WorldWideScience
1

Varying influences of motivation factors on employees' likelihood to perform safe food handling practices because of demographic differences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food safety training has been the primary avenue for ensuring food workers are performing proper food handling practices and thus, serving safe food. Yet, knowledge of safe food handling practices does not necessarily result in actual performance of these practices. This research identified participating food service employees' level of agreement with four factors of motivation (internal motivations, communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and determined if respondents with different demographic characteristics reported different motivating factors. Data were collected from 311 food service employees who did not have any supervisory responsibilities. Intrinsic motivation agreement scores were consistently the highest of all four motivational factors evaluated and did not differ across any of the demographic characteristics considered. In contrast, motivation agreement scores for communication, reward-punishment, and resources did differ based on respondents' gender, age, place of employment, job status, food service experience, completion of food handler course, or possession of a food safety certification. In general, respondents agreed that these motivation factors influenced their likelihood to perform various safe food handling procedures. This research begins to illustrate how employees' demographic characteristics influence their responses to various motivators, helping to clarify the complex situation of ensuring safe food in retail establishments. Future research into why employee willingness to perform varies more for extrinsic motivation than for intrinsic motivation could assist food service managers in structuring employee development programs and the work environment, in a manner that aids in improving external motivation (communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and capitalizing on internal motivation. PMID:21219719

Ellis, Jason D; Arendt, Susan W; Strohbehn, Catherine H; Meyer, Janell; Paez, Paola

2010-11-01

2

Toward Improving Food Safety in the Domestic Environment: A Multi-Item Rasch Scale for the Measurement of the Safety Efficacy of Domestic Food-Handling Practices  

OpenAIRE

To reduce consumer health risks from foodborne diseases that result from improper domestic food handling, consumers need to know how to safely handle food. To realize improvements in public health, it is necessary to develop interventions that match the needs of individual consumers. Successful intervention strategies are therefore contingent on identifying not only the practices that are important for consumer protection, but also barriers that prevent consumers from responding to these inte...

Fischer, A. R. H.; Frewer, L. J.; Nauta, M. J.

2006-01-01

3

Produce handling and processing practices.  

OpenAIRE

In the past decade, outbreaks of human illness associated with the consumption of raw vegetables and fruits (or unpasteurized products produced from them) have increased in the United States. Changes in agronomic, harvesting, distribution, processing, and consumption patterns and practices have undoubtedly contributed to this increase. Pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, and Bacillus cereus are naturally present in some soil, and their presence on fresh produce is...

Beuchat, L. R.; Ryu, J. H.

1997-01-01

4

Staphylococcus aureus Contamination during Food Preparation, Processing and Handling  

OpenAIRE

Throughout the world, food processing and handling is a major problem leading to food poisoning and infection. A total of 480 samples was analyzed for Staphylococcus aureus contamination which resulted from food processing. Most of the isolates were taken from food-handlers using nasal swabs. The most contaminated food was chicken pastries, followed by egg sandwiches and spring rolls. Isolates from all samples produced virulence factors hemolysin, coagulase, DNase and enterotoxins. Five diffe...

Al-Bahry S. N.; Mahmoud I. Y.; Al-Musharafi S. K.; Sivakumar N.

2014-01-01

5

Safe Handling of Take-Out Foods  

Science.gov (United States)

... and some are cold when purchased. Foods from fast food restaurants are most often consumed immediately. Take-out ... Non-Discrimination Statement | Civil Rights | No FEAR | Information Quality Complementary Content ${title} ${loading} ${title} ${loading} ibmCfg.controllers. ...

6

Problems of food handling and trade in ASEAN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand) with a population of some 280 million population is a major producer of several food commodities and also a large, and growing, market for many food items. The handling of food products in ASEAN is undertaken under many constraints, related mainly to small and traditional production structures with less than efficient distribution and marketing systems. Activities of the ASEAN Food Handling Project in promoting more efficient food handling methods and technologies in ASEAN are discussed in relation to the existing post harvest losses (50% in fish, 30% in grains and 20-40% in fruits and vegetables) and attempts to reduce these. Activities in this project include training courses and the establishment of laboratories as training and research centres pilot packing houses for fruit and vegetable handling, improvement of transportation systems for fish and livestock, and improvement of post harvest grain handling technologies. The extent of food trade in ASEAN is assessed and problems of food handling and trade are discussed, with special focus on problems of standardization of quality, and tariff and non-tariff barriers for external trade. (author)

