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1

Forced convection heat transfer in narrow annulus with bilateral heating

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were conducted to study the single-phase forced convection heat transfer with water in vertical narrow annulus which is simultaneously heated from inside and outside by primary water. A comparative analysis on heat transfer performance between bilateral and unilateral heating was carried out. The results indicate that double side heating enhances the heat transfer on inside surface when Reynolds number is higher and reduces the heat transfer on outside surface when Reynolds number is small, compared with single-side heating. For both heating modes, the varying trend of Nusselt number is similar and the total heat transfer rate keeps almost equal in value

2

Forced heat convection in annular spaces

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report deals with the experimental study of forced heat convection in annular spaces through which flow of air is passing when a uniform heat flux is dissipated across the inner wall. These observations took place chiefly in the region where thermal equilibrium are not yet established. Amongst other things it became apparent that, both in the region where thermal equilibrium conditions are on the way to establishment and where they are already established, the following relationship held good: the longitudinal temperature gradient, either on the wall or in the fluid stream, is proportional to the heat flux dissipated q, and inversely proportional to the average flow rate V: dT/dx = B (q/V). From this result the next step is to express the variations of the local convection coefficient ? (or of the Margoulis number M) in a relationship of the form: 1/M = ?(V) + F(x). If this relationship is compared with the classical empirical relationship ? = KVn (where n is close to 0.8), the relationship: 1/M = ?V1-n + F(x) is obtained (? is a constant for a given annular space); from this it was possible to coordinate the whole set of experimental results. (author)

3

Theory of heat transfer with forced convection film flows

Developing a new treatment of ""Free Convection Film Flows and Heat Transfer"" began in Shang's first monograph and is continued in this monograph. The current book displays the recent developments of laminar forced convection and forced film condensation. It is aimed at revealing the true features of heat and mass transfer with forced convection film flows to model the deposition of thin layers. The novel mathematical similarity theory model is developed to simulate temperature - and concentration - dependent physical processes. The following topics are covered in this book: Mathematical meth

Shang, Deyi

2010-01-01

4

Forced convective post-CHF heat transfer and quenching

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses mechanisms in the postcritical heat flux region that provide understanding and qualitative prediction capability for several current forced-convective heat transfer problems. In the area of nuclear reactor safety, the mechanisms are important in the prediction of fuel rod quenches for the reflood phase, blowdown phase, and possibly some operational transients with dryout. Results using the mechanisms to investigate forced-convective quenching are presented. 26 refs

5

Approximate techniques for heat transfer description for forced convective boiling

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Empirical ratios for heat transfer coefficients prediction during the boiling of one-component liquid under the forced convection are presented. Convection without nucleate boiling is studied, an additional contribution of nucleate boiling of saturated and subcooled liquid is also considered

6

Pressure drop, forced convective, free convective and radiant heat transfer of pebble beds

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For safety studies low Reynold numbers, free convective heat transfer and high temperature radiation are considered when assuming failure of the total forced convective cooling system of the gas-cooled high temperature reactor with pebble bed core. A computer programme (THERMIX) has been developed to calculate the fluid dynamics and heat transfer of a pebble bed. The Nusselt number for natural convective heat transfer was found to be independent of the void fraction. (DG)

7

Transient heat transfer for forced convection flow of helium gas

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The knowledge of forced convection transient heat transfer at various periods of exponential increase of heat input to a heater as a database for understanding the transient heat transfer process in a high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) due to an accident in excess reactivity. The transient heat transfer coefficients for forced convection flow of helium gas over a horizontal cylinder were measured using a forced convection test loop. The platinum heater with a diameter of 1.0 mm was heated by electric current with an exponential increase of Q0 exp(t/ ). It was clarified that the heat transfer coefficient approaches the steady-state one for the period over 1 s, and it becomes higher for the period of shorter than 1 s. The transient heat transfer shows less dependent on the gas flowing velocity when the period becomes very shorter. Semi-empirical correlations for steady state and transient heat transfer were developed based on the experimental data. (authors)

8

Subcooled forced convection film boiling heat transfer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article the theoretical calculation of film boiling heat transfer to subcooled liquid flowing upwards vertically is presented. Four heat transfer models have been proposed, analysis and comparison have been made in these models. The author takes into account both laminar and turbulent flow patterns for vapor film, different thermal boundary conditions and hydraulic conditions at the liquid-vapor interface, etc. The prediction is compared with reflooding experimental data, the steady state film boiling data. The agreement is satisfactory. At the same time, the heat transfer in self-modelling region is discussed

9

Forced-convective post-CHF heat transfer and quenching

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mechanisms in the postcritical heat flux region that provide understanding and qualitative prediction capability for several current force-convective heat-transfer problems are discussed. In the area of nuclear reactor safety, the mechanisms are important in the prediction of fuel rod cooldown and quenches for the reflood phase, blowdown phase, and possibly some operational transients with dryout. Results using the mechanisms to investigate forced-convective quenching are presented. Data reduction of quenching experiments is discussed, and the way in which the quenching transient may affect the results of different types of quenching experiments is investigated. This investigation provides an explanation of how minimum wall superheats greater than the homogeneous nucleation temperature result, as well as how these may be either hydrodynamically or thermodynamically controlled

10

Steady state forced convection heat transfer in He II

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of forced convection heat transfer in superfluid helium (He II) is initiated to better understand the physical behavior of this process and to compare it with the more familiar He II heat transfer mechanism of internal convection. An experimental assembly is designed to achieve fluid flow by a motor-driven hydraulic pump which utilizes two stainless steel bellows. Each bellows is connected to one end of a copper tube, 3 mm in diameter and 2 m long. The system allows measurements of one dimensional heat and mass transfer where the measured quantities include: temperature profile and pressure drop. The variable quantities are the helium bath temperature, flow velocity and heat input. The helium bath is held at 1.8 K and under saturation pressure. The flow tube is heated at the middle and the flow velocity is varied up to 97 cm/s. The helium pressure is monitored at both ends of the tube and a friction factor is estimated for He II. Temperature measurements are made at seven evenly spaced locations along the tube. The experimental temperature profile is compared with a numerical solution of an analytical model developed for the problem under study

11

Single phase channel flow forced convection heat transfer

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review of the current knowledge of single phase forced convection channel flow of liquids (Pr > 5) is presented. Two basic channel geometries are considered, the circular tube and the rectangular duct. Both laminar flow and turbulent flow are covered. The review begins with a brief overview of the heat transfer behavior of Newtonian fluids followed by a more detailed presentation of the behavior of purely viscous and viscoelastic Non-Newtonian fluids. Recent developments dealing with aqueous solutions of high molecular weight polymers and aqueous solutions of surfactants are discussed. The review concludes by citing a number of challenging research opportunities.

Hartnett, J.P.

1999-04-01

12

Forced convection film boiling heat transfer on spheres

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an experimental study of forced convection film boiling on sphere. To measure the film boiling heat transfer coefficients, a heated sphere with a thermocouple embedded at the center is dropped in (1) a vertical tube filled with water, or (2) a rotating water pool. The rotating pool is for providing higher fluid velocity. The falling speed of the sphere in the vertical stainless steel tube is measured using a set of magnet pickup coils distributed along the tube. The rotating pool is made of Pyrex to make a visualization. The ranges of the experimental conditions are: sphere speed 0.1-1.6 m/s, sphere surface temperature 500 and 700degC. The results show that the forced convection film boiling heat transfer coefficients were 200?400 W/m2K in the present experimental conditions and also show that there are large differences between the data sets or correlations due mainly to experimental difficulties. (author)

13

Comparative analysis of heat transfer correlations for forced convection boiling

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A critical survey was conducted of the most relevant correlations of boiling heat transfer in forced convection flow. Most of the investigations carried out on partial nucleate boiling and fully developed nucleate boiling have led to the formulation of correlations that are not able to cover a wide range of operating conditions, due to the empirical approach of the problem. A comparative analysis is therefore required in order to delineate the relative accuracy of the proposed correlations, on the basis of the experimental data presently available. The survey performed allows the evaluation of the accuracy of the different calculating procedure; the results obtained, moreover, indicate the most reliable heat transfer correlations for the different operating conditions investigated. This survey was developed for five pressure range (up to 180bar) and for both saturation and subcooled boiling condition

14

Forced convective heat transfer in a porous plate channel

Forced convective heat transfer in a plate channel filled with metallic spherical particles was investigated experimentally and numerically. The test section, 58 mm×80 mm×5 mm in size, was heated by a 0.4 mm thick plate electrical heater. The coolant water flow rate ranged from 0.015 to 0.833 kg/s. The local wall temperature distribution was measured along with the inlet and outlet fluid temperatures and pressures. The results illustrate the heat transfer augmentation and increased pressure drop caused by the porous medium. The heat transfer coefficient was increased 5-12 times by the porous media although the hydraulic resistance was increased even more. The Nusselt number and the heat transfer coefficient increased with decreasing particle diameter, while the pressure drop decreased as the particle diameter increased. It was found that, for the conditions studied (metallic packed bed), the effect of thermal dispersion did not need to be considered in the physical model, as opposed to a non-metallic packed bed, where thermal dispersion is important.

Jiang, Peixue; Wang, Zhan; Ren, Zepei; Wang, Buxuan

1997-09-01

15

Heat transfer enhancement by using nanofluids in forced convection flows

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present paper, the problem of laminar forced convection flow of nanofluids has been thoroughly investigated for two particular geometrical configurations, namely a uniformly heated tube and a system of parallel, coaxial and heated disks. Numerical results, as obtained for water-?Al2O3 and Ethylene Glycol-?Al2O3 mixtures, have clearly shown that the inclusion of nanoparticles into the base fluids has produced a considerable augmentation of the heat transfer coefficient that clearly increases with an increase of the particle concentration. However, the presence of such particles has also induced drastic effects on the wall shear stress that increases appreciably with the particle loading. Among the mixtures studied, the Ethylene Glycol-?Al2O3 nanofluid appears to offer a better heat transfer enhancement than water-?Al2O3; it is also the one that has induced more pronounced adverse effects on the wall shear stress. For the case of tube flow, results have also shown that, in general, the heat transfer enhancement also increases considerably with an augmentation of the flow Reynolds number. Correlations have been provided for computing the Nusselt number for the nanofluids considered in terms of the Reynolds and the Prandtl numbers and this for both the thermal boundary conditions considered. For the case of radial flow, results have also shown that both the Reynolds number a shown that both the Reynolds number and the distance separating the disks do not seem to considerably affect in one way or another the heat transfer enhancement of the nanofluids (i.e. when compared to the base fluid at the same Reynolds number and distance)

16

Forced convection over traditional surfaces such as flat plate, cylinder and sphere have been well researched and documented. Data on forced convection over airfoil surfaces, however, remain very scanty in literature. High altitude vehicles that employ airfoils as lifting surfaces often suffer leading edge ice accretions which have tremendous negative consequences on the lifting capabilities and stability of the vehicle. One of the ways of mitigating the effect of ice accretion involves judicious leading edge convective cooling technique which in turn depends on the accuracy of convective heat transfer coefficient used in the analysis. In this study empirical investigation of convective heat transfer measurements on asymmetric airfoil is presented at different angle of attacks ranging from 0° to 20° under subsonic flow regime. The top and bottom surface temperatures are measured at given points using Senflex hot film sensors (Tao System Inc.) and used to determine heat transfer characteristics of the airfoils. The model surfaces are subjected to constant heat fluxes using KP Kapton flexible heating pads. The monitored temperature data are then utilized to determine the heat convection coefficients modelled empirically as the Nusselt Number on the surface of the airfoil. The experimental work is conducted in an open circuit-Eiffel type wind tunnel, powered by a 37 kW electrical motor that is able to generate subsonic air velocities up to around 41 m/s in the 24 square-inch test section. The heat transfer experiments have been carried out under constant heat flux supply to the asymmetric airfoil. The convective heat transfer coefficients are determined from measured surface temperature and free stream temperature and investigated in the form of Nusselt number. The variation of Nusselt number is shown with Reynolds number at various angles of attacks. It is concluded that Nusselt number increases with increasing Reynolds number and increase in angle of attack from 0° to 20° on the upper and lower surface of the airfoil.

Dag, Yusuf

17

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present paper describes a two-dimensional finite volume numerical simulation of flow and heat transfer in airflow windows by free and forced convection techniques. The governing equations are the fully elliptic, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The simple algorithm is employed to correct the pressure term. The second-order upwind scheme is used to discretize the convection terms. The (k-{epsilon}/RNG) turbulence model is applied for the flow simulation. The mesh used is the body-fitted, multi-plane grid system. Results on the variations of velocity and temperature profiles with geometrical parameters, at different temperature and velocity, for heat transfer by free and forced convection techniques are presented. Comparisons of the present results on temperature distribution for forced convection and for free convection with the available experimental forced convection data indicate that the airflow-influenced forced convection methods are considerably enhanced. (orig.)

Ghadimi, Mohammad; Ghadamian, Hossein [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Energy Engineering, Science and Research Branch; Hamidi, Aliasghar A. [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Fazelpour, Farivar [Islamic Azad Univ. of South Tehran Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Energy System Engineering; Behghadam, Mehdi [Islamic Azad Univ. of Roudehen Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2012-11-01

18

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For predicting the fully developed upward flow in a uniformly heated vertical pipe by taking account of the buoyancy force, the k-? models of turbulence for low Reynolds number flows were adopted. The regime map for forced, mixed and natural convections as well as for laminar and turbulent flows was plotted from the numerical calculations. At the same time, an experiment was carried out at Reynolds numbers of 3000 and 5000 with the Grashof number varied over a wide range by using pressurized nitrogen gas as a test fluid. In agreement with the prediction, buoyancy-induced impairment of heat transfer was measured right in the mixed convection region. Further, from hot-wire measurement, complete laminarization was demonstrated in the mixed convection region at a Reynolds number of 3000. (author)

19

Transient forces convection heat transfer to helium during a step in heat flux

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transient forced convection heat transfer coefficients for both subcritical and supercritical helium in a rectangular flow channel heated on one side were measured during the application of a step in heat flow. Zero flow data were also obtained. The heater surface which served simultaneously as a thermometer was a fast response carbon film. Operating conditions covered the following range: Pressure, 1.0 x 105 PAia (1 bar) to 1.0 x 106 Pa (10 bar); Temperature, 4 K-10 K; Heat flux, 0.1 W/cm2-10 W/cm2; Reynolds number, 0-8 x 105. The experimental data and a predictive correlation are presented

20

Effect of Buoyancy on Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Vertical Channels - a Literature Survey

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains a short resume of the available information from various sources on the effect of free convection flow on forced convection heat transfer in vertical channels. Both theoretical and experimental investigations are included. Nearly all of the theoretical investigations are concerned with laminar flow with or without internal heat generation. More consistent data are available for upward flow than for downward flow. Curves are presented to determine whether free convection or forced convection mode of heat transfer is predominant for a particular Reynolds number and Rayleigh number. At Reb > 105 free convection effects are negligible. Downward flow through a heated channel at low Reynolds number is unstable. Under similar conditions the overall heat transfer coefficient for downward flow tends to be higher than that for upward flow

21

A two-dimensional steady forced convective flow of a Newtonian fluid past a convectively heated permeable vertically moving plate in the presence of a variable magnetic field and radiation effect has been investigated numerically. The plate moves either in assisting or opposing direction to the free stream. The plate and free stream velocities are considered to be proportional to whilst the magnetic field and mass transfer velocity are taken to be proportional to where is the distance along ...

Uddin, Md Jashim; Khan, Waqar A.; Ismail, A. I. Md

2013-01-01

22

Forced convection heat transfer from heated surface in a cavity formed by two high ribs

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work under consideration is devoted to experimental study on forced convection heat transfer from heated surface between two high ribs. Great attention is paid to the flow visual picture. The experiments were carried out in the channel of a subsonic aerodynamic tube with 200x200 mm cross section. Ribs of material with low heat conductivity (organic glass) 3 mm thick were located at the channel lower wall. The ribs were of similar height (h=60 mm) and the distance between them was equal to L/h=1; 2; 3 calibers. The most interesting fact from practical point of view is that average heat transfer between the ribs appeared to be by 1.5-3 times lower as compared to streamlining smooth surface

23

Forced convective heat transfer enhancement with perforated pin fins

Increasing miniaturization of high speed multi-functional electronics demands ever more stringent thermal management. The present work investigates experimentally and numerically the use of staggered perforated pin fins to enhance the rate of heat transfer in these devices. In particular, the effects of the number of perforations and the diameter of perforation on each pin are studied. The results show that the Nusselt number for the perforated pins is 45 % higher than that for the conventional solid pins and it increases with the number of perforation. Pressure drop with perforated pins is also reduced by 18 % when compared with that for solid pins. Perforations produce recirculations in the x- y as well as the x- z planes downstream of the pins which effectively increase convective heat transfer. However, thermal dissipation decreases significantly when the ratio of pin diameter to perforation diameter exceeds 0.375. This is due to both a reduction in the number of perforation per pin and the decrease in the axial heat conduction along the pin.

Chin, Swee-Boon; Foo, Ji-Jinn; Lai, Yin-Ling; Yong, Terry Kin-Keong

2013-10-01

24

Studies of Forced-Convection Heat Transfer Augmentation in Large Containment Enclosures

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heat transfer enhancement due to jet mixing inside a cylindrical enclosure is discussed. This work addresses conservative heat transfer assumptions regarding mixing and condensation that have typically been incorporated into passive containment design analyses. This research presents the possibility for increasing decay heat removal of passive containment systems under combined natural and forced convection. Eliminating these conservative assumptions could result in a changed containment design and reduce the construction cost. It is found that the ratio of forced- and free-convection Nusselt numbers can be predicted as a function of the Archimedes number and a correlated factor accounting for jet orientation and enclosure geometry

25

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF FORCED CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH HELICAL CHANNELS

Helical ducts are used in a variety of applications including food processing, thermal processing plants and refrigeration. They are advantageous due to their high heat transfer coefficient and compactness compared to straight tubes. The curvature of the coil governs the centrifugal force resulting in development of secondaryflow i.e. the fluid stream in the outer side of the pipe moves faster than the fluid streams in the inner side of the pipe. In the present study, Computational Fluid Dyna...

Reby Roy, Dr K. E.; Shenoy, Rohit N.; Bibin Prasad

2012-01-01

26

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF FORCED CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH HELICAL CHANNELS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Helical ducts are used in a variety of applications including food processing, thermal processing plants and refrigeration. They are advantageous due to their high heat transfer coefficient and compactness compared to straight tubes. The curvature of the coil governs the centrifugal force resulting in development of secondaryflow i.e. the fluid stream in the outer side of the pipe moves faster than the fluid streams in the inner side of the pipe. In the present study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations using Fluent 6.3.26 are carried out for helical rectangular ducts wound over a cylindrical passage. The cylindrical passage is oriented horizontallyand acts as a counterflow heat exchanger. The analysis is done by changing the flow rates of four different fluids like Ethylene Glycol, Kerosene, Nano Fluid and Water. The fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of the fluids are studied and Nusselt Number correlations with Dean Number are developed.

Dr. K. E. Reby Roy

2012-07-01

27

Effect of vapor condensation on forced convection heat transfer of moistened gas

The forced convection heat transfer with water vapor condensation is studied both theoretically and experimentally when wet flue gas passes downwards through a bank of horizontal tubes. Extraordinarily, discussions are concentrated on the effect of water vapor condensation on forced convection heat transfer. In the experiments, the air steam mixture is used to simulate the flue gas of a natural gas fired boiler, and the vapor mass fraction ranges from 3.2 to 12.8%. By theoretical analysis, a new dimensionless number defined as augmentation factor is derived to account for the effect of condensation of relatively small amount of water vapor on convection heat transfer, and a consequent correlation is proposed based on the experimental data to describe the combined convection condensation heat transfer. Good agreement can be found between the values of the Nusselt number obtained from the experiments and calculated by the correlation. The maximum deviation is within ą6%. The experimental results also shows that the convection condensation heat transfer coefficient increases with Reynolds number and bulk vapor mass fraction, and is 13.5 times that of the forced convection without condensation.

Liang, Yongbin; Che, Defu; Kang, Yanbin

2007-05-01

28

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Combined forced and free convective heat transfer characteristics were experimentally investigated for water flowing under about 1 atm in a narrow vertical rectangular (750 mm long, 50 mm wide and 18 mm in gap) channel heated from both sides. Experiments were carried out for both downward and upward forced convective flows for Reynolds number Re of 4 x 101 ? 5 x 105 and Grashof number Gr of 5 x 104 ? 4 x 1011, where the distance x from the inlet of the channel is adopted as the characteristic length in Re and Gr. As the results, the following were revealed : (1) Heat transfer coefficients for the combined convective flow region can be expressed in simple forms with a dimensionless parameter Gr/(Re21/8 Pr1/2) which is constituted by Gr, Re and Prandtl number Pr. (2) From the above-mentioned simple expressions it can be identified that the combined convective heat transfer is significant for the condition of 2.5 x 10-4 21/8 Pr2/1) -3. (3) In the present experiment, little significant differences were observed in heat transfer characteristics between the combined convective flow region with upward forced convective flow and that with downward forced convective flow. (author)

29

Theoretical solution for forced convection film boiling heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The theoretical solutions of forced convection film boiling heat transfer from horizontal cylinders were obtained based on a two-phase laminar boundary layer film boiling model. It was clarified that authors' previous experimental data for the cylinders with the non dimensional diameters, D', of around 1.3 in water and in Freon-113 agreed with the values of theoretical numerical solutions based on the two-phase laminar boundary layer model with the smooth vapor-liquid interface except those for low flow velocities. A forced convection film boiling heat transfer correlation for the cylinders with non dimensional diameters of around 1.3 under saturation conditions was developed based on forced convection two-phase laminar boundary layer film boiling model and the experimental data

30

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heat transfer and CHF (Critical heat flux) characteristics of flow boiling of R-113 in helically coiled tubes were experimentally investigated. Two coiled tubes with coil diameters of 0.165 and 0.32 m, and 10 mm I.D. were tested at a pressure of 0.39 MPa. In the nucleate boiling region, circumferential difference in heat transfer was not clarified qualitatively as well as quantitatively. The ratio of circumferential average boiling heat transfer coefficient to that of the single-phase flow in a curved tube, hTP/hLo, was found to be rather close to the correlations of Pujol-Stenning and Ueda-Kim for a straight tube flow. In the high quality region, the heat transfer coefficient was highest at the coil outside and lowest at the inside, and the average heat transfer coefficient ratio hTP/hLo was expressed in terms of Martinelli parameter, Xtt, only. A correlation applicable to both the nucleate boiling and forced convective evaporation regions was proposed. The CHF of the coiled tube was higher than that of the straight tube when the coil diameter was small, but it became considerably low at low mass velocity when the coil diameter was large. (author)

31

Experiment of forced convection heat transfer using microencapsulated phase-change-material slurries

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study describes an experiment on forced convective heat transfer using a water slurry of Microencapsulated Phase-change-material. A normal paraffin hydrocarbon is microencapsulated by melamine resin, melting point of 28.1degC. The heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop in a circular tube were evaluated. The heat transfer coefficient using the slurry in case with and without phase change were compared to in case of using pure water. (author)

32

Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of the Human Body under Forced Convection from Ceiling

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The average convective heat transfer coefficient for a seated human body exposed to downward flow from above was determined. Thermal manikin with complex body shape and size of an average Scandinavian female was used. The surface temperature distribution of the manikins body was as the skin temperature distribution of an average person. The measurements were performed in a room with controlled thermal environment. Air temperature was set at 26şC for cooling and at 20şC for heating. The radiant temperature asymmetry in horizontal and vertical direction was close to zero, i.e. mean radiant temperature was equal to the air temperature. The air velocity of the isothermal downward flow from the ceiling at height of 1.5 m above the floor (above the top of the head) was set in a range between still air and 0.73 m/s. Based on the analyses of the results relationships for determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body (hc [W/(m2K)]) was proposed: hc=4.088+6.592V1.715 for a seated naked body at 20şC and hc=2.874+7.427V1.345 for a seated naked body at 26şC. Differences in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body in low air velocity range, V<0.3 m/s, due to the natural convection were found. The results may be useful during design of air distribution in rooms, e.g. low impulse ventilation, diffuse ventilation, etc.

Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Rezgals, Lauris

2014-01-01

33

Forced-convection heat transfer in a spherical annulus heat exchanger

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented of a combined numerical and experimental study of steady, forced-convection heat transfer in a spherical annulus heat exchanger with 53 0C water flowing in an annulus formed by an insulated outer sphere and a 0 0C inner sphere. The inner sphere radius is 139.7 mm, the outer sphere radius is 168.3 mm. The transient laminar incompressible axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations and energy equation in spherical coordinates are solved by an explicit finite-difference solution technique. Turbulence and buoyancy are neglected in the numerical analysis. Steady solutions are obtained by allowing the transient solution to achieve steady state. Numerically obtained temperature and heat-flux rate distributions are presented for gap Reynolds numbers from 41 to 465. Measurements of inner sphere heat-flux rate distribution, flow separation angle, annulus fluid temperatures, and total heat transfer are made for Reynolds numbers from 41 to 1086. The angle of separation along the inner sphere is found to vary as a function of Reynolds number. Measured total Nusselt numbers agree with results reported in the literature to within 2.0 percent at a Reynolds number of 974, and 26.0 percent at a Reynolds number of 66

34

Within the present work the dataset of experimental points and the heat transfer correlations available in literature for liquid-metal fully-developed, forced-convective heat transfer in pipes are reviewed and critically analyzed. Over 1,100 data points from 21 different sources are considered for constant heat flux, covering a wide range of operating conditions (velocity, heat flux, diameter, among others). Among 15 evaluated correlations, four appropriate ones are recommended for forced turbulent convection: one covering all the data points and the other three respectively related to alkali liquid metals, lead alloys and mercury. Moreover, a new correlation has been derived as a best fit of the limited number of available data points for constant wall temperature, while an alternative evaluation method is also described for this boundary condition.

Pacio, J.; Marocco, L.; Wetzel, Th.

2015-02-01

35

LAMINAR FORCED CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER OVER STAGGERED CIRCULAR TUBE BANKS: A CFD APPROACH

This paper presents the numerical study of two-dimensional forced convection heat transfer for staggered tube banks in cross flow under incompressible, steady-state conditions. This system is solved for body-fitted coordinates using the finite volume method for flow over a bundle of cylindrical tubes. A constant heat flux is imposed on the surface of the tubes as the thermal boundary condition. The type of arrangement considered is a set of staggered tubes. Ratios of longitudinal pitch to tub...

Tahseen, Tahseen A.; Ishak, M.; Rahman, M. M.

2013-01-01

36

Heat flux at the boundary of a duct is estimated using the inverse technique based on conjugate gradient method (CGM) with an adjoint equation. A two-dimensional inverse forced convection hydrodynamically fully developed turbulent flow is considered. The simulations are performed with temperature data measured in the experimental test performed on a wind tunnel. The results show that the present numerical model with CGM is robust and accurate enough to estimate the strength and position of boundary heat flux.

Parwani, Ajit K.; Talukdar, Prabal; Subbarao, P. M. V.

2015-03-01

37

Experimental and numerical study of steady forced-convection heat transfer in a spherical annulus

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of a combined experimental and numerical study of steady forced-convection heat transfer in a spherical annulus with 500C heated water flowing in the annulus, an insulated outer sphere, and a 00C cooled inner sphere are presented. The inner sphere radius is 139.7 mm, the outer sphere radius is 168.3 mm and the radius ratio is 1.2. Measurements of inner sphere heat- flux rate distribution, flow separation angle, annulus fluid temperatures and total heat transfer were made for gap Reynolds numbers from 41 to 1086. The angle of separation along the inner sphere was found to vary as a function of Reynolds number. Measured total Nusselt numbers agreed with results reported in the literature to within 2.0% at a gap Reynolds number of 974 and 26.0% at a gap Reynolds number of 66. Results of numerical calculations of laminar incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer in a spherical annulus are presented. Velocity, temperature, pressure and heat-flux rate distributions are presented for gap Reynolds numbers from 4.4 to 440. It is believed that this is the first experimental study of spherical annulus convective heat transfer in which inner sphere heat-fux distribution has been measured and in which sepration angle was measured by non-visual methods and found to vary as a function of Reynolds number. Also, the numerical analysis is the first solution of the full laminar Navier-Stokes equations for forced-convection heat transfer in a sphericaled-convection heat transfer in a spherical annulus. The computations predict well the experimental trends and qualitative aspects of the flow and heat transfer while underpredicting heat-flux rates by a factor of two or more. It is felt that a turbulence model is necessary to predict more accurately the experimental results

38

Forced convection heat exchange inside porous sintered metals

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods and results of investigating heat exchange in the process of liquid flow inside porous sintered metals have been analyzed. It has been shown that experimental data available include extremely conflicting correlations between heat transfer coefficient and Reynolds number, porosity, and relative wall thickness. Scattering of the data can attain one order of magnitude. The volume coefficient of heat transfer inside pores determined in papers does not correspond to its real value in the initial equations of the inner problem of porous cooling. Calculating and experimental method of determining the heat transfer coefficient has been developed and realized on the unit of radiation heating. More accurate experimental data on intraporous heat exchange have been obtained. It has been established that relative wall thickness does not affect the intensity of heat transfer inside pores

39

Heat transfer enhancement for single phase forced convection

Goals for heat exchanger design are outlined and performance evaluation criteria are discussed. The flow geometries in heat exchangers, which can be classified as channel or tube flow, are described. The use of finned plates or tubes for channel flow and internally finned tubes or wire coil and twisted tape inserts for tube flow are considered.

Fiebig, Martin

40

Forced convection heat transfer in a bundle of 12 rods

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the heat transfer experiments performed with two bundles of 12 electrically heated rough rods. The fundamentals of the SAGAPO code are given. SAGAPO calculates the friction and heat transfer coefficients in turbulent flow by integrating the logarithmic universal laws of the wall for velocity and temperature in the various coolant channels confined by rough surfaces. The code accounts for turbulent mixing and cross flow among the channels, for spacer effects on wall temperatures and pressure drop, for fin efficiency effects due to the roughness ribs, and for inlet effects on wall temperatures in case of smooth rods. Also laminar flow can be calculated. Comparisons between computed and experimental results on pressure and temperature distributions are presented

41

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a high-level waste (HLW) repository, heat is generated by the radioactive decay of the waste. This can affect the safety of the repository because the surrounding environment can be changed by the heat transfer through the rock. Thus, it is important to determine the heat transfer coefficient of the atmosphere in the underground repository. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient was estimated by measuring the indoor environmental factors in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) under forced convection. For the experiment, a heater of 5 kw capacity, 2 meters long, was inserted through the tunnel wall in the heating section of KURT in order to heat up the inside of the rock to 90 .deg. C, and fresh air was provided by an air supply fan connected to the outside of the tunnel. The results showed that the average air velocity in the heating section after the provision of the air from outside of the tunnel was 0.81 m/s with the Reynolds number of 310,000 ? 340,000. The seasonal heat transfer coefficient in the heating section under forced convection was 7.68 W/m2 K in the summer and 7.24 W/mm2 K in the winter

42

A two-dimensional steady forced convective flow of a Newtonian fluid past a convectively heated permeable vertically moving plate in the presence of a variable magnetic field and radiation effect has been investigated numerically. The plate moves either in assisting or opposing direction to the free stream. The plate and free stream velocities are considered to be proportional to x(m) whilst the magnetic field and mass transfer velocity are taken to be proportional to x((m-1)/2) where x is the distance along the plate from the leading edge of the plate. Instead of using existing similarity transformations, we use a linear group of transformations to transform the governing equations into similarity equations with relevant boundary conditions. Numerical solutions of the similarity equations are presented to show the effects of the controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as on the friction factor, rate of heat and mass transfer. It is found that the rate of heat transfer elevates with the mass transfer velocity, convective heat transfer, Prandtl number, velocity ratio and the magnetic field parameters. It is also found that the rate of mass transfer enhances with the mass transfer velocity, velocity ratio, power law index and the Schmidt number, whilst it suppresses with the magnetic field parameter. Our results are compared with the results existing in the open literature. The comparisons are satisfactory. PMID:23741295

Uddin, Md Jashim; Khan, Waqar A; Ismail, A I Md

2013-01-01

43

The effect of internal ribbing on forced convective heat transfer in circular-sectioned tubes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of an experimental examination of the effect of internal circumferential ribs on forced convection in circular-sectioned tubes. The work is relevant to the internal cooling of gas turbine rotor blades. The influence of rib geometry is investigated for three different rib configurations and simple design-type, empirical equations are developed for estimating heat transfer at rib and mid-rib locations. It is demonstrated that heat transfer may be improved by up to three fold in relation to fully developed forced convection in smooth-walled tubes. The geometric parameters which have been used for the experiments are typical of those currently applied to gas turbine blade cooling designs

44

The major focus of this article is to analyze the forced convective heat transfer in a steady boundary layer flow of Sisko fluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet. Two cases are studied, namely (i) the sheet with variable temperature (PST case) and (ii) the sheet with variable heat flux (PHF case). The heat transfer aspects are investigated for both integer and non-integer values of the power-law index. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to a system of nonlinear ordinary...

Munir, Asif; Shahzad, Azeem; Khan, Masood

2014-01-01

45

Boiling and bubbling heat transfer under the conditions of free and forced convection

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper gives the main results of studying the hydrogasdynamic aspects of heat transfer and blow-off effect at the developed nucleate boiling by analogy with bubbling under the conditions of free convection. For the first time it proved possible to detect the explicit influence of gas (vapour) phase compressibility on the heat transfer intensity and the effect of liquid blow-off from the surface of heating (bubbling). The existence of regimes automodel with respect to liquid phase viscosity has been found. A description is given of the first forced-circulation loop to study heat transfer and blow-off effect at forced gas-liquid flow in tubes and channels

46

Forced Convection Heat Transfer of He I and He II at Pressures up to Supercritical

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The forced convection heat transfer coefficients were measured on a horizontal flat plate heater located on inner wall of a rectangular duct for pressures from 1 atm to 2.8 atm, flow velocities up to 2.1 m/s and for liquid temperatures from 1.8 to 6.5 K. Critical heat fluxes (CHFs) in He II under subcritical and supercritical pressures are higher for higher flow velocity and lower liquid temperature. In He I under supercritical pressures, there are two distinct ranges in heat transfer curves. The curve for lower heat flux range has a steeper gradient and the curve for higher heat flux has a lower gradient like film boiling regime. The peak heat fluxes of the former curves are treated as pseudo CHFs in this study and compared with the CHFs for He II

47

In the present study, the fundamental experiments that investigate characteristics of local heat transfer in forced convective boiling on vertical flat plate with 2-mm channel height are taken to realize plate type compact evaporator for OTEC or STEC. The experiments are performed with ammonia as the working fluid. The experiments are also carried out with the following test conditions; saturated pressure = 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 MPa, mass flux = 7.5, 10, 15 kg/(m2s), heat flux = 15, 20, 25 kW/m2 and inlet quality = 0.1 ~ 0.4 [-]. The result shows that the wall superheated temperature of forced convective boiling is lower than that of pool boiling. And the heat transfer coefficient increases with an increase in quality and the decrease in the local heat flux and saturated pressure for prescribed experimental conditions. However, local heat transfer coefficients are not affected by mass fluxes in the prescribed experimental conditions. An empirical correlation that can predict the local heat transfer coefficient on vertical flat plate within experimental conditions is also proposed.

Kim, Jeong-Hun; Arima, Hirofumi; Ikegami, Yasuyuki

48

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For development of new reactor, supercritical water is expected to be used as coolant to improve thermal efficiency. However, the thermal characteristics of supercritical fluid is not revealed completely because its difficulty for experiment. Specific phenomena tend to occur near the pseudo-boiling point which is characterised by temperature corresponding to the saturation point in ordinary fluid. Around this point, the physic properties such as density, specific heat and thermal conductivity are drastically varying. Although there is no difference between gas and liquid phases in supercritical fluids, phenomena similar to boiling (with heat transfer deterioration) can be observed round the pseudo-boiling point. Experiments of heat transfer have been done for supercritical fluid in forced convective condition. However, these experiments were mainly realised inside stainless steel cylinder pipes, for which flow visualisation is difficult. Consequently, this work has been devoted to the development of method allowing the visualisation of supercritical flows. The experiment setup is composed of main loop and test section for the visualisation. Carbon dioxide is used as test fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide flows upward in rectangular channel and heated by one-side wall to generate forced convection heat transfer. Through window at mid-height of the test section, shadowgraphy was applied to visualize density gradient distribution. The behavior of the density wave in the channel is visualized and examined through the variation of the heat transfer coefficient. (author)

49

Forced convection heat transfer from banks of helical coiled resistance wires

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Forced convection heat transfer from banks of helical coiled resistance wires in a cross flow of air was investigated experimentally, with reference to various operative conditions and several coil geometries. The resistance banks were subdivided in two branches, independently powered by single-phase alternating current. Average convection heat transfer coefficients were determined for each branch. No significant interactions were detected between adjacent coils nor between upstream and downstream coils, possibly because of the high percentage of inter-spaces between wires. The experimentally measured Nusselt numbers were thus correlated by a modified version of the Churchill and Bernstein model, valid for a single cylinder in cross flow. To this purpose, an equivalent wire diameter was defined in order to take into account the influences of diameter and pitch of the coils. The average deviation between measured and calculated values of the Nusselt number is of the order of {+-}7% in the range of Reynolds numbers from 70 to 400. (author)

Comini, G.; Savino, S. [University of Udine, Department of Energy and Fluid Machinery, Via delle Scienze 208, 33100 Udine (Italy); Bari, E.; Bison, A. [Electrolux Home Products Italy Spa, Corso Lino Zanussi 30, 33080 Porcia (PN) (Italy)

2008-04-15

50

Forced convection heat transfer of subcooled liquid nitrogen in a vertical tube

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental research on forced convection heat transfer of subcooled liquid nitrogen ranging from the pressures of 0.3 MPa to its supercritical pressure is carried out for wide ranges of inlet temperature and flow velocity. A stainless steel tube heater with the inner diameter of 5.4 mm and the length of 100 mm is mounted vertically. The heat transfer coefficients in non-boiling region and the DNB (departure from nucleate boiling) heat fluxes are higher for higher flow velocity and higher subcooling. The trend of the heat transfer coefficients in the non-boiling region agree with those by the Dittus-Boelter correlation, although they are unaffected by the flow velocity for Re w, exceeds its pseudo-critical temperature, Tc', although they are similar to those under subcritical pressure for Tw c'. The heat transfer characteristics of supercritical nitrogen can be predicted by authors' correlation.

51

Maximal heat transfer density: Plates with multiple lengths in forced convection

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper shows that in a space filled with heat generating parallel plates and laminar forced convection, the heat transfer density can be increased beyond the level known for parallel plates with optimal spacing. The technique consists of inserting in every entrance region new generations of smaller plates, because smaller plates have thin boundary layers that fit in the unused (isothermal) entrance flow. This technique can be repeated several times, and the result is a sequence of multi-scale flow structures that have progressively higher heat transfer densities. The work consists of numerical simulations in a large number of flow configurations, one differing slightly from the next. The complete optimized architecture and performance of structures with one, two and three plate length scales are reported. Diminishing returns are observed as the number of length scales increases. This method can be used to develop multi-scale nonuniform flow structures for heat exchangers and cooled electronic packages. (authors)

Bello-Ochende, T.; Bejan, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Box 90300, Durham, NC (United States)

2004-12-01

52

Combined free and forced convection heat transfer in magneto fluid mechanic pipe flow

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study is made of fully developed, laminar, free-and-forced convection heat transfer in an electrically conducting fluid flowing in an electrically insulated, horizontal, circular pipe in a vertical transverse magnetic field. The normalized magnetofluidmechanic and energy equations are reduced to three coupled partial differential equations by the introduction of a stream function of the secondary flow. A perturbation solution is generated in inverse powers of the Lykoudis number, Ly = M2/?Gr, which yields the influence of the magnetic field on the stream function of the secondary flow, axial velocity profiles, temperature profiles, and Nusselt number. 6 figures, 1 table

53

Numerical study of forced convection in a vertical channel filled with heat-generating porous medium

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steady laminar non-Darcian forced convection in a vertical channel filled with heat-generating porous medium is studied numerically by using the local thermal non-equilibrium model. The heat source generated by solid framework is uniform and kept constant; and the temperature of vertical walls is kept at constant temperature T0. The flow inside porous medium is modelled by using Forchheimer-Brinkman extended Darcy model. The effects of Reynolds number (0.5 ?Re ? 50), effective fluid-to-solid thermal conductivity ratio ?(0.001 ? ? ? 1.0)and Darcy number (10-3 ? Da ? 10-5) are analyzed in detail. It is found that, the effects of Re, ? and Da are remarkable; at low values of Re and ?, and at high value of Da, the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium is significant and the local thermal non-equilibrium model should be adopted for predicting the heat transfer characteristics exactly. (authors)

54

Effect of uncertainties in physical properties on forced convection heat transfer with nanofluids

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nanofluids are considered to offer important advantages over conventional heat transfer fluids. However, at this early stage of their development, their thermophysical properties are not known precisely. As a result, the assessment of their true potential is difficult. This fact is illustrated by analyzing their thermohydraulic performance for both laminar and turbulent fully developed forced convection in a tube with uniform wall heat flux. Two different models from the literature are used to express these properties in terms of particle loading and they lead to very different qualitative and quantitative results in two types of problems: replacement of a simple fluid by a nanofluid in a given installation and design of an elementary heat transfer installation for a simple fluid or a nanofluid

55

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the first part, free-convection and nucleate pool boiling heat transfer (up to burn-out heat flux) between a platinum wire of 0.15 mm in diameter in neon, deuterium and hydrogen has been studied at atmospheric pressure. These measurements were continued in liquid neon up to 23 bars (Pc ? 26.8 b). Film boiling heat transfer coefficients have been measured in pool boiling liquid neon at atmospheric pressure with three heating wires (diameters 0.2, 0.5, 2 mm). All the results have been compared with existing correlations. The second part is devoted to measurements of the critical heat flux limiting heat transfer with small temperature differences between the wall and the liquid neon flowing inside a tube (diameters 3 x 3.5 mm) heated by joule effect on 30 cm of length. Influences of flow stability, nature of electrical current, pressure, mass flow rate and subcooling are shown. In conclusion, the similarity of the heat transfer characteristics in pool boiling as well as in forced convection of liquid neon and hydrogen is emphasized. (author)

56

Enhancement of forced convective heat transfer in narrow concentric annulus by turbulence promoters

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Enhancement of forced convective heat transfer in a narrow concentric annulus was performed by turbulence promoters in order to improve the heat removal from High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor, Gas-cooled Nuclear Fusion Reactor and other narrow flow passages. Present experiments, which were different from the conventional research, were carried out to examine the effect of the turbulence promoters on the inner insulated wall opposite the outer smooth heated wall by changing the ratio of the pitch and the height P/epsilon (from 5 to 60), the ratio of the height and the space epsilon/epsilon' (from 0.2 to 2) and the type of turbulence promoters. Experimental results were arranged for the local heat transfer coefficient distribution on the smooth outer tube, the average heat transfer coefficient, the friction factor and the thermal performance. Five kinds of evaluation for thermal performance were presented: The ratio of heat transfer coefficient with and without turbulence promoters at three conditions, (1) constant Reynolds number, (2) constant pressure drop and (3) constant pumping power, additionally, (4) pumping power reduction at constant heat transfer coefficient and (5) working ratio. An example of a fuel element of HTGR with turbulence promoters was indicated as an application of present results. (author)

57

Numerical prediction of the turbulent forced heat convection in a two-dimensional driven cavity flow

Turbulent flow and associated heat transfer in driven two-dimensional closed cavity flow has been studied using a finite-difference numerical method. Turbulence modeling is based on one point closures derived from the classical turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate model. Calculated mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy are compared with available experimental data, and the model is shown to successfully predict global quantities despite limitations. The problem of forced heat convection with fixed wall temperature is considered, and mean temperature field and overall thermal properties of the cavity flow are studied. Numerically deduced correlations giving Nusselt numbers for each face of the cavity as a function of Reynolds number, sum up the mean transfer properties of such a flow configuration. The study has applications to the problem of cooling of turbomachine rotors.

