exchange innovative ideas, methods and results, and visions of the future related to the general theme of convective heat and mass transfer

4. Study on the Convective Term Discretized by Strong Conservation and Weak Conservation Schemes for Incompressible Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer

Peng Wang

2013-01-01

Full Text Available When the conservative governing equation of incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer is discretized by the finite volume method, there are various schemes to deal with the convective term. In this paper, studies on the convective term discretized by two different schemes, named strong and weak conservation schemes, respectively, are presented in detail. With weak conservation scheme, the convective flux at interface is obtained by respective interpolation and subsequent product of primitive variables. With strong conservation scheme, the convective flux is treated as single physical variable for interpolation. The numerical results of two convection heat transfer cases indicate that under the same computation conditions, discretizing the convective term by strong conservation scheme would not only obtain a more accurate solution, but also guarantee the stability of computation and the clear physical meaning of the solution. Especially in the computation regions with sharp gradients, the advantages of strong conservation scheme become more apparent.

5. Numerical Studies on Natural Convection Heat Losses from Open Cubical Cavities

M. Prakash

2013-01-01

Full Text Available The natural convection heat losses occurring from cubical open cavities are analysed in this paper. Open cubical cavities of sides 0.1 m, 0.2 m, 0.25 m, 0.5 m, and 1 m with constant temperature back wall boundary conditions and opening ratio of 1 are studied. The Fluent CFD software is used to analyse the three-dimensional (3D cavity models. The studies are carried out for cavities with back wall temperatures between 35°C and 100°C. The effect of cavity inclination on the convective loss is analysed for angles of 0° (cavity facing sideways, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90° (cavity facing vertically downwards. The Rayleigh numbers involved in this study range between 4.5 × 105 and 1.5 × 109. The natural convection loss is found to increase with an increase in back wall temperature. The natural convection loss is observed to decrease with an increase in cavity inclination; the highest convective loss being at 0° and the lowest at 90° inclination. This is observed for all cavities analysed here. Nusselt number correlations involving the effect of Rayleigh number and the cavity inclination angle have been developed from the current studies. These correlations can be used for engineering applications such as electronic cooling, low- and medium-temperature solar thermal systems, passive architecture, and also refrigeration systems.

6. Free and forced convective cooling of pipe-type electric cables. Volume 2: electrohycrodynamic pumping. Final report

Chato, J.C.; Crowley, J.M.

1981-05-01

A multi-faceted research program has been performed to investigate in detail several aspects of free and forced convective cooling of underground electric cable systems. There were two main areas of investigation. The first one, reported in Volume 1, dealt with the fluid dynamic and thermal aspects of various components of the cable system. In particular, friction factors for laminar flow in the cable pipes with various configurations were determined using a finite element technique; the temperature distributions and heat transfer in splices were examined using a combined analytical numerical technique; the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of cable pipes in the transitional and turbulent flow regime were determined experimentally in a model study; and full-scale model experimental work was carried out to determine the fluid dynamic and thermal characteristics of entrance and exit chambers for the cooling oil. The second major area of activity, reported in this volume, involved a feasibility study of an electrohydrodynamic pump concept utilizing a traveling electric field generated by a pumping cable. Experimental studies in two different configurations as well as theoretical calculations showed that an electrohydrodynamic pump for the moving of dielectric oil in a cable system is feasible.

7. Mixed convection heat transfer from confined tandem square cylinders in a horizontal channel

Huang, Zhu

2013-11-01

This paper presents a numerical study on the two-dimensional laminar mixed convective flow and heat transfer around two identical isothermal square cylinders arranged in tandem and confined in a channel. The spacing between the cylinders is fixed with four widths of the cylinder and the blockage ratio and the Prandtl number are fixed at 0.1 and 0.7 respectively. The mixed convective flow and heat transfer is simulated by high accuracy multidomain pseudospectral method. The Reynolds number (Re) is studied in the range 80 ≤ Re ≤ 150, the Richardson number (Ri) demonstrating the influence of thermal buoyancy ranges from 0 to 1. Numerical results reveal that, with the thermal buoyancy effect, the mixed convective flow sheds vortex behind the cylinders and keeps periodic oscillating. The variations of characteristic quantities related to flow and heat transfer processes, such as the overall drag and lift coefficients and the Nusselt numbers, are presented and discussed. Furthermore, the influence of thermal buoyancy on the fluid flow and heat transfer are discussed and analysed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