7

Development of sample handling procedures for foods under USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) was implemented in 1997 to update and improve the quality of food composition data maintained by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). NFNAP was designed to sample and analyze frequently consumed foods in the U.S. food supply using statistically rigorous sampling plans, established sample handling procedures, and qualified analytical laboratories. Methods for careful handling of food samples from acquisition to analysis were developed to ensure the integrity of the samples and subsequent generation of accurate nutrient values. The infrastructure of NFNAP, under which over 1500 foods have been sampled, mandates tested sample handling protocols for a wide variety of foods. The majority of these foods were categorized into several major areas: 1) frozen foods; 2) fresh produce and/or highly perishable foods requiring refrigeration; 3) fast foods and prepared foods; 4) shelf-stable foods; 5) specialized study and non-retail (point of production) foods; and 6) foods from remote areas (e.g. American Indian reservations). This paper describes the sample handling approaches, from the collection and receipt of the food items to the preparation of the analytical samples, with emphasis on the strategies developed for those foods. It provides a foundation for developing sample handling protocols of foods to be analyzed under NFNAP and for other researchers working on similar projects. PMID:21516233

Trainer, D; Pehrsson, P R; Haytowitz, D B; Holden, J M; Phillips, K M; Rasor, A S; Conley, N A

2010-12-01

8

Handling of bulk solids theory and practice  

CERN Document Server

Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

Shamlou, P A

1990-01-01

9

Alkali Metal Handling Practices at NASA MSFC  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is NASA's principle propulsion development center. Research and development is coordinated and carried out on not only the existing transportation systems, but also those that may be flown in the near future. Heat pipe cooled fast fission cores are among several concepts being considered for the Nuclear Systems Initiative. Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a capability to handle high-purity alkali metals for use in heat pipes or liquid metal heat transfer loops. This capability is a low budget prototype of an alkali metal handling system that would allow the production of flight qualified heat pipe modules or alkali metal loops. The processing approach used to introduce pure alkali metal into heat pipe modules and other test articles are described in this paper.

Salvail, Patrick G.; Carter, Robert R.

2003-01-01

10

Survey of tritiated oil sources and handling practices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tritium interactions with oil sources (primarily associated with pumps) in tritium-handling facilities can lead to the incorporation of tritium in the oil and the production of tritiated hydrocarbons. This results in a source of radiological hazard and the need for special handling considerations during maintenance, decontamination, decommissioning and waste packaging and storage. The results of a general survey of tritiated-oil sources and their associated characteristics, handling practices, analysis techniques and waste treatment/storage methods are summarized here. Information was obtained from various tritium-handling laboratories, fusion devices, and CANDU plants. 38 refs., 1 fig

11

Microbiological surveillance of food handling at NASA-MSFC  

Science.gov (United States)

A microbiological surveillance program of cafeterias and snack bars was conducted to supplement the inspections by NASA Medical Center personnel and to gather information for cafeteria management to pinpoint areas of possible contamination. The work conducted under the program from its inception in January, 1972, to its termination on September 15, 1972 is summarized. Ten food handling facilities were included in the surveillance at NASA-MSFC.

Beyerle, F. J.

1973-01-01

12

Development of sample handling procedures for foods under USDA’s National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) was implemented in 1997 to update and improve the quality of food composition data maintained by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). NFNAP was designed to sample and analyze frequently consumed foods in the U.S. food supply using statistically rigorous sampling plans, established sample handling procedures, and qualified analytical laboratories. Methods for careful handling of food samples from acquisition to analysis were developed to ensure the integrity of the samples and subsequent generation of accurate nutrient values. The infrastructure of NFNAP, under which over 1500 foods have been sampled, mandates tested sample handling protocols for a wide variety of foods. The majority of these foods were categorized into several major areas: 1) frozen foods; 2) fresh produce and/or highly perishable foods requiring refrigeration; 3) fast foods and prepared foods; 4) shelf-stable foods; 5) specialized study and non-retail (point of production) foods; and 6) foods from remote areas (e.g. American Indian reservations). This paper describes the sample handling approaches, from the collection and receipt of the food items to the preparation of the analytical samples, with emphasis on the strategies developed for those foods. It provides a foundation for developing sample handling protocols of foods to be analyzed under NFNAP and for other researchers working on similar projects. PMID:21516233

Trainer, D.; Pehrsson, P.R.; Haytowitz, D.B.; Holden, J.M.; Phillips, K.M.; Rasor, A.S.; Conley, N.A.

2010-01-01

13

Development of sample handling procedures for foods under USDA’s National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program  

OpenAIRE

The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) was implemented in 1997 to update and improve the quality of food composition data maintained by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). NFNAP was designed to sample and analyze frequently consumed foods in the U.S. food supply using statistically rigorous sampling plans, established sample handling procedures, and qualified analytical laboratories. Methods for careful handling of food samples from acquisition to analysis wer...