Abadie, P.; Schiestel, R.

1986-03-01

58

LAMINAR FORCED CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER OVER STAGGERED CIRCULAR TUBE BANKS: A CFD APPROACH

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the numerical study of two-dimensional forced convection heat transfer for staggered tube banks in cross flow under incompressible, steady-state conditions. This system is solved for body-fitted coordinates using the finite volume method for flow over a bundle of cylindrical tubes. A constant heat flux is imposed on the surface of the tubes as the thermal boundary condition. The type of arrangement considered is a set of staggered tubes. Ratios of longitudinal pitch to tube diameter (ST/D of 1.25, 1.5, and 2 are considered. Reynolds numbers are varied from 25 to 250 and the Prandtl number is taken as 0.71. Velocity field vectors, temperature contours, and the local and average Nusselt numbers are analyzed in this paper. It can be seen that the predicted results are in good agreement with experimental and numerical results obtained previously. The obtained results show that the heat transfer rate increases with a reduction in the step of the longitudinal tube diameter. The local heat transfer depends strongly on the Reynolds number. The highest values are obtained at the surface opposite to the direction of flow. The heat transfer rate is insignificant in the areas of recycling.

Tahseen A. Tahseen

2013-06-01

59

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three dimensional simulations of the single-phase laminar flow and forced convective heat transfer of water in round tube and straight microchannel heat exchangers were investigated numerically. This numerical method was developed to measure heat transfer parameters of round tube and straight microchannel tube geometries. Then, similarities and differences were compared between different geometries. The geometries and operating conditions of those indicated heat exchangers were created using a finite volume-based computational fluid dynamics technique. In this article, at each Z-location variation of dimensionless local temperature, nondimensional local heat flux variation and dimensionless local Nusselt number distribution along the tube length were compared between round tube and straight microchannel heat exchangers. Consequently, averaged computational Nusselt number was obtained for those indicated models and then validation study was performed for round tube counter flow type heat exchanger model. Finally, all of these numerical results for both kind of geometries in counter flow heat exchangers were discussed in details.

P. MOHAJERI KHAMENEH,

2010-11-01

60

Improved modelling of turbulent forced convective heat transfer in straight ducts

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ducts with non-circular cross sections are frequently encountered in industrial heat transfer equipment, e.g., compact heat exchangers, cooling channels in gas turbine blades, nuclear reactors, etc. This investigation concerns numerical calculation of turbulent forced convective heat transfer and fluid flow in their fully developed state at low Reynolds number. The authors have developed a low Reynolds number version of the non-linear ?-? model combined with the heat flux models of SED, low Reynolds number version of GGDH and WET in general three dimensional geometries. The wall function approach is abandoned and the friction factor is predicted in agreement with experiments. The Nusselt numbers are also predicted very well. Fully developed condition is achieved by imposing cyclic boundary conditions in the main flow direction. The numerical approach is based on the finite volume technique with a non-staggered grid arrangement and the SIMPLEC algorithm. Results have been obtained with the linear and the nonlinear ?-? model, combined with the Lam-Bremhorst damping functions for low Reynolds numbers. The secondary flow patterns are also of major concern

61

Improved modelling of turbulent forced convective heat transfer in straight ducts

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ducts with non-circular cross sections are frequently encountered in industrial heat transfer equipment, e.g., compact heat exchangers, cooling channels in gas turbine blades, nuclear reactors, etc. This investigation concerns numerical calculation of turbulent forced convective heat transfer and fluid flow in their fully developed state at low Reynolds number. The authors have developed a low Reynolds number version of the non-linear {kappa}-{epsilon} model combined with the heat flux models of SED, low Reynolds number version of GGDH and WET in general three dimensional geometries. The wall function approach is abandoned and the friction factor is predicted in agreement with experiments. The Nusselt numbers are also predicted very well. Fully developed condition is achieved by imposing cyclic boundary conditions in the main flow direction. The numerical approach is based on the finite volume technique with a non-staggered grid arrangement and the SIMPLEC algorithm. Results have been obtained with the linear and the nonlinear {kappa}-{epsilon} model, combined with the Lam-Bremhorst damping functions for low Reynolds numbers. The secondary flow patterns are also of major concern.

Rokni, M.; Sunden, B.

1997-07-01

62

Conceptual Design of Forced Convection Molten Salt Heat Transfer Testing Loop

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report develops a proposal to design and construct a forced convection test loop. A detailed test plan will then be conducted to obtain data on heat transfer, thermodynamic, and corrosion characteristics of the molten salts and fluid-solid interaction. In particular, this report outlines an experimental research and development test plan. The most important initial requirement for heat transfer test of molten salt systems is the establishment of reference coolant materials to use in the experiments. An earlier report produced within the same project highlighted how thermophysical properties of the materials that directly impact the heat transfer behavior are strongly correlated to the composition and impurities concentration of the melt. It is therefore essential to establish laboratory techniques that can measure the melt composition, and to develop purification methods that would allow the production of large quantities of coolant with the desired purity. A companion report describes the options available to reach such objectives. In particular, that report outlines an experimental research and development test plan that would include following steps: Molten Salts: The candidate molten salts for investigation will be selected. Materials of Construction: Materials of construction for the test loop, heat exchangers, and fluid-solid corrosion tests in the test loop will also be selected. Scaling Analysis: Scaling analysis to design the test loop will be performed. Test Plan: A comprehensive test plan to include all the tests that are being planned in the short and long term time frame will be developed. Design the Test Loop: The forced convection test loop will be designed including extensive mechanical design, instrument selection, data acquisition system, safety requirements, and related precautionary measures. Fabricate the Test Loop. Perform the Tests. Uncertainty Analysis: As a part of the data collection, uncertainty analysis will be performed to develop probability of confidence in what is measured in the test loop. Overall, the testing loop will allow development of needed heat transfer related thermophysical parameters for all the salts, validate existing correlations, validate measuring instruments under harsh environment, and have extensive corrosion testing of materials of construction.

Manohar S. Sohal; Piyush Sabharwall; Pattrick Calderoni; Alan K. Wertsching; S. Brandon Grover

2010-09-01

63

The major focus of this article is to analyze the forced convective heat transfer in a steady boundary layer flow of Sisko fluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet. Two cases are studied, namely (i) the sheet with variable temperature (PST case) and (ii) the sheet with variable heat flux (PHF case). The heat transfer aspects are investigated for both integer and non-integer values of the power-law index. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using appropriate similarity variables and solved numerically. The numerical results are obtained by the shooting method using adaptive Runge Kutta method with Broyden's method in the domain[Formula: see text]. The numerical results for the temperature field are found to be strongly dependent upon the power-law index, stretching parameter, wall temperature parameter, material parameter of the Sisko fluid and Prandtl number. In addition, the local Nusselt number versus wall temperature parameter is also graphed and tabulated for different values of pertaining parameters. Further, numerical results are validated by comparison with exact solutions as well as previously published results in the literature. PMID:24949738

Munir, Asif; Shahzad, Azeem; Khan, Masood

2014-01-01

64

Currently, the heat transfer equation used in the rotary combustion engine (RCE) simulation model is taken from piston engine studies. These relations have been empirically developed by the experimental input coming from piston engines whose geometry differs considerably from that of the RCE. The objective of this work was to derive equations to estimate heat transfer coefficients in the combustion chamber of an RCE. This was accomplished by making detailed temperature and pressure measurements in a direct injection stratified charge (DISC) RCE under a range of conditions. For each specific measurement point, the local gas velocity was assumed equal to the local rotor tip speed. Local physical properties of the fluids were then calculated. Two types of correlation equations were derived and are described in this paper. The first correlation expresses the Nusselt number as a function of the Prandtl number, Reynolds number, and characteristic temperature ratio; the second correlation expresses the forced convection heat transfer coefficient as a function of fluid temperature, pressure and velocity.

Lee, Chi M.; Schock, Harold J.

1988-01-01

65

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Superposition of forced and thermal convection is studied in a rectangular cavity. ? For pure forced convection the mean wind exhibits a solid body rotation. ? Four buoyancy induced convection rolls are formed for mixed convection at Ar ? 3.3. ? The enthalpy flux difference between out- and inflowing air has a maximum at Ar ? 0.6. - Abstract: Results of an experimental study of flow structure formation and heat transport in turbulent forced and mixed convection are presented. The experiments were conducted in a rectangular cavity with a square cross section, which has an aspect ratio between length and height of ?xz = 5. Air at atmospheric pressure was used as working fluid. The air inflow was supplied through a slot below the ceiling, while exhausting was provided by another slot, which is located directly above the floor. Both vents extend over the whole length of the cell. In order to induce thermal convection the bottom of the cell is heated while the ceiling is maintained at a constant temperature. This configuration allows to generate and study mixed convection under well defined conditions. Results of forced convection at Re = 1.07 x 104 as well as mixed convection at 1.01 x 104 ? Re ? 3.4 x 104 and Ra = 2.4 x 108 (3.3 ? Ar ? 0.3), which were obtained by means of Particle Image Velocimetry and local temperature measurements, are presented. For purely forced convection a 2Dorced convection a 2D mean wind, which can be approximated by a solid body rotation, is found. With increasing Archimedes number this structure becomes unstable, leading to a transition of the solid body rotation into additional smaller convection rolls. Proper orthogonal decomposition of the instantaneous velocity fields has been performed for further analysis of these coherent large-scale structures. Their fingerprint is found in the spatial temperature distribution of the out flowing air at the end of the outlet channel, which reveals a temporally stable profile with two maxima over the length of the outlet. Moreover a maximum in the global enthalpy transport by the fluid is found at Ar ? 0.6.

66

Transient forced convection heat transfer from a circular cylinder embedded in a porous medium

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies of the transient heat transfer past a circular cylinder in a steady-state viscous flow are presented for some fluid saturated fibrous porous media. Numerical results have been obtained according to the Darcy-Brinkman model by means of the finite element method. Analysis of the influence of the Darcy and Peclet numbers on the mean Nusselt number exhibits the successive conduction, transition and convection regimes. The duration necessary to reach the steady-state convection heat transfer appears as a function of the Peclet and Darcy numbers.

Thevenin, J. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France). Modelisation des Transferts Thermiques

1995-07-01

67

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the unsteady laminar forced convection heat transfer from a row of five isothermal square cylinders placed in a side-by-side arrangement at a Reynolds number of 150. The numerical simulations are performed using a finite volume code based on the PISO algorithm in a collocated grid system. Special attention is paid to investigate the effect of the spacing between the cylinders on the overall transport processes for the separation ratios (spacing to size ratio) between 0.2 and 10. No significant interaction between the wakes is observed for spacing greater than four times the diameter at this Reynolds number. However, at smaller spacing, the wakes interact in a complicated manner resulting different thermo-hydrodynamic regimes. The vortex structures and isotherm patterns obtained are systematically presented and discussed for different separation ratios. In addition, the mean and instantaneous drag and lift coefficients, mean and local Nusselt number and Strouhal number are determined and discussed for various separation ratios. A new correlation is derived for mean Nusselt number as a function of separation ratio for such flows.

68

Forced convection is a phenomenon associated with the heat transfer fluid flows. The presence of convection affects simultaneously the thermal and hydrodynamic fields, the problem is thus coupled. This form of heat transfer inside ducts occurs in many practical applications such as solar collectors, heat exchangers, cooling of electronic components as well as chemical and nuclear. In this work, we are interested primarily for a numerical study of thermo-hydraulic performances of an incompressible turbulent flow of air through a heat sink composed of several rows of bars of square section. Profiles and the axial velocity fields, as well as profiles and the distribution of the Nusselt number are plotted for all the geometry considered and chosen for different sections. The effects of geometrical parameters of the model and the operating parameters on the dynamic and thermal behavior of the air are analyzed.

Bouchenafa, Rachid; Saim, Rachid; Abboudi, Said

2015-01-01

69

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, numerical investigations are conducted for forced convective heat transfer in an annular helicoidal tube under uniform wall temperature condition for laminar flow including developing region. The numerical computations reveal the developments and distributions of heat transfer and flow fields in the annular helicoidal tube when the outer tube wall is heated and the inner tube wall is insulated. The effects of Reynolds number, curvature ratio, and coil pitch on the circumferential average friction factor and Nusselt number at different axial locations, and the non-dimensional entropy generation number of laminar convection in an annular helicoidal tube are investigated. In addition, the differences of flow and heat transfer characteristics between the annular helicoidal tube and circular helicoidal tube are also described

70

In this paper, copper and aluminum foams with different porosity, number of pores per inch (PPI) and foam core height, are experimentally studied during air forced convection. The experimental measurements permit to understand how each parameter (i.e. porosity, PPI, material, and foam thickness) affects the heat transfer and fluid flow behavior of the metal foams. The paper presents the experimental heat transfer coefficients, permeability and inertia coefficients; moreover, it reports the normalized mean wall temperature as a function of the pumping power per unit of heat transfer area: two meaningful parameters that allow quantitative comparisons of different enhanced surfaces, which can be considered suitable for electronic thermal management.

Mancin, Simone; Zilio, Claudio; Diani, Andrea; Rossetto, Luisa

2012-05-01

71

Design of Test Loops for Forced Convection Heat Transfer Studies at Supercritical State

Worldwide research is being conducted to improve the efficiency of nuclear power plants by using supercritical water (SCW) as the working fluid. One such SCW reactor considered for future development is the CANDU-Supercritical Water Reactor (CANDU-SCWR). For safe and accurate design of the CANDU-SCWR, a detailed knowledge of forced-convection heat transfer in SCW is required. For this purpose, two supercritical fluid loops, i.e. a SCW loop and an R-134a loop are developed at Carleton University. The SCW loop is designed to operate at pressures as high as 28 MPa, temperatures up to 600 °C and mass fluxes of up to 3000 kg/m2s. The R-134a loop is designed to operate at pressures as high as 6 MPa, temperatures up to 140 °C and mass fluxes in the range of 500-6000 kg/m2s. The test loops designs allow for up to 300 kW of heating power to be imparted to the fluid. Both test loops are of the closed-loop design, where flow circulation is achieved by a centrifugal pump in the SCW loop and three parallel-connected gear pumps in the R-134a loop, respectively. The test loops are pressurized using a high-pressure nitrogen cylinder and accumulator assembly, which allows independent control of the pressure, while simultaneously dampening pump induced pressure fluctuations. Heat exchangers located upstream of the pumps control the fluid temperature in the test loops. Strategically located measuring instrumentation provides information on the flow rate, pressure and temperature in the test loops. The test loops have been designed to accommodate a variety of test-section geometries, ranging from a straight circular tube to a seven-rod bundle, achieving heat fluxes up to 2.5 MW/m2 depending on the test-section geometry. The design of both test loops allows for easy reconfiguration of the test-section orientation relative to the gravitational direction. All the test sections are of the directly-heated design, where electric current passing through the pressure retaining walls of the test sections provides the Joule heating required to heat up the fluid to supercritical conditions. A high-temperature dielectric gasket isolates the current carrying parts of the test section from the rest of the assembly. Temperature and pressure drop data are collected at the inlet and outlet, and along the heated length of the test section. The test loops and test sections are designed according to American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Pressure Piping B31.1, and Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII-Division 1 rules. The final test loops and test sections assemblies are certified by Technical Standards and Safety Authority (TSSA). Every attempt is made to use off-the-shelf components where possible in order to streamline the design process and reduce costs. Following a rigorous selection process, stainless steel Types 316 and 316H are selected as the construction materials for the test loops, and Inconel 625 is selected as the construction material for the test sections. This thesis describes the design of the SCW and R-134a loops along with the three test-section geometries (i.e., tubular, annular and bundle designs).

Balouch, Masih N.

72

Subcooled forced convection boiling of trichlorotrifluoroethane

Experimental heat-transfer data were obtained for the forced-convection boiling of trichlorotrifluoroethane (R-113 or Freon-113) in a vertical annular test annular test section. The 97 data points obtained covered heat transfer by forced convection, local boiling, and fully-developed boiling. Correlating methods were obtained which accurately predicted the heat flux as a function of wall superheat (boiling curve) over the range of parameters studied.

Dougall, R. S.; Panian, D. J.

1972-01-01

73

Low Reynolds number forced convection steam cooling heat transfer in rod bundles

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of forced convection steam cooling tests at low Reynolds numbers were conducted in the rod bundle test facility of the FLECHT-SEASET program. The data was reduced using a rod-centered subchannel energy balance to obtain the vapor temperature and by modeling the bundle with the COBRA-IV-I computer code. The comparisons between the COBRA-IV-I vapor temperatures and subchannel energy balance vapor temperatures were quite good. 5 refs

74

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A linear stability analysis determining the critical Rayleigh number R{sub c} for onset of convection in a bounded vertical cylinder containing a fluid-saturated porous medium is performed for insulated sidewalls, isothermal top surface, and bottom surface heated by forced convection. This Newtonian heating of the bottom surface involves a Biot number Bi that allows consideration of the continuum of boundary conditions ranging from constant heat flux, with global minimum R{sub min}=27.096 found as Bi{yields}0, to isothermal, with global minimum R{sub min}=4{pi}{sup 2} found as Bi{yields}{infinity}. In both cases and for most cylinder aspect ratios, incipient convection sets in as an asymmetric mode, though islands of aspect ratio exist where the onset mode is symmetric. Sample three-dimensional renderings of disturbance temperature distributions showing preferred modes at onset of convection for fixed Bi are provided and an analytical fit to R{sub min} as a function of Bi is given. (orig.)

Kubitschek, Joseph P.; Weidman, Patrick D. [University of Colorado, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Boulder, CO (United States)

2006-07-15

75

Transient convective heat transfer

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In nature, as well as within the human-made thermal systems, the time-variable regimes are more commonly encountered, if not always, than the permanent regimes. Nevertheless, studies in convection are still more frequent in the permanent regimes, undoubtedly due to the related difficulties in calcul [...] ation in terms of time and cost of computation. One may distinguish two categories of time-dependent transfers: those which are due to external causes (variable boundary conditions) and those that are due to internal causes (sources of variable power, instabilities, turbulence), and the combination of these two types may also be encountered. In this presentation, we shall analyze some situations which belong to the first category. These are concerned with: - a group of boundary layer flows in forced, natural or mixed convection, where the wall is subjected to time-variable conditions in temperature or flux. - another group of fluid flows within ducts, in laminar mixed convection regime, where the entry conditions (mass flow rate, temperature) are time-dependent. The techniques of analysis are mainly extensions to the differential method and to the integral method of Karman-Polhausen in boundary layer flows, and the finite differences solution of the vorticity and energy equations for internal flows. The results presented in the transient state are caused by steps of temperature, heat flux or velocity, and in particular show the time evolution of the dynamic and thermal boundary layers, as well of the heat transfer coefficients. Three examples of applications will then be treated: the active control of convective transfers, the measurement of heat transfer coefficients, and the analysis of heat exchangers. The main idea in the active control is that of managing the temperatures or heat fluxes by employing a variable regime. Under certain conditions, this procedure may reveal itself quite interesting. The measurement of transfer coefficients by the photothermal impulse method possesses a great interest since it is performed in a non-intrusive way without contact. However, in order to be precise, it needs to account for the thermal boundary layer perturbation due to the radiative flux sent over the surface, which means to know the evolution of the transfer coefficient during the measurement. Previous studies therefore provide essential information. Within the domain of heat exchangers, we shall present a different global method, which allows for the evaluation of the time constant of an equipment in response to sample variations of temperature or mass flow rates at the entrance. In conclusion, a brief balance of the ICHMT Symposium "Transient heat and mass transfer", Cesme, Turkey, August 2003, will be presented.

J., Padet.

2005-03-01

76

Transient convective heat transfer

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In nature, as well as within the human-made thermal systems, the time-variable regimes are more commonly encountered, if not always, than the permanent regimes. Nevertheless, studies in convection are still more frequent in the permanent regimes, undoubtedly due to the related difficulties in calculation in terms of time and cost of computation. One may distinguish two categories of time-dependent transfers: those which are due to external causes (variable boundary conditions and those that are due to internal causes (sources of variable power, instabilities, turbulence, and the combination of these two types may also be encountered. In this presentation, we shall analyze some situations which belong to the first category. These are concerned with: - a group of boundary layer flows in forced, natural or mixed convection, where the wall is subjected to time-variable conditions in temperature or flux. - another group of fluid flows within ducts, in laminar mixed convection regime, where the entry conditions (mass flow rate, temperature are time-dependent. The techniques of analysis are mainly extensions to the differential method and to the integral method of Karman-Polhausen in boundary layer flows, and the finite differences solution of the vorticity and energy equations for internal flows. The results presented in the transient state are caused by steps of temperature, heat flux or velocity, and in particular show the time evolution of the dynamic and thermal boundary layers, as well of the heat transfer coefficients. Three examples of applications will then be treated: the active control of convective transfers, the measurement of heat transfer coefficients, and the analysis of heat exchangers. The main idea in the active control is that of managing the temperatures or heat fluxes by employing a variable regime. Under certain conditions, this procedure may reveal itself quite interesting. The measurement of transfer coefficients by the photothermal impulse method possesses a great interest since it is performed in a non-intrusive way without contact. However, in order to be precise, it needs to account for the thermal boundary layer perturbation due to the radiative flux sent over the surface, which means to know the evolution of the transfer coefficient during the measurement. Previous studies therefore provide essential information. Within the domain of heat exchangers, we shall present a different global method, which allows for the evaluation of the time constant of an equipment in response to sample variations of temperature or mass flow rates at the entrance. In conclusion, a brief balance of the ICHMT Symposium "Transient heat and mass transfer", Cesme, Turkey, August 2003, will be presented.

J. Padet

2005-03-01

77

Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. Whats New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....

Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa

2014-01-01

78

Blade-to-coolant convective heat-transfer coefficients were obtained on a forced-convection water-cooled single-stage turbine over a large laminar flow range and over a portion of the transition range between laminar and turbulent flow. The convective coefficients were correlated by the general relation for forced-convection heat transfer with laminar flow. Natural-convection heat transfer was negligible for this turbine over the Grashof number range investigated. Comparison of turbine data with stationary tube data for the laminar flow of heated liquids showed good agreement. Calculated average midspan blade temperatures using theoretical gas-to-blade coefficients and blade-to-coolant coefficients from stationary-tube data resulted in close agreement with experimental data.

Freche, John C; Schum, Eugene F

1951-01-01

79

Coiled tubes and nanofludics are two significant techniques to enhance the heat transfer ability of thermal equipments. The forced convective heat transfer and the pressure drop of nanofluid inside straight tube and helical coiled one with a constant wall heat flux were studied experimentally. Distilled water was used as a host fluid and Nanofluids of aqueous TiO2 nanoparticles (50 nm) suspensions were prepared in various volume concentrations of 0.25-2 %. The heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids is obtained for different nanoparticle concentrations as well as various Reynolds numbers. The experiments covered a range of Reynolds number of 500-4,500. The results show the considerable enhancement of heat transfer rate, which is due to the nanoparticles present in the fluid. Heat transfer coefficient increases by increasing the volume concentration of nanoparticles as well as Reynolds number. Moreover, due to the curvature of the tube when fluid flows inside helical coiled tube instead of straight one, both convective heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop of fluid grow considerably. Also, the thermal performance factors for tested nanofluids are greater than unity and the maximum thermal performance factor of 3.72 is found with the use of 2.0 % volume concentration of nanofluid at Reynolds number of 1,750.

Kahani, M.; Zeinali Heris, S.; Mousavi, S. M.

2014-05-01

80

In this study we investigate the flow of a Boussinesq fluid contained in a rotating, differentially heated spherical shell. Previous work, on the spherical shell of Boussinesq fluid, differentially heated the shell by prescribing temperature on the inner boundary of the shell, setting the temperature deviation from the reference temperature to vary proportionally with -cos 2?, from the equator to the pole. We change the model to include an energy balance equation at the earth's surface, which incorporates latitudinal solar radiation distribution and ice-albedo feedback mechanism with moving ice boundary. For the fluid velocity, on the inner boundary, two conditions are considered: stress-free and no-slip. However, the model under consideration contains only simple representations of a small number of climate variables and thus is not a climate model per se but rather a tool to aid in understanding how changes in these variables may affect our planet's climate. The solution of the model is followed as the differential heating is changed, using the pseudo arc-length continuation method, which is a reliable method that can successfully follow a solution curve even at a turning point. Our main result is in regards to hysteresis phenomenon that is associated with transition from one to multiple convective cells, in a differentially heated, co-rotating spherical shell. In particular, we find that hysteresis can be observed without transition from one to multiple convective cells. Another important observation is that the transition to multiple convective cells is significantly suppressed altogether, in the case of stress-free boundary conditions on the fluid velocity. Also, the results of this study will be related to our present-day climate.

Babalola, David

81

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heat transfer characteristics of mainly combined forced and free convective flow in a vertical rectangular flow channel with a gap of 25 mm, which was quite narrow compared with those investigated in previous experiments, were studied experimentally for water. As a result, the following heat transfer characteristics were made clear, using a non-dimensional parameter Grx/Rex21/8Pr1/2 similarly to the case for the 18 mm gap which was already reported by the authors. (1) When the Grx/Rex21/8Pr1/2 is less than 10-4, both upward flow and downward flow show the nature of forced convective heat transfer. (2) When the Grx/Rex21/8Pr1/2 is between 10-4 and 10-2, heat transfer coefficients for both upward flow and downward flow are higher than any of those predicted by the previous correlations for turbulent forced convection along a flat plate and turbulent free convection along a vertical flat plate. This is, differently from the case of 18 mm gap, due to the effect of the acceleration of main flow induced by the development of the boundary layer along the channel. (3) When the Grx/Rex21/8Pr1/2 is larger than 10-2, the upward flow shows the nature of free convective flow even with the gap as narrow as 2.5 mm in the vertical rectangular flow channel. Heat transfical rectangular flow channel. Heat transfer correlations which have been developed for the 18 mm gap channel, are also available for the described-above regions of 2.5 mm gap channel. (author)

82

Forced- and natural-convection studies on solar collectors for heating and cooling applications

Convection in air heating solar collectors for heating and cooling applications was studied. It was determined that improvement in the overall conductance between the absorber and the flowing air was an area that needed much improvement. Studies were performed to obtain several absorber convector configurations which have superior heat transfer performance, modest drop penalties, and a high potential for economical manufacturing. Four surfaces which may be fabricated from aluminum or steel are recommended. Three utilize corrugated sheets bonded to the backplate and/or the back side of the absorber. These three surfaces are recommended for applications where airflow behind the absorber is appropriate. For those applications where airflow above the absorber is appropriate, a louvered surface which can be fabricated from metal or plastic is recommended.

Pearson, J. T.

1983-03-01

83

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The heat transfer resistance of a porous deposit can be expressed as the sum of two components: one associated with conduction through the fluid-filled deposit and a second associated with surface roughness. This simple relationship appears to hold under both single-phase forced-convection and boiling heat-transfer conditions. The conductive component of the total deposit resistance is always positive, whereas the roughness component is negative. Values for ? and Rroughness measured in this investigation are as follows. Under single-phase forced-convection heat-transfer conditions, ? = 1.3 ą 0.2 W/mK and Rroughness = -4 x 10-6 m2K/W for magnetite deposits. Under flow-boiling heat-transfer conditions, ? = 0.2 to 0.9 W/mK and Rroughness = -36 x 10-6 m2K/W for magnetite deposits, whereas ? = 2.0 W/mK and Rroughness = -43 x 10-6 m2K/W for deposits composed of approximately equal proportions of copper and magnetite. (author)

84

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental determination was made of heat transfer critical conditions in a circular channel, uniformly heated, and internally cooled by water in ascending forced convection, under a pressure slightly above atmospheric pressure. Measurements were made of water flow, pressure, electric power temperature and heating, and a systematic analysis was made of the system's parameters. The values obtained for the heat critical flux are circa 50% lower than those predicted by Becker and Biasi and this is accounted to flowing instabilities of thermo-hydrodynamic nature. It is suggested that the flowing channels of circuits aiming at the study of the boiling crisis phenomenon be expanded in its upper extremity, and that the coolant circulation be kept through a pump with a pressure X flow characteristic as vertical as possible

85

Forced convection heat transfer from a PtCo wire with a length of 120 mm and a diameter of 1.2 mm that was inserted into a vertically-mounted pipe with a diameter of 8.0 mm to liquid hydrogen flowing upward was measured with a quasi-steady increase of a heat generation rate for wide ranges of flow rate under saturated conditions. The pressures were varied from 0.4 MPa to 1.1 MPa. The non-boiling heat transfer characteristic agrees with that predicted by Dittus-Boelter correlation. The critical heat fluxes are higher for higher flow rates and lower pressures. Effect of Weber number on the CHF was clarified and a CHF correlation that can describe the experimental data is derived based on our correlation for a pipe.

Tatsumoto, H.; Shirai, Y.; Shiotsu, M.; Naruo, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Inatani, Y.

2014-12-01

86

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Emphasizing the integration of mathematical expressions with clear physical associations, this textbook on convective heat and mass transfer reviews the laws of thermodynamics and fluid motions, behavior of laminar and turbulent flows in a variety of conditions, natural free convection in space, and flows through porous media

87

Forced convection heat transfer from rib-roughened pins tested singly and in a cluster of seven

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rib roughened surfaces are used to improve forced convection heat transfer. The basic data on roughened surface performance is usually obtained from tests using a roughened cylinder in a smooth cylindrical flow channel. The practical applications, in particular nuclear fuel elements, usually involve a cluster of 'pins' with roughened surfaces. Methods have been developed to apply the basic data to clusters and this report presents experimental results which can be used to check the accuracy of these methods. A single roughened pin has been tested in two smooth-walled channels of different diameters. An identical pin surrounded by a ring of six pins in a smooth channel has been tested with all the pins uniformly heated and only the centre pin heated. All the tests were repeated for a range of coolant flow rates. (author)

88

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A theoretical study was performed to investigate turbulent forced-convective momentum and heat transport in a rectangular channel under fully developed flow and heat transfer conditions. Main emphasis has been devoted to analyse the effects of the anisotropic turbulent transport properties and the turbulence-induced secondary flow on the main flow field and the temperature distribution. The effects of peripheral wall conduction as well as radiation within the channel are included in the analysis. The analysis reveals that only a single secondary current occurs in the trapezoidal symmetry element of the rectangular duct. Furthermore, when the heating extends over one or two oppositely located sides only, the location of the maximum wall temperature is shifted from the corner to the center of the wall. (orig.)

89

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A theoretical study was performed to investigate turbulent forced-convective momentum and heat transport in a rectangular channel of arbitrary aspect ratio under fully developed flow and heat transfer conditions. Main emphasis has been devoted to analyse the effects of the anisotropic turbulent transport properties and the turbulence-induced secondary flow on the main flow field and the temperature distribution. The effects of peripheral wall conduction as well as radiation within the channel are included in the analysis. Numerical results are presented for the turbulent velocity and temperature field and compared with experimental data. The analysis reveals that only a single secondary current occurs in the trapezoidal symmetry element of the rectangular duct. Furhtermore, when the heating extends over one or two oppositely located sides only, the location of the maximum wall temperature is shifted from the corner to the center of the wall. (orig.)

90

In this paper, laminar convective heat transfer of water-alumina nanofluid in a circular tube with uniform heat flux at the tube wall is investigated. The investigation is performed numerically on the basis of two-component model, which takes into account nanoparticle transport by diffusion and thermophoresis. Two thermal regimes at the tube wall, heating and cooling, are considered and the influence of nanoparticle migration on the heat transfer is analyzed comparatively. The intensity of thermophoresis is characterized by a new empirical model for thermophoretic mobility. It is shown that the nanoparticle volume fraction decreases (increases) in the boundary layer near the wall under heating (cooling) due to thermophoresis. The corresponding variations of nanofluid properties and flow characteristics are presented and discussed. The intensity of heat transfer for the model with thermophoresis in comparison to the model without thermophoresis is studied by plotting the dependence of the heat transfer coefficient on the Peclet number. The effectiveness of water-alumina nanofluid is analyzed by plotting the average heat transfer coefficient against the required pumping power. The analysis of the results reveals that the water-alumina nanofluid shows better performance in the heating regime than in the cooling regime due to thermophoretic effect. PMID:25260328

Kozlova, Sofya V; Ryzhkov, Ilya I

2014-09-01

91

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficients were predicted for an annular flow inside a horizontal tube for pure refrigerants and nonazeotropic binary refrigerant mixtures. The heat transfer coefficients were calculated based on the turbulent temperature profile in liquid film and vapor core considering the composition difference in vapor and liquid phases, and the nonlinearity in mixing rules for the calculation of mixture properties. The heat transfer coefficients of pure refrigerants were estimated within a standard deviation of 14% compared with available experimental data. For nonazeotropic binary refrigerant mixtures, prediction of the heat transfer coefficients was made with a standard deviation of 18%. The heat transfer coefficients of refrigerant mixtures were lower than linearly interpolated values calculated from the heat transfer coefficients of pure refrigerants. This degradation was represented by several factors such as the difference between the liquid and the overall compositions, the conductivity ratio and the viscosity ratio of both components in refrigerant mixtures. The temperature change due to the concentration gradient was a major factor for the heat transfer degradation and the mass flux itself at the interface had a minor effect

92

The effect of an external magnetic field on the forced convection heat transfer and pressure drop of water based Fe3O4 nanofluid (ferrofluid) in a miniature heat sink is studied experimentally. The heat sink with the dimensions of 40 mm (L) × 40 mm (W) × 10 mm (H) consists of an array of five circular channels with diameter and length of 4 and 40 mm, respectively. It is heated from the bottom surface with a constant heat flux while the other surfaces are insulated. The heat sink is also influenced by an external magnetic field generated by an electromagnet. The local convective coefficients are measured at various flow rates (200 < Re < 900), magnetic field intensities (B < 1,400 G), and particle volume fractions (? = 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 %). Results show that using ferrofluid results in a maximum of 14 % improvement in heat transfer compared to the pure water, in the absence of magnetic field. This value grows up to 38 % when a magnetic field with the strength of 1,200 G is applied to the ferrofluid. On the other hand, it is observed that the significant heat transfer enhancement due to the magnetic field is always accompanied by a pressure drop penalty. The optimum operating condition is obtained based on the maximum heat transfer enhancement per pressure loss.

Ashjaee, Mehdi; Goharkhah, Mohammad; Khadem, Leila Azizi; Ahmadi, Reza

2014-12-01

93

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two-dimensional forced convective flow over a circular cylinder embedded in a saturated porous medium has been numerically studied. The axis of a cylinder is arranged at right angles to the oncoming forced flow. The cylinder is heated to a uniform surface temperature which is different from than that of the fluid in the forced flow ahead of the cylinder. There is an impermeable plane surface above the cylinder, the surface being parallel to the forced flow. This surface is either adiabatic or at a uniform specified temperature that is between the temperature of the liquid flowing over the cylinder and the temperature of the cylinder surface. The study is based on the Darcy type assumptions. The governing equations, written in dimensionless form, have been solved using the finite element method. The solution has as parameters the dimensionless depth of the cylinder from the impermeable surface, the Peclet number and the dimensionless thermal boundary condition at the impermeable surface. Solutions have been obtained for a range of values of all these parameters. The results indicate that the dimensionless impermeable surface temperature has a strong influence of the heat transfer rate from the cylinder at smaller values of the dimensionless cylinder-to-surface distance.

Oosthuizen, P.H.

1999-07-01

94

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experimental forced laminar study was presented in this research for an air flowing through a circular channel for different angles ( ,30o,45o,60o, the channel was heated at constant heat flux , the channel also was packed with steel and glass spheres respectively . The tests were done for three values of Peclets number (2111.71,3945.42,4575.47 with changing the heat flux for each case and five times for each number.The results showed that the dimensionless temperature distribution will decrease with increasing the dimensionless channel length for all cases with changing Peclet number, heat flux and inclination angles, and its lowest value will be for glass spheres at highest flux, while at lower flux for , and the decreasing in dimensionless temperature was closed for both types of packed at other inclination angles.The study declared that the local Nusselt number decreases with increasing the dimensionless length of the channel for both packeds and for different applied heat flux, also through this study it was declared that the average Nusselt increases as Peclet number increases for both packed. Its value for the glass spheres is greater than the steel spheres with percentage (98.3% at small Peclet, and percentage (97.2% at large Peclet number for the horizontal tube, and (98.3% at small Peclet number and (97.8% at large Peclet number at .Through this study its was found that average Nusselt number increases along the channel as the heat flux increases, because the bulk temperature will increase as the flow proceeds toward the end of the channel , so the heat transfer coefficient will increase. It was declared from this study that in the case of the steel packed the heat transfer will occur mainly by conduction, while in the case of glass packed the heat transfer will occur mainly by laminar forced convection, where the lowest Nusselt number (Nu=3.8 was found when the pipe is horizontal and lowest heat flux and lowest Peclet number.

Thamir K. Jassem

2013-05-01

95

Written by an internationally recognized authority on heat transfer and thermodynamics, this second edition of Convection Heat Transfer contains new and updated problems and examples reflecting real-world research and applications, including heat exchanger design. Teaching not only structure but also technique, the book begins with the simplest problem solving method (scale analysis), and moves on to progressively more advanced and exact methods (integral method, self similarity, asymptotic behavior). A solutions manual is available for all problems and exercises.

Bejan, Adrian

2013-01-01

96

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analytical study on laminar and fully developed forced convection heat transfer in a parallel-plate horizontal channel filled with an anisotropic permeability porous medium is performed. The principal axis of the anisotropic porous medium is oriented from 0 to 90 degrees. A constant heat flux is applied on the outer wall of the channel. Both clear (Newtonian) fluid and Darcy viscous dissipations are considered in the energy equation. Directional permeability ratio parameter A* is defined to combine both the effect of the dimensionless permeability ratio parameter K*=(K1/K2) and orientation angle ? into one parameter. The effects of the parameter A*, the Darcy number Da and the modified Brinkman number Br* on the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics in the channels are investigated and presented in graphs. The obtained results show that the parameters A*, Da and Br* have strong effects on the dimensionless normalized velocity and temperature profiles as well as on the Nusselt number. It is found that for a particular value of A*, called as critical value Acr*, the external heat applied to the surface of the channel is balanced by the internal heat generation due to viscous dissipation and the bulk mean temperature approaches the wall temperature. Hence, the Nusselt number approaches infinity for the critical values Acr*cr*. (authors)

97

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Variation of forced convective heat transfer in a rectangular duct flow of a magnetic fluid under a magnetic field was investigated experimentally. Experiments were performed changing the magnetic field intensity, and this magnetic field could be varied from 0 mT to 600 mT. The Reynolds number based on the hydraulic diameter was set to 960, 1900 (laminar flow), and 2830 (turbulent flow). The results of the experiments show that in the case of laminar flow of the magnetic fluid, when a magnetic field is applied to a magnetic fluid flow, heat transfer locally increases in the region where the magnetic field exists. In contrast, in the turbulent flow of the magnetic fluid, heat transfer is not enhanced but reduced. In order to better understand this heat transfer phenomenon, we measured the velocity distribution of magnetic fluid flow by the Ultrasonic Velocity Profile (UVP) method. In the case of laminar flow, the result shows that the flow velocity at the center of the rectangular duct decreases and the velocity gradient in the near-wall region increases. Moreover, we calculated the flow resistance under a magnetic field by measurement of the pressure gradient, and the relationship between heat transfer and flow resistance was discussed.

98

Variation of forced convective heat transfer in a rectangular duct flow of a magnetic fluid under a magnetic field was investigated experimentally. Experiments were performed changing the magnetic field intensity, and this magnetic field could be varied from 0 mT to 600 mT. The Reynolds number based on the hydraulic diameter was set to 960, 1900 (laminar flow), and 2830 (turbulent flow). The results of the experiments show that in the case of laminar flow of the magnetic fluid, when a magnetic field is applied to a magnetic fluid flow, heat transfer locally increases in the region where the magnetic field exists. In contrast, in the turbulent flow of the magnetic fluid, heat transfer is not enhanced but reduced. In order to better understand this heat transfer phenomenon, we measured the velocity distribution of magnetic fluid flow by the Ultrasonic Velocity Profile (UVP) method. In the case of laminar flow, the result shows that the flow velocity at the center of the rectangular duct decreases and the velocity gradient in the near-wall region increases. Moreover, we calculated the flow resistance under a magnetic field by measurement of the pressure gradient, and the relationship between heat transfer and flow resistance was discussed.

Motozawa, M.; Sekine, T.; Sawada, T.; Kawaguchi, Y.

2013-02-01

99

Forced convective heat transfer with freezing from tandem cylinders in a porous medium

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on heat transfer from two circular cylinders of equal diameter buried in a porous medium with a forced flow over them. The cylinders are assumed to be cooled to the same uniform temperature that is, in general, lower than the freezing temperature of the liquid flowing through the porous medium, while the temperature of this liquid in the forced flow ahead of the cylinders is, of course, above this freezing temperature. The cylinders are arranged in tandem such that the approaching forced flow is at right angles to the cylinder axes. The flow has been assumed to be steady and two-dimensional and the usual Darcy type assumptions have been adopted. The fluid properties have been assumed to be constant except that the conductivity of the frozen material is, in general, different from that of the unfrozen material. The fluid velocity and temperature well upstream of the cylinders are assumed to be uniform. The governing equations written in dimensionless form have been solved, subject to the boundary conditions using the finite element method

100

In this paper we present new experimental results of investigation on average heat transfer characteristics of a forced air-flow through a rectangular channel with the lower and upper surfaces roughened by ribs; data for a rectangular channel with flat surfaces are presented for comparison as well. The channel cross-section is 120 mm wide and 12 mm high; the channel is operated with the lower and upper walls kept at fixed temperature whereas the sides are adiabatic. The ribs have a square cross section and are mounted 60° parallel-tilted (the angle is respect to main stream) in astaggered arrangement. The tested configurations differ each other for the rib side dimension, namely, 2 or 4 mm, and for their pitch-to-side ratio equal to 10, 20 and 40. Upstream the test channel, there is an entry-section consisting of a 800 mm long, rectangular duct with the same transverse dimensions as the test section but with flat and adiabatic walls. Air flow rates have been varied in order to have Reynolds numbers, based on the duct hydraulic diameter, ranging between 700 and 7500. The average Nusselt numbers are evaluated on the basis of the air-flow bulk-temperature at entrance and exit from the heated zone, as well as of the surface temperature measured by eight T-type thermocouples plugged into the heated walls. The test section is also equipped with static pressure taps placed at the heated zone ends. Results show an increase of the average Nusselt number, calculated as the ratio Nu/Nu0, for the all tested ribbed channels ranging between 1.0 and 5.0.

Cucchi, M.; Fustinoni, D.; Gramazio, P.; Colombo, L. P. M.; Niro, A.