8. Conjugate transient natural convection in a cylindrical enclosure with internal volumetric heat generation

This paper reports the results of a numerical investigation of transient turbulent natural convection heat transfer from a volumetric energy generating source placed inside a cylindrical enclosure filled with low Prandtl number fluid (liquid sodium, Pr = 0.005). Two-dimensional conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy, coupled with the Boussinesq approximation, are solved using a finite volume based discretisation method employing the SIMPLE algorithm for the pressure velocity coupling. Turbulence is modeled using the k-ε model with physical boundary conditions. The study presents the transient features of confined turbulent natural convection, due to time varying generation of heat in the volumetric source. The intensity of heat source exponentially decays with time and the source is placed over circular plates with a central opening. Results obtained from the numerical model compare favorably with those reported in the literature for steady state natural convection. Numerical simulations are carried out to display the sequential evolution of flow and thermal fields and the maximum temperature reached in the source. The advantages of distributing the heat source on multi trays have been quantified

9. A Coupled Model for Natural Convection and Condensation in Heated Subsurface Enclosures Embedded in Fractured Rock

In heated tunnels such as those designated for emplacement of radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, axial temperature gradients may cause natural convection processes that can significantly influence the moisture conditions in the tunnels and in the surrounding fractured rock. Large-scale convection cells would provide an effective mechanism for axial vapor transport, driving moisture out of the formation away from the heated tunnel section into cool end sections (where no waste is emplaced). To study such processes, we have developed and applied an enhanced version of TOUGH2 (Pruess et al., 1999) adding a new module that solves for natural convection in open cavities. The new TOUGH2 simulator simultaneously handles (1) the flow and energy transport processes in the fractured rock; (2) the flow and energy transport processes in the cavity; and (3) the heat and mass exchange at the rock-cavity interface. The new module is applied to simulate the future thermal-hydrological (TH) conditions within and near a representative waste emplacement tunnel at Yucca Mountain. Particular focus is on the potential for condensation along the emplacement section, a possible result of heat output differences between individual waste packages

10. Numerical Modeling of Conjugate Thermogravitational Convection in a Closed System with a Radiant Energy Source in Conditions of Convective-Radiative Heat Exchange at the External Boundary

Nee, Alexander

2016-02-01

Mathematical modeling of conjugate natural convection in a closed rectangular cavity with a radiant energy source in conditions of convective-radiative heat exchange at the external boundary was conducted. The radiant energy distribution was set by the Lambert's law. Conduction and convection processes analysis showed that the air masses flow pattern is modified slightly over the time. The temperature increases in the gas cavity, despite the heat removal from the one of the external boundary. According to the results of the integral heat transfer analysis were established that the average Nusselt number (Nuav) increasing occurs up to τ = 200 (dimensionless time). Further Nuav has changed insignificantly due to the temperature field equalization near the interfaces "gas - wall".

11. Numerical study of mixed convection heat transfer from a rotating cylinder inside a trapezoidal enclosure

Khan, Mohammed; Khan, Arham Amin; Hasan, Mohammad Nasim

2016-07-01

This article reports a numerical investigation of mixed convection heat transfer phenomena around an active rotating heated cylinder placed inside a trapezoidal enclosure. The cavity is configured such that top and bottom walls remain thermally insulated while the remaining two sidewalls experience a constant cold temperature. The heated cylinder is located at the centre of the trapezoidal enclosure and undergoes counter clockwise rotation. The numerical solution of various governing equations (i.e. continuity, momentum and energy equations) for the present problem is obtained by using Galerkin finite element method. The present study focused on the influence of the variation of inertia effect of the rotating cylinder as manifested by the parameter, Reynolds number (Re) for various Grashof number (Gr) ranging from 103 to 105 while keeping the Richardson number constant as 1, which essentially represents the case of pure mixed convection. An envision of flow field and thermal field has been made by studying the streamlines, isotherms respectively while for the study of heat transfer characteristics, local and average Nusselt number over the heated cylinder has been considered. The result indicates that both the side wall inclination angle as well as the inertia effect of the rotating cylinder has greater impact on heat transfer characteristics compared to the case of motionless heated cylinder placed in a square cavity.