Trainer, D.; Pehrsson, P. R.; Haytowitz, D. B.; Holden, J. M.; Phillips, K. M.; Rasor, A. S.; Conley, N. A.

2010-01-01

14

The Special Health Education Course Effects on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Preparation, Distribution and Sale Centers Food Staff in Kermanshah  

OpenAIRE

"n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:The food handling employee education program improves food safety. Determining knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) level of workers who prepare, distribute and sale the food products make easy to control food safety. This study aimed to evaluate effects of intensive food safety education course on KAP of food handlers. in Kermanshah."nMaterials andMethods: Knowledge, attitude and practice of 370workers of variety of food handling fields were studied befor...

Rezaee, M.; Almasi, A.; Pirsaheb, M.

2010-01-01

15

Theoretical Insights for Practical Handling of Pressurized Fluids  

Science.gov (United States)

The practical scenarios discussed in a chemistry or chemical engineering course that use solid or liquid reactants are presented. Important ideas to be considered when handling pressurized fluids are provided and three typical examples are described to enable students develop secondary skills such as the selective search of data, identification of…

Aranda, Alfonso; Rodriguez, Maria del Prado

2006-01-01

16

Novel Additive Manufacturing Pneumatic Actuators and Mechanisms for Food Handling Grippers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conventional pneumatic grippers are widely used in industrial pick and place robot processes for rigid objects. They are simple, robust and fast, but their design, motion and features are limited, and they do not fulfil the final purpose. Food products have a wide variety of shapes and textures and are susceptible to damaged. Robot grippers for food handling should adapt to this wide range of dimensions and must be fast, cheap, reasonably reliable, and with cheap and reasonable maintenance costs. They should not damage the product and must meet hygienic conditions. The additive manufacturing (AM process is able to manufacture parts without significant restrictions, and is Polyamide approved as food contact material by FDA. This paper presents that, taking the best of plastic flexibility, AM allows the implementation of novel actuators, original compliant mechanisms and practical grippers that are cheap, light, fast, small and easily adaptable to specific food products. However, if they are not carefully designed, the results can present problems, such as permanent deformations, low deformation limits, and low operation speed. We present possible solutions for the use of AM to design proper robot grippers for food handling. Some successful results, such as AM actuators based on deformable air chambers, AM compliant mechanisms, and grippers developed in a single part will be introduced and discussed.

Carlos Blanes

2014-07-01

17

Food for talk: discursive identities, food choice and eating practices  

OpenAIRE

This thesis focuses on the construction and use of identities in food interaction. Insights from discursive psychology and conversation analysis are drawn upon to examine the interactional functions of identities in online food talk.Discursive psychology (DP) explores how psychological themes, such as identity, are handled and managed in discourse, by participants themselves. The main principle of this approach is that talk is action-oriented. Rather than assuming a cognitive basis for...

Sneijder, P. W. J.

2006-01-01

18

Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic-nozzle sprays.

19

Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic-nozzle sprays.

Lyons, Shawn M; Harrison, Mark A [Food Science and Technology Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-2610 (United States); Law, S Edward, E-mail: edlaw@engr.uga.edu [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Applied Electrostatics Laboratory www.ael.engr.uga.edu, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-4435 (United States)

2011-06-23

20

Liberalisation of municipal waste handling : compatible with sustainable practices?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Liberalisation of municipal waste handling: How are sustainable practices pursued? In the process of liberalization of public services in Europe contracting out the collection of municipal waste has surged. Research in Denmark has shown that municipalities in general have pursued a narrow policy of price reductions in stead of quality demands in both environmental and working environmental terms. A recent study showed major deficits in the capacities of the municipalities to administer qualitative requirements in the tender process and to manage the contracts as an integral part of a scheme for improved performance of municipal waste management. The study stresses the need for training and guidance of municipal administrators. Highlighting ‘best practice’ examples the study shows, however, that it is perfectly possible to end up with quality service on contract. It takes a mixture of careful design of requirement specifications in the tender material and deployment of resources to follow up on the contract and cooperate with the contractor in problem-solving. The study finds the municipalities in a key position to break the ‘vicious circle’ of renouncement of responsibility, untamed market forces and low quality performance. By assuming responsibility, setting and following up on high quality standards the tender instrument presents an additional instrument to legislation and market based means to institutionalize more sustainable practices in waste management