2014-04-01

101

Optimal spacing of parallel boards with discrete heat sources cooled by laminar forced convection

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper shows numerically how to select the optimal spacing between boards mounted in a stack of specified volume, so that the overall thermal conductance between the stack and the forced coolant is maximum. Several configurations are considered: boards with uniform flux, flush-mounted discrete sources, and protruding heat sources. The flow is laminar and the pressure difference across the stack is fixed ([Delta]p). It is shown that for all the board geometries and thermal boundary conditions studied, the optimal board-to-board spacing is correlated by (D[sub opt]/l)[approximately] 2.7 ([Delta]pl[sup 2]/[mu][alpha])[sup [minus]1/4], where l is the effective longitudinal (flow) distance occupied by the discrete sources and the unheated patches contained between them, and [mu] and [alpha] are the viscosity and thermal diffusivity of the fluid. If U[sub [infinity

Morega, A.M.; Bejan, A. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science)

1994-04-01

102

Combined convective heat transfer from short cylinders

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Considerable experimental evidence has been produced recently showing that the free convective heat transfer rate from horizontal circular cylinders becomes influenced by the length to diameter ratio L/D. The major aim of the present study was to determine the influence of the L/D ratio on the conditions under which buoyancy forces cause the heat transfer rate to start to deviate significantly from that existing in purely forced convection

103

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation of the thermal hydraulic characteristics in the passive residual heat removal system of the System integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor-P (SMART-P) has been carried out using the MARS code, which is a best estimate system analysis code. The SMART-P is designed to cool the system during accidental conditions by a natural convection. The dominant heat transfer in the steam generator is a boiling mode under a forced convection condition, and it is a single-phase liquid and a boiling heat transfer under a natural convection condition. Most of the heat is removed in the heat exchanger of the passive residual heat removal system by a condensation heat transfer. The passive residual heat removal system can remove the energy from the primary side as long as the heat exchanger is submerged in the refueling water tank. The mass flow is stable under a natural circulation condition though it oscillates periodically with a small amplitude. The parameter study is performed by considering the effects of an effective height between the steam generator and the heat exchanger, a hydraulic resistance, an initial pressure, a non-condensable gas fraction in the compensating tank, and a valve actuation time, which are useful for the design of the passive residual heat removal system. The mass flow in the passive residual heat removal system has been affected by the height between the steam generator and the heat exchanger, and the hydraulic resistance of the loopydraulic resistance of the loop

104

Optimal discrete distribution of heat flux elements for in-tube laminar forced convection

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Effect of an insulated segment on the peak temperature of a heated pipe is studied. ? Peak temperatures in a pipe wall heated by step-wise heat flux are minimized. ? Effects of Graetz number, fraction and number of insulated segments are studied. ? Use of upper unheated section(s) enhance(s) the thermal performance. -- Abstract: A new technique is proposed to enhance the heat transfer from a discretely heated pipe to a developing laminar fluid flow. Unlike the common heating situation where the fluid is continuously heated along the pipe wall with uniform heat flux, the proposed technique consists in heating the fluid with stepwise distributed heat flux, namely by placing insulated segments between the heated segments. Applying this technique, the effective length of the thermal entrance region is enlarged and as a result, the average heat transfer is invigorated. In order to maximize the heating performance, an optimal placement of the insulated segments between the heated segments is calculated according to constructal design. This serves to describe the optimal stepwise distribution of the heat flux. Owing that the total heat load is considered fixed, the maximization of the heating performance translates into the minimization of the peak temperature (hot spot) of the pipe wall. The analytical results demonstrate that the optimal location of the insulated segments along with the reduction of the peak temperature strongly depend on the Graetz number. It is also shown that for intermediate values of the Graetz number, the peak temperatures are remarkably reduced in response to the optimal placement of the insulated/heated segments

105

Convective heat transfer with a periodic longitudinal heat flux variation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of longitudinally periodic heat flux profile on forced convection heat transfer are considered in a single phase liquid, subcooled boiling, and low-quality two-phase flow boiling conditions. Tests were made at low pressure in a Joule-heated container with an exterior wall of thickness varied in a stepwise fashion. The variation in thickness was sufficient to modify the resistance generated wall heat flux when direct current passed through the tube walls. The overall average forced convection boiling heat transfer coefficient was about half of the predicted value for flow boiling water under constant heat flux boundary conditions

106

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A model has been developed for the simulation of laminar hydrodynamic and heat transfer characteristics in a horizontal circular tube for a suspension flow with micro-size phase-change material (PCM) particles. The energy equation is formulated by taking into consideration the heat absorption (or release) due to the phase-change process. The heat source or heat generation term in the energy equation is derived from solutions for freezing or melting inside the particles. The supercooling breakdown induced by the stochastic character of the crystallization is taken into account in the modeling with nucleation laws. The solutions were compared to experimental results obtained by different authors. (author)

Kousksou, T.; El Rhafiki, T.; El Omari, K.; Zeraouli, Y.; Le Guer, Y. [Laboratoire de Thermique Energetique et Procedes, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour (UPPA), Campus Universitaire, 64000 Pau (France)

2010-12-15

107

Study of the equivalent diameter concept for heat transfer by forced convection in annular channels

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work describes a comparative analysis between experimental values of heat transfer coefficients in fully developed turbulent flow for a concentric annular channel, and those calculated with the empirical correlations obtained for tubes by Dittus-Boelter, Sieder and Tate, a modified Colburn equation, and that proposed by Gnielinski which applies the analogy between friction and heat transfer. The coefficients were calculated by means of two different equivalent diameters: 1) The hydraulic equivalent diameter; and 2) The heated equivalent diameter. It was concluded that the hydraulic equivalent diameter gives much better results than the heated equivalent diameter. (Author)

108

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research, an experimental study was conducted to high light the impact of the exterior shape of a cylindrical body on the forced and free convection heat transfer coefficients when the body is hold in the entrance of an air duct. The impact of changing the body location within the air duct and the air speed are also demonstrated. The cylinders were manufactured with circular, triangular and square sections of copper for its high thermal conductivity with appropriate dimensions, while maintaining the surface area of all shapes to be the same. Each cylinder was heated to a certain temperature and put inside the duct at certain locations. The temperature of the cylinder was then monitored. The heat transfer coefficient were then calculated for forced convection for several Reynolds number (4555-18222.The study covered free convection impact for values of Rayleigh number ranging between (1069-3321. Imperical relationships were obtained for all cases of forced and free convection and compared with equations of circular cylindrical shapes found in literature. These imperical equations were found to be in good comparison with that of other sources.

Sundus Hussein Abd

2012-01-01

109

Experiments on a forced convection heat transfer at supercritical pressures - 6.32 mm ID tube

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The size of a sub-channel of the conceptual SCWR core design studied at KAERI is 6.5 mm. In order to provide heat transfer information in such a narrow sub-channel at supercritical pressure, an experiment was performed with a test section made of Inconel 625 tube of 6.32 mm ID. The test pressures were 7.75 and 8.12 MPa corresponding to 1.05 and 1.1 times the critical pressure of CO2, respectively. The mass flux and heat flux, which were in the range of 285 ? 1200 kg/m2s and 30 ? 170 kW/m2, were changed at a given system pressure. The corresponding Reynolds numbers are 1.8 x 104 ? 7.5 x 104. The effect of mass flux and heat flux was dominant factor in the supercritical pressure heat transfer while the effect of pressure was negligible. The Bishop's correlation predicted the test result most closely and Bae and Kim's recent correlation was the next. The heat transfer deterioration occurred when GR)b/Reb2.7 > 2.0 x 10-5. As soon as the heat transfer was deteriorated, it entered a new regime and did not recover the normal heat transfer nevertheless Grb/Reb2.7 reduced below 2.0 x 10-5. It may mean that the correlation must be developed for the normal and deterioration regime separately

110

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: A systematical study on contact modifications is performed for structured packed beds. The bridges modification is found to give the most reasonable macroscopic results. The overlaps and bridges methods are suitable for predicting local heat transfer. Reasonable bridge diameter is found in a range from 16% dp to 20% dp. - Abstract: The present paper systematically investigated the appropriateness of different contact point modification approaches for forced convective heat transfer analysis in structured packed beds of spheres. The three-dimensional NavierStokes equations and RNG k? turbulence model with scalable wall function are adopted to model the turbulent flow inside the pores. Both macroscopic and local flow and heat transfer characteristics for different packing forms (simple cubic, body center cubic and face center cubic packing forms) and contact treatments (gaps, overlaps, bridges and caps modifications) are carefully examined. In particular, the effects caused by the bridge size for the bridges treatment are discussed, and the numerical results are compared with available experiments in literature. It is found that the effects of contact treatments on the pressure drops are remarkable for different structured packing forms, especially when the porosity is relatively low, while such effects on the Nusselt numbers are relatively small. Among the four different contact modifications, the bridges method would give the most reasonable pressure drops for all the structured packing forms studied and this method is also proved to be suitable for predicting the Nusselt numbers. The local flow and heat transfer characteristics in the structured packed bed are sensitive to the methodology of contact modifications. The gaps and caps treatments would distort the local flow and temperature distributions in the packed bed, especially near the contact zones. While the local flow and temperature distributions from the overlaps and bridges treatments would be more reasonable and close to those in the original packing with points contact. Based on both the macroscopic and local flow and heat transfer analyses, the bridges treatment is recommended. The effects caused by the bridge size in the bridges treatment are also remarkable. It is noted that too small or too large bridge size would lead to unreasonable results for both the macroscopic and local flow and heat transfer analyses. A reasonable range of bridge diameter is found to be from 16% dp to 20% dp

111

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: A systematical study on contact modifications is performed for structured packed beds. The bridges modification is found to give the most reasonable macroscopic results. The overlaps and bridges methods are suitable for predicting local heat transfer. Reasonable bridge diameter is found in a range from 16% d{sub p} to 20% d{sub p}. - Abstract: The present paper systematically investigated the appropriateness of different contact point modification approaches for forced convective heat transfer analysis in structured packed beds of spheres. The three-dimensional NavierStokes equations and RNG k? turbulence model with scalable wall function are adopted to model the turbulent flow inside the pores. Both macroscopic and local flow and heat transfer characteristics for different packing forms (simple cubic, body center cubic and face center cubic packing forms) and contact treatments (gaps, overlaps, bridges and caps modifications) are carefully examined. In particular, the effects caused by the bridge size for the bridges treatment are discussed, and the numerical results are compared with available experiments in literature. It is found that the effects of contact treatments on the pressure drops are remarkable for different structured packing forms, especially when the porosity is relatively low, while such effects on the Nusselt numbers are relatively small. Among the four different contact modifications, the bridges method would give the most reasonable pressure drops for all the structured packing forms studied and this method is also proved to be suitable for predicting the Nusselt numbers. The local flow and heat transfer characteristics in the structured packed bed are sensitive to the methodology of contact modifications. The gaps and caps treatments would distort the local flow and temperature distributions in the packed bed, especially near the contact zones. While the local flow and temperature distributions from the overlaps and bridges treatments would be more reasonable and close to those in the original packing with points contact. Based on both the macroscopic and local flow and heat transfer analyses, the bridges treatment is recommended. The effects caused by the bridge size in the bridges treatment are also remarkable. It is noted that too small or too large bridge size would lead to unreasonable results for both the macroscopic and local flow and heat transfer analyses. A reasonable range of bridge diameter is found to be from 16% d{sub p} to 20% d{sub p}.

Bu, S.S.; Yang, J.; Zhou, M.; Li, S.Y. [Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Wang, Q.W., E-mail: wangqw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Guo, Z.X. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

2014-04-01

112

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mixed convection heat transfer in a ventilated cavity is numerically studied by solving the mixed convection equations with the Boussinesq approximation. Results are presented in terms of streamlines, isotherms and heat transfer for different combinations of the governing parameters namely, the Reynolds number (10 {<=} Re {<=} 5000), the Rayleigh number (10{sup 4} {<=} Ra {<=} 10{sup 6}) and the relative height of the openings (B = h'/H' = 1/4). The numerical results show the presence of a maximum interaction between the effects of the forced and natural convection and the existence of different flow regimes. The latter are delineated in the Ra-Re plane and the values of Re separating the different regions are determined and correlated versus Ra.

Raji, A. [Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, Department of Physics, University Sultan Moulay Slimane, Team of Flows and Transfers Modeling (EMET), Laboratory of Physics and Mechanics of Materials, B.P. 523, Beni-Mellal (Morocco)], E-mail: abderaji@fstbm.ac.ma; Hasnaoui, M. [Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Department of Physics, University Cadi Ayyad, UFR TMF, B.P. 2390 Marrakesh (Morocco); Bahlaoui, A. [Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, Department of Physics, University Sultan Moulay Slimane, Team of Flows and Transfers Modeling (EMET), Laboratory of Physics and Mechanics of Materials, B.P. 523, Beni-Mellal (Morocco)

2008-08-15

113

Enhancement of forced-convection cooling of multiple heated blocks in a channel using porous covers

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A numerical study was carried out for enhanced heat transfer from multiple heated blocks in a channel by porous covers. The flow field is governed by the Navier-Stokes equation in the fluid region, the Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer equation in the porous region, and the thermal field by the energy equation. Solution of the coupled governing equations is obtained using a stream function-vorticity analysis. This study details the effects of variations in the Darcy number, Reynolds number, inertial parameter, and two pertinent geometric parameters, to illustrate important fundamental and practical results. The results show that the recirculation caused by porous-covering block will significantly enhance the heat transfer rate on both top and right faces of second and subsequent blocks. (Author)

Huang, P.C.; Yang, C.F. [National Taipei Univ. of Technology, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineering; Hwang, J.J.; Chiu, M.T. [National Sun Yat Sen Univ., Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2005-02-01

114

Forced convective heat transfer in vertical air-water bubble flow

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dependence of heat transfer on the cross-sectional distribution of void fractions in a diabatic two-phase bubble flow has been explored experimentally. A vertical tube of 16.9 mm ID was employed in the investigation. Two different types of the mixer were installed to realize the flows with different distributions of void fractions even at the same flow rates of both phases. It was found that these two types of flows present different heat transfer coefficients due to the difference in the void fraction distributions. Increasing the void fraction near the tube wall causes an increase in heat transfer coefficient. The effect of bubble agitation on the thermal diffusivity in the radial direction is discussed based on the distributions of both void fractions and liquid temperatures. (author)

115

Sensitivity studies of heat transfer: forced convection across a cylindrical pipe and duct flow

We consider two common heat transfer processes and perform a through sensitivity study of the variables involved. We derive and discuss analytical formulas for the heat transfer coefficient in function of film velocity, air temperature and pipe diameter. The according plots relate to a qualitative analysis of the multi-variable function $h$, according to functional optimization. For each process, we provide with graphs and tables of the parameters of interest, such as the Reynolds number. This method of study and the specific values can constitute a useful reference for didactic purposes.

Ferrantelli, Andrea; Viljanen, Martti

2013-01-01

116

Forced heat convection in semi-open channels with equilateral triangle lattice rod array

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nature of nuclear physics and nuclear technology led to unusual channel shapes and geometric designs far different from that known as closed cross-section. This is, for instance the case of fuel rod cluster in a nuclear reactor core. Fuel units of this kind are composed of parallel rod bundles, arranged in a proper lattice position. Heat, which is originated in these fuel elements, as a result of nuclear fissions, is removed by coolant flowing in axial direction. An experimental study was carried out, in which the influence of flow condition, geometry of semi-open channels and thermal conditions on heat transfer were investigated. Three equilateral triangle lattice array test sections were designed and constructed, having pitch to diameter ratios of 1.09, 1.15 and 1.30. Fuel elements were simulated by stainless-steel-304 and brass heaters. They supplied constant and uniform heat fluxes of 3.5x104 watt/m2 to 3.4x105 watt/m2. The hydraulic system supplied steady flow demineralized water, in Reynolds Number from 2.5x104 to 1.5x105. Prandtl Numbers were in range of 2.7 to 5. All measurements were carried out on steady state condition. Experimental results were investigated to find the influence of geometry on local heat transfer values and were analyzed by computer programming to get the heat transfer coefficient by means of Nusselt Number, which was found to be dependent on geometry of the channel and thermohydraulic conditions. The correlation found was: Nusub(b) = 0.0177[1+151.58(De/L)2] Resub(b)sup(0.814) Prsub(b)sup(0.44) (Prsub(b)/Prsub(w))sup(0.14) The results correspond to other experimental and theoretical investigations carried out in different ways. (author)

117

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present work is an experimental study of steady state convective heat transfer of de-ionized water with a low volume fraction (0.003% by volume) of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles dispersed to form a nanofluid that flows through a copper tube. The effect of mass flow rate ranging from (0.0113 kg/s to 0.0139 kg/s) and the effect of inlet temperatures at 10 {sup o}C and 17 {sup o}C on the heat transfer coefficient are studied on the entry region under laminar flow condition. The results have shown 8% enhancement of the convective heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluid even with a low volume concentration of CuO nanoparticles. The heat transfer enhancement was increased considerably as the Reynolds number increased. Possible reasons for the enhancement are discussed. Nanofluid thermo-physical properties and chaotic movement of ultrafine particles which accelerate the energy exchange process are proposed to be the main reasons for the observed heat transfer enhancement. A correlation for convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids, based on transport property and D/{chi} for 8 mm tube has been evolved. The correlation predicts variation in the local Nusselt number along the flow direction of the nanofluid. A good agreement ({+-}10%) is seen between the experimental and predicted results. (author)

Asirvatham, L. G.; Vishal, N.; Gangatharan, S. K.; Lal, D.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai (India)

2009-07-01

118

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Degradation of the thermal performance of steam generators(SGs) is a serious problem in nuclear power stations throughout the world (Lovett and Dow, 1991). In pressurized-heavy-water reactors (PWHRs), the reduced thermal performance of the SGs is manifested by an increase of the primary coolant reactor inlet header temperature (RIHT). In pressurized-light-water reactors(PWRs), which operate with fixed primary coolant temperature, the loss of thermal performance is manifested by a reduction of the steam pressure. Degradation mechanisms that may contribute to the loss of SG thermal performance include: fouling of the boiler tube inner surfaces (primary-side fouling); fouling of the boiler tube outer surfaces (secondary-side fouling); divider and thermal plate leakage that causes the coolant to bypass either the SG or the integral preheater and fouling of the steam separators. The relative contribution of these various degradation mechanisms to the overall loss of thermal performance is still under investigation. Soulard et al. (1990) examined the relative contributions of tube bundle fouling, divider plate leakage, and thermal plate leakage to the increase in RIHT at the Point Lepreau Generating Station, and concluded that tube fouling contributes to a significant fraction of the loss of thermal performance. Corrosion products deposit on both the inner and outer surfaces of the boiler tubes. Thus a complete understanding of the reasons fro the loss of thermal performance and the development of strategies to mitigate this loss requires a knowledge of the thermal resistance of tube deposits under primary and secondary side heat transfer conditions. We present here the results of measurements of the thermal resistance of primary-side and secondary-side boiler tube deposits performed under single-phase forced convection and flow-boiling conditions, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of the physical properties of the deposit and the mode of heat transfer

119

Two-phase pressure drop and heat transfer of sodium at forced convection

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments with sodium for the two-phase pressure drop in vertical tubes with upward flow (internal diameters 6 and 9 mm) performed at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Communities in Ispra, Italy, and at the Nuclear Research Centre in Karlsruhe (KfK) were evaluated and analysed. Furthermore, experiments for the single-phase and two-phase heat transfer in the grid spaced twelve-rod bundle (pd/d =1.3, rod diameter 8 mm) with flow in axial direction performed at the JRC were evaluated and analysed. The pressure drop measurements were carried out at moderate to high mass flow rates (30 to 4500 kg/(m2s)) and at moderate pressures (50 to 300 kPa, density ratio ?f/?g = 950 to 5400). The measurements for the single-phase heat transfer at high heat fluxes (0.16 to 1.6 MW/m2) were carried out in the Reynolds number region (3100 2s)) and at high heat fluxes (0.46 to 1.6 MW/m2) within the temperature range from 870 to 9700C. For the subsequent calculation of the experiments relating to the two-phase pressure drop a computer program was developed, which is based on the so-called slip model. It requires a friction pressure loss correlation and a slip correlation. The tested correlations were not suitable for describing the experimental measurements. Accordingly, simplified equations of momentum were used to develop a new slip correlation for the case of annular flow together with the annular-mist flow, the most important two-phase flow regimes for sodium in the measurement range. After the inception of the entrainment - transition from the annular flow to the annular-mist flow - an even larger fraction of liquid enters the vapour core in the form of droplets, as the vapour quality increases. An equation was formulated for the slip in this region and adapted to the experiments via coefficients. (orig./GL)

120

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: We model MHD mixed convection in an inclined lid-driven cavity. Increasing the Hartmann number leads to increase the heat transfer rate. Increasing the inclination angle leads to the increase of the heat transfer rate. Nusselt number at the left wall, for forced convection case, increases as the amplitude ratio increases. - Abstract: A numerical study of laminar magnetohydrodynamic mixed convection in an inclined lid-driven square cavity with opposing temperature gradients is presented. The vertical sidewalls are assumed to have non-uniform temperature variation while the top and bottom walls are kept insulated with the top surface moving at a constant speed. The transport equations are given in terms of the stream functions-vorticity formulation and are non-dimensionalized and then solved numerically by an accurate finite-volume method. The computation is carried out for wide ranges of the inclination angle (0 ? ? ? ?/2), the Richardson number (0.01 ? Ri ? 100), the Hartmann number (0 ? Ha ? 100), the amplitude ratio (0 ? ? ? 1) and the phase deviation (0 ? ? ? ?). The results indicate that the rate of heat transfer along the heated walls is enhanced on increasing either Hartmann number or inclination angle. Average Nusselt number is also, increased with increasing of the amplitude ratio for all values of the phase deviation. The non-uniform heating on both walls provides higher heat transfer rate than non-uniform heating of one wall.

Ahmed, Sameh E., E-mail: sameh_sci_math@yahoo.com [Mathematics Department, Faculty of Sciences, South Valley University, 83523 Qena (Egypt); Mansour, M.A. [Department of Mathematics, Assuit University, Faculty of Science, Assuit (Egypt); Mahdy, A., E-mail: mahdy4@yahoo.com [Mathematics Department, Faculty of Sciences, South Valley University, 83523 Qena (Egypt)

2013-12-15

121

In this research, an experimental study was conducted to high light the impact of the exterior shape of a cylindrical body on the forced and free convection heat transfer coefficients when the body is hold in the entrance of an air duct. The impact of changing the body location within the air duct and the air speed are also demonstrated. The cylinders were manufactured with circular, triangular and square sections of copper for its high thermal conductivity with appropriate dimensions, while ...

Sundus Hussein Abd

2012-01-01

122

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some correlations of forced convection burn-out data are based on the approximate linearity of the relationship between burn-out heat flux and the channel-averaged quality at the burn-out point. These correlations perform satisfactorily on data obtained from uniformly heated configurations. Therefore the further inference is sometimes made that the burn-out heat flux is uniquely related to the quality, and that the burn-out in non-uniformly heated configurations can be calculated from measurements made with uniform heating. This report presents burn-out data for Freon 12 flowing vertically upwards through both uniformly and non-uniformly heated round tubes. This data shows that the quality at burn-out does depend on the heat flux profile, and that the inference mentioned above is not justified. (author)

123

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model describing the thermal behaviour of a slurry of phase change material flow in a circular duct is presented. Reactors connected in series are considered for the representation of the circular duct with constant wall temperature. A phenomenological equation is formulated to take account of the heat generation due to phase change in the particles. Results of the simulation present a plateau of temperature along the longitudinal direction, characteristic of the phase change. The effect of different parameters such as the Reynolds number, the weight fraction and the temperature of the cold spring on the length of the plateau is analysed. A correlation resulting from numerical results is proposed for use in the determination of the characteristics of the exchanger for a phase change material slurry

124

International symposium on transient convective heat transfer: book of abstracts

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The international symposium on convective heat transfer was held on 19-23 August 1996, in Cesme, Izmir, Turkey. The spesialists discussed forced convection, heat exchangers, free convection and multiphase media and phase change at the meeting. Almost 53 papers were presented in the meeting

125

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper explores the bearing that a non-uniform distribution of heat flux used as a wall boundary condition exerts on the heat transfer improvement in a round pipe. Because the overall heat load is considered fixed, the heat transfer improvement is viewed through a reduction in the maximum temperature (hot spot) by imposing optimal distribution of heat flux. Two cases are studied in detail 1) fully developed and 2) developing flow. Peak temperatures in the heated pipe wall are calculated via an analytical approach for the fully developed case, while a numerical simulation based on CFD is employed for the developing case. By relaxing the heat flux distribution on the pipe wall, the numerical results imply that the optimum distribution of heat flux, which minimizes the peak temperatures corresponds with the descending distribution. Given that the foregoing approach is quite different from the ascending heat flux distribution recommended in the literature by means of the entropy generation minimization (EGM) method, it is inferred that the optimization of heat transfer and fluid flow, in comparison with the thermodynamic optimization, may bring forth quite different guidelines for the designs of thermal systems under the same constraints and circumstances. -- Highlights: Considered the bearing of non-uniform distribution of heat flux on the hot spots. Determined the optimal distribution of heat flux that minimizes the hot spots. Results are compared with those obtained by EGM method

126

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: We model MHD mixed convection in an inclined lid-driven cavity. Increasing the Hartmann number leads to increase the heat transfer rate. Increasing the inclination angle leads to the increase of the heat transfer rate. Nusselt number at the left wall, for forced convection case, increases as the amplitude ratio increases. - Abstract: A numerical study of laminar magnetohydrodynamic mixed convection in an inclined lid-driven square cavity with opposing temperature gradients is presented. The vertical sidewalls are assumed to have non-uniform temperature variation while the top and bottom walls are kept insulated with the top surface moving at a constant speed. The transport equations are given in terms of the stream functions-vorticity formulation and are non-dimensionalized and then solved numerically by an accurate finite-volume method. The computation is carried out for wide ranges of the inclination angle (0 ? ? ? ?/2), the Richardson number (0.01 ? Ri ? 100), the Hartmann number (0 ? Ha ? 100), the amplitude ratio (0 ? ? ? 1) and the phase deviation (0 ? ? ? ?). The results indicate that the rate of heat transfer along the heated walls is enhanced on increasing either Hartmann number or inclination angle. Average Nusselt number is also, increased with increasing of the amplitude ratio for all values of the phase deviation. The non-uniform heating on both walls provides higher heat transfer rate than non-uniform

127

Convective Flow under Rotating Force.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A finite difference code using the primitive variables is used to simulate the mixed convection in air (Pr=0.7 and liquid metals (Pr=0.015. The present study involves numerical simulation of momentum and energy equations in order to analyze two dimensional mixed convection in air and liquid metals in a differentially heated square cavity subjected to rotation for a broad range of operating parameters i.e. Rayleigh number (Ra , Taylor number (Ta and rotational Raleigh number (Raw.

Meenu Hooda

2013-09-01

128

The present work is an experimental study of steady state convective heat transfer of de-ionized water with a low volume fraction (0.003% by volume) of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles dispersed to form a nanofluid that flows through a copper tube. The effect of mass flow rate ranging from (0.0113 kg/s to 0.0139 kg/s) and the effect of inlet temperatures at 100C and 17 0C on the heat transfer coefficient are studied on the entry region under laminar flow condition. The results have shown 8% e...

Lazarus Godson Asirvatham; Nandigana Vishal; Senthil Kumar Gangatharan; Dhasan Mohan Lal

2009-01-01

129

Steady, three-dimensional, internally heated convection

Numerical calculations have been carried out of steady, symmetric, 3D modes of convection in internally heated, infinite Prandtl number, Boussinesq fluids at a Rayleigh number of 1.4 x 10 exp 4 in a spherical shell with inner/outer radius of 0.55 and in a 3 x 3 x 1 rectangular box. Multiple patterns of convection occur in both geometries. In the Cartesian geometry, the patterns are dominated by cylindrical cold downflows and a broad hot upwelling. In the spherical geometry the patterns consist of cylindrical cold downwellings centered either at the vertices of a tetrahedron or the centers of the faces of a cube. The cold downflow cylinders are immersed in a background of upwelling within which there are cylindrical hot concentrations (plumes) and hot halos around the downflows. The forced hot upflow return plumes of internally heated spherical convection are fundamentally different from the buoyancy-driven plumes of heated from below convection.

Schubert, G.; Glatzmaier, G. A.; Travis, B.

1993-01-01

130

Steady, three-dimensional, internally heated convection

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerical calculations have been carried out of steady, symmetric, three-dimensional modes of convection in internally heated, infinite Prandtl number, Boussinesq fluids at a Rayleigh number of 1.4x104 in a spherical shell with inner/outer radius of 0.55 and in a 3x3x1 rectangular box. Multiple patterns of convection occur in both geometries. In the Cartesian geometry the patterns are dominated by cylindrical cold downflows and a broad hot upwelling. In the spherical geometry the patterns consist of cylindrical cold downwellings centered either at the vertices of a tetrahedron or the centers of the faces of a cube. The cold downflow cylinders are immersed in a background of upwelling within which there are cylindrical hot concentrations (plumes) and hot halos around the downflows. The forced hot upflow return plumes of internally heated spherical convection are fundamentally different from the buoyancy-driven plumes of heated from below convection

131

In this paper we analyse the effects of internal heat generation, thermal radiation and buoyancy force on the laminar boundary layer about a vertical plate in a uniform stream of fluid under a convective surface boundary condition. In the analysis, we assumed that the left surface of the plate is in contact with a hot fluid whilst a stream of cold fluid flows steadily over the right surface; the heat source decays exponentially outwards from the surface of the plate. The similarity variable m...

Tasawar Hayat; Hendi, Awatif A.; Gbadeyan, Jacob A.; Olanrewaju, Philip O.

2011-01-01

132

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study investigates the role of latent heat transfer, in connection with vaporization of a thin liquid film on the tube wall, in the laminar mixed convection flows under the simultaneous influences of combined buoyancy effects of thermal and mass diffusion. Major non-dimensional groups identified are Gr/sub T/, Gr/sub M/, Re, Pr, Sc and phi. Results are specifically presented for an air-water system under various conditions. The effects of the liquid film temperature, the Reynolds number and the relative humidity of the moist air in the ambient on the momentum, heat and mass transfer in the flow are examined in great detail. Tremendous enhancement in heat transfer due to the transport of the latent heat of vaporization is clearly demonstrated

133

Laminar Mixed Convection Heat Transfer Correlation for Horizontal Pipes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aimed at producing experimental results and developing a new heat transfer correlation based upon a semi-empirical buoyancy coefficient. Mixed convection mass transfers inside horizontal pipe were investigated for the pipe of various length-to-diameters with varying Re. Forced convection correlation was developed using a very short cathode. With the length of cathode increase and Re decrease, the heat transfer rates were enhanced and becomes higher than that of forced convection. An empirical buoyancy coefficient was derived from correlation of natural convection and forced convection with the addition of L/D. And the heat transfer correlation for laminar mixed convection was developed using the buoyancy coefficient, it describes not only current results, but also results of other studies. Mixed convection occurs when the driving forces of both forced and natural convections are of comparable magnitude (Gr/Re2?1). It is classical problem but is still an active area of research for various thermal applications such as flat plate solar collectors, nuclear reactors and heat exchangers. The effect of buoyancy on heat transfer in a forced flow is varied by the direction of the buoyancy force. In a horizontal pipe the direction of the forced and buoyancy forces are perpendicular. The studies on the mixed convections of the horizontal pipes were not investigated very much due to the lack of practical uses compared to those of vertical pipes. Even the definitions on the buoyancy coefficient that presents the relative influence of the forced and the natural convections, are different by scholars. And the proposed heat transfer correlations do not agree

134

Laminar Mixed Convection Heat Transfer Correlation for Horizontal Pipes

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study aimed at producing experimental results and developing a new heat transfer correlation based upon a semi-empirical buoyancy coefficient. Mixed convection mass transfers inside horizontal pipe were investigated for the pipe of various length-to-diameters with varying Re. Forced convection correlation was developed using a very short cathode. With the length of cathode increase and Re decrease, the heat transfer rates were enhanced and becomes higher than that of forced convection. An empirical buoyancy coefficient was derived from correlation of natural convection and forced convection with the addition of L/D. And the heat transfer correlation for laminar mixed convection was developed using the buoyancy coefficient, it describes not only current results, but also results of other studies. Mixed convection occurs when the driving forces of both forced and natural convections are of comparable magnitude (Gr/Re{sup 2}?1). It is classical problem but is still an active area of research for various thermal applications such as flat plate solar collectors, nuclear reactors and heat exchangers. The effect of buoyancy on heat transfer in a forced flow is varied by the direction of the buoyancy force. In a horizontal pipe the direction of the forced and buoyancy forces are perpendicular. The studies on the mixed convections of the horizontal pipes were not investigated very much due to the lack of practical uses compared to those of vertical pipes. Even the definitions on the buoyancy coefficient that presents the relative influence of the forced and the natural convections, are different by scholars. And the proposed heat transfer correlations do not agree.

Chae, Myeong Seon; Chung, Bum Jin [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

2013-10-15

135

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forced convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of SiO2- and Al2O3-water nanofluids were characterized. The experimental facility was composed of thermal-hydraulic loop with a tank with an immersed heater, a centrifugal pump, a bypass with a globe valve, an electromagnetic flow-meter, a 18 kW in-line pre-heater, a test section with band heaters, a differential pressure transducer and a heat exchanger. The test section consists of a 1000 mm long aluminium pipe with an inner diameter of 31.2 mm. Eighteen band heaters were placed all along the test section in order to provide a uniform heat flux. Heat transfer coefficient was calculated measuring fluid temperature using immersed thermocouples (Pt100) placed at both ends of the test section and surface thermocouples in 10 axial locations along the test section (Pt1000). The measurements have been performed for different nanoparticles (Al2O3 and SiO2 with primary size of 11 nm and 12 nm, respectively), volume concentrations (1% v., 5% v.), and flow rates (3 103Re5). Maximum heat transfer coefficient enhancement (300%) and pressure drop penalty (1000%) is obtained with 5% v. SiO2 nanofluid. Existing correlations can predict, at least in a first approximation, the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of nanofluids if thermal conductivity, viscosity and specific heat were properly modelled.eat were properly modelled.

136

Forced convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of SiO2- and Al2O3-water nanofluids were characterized. The experimental facility was composed of thermal-hydraulic loop with a tank with an immersed heater, a centrifugal pump, a bypass with a globe valve, an electromagnetic flow-meter, a 18 kW in-line pre-heater, a test section with band heaters, a differential pressure transducer and a heat exchanger. The test section consists of a 1000 mm long aluminium pipe with an inner diameter of 31.2 mm. Eighteen band heaters were placed all along the test section in order to provide a uniform heat flux. Heat transfer coefficient was calculated measuring fluid temperature using immersed thermocouples (Pt100) placed at both ends of the test section and surface thermocouples in 10 axial locations along the test section (Pt1000). The measurements have been performed for different nanoparticles (Al2O3 and SiO2 with primary size of 11 nm and 12 nm, respectively), volume concentrations (1% v., 5% v.), and flow rates (3 103Re<105). Maximum heat transfer coefficient enhancement (300%) and pressure drop penalty (1000%) is obtained with 5% v. SiO2 nanofluid. Existing correlations can predict, at least in a first approximation, the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of nanofluids if thermal conductivity, viscosity and specific heat were properly modelled.

Julia, J. E.; Hernández, L.; Martínez-Cuenca, R.; Hibiki, T.; Mondragón, R.; Segarra, C.; Jarque, J. C.

2012-11-01

137

Convection driven by internal heating

Two-dimensional direct numerical simulations are conducted for convection sustained by uniform internal heating in a horizontal fluid layer. Top and bottom boundary temperatures are fixed and equal. Prandtl numbers range from 0.01 to 100, and Rayleigh numbers (R) are up to 5x10^5 times the critical R at the onset of convection. The asymmetry between upward and downward heat fluxes is non-monotonic in R. In a broad high-R regime, dimensionless mean temperature scales as R^{-1...

Goluskin, David; Spiegel, Edward A.

2012-01-01

138

Direct Numerical Simulations of turbulent mixed convection in enclosures with heated obstacles

Investigation of turbulent mixed convection flows past heated obstacles has physical as well as engineering objectives, since such problems as climate control in buildings, cars or aircrafts, where the temperature must be regulated to maintain comfortable and healthy conditions, can be formulated as mixed convection problems. In this type of convection the flows are determined both by the buoyancy force like in natural convection and by inertia forces like in forced convection, while neither of these forces dominates.

Shishkina, Olga; Wagner, Claus

139

Design of an R-134a loop for subcritical and supercritical forced-convection heat transfer studies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The R-134a test loop is a forced-flow experimental facility for the study of heat transfer properties of R-134a under subcritical and supercritical thermodynamic conditions. The loop is designed to operate with pressures as high as 6 MPa and temperatures up to 140 °C. The intended mass flux is in the range of 500-6000 kg/m2s for the experiments with subcritical thermodynamic states and 500-4000 kg/m2s for supercritical conditions. The loop has been designed to accommodate a variety of test-section geometries, ranging from a straight circular tube to a 7-rod bundle, achieving heat fluxes up to 2.5 MW/m2 depending on the test section geometry. The design of the loop allows for easy reconfiguration of the test-section orientation relative to the gravitational direction and adjustment to the length of the test section. (author)

140

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the first part, free-convection and nucleate pool boiling heat transfer (up to burn-out heat flux) between a platinum wire of 0.15 mm in diameter in neon, deuterium and hydrogen has been studied at atmospheric pressure. These measurements were continued in liquid neon up to 23 bars (Pc {approx_equal} 26.8 b). Film boiling heat transfer coefficients have been measured in pool boiling liquid neon at atmospheric pressure with three heating wires (diameters 0.2, 0.5, 2 mm). All the results have been compared with existing correlations. The second part is devoted to measurements of the critical heat flux limiting heat transfer with small temperature differences between the wall and the liquid neon flowing inside a tube (diameters 3 x 3.5 mm) heated by joule effect on 30 cm of length. Influences of flow stability, nature of electrical current, pressure, mass flow rate and subcooling are shown. In conclusion, the similarity of the heat transfer characteristics in pool boiling as well as in forced convection of liquid neon and hydrogen is emphasized. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie, on a etudie les echanges thermiques en regime de convection libre et d'ebullition nucleee (jusqu'au flux critique de l'ebullition nucleee) entre un fil de platine (diametre 0,15 mm) chauffe electriquement et un bain de liquide (neon, deuterium, ou hydrogene) bouillant a la pression atmospherique. On a poursuivi ces mesures dans le neon jusqu'a une pression de 23 bars (Pc {approx_equal} 26,8 b). On a mesure en outre les coefficients d'echanges thermiques en regime de calefaction dans le neon liquide a pression atmospherique. Tous ces resultats sont compares a diverses correlations existantes. La deuxieme partie est axee sur la mesure des flux de chaleur critiques limitant les echanges thermiques avec faible ecart de temperatures entre la paroi et le neon liquide s'ecoulant dans un tube (diam. 3 x 3,5 mm) chauffe par effet joule sur 30 cm de longueur. On a etudie l'influence de la stabilite de l'ecoulement de la nature du courant electrique de chauffage, de la pression, du debit et du sous-refroidissement du liquide. On conclut en soulignant la ressemblance des caracteristiques d'echanges thermiques du neon et de l'hydrogene liquides tant en convection libre qu'en convection forcee. (auteur)

Astruc, J.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

1967-12-01

141

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Stability boundaries of a helium flow at forced and free convection in a vertical channel are calculated for different hydraulic resistance ratios of throttling units and channel lengths. Results are presented and stability dependence on the flow direction shown

142

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides information on heat transfer enhancement due to jet mixing inside a cylindrical enclosure. The work addresses conservative heat transfer assumptions regarding mixing and condensation that have typically been incorporated into passive containment design analyses. The current research presents an interesting possibility for increasing decay heat removal of passive containment systems under combined natural and forced convection. Eliminating these conservative assumptions could provide the basis for a change of containment design and reduce the construction cost. It is found that the ratio of forced- and free convection Nusselt numbers can be predicted as a function of the Archimedes number and a correlated factor accounting for jet orientation and enclosure geometry. To use the small-scale tests for large containment design, scale-up methods and criteria are important for matching the key governing parameters and fluid properties. In the present experiment, a cylindrical enclosure was constructed with a vertical wall of 2.29-m diameter and 0.8-m height and a vertically adjustable ceiling. A horizontal copper plate was installed at the bottom to provide an isothermal heating surface. Cold air was injected at several positions with varying pipe diameters and injecting orientations and was removed from the top of the enclosure. The experiment was performed with an extensive set of tests to study the combined natural- and forced convection heat transfer ural- and forced convection heat transfer in a cylindrical enclosure mixed by an injected jet. The goals are to evaluate the key parameters governing the heat transfer augmentation by a forced jet and to investigate the effect of geometric factors, including jet diameter, jet injection orientation, and enclosure geometry (aspect ratio). Flow velocity measurement further provides a better understanding of the flow patterns developed inside the enclosure, which will determine the effectiveness of the whole volume mixing process. An additional experiment with a vertically cooled wall, similar to the condition of a passive containment cooling surface, is under construction. It will be used for further investigation of similar phenomena for steam condensation in the presence of non-condensable gases. From the current study with the cylindrical enclosure, it was found that the augmentation of natural-convection heat transfer by a forced jet is primarily determined by the jet Reynolds number, while the injecting nozzle diameter has a relatively weak effect. The jet orientation also plays an important role in determining the augmentation ratio, and of the four different jet orientations studied here, vertical downward injection at the center of the enclosure gives the highest augmentation, while azimuthal injection gives the lowest. The enclosure geometry and aspect ratio are also important factors, depending on the jet orientation. A combining rule is employed with a weighted relation to balance the contributions from separate heat-transfer correlations representing natural and forced dominated convections. It was found that under natural convection without the jet, the mean Nusselt number inside the large enclosure can be correlated by the enclosure Rayleigh number, RaD1/3, and under forced convection with a strong jet, the data are well represented as a function of the jet Reynolds number, Rej2/3. According to these relationships, a correlation form predicting mixed convection inside the enclosure was developed by a function that uses the ratio of forced- and free-convection heat transfer coefficients. This form can then be further reduced to predict the augmentation ratio as a function of the Archimedes number and a correcting factor accounting for jet orientation and enclosure geometry. Figure 1 presents the heat transfer augmentation as the Nusselt number ratio of mixed convection to natural convection (NuD/Nunc) versus the Archimedes number. The data, including four injecting orientations and three different jet diameters, are well correlated for each injecti

143

Terminal project heat convection in thin cylinders

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heat convection in thin cylinders and analysis about natural convection for straight vertical plates, and straight vertical cylinders submersed in a fluid are presented some works carry out by different authors in the field of heat transfer. In the part of conduction, deduction of the equation of heat conduction in cylindrical coordinates by means of energy balance in a control volume is presented. Enthalpy and internal energy are used for the outlining of the equation and finally the equation in its vectorial form is obtained. In the convection part development to calculate the Nusselt number for a straight vertical plate by a forces analysis, an energy balance and mass conservation over a control volume is outlined. Several empiric correlations to calculate the Nusselt number and its relations with other dimensionless numbers are presented. In the experimental part the way in which a prototype rode is assembled is presented measurements of temperatures attained in steady state and in free convection for working fluids as air and water are showed in tables. Also graphs of Nusselt numbers obtained in the experimental way through some empiric correlations are showed (Author)

144

Convective heat transfer in rotating cylindrical cavity

In order to gain an understanding of the conditions inside air-cooled, gas-turbine rotors, flow visualization, laser-doppler anemometry, and heat-transfer measurements have been made in a rotating cavity with either an axial throughflow or a radial outflow of coolant. For the axial throughflow tests, a correlation has been obtained for the mean Nusselt number in terms of the cavity gap ratio, the axial Reynolds number, and rotational Grashof number. For the radial outflow tests, velocity measurements are in good agreement with solutions of the linear (laminar and turbulent) Ekman layer equations, and flow visualization has revealed the destabilizing effect of buoyancy forces on the flow structure. The mean Nusselt numbers have been correlated, for the radial outflow case, over a wide range of gap ratios, coolant flow rates, rotational Reynolds numbers and Grashof numbers. As well as the three (forced convection) regimes established from previous experiments, a fourth (free convection) regime has been identified.

Owen, J. M.; Onur, H. S.