12. Convective instabilities in two superposed horizontal liquid layers heated laterally

2003-01-01

This work is devoted to the theoretical study of the stability of two superposed horizontal liquid layers bounded by two solid planes and subjected to a horizontal temperature gradient. The liquids are supposed to be immiscible with a nondeformable interface. The forces acting on the system are buoyancy and interfacial tension. Four different flow patterns and temperature profiles are found for the basic state. A linear perturbative analysis with respect to two and three dimensional perturbations reveals the existence of three kind of patterns. Depending on the relative height of both liquids several situations are predicted: either wave propagation from cold to the hot regions, or waves propagating in the opposite direction or still stationary longitudinal rolls. The behavior of three different pairs of liquids which have been used in experiments on bilayers under vertical gradient by other authors have been examined. The instability mechanisms are discussed and a qualitative interpretation of the different ...

13. Heat line analysis for MHD mixed convection flow of nanofluid within a driven cavity containing heat generating block

Parvin, Salma; Siddiqua, Ayesha

2016-07-01

Mixed convective flow and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluid inside a double lid driven cavity with a square heat generating block is analyzed numerically based on heat line approach. The water- alumina nanofluid is chosen as the operational fluid through the enclosure. The governing partial differential equations with proper boundary conditions are solved by Finite Element Method using Galerkin's weighted residual scheme. Calculations are performed for different solid volume fraction (χ) of nanoparticles 0 ≤ χ ≤ 0.15. Results are shown in terms of stream lines, isothermal lines, heat lines, average Nusselt number, average velocity and average temperature. An enhancement in heat transfer rate is observed with the increase of nanoparticles volume fraction.

14. Numerical Study of Laminar Flow and Convective Heat Transfer Utilizing Nanofluids in Equilateral Triangular Ducts with Constant Heat Flux

Hsien-Hung Ting

2016-07-01

Full Text Available This study numerically investigates heat transfer augmentation using water-based Al2O3 and CuO nanofluids flowing in a triangular cross-sectional duct under constant heat flux in laminar flow conditions. The Al2O3/water nanofluids with different volume fractions (0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% and CuO/water nanofluids with various volume fractions (0.05%, 0.16%, 0.36%, 0.5%, and 0.8% are employed, and Reynolds numbers in the range of 700 to 1900 in a laminar flow are considered. The heat transfer rate becomes more remarkable when employing nanofluids. As compared with pure water, at a Peclet number of 7000, a 35% enhancement in the convective heat transfer coefficient, is obtained for an Al2O3/water nanofluid with 2% particle volume fraction; at the same Peclet number, a 41% enhancement in the convective heat transfer coefficient is achieved for a CuO/water nanofluid with 0.8% particle volume concentration. Heat transfer enhancement increases with increases in particle volume concentration and Peclet number. Moreover, the numerical results are found to be in good agreement with published experimental data.

15. Numerical predictions of natural convection in a uniformly heated pool

In the event of a core meltdown accident, one of the accident progression paths is fuel relocation to the lower reactor plenum. In the heavy-water new production reactor (NPR-HWR) design, the reactor cavity is flooded with water. In such a design, decay heat removal to the water in the reactor cavity and thence to the containment may be adequate to keep the reactor vessel temperature below failure limits. If this is the case, the accident progression can be arrested by retaining a coolable corium configuration in the lower reactor plenum. The strategy of reactor cavity flooding to prevent reactor vessel failure from molten corium relocation to the reactor vessel lower head has also been considered for commercial pressurized water reactors

16. Numerical analysis of interaction between non-gray radiation and forced convection flow over a recess using the full-spectrum k-distribution method

Atashafrooz, M.; Gandjalikhan Nassab, S. A.; Lari, K.

2016-02-01

In the present work, the interaction between non-gray radiation and forced convection in a laminar radiating gas flow over a recess including two backward and forward facing steps in a duct is investigated numerically. Distributions of absorption coefficients across the spectrum (50 cm-1 recess length on heat transfer behaviors of the convection-radiation system are investigated for both gray and non-gray mediums. In addition, the results of gray medium are compared with non-gray results in order to judge if the differences between these two approaches are significant enough to justify the usage of non-gray models. Results show that for air mixture with 10 % CO2 and 20 % H2O, use of gray model for the radiative properties may cause significant errors and should be avoided.

17. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF NATURAL CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER OF IONIC LIQUID IN A RECTANGULAR ENCLOSURE HEATED FROM BELOW

Fox, E.; Visser, A.; Bridges, N.

2011-07-18

This paper presents an experimental study of natural convection heat transfer for an Ionic Liquid. The experiments were performed for 1-butyl-2, 3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([C{sub 4}mmim][NTf{sub 2}]) at a Raleigh number range of 1.26 x 10{sup 7} to 8.3 x 10{sup 7}. In addition to determining the convective heat transfer coefficients, this study also included experimental determination of thermophysical properties of [C{sub 4}mmim][NTf{sub 2}] such as, density, viscosity, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity. The results show that the density of [C{sub 4}mmim][NTf{sub 2}] varies from 1.437-1.396 g/cm{sup 3} within the temperature range of 10-50 C, the thermal conductivity varies from 0.105-0.116 W/m.K between a temperature of 10 to 60 C, the heat capacity varies from 1.015 J/g.K - 1.760 J/g.K within temperature range of 25-340 C and the viscosity varies from 18cp-243cp within temperature range 10-75 C. The results for density, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and viscosity were in close agreement with the values in the literature. Measured dimensionless Nusselt number was observed to be higher for the ionic liquid than that of DI water. This is expected as Nusselt number is the ratio of heat transfer by convection to conduction and the ionic liquid has lower thermal conductivity (approximately 18%) than DI water.

18. Effect of cooling rate and forced convection on as-cast structure of 2205 duplex stainless steel

Cheng Zhang; Hong-gang Zhong; Cong-sen Wu

2015-01-01

To forecast the as-cast structure and ferrite-austenite phase ratio of 2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS), the effects of cooling rate and forced convection were observed in a high-vacuum resistance furnace in which the forced convection was created by the rotation of the crucible. The as-cast structure of all 2205 DSS samples is full equiaxed grains, and the microstructure consists of a great amount of desirable intra-granular austenite inside the continuous ferrite grain matrix, besides Widm...

19. Single layer solar drying behaviour of Citrus aurantium leaves under forced convection

Ait Mohamed, L.; Lahsasni, S. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Marrakech (Morocco). Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire et des Plantes Aromatiques et Medicinales; Unite de Chimie Agroalimentaire, Marrakech (Morocco). Faculte des Sciences Semlalia; Kouhila, M.; Jamali, A. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Marrakech (Morocco). Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire et des Plantes Aromatiques et Medicinales; Kechaou, N. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax (Tunisia); Mahrouz, M. [Unite de Chimie Agroalimentaire, Marrakech (Morocco). Faculte des Sciences Semlalia

2005-06-01

Convective solar drying experiments in thin layers of Citrus aurantium leaves grown in Marrakech, morocco, were conducted. An indirect forced convection solar dryer consisting of a solar air collector, an auxiliary heater, a circulation fan and a drying cabinet is used for the experiments. The air temperature was varied from 50 to 60{sup o}C; the relative humidity from 41% to 53%; and the drying air flow rate from 0.0277 to 0.0833 m{sup 3}/s. Thirteen statistical models, which are semi-theoretical and/or empirical, were tested for fitting the experimental data. A nonlinear regression analysis using a statistical computer program was used to evaluate the constants of the models. The Midilli-Kucuk drying model was found to be the most suitable for describing the solar drying curves of Citrus aurantium leaves with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.99998, chi-square ({chi}{sup 2}) of 4.664 x 10{sup -6} and MBE of 4.8381 x 10{sup -4}. (author)

20. A block-iterative nodal integral method for forced convection problems

A new efficient iterative nodal integral method for the time-dependent two- and three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations has been developed. Using the approach introduced by Azmy and Droning to develop nodal mehtods with high accuracy on coarse spatial grids for two-dimensional steady-state problems and extended to coarse two-dimensional space-time grids by Wilson et al. for thermal convection problems, we have developed a new iterative nodal integral method for the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations for mechanically forced convection. A new, extremely efficient block iterative scheme is employed to invert the Jacobian within each of the Newton-Raphson iterations used to solve the final nonlinear discrete-variable equations. By taking advantage of the special structure of the Jacobian, this scheme greatly reduces memory requirements. The accuracy of the overall method is illustrated by appliying it to the time-dependent version of the classic two-dimensional driven cavity problem of computational fluid dynamics