Busck, Ole Gunni

2006-01-01

21

Acute abdominal pain in general practice: tentative diagnoses and handling  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To investigate the spectrum of diagnoses made by general practitioners (GPs) seeing patients with acute abdominal pain, as well as GPs’ handling of these patients. To investigate factors predictive of acute admission to hospital. Design Descriptive study. Setting General practices in southern Norway, autumn 2007 and spring 2008. Subjects A total of 134 patients who were offered an acute appointment with a GP because of abdominal pain. Main outcome measures Tentative diagnosis made and handling of the patient by the GP. Explanatory factors: pain duration, findings on clinical examination. Results The most frequent diagnosis was non-specific pain (20%), followed by gastroenteritis (13%), appendicitis (12%), ulcer disease (11%), gynaecological disease (9%), and urinary tract problems (7%). One-quarter of patients were sent home after clinical examination without any specific action taken. One-quarter were acutely admitted to hospital, and one-quarter were treated with medication. The rest was either referred for further investigations on a non-acute basis (14%) or given a follow-up appointment with the GP (10%). Suspected appendicitis was the strongest predictor for acute admission. Rebound tenderness on clinical examination as well as pain duration for 24 hours or less also independently predicted acute hospital admission. Conclusion GPs face the challenge of meeting a wide and inhomogeneous spectre of complaints when dealing with patients with acute abdominal pain. Three-quarters of patients are taken care of in primary care. PMID:19731181

Brekke, Mette; Eilertsen, Rune Krogh

2009-01-01

22

Food-allergic asthma in general practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was undertaken to assess the importance of food allergy in asthma. Seventy-two asthmatics aged 15-60 years were identified in a general practice and compared with 72 controls matched for age and sex. A diagnostic procedure involving dietary elimination and challenge was carried out on those who thought food exacerbated their symptoms, together with those with concurrent eczema, positive skin tests to food or positive food IgE-RAST. The asthmatics more frequently had positive skin tests of IgE-RAST to food than the controls, but these tests proved to be rather non-specific in identifying provoking foods. One patient was found to be allergic to wheat and his clinical condition improved when wheat was removed from his diet. Two patients seemed to respond to other foodstuffs, but the effects were small, the foods (honey and peppermint) unimportant, and the patients' symptoms appeared to be largely due to other factors. Most cases of alleged food-induced asthma could not be confirmed by challenge testing. This survey suggests that some degree of provocation by food (excluding drink) affects at least 4 per cent of adult asthmatics, although in some of these patients it plays an unimportant part in the disease. PMID:4077572

Burr, M L; Fehily, A M; Stott, N C; Merrett, T G

1985-10-01

23

Critical control points of complementary food preparation and handling in eastern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate microbial contamination and critical control points (CCPs in the preparation and handling of complementary foods in 120 households in Imo state, Nigeria. METHODS: The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP approach was used to investigate processes and procedures that contributed to microbial contamination, growth and survival, and to identify points where controls could be applied to prevent or eliminate these microbiological hazards or reduce them to acceptable levels. Food samples were collected and tested microbiologically at different stages of preparation and handling. FINDINGS: During cooking, all foods attained temperatures capable of destroying vegetative forms of food-borne pathogens. However, the risk of contamination increased by storage of food at ambient temperature, by using insufficiently high temperatures to reheat the food, and by adding contaminated ingredients such as dried ground crayfish and soybean powder at stages where no further heat treatment was applied. The purchasing of contaminated raw foodstuffs and ingredients, particularly raw akamu, from vendors in open markets is also a CCP. CONCLUSION: Although an unsafe environment poses many hazards for children?s food, the hygienic quality of prepared food can be assured if basic food safety principles are observed. When many factors contribute to food contamination, identification of CCPs becomes particularly important and can facilitate appropriate targeting of resources and prevention efforts.

Ehiri John E.

2001-01-01

24

Novel Additive Manufacturing Pneumatic Actuators and Mechanisms for Food Handling Grippers  

OpenAIRE

Conventional pneumatic grippers are widely used in industrial pick and place robot processes for rigid objects. They are simple, robust and fast, but their design, motion and features are limited, and they do not fulfil the final purpose. Food products have a wide variety of shapes and textures and are susceptible to damaged. Robot grippers for food handling should adapt to this wide range of dimensions and must be fast, cheap, reasonably reliable, and with cheap and reasonable maintenance co...

Carlos Blanes; Martín Mellado; Pablo Beltran

2014-01-01

25

Study of Parasitic and Bacterial Infections in the Food-Handling Personnel, Ramadan, Iran  

OpenAIRE

Background: Food-handling personnel play an important role in ensuring food safety throughout the chain of production, processing, storage and preparation. Mishandling and disregard of hygienic measures o...