1983-04-01

145

Experimental study of turbulent forced convection in vertical eccentric annulus

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forced convection in an open-ended vertical eccentric annulus with different eccentricities has been experimentally studied with several heat fluxes and inlet air velocities. Constant heat flux outer tube and insulated inner tube boundary conditions were used. The wall temperature of the outer tube was measured along the length for different eccentricities. Results indicate that with the increase of eccentricity, the convection heat transfer coefficient increases. Also, as the Reynolds number is increased a crest is formed in the temperature variation along the length. An empirical relation is derived for the Nusselt number as a function of the Reynolds number and eccentricity.

146

Experimental study of turbulent forced convection in vertical eccentric annulus

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Forced convection in an open-ended vertical eccentric annulus with different eccentricities has been experimentally studied with several heat fluxes and inlet air velocities. Constant heat flux outer tube and insulated inner tube boundary conditions were used. The wall temperature of the outer tube was measured along the length for different eccentricities. Results indicate that with the increase of eccentricity, the convection heat transfer coefficient increases. Also, as the Reynolds number is increased a crest is formed in the temperature variation along the length. An empirical relation is derived for the Nusselt number as a function of the Reynolds number and eccentricity. (author)

Hosseini, R.; Ramezani, M.; Mazaheri, M.R. [Mechanical Engineering Dept., Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, 424 Hafez Ave., P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran)

2009-09-15

147

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In this paper we analyse the effects of internal heat generation, thermal radiation and buoyancy force on the laminar boundary layer about a vertical plate in a uniform stream of fluid under a convective surface boundary condition. In the analysis, we assumed that the left surface of the plate is in [...] contact with a hot fluid whilst a stream of cold fluid flows steadily over the right surface; the heat source decays exponentially outwards from the surface of the plate. The similarity variable method was applied to the steady state governing non-linear partial differential equations, which were transformed into a set of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations and were solved numerically by applying a shooting iteration technique together with a sixth-order Runge-Kutta integration scheme for better accuracy. The effects of the Prandtl number, the local Biot number, the internal heat generation parameter, thermal radiation and the local Grashof number on the velocity and temperature profiles are illustrated and interpreted in physical terms. A comparison with previously published results on similar special cases showed excellent agreement.

Philip O., Olanrewaju; Jacob A., Gbadeyan; Tasawar, Hayat; Awatif A., Hendi.

2011-10-01

148

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the effects of internal heat generation, thermal radiation and buoyancy force on the laminar boundary layer about a vertical plate in a uniform stream of fluid under a convective surface boundary condition. In the analysis, we assumed that the left surface of the plate is in contact with a hot fluid whilst a stream of cold fluid flows steadily over the right surface; the heat source decays exponentially outwards from the surface of the plate. The similarity variable method was applied to the steady state governing non-linear partial differential equations, which were transformed into a set of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations and were solved numerically by applying a shooting iteration technique together with a sixth-order RungeKutta integration scheme for better accuracy. The effects of the Prandtl number, the local Biot number, the internal heat generation parameter, thermal radiation and the local Grashof number on the velocity and temperature profiles are illustrated and interpreted in physical terms. A comparison with previously published results on similar special cases showed excellent agreement.

Tasawar Hayat

2011-09-01

149

Forced and natural convection in aggregate-laden nanofluids

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of experimental and theoretical studies of convective heat transfer in nanofluids (liquid suspensions of nanoparticles, typically with features below 100 nm in size) reveal contrasting results; nanoparticles can either enhance or reduce the convective heat transfer coefficient. These disparate conclusions regarding the influence of nanoparticles on convective heat transfer may arise due to the aggregation of nanoparticles, which is often not considered in studies of nanofluids. Here, we examine theoretically forced and natural convective heat transfer of aggregate-laden nanofluids using Monte Carlo-based models to determine how the aggregate morphology influences the convective heat transfer coefficient. Specifically, in this study, it is first shown that standard heat transfer correlations should apply to nanofluids, and the main influence of the nanoparticles is to alter suspension thermal conductivity, dynamic viscosity, density, specific heat, and thermal expansion coefficient. Aggregated particles in suspension are modeled as quasi-fractal aggregates composed of individual primary particles described by the primary particle radius, number of primary particles, fractal (Hausdorff) dimension, pre-exponential factor, and degree of coalescence between primary particles. A sequential algorithm is used to computationally generate aggregates with prescribed morphological descriptors. Four types of aggregates are considered; spanning the range of aggregate morphred; spanning the range of aggregate morphologies observed in nanofluids. For each morphological type, the influences of aggregates on nanofluid dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity are determined via first passage-based Brownian dynamics calculations. It is found that depending on both the material properties of the nanoparticles as well as the nanoparticle morphology, the addition of nanoparticles to a suspension can either increase or decrease both the forced and natural convective heat transfer coefficients, with both a 51% increase and a 32% decrease in the heat transfer coefficient achievable at particle volume fractions of 0.05. This study shows clearly that the influence of particle morphology needs to be accounted for in all studies of heat transfer in nanofluids.

150

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To clarify thermohydrodynamic processes in a heat exchanger with a low relative length of heated sections (l/d < 50), convective heat transfer in a heated tube is analytically investigated. Equations of heat transfer in the wall and in liquid are considered along with motion equations, i.e. a conjugate problem is solved. Iterations over the joint of temperature fields of wall inner surface and the external current surface is carried out for boundary conditions of the 1st kind from the wall and the second kind from the current. The model adequacy to real physical processes is experimentally established. The information obtained permits to calculate practically any termohydrodynamic characteristic of the model considered. Results of investigations permit to recommend the above mathematical model to investigate analogous problems connected with the calculation of convection heat exchange in porced liquid currents with variable properties under conditions of considerable nonisothermality characteristic of small sections of active heating

151

Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Heated Fine Wire in Nanofluids

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent research on nanofluids under forced convection experiment shows that there is little relationship between convective heat transfer and thermal conductivity increase of nanofluids. This kind of new findings are totally different from the traditional theory of nanofluids, which says that the higher thermal conductivity is a prerequisite for convective heat transfer enhancement. To elucidate this controversial issue in a very comprehensible manner, simple natural convection experiment has been carried out for the water- and oil-based nanofluids. (water-Al2O3, transformer oil-Al2O3) Present research shows that there exists strong dependence between natural convection performance and thermal conductivity increase of nanofluids

152

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Square-ribbed coolant channels with helium gas for fusion power reactors were designed to enhance the turbulent heat transfer in comparison with smooth coolant channels. Heat transfer coefficients and friction factors in the square-ribbed annular channels were investigated quantitatively under high pressure. The turbulent heat transfer coefficients in the square-ribbed annulus, with a ratio of the rib pitch to a height of ten, were 200-300% higher than those in the smooth annulus and then the thermal-hydraulic empirical correlations were derived. The average heat fluxes from the heated wall were predicted using the present empirical correlations and the maximum heat flux at p/h=10 reached ?1.5 MW/m2 at Re=65000. From the results of the present study, it can be expected that the proposed rib-roughened coolant channels are available to remove surface heat fluxes at the first wall and blanket in the fusion power reactors

153

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the project 'Convection in a Cylinder' (CiC) heat transfer enhancement is studied for the case of two concentric, vertically aligned cylinders. The cylindrical gap is filled with a dielectric liquid, which viscosity is just few times higher than that of water. The inner cylinder is heated and the outer one is cooled. This setup in a gravitational buoyancy field leads to a fluid movement in a single convective cell with hot fluid rising at the inner boundary and cold fluid sinking at the outer boundary. The top and bottom part of the system shows horizontal movement, again in boundary layers. The strengthening of temperature gradient induces instabilities of that convective motion. If we vary the buoyancy force by means of electro-hydrodynamic effects, the patterns of convection differ from those instabilities rising only from variation of the temperature gradient.

154

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Distributions of heat transfer coefficients in axial heat exchangers, consisting of closely spaced tube bundles, were measured with a holographic interferometer. For the transition from laminar to turbulent flow (Re 500 to 5000) six different spacings were examined. In addition to the local differences, temporal variations could be observed. A theoretical calculation of the local heat transfer, using the finite difference method, is in good agreement with the experimental results. (U.S.)

155

Spatial forcing of Rayleigh-Benard Convection

We report experimental results on spatial forcing of thermally driven convection in a large aspect ratio fluid layer. In anisotropic systems, such as electroconvection in nematic liquid crystals (Lowe et. al, 1983), wavelength competition caused by spatially periodic forcing was found to generate novel pattern transitions. Thermally driven fluid convection offers a number of interesting possibilities arising from the isotropy of the system and from the presence of spatiotemporally chaotic states with multiple length scales of interest. We will discuss how broken translational symmetry caused by lithographically micromachining a forcing pattern onto the bottom plate of the convection cell affects (i) pattern selection at onset and (ii) the observed bistability of straight rolls and spiral defect chaos. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation grant DMR 0305151.

McCoy, Jonathan; Shaughnessy, Gabe; Hagedorn, Charlie; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Lipson, Steve

2004-11-01

156

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This experimental study comparatively examined the two-phase flow structures, pressured drops and heat transfer performances for the cocurrent air-water slug flows in the vertical tubes with and without the spiky twisted tape insert. The two-phase flow structures in the plain and swirl tubes were imaged using the computerized high frame-rate videography with the Taylor bubble velocity measured. Superficial liquid Reynolds number (Re{sub L}) and air-to-water mass flow ratio (AW), which were respectively in the ranges of 4000-10000 and 0.003-0.02 were selected as the controlling parameters to specify the flow condition and derive the heat transfer correlations. Tube-wise averaged void fraction and Taylor bubble velocity were well correlated by the modified drift flux models for both plain and swirl tubes at the slug flow condition. A set of selected data obtained from the plain and swirl tubes was comparatively examined to highlight the impacts of the spiky twisted tape on the air-water interfacial structure and the pressure drop and heat transfer performances. Empirical heat transfer correlations that permitted the evaluation of individual and interdependent Re{sub L} and AW impacts on heat transfer in the developed flow regions of the plain and swirl tubes at the slug flow condition were derived. (author)

Chang, Shyy Woei [Thermal Fluids Laboratory, National Kaohsiung Marine University, No. 142, Haijhuan Road, Nanzih District, Kaohsiung City 81143 (China); Yang, Tsun Lirng [Department of Marine Engineering, National Kaohsiung Marine University, No. 142, Haijhuan Road, Nanzih District, Kaohsiung City 81143 (China)

2009-10-15

157

Convective cooling of three discrete heat sources in channel flow

A numerical investigation was performed to evaluate distinct convective heat transfer coefficients for three discrete strip heat sources flush mounted to a wall of a parallel plates channel. Uniform heat flux was considered along each heat source, but the remaining channel surfaces were assumed adiabatic. A laminar airflow with constant properties was forced into the channel considering either developed flow or a uniform velocity at the channel entrance. The conservation equations were solved...

Thiago Antonini Alves; Altemani, Carlos A. C.

2008-01-01

158

Mechanistic modeling of CHF in forced-convection subcooled boiling

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of the complexity of phenomena governing boiling heat transfer, the approach to solve practical problems has traditionally been based on experimental correlations rather than mechanistic models. The recent progress in computational fluid dynamics (CFD), combined with improved experimental techniques in two-phase flow and heat transfer, makes the use of rigorous physically-based models a realistic alternative to the current simplistic phenomenological approach. The objective of this paper is to present a new CFD model for critical heat flux (CHF) in low quality (in particular, in subcooled boiling) forced-convection flows in heated channels

159

The optimal spacing for cylinders in crossflow forced convection

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this note I draw attention to a new fundamental aspect of the heat transfer performance of a bundle of parallel cylinders with crossflow forced convection, namely, the maximization of the thermal contact between the bundle and the fluid, when the volume occupied by the bundle is fixed. In the experiments described by Jubran et al. we have seen empirical evidence that the total heat transfer rate is maximum when the cylinder-to-cylinder spacing S has a certain value. This finding is important because it has been overlooked for decades, while forced convection from cylinders in crossflow grew into one of the most researched topics in heat transfer. 8 refs., 3 figs

160

The optimal spacing for cylinders in crossflow forced convection

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this note I draw attention to a new fundamental aspect of the heat transfer performance of a bundle of parallel cylinders with crossflow forced convection, namely, the maximization of the thermal contact between the bundle and the fluid, when the volume occupied by the bundle is fixed. In the experiments described by Jubran et al. we have seen empirical evidence that the total heat transfer rate is maximum when the cylinder-to-cylinder spacing S has a certain value. This finding is important because it has been overlooked for decades, while forced convection from cylinders in crossflow grew into one of the most researched topics in heat transfer. 8 refs., 3 figs.

Bejan, A. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

1995-08-01

161

Effects of rib size and arrangement on forced convective heat transfer in a solar air heater channel

The article presents an experimental investigation on turbulent heat transfer and friction loss behaviors of airflow through a constant heat-fluxed solar air heater channel fitted with rib turbulators. The experiment was conducted for the airflow rate in terms of Reynolds numbers based on the hydraulic diameter of the channel in a range of 5000-24,000. In the present work, a comparative study between square and thin ribs (90°-rib) with three rib arrangements, namely, one ribbed wall (or single rib), in-line and staggered ribs on two opposite walls was first introduced. The study shows a significant effect of the presence of the ribs on the heat transfer rate and friction loss over the smooth wall channel. The comparison made at a single rib pitch and height also revealed that the thin rib performs better than the corresponding square one. Among the three arrangements, the in-line rib array provides higher heat transfer and friction loss than the staggered and the single one. However, the staggered thin rib provides the highest thermal performance. With this reason, only the staggered thin ribs at four different relative heights (BR = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) and three relative pitches (PR = 0.5, 0.75 and 1.33) are investigated further. It is found that the staggered rib at BR = 0.4 and PR = 0.5 yields the highest heat transfer and friction factor but the maximum thermal performance is at BR = 0.2 and PR = 0.75.

Skullong, Sompol; Thianpong, Chinaruk; Promvonge, Pongjet

2015-02-01

162

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this NERI project was to perform research on high temperature fluoride and chloride molten salts towards the long-term goal of using these salts for transferring process heat from high temperature nuclear reactor to operation of hydrogen production and chemical plants. Specifically, the research focuses on corrosion of materials in molten salts, which continues to be one of the most significant challenges in molten salts systems. Based on the earlier work performed at ORNL on salt properties for heat transfer applications, a eutectic fluoride salt FLiNaK (46.5% LiF-11.5%NaF-42.0%KF, mol.%) and a eutectic chloride salt (32%MgCl2-68%KCl, mole %) were selected for this study. Several high temperature candidate Fe-Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys: Hastelloy-N, Hastelloy-X, Haynes-230, Inconel-617, and Incoloy-800H, were exposed to molten FLiNaK with the goal of understanding corrosion mechanisms and ranking these alloys for their suitability for molten fluoride salt heat exchanger and thermal storage applications. The tests were performed at 850Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?C for 500 h in sealed graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Corrosion was noted to occur predominantly from dealloying of Cr from the alloys, an effect that was particularly pronounced at the grain boundaries Alloy weight-loss due to molten fluoride salt exposure correlated with the initial Cr-content of the alloys, and was consistent with the Cr-content measured in the salts after corrosion tests. The alloysĂ?Â?Ă?Â˘Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â? weight-loss was also found to correlate to the concentration of carbon present for the nominally 20% Cr containing alloys, due to the formation of chromium carbide phases at the grain boundaries. Experiments involving molten salt exposures of Incoloy-800H in Incoloy-800H crucibles under an argon cover gas showed a significantly lower corrosion for this alloy than when tested in a graphite crucible. Graphite significantly accelerated alloy corrosion due to the reduction of Cr from solution by graphite and formation on Cr-carbide on the graphite surface. Ni-electroplating dramatically reduced corrosion of alloys, although some diffusion of Fe and Cr were observed occur through the Ni plating. A pyrolytic carbon and SiC (PyC/SiC) CVD coating was also investigated and found to be effective in mitigating corrosion. The KCl-MgCl2 molten salt was less corrosive than FLiNaK fluoride salts for corrosion tests performed at 850oC. Cr dissolution in the molten chloride salt was still observed and consequently Ni-201 and Hastelloy N exhibited the least depth of attack. Grain-boundary engineering (GBE) of Incoloy 800H improved the corrosion resistance (as measured by weight loss and maximum depth of attack) by nearly 50% as compared to the as-received Incoloy 800H sample. Because Cr dissolution is an important mechanism of corrosion, molten salt electrochemistry experiments were initiated. These experiments were performed using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). Using this technique, the reduction potential of Cr was determined against a Pt quasi-reference electrode as well as against a Ni(II)-Ni reference electrode in molten FLiNaK at 650 oC. The integrated current increased linearly with Cr-content in the salt, providing for a direct assessment of the Cr concentration in a given salt of unknown Cr concentration. To study heat transfer mechanisms in these molten salts over the forced and mixed convection regimes, a forced convective loop was constructed to measure heat transfer coefficients, friction factors and corrosion rates in different diameter tubes in a vertical up flow configuration in the laminar flow regime. Equipment and instrumentation for the forced convective loop was designed, constructed, and tested. These include a high temperature centrifugal pump, mass flow meter, and differential pressure sensing capabilities to an uncertainty of < 2 Pa. The heat transfer coefficient for the KCl-MgCl2 salt was measured in two different diameter channels (0.083Ă?Â?Ă?Â˘Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â

Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark; Allen, Todd; Corradini, Michael

2012-01-30

163

Free convection heat transfer to supercritical helium

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of cryogenic free convective heat transfer from a sphere to supercritical helium is reported. The free convective heat transfer coefficient has been measured within the region of 4.2 to 25 K and 3 to 35 atmospheres. Measurements were made for sphere to helium temperature difference of 0.1 to 7 K. (author)

164

Natural, forced and mixed convection in fibrous insulation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A numerical solution of flow and temperature distribution in fibrous insulation has been obtained. Rectangular and cylindrical geometries have been modeled. Boundary conditions included permeable hot wall and convective heat transfer at the walls. Good agreement has been obtained with published experimental and numerical values on rectangular cavities. The computed velocity and temperature profiles gave a better understanding of flow and heat transfer phenomena in fibrous insulation. Local cold wall and average Nusselt numbers presented, provide useful information in the design of the fibrous insulation for concrete reactor vessel and primary coolant piping of the gas cooled nuclear power plants. Average Nusselt number has been correlated with Rayleigh number when only natural convection is present, and with Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers when a combination of natural and forced convection is present

165

Laminar free-convective heat transfer in vertical uniform heat flux ducts

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A numerical analysis is made of laminar free convection in vertical ducts with Uniform Heat Flux (UHF), in consideration of temperature-dependence of fluid thermophysical properties. The local Nusselt numbers of Constant Property Solutions (CPS) can be well correlated with the dimensionless parameters derived by the authors, regardless of the exit Rayleigh number, Prandtl number, and circular tube or parallel plates. The CPS of free-convective heat transfer is close to that of forced convective heat transfer in UHF-ducts. The local Nusselt numbers of Variable Property Solutions (VPS) can also be well correlated by the usual correction method used for forced convective heat transfer in duct. The difference in the heat transfer characteristics of UHF-ducts between CPS and VPS is not so large as those of Uniform Wall Temperature ducts. (author)

166

Forced-convection boiling tests performed in parallel simulated LMR fuel assemblies

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Forced-convection tests have been carried out using parallel simulated Liquid Metal Reactor fuel assemblies in an engineering-scale sodium loop, the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety facility. The tests, performed under single- and two-phase conditions, have shown that for low forced-convection flow there is significant flow augmentation by thermal convection, an important phenomenon under degraded shutdown heat removal conditions in an LMR. The power and flows required for boiling and dryout to occur are much higher than decay heat levels. The experimental evidence supports analytical results that heat removal from an LMR is possible with a degraded shutdown heat removal system.

Rose, S.D.; Carbajo, J.J.; Levin, A.E.; Lloyd, D.B.; Montgomery, B.H.; Wantland, J.L.

1985-04-21

167

Turbulent mixed convection in asymmetrically heated vertical channel

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper an investigation of mixed convection from vertical heated channel is undertaken. The aim is to explore the heat transfer obtained by adding a forced flow, issued from a flat nozzle located in the entry section of a channel, to the up-going fluid along its walls. Forced and free convection are combined studied in order to increase the cooling requirements. The study deals with both symmetrically and asymmetrically heated channel. The Reynolds number based on the nozzle width and the jet velocity is assumed to be 3 103 and 2.104; whereas, the Rayleigh number based on the channel length and the wall temperature difference varies from 2.57 1010 to 5.15 1012. The heating asymmetry effect on the flow development including the mean velocity and temperature the local Nusselt number, the mass flow rate and heat transfer are examined.

Mokni Ameni

2012-01-01

168

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports an experimental study on flow boiling of pure refrigerants R134a and R123 and their mixtures in a uniformly heated horizontal tube. The flow pattern was observed through tubular sight glasses with an internal diameter of 10 mm located at the inlet and outlet of the test section. Tests were run at a pressure of 0.6MPa in the heat flux ranges of 5-50kW/m2, vapor quality 0-100 percent and mass velocity of 150-600 kg/m2s. Both in the nucleate boiling-dominant region at low quality and in the two-phase convective evaporation region at higher quality where nucleation is supposed to be fully suppressed, the heat transfer coefficient for the mixture was lower than that for an equivalent pure component with the same physical properties as the mixture. The reduction of the heat transfer coefficient in mixture is explained by such mechanisms as mass transfer resistance and non-linear variation in physical properties etc. In this study, the contribution of convective evaporation, which is obtained for pure refrigerants under the suppression of nucleate boiling, is multiplied by the composition factor by Singal et al. (1984). On the basis of Chen's superposition model, a new correlation is presented for heat transfer coefficients of mixture

169

Free-jet-induced mixed convection with internal heat sources

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermohydraulic conditions in fluids with internal heat sources and forced convection have been experimentally investigated with the aid of holographic interferometry and laser Doppler anemometry. The measurements were carried out in plane fluid layers of segmental cross section onto which a fluid of the same composition flows from above in the symmetry axis in the form of a laminar, plane free jet. The local heat transfer on the curved bottom of the fluid layer, which is cooled on all sides, have been determined from the interference pictures. The convection behaviour of the fluid, including the beam, has been represented by the measured velocity fields and profiles. (orig./GL)

170

Latent Heating Processes within Tropical Deep Convection

It has been suggested that latent heating above the freezing level plays an important role in reconciling Riehl and Malkus' Hot Tower Hypothesis (HTH) with observational evidence of diluted tropical deep convective cores. In this study, recent modifications to the HTH have been evaluated through the use of Lagrangian trajectory analysis of deep convective cores simulated using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), a cloud-resolving model (CRM) with sophisticated microphysical, surface and radiation parameterization schemes. Idealized, high-resolution simulations of a line of tropical convective cells have been conducted. A two-moment microphysical scheme was utilized, and the initial and lateral boundary grid conditions were obtained from a large-domain CRM simulation approaching radiative convective equilibrium. As the tropics are never too far from radiative convective equilibrium, such a framework is useful for investigating the relationships between radiation, thermodynamics and microphysics in tropical convection. Microphysical impacts on latent heating and equivalent potential temperature (?e) have been analyzed along trajectories ascending within convective regions. Changes in ?e along backward trajectories are partitioned into contributions from latent heating due to ice processes and a residual term that is shown to be an approximate representation of mixing. It is apparent from the CRM simulations that mixing with dry environmental air decreases ?e along ascending trajectories below the freezing level, while latent heating due to freezing and vapor deposition increase ?e above the freezing level. The along-trajectory contributions to latent heating from cloud nucleation, condensation, evaporation, freezing, deposition, and sublimation have also been quantified. Finally, the source regions of trajectories reaching the upper troposphere have been identified. The analysis indicates that while much of the air ascending within convective updrafts originates from above the lowest 2 km AGL, the strongest updrafts are composed of air from closer to the surface. Thus, both the boundary layer and mid-level inflow appears to play an important role in deep convection developing within moist environments.

van den Heever, S. C.; Mcgee, C. J.

2013-12-01

171

SIMULATION OF MIXED CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER USING LATTICE BOLTZMANN METHOD

In this paper, mixed (forcednatural) convective heat transfer around a heated square cylinder located inside a lid driven cavity has been studied numerically using the lattice Boltzmann method in the range of 100? Re ? 1000 with the corresponding Richardson number 0.01?Ri?10. The double-population lattice Boltzmann formulation is used as the governing equation. Two dimensional nine-velocity models are used for the computation of the velocity field while a four-velocity model is use...

Rosdzimin, A. R. M.; Zuhairi, S. M.; Azwadi, C. S. N.

2010-01-01

172

Experimental study of mixed convective heat transfer in narrow vertical rectangular channel, 1

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes experimental results and discussions of mixed convective heat transfer experiments which were carried out in order to utilize the experimental data to the thermo-hydraulic design and the safety analysis of upgraded JRR-3. During some anticipated operational occurrences and accident conditions, which were posturated in the JRR-3 safety assessment, there is a case that core flow decreases from steady-state downward forced convective flow to zero flow and at last becomes upward flow due to the natural convective flow induced between the core and the reactor pool, that is, core flow reversal occurs. During the core flow reversal, the mixed convective heat transfer becomes significant and important because natural convection coexists with forced convection. In this case, mixed heat transfer correlations are need to evaluate heat transfer coefficients. In this study, therefore, the local heat transfer coefficients of narrow vertical rectangular channel were obtained and investigated for laminar to turbulent flow in the viewpoint of both forced convection and natural convection. As the results, the region for mixed convective heat transfer were made clear, and the heat transfer correlations for mixed convection were proposed. (author)

173

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermal stratification and mixing under single- and two-phase flow natural convection are studied experimentally in relation to the safety of nuclear reactors. Flow structure and temperature distribution were measured for a rod bundle with axially distributed heat flux wherein the upper parts of the heaters are heated and the lower parts are unheated. In this scenario, under conditions of single-phase flow, thermal stratification is quite appreciable. A drastic temperature change was observed at the interface of thermal stratification. In the heated region, upward flow occurred in the rod bundle and downward flow occurred at the peripheral region of the rod bundle. As the heat flux increased, radial mixing was observed between subchannels in the rod bundle. At the interface of thermal stratification, however, almost no mixing was observed. Under conditions of boiling two-phase flow, on the other hand, thermal stratification also occurred but mixing at the interface of thermal stratification was promoted due to agitation of flow induced by bubbles. As the heat flux increased and the void fraction in the heated section increased, the interface of thermal stratification gradually advanced toward the unheated section.

Kodama, Shigeo, E-mail: skodama@neltd.co.jp [Nuclear Engineering Ltd., 1-3-7, Tosabori, Nishi Ward, Osaka 550-0001 (Japan); Yoshida, Kenji; Kataoka, Isao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2014-03-15

174

We examine the effect of magnetic field on boundary layer flow of an incompressible electrically conducting water-based nanofluids past a convectively heated vertical porous plate with Navier slip boundary condition. A suitable similarity transformation is employed to reduce the governing partial differential equations into nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are solved numerically by employing fourth-order Runge-Kutta with a shooting technique. Three different water-based nanofluids containing copper (Cu), aluminium oxide (Al2O3), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) are taken into consideration. Graphical results are presented and discussed quantitatively with respect to the influence of pertinent parameters, such as solid volume fraction of nanoparticles (?), magnetic field parameter (Ha), buoyancy effect (Gr), Eckert number (Ec), suction/injection parameter (f w ), Biot number (Bi), and slip parameter ( ? ), on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient, and heat transfer rate. PMID:24222749

Mutuku-Njane, Winifred Nduku; Makinde, Oluwole Daniel

2013-01-01

175

Convective Heat Transfer and Infrared Thermography (IRTh

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with the application of the infrared thermography to the determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient in complex flow configurations. The fundamental principles upon which the IRTh relies are reviewed. The different methods developed to evaluate the heat exchange are described and illustrated through applications to the aerospace and aeronautical field as well as to the industrial processes.

J.M. Buchlin

2010-01-01

176

An assessment on forced convection in metal foams

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metal foams are a class of cellular structured materials with open cells randomly oriented and mostly homogeneous in size and shape. In the last decade, several authors have discussed the interesting heat transfer capabilities of these materials as enhanced surfaces for air conditioning, refrigeration, and electronic cooling applications. This paper reports an assessment on the forced convection through metal foams presenting experimental and analytical results carried out during air heat transfer through twelve aluminum foam samples and nine copper foam samples. The metal foam samples present different numbers of pores per linear inch (PPI), which vary between 5 and 40 with a porosity ranging between 0.8960.956; samples of different heights have been studied. From the experimental measurements two correlations for the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop calculations have been developed. These models can be successfully used to optimize different foam heat exchangers for any given application.

177

An assessment on forced convection in metal foams

Metal foams are a class of cellular structured materials with open cells randomly oriented and mostly homogeneous in size and shape. In the last decade, several authors have discussed the interesting heat transfer capabilities of these materials as enhanced surfaces for air conditioning, refrigeration, and electronic cooling applications. This paper reports an assessment on the forced convection through metal foams presenting experimental and analytical results carried out during air heat transfer through twelve aluminum foam samples and nine copper foam samples. The metal foam samples present different numbers of pores per linear inch (PPI), which vary between 5 and 40 with a porosity ranging between 0.896-0.956 samples of different heights have been studied. From the experimental measurements two correlations for the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop calculations have been developed. These models can be successfully used to optimize different foam heat exchangers for any given application.

Mancin, S.; Rossetto, L.

2012-11-01

178

Influence of forced convection on unidirectional growth of crystals

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Influence of forced convection on the growth rate of KDP crystal grown by unidirectional method has been investigated. The results were compared with the crystal grown under free convection conditions. To the best of our knowledge the effect of forced convection on unidirectional growth has been reported for the first time. An apparatus was designed and developed for growth of crystals by cooling under forced convection conditions. The growth rate achieved under forced convection was double to that under free convection conditions. Transmittance in the visible region for the crystals grown under the two types of convection regimes was {approx}90%. Birefringence and Mach-Zehnder interferometry shows good refractive index homogeneity of the grown crystals.

Dinakaran, S. [Department of Physics, Loyola College, University of Madras, Chennai 600 034 (India); Verma, Sunil, E-mail: sverma1118@gmail.co [Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Jerome Das, S. [Department of Physics, Loyola College, University of Madras, Chennai 600 034 (India); Kar, S.; Bartwal, K.S. [Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

2010-09-15

179

In the second part of review, we have considered the problems related to momentum and heat transfer in nanofluids. Results on hydrodynamic friction, forced and free convection in the laminar and turbulent flows are analysed; heat transfer at boiling is considered. The available models describing heat transfer intensification and suppression in nanofluids are studied. It is shown that for some problems on convective heat transfer there is a contradiction in data of different authors; possible reasons for this contradiction are analysed.

Terekhov, V. I.; Kalinina, S. V.; Lemanov, V. V.

2010-06-01

180

A meshless method for modeling convective heat transfer

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A meshless method is used in a projection-based approach to solve the primitive equations for fluid flow with heat transfer. The method is easy to implement in a MATLAB format. Radial basis functions are used to solve two benchmark test cases: natural convection in a square enclosure and flow with forced convection over a backward facing step. The results are compared with two popular and widely used commercial codes: COMSOL, a finite element model, and FLUENT, a finite volume-based model.

Carrington, David B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

181

Numerical and experimental study of dryer in forced convection

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A numerical simulation model is developed to predict the forced convection performance of a dryer. This model takes into account the shrinkage phenomenon of the products during the drying process. The experimental results of the potato drying are obtained in climatic conditions similar to conditions found in natural open-air drying when the dryer is fed by air heated by a solar air flat plate collector. After a study of the influence of parameters of the drying air on the product during the drying process, we expose the experimental results and compare them with those calculated by the theoretical model. (Author)

Youcef-Ali, S.; Moummi, N.; Desmons, J.Y.; Abene, A.; Messaoudi, H.; Le Ray, M. [Universite de Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambresis, Lab. de Mecanique et Energetique, Valenciennes, 59 (France)

2001-07-01

182

Prandtl Number Dependent Natural Convection with Internal Heat Sources

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural convection plays an important role in determining the thermal load from debris accumulated in the reactor vessel lower head during a severe accident. Recently, attention is being paid to the feasibility of external vessel flooding as a severe accident management strategy and to the phenomena affecting the success path for retaining the molten core material inside the vessel. The heat transfer inside the molten core material can be characterized by the strong buoyancy-induced flows resulting from internal heating due to decay of fission products. The thermo-fluid dynamic characteristics of such flow depend strongly on the thermal boundary conditions. The spatial and temporal variation of heat flux on the pool wall boundaries and the pool superheat are mainly characterized by the natural convection flow inside the molten pool. In general, the natural convection heat transfer phenomena involving the internal heat generation are represented by the modified Rayleigh number (Ra), which quantifies the internal heat source and hence the strength of the buoyancy force. In this study, tests were conducted in a rectangular section 250 mm high, 500 mm long and 160 mm wide. Twenty-four T-type thermocouples were installed in the test section to measure temperatures. Four T-type thermocouples were used to measure the boundary temperatures. The thermocouples were placed in designated locations after calibration. A direct heating method was adopted in this test to simulate the uniform heat generation. The experiments covered a range of Ra' between 1.5x106 and 7.42x1015 and the Prandtl number (Pr) between 0.7 and 6.5. Tests were conducted with water and air as simulant. The upper and lower boundary conditions were maintained uniform. The results demonstrated feasibility of the direct heating method to simulate uniform volumetric heat generation. Particular attentions were paid to the effect of Pr on natural convection heat transfer within the rectangular pool.

Kang Hee Lee; Seung Dong Lee; Kune Y. Suh; Joy L. Rempe; Fan-Bill Cheung; Sang B. Kim

2004-06-01

183

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) has three 350-mm long liquid hydrogen absorbers to reduce the momentum of 200 MeV muons in all directions. The muons are then re-accelerated in the longitudinal direction by 200 MHz RF cavities. The result is cooled muons with a reduced emittance. The energy from the muons is taken up by the liquid hydrogen in the absorber. The hydrogen in the MICE absorbers is cooled by natural convection to the walls of the absorber that are in turn cooled by helium gas that enters at 14 K. This report describes the MICE liquid hydrogen absorber and the heat exchanger between the liquid hydrogen and the helium gas that flows through passages in the absorber wall

184

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A numerical solution for laminar flow heat transfer between a flowing gas and its containing rectangular duct has been obtained for many different boundary conditions which may arise in nuclear waste repository ventilation corridors. The problem has been solved for the cases of insulation on no walls, one wall, two walls, and three walls with various finite resistances on the remaining walls. Simplifications are made to decouple the convective heat transfer problem for the far field conduction problem, but peripheral conduction is retained. Results have been obtained for several duct aspect ratios in the thermal entrance and in the fully developed regions, including the constant temperature cases. When one wall is insulated and the other three are at constant temperature, the maximum temperature occurs in the fluid rather than on the insulated wall. This maximum moves toward the insulated wall with increasing axial distance. Nusselt numbers for the same constant flux on all four walls with peripheral conduction lie in a narrow band bounded by zero and infinite peripheral conduction cases. A dimensionless wall conduction group of four can be considered infinite for the purpose of estimating fully developed Nusselt numbers to within an accuracy of 3%. A decrease in wall and bulk temperatures by finite wall conduction has been demonstrated for the case of a black body radiation boundary condition. Nusselt numbers for the case of constant temperature on the top and bottomconstant temperature on the top and bottom walls and constant heat flux on the side walls exhibited unexpected behavior

185

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A numerical solution for laminar flow heat transfer between a flowing gas and its containing rectangular duct has been obtained for many different boundary conditions which may arise in nuclear waste repository ventilation corridors. The problem has been solved for the cases of insulation on no walls, one wall, two walls, and three walls with various finite resistances on the remaining walls. Simplifications are made to decouple the convective heat transfer problem from the far field conduction problem, but peripheral conduction is retained. Results have been obtained for several duct aspect ratios in the thermal entrance and in the fully developed regions, including the constant temperature cases. When one wall is insulated and the other three are at constant temperature, the maximum temperature occurs in the fluid rather than on the insulated wall. This maximum moves toward the insulated wall with increasing axial distance. Nusselt numbers for the same constant flux on all four walls with peripheral conduction lie in a narrow band bounded by zero and infinite peripheral conduction cases. A dimensionsless wall conduction group of four can be considered infinite for the purpose of estimating fully developed Nusselt numbers to within an accuracy of 3%. A decrease in wall and bulk temperatures by finite wall conduction has been demonstrated for the case of a black body radiation boundary condition. Nusselt numbers for the case of constant temperature on the top and bottf constant temperature on the top and bottom walls and constant heat flux on the side walls exhibited unexpected behavior. (orig.)

186

Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates

Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates deals with a heat transfer situation that is of significant practical importance but which is not adequately dealt with in any existing textbooks or in any widely available review papers. The aim of the book is to introduce the reader to recent studies of natural convection from narrow plates including the effects of plate edge conditions, plate inclination, thermal conditions at the plate surface and interaction of the flows over adjacent plates. Both numerical and experimental studies are discussed and correlation equations based on the results of these studies are reviewed.

Oosthuizen, Patrick H

2013-01-01

187

Natural and mixed convection heat transfer from a horizontal heated pipe buried in a porous medium

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The natural and mixed convection heat transfer from horizontal heated pipe (diam. 0.646'') embedded in a water saturated a porous medium (MIT Coarse Sand, porosity 30%) for three different depth of burial to pipe diameter ratios from 11.11, 9.69 and 4.55, have been studied experimentally. A galvanized steel box, 2.5 ft long x 1.25 ft wide x 0.5 ft deep, containing the coarse sand bed measuring 1.875 ft x 1.25 ft, was used for the experimental model. The pipe was heated by an electric heating element. In the mixed convection studies, water was allowed to flow in the sand bed and past the heated cylinder in a crosswise direction. The experimental results were correlated by using the normalized parameters - Nusselt number, Rayleigh number and Reynolds number, and the aspect ratios. In the case of crossflow past the pipe, the average Reynolds number at which forced convection becomes dominant over the natural convection mode of heat transfer has been experimentally determined. In order to check the accuracy of the experimental set up and instrumentations, natural convection heat transfer from the heated cylinder to water without the porous medium was conducted and the experimental results compared favorably with those of the previous investigators

188

Fusion of cylindrical ice in forced convection

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experimental fusion of horizontal cylindrical ice was observed by moist air jet nozzle where forced convection prevailed. Results of phortmeasurements of variational cylindrical ice were found following things. Relationship between mean Nusselt number Nu sub(m) and Reynolds number Re was described experimental formula Nu sub(m) = 0.73 resup(0.576) in the range of Re from 3,000 to 120,000 and humidity from 0.0165 to 0.0185 kg/kg'. Fusing variational form of cylindrical ice were gropped together four systematically by variation of air velocity ranges. Relationship between max. of local Nu0 and Re was described experimental formula Nu0 = 2.9 Resup(0.482). (author)

189

Numerical simulation of forced convection film boiling on a sphere

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A CFD code using improved Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to track liquid-vapor interface is developed to simulate forced convection film boiling on a sphere. The simulation results are compared with the experimental correlation, and the result show that the numerical method could simulate the physical process of forced convection film boiling on a sphere successfully. (authors)

190

Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described.

Giovanni Maria Carlomagno

2014-11-01

191

Combined convective heat transfer of liquid sodium flowing across tube banks

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to clarify the heat transfer characteristics of combined convection of liquid sodium, a numerical analysis is performed for liquid sodium which flows through a single horizontal row of tubes in the direction of gravity. The correlation of heat transfer characteristics between liquid sodium and ordinary fluids is also discussed. The heat transfer characteristics at large Reynolds numbers are improved when the Richardson number is increased, and the improvement rate is enlarged with increase in p/d value, since convection effect is relatively large. However heat transfer coefficients do not differ from those of forced convection at small Reynolds numbers even when the Richardson number reaches a high value because of conduction effect. A good consistence of heat transfer characteristics of combined convection between liquid sodium and air is obtained at the same Peclet number and Richardson number. This means that the fundamental heat transfer characteristics of combined convection of liquid sodium can be investigated with ordinary fluids. (author)

192

Heat transport in bubbling turbulent convection

Boiling is an extremely effective way to promote heat transfer from a hot surface to a liquid due to numerous mechanisms, many of which are not understood in quantitative detail. An important component of the overall process is that the buoyancy of the bubble compounds with that of the liquid to give rise to a much-enhanced natural convection. In this article, we focus specifically on this enhancement and present a numerical study of the resulting two-phase RayleighBénard convection proce...

Lakkaraju, Rajaram; Stevens, Richard J. A. M.; Oresta, Paolo; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef; Prosperetti, Andrea

2013-01-01

193

Boiling inception in trichlorotrifluoroethane during forced convection at high pressures

The inception of bubbles during forced convection was studied experimentally by using trichlorotrifluoroethane (R-113 or Freon-113). The experiments were performed in a rectangular channel, 12.7 x 9.5 mm in cross section. Heating was from a 3.2 mm wide strip embedded in the longer side of the channel. The pressures studied ranged from 3.6 to 20.7 bar, mass velocities from 700 to 600 kg/sq m/sec, and inlet subcoolings from 26 to 97 C. Photographs of the flow were used to determine when bubbles first appeared on the heated surface. These data were compared with wall temperature measurements and inception theories. A reasonable method for calculating the complete boiling curve was found to agree with these results.

Dougall, R. S.; Lippert, T. E.

1972-01-01

194

Natural convection in a uniformly heated pool

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the event of a core meltdown accident, to prevent reactor vessel failure from molten corium relocation to the reactor vessel lower head, the establishment of a coolable configuration has been proposed by flooding with water the reactor cavity. In Reference 3, it was shown that for the heavy-water new production reactor (NPW-HWR) design, this strategy, e.g., the rejection of decay heat to a containment decay heat removal system by boiling of water in the reactor cavity, could keep the reactor vessel temperature below failure limits. The analysis of Ref. 3 was performed with the computer code COMMIX-1AR/P, and showed that natural convection in the molten-corium pool was the dominant mechanism of heat transfer from the pool to the wall of the reactor vessel lower head. To determine whether COMMIX adequately predicts natural convection in a pool heated by a uniform heat source, in Ref. 4, the experiments of free convection in a semicircular cavity of Jahn and Reineke were analyzed with COMMIX. It was found that the Nusselt (Nu) number predicted by COMMIX was within the spread of the experimental measurements. In the COMMIX analysis of Ref. 4, the semicircular cavity was treated as symmetric. The objective of the work presented in this paper was to extend the COMMIX validation analysis of Ref. 4 by removing the assumption of symmetry and expanding the analysis up to the highest Rayleigh (Ra) number that leads to a steady state. In conclusion, this work shows that the numerical predictions of natural convection in an internally heated pool bounded by a curved bottom are in reasonably good agreement with experimental measurements

195

Thermal Performance Of Convective-Radiative Heat Transfer In Porous Fins

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forced and natural convection in porous fin with convective coefficient at the tip under radiation and convection effects are investigated in this letter. Aluminum and copper as materials of fins are determined. In forced and natural convection, the air and water, are applied as working fluids, respectively. In order to solution of this nonlinear equation, HPM and VIM has been used . For verifying the accuracy of the solution methods, compare them with exact solutions (BVP. In this work the effects of porosity parameter ( , Radiation parameter (? and Temperature-Ratio parameter (ľ on temperature distribution for both of the flows have been shown. The results shows that the effects of (? and (ľ on temperature distribution in natural convection are based on porosity and in forced convection are uniform, approximately. Also, its shown that both VIM and HPM are capables to solving this nonlinear heat transfer equation.