Zahra Heidar Barghi; Farasat Habibi; Heshmatollah Taherkhani; Siavash Sadeghian; Mohammad Fallah

2011-01-01

26

Handling of maximum acceptable levels of radionuclide contamination of food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the Federal Government has kept the Land Governments informed and has passed on scientifically based recommendations relating to adequate behaviour and food consumption of the population. The Federal Government and the Commission for Radiation Protection (SSK) proceeded according to the so-called 'minimizing principle'. That's why the limiting value for iodine 131 in milk has been so determined as to make sure that an infant who drinks one litre of milk a day for one week, is exposed to not more than 3 rem. The limiting value for iodine 131 in fresh milk has been set at 500 Bq/l. This results in the above-mentioned radiation exposure of the maximum rate of 3 rem. The limiting value for green-leaf vegetables, e.g. spinach, is set at 250 Bq/kg. Thus, a further safety margin is provided for. (orig./HSCH)

27

Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good handling practices. Revision 7  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is continuing the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies in sharing with the nuclear industry their experience in the area of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) shipping containers and handling procedures. The USEC has reviewed Revision 6 or ORO-651 and is issuing this new edition to assure that the document includes the most recent information on UF6 handling procedures and reflects the policies of the USEC. This manual updates the material contained in earlier issues. It covers the essential aspects of UF6 handling, cylinder filling and emptying, general principles of weighing and sampling, shipping, and the use of protective overpacks. The physical and chemical properties of UF6 are also described. The procedures and systems described for safe handling of UF6 presented in this document have been developed and evaluated during more than 40 years of handling vast quantities of UF6. With proper consideration for its nuclear properties, UF6 may be safely handled in essentially the same manner as any other corrosive and/or toxic chemical

28

Practical application of food irradiation in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Turkey is the world's leading producer and exporter of dried fruits (dried figs, raisins,and dried apricots etc.) and nuts (hazelnuts, wall nuts, pistachios, peanuts etc.) all of which have to be fumigated by methyl bromide a few times prior to export. Last fumigation is obligatory before shipment according to current quarantine treatment. Methyl Bromide (MeBr) fumigation is the most commonly used insect quarantine treatment for dried fruits and nuts in Turkey to protect from potential infestations. In accordance with the Montreal Protocol, Turkey as an Article 5(1) country will take actions to regulate and take measures to phase-out MeBr use. So, Turkey has to total phase-out in 2015 but according to Turkey MeBr Phase-out Action Plan prepared and published by The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural affairs in 2001, using MeBr should be reduced for stored commodities by 50 % by 2002 and phased-out totally by 2004. Irradiation technology is ready as an alternative to MeBr fumigation under the Action Plan of Turkey. Intensive research studies on food irradiation in Turkey have started in early 1970's and have still been continued. After careful and intensive works of all related authorities and specialists for a long period and with the help of ICGFI, the food irradiation regulation of Turkey was published in Official Newspaper on November 6, 1999. Having the Food Irradiation Regulation has supported to initiate commercialization study in Turkey in Co-operation with IAEA study in Turkey in Co-operation with IAEA (TUR 5022). Feasibility study of a commercial food irradiation facility for the potential application of food irradiation in Turkey was prepared by IAEA experts Dr.M.Ahmed and Ir. J.P.Lacroix and together with TUR 5022 Research Team in April 2001 in Izmir, Turkey. Gamma-Pak Irradiation Facility in Cerkeskoy-Tekirdag got the commercial food irradiation licence and registration certificate in Feb. 2002. Practical application of food irradiation is getting more attraction in Turkey in parallel with other countries

29

Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good handling practices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For many years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have shared with the nuclear industry their experience in the area of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) shipping containers and handling procedures. The information contained in this manual updates information contained in earlier issues. It covers the essential aspects of UF6 handling, cylinder filling and emptying, general principles of weighing and sampling, shipping, and the use of protective overpacks. The physical and chemical properties of UF6 are also described and tabulated. The nuclear industry is responsible for furnishing its own shipping cylinders and suitable protective overpacks. A substantial effort has been made by the industry to standardize UF6 cylinders, samples, and overpacks. The quality of feed materials is important to the safe and efficient operation of the enriching facilities, and the UF6 product purity from the enriching facilities is equally important to the fuel fabricator, the utilities, the operators of research reactors, and other users. The requirements have been the impetus for an aggressive effort by DOE and its contractors to develop accurate techniques for sampling and for chemical and isotopic analysis. A quality control program is maintained within the DOE enriching facilities to ensure that the proper degree of accuracy and precision are obtained for all the required measurements. The procedures and systems described for safe handling of UF6 presented in this document have been developed and evaluated in DOE facilities during more than 40 years of handling vast quantities of UF6. With proper consideration for its nuclear properties, UF6 may be safely handled in essentially the same manner as any other corrosive and/or toxic chemical

30

Water handling, sanitation and defecation practices in rural southern India: a knowledge, attitudes and practices study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diarrhoea and water-borne diseases are leading causes of mortality in developing countries. To understand the socio-cultural factors impacting on water safety, we documented knowledge, attitudes and practices of water handling and usage, sanitation and defecation in rural Tamilnadu, India, using questionnaires and focus group discussions, in a village divided into an upper caste Main village and a lower caste Harijan colony. Our survey showed that all households stored drinking water in wide-mouthed containers. The quantity of water supplied was less in the Harijan colony, than in the Main village (Pfood, ingesting hair, mud or mosquitoes. Among 97 households interviewed, 30 (30.9%) had toilets but only 25 (83.3%) used them. Seventy-two (74.2%) of respondents defecated in fields, and there was no stigma associated with this traditional practice. Hand washing with soap after defecation and before meals was common only in children under 15 years (86.4%). After adjusting for other factors, perception of quantity of water received (P<0.001), stated causation of diarrhoea (P=0.02) and low socio-economic status (P<0.001) were significantly different between the Main village and the Harijan colony. Traditional practices may pose a significant challenge to programmes aimed at toilet usage and better sanitation. PMID:17765275

Banda, Kalyan; Sarkar, Rajiv; Gopal, Srila; Govindarajan, Jeyanthi; Harijan, Bhim Bahadur; Jeyakumar, Mary Benita; Mitta, Philip; Sadanala, Madhuri Evangeline; Selwyn, Tryphena; Suresh, Christina Rachel; Thomas, Verghese Anjilivelil; Devadason, Pethuru; Kumar, Ranjit; Selvapandian, David; Kang, Gagandeep; Balraj, Vinohar

2007-11-01

31

Critical control points of complementary food preparation and handling in eastern Nigeria.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To investigate microbial contamination and critical control points (CCPs) in the preparation and handling of complementary foods in 120 households in Imo state, Nigeria. METHODS: The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach was used to investigate processes and procedures that contributed to microbial contamination, growth and survival, and to identify points where controls could be applied to prevent or eliminate these microbiological hazards or reduce them to accep...

Ehiri John E.; Azubuike Marcel C.; Ubbaonu Collins N.; Anyanwu Ebere C.; Ibe Kasimir M.; Ogbonna Michael O.

2001-01-01

32

A mixed methods study of food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs in Hispanic families with young children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Children are at a higher risk for foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to explore food safety knowledge, beliefs and practices among Hispanic families with young children (?10 years of age) living within a Midwestern state. A convergent mixed methods design collected qualitative and quantitative data in parallel. Food safety knowledge surveys were administered (n?=?90) prior to exploration of beliefs and practices among six focus groups (n?=?52) conducted by bilingual interpreters in community sites in five cities/towns. Descriptive statistics determined knowledge scores and thematic coding unveiled beliefs and practices. Data sets were merged to assess concordance. Participants were female (96%), 35.7 (±7.6) years of age, from Mexico (69%), with the majority having a low education level. Food safety knowledge was low (56%?±?11). Focus group themes were: Ethnic dishes popular, Relating food to illness, Fresh food in home country, Food safety practices, and Face to face learning. Mixed method analysis revealed high self confidence in preparing food safely with low safe food handling knowledge and the presence of some cultural beliefs. On-site Spanish classes and materials were preferred venues for food safety education. Bilingual food safety messaging targeting common ethnic foods and cultural beliefs and practices is indicated to lower the risk of foodborne illness in Hispanic families with young children. PMID:25178898

Stenger, Kristen M; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K; Perry, Christina; Albrecht, Julie A

2014-12-01

33

Practical application of food irradiation in Asia and the Pacific  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first regional seminar on food irradiation in Asia was held in Tokyo in 1981. In view of several significant international developments on food irradiation it was considered timely to convene the second seminar in this field to assess practical application of food irradiation in the Asian and Pacific region. Over 70 papers were submitted for the Seminar. Eight technical sessions covering practical aspects of food irradiation (e.g. technology transfer, legislation and control, food irradiation facilities and their economics, transportation trials, market testing and consumer acceptance, commercial development of food irradiation, etc.) were included in the Seminar programme. A Working Group to assess the present situation and future application of food irradiation in the region was convened during the Seminar. The report of the Working Group is included in the Proceedings. Refs, figs and tabs

34

Sheep pre-slaughter handling practices and their effect on meat quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aspects related to ovine production systems in Mexico were revisited, as well as the relationship between the transport and the ante-mortem handling with ovine welfare and pre slaughter operations. Animals stress evaluation is fundamental importance for this process, where the observation of animal behavior is basic to determinate and understands the scope of this biological phenomenon. Finally, we make reference to two of the main meat quality attributes that can be affected as consequence of non-appropriated handling practice and operations that implies the un-knowledge of animal conduct. The conclusion is that the handling practices previous to slaughter of ovine specie had a considerable influence on carcass quality. In Mexico is important to focus the cattle research on the productive systems improvement in consideration to animal welfare in the different productive process steps.