Majid SHAHBABAEI

2014-11-01

196

Convectively driven shear and decreased heat flux

We report on direct numerical simulations of two-dimensional, horizontally periodic Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection, focusing on its ability to drive large-scale horizontal flow that is vertically sheared. For the Prandtl numbers ($Pr$) between 1 and 10 simulated here, this large-scale shear can be induced by raising the Rayleigh number ($Ra$) sufficiently, and we explore the resulting convection for $Ra$ up to $10^{10}$. When present in our simulations, the sheared mean flow accounts for a large fraction of the total kinetic energy, and this fraction tends towards unity as $Ra\\to\\infty$. The shear helps disperse convective structures, and it reduces vertical heat flux; in parameter regimes where one state with large-scale shear and one without are both stable, the Nusselt number of the state with shear is smaller and grows more slowly with $Ra$. When the large-scale shear is present with $Pr\\lesssim2$, the convection undergoes strong global oscillations on long timescales, and heat transport occurs in bursts. N...

Goluskin, David; Flierl, Glenn R; Spiegel, Edward A

2014-01-01

197

Jet Impingement and Forced Convection Cooling Experimental Study in Rotating Turbine Blades

Both jet impingement and forced convection are attractive cooling mechanisms widely used in cooling gas turbine blades. Convective heat transfer from impinging jets is known to yield high local and area averaged heat transfer coefficients. Impingement jets are of particular interest in the cooling of gas turbine components where advancement relies on the ability to dissipate extremely large heat loads. Current research is concerned with the measurement and comparison of both jet impingement and forced convection heat transfer in the Reynolds number range of 10,000 to 30,000. This study is aimed at experimentally testing two different setups with forced convection and jet impingement in rotating turbine blades up to 700 RPM. This research also observes Coriolis force and impingement cooling inside the passage during rotating conditions within a cooling passage. Local heat transfer coefficients are obtained for each test section using thermocouple technique with slip rings. The cross section of the passage is 10 mm × 10 mm without ribs and the surface heating condition has enforced uniform heat flux. The forced convection cooling effects were studied using serpentine passages with three corner turns under different rotating speeds and different inlet Reynolds numbers. The impingement cooling study uses a straight passage with a single jet hole under different Reynolds numbers of the impingement flow and the cross flow. In summary, the main purpose is to study the rotation effects on both the jet impingement and the serpentine convection cooling types. Our study shows that rotation effects increase serpentine cooling and reduce jet impingement cooling.

Li, Hsin-Lung; Chiang, Hsiao-Wei D.; Hsu, Chih-Neng

2011-06-01

198

Convective cooling of three discrete heat sources in channel flow

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Full Text Available A numerical investigation was performed to evaluate distinct convective heat transfer coefficients for three discrete strip heat sources flush mounted to a wall of a parallel plates channel. Uniform heat flux was considered along each heat source, but the remaining channel surfaces were assumed adiabatic. A laminar airflow with constant properties was forced into the channel considering either developed flow or a uniform velocity at the channel entrance. The conservation equations were solved using the finite volumes method together with the SIMPLE algorithm. The convective coefficients were evaluated considering three possibilities for the reference temperature. The first was the fluid entrance temperature into the channel, the second was the flow mixed mean temperature just upstream any heat source, and the third option employed the adiabatic wall temperature concept. It is shown that the last alternative gives rise to an invariant descriptor, the adiabatic heat transfer coefficient, which depends solely on the flow and the geometry. This is very convenient for the thermal analysis of electronic equipment, where the components' heating is discrete and can be highly non-uniform.

Thiago Antonini Alves

2008-09-01

199

Convective cooling of three discrete heat sources in channel flow

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A numerical investigation was performed to evaluate distinct convective heat transfer coefficients for three discrete strip heat sources flush mounted to a wall of a parallel plates channel. Uniform heat flux was considered along each heat source, but the remaining channel surfaces were assumed adia [...] batic. A laminar airflow with constant properties was forced into the channel considering either developed flow or a uniform velocity at the channel entrance. The conservation equations were solved using the finite volumes method together with the SIMPLE algorithm. The convective coefficients were evaluated considering three possibilities for the reference temperature. The first was the fluid entrance temperature into the channel, the second was the flow mixed mean temperature just upstream any heat source, and the third option employed the adiabatic wall temperature concept. It is shown that the last alternative gives rise to an invariant descriptor, the adiabatic heat transfer coefficient, which depends solely on the flow and the geometry. This is very convenient for the thermal analysis of electronic equipment, where the components' heating is discrete and can be highly non-uniform.

Thiago Antonini, Alves; Carlos A. C., Altemani.

2008-09-01

200

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article investigates numerically the heat transfer characteristics of non-Darcy mixed convection over a horizontal flat plate with nonuniform surface heat flux in a porous medium. The surface heat flux is assumed to vary as a power of the axial coordinate measured from the leading edge of the plate. The entire regime of mixed convection (including the two limits of pure forced convection and pure free convection) is divided into two regions, namely the forced convection dominated regime and the free convection dominated regime. The effects of flow inertia force, solid boundary shear, near-wall porosity variation, and thermal dispersion are considered in the present analysis. The Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer equation is used to model the motion of fluid through the porous medium, and the porosity variation is approximated by an exponential function. The local Nusselt numbers, valid for the entire mixed convection regime, are presented for representative values of governing parameters.

Chen, C.H. [National Yunlin Polytechnic Inst. (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering

1996-12-01

201

Combined free convection and forced convection from a flush-mounted uniform heat source on the bottom of a horizontal rectangular enclosure with side openings is studied numerically. The inlet opening allows an externally induced air stream at the ambient temperature to flow through the cavity and exits from another two openings placed top of the both side walls. Two-dimensional forms of Navier-Stokes equations are solved by using control volume based finite element technique. Three typical v...

Sumon Saha; Goutam Saha; Mohammad Ali; Md. Quamrul Islam

2006-01-01

202

Experimental study of mixed convective heat transfer in narrow vertical rectangular channel, (2)

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During some anticipated operational occurrences and accident conditions, which were posturated in the JRR-3 safety assessment, there is a case that core flow decreases from steady-state downward forced convective flow to zero flow and at last becomes upward flow due to the natural circulation induced between the core and the reactor pool, that is, core flow reversal occurs. During the core flow reversal, the mixed convective heat transfer becomes significant. In this case it is important to understand the heat transfer characteristics of the mixed convection to evaluate the heat transfer of the fuel plates. To investigate the heat transfer characteristics of the mixed convection, heat transfer experiments were carried out using a vertical rectangular channel with water gap of 2.5 mm, which was nearly equal to that of the subchannels of the standard fuel elements of the upgraded JRR-3. In conclusion the heat transfer correlations which can be applied for a narrow vertical channel in free, mixed and forced convections were obtained. The range of the mixed convection region was identified by the non dimensional parameter Grx/Rex21/8Pr1/2. It was confirmed that in the mixed convection in a narrow channel, the influence of the acceleration of the main flow owing to the development of the boundary layer played a important part in the promotion of the heat transfer, compared with the case along a flat plate or in a wide channel. (author)

203

Development of a mechanistic model for forced convection subcooled boiling

The focus of this work is on the formulation, implementation, and testing of a mechanistic model of subcooled boiling. Subcooled boiling is the process of vapor generation on a heated wall when the bulk liquid temperature is still below saturation. This is part of a larger effort by the US DoE's CASL project to apply advanced computational tools to the simulation of light water reactors. To support this effort, the formulation of the dispersed field model is described and a complete model of interfacial forces is formulated. The model has been implemented in the NPHASE-CMFD computer code with a K-epsilon model of turbulence. The interfacial force models are built on extensive work by other authors, and include novel formulations of the turbulent dispersion and lift forces. The complete model of interfacial forces is compared to experiments for adiabatic bubbly flows, including both steady-state and unsteady conditions. The same model is then applied to a transient gas/liquid flow in a complex geometry of fuel channels in a sodium fast reactor. Building on the foundation of the interfacial force model, a mechanistic model of forced-convection subcooled boiling is proposed. This model uses the heat flux partitioning concept and accounts for condensation of bubbles attached to the wall. This allows the model to capture the enhanced heat transfer associated with boiling before the point of net generation of vapor, a phenomenon consistent with existing experimental observations. The model is compared to four different experiments encompassing flows of light water, heavy water, and R12 at different pressures, in cylindrical channels, an internally heated annulus, and a rectangular channel. The experimental data includes axial and radial profiles of both liquid temperature and vapor volume fraction, and the agreement can be considered quite good. The complete model is then applied to simulations of subcooled boiling in nuclear reactor subchannels consistent with the operating conditions of the AP1000 pressurized water reactor. The effects of both axial and lateral nonuniform power distributions inside reactor fuel elements are accounted for. Boiling flows are simulated for three different computational domains of increasing complexity: a quarter-subchannel bordering a single fuel pin, two subchannels surround by an array of 2 by 3 fuel pins, and in four subchannels surrounded by an array of 3 by 3 fuel pins. The predicted behavior is consistent with expectations. In the 3 by 3 array, the two-phase coolant is predicted to flow from the hot channels to the cold channels, enhancing heat exchange between subchannels. This, in turn, demonstrates that the new model is capable of capturing the turbulence- and buoyancy-induced coolant mixing across the neighboring channels.

Shaver, Dillon R.

204

Natural convection in a uniformly heated pool

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To prevent reactor vessel failure from molten corium relocation to the reactor vessel lower head in the event of a core meltdown accident, the establishment of a coolable configuration has been proposed by flooding the reactor cavity with water. In Ref. 3, it was shown that for the heavy-water new production reactor (NPW-HWR) design, this strategy (e.g., the rejection of decay heat to a containment decay heat removal system by boiling of water in the reactor cavity) could keep the reactor vessel temperature below failure limits. The analysis of Ref. 3 was performed with the COMMIX-IAR/P computer code and showed that natural convection in the molten-corium pool was the dominant mechanism of heat transfer from the pool to the wall of the reactor vessel lower head. COMMIX is a general-purpose thermal-hydraulics code based on finite differencing by the first-order upwind scheme. To determine whether COMMIX adequately predicts natural convection in a pool heated by a uniform heat source, in Ref. 4, the experiments of free convection in a semicircular cavity of Jahn and Reineke were analyzed with COMMIX in Ref. 5. It was found that the Nusselt number predicted by COMMIX was within the spread of the experimental measurements. In the COMMIX analysis of Ref. 5, the semicircular cavity was treated as symmetric. The objective of this paper was to extend the COMMIX validation analysis of Ref. 5 by removing the assumption of symmetry and expanding the analysis from the highest Rayxpanding the analysis from the highest Rayleigh number of the experiments of Ref. 4 to the highest Rayleigh number that leads to a steady state

205

Pattern formation without heating in an evaporative convection experiment

We present an evaporation experiment in a single fluid layer. When latent heat associated to the evaporation is large enough, the heat flow through the free surface of the layer generates temperature gradients that can destabilize the conductive motionless state giving rise to convective cellular structures without any external heating. The sequence of convective patterns obtained here without heating, is similar to that obtained in B\\'enard-Marangoni convection. This work p...

Mancini, Hector; Maza, Diego

2003-01-01

206

Forced-convective vitrification with liquid cryogens.

Cell cryopreservation by vitrification generally requires using vitrification solutions with high concentrations of cryoprotectants (CPAs), which are toxic and induce osmotic stresses associated with the addition and removal of CPAs. To increase the cooling rate and reduce the CPA concentration required for vitrification, this study proposed an innovative approach, named forced-convective vitrification with liquid cryogens, in which liquid oxygen at a temperature below its boiling point (LOX(bbp)) was used as the cryogen to reduce the generation of insulating bubbles of gaseous oxygen and the sample was subjected to a constant velocity to remove insulation bubbles from the sample. Results show that changing the cryogen from liquid nitrogen at its boiling temperature (LN(abp)) to LOX(bbp), increasing the sample velocity and reducing the test solution volume increased the cooling rate and thereby decreased the CPA concentration required for vitrification. Using the same velocity (1.2 m/s), the cooling rate achieved with LOX(bbp) was 2.3-fold greater than that achieved with LN(abp). With LOX(bbp), the increase in the sample velocity from 0.2 to 1.2 m/s enhanced the cooling rate by 1.9 times. With LOX(bbp), a velocity of 1.2m/s and a test solution volume of 1.73 ?l, the CPA concentration required for vitrification decreased to 25%. These results indicate that the new approach described here can reduce the CPA concentration required for vitrification, and thus decreases the toxicity and osmotic stresses associated with adding and removing the CPA. PMID:23545291

Lyu, Shaw-Ruey; Huang, Jen-Hung; Shih, Wei-Hung; Chen, Yung-Jiun; Hsieh, Wen-Hsin

2013-06-01

207

Analysis of laminar forced convection condensation within thin porous coatings

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of laminar forced convection on enhanced filmwise condensation within thin inclined porous coatings is numerically investigated. The model simulates two-dimensional condensation within very permeable and highly conductive porous substrates. The Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model is utilized to describe the flowfield within the porous layer while classical boundary-layer equations are employed in the pure condensate region. The numerical results document the dependence of the temperature field and the heat transfer rate on the governing parameters such as the Reynolds number, the Rayleigh number, the Darcy number, the Jakob number, the Prandtl number, as well as the porous coating thickness and effective thermal conductivity. The results of this study provide valuable fundamental predictions of enhanced film condensation that can be used in a number of practical thermal engineering applications. 28 refs.

Renken, K.J.; Carneiro, M.J.; Meechan, K. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States))

1994-04-01

208

Behavior of bubble in subcooled boiling with forced convection, 2

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this research is to observe the bubble behavior in subcooled boiling with forced convection and to investigate the conditions of heaving test with a heater which initiates isolated bubbles and with high speed motion photography. The observation was made at three inlet subcooling of 15, 30 and 45 K with pressure of 0.3 MPa, mass flux of 1000 kg/m2ˇs, heat flux of 35 kW/m2. At inlet subcooling of 15 K, bubble velocity is nearly constant in the field of visions for upstream and downstream area. But at the higher subcooling, bubble velocity varies greatly and bubble collapse in the camera field. (author)

209

Multiscale convection in a geodynamo simulation with uniform heat flux along the outer boundary

is generally expected that Earth's magnetic field, which is generated by convecting liquid metal within its core, will substantially alter that convection through the action of Lorentz forces. In most dynamo simulations, however, Lorentz forces do very little to change convective flow, which is predominantly fine-scaled. An important exception to this observation is in dynamo models that employ uniform heat flux boundary conditions, rather than the usual uniform temperature conditions, in which multiscale convection is observed. We investigate the combined influence of thermal boundary conditions and magnetic fields using four simulations: two dynamos and two nonmagnetic models, with either uniform temperature or heat flux fixed at the outer boundary. Of the four, only the fixed-heat-flux dynamo simulation produces multiscale convective flow patterns. Comparison between the models suggests that the fixed-flux dynamo generates large patches of strong azimuthal magnetic field that suppress small-scale convective motions. By allowing temperature to vary along the outer boundary, the fixed-flux dynamo generates stronger azimuthal flow and, in turn, stronger magnetic field, and the resulting Lorentz forces alter the nature of convective flow. Extrapolation of the analyses presented here suggests that magnetic fields may also suppress small-scale convection in the Earth's core.

Matsui, Hiroaki; King, Eric; Buffett, Bruce

2014-08-01

210

Mixed convection in a horizontal porous duct with a sudden expansion and local heating from below

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are reported for an experimental and numerical study of forced and mixed convective heat transfer in a liquid-saturated, horizontal porous duct. The cross section of the duct has a sudden expansion with a heated region on the lower surface downstream and adjacent to the expansion. Calculated and measured Nusselt numbers for 0.1 1.5 and Ra/Pe1.5. Calculated Nusselt numbers are very close to those for the bottom-heated flat duct, and this result has several important implications for convective heat and mass transfer in geophysical systems and porous matrix heat exchangers

211

Experimental and CFD analysis is conducted in order to establish effect of geometrical fin parameters for natural convection heat transfer from vertical rectangular fin arrays.Natural convective heat transfer from rectangular vertical plates has been reviewed. Study revealed that most of the work was carried out considering various configurations. Experimental work carried on steady state natural convection heat transfer from vertical rectangular fins made of aluminum. Experim...

Daund, V. S.; Palande, D. D.

2014-01-01

212

Laminar convective heat transfer of non-Newtonian nanofluids with constant wall temperature

Nanofluids are obtained by dispersing homogeneously nanoparticles into a base fluid. Nanofluids often exhibit higher heat transfer rate in comparison with the base fluid. In the present study, forced convection heat transfer under laminar flow conditions was investigated experimentally for three types of non-Newtonian nanofluids in a circular tube with constant wall temperature. CMC solution was used as the base fluid and ?-Al2O3, TiO2 and CuO nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed to create nanodispersions of different concentrations. Nanofluids as well as the base fluid show shear thinning (pseudoplastic) rheological behavior. Results show that the presence of nanoparticles increases the convective heat transfer of the nanodispersions in comparison with the base fluid. The convective heat transfer enhancement is more significant when both the Peclet number and the nanoparticle concentration are increased. The increase in convective heat transfer is higher than the increase caused by the augmentation of the effective thermal conductivity.

Hojjat, M.; Etemad, S. Gh.; Bagheri, R.; Thibault, J.

2011-02-01

213

Convective heat transfer in a closed two-phase thermosyphon

A numerical analysis of heat transfer processes and hydrodynamics in a two-phase closed thermosyphon in a fairly wide range of variation of governing parameters has been investigated. A mathematical model is formulated based on the laws of mass conservation, momentum and energy in dimensionless variables "stream function - vorticity vector velocity - temperature". The analysis of the modes of forced and mixed convection for different values of Reynolds number and heat flows in the evaporation zone, the possibility of using two-phase thermosyphon for cooling gas turbine blades, when the heat is coming from the turbine blades to the thermosyphon is recycled a secondary refrigerant has been studied with different values of the centrifugal velocity. Nusselet Number, streamlines, velocity, temperature fields and temperature profile has been calculated during the investigation.

Al-Ani, M. A.

2014-08-01

214

Heat transfer by natural convection in an internally heated reactor materials melt. Rev. 0

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report is structured as follows: Heat flux calculations and estimates for In-Vessel Retention (IVR); Rayleigh-Benard convection and the Rayleigh number (criterion); Free convection in the horizontal layer of a liquid which is heated by internal heating sources, and a modified Rayleigh criterion; and Turbulent convection at the reactor vessel bottom during IVR. (P.A.)

215

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The numerical solution of flow and heat transfer for steady and transient laminar mixed convection near a vertical uniformly heated surface exposed to a horizontal cross-flow is presented. The transients considered include the simultaneous initiation of flow and heating and the time-varying flow generated by starting or stopping forced convection with the surface heating condition unchanged. The partial differential equations describing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy were solved in their time-dependent forms by an explicit finite-difference technique. Calculations were performed for fluids with Prandtl numbers of 0.733 and 6.7, nominally air and water. During both steady and transient circumstances, the effects of the horizontal forced flow were dominant near the vertical leading edge, whereas natural convection dictated the flow at large values of the horizontal coordinate. The heat transfer coefficient during mixed convection was significantly higher than that with either forced or free convection alone. During simultaneous starting of flow and heating, the time to reach steady state decreased with increase in cross-flow velocity. For the transients initiated by suddenly imposing a horizontal forced flow on an existing natural convection flow, the local temperature and vertical velocity were found to undershoot before reaching their respective steady-state values. The overshoot in heat transfer coefficient in such situations was significant for fluids with smaller Prandtl number. The transient initiated by stopping the horizontal flow during mixed convection was associated with overshoot in both vertical component of velocity and local fluid temperature

216

Transient natural convection in heated inclined tubes

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To simulate natural convection flow patterns in directionally drilled wellbores, experiments and analyses were conducted for a circular tube with length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio of 36 at angles of 0{degree}, 20{degree}, and 35{degree} from the vertical. The tube was heated at the bottom and cooled at the top, and the insulation was adjusted so that approximately one- to two-thirds of the power dissipated was transferred through the tube wall to the surroundings. An aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol was employed as the working fluid in order to obtain low Rayleigh numbers corresponding to conditions in geothermal wellbores. Results were primarily qualitative but were useful in providing insight into the phenomena occurring. Steady-state temperature distributions were measured for the three orientations and for several heating rates to demonstrate the effects of tube angle and Rayleigh number. transient measurements of the temperature distribution were obtained during cooling from a higher temperature without a heat source to calibrate the heat losses. With the electrical heat source, temporal data were taken during heating to examine the approach to steady state. Quasi-steady flow conditions were approached rapidly, but the overall time constant of the apparatus was of the order of one-third of a day. Predictions with the three-dimensional TEMPEST code were first tested by comparison with simple conduction analyses. Comparison with actual data showed good agreement of the predicted temperature levels for the maximum inclination, 35{degree}, and slightly poorer agreement for the other limit, a vertical tube. Trends of temperature level and Nusselt number with heating rate or Rayleigh number were reasonable, but the predicted variation of the end Nusselt number versus inclination was in the opposite direction from the experiment. 75 refs., 20 figs., 8 tabs.

McEligot, D.M. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Middletown, RI (USA). Oceanic Div.); Denbow, D.A. (Software AG of North America, Inc., Lakewood, CO (USA)); Murphy, H.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1990-05-01

217

Turbulent forced convective flow in an an-isothermal channel

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of variable viscosity effects on momentum and heat transfer of a non-isothermal turbulent forced convective flow is studied using thermal large-eddy simulation (LES). LES of bi-periodic channel flow with significant heat transfer at a low Mach number was performed to study the modulation in the near-wall turbulence structure due to anisotropic viscosity. The temperature ratio (R? = Thot/Tcold) is varied from 1.01 to 5 to study the isolated effect of variable viscosity with (Thot) and (Tcold) as a wall temperature. It is shown that average and turbulent fields undergo significant changes in a broad range of Reynolds number, compared to isothermal flow with constant viscosity, we observe enhanced turbulence on the cold side of the channel, characterized by locally lower viscosity whereas a decrease of turbulent kinetic energy is found at the hot wall. The turbulent structures via H criteria of high vorticity shows very short and densely populated vortices near cold wall whereas long streaky structure or large elongated vortices at the hot wall. Q invariant totally eradicate all the streaky structure at the hot wall as a consequence of re-laminarization. To further clarify this issue spectral study is conducted that reveals complete suppression of turbulence at the hot side of the channel at large temperature ratio because no inertial zone (i.e. index of Kolmogorov scaling law is zero) is obtained on the spectra in these region. (authors)

218

Simulation of convectively forced gravity waves in comparison with SABER satellite measurements.

Gravity waves (GW) are a known coupling mechanism between lower, middle, and upper atmosphere. They are responsible for driving large scale circulations like Brewer-Dobson circulation and contribute almost 60% to the QBO of the inner tropics. Convection is the dominant source for tropical GWs, but deep convection is also one of the most difficult to understand sources of GWs. Especially, the development of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM) suffers from improvements in the parameterization of convectively forced GWs (cGWs). In this study we present the results of GW ray-tracing calculations of cGWs. For this, we used the Gravity Wave Regional Or Global RAy-tracer (GROGRAT) and the convective source scheme from Yonsei University (South Korea). Furthermore, we used MERRA heating rates, cloud data, and background data for both the calculation of the convective forcing by deep convection and for the atmospheric background of the ray-tracing calculations afterwards. Also, we compare our results with satellite measurements of squared temperature amplitudes as well as momentum flux by the SABER instrument in order to validate our findings over a 10 years period. For the comparison the observational filter of the instrument is taken into account, the influence discussed. The modulation of GW momentum flux by the background winds and in particular the influence of the QBO is investigated. GW drag at various altitudes is calculated and compared to the drag required for the forcing of the QBO.

Kalisch, Silvio; Trinh, Thai; Chun, Hye-Yeong; Ern, Manfred; Preusse, Peter; Kim, Young-Ha; Eckermann, Steven; Riese, Martin

2013-04-01

219

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To continue with the equipment of the thermal hydraulics laboratory, it was designed thermal and mechanically an heat exchanger, to satisfy the requirements to have circuit that allows to carry out heat transfer experiments. The heat exchanger was manufactured and proven in the workshops of the Prototypes and Models Management, and it is expected that to obtain the foreseen results once completely installed the circuit, in the laboratory of thermal hydraulics of the Management of Nuclear Systems. (Author)

220

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on an experimental study on transitional heat transfer of water flow in a heated vertical tube under natural circulation conditions. In the experiments the local and average heat transfer coefficients were obtained. The experimental data were compared with the predictions by a forced flow correlation available in the literature. The comparisons show that the Nusselt number value in the fully developed region is about 30% lower than the predictions by the forced flow correlation due to flow laminarization in the layer induced by co-current bulk natural circulation and free convection. By using the Rayleigh number Ra to represent the influence of free convection on heat transfer, the empirical correlations for the calculation of local and average heat transfer behavior in the tube at natural circulation have been developed. The empirical correlations are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the experimental results, the effect of the thermal entry-length behavior on heat transfer design in the tube under natural circulation was evaluated

221

Numerical Simulations of Heat Explosion With Convection In Porous Media

In this paper we study the interaction between natural convection and heat explosion in porous media. The model consists of the heat equation with a nonlinear source term describing heat production due to an exothermic chemical reaction coupled with the Darcy law. Stationary and oscillating convection regimes and oscillating heat explosion are observed. The models with quasi-stationary and unstationary Darcy equation are compared.

Allali, Karam; Bikany, Fouad; Taik, Ahmed; Volpert, Vitaly

2013-01-01

222

Endwall convective heat transfer for bluff bodies

The endwall heat transfer characteristics of forced flow past bluff bodies have been investigated using liquid crystal thermography (LCT). The bluff body is placed in a rectangular channel with both its ends attached to the endwalls. The Reynolds number varies from 50,000 to 100,000. In this study, a single bluff body and two bluff bodies arranged in tandem are considered. Due to the formation of horseshoe vortices, the heat transfer is enhanced appreciably for both cases. However, for the ca...

Wang, Lei; Salewski, Mirko; Sunde?n, Bengt; Borg, Andreas; Abrahamsson, Hans

2012-01-01

223

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A numerical investigation was conducted on the transient behavior of a hydrodynamically, fully developed, laminar flow of power-law fluids in the thermally developing entrance region of circular ducts taking into account the effect of viscous dissipation but neglecting the effect of axial conduction. In this regard, the unsteady state thermal energy equation was solved by using a finite difference method, whereas the steady state thermal energy equation without wall heat flux was solved analytically as the initial condition of the former. The effects of the power-law index and wall heat flux on the local Nusselt number and thermal entrance length were investigated. Moreover, the local Nusselt number of steady state conditions was correlated in terms of the power-law index and wall heat flux and compared with literature data, which were obtained by an analytic solution for Newtonian fluids. Furthermore, a relationship was proposed for the thermal entrance length. (author)

Dehkordi, Asghar Molaei; Mohammadi, Ali Asghar [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9465, Tehran (Iran)

2009-04-15

224

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A numerical investigation was conducted on the transient behavior of a hydrodynamically, fully developed, laminar flow of power-law fluids in the thermally developing entrance region of circular ducts taking into account the effect of viscous dissipation but neglecting the effect of axial conduction. In this regard, the unsteady state thermal energy equation was solved by using a finite difference method, whereas the steady state thermal energy equation without wall heat flux was solved analytically as the initial condition of the former. The effects of the power-law index and wall heat flux on the local Nusselt number and thermal entrance length were investigated. Moreover, the local Nusselt number of steady state conditions was correlated in terms of the power-law index and wall heat flux and compared with literature data, which were obtained by an analytic solution for Newtonian fluids. Furthermore, a relationship was proposed for the thermal entrance length

225

Experimental investigation had been conducted to study the steady-state forced convection heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of the hydrodynamic fully-developed turbulent flow in the air-cooled horizontal equilateral triangular ducts, which were fabricated with the same length and hydraulic diameter. Inner surfaces of the ducts were fixed with square ribs with different side lengths of 6.35, 9.525 and 12.7mm, respectively, and the uniform separation between the centre lines of two adjacent ribs was kept constant at 57.15mm. Both the triangular ducts and the ribs were fabricated with duralumin. The experiments were performed with the hydraulic diameter based Reynolds number ranged from 3100 to 11300. The entire inner wall of the duct was heated uniformly, while the outer surface was thermally insulated. It was found that the Darcy friction factor of the duct was increasing rather linearly with the rib size, and forced convection could be enhanced by an internally ribbed surface. However, the heat transfer enhancement was not proportional to the rib size but a maximum forced convection heat transfer augmentation was obtained at the smallest rib of 6.35mm. Non-dimensional expressions for the determination of the steady-state heat transfer coefficient and Darcy friction factor of the equilateral triangular ducts, which were internally fabricated with uniformly spaced square ribs of different sizes, were also developed.

Leung, C. W.; Chan, T. L.; Chen, S.

226

Theoretical study of mixed convection effects on heat transfer to steam in rod bundle geometry

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under certain small break LOCA scenarios, the nuclear reactor core is expected to uncover partially under a slow quasi-steady boiloff transient. In the uncovered rod bundle region, heat is transferred to low flow superheated steam by convection and radiation. Since this is the only region having potential to give thermal damage to fuel during an accident, heat transfer and fluid flow conditions need to be determined. In this steam cooling region, heat transfer is expected to be accomplished by laminar flow. However, experimental results indicated higher heat transfer rates than those expected for laminar flow below a Reynolds number equal to 2000. The possible cause for high heat transfer coefficients may be transition from forced to mixed (forced and free) convection. This project is a theoretical study of the buoyancy effects on heat transfer to superheated low flow steam flowing upward in rod bundle geometry

227

Laminar forced convection and flow characteristics for the multiple plate porous insulation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A numerical study of steady state flow and heat transfer has been conducted for the multiple plate porous insulation used in the reactor pressure vessels of 'Magnox' nuclear power stations. The insulation pack studied, consisting of seven dimpled stainless steel sheets and six plane stainless steel sheets, was of the type installed in the Sizewell A plant. In the reactor application the fluid within the insulation pack is carbon dioxide at 20 bar but in the numerical investigation the insulation performance was examined in air at lower pressures. A three-dimensional computation model with a periodicity condition was used in the numerical investigation. Result was obtained for laminar forced convection with constant wall temperatures. Numerical results are presented to show the flow and thermal fields in a single flow passage. In forced convection it is shown that mid-dimple 'peaking' of the Nusselt number distribution may be related directly to the convective influence of distorted velocity profiles

228

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the local condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC) of steam in the presence of air or helium flowing downward inside a 46-mm-i.d. vertical tube. The gas-steam mixture flow rate was measured with a calibrated vortex flowmeter before it entered the 2.54-m-long test condenser. Cooling water flow rate in an annulus around the tube was measure with a calibrated rotameter. Temperatures of the cooling water, the gas-steam mixture, and the tube inside and outside surfaces were measured at 0.3-m intervals in the test condenser. Inlet and exit pressures and temperatures of the gas-steam mixture and of the cooling water were also measured. The local heat flux was obtained from the slope of the coolant axial temperature profile and the coolant mass flow rate. It was found that for the same mass fraction of the noncondensable gas, compared with air, helium has a more inhibiting effect on the heat transfer, but for the same molar ratio, air was found to be more inhibiting. An application where there is important is the proposed advanced passive boiling water reactor design (Simplified Boiling Water Reactor), which utilizes the isolation condenser as a main component of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS)

229

Dielectrophoretic force-driven thermal convection in annular geometry

The thermal convection driven by the dielectrophoretic force is investigated in an- nular geometry under microgravity conditions. A radial temperature gradient and a radial alternating electric field are imposed on a dielectric fluid that fills the gap of two concentric infinite-length cylinders. The resulting dielectric force is regarded as thermal buoyancy with a radial effective gravity. This electric gravity varies in space and may change its sign depending on the temperature gradient and...

Yoshikawa, Harunori; Crumeyrolle, Olivier; Mutabazi, Innocent

2013-01-01

230

Effects of radiative heat transfer on MHD fully developed mixed convective flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid through a vertical channel with asymmetric heating of the walls in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field has been studied. An exact solution of the governing equations has been obtained in closed form. It is observed that the velocity field is greatly influenced by the radiative heat transfer as well as bouyancy forces. The induced magnetic f...

Ruma Patra; Sanatan Das; . PROF. RABINDRA NATH JANA

2014-01-01

231

In this article, laminar flow-forced convective heat transfer of Al2O3/water nanofluid in a triangular duct under constant wall temperature condition is investigated numerically. In this investigation, the effects of parameters, such as nanoparticles diameter, concentration, and Reynolds number on the enhancement of nanofluids heat transfer is studied. Besides, the comparison between nanofluid and pure fluid heat transfer is achieved in this article. Sometimes, because of pressure drop limita...

Zeinali Heris, Saeed; Noie, Seyyed Hossein; Talaii, Elham; Sargolzaei, Javad

2011-01-01

232

Solution of heat removal from nuclear reactors by natural convection

This paper summarizes the basis for the solution of heat removal by natural convection from both conventional nuclear reactors and reactors with fuel flowing coolant (such as reactors with molten fluoride salts MSR).The possibility of intensification of heat removal through gas lift is focused on. It might be used in an MSR (Molten Salt Reactor) for cleaning the salt mixture of degassed fission products and therefore eliminating problems with iodine pitting. Heat removal by natural convection...

Zitek Pavel; Valenta Vaclav

2014-01-01

233

Analysis of natural convection in volumetrically-heated melt pools

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results of series of studies on natural convection heat transfer in decay-heated core melt pools which form in a reactor lower plenum during the progression of a core meltdown accident are described. The emphasis is on modelling and prediction of turbulent heat transfer characteristics of natural convection in a liquid pool with an internal energy source. Methods of computational fluid dynamics, including direct numerical simulation, were applied for investigation. Refs, figs, tabs.

Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

1996-12-01

234

SCALE ANALYSIS OF CONVECTIVE MELTING WITH INTERNAL HEAT GENERATION

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using a scale analysis approach, we model phase change (melting) for pure materials which generate internal heat for small Stefan numbers (approximately one). The analysis considers conduction in the solid phase and natural convection, driven by internal heat generation, in the liquid regime. The model is applied for a constant surface temperature boundary condition where the melting temperature is greater than the surface temperature in a cylindrical geometry. We show the time scales in which conduction and convection heat transfer dominate.

John Crepeau

2011-03-01

235

Convective boiling heat transfer of water in the transition region

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental study of forced convective boiling heat transfer for upflow of water in a circular tube has been performed using a heat transfer system with temperature-controlled indirect Joule heating. In this way, complete boiling curves from incipience of boiling to film boiling could be measured including the transition boiling regime. Usually, the test were performed in a quasi-steady mode by increasing the set-point wall temperature average at a constant time rate. The main body of the results covers the pressure range from 0.1 to 1.0 MPa, mass flux range from 25 to 200 kg/(m2s) and inlet subcooling from 5 to 30 K. The empirical data in the transition region were correlated in terms of a heat flux/surface superheat relationship that was normalized by the maximum heat flux and its corresponding wall superheat, respectively, to anchor the transition boiling curve to its low temperature limit. The exponent n in this power law relation was assumed to depend on the ratio of phase densities, normalized wall superheat and inlet subcooling as well as a dimensionless mass flux with a rms error of 17.6 % if compared to 1094 data points within the ranges of system parameters as noted above. (author)

236

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mechanistic model for forced convective transition boiling has been developed to investigate transition boiling mechanisms and to predict transition boiling heat flux realistically. This model is based on a postulated multi-stage boiling process occurring during the passage time of the elongated vapor blanket specified at a critical heat flux (CHF) condition. Between the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and the departure from film boiling (DFB) points, the boiling heat transfer is established through three boiling stages, namely, the macrolayer evaporation and dryout governed by nucleate boiling in a thin liquid film and the unstable film boiling characterized by the frequent touches of the interface and the heated wall. The total heat transfer rates after the DNB is weighted by the time fractions of each stage, which are defined as the ratio of each stage duration to the vapor blanket passage time. The model predictions are compared with some available experimental transition boiling data. The parametric effects of pressure, mass flux, inlet subcooling on the transition boiling heat transfer are also investigated. From these comparisons, it can be seen that this model can identify the crucial mechanisms of forced convective transition boiling, and that the transition boiling heat fluxes including the maximum heat flux and the minimum film boiling heat flux are well predicted at low qualities/high pressures near 10 bar. In future, this model will be improved in In future, this model will be improved in the unstable film boiling stage and generalized for high quality and low pressure situations. (orig.)

237

Time evolution simulation of heat removal in a small water tank by natural convection

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the cooling modes for any source of heat such as in a shutdown nuclear core is the natural convection. The design specifications of any cooling pool can only be done when the removal heat rate and the corresponding mass flow rate is reasonably established. In our simulation scheme, we assumed that the body forces acting in the cubic water cell are: the weight, the drag force and the integrated pressure forces on the horizontal surfaces, the viscosity shear forces on the vertical surfaces and also a special viscosity drag force due to the mass dislocation along a Bernoulli type current tube outside the motive region. For a suitable time step, the uprising convection velocity is determined by an implicit and also by an explicit solution algorithm. The resulting differential equation depends on updating specific mass, dynamic viscosity and constant pressure heat coefficient with the last known temperature in the cell that absorbed heat. Numerical calculation software was performed using MATLABs technical computing language and then applied for a heat generation plate simulating a spent fuel assembler from a shutdown nuclear core. The results show time evolution of convection, terminal velocity and water temperature distribution. Pool dimension as well as pool level decrement are also determined for various air exhausting system conditions and heat rate of the spent fuel plate being cooled. (author)

Freitas, Carlos Alberto de, E-mail: carlos.freitas1950@hotmail.com [Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil); Jachic, Joao; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes, E-mail: jjachic@ien.gov.br, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2013-07-01

238

Time evolution simulation of heat removal in a small water tank by natural convection

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the cooling modes for any source of heat such as in a shutdown nuclear core is the natural convection. The design specifications of any cooling pool can only be done when the removal heat rate and the corresponding mass flow rate is reasonably established. In our simulation scheme, we assumed that the body forces acting in the cubic water cell are: the weight, the drag force and the integrated pressure forces on the horizontal surfaces, the viscosity shear forces on the vertical surfaces and also a special viscosity drag force due to the mass dislocation along a Bernoulli type current tube outside the motive region. For a suitable time step, the uprising convection velocity is determined by an implicit and also by an explicit solution algorithm. The resulting differential equation depends on updating specific mass, dynamic viscosity and constant pressure heat coefficient with the last known temperature in the cell that absorbed heat. Numerical calculation software was performed using MATLABs technical computing language and then applied for a heat generation plate simulating a spent fuel assembler from a shutdown nuclear core. The results show time evolution of convection, terminal velocity and water temperature distribution. Pool dimension as well as pool level decrement are also determined for various air exhausting system conditions and heat rate of the spent fuel plate being cooled. (author)

239

Enhancement of natural convection heat transfer rate by the improved heated surface

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cooling system of water in spent fuel pit without electricity power is developed. The cooling system has a air radiator. The radiator size would be too large, because natural convection heat transfer is low. Therefore, enhancement of natural convection heat transfer is necessary. We applied thermal splay to heated surface, and found that thermal splay enhanced natural convection heat transfer performance. The material of thermal splay is aluminum bronze and polyester powder. Using this result, radiator size could be reduced. (author)

240

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermo fluid dynamic characteristics of natural convection flow depend strongly on thermal boundary condition such as the spatial and temporal variation of heat flux on the pool wall boundaries. In general the natural convection heat transfer phenomena involving the bottom heat generation are represented by the Rayleigh number, Ra, which quantifies the bottom heat source and hence the strength of the buoyancy force. This work focuses on natural convection in which the density gradient is due to a temperature gradient and the body force is gravitational. The presence of a fluid density gradient in a gravitational field does not ensure the existence of natural convection currents, however, in an apparatus enclosed by two horizontal plates of different temperature. The temperature of the lower plate exceeds that of the upper plate, and the density decreases in the direction of the gravitational force. The LIDO (Liquid Internal Dynamics Operation) tests are conducted in a horizontal circular layer 500 mm in diameter and 220 mm in height using fluid, whose thermophysical properties are typified by the Prandtl number, Pr. The tests cover the range of 3x105 10 and 0.02 < Pr < 2.22 Tests are conducted with air, water and Wood's metal (Pb-Bi-Sn-Cd) as simulant to determine the Nusselt number, Nu. The upper and side walls are cooled, while the lower wall is heated at uniform temperatures

241

A nonsimilar boundary layer analysis is presented for the problem of mixed convection in power-law type non-Newtonian fluids along a vertical plate with power-law surface heat flux distribution. The mixed convection regime is divided into two regions, namely, the forced convection dominated regime and the free convection dominated regime. The two solutions are matched. Numerical results are presented for the details of the velocity and temperature fields. A discussion is provided for the effect of viscosity index on the surface heat transfer rate.

Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy; Kumari, M.

242

Analysis of forced convective transient boiling by homogeneous model of two-phase flow

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transient forced convective boiling is of practical importance in relation to the accident analysis of nuclear reactor etc. For large length-to-diameter ratio, the transient boiling characteristics are predicted by transient two-phase flow calculations. Based on homogeneous model of two-phase flow, the transient forced convective boiling for power and flow transients are analysed. Analytical expressions of various parameters of transient two-phase flow have been obtained for several simple cases of power and flow transients. Based on these results, heat flux, velocity and time at transient CHF condition are predicted analytically for step and exponential power increases, and step, exponential and linear velocity decreases. The effects of various parameters on heat flux, velocity and time at transient CHF condition have been clarified. Numerical approach combined with analytical method is proposed for more complicated cases. Solution method for pressure transient are also described. (author)

243

Laminar forced convection inside externally finned tubes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analytical solutions are obtained for thermal entry region problems inside ducts with axially varying heat transFer coefficient, by making use of the ideas in the recently advanced generalized integral transform technique. The analysis is applied to stepwise variations of Biot number that simulate intermitent rows of external fins. Numerical results are obtained for different fin arrangements, in a systematic manner, so as to critically examine the relative marits of wider and/or more numerous fin rows. (author)

244

Analytical Solution of Forced-Convective Boundary-Layer Flow over a Flat Plate

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this letter, the problem of forced convection heat transfer over a horizontal flat plate is investigated by employing the Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM). The series solution of the nonlinear differential equations governing on the problem is developed. Comparison between results obtained and those of numerical solution shows excellent agreement, illustrating the effectiveness of the method. The solution obtained by ADM gives an explicit expression of temperature distribution and velocity distribution over a flat plate.

Mirgolbabaei, H.; Barari, Amin

2010-01-01

245

Abstract: The entropy generation due to steady laminar forced convection fluid flow through parallel plates microchannel is investigated numerically. The effect of Knudsen, Reynolds, Prandtl, Eckert numbers and the nondimensional temperature difference on entropy generation within the microchannel is discussed. The fraction of the entropy generation due to heat transfer to the total entropy generation within the microchannel is studied in terms of Bejan number. The entropy generation within t...

Mohammad Al-Nimr; Mohammad Abuzaid; Osamah Haddad

2004-01-01

246

Sedimentation and convective boiling heat transfer of CuO-water/ethylene glycol nanofluids

The convective boiling characteristics of dilute dispersions of CuO nanoparticles in water/ethylene glycol as a base fluid were studied at different operating conditions of (heat fluxes up to 174 kW m-2, mass fluxes range of 353-1,059 kg m-2 s-1 and sub-cooling level of 343, 353 and 363 K) inside the annular duct. The convective boiling heat transfer coefficients of nanofluids in different concentrations (vol%) of nanoparticles (0.5, 1, and 1.5) were also experimentally quantified. Results demonstrated the significant augmentation of heat transfer coefficient inside the region with forced convection dominant mechanism and deterioration of heat transfer coefficient in region with nucleate boiling dominant heat transfer mechanism. Due to the scale formation around the heating section, fouling resistance was also experimentally measured. Experimental data showed that with increasing the heat and mass fluxes, the heat transfer coefficient and fouling resistance dramatically increase and rate of bubble formation clearly increases. Obtained results were then compared to some well-known correlations. Results of these comparisons demonstrated that experimental results represent the good agreement with those of obtained by the correlations. Consequently, Chen correlation is recommended for estimating the convective flow boiling heat transfer coefficient of dilute CuO-water/ethylene glycol based nanofluids.