Francisco Gerardo Ríos-Rincón

2013-06-01

35

Study of Parasitic and Bacterial Infections in the Food-Handling Personnel, Ramadan, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background: Food-handling personnel play an important role in ensuring food safety throughout the chain of production, processing, storage and preparation. Mishandling and disregard of hygienic measures on their part may enable pathogens to come into contact with food and to cause illness in the consumers. Occasionally, food-handling personnel may transfer to food pathogens that they are carrying in or on their bodies.

Methods: In order to evaluate the role of persons who was working in food handling and processing centers, the study carried out in above-mentioned centers in Ramadan the west of Iran. A total of 938 stool samples collected of persons who were working in the restaurants, confectionaries, milk products stores, Chelo-Kabab houses, sandwich shops etc. All samples examined by culture for entero-pathogens bacteria and by formalin-ether concentration technique for ova and parasites.

Results: A total of 21 samples were suspected to bacteria that, finally 7 samples confirmed by sere-typing identified. These were Shigella boydii (5 samples and Shigella flexeneri (2 samples. Over 74% of stool samples contained one species parasite. Entamoeba coli (45% was the most common parasite followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (39%, E.histolytica (14.5%, and Giardia lamblia (9%. Prevalence rate for helminthes, pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoa were 43%, 26%, and 52.7% respectively. The prevalence of intestinal parasites, as well as intestinal helminthes in persons who had three-monthly check-up and health care were significantly less than others (p < 0.02 .

Conclusion: This study showed food handling personnel are an important source of E. histolytica, G. lamblia pinworm and Shigella distribution in this city.

Zahra Heidar Barghi

2011-09-01

36

Fiscal Food Policy : Equity and Practice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

When it comes to buying food, price is influential, but is a ‘fat tax’ the answer to curb obesity? Dr Stuart G Nicholls from Lancaster University, Assistant Professor Dr Wencke Gwozdz and Professor, Dr Lucia A Reisch from Copenhagen Business School and Dr Kristin Voigt from Lancaster University look at whether a fiscal policy would work.

G. Nicholls, Stuart; Gwozdz, Wencke

2011-01-01

37

Regulation and practice of workers' protection from chemical exposures during container handling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Fumigation of freight containers to prevent spread of pests and off-gassing of freight are sources of volatile chemicals that may constitute significant health risks when released. The aim of the study was to investigate the regulation and practice of container handling in Denmark with focus on preventive measures to reduce risk of chemical exposure. Methods: A comprehensive systematic search of scientific literature, legislation and recommendations related to safe work with transport containers from international and Danish regulatory bodies was performed. The practice of handling containers was investigated in a qualitative study based on a series of semi-structured interviews with key informants, including managers and health and safety representatives of organizations that handle containers. Results: Although several international and national regulations and local safety instructions relate to container handling, the provided information is not sufficiently detailed to conduct safe practicein many aspects. In accordance with the scientific literature, the interviewees estimate that there is a high frequency (5 to 50%) of containers with hazardous chemical exposure that are regarded as potentially damaging to health, although recognisable health effects are rare. There is limited knowledge about the types of chemicals, which mostly cannot be measured by available devices at the worksite. Aeration and use of personal protective equipment are typical preventive measures in practice, but their use is not consistent and does not necessarily ensure adequate protection. Conclusions: Managers, workers, even occupational health professionals have limited knowledge about the hazardous chemicals that can be released from containers. Detailed risk assessment and specific instructions on risk management are needed for safe handling of transport containers.

NØrgaard FlØe Pedersen, Randi; Jepsen, JØrgen Riis

2014-01-01

38

Gender Difference in Safe and Unsafe Practice of Pesticide Handling in Tobacco Farmers of Malaysia  

OpenAIRE

To identify gender difference in safe and unsafe practice of pesticide handling in tobacco farmers of Malaysia, we conducted a 20-item questionnaire interview on storage of pesticide (4 questions), mixing of pesticide (3 questions), use of personal protective equipment and clothing while spraying pesticide (7 questions), activities during and after spraying of pesticide (5 questions), and maintenance of pesticide sprayer (1 question) in 496 tobacco farmers (395 males and 101 females) in Bacho...