Sarafraz, M. M.; Hormozi, F.; Kamalgharibi, M.

2014-09-01

247

Natural convective heat transfer from short inclined cylinders

Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Short Inclined Cylinders examines a heat transfer situation of significant, practical importance not adequately dealt with in existing textbooks or in any widely available review papers. Specifically, the book introduces the reader to recent studies of natural convection from short cylinders mounted on a flat insulated base where there is an exposed upper surface. The authors considers the effects of the cylinder cross-sectional shape, the cylinder inclination angle, and the length-to-cross sectional size of the cylinder. Both numerical and experimental studies are discussed and correlation equations based on the results of these studies are reviewed. This book is ideal for professionals involved with thermal management and related systems, researchers, and graduate students in the field of natural convective heat transfer, instructors in graduate level courses in convective heat transfer.

Oosthuizen, Patrick H

2014-01-01

248

Details of Exact Low Prandtl Number Boundary-Layer Solutions for Forced and For Free Convection

A detailed report is given of exact (numerical) solutions of the laminar-boundary-layer equations for the Prandtl number range appropriate to liquid metals (0.003 to 0.03). Consideration is given to the following situations: (1) forced convection over a flat plate for the conditions of uniform wall temperature and uniform wall heat flux, and (2) free convection over an isothermal vertical plate. Tabulations of the new solutions are given in detail. Results are presented for the heat-transfer and shear-stress characteristics; temperature and velocity distributions are also shown. The heat-transfer results are correlated in terms of dimensionless parameters that vary only slightly over the entire liquid-metal range. Previous analytical and experimental work on low Prandtl number boundary layers is surveyed and compared with the new exact solutions.

Sparrow, E. M.; Gregg, J. L.

1959-01-01

249

Predictions of laminar natural convection in heated cavities

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several examples of laminar, natural convection in heated cavities are discussed with illustrative calculations. These include convection in a square cavity at high Rayleigh number; in a narrow cavity at moderate aspect ratio; in a rectangular cavity heated from below; in a trapezoidal cavity, and in a rectangular cavity containing a conducting obstruction. The steady equations for the velocity, pressure and temperature are solved in the Boussinesq approximation, using a standard Galerkin formulation of the finite-element method. (author)

250

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental study was performed to obtain local fluid velocity and temperature measurements in the mixed (combined free and forced) convection regime for specific flow coastdown transients. A brief investigation of steady-state flows for the purely free-convection regime was also completed. The study was performed using an electrically heated 2 x 6 rod bundle contained in a flow housing. In addition a transient data base was obtained for evaluating the COBRA-WC thermal-hydraulic computer program

251

Turbulent opposing mixed convection heat transfer in vertical flat channel with symmetrical heating

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present the results on experimental and numerical investigation of the local turbulent mixed convection heat transfer in a vertical (?=90 degrees) flat channel with opposing flows (heated walls with down word oriented forced flow). The experiments were performed in air flow of different pressures, from 0.1 to 1 MPa, in the range of Re from 4*103 to 5.6*104 and Grq up to 1*1011 for symmetrical heating of the walls. Analysis showed that at higher pressures for Re numbers below 8000 heat transfer variation along the channel takes non monotonous character. Numerical two-dimentional simulations were performed for the same channel and for the same conditions as in experiments using FLUENT 6.0 code and low Reynolds k-? turbulence model. Modelling results show that for regimes with not monotonous variation of heat transfer along the channel, upward oriented reverse air flow at the heated wall is existing when in the core the main (forced) flow is downward oriented. (author)

252

Convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients for individual human body segments

Human thermal physiological and comfort models will soon be able to simulate both transient and spatial inhomogeneities in the thermal environment. With this increasing detail comes the need for anatomically specific convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients for the human body. The present study used an articulated thermal manikin with 16 body segments (head, chest, back, upper arms, forearms, hands, pelvis, upper legs, lower legs, feet) to generate radiative heat transfer coefficients as well as natural- and forced-mode convective coefficients. The tests were conducted across a range of wind speeds from still air to 5.0 m/s, representing atmospheric conditions typical of both indoors and outdoors. Both standing and seated postures were investigated, as were eight different wind azimuth angles. The radiative heat transfer coefficient measured for the whole-body was 4.5 W/m2 per K for both the seated and standing cases, closely matching the generally accepted whole-body value of 4.7 W/m2 per K. Similarly, the whole-body natural convection coefficient for the manikin fell within the mid-range of previously published values at 3.4 and 3.3 W/m2 per K when standing and seated respectively. In the forced convective regime, heat transfer coefficients were higher for hands, feet and peripheral limbs compared to the central torso region. Wind direction had little effect on convective heat transfers from individual body segments. A general-purpose forced convection equation suitable for application to both seated and standing postures indoors was hc=10.3v0.6 for the whole-body. Similar equations were generated for individual body segments in both seated and standing postures.

de Dear, R. J.; Arens, Edward; Hui, Zhang; Oguro, Masayuki

253

Solution of heat removal from nuclear reactors by natural convection

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper summarizes the basis for the solution of heat removal by natural convection from both conventional nuclear reactors and reactors with fuel flowing coolant (such as reactors with molten fluoride salts MSR.The possibility of intensification of heat removal through gas lift is focused on. It might be used in an MSR (Molten Salt Reactor for cleaning the salt mixture of degassed fission products and therefore eliminating problems with iodine pitting. Heat removal by natural convection and its intensification increases significantly the safety of nuclear reactors. Simultaneously the heat removal also solves problems with lifetime of pumps in the primary circuit of high-temperature reactors.

Zitek Pavel

2014-03-01

254

Solution of heat removal from nuclear reactors by natural convection

This paper summarizes the basis for the solution of heat removal by natural convection from both conventional nuclear reactors and reactors with fuel flowing coolant (such as reactors with molten fluoride salts MSR).The possibility of intensification of heat removal through gas lift is focused on. It might be used in an MSR (Molten Salt Reactor) for cleaning the salt mixture of degassed fission products and therefore eliminating problems with iodine pitting. Heat removal by natural convection and its intensification increases significantly the safety of nuclear reactors. Simultaneously the heat removal also solves problems with lifetime of pumps in the primary circuit of high-temperature reactors.

Zitek, Pavel; Valenta, Vaclav

2014-03-01

255

SIMULATION OF MIXED CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER USING LATTICE BOLTZMANN METHOD

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, mixed (forcednatural convective heat transfer around a heated square cylinder located inside a lid driven cavity has been studied numerically using the lattice Boltzmann method in the range of 100? Re ? 1000 with the corresponding Richardson number 0.01?Ri?10. The double-population lattice Boltzmann formulation is used as the governing equation. Two dimensional nine-velocity models are used for the computation of the velocity field while a four-velocity model is used for the computation of the temperature field. We found that the combination of nine- and four-velocity models can be applied to the calculation without losing its accuracy. The results are presented in the form of streamline and isotherm plots as well as the variation of local Nusselt number at the top surface of the heated square. The computational results demonstrate that the flow pattern, formation of vortex and also the Nusselt number are influence by the Reynolds number and Richardson number.

A. R. M. Rosdzimin

2010-12-01

256

Influence of flow with suspended particles on temperature fields and convective heat transfer

The present paper reports the results of a numerical study of forced convection heat transfer between two plates filled with particles. We study the influence of particles suspended in flows on heat transfer enhancement. We consider steady-state fluid flow between two flat horizontal parallel plates with both plates kept at the same temperature. Mono-disperse particles with low and high thermal conductivities injected at the entrance are entrained with the flow. Their effects on temperatur...

Aydin, M.; Reis, A. H.; Miguel, A. F.

2007-01-01

257

SRS reactor control rod cooling without normal forced convection cooling

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes an analytical study of the coolability of the control rods in the Savannah River site (SRS) K production reactor under conditions of loss of normal forced convection cooling. The study was performed as part of the overall safety analysis of the reactor supporting its restart. The analysis addresses the buoyancy-driven boiling flow over the control rods that occurs when forced cooling is lost. The objective of the study was to demonstrate that the control rods will remain cooled (i.e., no melting) at powers representative of those anticipated for restart of the reactor

258

Aerosol Radiative Effects on Deep Convective Clouds and Associated Radiative Forcing

The aerosol radiative effects (ARE) on the deep convective clouds are investigated by using a spectral-bin cloud-resolving model (CRM) coupled with a radiation scheme and an explicit land surface model. The sensitivity of cloud properties and the associated radiative forcing to aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA) are examined. The ARE on cloud properties is pronounced for mid-visible SSA of 0.85. Relative to the case excluding the ARE, cloud fraction and optical depth decrease by about 18% and 20%, respectively. Cloud droplet and ice particle number concentrations, liquid water path (LWP), ice water path (IWP), and droplet size decrease significantly when the ARE is introduced. The ARE causes a surface cooling of about 0.35 K and significantly high heating rates in the lower troposphere (about 0.6K/day higher at 2 km), both of which lead to a more stable atmosphere and hence weaker convection. The weaker convection and the more desiccation of cloud layers explain the less cloudiness, lower cloud optical depth, LWP and IWP, smaller droplet size, and less precipitation. The daytime-mean direct forcing induced by black carbon is about 2.2 W/sq m at the top of atmosphere (TOA) and -17.4 W/sq m at the surface for SSA of 0.85. The semi-direct forcing is positive, about 10 and 11.2 W/sq m at the TOA and surface, respectively. Both the TOA and surface total radiative forcing values are strongly negative for the deep convective clouds, attributed mostly to aerosol indirect forcing. Aerosol direct and semi-direct effects are very sensitive to SSA. Because the positive semi-direct forcing compensates the negative direct forcing at the surface, the surface temperature and heat fluxes decrease less significantly with the increase of aerosol absorption (decreasing SSA). The cloud fraction, optical depth, convective strength, and precipitation decrease with the increase of absorption, resulting from a more stable and dryer atmosphere due to enhanced surface cooling and atmospheric heating.

Fan, J.; Zhang, R.; Tao, W.-K.; Mohr, I.

2007-01-01

259

A numerical study of steady state laminar forced and free convective and radiative heat transfer in an inclined rotating rectangular duct with a centered circular tube is reported for an hydrodynamically fully developed flow. The two heat transfer mechanisms of convection and radiation are treated independently and simultaneously. The coupled equations of momentum and energy transports are solved using Gauss-Seidel iteration technique subject to given boundary constraints. A thermal boundary ...

Adegun, I. K.; Bello-ochende, F. L.

2004-01-01

260

Laminar mixed convective heat transfer in two-dimensional rectangular inclined driven cavity is studied numerically by means of a double population thermal Lattice Boltzmann method. Through the top moving lid the heat flux enters the cavity whereas it leaves the system through the bottom wall; side walls are adiabatic. The counter-slip internal energy density boundary condition, able to simulate an imposed non zero heat flux at the wall, is applied, in order to demonstrate that it can be effectively used to simulate heat transfer phenomena also in case of moving walls. Results are analyzed over a range of the Richardson numbers and tilting angles of the enclosure, encompassing the dominating forced convection, mixed convection, and dominating natural convection flow regimes. As expected, heat transfer rate increases as increases the inclination angle, but this effect is significant for higher Richardson numbers, when buoyancy forces dominate the problem; for horizontal cavity, average Nusselt number decreases with the increase of Richardson number because of the stratified field configuration.

D'Orazio, A.; Karimipour, A.; Nezhad, A. H.; Shirani, E.

2014-11-01

261

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In construction, the use of Phase Change Materials (PCM) allows the storage/release of energy from solar radiation and internal loads. The application of such materials for lightweight construction (e.g., a wood house) makes it possible to improve thermal comfort and reduce energy consumption. The heat transfer process between the wall and the indoor air is convection. In this paper, we have developed a numerical model to evaluate several convective heat transfer correlations from the literature for natural, mixed and forced convection flows. The results show that the convective heat transfer highly influences the storage/release process in case of PCM walls. For the natural convection, the numerical results are highly dependent on the correlation used and the results may vary up to 200%. In the case of mixed and forced convection flows, the higher is the velocity, the more important is the storage capacity. - Highlights: ? We study effect of inside convection correlation on energy stored in PCM wall. ? We developed a 1D conduction model for multilayer walls, with phase change material. ? Correlations have been constructed for mixed convection in all flow regimes. ? Up to 200% variation of energy stored in PCM layer, depending on convection correlation. ? Ventilation can increase the energy stored in the PCM layer.

262

An experimental investigation of forced convection flat plate solar air heater with storage material

Solar air heater (SAH) is a heating device that uses the heated air in the drying of agriculture products and many engineering applications. The purpose of the present work is to study a forced convection flat plate solar air heater with granite stone storage material bed under the climatic conditions of Egypt-Aswan. Experiments are performed at different air mass flow rates ; varying from 0.016 kg/s to 0.08 kg/s, for five hot summer days of July 2008. Hourly values of global solar radi...

Aissa Walid; El-Sallak Mostafa; Elhakem Ahmed

2012-01-01

263

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The helical coiled tube of heat exchanger is used for the evaporator of prototype fast breeder reactor 'Monju'. This report aims at the grasp of two-phase flow phenomena of forced convective boiling of water inside helical coiled tube. A transparent double tube made of the glass is used as a heat exchanger, water flows up inside helical tube and the high temperature oil flows down in the outside tube. The oscillation of the dryout point was observed, that is mainly caused by intensive nucleate boiling near the dryout point and evaporation of thin liquid film flowing along the surface. Also, the oscillation characteristics were experimentally confirmed. (author)

264

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The void fraction in a forced convective flow boiling is very important information for understanding the characteristics of the boiling two-phase flow. Consequently, many experimental investigations have been carried out to obtain the local void fraction so far, but the detail data among the whole of the test-section has not been enough. Especially, the data under subcooled condition are quite limited. In this study, the void fraction distribution in a forced convective boiling was quantitatively measured by using the thermal neutron radiography. These results were compared with several existing void fraction correlations. Although these correlations show a good agreements with experimental results under low heat flux condition, there is no suitable correlation to estimate the void fraction under non-thermal equilibrium condition. (author)

265

Convective heat transfer around vertical jet fires: An experimental study

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experiments were carried out to analyze convection around a vertical jet fire. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Convection heat transfer is enhanced increasing the flame length. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nusselt number grows with higher values of Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In subsonic flames, Nusselt number increases with Froude number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Convection and radiation are equally important in causing a domino effect. - Abstract: The convection heat transfer phenomenon in vertical jet fires was experimentally analyzed. In these experiments, turbulent propane flames were generated in subsonic as well as sonic regimes. The experimental data demonstrated that the rate of convection heat transfer increases by increasing the length of the flame. Assuming the solid flame model, the convection heat transfer coefficient was calculated. Two equations in terms of adimensional numbers were developed. It was found out that the Nusselt number attains greater values for higher values of the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, the Froude number was analyzed only for the subsonic flames where the Nusselt number grows by this number and the diameter of the orifice.

Kozanoglu, Bulent, E-mail: bulentu.kozanoglu@udlap.mx [Universidad de las Americas, Puebla (Mexico); Zarate, Luis [Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla (Mexico); Gomez-Mares, Mercedes [Universita di Bologna (Italy); Casal, Joaquim [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain)

2011-12-15

266

Transient convective heat transfer to laminar flow from a flat plate with constant heat capacity

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most basic transient heat transfer problem is the transient response characteristics of forced convection heat transfer in the flow along a flat plate or in a tube. In case of the laminar flow along a flat plate, the profile method using steady temperature distribution has been mostly adopted, but its propriety has not been clarified yet. About the unsteady heat transfer in the laminar flow along a flat plate, the analysis or experiment evaluating the heat capacity of the flat plate exactly was never carried out. The purpose of this study is to determine by numerical calculation the unsteady characteristics of the boundary layer in laminar flow and to confirm them by experiment concerning the unsteady heat transfer when a flat plate with a certain heat capacity is placed in parallel in uniform flow and given a certain quantity of heat generation suddenly. The basic equation and the solution are given, and the method of numerical calculation and the result are explained. The experimental setup and method, and the experimental results are shown. Both results were in good agreement, and the response of wall temperature, the response of Nusselt number and the change of temperature distribution in course of time were able to be determined by applying Laplace transformation and numerical Laplace inverse transformation to the equation. (Kako, I.)

267

Aerosol Optical Effects on Deep Convective Clouds and Radiative Forcing

Aerosols interact directly and indirectly with the Earth's radiation budget and climate. For the direct effect, aerosols scatter and absorb solar radiation. Light scattering by aerosols changes the radiative fluxes at the top-of- atmosphere (TOA), at the surface, and within the atmospheric column, while aerosol absorption modifies the atmospheric temperature structure, decreases the solar radiation at the surface, and lowers surface sensible and latent fluxes, suppressing convection and reducing cloud fraction. Using a two-dimensional cloud-resolving Goddard Cloud Ensemble (GCE) model coupled with radiative transfer processes and the land-atmosphere interaction processes, we investigate aerosol radiative effects on deep convective clouds in an urban atmospheric environment, focussing on the radiative effects of anthropogenic aerosols containing BC. An aerosol radiative module is developed to calculate the wavelength-dependent aerosol radiative properties based on the aerosol composition, size distribution, mixing state, and ambient relative humidity. The significance of the aerosol radiative effects (ARE) is investigated by comparing with the cases excluding the ARE. The associated aerosol direct, semi-direct and indirect radiative forcing for deep convective clouds are estimated, and the sensitivity of cloud properties and radiative forcing to aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA) are examined. The results provide insight on the coupling between the aerosol direct, semi-direct, and indirect effects on clouds.

Fan, J.; Zhang, R.; Tao, W.; Mohr, K. I.

2007-12-01

268

10,000 - A reason to study granular heat convection

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In sheared granular media, particle motion is characterized by vortex-like structures; here this is demonstrated experimentally for disks system undergoing indefinite deformation during simple shear, as often imposed by the rock masses hosting earthquake fault gouges. In traditional fluids it has been known for years that vortices represent a major factor of heat transfer enhancement via convective internal mixing, but in analyses of heat transfer through earthquake faults and base planes of landslides this has been continuously neglected. Can research proceed by neglecting heat convection by internal mixing? Our answer is astonishingly far from being yes.

Einav, I.; Rognon, P.; Gan, Y.; Miller, T.; Griffani, D. [Particles and Grains Laboratory, School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

2013-06-18

269

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the natural convective flow of nanofluids over a convectively heated vertical plate in a saturated Darcy porous medium is studied numerically. The governing equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations by using appropriate similarity variables, and they are numerically solved using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method associated with the Gauss-Newton method. The effects of parametric variation of the Brownian motion parameter (Nb), thermophoresis parameter (Nt) and the convective heating parameter (Nc) on the boundary layer profiles are investigated. Furthermore, the variation of the reduced Nusselt number and reduced Sherwood number, as important parameters of heat and mass transfer, as a function of the Brownian motion, thermophoresis and convective heating parameters is discussed in detail. The results show that the thickness of the concentration profiles is much lower than the temperature and velocity profiles. For low values of the convective heating parameter (Nc), as the Brownian motion parameter increases, the non-dimensional wall temperature increases. However, for high values of Nc, the effect of the Brownian motion parameter on the non-dimensional wall temperature is not significant. As the Brownian motion parameter increases, the reduced Sherwood number increases and the reduced Nusselt number decreases. (author)

270

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of buoyancy force in a laminar uniform forced convection flow past a semi-infinite vertical plate has been analyzed near the leading edge, taking into account the viscous dissipation. The coupled non-linear locally similar equations, which govern the flow, are solved by the method of parametric differentiation. Effects of the buoyancy force and the heat due to viscous dissipation on the flow and the temperature fields as well as on the wall shear-stress and the heat transfer at the surface of the plate are shown graphically for the values of the Prandtl number ? ranging from 10-1 to 1.0. (author). 20 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

271

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho busca, como funçăo principal, determinar o valor do coeficiente convectivo de transferęncia de calor através da metodologia de modelagem matemática e simulaçăo numérica associada ao processo experimental previamente realizado, de resfriamento rápido com ar forçado de figos "Roxo de Val [...] inhos". O objetivo foi comparar o resultado com o definido pelo ajuste entre os dados experimentais e o uso de equaçăo empírica da literatura, já realizado. Para a prediçăo da temperatura próximo ao centro das frutas, considerou-se o modelo da lei de Fourier em coordenadas esféricas e se implementaram algoritmos segundo os métodos de diferenças finitas e dos elementos finitos para os modelos unidimensional e tridimensional, respectivamente. O estabelecimento do referido valor se dá a partir da comparaçăo desses dados simulados com os dados experimentais. Os valores resultantes dos dois modelos foram coincidentes e resultaram menores valores residuais que o obtido pela equaçăo empírica; além disso, a representatividade da curva simulada mostra que a atual metodologia é mais precisa que a anteriormente realizada e, portanto, adequada para este e trabalhos futuros. Abstract in english The main purpose of this study is to determine the convective heat transfer coefficient value by using the methodology of mathematical modeling and numerical simulation associated with the experimental process previously performed, of the forced air precooling of the figs type 'Roxo de Valinhos'. Th [...] e objective was to compare the result with the one determined by fitting an empirical equation from the literature to the experimental data. For the prediction of the temperature, near to the center of fruits, the Fourier law model was considered. Algorithms employing the finite differences and finite elements methods were implemented for the one-dimensional and three-dimensional models. The establishment of the referred value was performed through the comparison of these simulated data with the experimental data. The resulting values of the two models were coincident and generated a smaller residual value than the one obtained by the empirical equation. Furthermore, the representation of the simulated curve shows that the methodology of the mathematical modeling and numerical simulation is more accurate than the previous one and suitable for this and future work.

Mariangela, Amendola; Saul, Dussán-Sarria; Anderson A., Rabello.

2009-04-01

272

Reynolds stress and heat flux in spherical shell convection

Context. Turbulent fluxes of angular momentum and heat due to rotationally affected convection play a key role in determining differential rotation of stars. Aims. We compute turbulent angular momentum and heat transport as functions of the rotation rate from stratified convection. We compare results from spherical and Cartesian models in the same parameter regime in order to study whether restricted geometry introduces artefacts into the results. Methods. We employ direct numerical simulations of turbulent convection in spherical and Cartesian geometries. In order to alleviate the computational cost in the spherical runs and to reach as high spatial resolution as possible, we model only parts of the latitude and longitude. The rotational influence, measured by the Coriolis number or inverse Rossby number, is varied from zero to roughly seven, which is the regime that is likely to be realised in the solar convection zone. Cartesian simulations are performed in overlapping parameter regimes. Results. For slow ...

Käpylä, P J; Guerrero, G; Brandenburg, A; Chatterjee, P

2010-01-01

273

Natural convection cooling using air as a fluid is commonly used in the cooling of electronic equipment and many other devices. In this work, a three-dimensional numerical study of natural convection heat transfer from multiple protruding heat sources simulating electronic components is conducted. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, FLUENT is used in this analysis. A 4 by 5 array of heat sources are embedded in the bottom wall of an adiabatic square enclosure. The heat sources with a...

Venkatachalapathy, S.; Udayakumar, M.

2010-01-01

274

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mixed forced and free convective heat transfer through a cavity with a rectangular element on one wall heated to a uniform temperature, and the opposite wall cooled to a uniform lower temperature, and with the remaining wall portions adiabatic, has been investigated. The forced flow, which is at the same temperature as the cold wall, enters through the cold vertical wall and also leaves through this wall. The study is based on the use of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes, equations, the flow assumed steady and laminar. It is assumed that fluid properties are constant except for the density change with temperature which gives rise to the buoyancy force, this being treated using the Boussinesq approximation. These equations have been solved using the finite element method. The solution has, as parameters, the Reynolds number, the Grashof number, the fluid Prandtl number, the aspect ratio of the cavity, the angle of inclination of the cavity, the inlet and outlet duct size, and the aspect ratio of the heated element. Results have only been obtained for a Prandtl number of 0.7. 7 references

275

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new experimental technique is presented that allows simultaneous measurement of convective and radiative heat flux in the underhood. The goal is to devise an easily implemented and accurate experimental method for application in the vehicle underhood compartment. The new method is based on a technique for heat-flux measurement developed by the authors (Heat flow (flux) sensors for measurement of convection, conduction and radiation heat flow 27036-2, Š Rhopoint Components Ltd, Hurst Green, Oxted, RH8 9AX, UK) that uses several thermocouples in the thickness of a thermal resistive layer (foil heat-flux sensor). The method proposed here uses a pair of these thermocouples with different radiative properties. Measurements validating this novel technique are carried out on a flat plate with a prescribed constant temperature in both natural- and forced-convection flow regimes. The test flat plate is instrumented by this new technique, and also with a different technique that is intrusive but very accurate, used as reference here (Bardon J P and Jarny Y 1994 Procédé et dispositif de mesure transitoire de température et flux surfacique Brevet n°94.011996, 22 February). Discrepancies between the measurements by the two techniques are less than 10% for both convective and radiative heat flux. Error identification and sensitivity analysis of the new method are also presented

276

A new experimental technique is presented that allows simultaneous measurement of convective and radiative heat flux in the underhood. The goal is to devise an easily implemented and accurate experimental method for application in the vehicle underhood compartment. The new method is based on a technique for heat-flux measurement developed by the authors (Heat flow (flux) sensors for measurement of convection, conduction and radiation heat flow 27036-2, Š Rhopoint Components Ltd, Hurst Green, Oxted, RH8 9AX, UK) that uses several thermocouples in the thickness of a thermal resistive layer (foil heat-flux sensor). The method proposed here uses a pair of these thermocouples with different radiative properties. Measurements validating this novel technique are carried out on a flat plate with a prescribed constant temperature in both natural- and forced-convection flow regimes. The test flat plate is instrumented by this new technique, and also with a different technique that is intrusive but very accurate, used as reference here (Bardon J P and Jarny Y 1994 Procédé et dispositif de mesure transitoire de température et flux surfacique Brevet n°94.011996, 22 February). Discrepancies between the measurements by the two techniques are less than 10% for both convective and radiative heat flux. Error identification and sensitivity analysis of the new method are also presented.

Khaled, M.; Garnier, B.; Harambat, F.; Peerhossaini, H.

2010-02-01

277

Correlations for heat transfer coefficients in open gaps with respect to mixed convection

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Published results on mixed convection phenomena have been applied to determine the convective heat transfer between the cover gas and the open gaps in the roof of SNR 2. It has been reported in the literature that heat transfer coefficients for forced flow conditions in vertical heated or cooled pipes are modified by buoyancy effects. In the ''aiding'' condition, where buoyancy and flow act in the same direction, heat transfer is enhanced. In the ''opposing'' case heat transfer is reduced. This applies for laminar flow; the reverse is true for turbulent flow. The literature indicates furthermore that: the Reynolds number indicating turbulent flow can be as low as 30 for mixed convection; the criterion for the onset of mixed convection is given by the Richardson number Ri=Gr/Re2 > 0,002. The published results have been modified in consistency with the open gaps in the SNR 2 reactor roof. Several heat transfer correlations have been evaluated and their suitability examined. (author)

278

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to numerically investigate the cooling performance of electronic devices with an emphasis on the effects of the arrangement and number of electronic components. The analysis uses a two dimensional rectangular enclosure under combined natural and forced convection flow conditions and considers a range of Raleigh numbers. Heat sources in the enclosure generate the natural convection flow and an externally sourced air stream through the enclosure generates the forced convection flow. The results show that increasing the Raleigh number significantly improves the enclosure heat transfer process. At low Raleigh numbers, placing more heat sources within the enclosure reduces the heat transfer rate from the sources and consequently increases their overall maximum temperature. The arrangement and the number of heat sources have a considerable contribution to the cooling performance. However, increasing the Raleigh number reduces this contribution. (author)

279

We carried out three-dimensional computations of the magnetothermal convection of diamagnetic liquids (e.g., water) in a shallow cylindrical vessel of the RayleighBenard model to investigate the effects of the radial components of the magnetic force (MFR) and the vertical components of the magnetic force (MFZ) on heat transfer and pattern formation. For the purpose of examining various magnitudes of radial and vertical components of the magnetic force, we used a 1800-turn coil instead of an actual conventional magnet, and a 2-turn coil as a new proposal. In the computation, the Prandtl number was constant at 6.0 (i.e., water at room temperature), and the Rayleigh number was 1.0 × 104. As a result, an axisymmetric pattern and a spokelike pattern appeared in the convection. Subsequently, we arranged all the results with a new parameter, which is the absolute ratio of the radial component of magnetic force at the vessel sidewall to the vertical resultant force at the vessel center. This parameter represents the relative contribution of MFR to the vertical resultant force (RFZ). The RFZ is the sum of the gravitational force and MFZ, and is associated with the magnetic Rayleigh number. By using this parameter, the spoke pattern convection appeared when the parameter was within 0.11 to 0.85. This result suggests that not only the MFR but also the MFZ plays an important role in determining whether the convection flow pattern transited to the axisymmetric flow or not. This parameter range is easily satisfied in a conventional superconducting magnet. We can say that the spoke pattern convection may be a common phenomenon in the magnet. On the other hand, the flow pattern had little effect on the heat transfer in convection. Thus, the effects of MFR and MFZ on the pattern formation in the magnet are much more complicated than those previously considered.

Maki, Syou; Sumitani, Mariko; Udagawa, Chikako; Morimoto, Shotaro; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi

2014-07-01

280

Heat transfer enhancement in a turbulent natural convection boundary layer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental study on heat transfer enhancement for a turbulent natural convection boundary layer along a vertical flate plate has been performed by inserting two-dimensional flat plates (heat transfer promoters) into the boundary layer. The heat transfer rates markedly very with the position, yaw angle and size of the promoters, and it is confirmed that the promoters are effective to control turbulent heat transfer characteristics of the natural convection boundary layer. Also, the visualization of flow with smoke and laser sheet and simultaneous measurements of the flow and thermal fields with hot- and cold-wires in the downstream region of the promoter have been conducted to clarify the cause of the increase in local heat transfer rates. As a result, it is observed that the low-temperature large vortices induced by the promoter invade very near the wall and the heat transfer enhancement occurs. (author)

281

Heat transfer mechanisms in bubbly Rayleigh-Benard convection

The heat transfer mechanism in Rayleigh-Benard convection in a liquid with a mean temperature close to its boiling point is studied through numerical simulations with point-like vapor bubbles, which are allowed to grow or shrink through evaporation and condensation and which act back on the flow both thermally and mechanically. It is shown that the effect of the bubbles is strongly dependent on the ratio of the sensible heat to the latent heat as embodied in the Jacob number...

Oresta, Paolo; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef; Prosperetti, Andrea

2008-01-01

282

Quantification of convective heat transfer inside tree structures

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Convective heat transfer between a vegetal structure and its surrounding medium remains poorly described. However, for some applications, such as forest fire propagation studies, convective heat transfer is one of the main factors responsible for vertical fire transitions, from ground level to the tree crowns. These fires are the most dangerous because their rates of spread can reach high speeds, around one meter per second. An accurate characterization of this transfer is therefore important for fire propagation modelling. This study presents an attempt to formulate a theoretical modelling of the convective heat transfer coefficient for vegetal structures generated using an Iterated Function Systems (IFS). This model depends on the IFS parameters. The results obtained using this approach were compared with previously computed numerical results in order to evaluate their accuracy. The maximal discrepancies were found to be around 12% which proves the efficiency of the present model.

283

Convective heat transfer around vertical jet fires: an experimental study.

The convection heat transfer phenomenon in vertical jet fires was experimentally analyzed. In these experiments, turbulent propane flames were generated in subsonic as well as sonic regimes. The experimental data demonstrated that the rate of convection heat transfer increases by increasing the length of the flame. Assuming the solid flame model, the convection heat transfer coefficient was calculated. Two equations in terms of adimensional numbers were developed. It was found out that the Nusselt number attains greater values for higher values of the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, the Froude number was analyzed only for the subsonic flames where the Nusselt number grows by this number and the diameter of the orifice. PMID:21962859

Kozanoglu, Bulent; Zárate, Luis; Gómez-Mares, Mercedes; Casal, Joaquim

2011-12-15

284

Quantification of convective heat transfer inside tree structures

Convective heat transfer between a vegetal structure and its surrounding medium remains poorly described. However, for some applications, such as forest fire propagation studies, convective heat transfer is one of the main factors responsible for vertical fire transitions, from ground level to the tree crowns. These fires are the most dangerous because their rates of spread can reach high speeds, around one meter per second. An accurate characterization of this transfer is therefore important for fire propagation modelling. This study presents an attempt to formulate a theoretical modelling of the convective heat transfer coefficient for vegetal structures generated using an Iterated Function Systems (IFS). This model depends on the IFS parameters. The results obtained using this approach were compared with previously computed numerical results in order to evaluate their accuracy. The maximal discrepancies were found to be around 12% which proves the efficiency of the present model.

Collin, Anthony; Lamorlette, Aymeric

2012-11-01

285

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A collection of papers is presented on mixed convection, pool boiling, and flow boiling and two-phase flow. A unified similarity analysis is presented for turbulent convection next to vertical surfaces. Topics of interest include free-forced convection from a heated cone, decay of vertical buoyant jets in uniform environment, minimum heat flux during film boiling, and the dynamics of two-phase flow in a duct

286

Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array

287

Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array.

Canaan, R.E.

1995-12-01

288

Heat transfer by natural convection into an horizontal cavity

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At this thesis it is studied the heat transfer by natural convection in an horizontal cavity, it is involved a boiling's part that is described the regimes and correlations differences for boiling's curve. It is designed a horizontal cavity for realize the experimental part and it's mention from equipment or instrumentation to succeed in a experimentation that permits to realize the analysis of heat transfer, handling as water fluid at atmospheric pressure and where it's present process from natural convection involving part boiling's subcooled. The system consists of heater zone submerged in a horizontal cavity with water. Once part finished experimental with information to obtained it's proceeded to obtain a correlation, realized starting from analysis dimensionless such as: Jakob, Bond and Grasoft (Boiling) besides of knows in natural convection: Prandtl and Nusselt. The mathematical model explains the behavior for natural convection continued part boiling's subcooled. It is realize analysis graphics too where it's show comparing with Globe Dropkin and Catton equations by natural convection with bottom heating. (Author)

289

Numerical simulation of magnetic control of heat transfer in thermal convection

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report on numerical study of effects of orientation and distribution of an external magnetic field on the reorganization of convective structures and heat transfer in thermal convection in electrically conductive fluids. The simulations were performed using a transient RANS (T-RANS) approach in which the large-scale deterministic structures are numerically resolved in time and space and the unresolved contribution is modelled using an algebraic stress-flux three-equation subscale model. For low Prandtl (Pr) fluids the subscale model was extended to include Pr-dependent molecular dissipation of heat flux. The method was first validated in natural convection in a side-heated cubical enclosure subjected to magnetic fields of different orientation, strength and penetration depth, showing good agreement with the previous benchmark studies. Subsequently, a series of simulations was performed of turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection subjected to different magnetic fields over a range of Rayleigh (Ra) and Hartmann (Ha) numbers. The computed Nusselt number showed good agreement with the available experimental results. Numerical visualization of instantaneous flow patterns showed dramatic differences in the convective structures and local heat transfer for different orientation of the magnetic field with respect to the gravitation vector. A gradual, step-like increase in the magnetic strength revealed an interesting outcome of the 'competition' between the buoyancy and the Lorentz forces, leading first to chaotic transition and eventually to laminarization. For specific ranges of Ha, it was found that a local magnetic field confined to the wall boundary layer along the thermally active walls provides almost equal effects as the homogeneous field over the whole flow, indicating an interesting possibility for controlling thermal convection and associated heat transfer.

Kenjeres, S.; Hanjalic, K

2004-06-01

290

Numerical simulation of magnetic control of heat transfer in thermal convection

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on numerical study of effects of orientation and distribution of an external magnetic field on the reorganization of convective structures and heat transfer in thermal convection in electrically conductive fluids. The simulations were performed using a transient RANS (T-RANS) approach in which the large-scale deterministic structures are numerically resolved in time and space and the unresolved contribution is modelled using an algebraic stress-flux three-equation subscale model. For low Prandtl (Pr) fluids the subscale model was extended to include Pr-dependent molecular dissipation of heat flux. The method was first validated in natural convection in a side-heated cubical enclosure subjected to magnetic fields of different orientation, strength and penetration depth, showing good agreement with the previous benchmark studies. Subsequently, a series of simulations was performed of turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection subjected to different magnetic fields over a range of Rayleigh (Ra) and Hartmann (Ha) numbers. The computed Nusselt number showed good agreement with the available experimental results. Numerical visualization of instantaneous flow patterns showed dramatic differences in the convective structures and local heat transfer for different orientation of the magnetic field with respect to the gravitation vector. A gradual, step-like increase in the magnetic strength revealed an interesting outcome of the 'competition' between the buoyancy and the Lompetition' between the buoyancy and the Lorentz forces, leading first to chaotic transition and eventually to laminarization. For specific ranges of Ha, it was found that a local magnetic field confined to the wall boundary layer along the thermally active walls provides almost equal effects as the homogeneous field over the whole flow, indicating an interesting possibility for controlling thermal convection and associated heat transfer

291

Calculational method for combined natural circulation and forced-convection flow in a channel

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a finite element solution for combined natural circulation and forced convection flow in a channel. Because the buoyancy force plays an important role in a mixed convection flow, an iteration scheme was used in solving the coupled energy-momentum equations. The momentum equations and the pressure equation are solved to calculate velocity profiles instead of solving the momentum equations with the continuity equation. Though the pressure equation is obtained by using the continuity equation, the continuity principle is reinforced into the momentum equations and the pressure equation at each iteration. Calculations are performed for the combined natural circulation and forced convection case and the forced convection only case

292

MHD forced and free convection boundary layer flow near the leading edge

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetohydrodynamic forced and free convection flow of an electrically conducting viscous incompressible fluid past a vertical flat plate with uniform heat flux in the presence of a magnetic field acting normal to the plate that moves with the fluid has been studied near the leading edge of the plate. The coupled non-linear equations are solved by the method of superposition for the values of the Prandtl number ranges from 0.01 to 10.0. The velocity and the temperature profiles are presented graphically and the values of the wall shear-stress as well as the heat transfer rate are presented in tabular form showing the effect of the buoyancy force and the applied magnetic field. To show the accuracy of the present method some typical values are compared with the available one. (author). 17 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

293

HEAT TRANSFER BY SIMULTANEOUS RADIATION-CONDUCTION AND CONVECTION IN A HIGH TEMPERATURE PACKED BED

A numerical model of a packed bed reactor for gasifying coal in mixed control using concentrated solar radiation is proposed. Case's normal-mode expansion technique is used to obtain solutions to the radiative transfer problem for the packed bed. The comparison between the radiative heat transfer and the exchanges by conduction and forced convection is analysed. The model permits the determination of temperature profiles for both the gas and the solid phases and the evolutions of thermal flux...

Belghit, Abdelhamid

2007-01-01

294

The effects of magnetic force, acting vertically downward on natural convection within a nanofluid filled tilted trapezoidal enclosure saturated with an electrically conducting fluid have been investigated numerically. The bottom wall of the enclosure is subjected to a constant cold temperature and the top wall experiences a heat source whereas the remaining sidewalls are kept adiabatic. The physical problems are represented mathematically by different sets of governing equations along with t...

Mansour, M. A.

2013-01-01

295

A numerical study of natural convection heat transfer through an alumina-water nanofluid inside L-shaped cavities in the presence of an external magnetic field is performed. The study has been carried out for a wide range of important parameters such as Rayleigh number, Hartmann number, aspect ratio of the cavity and solid volume fraction of the nanofluid. The influence of the nanoparticle, buoyancy force and the magnetic field on the flow and temperature fields have been plotted and ...

Sourtiji Ehsan; Hosseinizadeh Seyed Farid

2012-01-01

296

In this study, the steady laminar free-forced convective flow and heat transfer of micropolar fluids past a vertical radiate isothermal permeable surface with viscous dissipation and Joule heating is investigated numerically. The local similarity solutions for the flow, microrotation (angular velocity) and heat transfer characteristics are illustrated graphically for various material parameters. The effects of the pertinent parameters on the local skin friction coefficient, plate couple stress and the rate of heat transfer are also calculated. It was shown that micropolar fluids presented lower viscous drag and heat transfer values than those of the Newtonian fluids. The effect of radiation on the rate of heat transfer in a weakly concentrated micropolar fluid is higher than a strongly concentrated micropolar fluid. Results also show that full radiation has significant effect on the rate of heat transfer compared to the linear radiation.

Rahman, M. M.

2009-07-01

297

Magnetic fields in the radiative interior of stars. I. Thermal shadows and forced convection

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is pointed out that magnetic fields in the radiative interior of a star cause a slight reduction in the gas pressure, by a fraction of the order of B2/8?p. The effect is a proportionate reduction in the opacity and an increase in the effective heat transport coefficient, so that magnetic inhomogeneities cast thermal shadows in the general outflow of radiant energy. The shadows involve horizontal temperture gradients, forcing convective circulation in the otherwise stably stratified radiative zone. The associated vertical mixing may have important consequences for the thermonuclear burning of 7Li in the outer envelope of the star, taken up in the succeeding paper. The present paper provides simple quantitative illustrations of thermal shadows and the associated convection, yielding a direct relation between the strength of the magnetic inhomogeneity and the rate of circulation

298

Natural convection of heat generating fluid within horizontal cylinder

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the fluid accompanied by nuclear fission reaction and radioactive decay, the natural convection occuring through internal heat generation, exerts large influence on the temperature distribution in the fluid and the thermal load distribution on a demarcation wall. Accordingly, for the safety design of tanks storing liquid nuclear fuel or radioactive waste solution it is important to accurately grasp the heat transfer characteristics of this natural convection. In this research, a horizontal circular pipe was taken up, and the examination of natural convection heat transfer was carried out. This system becomes practically important when the rate of heat generation of fluid is large, such as a dump tank for emergency use in a molten salt nuclear reactor. In this research, the Navier-Stokes equation and an energy equation were numerically analyzed by difference calculus, and temperature distribution and velocity distribution were theoretically determined in the range of Rayleigh number of 108, and the effect of various factors on the heat transfer was clarified. The rate of heat transfer was measured by electrically heating dilute NaCl solution, and compared with the theoretical results. (Kako, I.)

299

Forced convective transition boiling: review of literature and comparison of prediction methods

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report reviews the published information on transition boiling heat transfer under forced convective conditions. It was found that transition boiling data have been obtained only within a limited range of conditions and many data are considered unreliable. The data do not permit the derivation of a correlation; however the parametric trends can be isolated from the data. Several authors have proposed correlations valid in the transition boiling region. Most of the correlations are valid only within a narrow range of conditions. A comparison with the data shows that in general agreement is poor. Hsu's correlation is tentatively recommended for low flows and pressures. (author)

300

A theoretical study of the spheroidal droplet evaporation in forced convection

In many applications, the shape of a droplet may be assumed to be an oblate spheroid. A theoretical study is conducted on the evaporation of an oblate spheroidal droplet under forced convection conditions. Closed-form analytical expressions of the mass evaporation rate for an oblate spheroid are derived, in the regime of controlled mass-transfer and heat-transfer, respectively. The variation of droplet size during the evaporation process is presented in the regime of shrinking dynamic model. Comparing with the droplets having the same surface area, an increase in the aspect ratio enhances the mass evaporation rate and prolongs the burnout time.

Li, Jie; Zhang, Jian

2014-11-01

301

Thermal entry laminar and turbulent forced convection problems inside ducts are solved. In Chapter 1, the steady-state conjugated turbulent forced convection heat transfer inside a parallel-plate channel with axial conduction in the wall and convection boundary conditions is studied. A lumped wall model that neglects transverse temperature gradients in the solid but takes into account the axial heat conduction along the wall is adopted. The effects of the conjugation parameter, Biot number, and the dimensionless channel length on Nusselt number and fluid bulk and wall temperatures are systematically investigated. In Chapter 2, the transient conjugated turbulent heat transfer with axial conduction in the wall and convection boundary conditions for flow in a parallel-plate channel subjected to periodically varying inlet temperature is studied. The lumped wall model adopted in Chapter 1 is used and the effects of the conjugation parameter, fluid-to-solid heat capacitance ratio, and Biot number on the periodic responses of fluid bulk and wall temperatures and wall heat flux is investigated. In Chapter 3, the transient forced convection in turbulent channel flow with a step change in inlet temperature is solved by using a hybrid analytical-numerical scheme. Numerical results are presented for the fluid bulk temperature and Nusselt number as a function of position along the channel at different times, and the propagation of the thermal wave front is examined. In Chapter 4, the transient forced convection in laminar flow inside a parallel-plate channel subjected to periodically varying inlet temperature is solved by using a hybrid analytical-numerical scheme. Semi-analytical results are presented for the variations in the amplitude of periodically varying fluid bulk temperature and wall heat flux along the channel length for different frequencies of oscillation. An approximate formula for the decay of the peak bulk temperature amplitude is developed. Finally, in Chapter 5, the transient heat transfer in forced convection for simultaneously developing laminar flow inside a parallel-plate channel is studied by solving the steady momentum equation with the generalized integral transform technique and the transient energy equation through a hybrid numerical-analytical scheme. Semi-analytical results are then presented for the fluid bulk temperature and local Nusselt number along the channel as a function of position and time.

Guedes, Rodrigo Otavio De Castro

302

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of an experimental study of the forced convective heat transfer of flowing gas-solid suspensions at high temperature are presented. Results are reported for helium-graphite mixtures which are electrically heated with a constant wall temperature condition up to T sub(W) = 1173K, flowing upward through a vertical circular tube; entering gas Reynolds number R sub(ei) ranged from 1.0 x 104 to 2.0 x 104, particle loading ratio GAMMA reached about 4. The following conclusions are drawn from the current study. i) In the case of R sub(ei) = 1.0 x 104, the Nusselt numbers of the forced convective heat transfer of gas solid suspensions, N sub(ub), based on local bulk properties increase monotonously with increase in the loading ratio GAMMA. On the other hand, in the runs of R sub(ei) = 1.5 x 104 and 2.0 x 104, the Nusselt numbers of suspensions, N sub(ub), have a minimum value at low solid loadings. ii) The ratio of the Nusselt number of the suspension to that of gas alone increases considerably as the wall temperatures increase. (author)

303

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to understand the influence of a semispherical crucible geometry combined with different convection modes as a thermocapillary convection, natural convection and forced convection, induced by crystal rotation, on melt flow pattern in silicon Czochralski crystal growth process, a set of numerical simulations are conducted using Fluent Software. We solve the system of equations of heat and momentum transfer in classical geometry as cylindrical and modified crystal growth process geometry as cylindro-spherical. In addition, we adopt hypothesis adapted to boundary conditions near the interface and calculations are executed to determine temperature, pressure and velocity fields versus Grashof and Reynolds numbers. The analysis of the obtained results led to conclude that there is advantage to modify geometry in comparison with the traditional one. The absence of the stagnation regions of fluid in the hemispherical crucible corner and the possibility to control the melt flow using the crystal rotation enhances the quality of the process comparatively to the cylindrical one. The pressure field is strongly related to the swirl velocity.

Mokhtari, F [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi Ouzou (Algeria); Bouabdallah, A; Zizi, M [LTSE Laboratory, University of Science and Technology USTHB. BP 32 Elalia, Babezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Hanchi, S [UER Mecanique/ E.M.P B.P 17, Bordj El Bahri, Algiers (Algeria); Alemany, A, E-mail: abouab2002@yahoo.f [Laboratoire EPM, CNRS, Grenoble (France)

2010-03-01

304

Heat transfer mechanisms in bubbly Rayleigh-Benard convection

The heat transfer mechanism in Rayleigh-Benard convection in a liquid with a mean temperature close to its boiling point is studied through numerical simulations with point-like vapor bubbles, which are allowed to grow or shrink through evaporation and condensation and which act back on the flow both thermally and mechanically. It is shown that the effect of the bubbles is strongly dependent on the ratio of the sensible heat to the latent heat as embodied in the Jacob number Ja. For very small Ja the bubbles stabilize the flow by absorbing heat in the warmer regions and releasing it in the colder regions. With an increase in Ja, the added buoyancy due to the bubble growth destabilizes the flow with respect to single-phase convection and considerably increases the Nusselt number.

Oresta, Paolo; Lohse, Detlef; Prosperetti, Andrea

2008-01-01

305

Geothermal Heating, Convective Flow and Ice Thickness on Mars

Our 3D calculations suggest that hydrothermal circulation may occur in the martian regolith and may significantly thin the surface ice layer on Mars at some locations due to the upwelling of warm convecting fluids driven solely by background geothermal heating. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Rosenberg, N. D.; Travis, B. J.; Cuzzi, J.

2001-01-01

306

Heat convection in a set of three vertical cylinders

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental results on temperature and heat flow in a set of three vertical cylinders with internal generation of heat, water submerged and in free convection are presented in this work . Temperature distribution, Nusselt number and convective coefficient (h) for each rod, developed for the distance between the axis of cylinders in vertical position, as a consequence of the application of power in its outside, are analyzed. Experimental information about heat transfer by free convection in vertical cylinders and surfaces is analyzed. Information of the several author who have carried out studies about the heat transfer on vertical cylinders was compiled, and the proposed equations with the experimental data obtained in the thermo fluids laboratory of National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) were tested. The way in which separation distance, s, distribution temperature array, Nusselt number, and convective coefficient calculated for the proposed channel with the Keyhani, Dutton and experimental equations are tabulated and they are plotted for each power value and for each separation between rods. The scheme of the used equipment and the experimentation description as well as the observations of tests and graphical results are included. (Author)

307

Natural convection heat transfer in moderate aspect ratio enclosures

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Local and average heat transfer coefficients for natural convection between parallel plates separated by slats to create enclosures of moderate aspect ratio have been experimentally determined using an interferometric technique. The effects of Rayleigh number, tilt and slat angle, and aspect ratio on the Nusselt number have been determined. The Rayleigh number range tested was up to 7 x 104, and the aspect ratio (ratio of enclosure length to plate spacing) varied between 0.25 and 4. The angles of tilt of the enclosure with respect to the horizontal were 45, 60 and 90 deg. Slat angles of 45, 60 90 and 135 deg were studied. The results obtained in a previous investigation [1] for aspect ratios of 9 to 36 are included to show continuity. The results indicate that the convective heat transfer is a strong function of the aspect ratio for aspect ratios less than 4. For aspect ratios in the range of 0.5 to 4, spacers between the plates increase, rather than decrease, natural convection heat transfer compared to that for long enclosures. Slat angles less than 90 deg (i.e., oriented downward) reduce convective heat transfer

308

Effect of radiation on the laminar convective heat transfer through a layer of highly porous medium

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A numerical investigation is reported of the coupled forced convective and radiative transfer through a highly porous medium. The porosity range investigated is high enough that the fluid inertia terms in the momentum equation cannot be neglected; i.e., the simple form of Darcy's law is invalid. The geometry studied is a plane layer of highly porous medium resting on one impermeable boundary and exposed to a two-dimensional laminar external flow field. The objective is to determine the effective overall heat transfer coefficients for such a geometry. The results are applicable to diverse situations, including insulation batts exposed to external flow, the heat loss and drying rates of grain fields and forest areas, and the drying of beds of porous material exposed to convective and radiative heating

309

Passive techniques for the enhancement of convective heat transfer in single phase duct flow

This review presents the main results of the experimental campaign on passive techniques for the enhancement of forced convective single phase heat transfer in ducts, performed in the last years at the Laboratory of the Industrial Engineering Department of the University of Parma by the Applied Physics research group. The research was mainly focused on two passive techniques, widely adopted for the thermal processing of medium and high viscosity fluids, based on wall corrugation and on wall curvature. The innovative compound heat transfer enhancement technique that couples together the effect of wall curvature and of wall corrugation has been investigated as well. The research has been mainly focused on understanding the causal relationship between the heat transfer surface modification and the convection enhancement phenomenon, by accounting the effect of the fluid Prandtl number. The pressure loss penalties were also evaluated. The principal results are presented and discussed.

Rainieri, S.; Bozzoli, F.; Cattani, L.

2014-11-01

310

Network model of free convection within internally heated porous media

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA) in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) may result in the formation of an internally heated debris bed. Considerable attention has been given to postulated mechanisms by which such beds may be cooled. It is the purpose of the work described to demonstrate a method for computing the heat transfer from such a bed to the overlying sodium pool due to single-phase, free convection

311

Natural convection inside enclosures partially heated at one side

Steady laminar natural convection heat transfer inside airfilled square cavities cooled at one side and partially heated at the opposite side, is studied numerically. A computational code based on SIMPLE-C algorithm is used for the solution of the mass, momentum, and energy transfer equations. Simulations are performed for different values of the dimensionless size and location of the heater, and the Rayleigh number, whose effects on the temperature and velocity fields, a...

Corcione, M.; Fontana, L.; Habib, E.

2008-01-01

312

Relating Convective and Stratiform Rain to Latent Heating

The relationship among surface rainfall, its intensity, and its associated stratiform amount is established by examining observed precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR). The results show that for moderate-high stratiform fractions, rain probabilities are strongly skewed toward light rain intensities. For convective-type rain, the peak probability of occurrence shifts to higher intensities but is still significantly skewed toward weaker rain rates. The main differences between the distributions for oceanic and continental rain are for heavily convective rain. The peak occurrence, as well as the tail of the distribution containing the extreme events, is shifted to higher intensities for continental rain. For rainy areas sampled at 0.58 horizontal resolution, the occurrence of conditional rain rates over 100 mm/day is significantly higher over land. Distributions of rain intensity versus stratiform fraction for simulated precipitation data obtained from cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations are quite similar to those from the satellite, providing a basis for mapping simulated cloud quantities to the satellite observations. An improved convective-stratiform heating (CSH) algorithm is developed based on two sources of information: gridded rainfall quantities (i.e., the conditional intensity and the stratiform fraction) observed from the TRMM PR and synthetic cloud process data (i.e., latent heating, eddy heat flux convergence, and radiative heating/cooling) obtained from CRM simulations of convective cloud systems. The new CSH algorithm-derived heating has a noticeably different heating structure over both ocean and land regions compared to the previous CSH algorithm. Major differences between the new and old algorithms include a significant increase in the amount of low- and midlevel heating, a downward emphasis in the level of maximum cloud heating by about 1 km, and a larger variance between land and ocean in the new CSH algorithm.

Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, Stephen; Zeng, Xiping; Shige, Shoichi; Takayabu, Yukari

2010-01-01

313

Quasi-steady-state (QSS) and transient models, developed using the CrysMAS code, are employed to study the effects of transport mechanisms and cold finger design on the temperature distribution, melt flow field, and melt-crystal interface shape during the crystal growth of sapphire by a small-scale, modified heat exchanger method (HEM). QSS computations show the importance and effects of various heat transfer mechanisms in the crystal and melt, including conduction, internal radiation, and melt convection driven by buoyant and Marangoni forces. The design of the cold finger is demonstrated to have significant effects on growth states. Notably, transient computations on an idealized heat transfer model, supplemented with QSS calculations of a model with rigorous heat transfer representation, show that non-uniform growth conditions arise under uniform cooling of the system via a linear decrease in furnace set points. We suggest that more uniform HEM growth conditions may be achieved by using non-linear cool-down strategies.

Zhang, Nan; Park, Hyun Gyoon; Derby, Jeffrey J.

2013-03-01

314

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerical analysis has been conducted for combined free and forced laminar convection of liquid metals in a horizontal pipe which is isothermally heated from a certain axial location. The steady-state solutions have been obtained in consideration of axial conduction for Peclet numbers of 0.3 ? 7.5 and Rayleigh numbers of 15 ? 500. The results reveal marked effects of axial conduction on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of liquid metals. At the entrance to the heated section, the secondary flow has already developed and a reverse flow occurs near the pipe top as the buoyancy effect becomes large. Consequently, the circumferential average Nusselt number decreases with increasing secondary flow in comparison with that observed in moderate and large Prandtl-number flows. The regime of reverse flow is clearly identified in the Pe-Ra (Peclet-Rayleigh) coordinates. (author)

315

The effects of magnetic field on forced and free convection flow

The effects of magnetic field and permeability of the porous medium on unsteady forced and free convection flow past an infinite vertical porous plate have been studied when the temperature of the plate is oscillating with time about a constant nonzero mean value and in the presence of temperature dependent heat source. The governing equations for the hydromagnetic fluid flow and the heat transfer are solved subject to the relevant boundary conditions. The perturbation technique is used to obtain expressions for velocity field, skin friction and Nusselt number. Also, the effects of magnetic parameter, heat source parameter, suction parameter and permeability of porous medium on velocity field, skin friction and Nusselt number are discussed.

Abdel-Khalek, M M

2003-01-01

316

Time-dependent mixed convection heat transfer from a sphere in a micro-gravity environment

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fundamental problem of interest for crystal growth in micro-gravity applications involves the mixed convection heat transfer from a sphere in a uniform flow of fluid at a differing temperature. Under the combined influence of the imposed free stream as well as an induced buoyancy force due to thermal expansion of the fluid, the heat transfer from the sphere will be different from that of either the pure forced convection flow or the pure free convection flow. For the present study, the method of matched asymptotic expansions is applied to the laminar flow problem of an impulsively heated, impulsively started sphere in an originally quiescent fluid. Time series expansions are developed for the dependent variables by acknowledging the existence of two district regions: one, an inner region, near the sphere, in which viscous effects are significant; and two, an outer region in which the fluid may be treated as inviscid. The time series expansions are developed in terms of the Reynolds number and Richardson number (Buoyancy Parameter), and the relevant heat transfer and drag coefficients are calculated and plotted

317

Convective heat transport in compressible fluids

We present hydrodynamic equations of compressible fluids in gravity as a generalization of those in the Boussinesq approximation used for nearly incompressible fluids. They account for adiabatic processes taking place throughout the cell (the piston effect) and those taking place within plumes (the adiabatic temperature gradient effect). Performing two-dimensional numerical analysis, we reveal some unique features of plume generation and convection in transient and steady states of compressible fluids. As the critical point is approached, the overall temperature changes induced by plume arrivals at the boundary walls are amplified, giving rise to overshoot behavior in transient states and significant noise in the temperature in steady states. The velocity field is suggested to assume a logarithmic profile within boundary layers. Random reversal of macroscopic shear flow is examined in a cell with unit aspect ratio. We also present a simple scaling theory for moderate Rayleigh numbers.

Furukawa, Akira; Onuki, Akira

2002-07-01

318

Critical heat flux in natural convection cooled TRIGA reactors with hexagonal bundle

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A three-rod bundle Critical Heat Flux (CHF) study at low flow, low pressure, and natural convection condition has been conducted, simulating TRIGA reactors with the hexagonally configured core. The test section is a custom-made trefoil shape tube with three identical fuel pin heater rods located symmetrically inside. The full scale fuel rod is electrically heated with a chopped-cosine axial power profile. CHF experiments were carried out with the following conditions: inlet water subcooling from 30 K to 95 K; pressure from 110 kPa to 230 kPa; mass flux up to 150 kg/m{sup 2}s. About 50 CHF data points were collected and compared with a few existing CHF correlations whose application ranges are close to the testing conditions. Some tests were performed with the forced convection to identify the potential difference between the CHF under the natural convection and forced convection. The relevance of the CHF to test parameters is investigated. (authors)

Yang, J.; Avery, M.; De Angelis, M.; Anderson, M.; Corradini, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Feldman, E. E.; Dunn, F. E.; Matos, J. E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2012-07-01

319

Mixed convection heat transfer in concave and convex channels

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mixed convection heat transfer studies in the literature have been primarily confined to pipe and rectangular channel geometry's. In some applications, however, heat transfer in curved channels may be of interest (e.g., nozzle and diffuser shaped passages in HVAC systems, fume hoods, chimneys, bell-shaped or dome-shaped chemical reactors, etc.). A numerical investigation of laminar mixed convection heat transfer of air in concave and convex channels is presented. Six different channel aspects ratios (R/L = 1.04, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, and {infinity}) and five different values of Gr/Re{sup 2} (Gr/Re{sup 2} = 0, 0.1, 1, 3, 5) are considered. Results are displayed in terms of streamline and isotherm plots, velocity and temperature profiles, and local and average Nusselt number estimates. Numerical predictions reveal that compared to straight channels of equal height, concave channels of low aspect ratio have lower heat transfer at relatively low values of Gr/Re{sup 2} and higher heat transfer at high values of Gr/Re{sup 2}. When compared to straight channels of equal heated length, concave channels are always found to have lower heat transfer and for all values of Gr/Re{sup 2}. On the other hand, predictions for convex channels revealed enhancement in heat transfer compared to straight channels of equal height and/or equal heated length for all values of Gr/Re{sup 2}.

Moukalled, F.; Doughan, A.; Acharya, S.

1997-07-01

320

Dendrite growth under forced convection: analysis methods and experimental tests

An analysis is given of the nonisothermal growth of a dendrite crystal under forced fluid flow in a binary system. The theoretical model utilized employs a free moving crystalliquid interface and makes use of the Oseen approximation for the equations of motion of the liquid. A criterion for the stable growth of two-dimensional and three-dimensional parabolic dendrites is derived under the assumption of an anisotropic surface tension at the crystalliquid interface, which generalizes the previous known results for the stable growth of a dendrite with convection in a one-component fluid and for the growth of a dendrite in a two-component system at rest. The criterion obtained within the Oseen hydrodynamic approximation is extended to arbitrary Peclet numbers and dendrite growth with convection in a nonisothermal multicomponent system. Model predictions are compared with experimental data on crystal growth kinetics in droplets processed in electromagnetic and electrostatic levitation facilities. Theoretical and simulation methods currently being developed are applied to crystallization processes under earthly and reduced gravity conditions.

Alexandrov, D. V.; Galenko, P. K.

2014-08-01

321

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume contains a portion of the over 240 ASME papers which were presented at the conference. For over 40 years, the National Heat Transfer Conference has been the premiere forum for the presentation and dissemination of the latest advances in heat transfer. The work contained in these volumes range from studies of fundamental phenomena to applications in the latest heat transfer equipment. The following topics are covered in this volume: fundamentals of convection; turbulent heat transfer; and mixed convection heat transfer. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume.

Oosthuizen, P.H.; Chen, T.S.; Acharya, S.; Armaly, B.F.; Pepper, D.W. [eds.

1997-07-01

322

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural convective heat transfer from a wide heated vertical isothermal plate with adiabatic surfaces above and below the heated surface has been considered. There are a series of equally spaced vertical thin, flat surfaces (termed 'slats') near the heated surface, these surfaces being, in general, inclined to the heated surface. There is, in general, a uniform heat generation in the slats. The slats are pivoted about their centre-point and thus as their angle is changed, the distance of the tip of the slat from the plate changes. The situation considered is an approximate model of a window with a vertical blind, the particular case where the window is hotter than the room air being considered. The heat generation in the slats in this situation is the result of solar radiation passing through the window and falling on and being absorbed by the slats of the blind. The flow has been assumed to be laminar and steady. Fluid properties have been assumed constant except for the density change with temperature that gives rise to the buoyancy forces. The governing equations have been written in dimensionless form and the resulting dimensionless equations have been solved using a commercial finite-element package. The solution has the following parameters: (1) the Rayleigh number (2) the Prandtl number (3) the dimensionless heat generation rate in the slats per unit frontal area (4) the dimensionless distance of the slat center point (the pivot point) from the surface (5) the dimensionless slat size (6) the dimensionless slat spacing (7) the angle of inclination of the slats. Because of the application that motivated the study, results have only been obtained for a Prandtl number of 0.7. The effect of the other dimensionless variables on the mean dimensionless heat transfer rate from the heated vertical surface has been examined. (author)

Oosthuizen, P.H.; Sun, L. [Queen' s Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: oosthuiz@me.queensu.ca; sun@me.queensu.ca; Naylor, D. [Ryerson Univ., Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Industrial Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: dnaylor@ryerson.ca

2003-07-01

323

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural convective heat transfer from a wide heated vertical isothermal plate with adiabatic surfaces above and below the heated surface has been considered. There are a series of equally spaced vertical thin, flat surfaces (termed 'slats') near the heated surface, these surfaces being, in general, inclined to the heated surface. There is, in general, a uniform heat generation in the slats. The slats are pivoted about their centre-point and thus as their angle is changed, the distance of the tip of the slat from the plate changes. The situation considered is an approximate model of a window with a vertical blind, the particular case where the window is hotter than the room air being considered. The heat generation in the slats in this situation is the result of solar radiation passing through the window and falling on and being absorbed by the slats of the blind. The flow has been assumed to be laminar and steady. Fluid properties have been assumed constant except for the density change with temperature that gives rise to the buoyancy forces. The governing equations have been written in dimensionless form and the resulting dimensionless equations have been solved using a commercial finite-element package. The solution has the following parameters: (1) the Rayleigh number (2) the Prandtl number (3) the dimensionless heat generation rate in the slats per unit frontal area (4) the dimensionless distance of the slat center point (the pivot point) from the surface (5) the the pivot point) from the surface (5) the dimensionless slat size (6) the dimensionless slat spacing (7) the angle of inclination of the slats. Because of the application that motivated the study, results have only been obtained for a Prandtl number of 0.7. The effect of the other dimensionless variables on the mean dimensionless heat transfer rate from the heated vertical surface has been examined. (author)

324

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Combined free convection and forced convection from a flush-mounted uniform heat source on the bottom of a horizontal rectangular enclosure with side openings is studied numerically. The inlet opening allows an externally induced air stream at the ambient temperature to flow through the cavity and exits from another two openings placed top of the both side walls. Two-dimensional forms of Navier-Stokes equations are solved by using control volume based finite element technique. Three typical values of the Reynolds numbers, based on the enclosure height, are chosen as Re = 50, 100 and 200, and steady, laminar results are obtained in the range of Richardson number as 0 = Ri = 10 and a fixed Prandtl number of 0.71. The parametric studies for a wide range of governing parameters show consistent performance of the present numerical approach to obtain as stream functions and temperature profiles. Heat transfer rates at the heated walls are presented in terms of average Nusselt numbers. The computational results indicate that the heat transfer coefficient is strongly affected by Reynolds number and Richardson number. An empirical correlation is developed by using Nusselt number, Reynolds number and Richardson number.

Sumon Saha

2006-10-01

325

A mechanistic model for forced convective transition boiling of subcooled water in vertical tubes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mechanistic model for forced convective transition boiling has been developed to predict transition boiling heat flux realistically. This model is based on a postulated multi-stage boiling process occurring during the passage time of an elongated vapor blanket specified at a critical heat flux condition. Between the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and the departure from film boiling (DFB) points, the boiling heat transfer is established through three boiling stages, namely, the macrolayer evaporation and dryout governed by nucleate boiling in a thin liquid film and the unstable film boiling. The total heat transfer rate during the transition boiling is the sum of the heat transfer rates after the DNB weighted by the time fractions of each stage, which are defined as the ratio of each stage duration to the vapor blanket passage time. The model predictions are compared with some available experimental transition boiling data. From these comparisons, it can be seen that the transition boiling heat fluxes including the maximum heat flux and the minimum film boiling heat flux are well predicted at low qualities/high pressures near 10 bar. 8 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs. (Author)

326

In Indian Coal mines, underground mines, mineral ore mines syngases at high pressure and high temperature are found in large quantities. This syngas is highly toxic, harmful and flammable gas which will be present in atmosphere which may cause many accidents. Hence it is necessary to reduce the content of syngas from mines in the atmosphere. This paper describes literature review of Convective heat transfer characteristics of high pressure gas used in mines. Heat transfer in convection coolin...

Gaddamwar, S. S.; Shelke, R. S.

2012-01-01

327

Extinction transition in bacterial colonies under forced convection

We report the spatio-temporal response of {\\it Bacillus subtilis} growing on a nutrient-rich layer of agar to ultra-violet (UV) radiation. Below a crossover temperature, the bacteria are confined to regions that are shielded from UV radiation. A forced convection of the population is effected by rotating a UV radiation shield relative to the petri dish. The extinction speed at which the bacterial colony lags behind the shield is found to be qualitatively similar to the front velocity of the colony growing in the absence of the hostile environment as predicted by the model of Dahmen, Nelson and Shnerb. A quantitative comparison is not possible without considering the slow dynamics and the time-dependent interaction of the population with the hostile environment.

Neicu, T; Larochelle, D A; Kudrolli, A

2000-01-01

328

Evaporation of a binary liquid film by forced convection

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with a numerical analysis of the evaporation of a thin binary liquid film by forced convection inside a channel constituted by two parallel plates. The first plate is externally insulated and wetted by a thin water ethylene glycol film while the second is dry and isothermal. The liquid mixture consists of water (the more volatile component and ethylene glycol while the gas mixture has three components: dry air, water vapour and ethylene-glycol vapour. The set of non linear and coupled equations expressing the conservation of mass, momentum, energy and species in the liquid and gas mixtures is solved numerically using a finite difference method. Results concerns with the effects of inlet ambience conditions and the inlet liquid concentration of ethylene glycol on the distribution of the temperature, concentrations profiles and the axial variation of the evaporation rate of species i.

Nasr Abdelaziz

2011-01-01

329

Heat transfer in natural convection in horisontal fuel element bundles

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The heat exchange in case of natural convection in horizontal fuel elements bundles enclosed in the can as applied to the conditions arising during transportation of spent fuel elements in horizontal transport containers is considered. The investigation is performed using horizontal bundles with different shape of the can and parameters of bundle spacing with different numbers of series and values of relative step of hundle location when filling the bundles space by air, carbon dioxide, water and MS-20 oils under pressure up to 1.8 MPa. The variation of distribution of rod temperatures and the form of coolant isotherms in the cross section of bundles with the development of natural convection are considered. The dependences which enable one at the designed heat release to calculate the medium temperature of rods and the temperature of the maximum heated rod in the bundle are suggested

330

Free and forced convective-diffusion solutions by finite element methods

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several free and forced convective-diffusion examples are solved and compared to either laboratory experiment or closed-form analysis. The problems solved illustrate the application of finite element methods to both strongly-coupled and weakly-coupled velocity and temperature fields governed by the steady-state momentum and energy equations. Special attention is given to internal forced convection with temperature-dependent viscosity and free convection within an enclosure

331

Single-phase convective heat transfer in rod bundles

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The convective heat transfer for turbulent flow through rod bundles representative of nuclear fuel rods used in pressurized water reactors is examined. The rod bundles consist of a square array of parallel rods that are held on a constant pitch by support grids spaced axially along the rod bundle. Split-vane pair support grids, which create swirling flow in the rod bundle, as well as disc and standard support grids are investigated. Single-phase convective heat transfer coefficients are measured for flow downstream of support grids in a rod bundle. The rods are heated using direct resistance heating, and a bulk axial flow of air is used to cool the rods in the rod bundle. Air is used as the working fluid instead of water to reduce the power required to heat the rod bundle. Results indicate heat transfer enhancement for up to 10 hydraulic diameters downstream of the support grids. A general correlation is developed to predict the heat transfer development downstream of support grids. In addition, circumferential variations in heat transfer coefficients result in hot streaks that develop on the rods downstream of split-vane pair support grids

332

The problem of combined conduction-mixed convection-surface radiation from a vertical electronic board provided with three identical flush-mounted discrete heat sources is solved numerically. The cooling medium is air that is considered to be radiatively transparent. The governing equations for fluid flow and heat transfer are converted from primitive variable form to stream function-vorticity formulation. The equations, thus obtained, are normalised and then are converted into algebraic form using a finite volume based finite difference method. The resulting algebraic equations are then solved using Gauss-Seidel iterative method. An optimum grid system comprising 151 grids along the board and 111 grids across the board is chosen. The effects of various parameters, such as modified Richardson number, surface emissivity and thermal conductivity on temperature distribution along the board, maximum board temperature and relative contributions of mixed convection and radiation to heat dissipation are studied in detail. Further, the contributions of free and forced convection components of mixed convection to board temperature distribution and peak board temperature are brought out. The exclusive roles played by surface radiation and buoyancy in the present problem are clearly elucidated.

Sawant, S. M.; Gururaja Rao, C.

2008-10-01

333

A model is developed for the study of mixed convection film condensation from downward flowing vapors onto a sphere with uniform wall heat flux. The model combined natural convection dominated and forced convection dominated film condensation, including effects of pressure gradient and interfacial vapor shear drag has been investigated and solved numerically. The separation angle of the condensate film layer, ?s is also obtained for various pressure gradient parameters, P* and their corresponding dimensionless Grashof 's parameters, Gr*. Besides, the effect of P* on the dimensionless mean heat transfer, will remain almost uniform with increasing P* until for various corresponding available values of Gr*. Meanwhile, the dimensionless mean heat transfer, is increasing significantly with Gr* for its corresponding available values of P*. For pure natural-convection film condensation, is obtained. Zusammenfassung Es wird ein Modell zur Untersuchung der Mischkonvektion bei Filmkondensation von Dämpfen an einer Kugel entwickelt, die unter gleichförmigen Wärmefluß daran abwärts strömen. Das Modell verbindet die durch natürliche und durch erzwungene Konvektion bewirkte Filmkondensation unter Einschluß von aus einem Druckgradienten resultierenden Effekten sowie von Dampfschubspannungen an der Phasengrenze. Die numerische Lösung liefert den Separationswinkel des Kondensatfilms ?s für verschiedene Druckgradienten-Parameter P* und zugehörige Grashof-Parameter Gr*. Der Einfluß von P* auf den mittleren Wärmeübergangsparameter bleibt bis ziemlich gering, auch wenn Gr* zwischen 0.01 und 100 variiert. Für reine natürliche Filmkondensation erhält man:

Hsu, C. H.; Yang, S. A.

334

Numerical study of natural convection heat loss of heat pipe receiver for dish/Stirling system

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The receiver of dish/Stirling solar thermal power system is a critical component which must absorb incoming concentrated solar energy and deliver thermal power to the engine working fluid at high-flux from 40 to 80 W/cm{sup 2} and temperatures of 650-850 C. The heat loss of the receiver has serious influence upon the system performance. In this paper, a numerical study on the major convection heat loss from a heat pipe receiver of dish/stirling system is presented. The influence of the operating temperature, the inclination angle and aperture size on the total heat loss from the receiver was investigated. The effect of the temperature varying from 650 to 850 on heat loss of the receiver was simulated. The inclination angle ranges between 0 and 90 to estimate the influence of inclination upon convection heat loss of the heat pipe receiver. The receiver aperture is always optimized to be just large enough to admit most of the concentrated sunlight, but small enough to limit radiation and convection heat loss. The effect of aperture diameter to the heat loss is also investigated. The results indicate that the natural convection heat loss is decrease monotonically with the increase of the inclination angle; the aperture diameter is a critical parameter in design of a solar receiver. The investigation conclusions can be used as reference information for the heat pipe receiver design and application. (orig.)

Xu, Hui; Zhang, Hong; Zhuang, Jun [Nanjing Univ. of Technology (China). Inst. of Thermal Energy Engineering

2008-07-01

335

Natural Convection Heat Transfer Experiments on an Inclined Helical Coil

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research interests for the compact heat exchanger increase with growing needs on compact nuclear systems. Accordingly, the heat exchangers of helical coil types are adopted replacing the once-through type and the U-tube type ones. When the helical coil type heat exchangers are used for nuclear propulsions, the heat transfer of inclined helical coil becomes an important problem due to the shaking of the ship. This study measured the natural convection heat transfer from the outside surface of the helical coil in a circular duct varying the coil inclination and turn number. It is also conducted using a circular duct having same height of the helical coil. Based upon the analogy concept, a mass transfer system was used instead of a heat transfer system. A cupric acid-copper sulfate electroplating system was employed as the mass transfer systems

336

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes an experiment on natural convective heat transfer of silicone oil and water around a horizontal cylinder in a rectangular box and on the visualization of temperature distribution by the liquid-crystal suspension method. The natural convection around the heated cylinder in the box is effected by the thermal stratification and plume. Experimental results are summarized as follows. The Nusselt numbers on the heated horizontal cylinder are correlated with the Ra numbers. The reference fluid temperature on the heat transfer is determined from the thermal stratification in the box. The swaying motion of the thermal plume is effected by the stratification. (author)

337

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Forced convection heat transfer in a phase change material (PCM) suspension in a rectangular duct was investigated. PCM particle sizes varied. Time-dependent moving-mesh computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were used to simulate heat transfer processes for each particle and a series of melting and solidification processes. The effect of particle dimension on the heat transfer coefficient was also investigated. A simplified theoretical analysis was performed using a 3-D model of the heated channel. The liquid fraction was computed at each iteration in relation to an enthalpy balance. Enthalpy was computed as the sum of the sensible enthalpy and the latent heat. The finite volume method was used to derive the convection heat transfer coefficient. The model was validated by comparing it with results obtained during earlier experiments. Results of the study demonstrated that the size and fit of the particles plays a significant role in heat transfer efficiency. It was concluded that the heat transfer coefficient attains its maximum value for particles that are almost identical in size as the channel. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

Hassanipour, F.; Lage, J. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

2009-07-01

338

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental study was performed to obtain local fluid velocity and temperature measurements in the mixed (combined free and forced) convection regime for specific flow coastdown transients. A brief investigation of steady-state flows for the purely free-convection regime was also completed. The study was performed using an electrically heated 2 x 6 rod bundle contained in a flow housing. In addition a transient data base was obtained for evaluating the COBRA-WC thermal-hydraulic computer program (a modified version of the COBRA-IV code).

Bates, J.M.; Khan, E.U.

1980-10-01

339

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fully developed flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid in a vertical channel during combined convection, with asymmetric heating of the wall, under the influence of a constant pressure gradient and in the presence of an uniform transverse magnetic field, is studied. Exact solution of the governing equation is obtained in a closed form. The solution in a dimensionless form contains two pertinent flow parameters, viz. M (the Hartmann number) and Gr (the Grashof number). The limiting cases of a MHD forced and free convection are analysed, what has not been done earlier in the literature. The occurrence of flow reversal indicates that there arises a flow reversal at the cold wall when rT=1 while, for rT<1, no flow reversal is possible in the absence of magnetic forces. (author)

340

Natural convection heat transfer along vertical rectangular ducts

Experimental investigations have been reported on steady state natural convection from the outer surface of vertical rectangular and square ducts in air. Seven ducts have been used; three of them have a rectangular cross section and the rest have square cross section. The ducts are heated using internal constant heat flux heating elements. The temperatures along the vertical surface and the peripheral directions of the duct wall are measured. Axial (perimeter averaged) heat transfer coefficients along the side of each duct are obtained for laminar and transition to turbulent regimes of natural convection heat transfer. Axial (perimeter averaged) Nusselt numbers are evaluated and correlated using the modified Rayleigh numbers for laminar and transition regime using the vertical axial distance as a characteristic length. Critical values of the modified Rayleigh numbers are obtained for transition to turbulent. Furthermore, total overall averaged Nusselt numbers are correlated with the modified Rayleigh numbers and the area ratio for the laminar regimes. The local axial (perimeter averaged) heat transfer coefficients are observed to decrease in the laminar region and increase in the transition region. Laminar regimes are obtained at the lower half of the ducts and its chance to appear decreases as the heat flux increases.

Ali, M.

2009-12-01

341

Silk cocoon drying in forced convection type solar dryer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thin layer silk cocoon drying was studied in a forced convection type solar dryer. The drying chamber was provided with several trays on which the cocoons loaded in thin layer. The hot air generated in the solar air heater was forced into drying chamber to avoid the direct exposure of sunlight and UV radiation on cocoons. The drying air temperature varied from 50 to 75 oC. The cocoon was dried from the initial moisture content of about 60-12% (wb). The drying data was fitted to thin layer drying models. Drying behaviour of the silk cocoon was best fitted with the Wang and Singh drying model. Good agreement was obtained between predicted and experimental values. Quality of the cocoons dried in the solar dryer was at par with the cocoons dried in the conventional electrical oven dryer in term of the silk yield and strength of the silk. Saving of electrical energy was about 0.75 kWh/kg cocoons dried. Economic analysis indicated that the NPV of the solar dryer was higher and more stable (against escalation rate of electricity) as compare to the same for electrical oven dryer. Due to simplicity in design and construction and significant saving of operational electrical energy, solar cocoon dryer seems to be a viable option.

342

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When condensation effects with initially inexplicable causes occurred during experimental studies on ventilated facades, the team around Prof. Edgar R. F. Winter and the development engineers from the company Gartner, Gundelfingen, decided to investigate this phenomenon. As part of a research project lasting several years, studies on ventilated vertical gaps with rectangular section were therefore carried out with the aim of deriving fundamental statements about the heat transport due to convection in ventilated claddings and windows, both for winter and summer boundary conditions. The results not only contribute to the energetic evaluation of double-skin windows and facades. They are also applicable to the heat transport processes in other technical areas where free, forced or mixed convection occurs. (orig.)

Schwab, A.

2002-12-01

343

A correlation for natural convection heat transfer from inclined plate-finned heat sinks

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steady-state natural convection heat transfer from inclined plate-finned heat sinks to air is numerically investigated by using an experimentally validated model. The heat sinks with parallel arrangement of uniform rectangular cross section plate fins are inclined from the vertical in both forward and backward directions in order to investigate the effect of inclination on convection. Our previously validated numerical model for vertically oriented heat sinks is directly used without changing any model parameters, but only by varying the direction of the gravitational acceleration to create the effect of inclination. The flow and temperature fields are resolved using a finite volume computational fluid dynamics code. Performing a large number of simulations for the heat sink base inclination angles of ą4°, ą10°, ą20°, ą30°, ą45°, ą60°, ?65°, ?70°, ą75°, ą80°, ą85°, ą90° from the vertical, the dependence of the convective heat-transfer rate to the inclination angle and Rayleigh number is investigated. Scale analyses are performed in order to generalize estimates for the convection heat-transfer rates. A single correlation is suggested and shown to be valid for a very wide range of angles from ?60° (upward) to +80° (downward) in a wide range of Rayleigh numbers from 0 to 2 × 108. -- Highlights: ? Natural convection heat transfer from inclined plate-finned heat sinks is investigated. ? A correlation for estimating convection heat-transfer rates is suggested. ? The correlation is shown to be valid in a very wide range of angles, ?60° ? ? ? +80°. ? The correlation is verified with all available experimental data in literature. ? Flow separation and fin height play the most significant roles at high inclinations

344

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heating associated with tropical cloud systems drive the global circulation. The overall research objectives of this project were to i) further quantify and understand the importance of heating in tropical convective cloud systems with innovative observational techniques, and ii) use global models to determine the large-scale circulation response to variability in tropical heating profiles, including anvil and cirrus cloud radiative forcing. The innovative observational techniques used a diversity of radar systems to create a climatology of vertical velocities associated with the full tropical convective cloud spectrum along with a dissection of the of the total heating profile of tropical cloud systems into separate components (i.e., the latent, radiative, and eddy sensible heating). These properties were used to validate storm-scale and global climate models (GCMs) and were further used to force two different types of GCMs (one with and one without interactive physics). While radiative heating was shown to account for about 20% of the total heating and did not have a strong direct response on the global circulation, the indirect response was important via its impact on convection, esp. in how radiative heating impacts the tilt of heating associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), a phenomenon that accounts for most tropical intraseasonal variability. This work shows strong promise in determining the sensitivity of climate models and climate processes to heating variations associated with cloud systems.

Schumacher, Courtney

2012-12-13

345

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A problem of forced convection condensation in a thin porous layer is considered. The flow in the porous region is described by the Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model (DBF) while classical boundary layer equations without inertia and enthalpie terms are used in the pure condensate region. In order to resolve this problem, an analytical method is proposed. Then, analytical solutions for the flow velocity, temperature distributions and for the local Nusselt number are obtained. The results are essentially presented in the form of the velocity and temperature profiles within the porous layer, the dimensionless film thickness and the heat transfer represented by the local Nusselt number. The comparison of the (DBF) model and the Darcy-Brinkman (DB) one is carried out. The effects of the effective viscosity (Reynolds numberRe{sub K}), permeability (Darcy numberDa) and dimensionless thickness of porous coating H* on the flow and the heat transfer enhancement are also documented. (orig.)

Asbik, M.; Chaynane, R.; Boushaba, H. [GMMTN, Faculty of Sciences and Technics, B.O 509, Boutalamine Errachidia (Morocco); Zeghmati, B. [GMAI-CEF, Universite de Perpignan, Avenue de villeneuve, 66860, Perpignan Cedex (France); Khmou, A. [Faculty of Sciences, B.O 1040, Meknes (Morocco)

2003-12-01

346

Natural Convection Heat Transfer of Two Vertically Staggered Cylinders

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study measured the natural convection heat transfer of two vertically staggered cylinders varying RaD, the vertical pitch-to-diameter, Pv/D and the horizontal pitch-to-diameter, Ph/D. The geometry frequently appears in heat exchangers and other engineering applications. This study has the relevance with the design of the test facility for PDRC (Passive Decay Heat Removal System) in SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor). In the staggered arrangement, the heat transfer of the lower cylinder is unaffected by the presence of the upper cylinder. However, the heat transfer of the upper cylinder is affected by the plume developed from the lower cylinder on aligned of two vertically staggered cylinders. When the spacing between two cylinders was less than the critical distance, the upper cylinder was affected more by the preheating effect. As the distance increases, the preheating effect decreases and the velocity effect increases

347

Natural convection in wavy enclosures with volumetric heat sources

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the effects of volumetric heat sources on natural convection heat transfer and flow structures in a wavy-walled enclosure are studied numerically. The governing differential equations are solved by an accurate finite-volume method. The vertical walls of enclosure are assumed to be heated differentially whereas the two wavy walls (top and bottom) are kept adiabatic. The effective governing parameters for this problem are the internal and external Rayleigh numbers and the amplitude of wavy walls. It is found that both the function of wavy wall and the ratio of internal Rayleigh number (RaI) to external Rayleigh number (RaE) affect the heat transfer and fluid flow significantly. The heat transfer is predicted to be a decreasing function of waviness of the top and bottom walls in case of (IRa/ERa)>1 and (IRa/ERa)<1. (authors)

348

A preliminary study on the mixed convection heat transfer in a horizontal pipe

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mixed convection phenomena have applications in heat exchangers designed for viscous liquids, pipelines used for transporting oil, and heat exchangers for gas flows and have been investigated for numerical study. The experimental studies on the topic are rare due to the limited practical uses. The definitions on the buoyancy coefficient that represent the relative influence of the forced and the natural convection are different by scholars. When the fluid passes through a horizontal heated pipe, the secondary flow patterns of the flows moving upward along inner wall and downward through the centerline of the pipe, appear. Two symmetric counter rotating, spiraling axial flows around the vertical centerline and the heat transfer of the bottom is higher due to the unstable stratification. This study is preliminary experiments for laminar and turbulent mixed convection for horizontal pipe geometries. The diameter of the pipe was 0.026m and lengths were ranging from 0.03m to 0.50m varying the Reynolds number. Experiments were carried out using a copper sulfate electroplating system was adopted for mass transfer based on the analogy concept

349

A numerical study was conducted to investigate steady heat transfer and flow phenomena of natural convection of air in enclosures, with three aspect ratios (H/W = 1, 2, and 4), within which there is a local heat source on the bottom wall at three different positions, Wh. This heat source occupies 1% of the total volume of the enclosure. The vertical walls in the enclosures are insulated and there is an opening on the right wall. The natural convection is influenced by the difference in temper...

Mariani, V. C.; Coelho, L. S.

2007-01-01

350

Measuring convective heat transfer coefficient around a heated fine wire in cross flow of nanofluids

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent researches on nanofluids have mainly focused on the increase of thermal conductivity of nanofluids under static condition. The ultimate goal of using nanofluids, however, is to enhance the heat transfer performance under fluid flow. So it has been highly necessary to devise a simple and accurate measuring apparatus which effectively compares the heat transfer capability between the base and nanofluids. Though the convective heat transfer coefficient is not the complete index for the heat transfer capability, it might be one of useful indications of heat transfer enhancement. In this article, the working principles of experimental system for convective heat transfer coefficient around a heated fine wire in cross flow of nanofluids and its application example to three samples of nano lubrication oils are explained in detail

351

Magnetic field effect on local entropy generation due to steady two-dimensional laminar forced convection flow past a horizontal plate was numerically investigated. This study was focused on the entropy generation characteristics and its dependency on various dimensionless parameters. The effect of various dimensionless parameters, such as Hartmann number (Ha), Eckert number (Ec), Prandtl number (Pr), Joule heating parameter (R) and the free stream temperature parameter (ĂÂ¸Ă˘ÂÂ)...

Al-nimr, Moh D. A.; Damseh, Renhe A.; Al-odat, Mohammed Q.

2004-01-01

352

Convective Heat Transfer Analysis in Fluid Flow with Turbulence Promoters with Heat Pipes

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper proposes the analysis and the simulation of the convection heat transfer into the fluid flow with turbulence promoters utilizing heat pipes. The study is based on the necesity of the unconventional energy forms capitalization, increasing of the energy efficiency and leads to the energy consumtion decrease in concordance with the sustainable development concept.

Theodor Mateescu

2007-01-01

353

Thermal Performance Of Convective-Radiative Heat Transfer In Porous Fins

Forced and natural convection in porous fin with convective coefficient at the tip under radiation and convection effects are investigated in this letter. Aluminum and copper as materials of fins are determined. In forced and natural convection, the air and water, are applied as working fluids, respectively. In order to solution of this nonlinear equation, HPM and VIM has been used . For verifying the accuracy of the solution methods, compare them with exact solutions (BVP). In this work the ...

Shahbabaei, Majid; Saedodin, Seyfolah

2014-01-01

354

Heat transfer by natural convection between enclosed concentric vertical cylinders

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of natural convection upon the flow pattern was investigated in the closed annular cavity formed by two concentric vertical cylinders with a part of the inner cylinder heated. From observation of the streamline in the cavity by a smoke tracer, fundamental equations are solved numerically. Steady-state isothermals and streamlines are obtained for Grashof numbers up to 2 x 107 and for various lengths of heating zone. To check the calculated results, temperature distributions are measured in this cavity. The calculated temperatures are a good approximation of the experimental ones and the calculated Nusselt number is compatible with some previous theoretical and experimental results. (author)

355

Heat flux intensification by vortical flow localization in rotating convection

The effect of rotation on turbulent convective flow between parallel plates has been assessed with direct numerical simulations. With increasing rotation-rate an interesting transition is observed in the vertical-velocity skewness. This transition indicates a localization of motion directed away from the wall and correlates well with changes observed in the heat flux, as well as in the thermal and viscous boundary layer thicknesses. The formation of localized intense vortical structures provides for intensified vertical heat transport through Ekman pumping. At higher rotation-rates this is counteracted by the inhibition of vertical motion by rotation as expressed in the geostrophic thermal-wind balance.

Kunnen, R. P. J.; Clercx, H. J. H.; Geurts, B. J.

2006-11-01

356

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer in Rotating Disk Systems

The book describes results of investigations of a series of convective heat and mass transfer problems in rotating-disk systems, namely, over free rotating disks, under conditions of transient heat transfer, solid- body rotation of fluid, orthogonal flow impingement onto a disk, swirl radial flow between parallel co-rotating disks, in cone-disk systems and for Prandtl and Schmidt numbers larger than unity. Methodology used included integral methods, self-similar and approximate analytical solutions, as well as CFD. The book is aimed at the professional audience of academic researchers, industr

Shevchuk, Igor V

2009-01-01

357

The motion of buoyancy driven plumes is, on all scales, the most common heat and momentum transfer mechanism in geophysical flows, well known as Free Convection. Similarly, density stratification due to heating inequalities is also an ordinary scenario in nature. Free Convection phenomenon coupled with a density stratified fluid setting leads to the so-called Penetrative Free Convection (PFC). When a fluid, in static equilibrium, is stably stratified a thermal forcing can produce an unstable ...

Dore, Valentina

2010-01-01

358

Both of experimental and numerical investigations were performed to understand unsteady natural convection from outer surface of helical coils. Four helical coils with two different curvature ratios were used. Each coil was mounted in the shell both vertically and horizontally. The cold water was entered the coil and the hot water in the shell was cooling by unsteady natural convection. A CFD code was developed to simulate natural convection heat transfer. Equations of tube and shell are solved simultaneously. Statistical analyses have been done on data points of temperature and natural convection Nusselt number. It was revealed that shell-side fluid temperature and the Nusselt number of the outer surface of coils are functions of in-tube fluid mass flow rate, specific heat of fluids and geometrical parameters including length, inner diameter of the tube and the volume of the shell, and time.

Neshat, E.; Hossainpour, S.; Bahiraee, F.

2014-06-01

359

Natural Convection heat transfer in thermally stratified liquid metal

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural convection tests were conducted using Pb-Bi alloy, with the view to evaluating the effects brought by thermal stratification in liquid metal on the natural convection heat transfer along an immersed vertical metal surface. The vertical metal surface was represented by a stainless steel plate 300 mm high, placed in a cylindrical vessel 400 mm in diameter filled with molten Pb-Bi. The experiment was performed with the heat flux of the plate surface maintained constant and uniform. The temperature distribution through the liquid metal filling the vessel was controlled by regulating a flow of air blown onto the vessel surface; temperature measurements were made by means of a traversing thermocouple. For the case of unstratified bulk fluid, the values obtained for heat transfer rate agreed well with corresponding data given by Sheriff for Na. With increasing degree of stratification, the thickness of the boundary layer decreased in keeping. The resulting increase of heat transfer rate indicated a definite dependence on the stratification parameter; this dependence was determined and expressed in terms of nondimensionalized boundary layer equations. Calculation of heat transfer rate based on numerical method yielded values agreeing fairly well with the experimentally determined data, but that based in integral approximation proved to give underestimated values. (author)

360

Aqueous Al2O3 nanofluids: the important factors impacting convective heat transfer

A high accuracy, counter flow double pipe heat exchanger system is designed for the measurement of convective heat transfer coefficients with different nanofluids. Both positive and negative enhancement of convective heat transfer of alumina nanofluids are found in the experiments. A modified equation was proposed to explain above phenomena through the physic properties of nanofluids such as thermal conductivity, special heat capacity and viscosity.

Cao, Jianguo; Ding, Yulong; Ma, Caiyun

2014-12-01

361

Numerical predictions of natural convection in a uniformly heated pool

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the event of a core meltdown accident, one of the accident progression paths is fuel relocation to the lower reactor plenum. In the heavy water new production reactor (NPR-HWR) design the reactor cavity is flooded with water. In such a design, decay heat removal to the water in the reactor cavity and thence to the containment may be adequate to keep the reactor vessel temperature below failure limits. If this is the case, the accident progression can be arrested by retaining a coolable corium configuration in the lower reactor plenum. The strategy of reactor cavity flooding to prevent reactor vessel failure from molten corium relocation to the reactor vessel lower head has also been considered for commercial pressurized water reactors. Previously, the computer code COMMIX-LAR/P was used to determine if the heat removal rate from the molten cerium in the lower plenum to the water in the cavity was adequate to keep the reactor vessel temperature in the NPR-HWR design below failure limits. It was found that natural convection in the molten pool resulted in heat removal rates that kept the peak reactor vessel temperature about 400 degrees C below the steel melting point. The objective of the work presented in this paper was to determine whether COMMIX adequately predicts natural convection in a pool heated by a uniform heat source. For this purpose, the experiments of free convection in a semicircular cavity of Jahn and Reeneke were analyzed with COMMIX and code predictions were compared with experimental measurements. COMMIX is a general purpose thermalhydraulics code based on finite differencing by the first order upwind scheme

362

Asymptotic solutions in forced convection turbulent boundary layers

A similarity analysis has been developed for a 2D forced convection turbulent boundary layer with and without a pressure gradient. Two new inner and outer temperature scalings are derived by means of similarity analysis of the equations of motion. The new scalings will be verified by the experimental data with adverse pressure gradient, favourable pressure gradient and zero pressure gradient respectively. It will be shown that the mean temperature profiles are dependent on the external pressure gradient and the upstream conditions. However, using the new scaling in inner variables or in outer variables, the temperature profiles collapse into a single curve. Thus, the true asymptotic solution for the temperature field exists even at a finite Péclet number. These results are confirmed by using the existing experimental data and compared with the results from various scalings. The asymptotic temperature profile or the self-similar profile found in the present analysis is in agreement with the fact that an asymptotic velocity profile exists if the mean velocity deficit profile is normalized by the Zagarola and Smits scaling (Zagarola and Smits 1998 J. Fluid Mech.373 33 79).

Wang, Xia; Castillo, Luciano

2003-03-01

363

Experimental Study of Forced Convection over Equilateral Triangle Helical Coiled Tubes

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This study presents an experimental investigation of an equilateral triangular cross-sectioned helical tube under uniform heat flux boundary condition. The experiments are carried out for nine helical coiled-tubes of different parameters. Different diameter ratio (D/a ranged from 6.77 to 15.43 and pitch ratio (P/a ranged from 1.127 to 3.062 are employed in the present study, The experiments covered a range of Reynolds number from 5.3X10^{2} to 2.2X10^{3}. Uniform heat flux is applied to the inside surface of the helical coil and air is selected as tested fluid. The experimental results obtained from the equilateral triangular cross-sectioned helical tube indicated that the parameters of the coil diameter and pitch of helical coil have important effects on the heat transfer coefficient. The Nusselt number increases with the increase of Reynolds number and coil diameter at constant pitch of the helical coil. Also, Nusselt number increases with the increase of Reynolds number and Pitch of helical coil at constant coil diameter tube. A comparison between the present experimental data with a previous work with circular cross-sectioned helical tubes have the same test conditions was achieved. From this comparison, it is clear that the average enhancement of Nusselt number for equilateral triangular cross-sectioned helical is about 1.12 ~ 1.25 times the circular cross-sectioned helical for all tested conditions. A general correlation of the average Nusselt number as a function in Re, D/a and P/a ratios is obtained to describe the forced convection from the equilateral triangle cross sectioned coiled tube.

** Key words: ** Forced convection; Helical coiled tubes; Coil diameter ratio; Pitch ratio

E. El-Kashif

2012-06-01

364

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Natural convection cooling using air as a fluid is commonly used in the cooling of electronic equipment and many other devices. In this work, a three-dimensional numerical study of natural convection heat transfer from multiple protruding heat sources simulating electronic components is conducted. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD software, FLUENT is used in this analysis. A 4 by 5 array of heat sources are embedded in the bottom wall of an adiabatic square enclosure. The heat sources with a constant heat flux source at the bottom are of square cross-section and arranged in an in-line manner. Each heat source is attached with one thermocouple, which is connected to a data acquisition system and a computer. The steady state temperatures of heat sources, air inlet, outlet and enclosure walls are measured. The analysis is carried out by varying the heat fluxes and outlet areas. The heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt number and Grashof number are obtained. Results indicate that the heat sources inside the array are hotter and the heat transfer coefficient increases almost linearly with heat source surface temperatures. Grashof number and outlet opening areas strongly influence the Nusselt number. The heat transfer coefficient for the inner heat sources in a row is lower than those near the enclosure walls. The results of numerical analysis are compared with the experiments and there is a good agreement between the two.

S. Venkatachalapathy

2010-01-01

365

Reynolds stress and heat flux in spherical shell convection

Context. Turbulent fluxes of angular momentum and enthalpy or heat due to rotationally affected convection play a key role in determining differential rotation of stars. Their dependence on latitude and depth has been determined in the past from convection simulations in Cartesian or spherical simulations. Here we perform a systematic comparison between the two geometries as a function of the rotation rate. Aims: Here we want to extend the earlier studies by using spherical wedges to obtain turbulent angular momentum and heat transport as functions of the rotation rate from stratified convection. We compare results from spherical and Cartesian models in the same parameter regime in order to study whether restricted geometry introduces artefacts into the results. In particular, we want to clarify whether the sharp equatorial profile of the horizontal Reynolds stress found in earlier Cartesian models is also reproduced in spherical geometry. Methods: We employ direct numerical simulations of turbulent convection in spherical and Cartesian geometries. In order to alleviate the computational cost in the spherical runs, and to reach as high spatial resolution as possible, we model only parts of the latitude and longitude. The rotational influence, measured by the Coriolis number or inverse Rossby number, is varied from zero to roughly seven, which is the regime that is likely to be realised in the solar convection zone. Cartesian simulations are performed in overlapping parameter regimes. Results: For slow rotation we find that the radial and latitudinal turbulent angular momentum fluxes are directed inward and equatorward, respectively. In the rapid rotation regime the radial flux changes sign in accordance with earlier numerical results, but in contradiction with theory. The latitudinal flux remains mostly equatorward and develops a maximum close to the equator. In Cartesian simulations this peak can be explained by the strong "banana cells". Their effect in the spherical case does not appear to be as large. The latitudinal heat flux is mostly equatorward for slow rotation but changes sign for rapid rotation. Longitudinal heat flux is always in the retrograde direction. The rotation profiles vary from anti-solar (slow equator) for slow and intermediate rotation to solar-like (fast equator) for rapid rotation. The solar-like profiles are dominated by the Taylor-Proudman balance. Movies and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Käpylä, P. J.; Mantere, M. J.; Guerrero, G.; Brandenburg, A.; Chatterjee, P.

2011-07-01

366

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

coupled buoyancy and thermo-capillary convection lead to a convective motion of the interface liquid/gas which drastically changes the heat and mass transfer across the liquid layer. Two experiments were considered, depending on the fluid: oil or mercury. The liquid is set in a cooled cylindrical vessel, and heated by a heat flux across the center of the free surface. The basic flow, in the case of oil, is a torus. When the heat parameter increases, a stationary flow appears as petals or rays when the aspect ratio. The lateral confinement selects the azimuthal wavelength. In the case of petals-like flow, a sub-critical Hopf bifurcation is underlined. The turbulence is found to be `weak`, even for the largest values of the Marangoni number (Ma = 1.3 10{sup 5}). In the case of mercury, the thermo-capillary effect is reduced to zero to impurities at the surface which have special trajectories we describe and compare to a simpler experiment. Only the buoyancy forces induce a unstationary, weakly turbulent flow as soon as the heating power exceeds 4W (Ra = 4.5 10{sup 3}, calculated with h = 1 mm). The past part concerns the analysis of the effect on the flow of the boundary conditions, the geometry, the Prandtl number and the buoyancy force with the help of the literature. Results concerning heat transfer, in particular the exponent of the law Nusselt number vs. heating power, were compared with available data. (author) 115 refs.

Favre, E.

1997-09-26

367

Natural convection of heat generating fluid within horizontal cylinder

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The natural convection of a heat generating fluid within a horizontal cylinder has been studied analytically by solving the governing equations by a finite difference method. The rate of heat generation was assumed constant and distributed uniformly in the fluid. The surface temperature of the cylinder was considered isothermal. Computations were carried out on the case of Prandtl number Pr = 0.1, 1.0, 10 and 1000, and Rayleigh number from 102 to 108. It was revealed that the velocity and temperature fields were little affected by Prandtl number in the range of Pr ? 1.0. The effect of natural convection on the heat transfer between the wall and fluid appeared at beyond Rayleigh number Ra = 104, and became dominant at Ra ? 106. Heat transfer experiments were also performed for the range of Ra = 3 x 103 - 109 by using a NaCl solution of 0.05 mol/kg water in concentration. The calculated average Nusselt numbers were in good agreement with the experiments. (author)

368

Natural convection heat transfer in a stratified pool with volumetric heat generation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were carried out to investigate the natural convection heat transfer behaviour in volumetrically heated two and three layer stratified pools which may exist in the lower head of a reactor vessel during a postulated severe accident. The test facility was a 1/8 scaled of a prototype PWR type reactor. The two layer stratified pool consisted of water and paraffin oil and the three layer pool consisted of chlorobenzene, water and paraffin oil. The fluids chosen were having similar thermodynamic property relations as that in prototypic melt stratified layers observed in RASPLAV and MASCA projects. The depth of the pool in all the experiments was kept constant. The main objective was to study and compare the convective heat transfer characteristics and heat flux distribution in the vessel at different Raleigh numbers in the two and three layer cases. The test results indicate that the upward heat transfer can be significantly reduced due to interfacial resistance between the layer. The heat fluxes along the pool surface were calculated from the measured wall temperature distributions, which are important for estimation of thermal load in the vessel. The convective heat transfer characteristics between the two layer and three layer pools were compared. It was found that the heat transfer behaviour are similar in two and three layers at low Raleigh number. But at high Raleigh number, the location of maximum heat flux along the vessel shifts upwards. (author)the vessel shifts upwards. (author)

369

Gravity waves (GW) are responsible for driving large scale circulations like Brewer-Dobson circulation, contribute to the wave driving of the QBO in the tropics, and are also known as a coupling mechanism between tropospheric sources and the upper stratosphere to mesosphere region. Convection is a dominant source for tropical GWs, but also one of the most difficult and dynamic GW sources to understand. Therefore, we present the results of GW ray-tracing calculations from tropospheric (convective) sources up to the mesosphere. We used the Gravity wave Regional Or Global RAy-Tracer (GROGRAT) to perform the GW trajectory calculations and the convective GW source scheme from Yonsei University (South Korea) to quantify the excitation by convection. Heating rates, cloud data, and atmospheric background data were provided by the MERRA dataset for the calculation of convective forcing by deep convection and for the atmospheric background of the ray-tracing calculations afterwards. In order to validate our findings we compare our simulation results with satellite measurements of temperature amplitudes and momentum flux from the SABER instrument over a 10 years period. Simulation and measurements are in good agreement for the tropics throughout the whole simulated period and show similar seasonal behavior. Additionally, the observational filter of the instrument was taken into account and its influences are discussed. The modulation of GW momentum flux by the background winds and in particular the influence of the QBO is investigated. GW drag at various altitudes is calculated and compared to the drag required for the forcing of the QBO. Further, we show the results of a non-orographic background parameterization used as start conditions for the ray-tracer to emphasize the improvements of our coupled convective GW source model over non-orographic GW parameterizations.

Kalisch, S.; Trinh, T.; Chun, H.; Ern, M.; Preusse, P.; Kim, Y.; Eckermann, S. D.; Riese, M.

2013-12-01

370

Convective heat transfer for viscoelastic fluid in a curved pipe

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, fully developed convective heat transfer of viscoelastic flow in a curved pipe under the constant heat flux at the wall is investigated analytically using a perturbation method. Here, the curvature ratio is used as the perturbation parameter and the Oldroyd-B model is applied as the constitutive equation. In the previous studies, the Dirichlet boundary condition for the temperature at the wall has been used to simplify the solution, but here exactly the non-homogenous Neumann boundary condition is considered to solve the problem. Based on this solution, the non-axisymmetric temperature distribution of Dean flow is obtained analytically and the effect of flow parameters on the flow field is investigated in detail. The current analytical results indicate that increasing the Weissenberg number, viscosity ratio, curvature ratio, and Prandtl number lead to the increase of the heat transfer in the Oldroyd-B fluid flow. (orig.)

Norouzi, M.; Kayhani, M.H. [Shahrood University of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department, Shahrood (Iran); Nobari, M.R.H. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department, Tehran (Iran); Joneidi, A.A. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Mechanical-Polymer Technology Group, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2010-10-15

371

Turbulent free convection between vertical isothermal plates with asymmetrical heating

Results of numerical investigation of the flow and heat transfer at turbulent free convection between the vertical parallel isothermal plates with different temperatures are presented. The temperature factor R T varied within -2 ÷ 1. The Rayleigh number changed within Ra = 107 ÷ 109, and the ratio of geometrical sizes of plates and distances between them was constant A = L/ w = 10. Numerical studies were performed via the solution to the two-dimensional NavierStokes equations and energy equation in Boussinesq approximation. The considered boundary-value problem has the unknown conditions at the inlet and outlet between the plates. To describe turbulence, the modified low-Reynolds k-? model was used. The effect of the temperature factor on the flow structure at the channel inlet and outlet was analyzed. Data on distributions of velocities and temperatures between the plates, local and integral heat transfer allow deeper understanding of the mechanism of transfer processes between the parallel plates with asymmetrical heating.

Terekhov, V. I.; Ekaid, A. L.

2013-06-01

372

Convective and radiative heat transfer in MHD radiant boilers

A combined convection-gas radiation, two-zone flow model is formulated for study of the heat transfer characteristics of MHD radiant boilers. The radiative contributions of carbon dioxide, water vapor, potassium atoms, and slag particles are included in the formulation, and are determined by solving the radiation transport equation using the P1 approximation. The scattering and absorption cross sections of slag particles are calculated from Mie theory. The model is used to analyze the scale-up of heat transfer in radiant boilers with refractory thickness, wall emissivity, and boiler size under conditions of a gas composition and slag particle spectrum typical of coal-fired MHD combustion. A design procedure is suggested for sizing radiant boilers so as to achieve the required heat extraction rate and to provide a flow residence time that is adequate for decomposition of NO(x) to acceptable levels.

Im, K. H.; Ahluwalia, R. K.

1981-10-01

373

Natural convection in asymmetric triangular enclosures heated from below

Triangular enclosures are typical configurations of attic spaces found in residential as well as industrial pitched-roof buildings. Natural convection in triangular rooftops has received considerable attention over the years, mainly on right-angled and isosceles enclosures. In this paper, a finite volume CFD package is employed to study the laminar air flow and temperature distribution in asymmetric rooftop-shaped triangular enclosures when heated isothermally from the base wall, for aspect ratios (AR) 0.2 distributions within the enclosure are analysed. Results indicate that, at low pitch angle, the heat transfer between the cold inclined and the hot base walls is very high, resulting in a multi-cellular flow structure. As the pitch angle increases, however, the number of cells reduces, and the total heat transfer rate progressively reduces, even if the Rayleigh number, being based on the enclosure height, rapidly increases. Physical reasons for the above effect are inspected.

Kamiyo, O. M.; Angeli, D.; Barozzi, G. S.; Collins, M. W.

2014-11-01

374

Convective and radiative heat transfer in MHD radiant boilers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A combined convection-gas radiation, two-zone flow model is formulated for study of the heat transfer characteristics of MHD radiant boilers. The radiative contributions of carbon dioxide, water vapor, potassium atoms, and slag particles are included in the formulation, and are determined by solving the radiation transport equation using the P1 approximation. The scattering and absorption cross section of slag particles are calculated from Mie theory. The model is used to analyze the scale-up of heat transfer in radiant boilers with refractory thickness, wall emissivity, and boiler size, under conditions of a gas composition and slag particle spectrum typical of coal-fired MHD combustion. A design procedure is suggested for sizing radiant boilers so as to achieve required heat extraction rate and to provide a flow residence time that is adequate for decomposition of NO/sub x/ to acceptable levels

375

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conductive heat transfer in a rectangular plate with nonuniform internal heat generation, with one end convectively cooled and a part of the opposite end subjected to external heat flux is considered. The remaining part of this end as well as the other two sides are thermally insulated. The governing differential equation is solved by a finite difference scheme. The variation of the thermal resistance with Biot modulus, the plate geometry, the internal heat generation parameter and the type of profile of internal heat generation is discussed. (author)

376

An experimental study of natural convection heat transfer through a doorway in a two room passive solar heated building is described. Similitude modeling was the method used to measure natural convection heat transfer coefficients (h/sub NC/) in a model geometrically scaled down by a factor of 5. Freon gas was used as the working fluid to obtain dynamic similarity within the model. A temperature difference was maintained between the two rooms by a heated vertical wall which simulated a Trombe wall in one room, and by a cooled vertical wall which simulated a thermal storage wall in the other room. Heat transfer through the doorway was measured as a function of a characteristic temperature differential and the geometry of the doorway.

Weber, D. D.

1980-06-01

377

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The natural convection heat transfer from a heated vertical plate with wall temperature decreasing linearly from the lower end and embedded in a water saturated porous medium (coarse sand of 23% porosity) has been investigated experimentally. The steady state isothermal lines in the porous medium were developed with the aid of a computer program from the measured temperature data for several rates of heat input. The computed values of the local Nusselt number and modified Rayleigh number were used to obtain the empirical correlations. In order to check the accuracy of the measuring instruments and experimental procedures in simulating the thermal field, experimental investigations of heat transfer by natural convection from a vertical heated plate with constant wall temperature and embedded in the water saturated sand were conducted and the experimental results were compared with those previous investigations. The agreement was very good indicating that the instrumentation and experimental set-up used in the present study were reasonably satisfactory

378

Heat flux scaling in turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection with an imposed longitudinal wind

We present a numerical study of Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection disturbed by a longitudinal wind. Our results show that under the action of the wind, the vertical heat flux through the cell initially decreases, due to the mechanism of plumes-sweeping, and then increases again when turbulent forced convection dominates over the buoyancy. As a result, the Nusselt number is a non-monotonic function of the shear Reynolds number. We provide a simple model that captures with good accuracy all the dynamical regimes observed. We expect that our findings can lead the way to a more fundamental understanding of the of the complex interplay between mean-wind and plumes ejection in the Rayleigh-B\\'enard phenomenology.

Scagliarini, Andrea; Toschi, Federico

2013-01-01

379

A multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for convection heat transfer in porous media

In this paper, a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is developed for simulating convection heat transfer in porous media at the representative elementary volume scale. In the model, a MRT-LB equation is used to simulate the flow field, while another MRT-LB equation is employed to simulate the temperature field. The effect of the porous media is considered by introducing the porosity into the equilibrium moments, and adding a forcing term to the MRT-LB equation of the flow field in the moment space. The proposed MRT-LB model is validated by numerical simulations of several two-dimensional convection problems in porous media. The numerical results predicted by the present MRT-LB model agree well with those reported in the literature.

Liu, Q; Li, Q

2013-01-01

380

Natural Convection Heat Transfer Experiment in a Hemispherical Pool

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural convection plays an important role in determining the thermal load from molten core accumulated in the reactor vessel lower head during a severe accident. Several numerical and experimental programs were conducted to study the heat transfer in the molten pool. Previous investigations were mostly related to the rectangular and semicircular pools. Except for COPO, UCLA, ACOPO, and BALI, previous investigations suffer from inadequate representation of high modified Rayleigh number (Ra') in the hemispherical pool that may be formed in the reactor core and lower plenum. Thus, experimental work is conducted utilizing SIGMA SP (Simulant Internal Gravitated Material Apparatus Spherical Pool) producing high Ra' turbulent natural convection in a hemispherical pool up to 5.3 x 1011. The heating method has already been tested in SIGMA CP (Circular Pool). Six thin cable-type heaters, each with a diameter of 6 mm, are employed to simulate internal heating in the pool. They are uniformly distributed in the hemispherical pool to supply a maximum of 7.8 kW power to the pool. SIGMA SP has the inner and outer diameters of 500 mm and 520 mm, respectively. The upper flat plate and the curved wall of pool, with a 10 mm thick stainless steel plate, are cooled by a regulated water loop. A water-cooling system is used to maintain the temperature of water surrounding the test section nearly constant with time. This study focuses on quantifying the directional heat losses, anuantifying the directional heat losses, angular heat flux distribution, and temperature distribution inside the molten pool

381

Droplet combustion experiments in varying forced convection using microgravity environment

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new microscopic model of the interaction between droplet flames and fine vortex tubes which compose a coherent structure of turbulence was developed. Three non-dimensional numbers were introduced to extend the length scale and time scale so as to be suitable for microgravity experiments using droplets of combustion of about 1 mm in diameter. An experimental apparatus for combustion of a single droplet and that of an array of two droplets in varying airflow was developed, and experiments were performed in microgravity and normal gravity at pressures up to 2.0 MPa for n-nonane and ethanol as fuels. Variations of the instantaneous burning rate constant, K {sub i}, in response to the varying flow velocity was successfully observed. At high pressure, the effects of droplet Reynolds number Re on K {sub i} was clearly seen, while the effects of natural convection, which increases K {sub i} with Re, was seen in normal gravity even in the forced airflows. As for the experiments on combustion of an array of two droplets, K {sub i} reduction of the downstream droplet became weak when the flow direction was varied. However, the K {sub i} reduction of the downstream droplet for flow direction variations was clearly seen for n-nonane droplets but almost not for ethanol droplets. The interaction mechanism between upstream and downstream droplets is considered to result from the elimination of oxidizer supply to the downstream droplet, indicating strong interaction effects of n-nonane droplets for a stoichiometric oxygen-fuel ratio of n-nonane (i.e., 14.0) greater than that of ethanol (i.e., 3.0)

Mitsuya, Masaki [Tokyo Gas Corporation, 1-5-20 Kaigan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0022 (Japan); Hanai, Hironao [Chiba University of Science, 3 Shiomi-cho, Choshi, Chiba 288-0025 (Japan); Sakurai, Satoru [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Ogami, Yasuhiro [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Kobayashi, Hideaki [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: kobayashi@ifs.tohoku.ac.jp

2005-12-15

382

Droplet combustion experiments in varying forced convection using microgravity environment

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new microscopic model of the interaction between droplet flames and fine vortex tubes which compose a coherent structure of turbulence was developed. Three non-dimensional numbers were introduced to extend the length scale and time scale so as to be suitable for microgravity experiments using droplets of combustion of about 1 mm in diameter. An experimental apparatus for combustion of a single droplet and that of an array of two droplets in varying airflow was developed, and experiments were performed in microgravity and normal gravity at pressures up to 2.0 MPa for n-nonane and ethanol as fuels. Variations of the instantaneous burning rate constant, K i, in response to the varying flow velocity was successfully observed. At high pressure, the effects of droplet Reynolds number Re on K i was clearly seen, while the effects of natural convection, which increases K i with Re, was seen in normal gravity even in the forced airflows. As for the experiments on combustion of an array of two droplets, K i reduction of the downstream droplet became weak when the flow direction was varied. However, the K i reduction of the downstream droplet for flow direction variations was clearly seen for n-nonane droplets but almost not for ethanol droplets. The interaction mechanism between upstream and downstream droplets is considered to result from the elimination of oxidizer supply to the downstream droplet, indicating strong int downstream droplet, indicating strong interaction effects of n-nonane droplets for a stoichiometric oxygen-fuel ratio of n-nonane (i.e., 14.0) greater than that of ethanol (i.e., 3.0)

383

Development and performance evaluation of forced convection potato solar dryer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research paper deals with the design development and testing of a forced convection solar dryer, for drying and converting to flour of high moisture content vegetables like potatoes. The angle of solar collector was made adjustable for the absorption of maximum solar radiation by the absorber plate. The air flow rate was controlled by adjustable gate valve to find the optimum flow rate for dehydration of the product. The penetration of solar radiation raised the temperature of the absorber plate of the dryer to 110 deg. C during the operation under stagnation or no load conditions. The maximum air temperature attained in the solar air heater, under this condition was 80 deg. C. The dryer was loaded with 12 Kg of blanched potato chips having an initial moisture content of 89.75%, and the final desired moisture content of 6.95% was achieved within five hours without losing the color of potato chips, while the moisture contents reduction was from 89.75% to 33.75% for five hours in open sun drying under shade. The drying cost for 1 Kg of potatoes was calculated as Rs. 245 and it was Rs. 329 in the case of an electric dryer. The life span of the solar dryer was assumed to be 20 years. The cumulative present worth of annual savings over the life of the solar dryer was calculated for blanched potato chips drying, and it turned out be Rs.163177.67/- which was much higher than the capital cost of the dryer (Rs. 25000). The payback period was calculated as 0.89 years, whic period was calculated as 0.89 years, which was also very small considering the life of the system (20 years). (author)

384

Free convection heat transfer to mercury in vertical annuli

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data on free convection heat transfer to water and mercury have been collected using a test rig in vertical annuli of three radii ratios, the walls of which were maintained at uniform temperatures. A theoretical analysis of the boundary layer equations has been attempted using local similarity transformation and double boundary layer approach. Correlations derived from the present theoretical analysis are compared with the analysis and the experimental data available in literature for non-metallic fluids and also with the present experimental data on water and mercury. Generalised correlations are set up for expressing the ratio of heat transferred by convection to the heat transferred by pure conduction and Nusselt's number, in terms of Grashof, Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers, based on the theoretical analysis and the present data on mercury and water. The present generalised correlations agree with the reported and present data for non-metallic fluids and liquid metals with an average deviation of 9% and maximum deviation of +-13.7%. (author)

385

Analysis of forced convection in a duct filled with porous media

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a series of numerical simulations which aim to document the problem of forced convection in a channel filled with fluid-saturated porous medium. In modeling the flow in the channel, the effects of flow inertia, variable porosity and Brinkman friction are taken into account. Two channel configurations are investigated: parallel plates and circular pipe. In both cases, the channel wall is maintained at constant temperature. It is found that the general flow model predicts an overall enhancement in heat transfer between the fluid/porous matrix composite and the walls, compared to the predictions of the widely used Darcy flow model. This enhancement is reflected in the increase of the value of the Nusselt number. Important results documenting the dependence of the temperature and flow fields in the channel as well as the dependence of the thermal entry length on the problem parameters are also reported in the course of the study

386

Forced convection of ferro-fluids in a vented cavity with a rotating cylinder

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, numerical investigation of the forced convection of ferro-fluid in a square cavity with ventilation ports in the presence of an adiabatic rotating cylinder is carried out. The governing equations are solved with a finite element based solver. The effects of Reynolds number (20 ? Re ? 400), angular rotational speed of the cylinder (-500 ? ? ? 500), strength and location of the magnetic dipole (0 ? ? ? 250), (0.2 ? a ? 0.8, -0.8 ? b ? -0.2) on the flow and thermal fields are numerically studied. It is observed that the length and size of the recirculation zones can be controlled with magnetic dipole strength and angular rotational speed of the cylinder. When the magnetic dipole is closer to the bottom wall of the cavity, flow is accelerated towards the bottom wall with larger influence area. The increasing values of the angular rotational speed of the cylinder in the clockwise direction enhance the heat transfer

387

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: The entropy generation due to steady laminar forced convection fluid flow through parallel plates microchannel is investigated numerically. The effect of Knudsen, Reynolds, Prandtl, Eckert numbers and the nondimensional temperature difference on entropy generation within the microchannel is discussed. The fraction of the entropy generation due to heat transfer to the total entropy generation within the microchannel is studied in terms of Bejan number. The entropy generation within the microchannel is found to decrease as Knudsen number increases, and it is found to increase as Reynolds, Prandtl, Eckert numbers and the nondimensional temperature difference increase. The contribution of the viscous dissipation in the total entropy generation increases as Knudsen number increases over wide ranges of the flow controlling parameters.

Mohammad Al-Nimr

2004-12-01

388

The entropy generation due to steady laminar forced convection fluid flow through parallel plates microchannel is investigated numerically. The effect of Knudsen, Reynolds, Prandtl, Eckert numbers and the nondimensional temperature difference on entropy generation within the microchannel is discussed. The fraction of the entropy generation due to heat transfer to the total entropy generation within the microchannel is studied in terms of Bejan number. The entropy generation within the microchannel is found to decrease as Knudsen number increases, and it is found to increase as Reynolds, Prandtl, Eckert numbers and the nondimensional temperature difference increase. The contribution of the viscous dissipation in the total entropy generation increases as Knudsen number increases over wide ranges of the flow controlling parameters.

Haddad, Osamah; Abuzaid, Mohammad; Al-Nimr, Mohammad

2004-12-01

389

Convective heat transfer with chemical transformations in a vertical channel

A theoretical model describing laminar free convection flow of hydrogen-air mixture taking into account an exothermic heterogeneous reaction in a vertical channel with autocatalytic coating is presented. It is shown that the surface of channel walls can be subdivided into areas with different reaction flow patterns: the initial region in which the reaction rate experiences a very rapid growth and the heat flowrate on the wall has a maximum, and the region corresponding to intersection of boundary layers, in which enhancement of the hydrogen oxidation reaction is observed. The results from a numerical experiment confirmed the conclusions obtained from analytical assessments.

Grigoruk, D. G.; Kondratenko, P. S.; Nikol'Skii, D. V.; Chizhov, M. E.

2011-06-01

390

Convective Heat Transfer in Impinging- Gas- Jet Arrangements

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with heat transfer by convection between impinging gas jets and solid surfaces. It considers both single and multiple jet systems. It emphasizes the flow and geometrical parameters as well as the environment conditions at which the jet emerges. In particular, it points out the effect of the jet tilting, thermal entrainment and jet confinement. ASN and ARN schemes are illustrated through industrial and aeronautical applications. Design correlations are proposed. Experimental data obtained from infrared thermography are compared to CFD simulations.

J.M. Buchlin

2011-01-01

391

Natural convection of ferrofluids in partially heated square enclosures

In this study, natural convection of ferrofluid in a partially heated square cavity is numerically investigated. The heater is located to the left vertical wall and the right vertical wall is kept at constant temperature lower than that of the heater. Other walls of the square enclosure are assumed to be adiabatic. Finite element method is utilized to solve the governing equations. The influence of the Rayleigh number (104?Ra?5×105), heater location (0.25H?yh?0.75H), strength of the magnetic dipole (0???2), horizontal and vertical location of the magnetic dipole (-2H?a?-0.5H, 0.2H?b?0.8H) on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are investigated. It is observed that different velocity components within the square cavity are sensitive to the magnetic dipole source strength and its position. The length and size of the recirculation zones adjacent to the heater can be controlled with magnetic dipole strength. Averaged heat transfer increases with decreasing values of horizontal position of the magnetic dipole source. Averaged heat transfer value increases from middle towards both ends of the vertical wall when the vertical location of the dipole source is varied. When the heater location is changed, a symmetrical behavior in the averaged heat transfer plot is observed and the minimum value of the averaged heat transfer is attained when the heater is located at the mid of vertical wall.

Selimefendigil, Fatih; Öztop, Hakan F.; Al-Salem, Khaled

2014-12-01

392

Mixed convection in a channel provided with heated porous blocks of various shapes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work is a numerical simulation of laminar mixed convective in a two-dimensional parallel-plate channel provided with porous blocks of various shapes. The upper plate is thermally insulated while the blocks, heated from below, are attached on the lower one. The Brinkman-Forchheimer extended Darcy model with the Boussinesq approximation is adopted for the flow in the porous regions. The governing equations with the appropriate boundary conditions are solved by the control volume method. The influence of the buoyancy force intensity, the porous blocks shape going from the rectangular shape to the triangular shape, their height, the porous medium permeability, the Reynolds number and the thermal conductivity ratio is analyzed. The results reveal essentially, that the shape of the blocks can alter substantially the flow and heat transfer characteristics. In addition, it is shown that judicious choices of these parameters can lead to high heat transfer rates with a moderate increase of pressure drop.

393

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effects of radiative heat transfer on MHD fully developed mixed convective flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid through a vertical channel with asymmetric heating of the walls in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field has been studied. An exact solution of the governing equations has been obtained in closed form. It is observed that the velocity field is greatly influenced by the radiative heat transfer as well as bouyancy forces. The induced magnetic field decreases at any point near the left wall and it increases near the right wall of the vertical channel with increase in radiation parameter. Further, an increase in radiation parameter leads to a decrease in the temperature at any point of the channel flow. A limiting consideration of the solutions of the governing equations of the flow are analyzed for Ra<<1.

Ruma Patra

2014-01-01

394

Mixed Convection Heat Transfer on the Outside of a Vertical Cylinder

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental study was made of turbulent heat transfer from a vertical cylinder placed in a square channel. The flow medium was water flowing upwards. Basic differential equations governing the mixed flow heat transfer phenomena in a vertical annulus are presented. A dimensional analysis is done to find the dimensionless variables affecting the relative magnitude of the effect of buoyancy on forced convection heat transfer. Dimensionless equations correlating the experimental data ana incorporating a buoyancy parameter of the form Gr/Re2 are presented. Reynolds number range covered is 690 to 129,500 and the Rayleigh num- ber range covered is 109 to 4.2 x 1013 . Effect of different length parameters, like hydraulic diameter and distance of the measuring point from the inlet of the test section, on dimensionless equations are studied

395

IRT analysis on historic buildings: toward a controlled convection heating

Many applications of IRT on buildings require active approach. The solicitation has to be properly calculated, and the application has to take in account the optical characteristics of the surface and its thermal properties. In fact, non-homogeneities of the surface definitively affect the absorbance and reflectance of materials, as shown in literature. Therefore, in case of different colors like artistic paintings, dark stains and salts deposition a convection heating results more effective for IRT inspection, because it does not stimulate different localized absorption due to the colors. Using fan coil heaters, major difficulty is to obtain an even heating on the wall under inspection. The laboratory tests permitted to verify that the strength of rising warm air is higher than the one due to the heater ventilation. As a consequence, the effects of heating on the wall start from the upper part and decrease in a non-proportional way to the bottom. On the other side, thermal flux from a heater changes direction according to the geometry of the room, ambient conditions (initial temperature of the air, openings, etc), technical characteristics of the heater (power, speed of the fan, shape, etc) and its location (orientation, elevation, distance from the surface under investigation, etc). In addition, the increase of air temperature does not directly correspond to the increase of the surface temperature. The paper shows the characterization of a convective heating source, by laboratory measurements; to map the distribution of heat in time, the 14.000-26.000 kcal/h heater flux was measured following a 3D grid, by anemometers, probes, and IR Thermography.

Rosina, Elisabetta; Ludwig, Nicola; Redaelli, Veronica; Della Torre, Stefano; D'Ascola, Simona; Catalano, Michela; Faliva, Chiara

2005-03-01

396

Natural Convection Heat Transfer Experiment in a Hemispherical Pool

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural convection plays an important role in determining the thermal load from molten core accumulated in the reactor vessel lower head during a severe accident. Several numerical and experimental programs were conducted to study the heat transfer in the molten pool. Previous investigations were mostly related to the rectangular and semicircular pools. Except for COPO, UCLA, ACOPO, and BALI, previous investigations suffer from inadequate representation of high modified Rayleigh number (Ra') in the hemispherical pool that may be formed in the reactor core and lower plenum. Thus, experimental work is conducted utilizing SIGMA SP (Simulant Internal Gravitated Material Apparatus Spherical Pool) producing high Ra' turbulent natural convection in a hemispherical pool up to 5.3 x ~1011. The heating method has already been tested in SIGMA CP (Circular Pool). Six thin cable-type heaters, each with a diameter of 6 mm, are employed to simulate internal heating in the pool. They are uniformly distributed in the hemispherical pool to supply a maximum of 7.8 kW power to the pool. SIGMA SP has the inner and outer diameters of 500 mm and 520 mm, respectively. The upper flat plate and the curved wall of pool, with a 10 mm thick stainless steel plate, are cooled by a regulated water loop. A water-cooling system is used to maintain the temperature of water surrounding the test section nearly constant with time. This study focuses on quantifying the directional heat losses, angular heat flux distribution, and temperature distribution inside the molten pool.

J. L. Rempe; S. D. Lee; H. M. Son; K. Y. Suh; F.B.Cheung; S. B. Kim

2005-05-19

397

The effect of Coriolis force on nonlinear convection in a porous medium

Nonlinear convection in a porous medium and rotating about vertical axis is studied in this paper. An upper bound to the heat flux is calculated by the method initiated first by Howard [6] for the case of infinite Prandtl number.

Riahi, D. H.

1994-01-01

398

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A model is developed for the study of mixed convection film condensation from downward flowing vapors onto a sphere with uniform wall heat flux