Bin Nordin, Rusli; Araki, Shunichi; Sato, Hajime; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Bin Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan; Win Kyi, Daw

2001-01-01

39

Pesticide-handling practices of smallholder coffee farmers in Eastern Jamaica  

OpenAIRE

Pesticide use among smallholder coffee producers in Jamaica has been associated with significant occupational health effects. Research on pesticide handling practices, however, has been scarce, especially in eastern Jamaica. This explorative study aims at filling this gap and provides a first basis to develop effective interventions to promote a safer pesticide use. A random sample of 81 coffee farmers was surveyed. The majority of farmers reported to suffer from at least one health symptom a...

Giuseppe Feola; Dwayne Henry

2013-01-01

40

E-waste in Gaborone, Botswana – assessing the generation, handling practices, and strategies for improvement  

OpenAIRE

E-waste includes components with economic and environmental importance, thus the need for their sound end-of-life management. This study provides fundamentals regarding the amounts, flows, and handling practices of e-waste in Gaborone, Botswana. A number of relevant stakeholder organisations were interviewed and an in situ waste composition study was conducted. The concentration of e-waste arriving at the municipal landfill is less than 1 weight per cent, corresponding to about 1.9 kg/capita/...

Taye, Mesfin; Kanda, Wisdom; Krook, Joakim; Mattias, Lindahl

2013-01-01

41

Pesticide-handling practices of smallholder coffee farmers in Eastern Jamaica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticide use among smallholder coffee producers in Jamaica has been associated with significant occupational health effects. Research on pesticide handling practices, however, has been scarce, especially in eastern Jamaica. This explorative study aims at filling this gap and provides a first basis to develop effective interventions to promote a safer pesticide use. A random sample of 81 coffee farmers was surveyed. The majority of farmers reported to suffer from at least one health symptom associated with pesticide handling, but safety practices were scarcely adopted. There was also the risk that other household members and the wider local community are exposed to pesticides. The lack of training on pesticide management, the role of health services and the cost for protective equipment seemed to be the most significant factors that influence current pesticide handling practices in eastern Jamaica. Further research is recommended to develop a systemic understanding of farmer’s behaviour to provide a more solid basis for the development of future intervention programmes.

Giuseppe Feola

2013-08-01

42

Influence of Handling Practices on Material Recovery from Residential Solid Waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Material recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW is becoming widely adopted in several developing countries. Residential solid waste is one of the most important components of MSW and the handling practices of the MSW by the generators have a major impact on the quality and quantity of the materials for recovery. This article analyzes the generation and composition of residential solid waste and the handling practices by users in three municipalities in Colombia that have a solid waste management plant (SWMP. The findings show that, although there are significant amounts of useful materials, their handling of the materials as “garbage”, the low recognition of recovery work, and the inadequate storage and source management practices, affect material recovery and the operation of SWMPs. These results may be taken as a reference for this type of municipality, because the solid waste management system and the type of operation of the SWMPs analyzed is similar to all of the SWMPs in the country as well as in other countries in the region.

Jairo F. Pereira

2010-07-01

43

Toward practical definitions of quality for food science  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A new practical approach to developing workable definitions of quality is presented to overcome the numerous semantic and conceptual difficulties that an common with the use of the word quality in food science. This approach links the concept of quality, through a general definition, by adding the missing link of specific definitions related to measurable attributes and properties determined by standard methods to provide values that can be used to evaluate foods or to set specifications. It is compatible with control, assurance, HACCP, regulatory, TQM, and other normal uses of the both the word quality, and the concept quality, in food science and technology.

Bremner, Allan

2000-01-01

44

Food Tampering: An Extra Ounce of Caution  

Science.gov (United States)

... also extend to the foods we purchase. The deliberate tampering of food to cause major disease outbreaks ... consumers' refrigerators are no cold enough. Everyone can practice safe food handling by following these four simple ...

45

Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, from practice to theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an allergic disease, probably non-IgE-mediated, with expression predominantly in the GI tract. The most characteristic symptom is repeated, debilitating vomiting. It occurs 2-6 h after ingestion of culprit food and is usually accompanied by pallor and lethargy. There may be diarrhea, and in 10-20% of cases, severe hypotension. These symptoms resolve completely within a few hours. The food most frequently involved is cow's milk, followed by rice, but many other foods may be involved. The prognosis is generally good in a few years. In this review the authors try to cope, with the help of some case histories, with the practical clinical aspects of FPIES. The authors also try to provide a management approach based on current knowledge, and finally, to point out the aspects of FPIES that are still controversial. PMID:23971749

Miceli Sopo, Stefano; Greco, Monica; Monaco, Serena; Tripodi, Salvatore; Calvani, Mauro

2013-08-01

46

Practice of handling radioactive wastes outside the nuclear fuel cycle in Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the handling of radioactive wastes, which are not produced in facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. The actual amounts of radioactive waste are given showing also the fractions coming from institutions under consideration with respect to the total amount. For different areas as institutions producing radioactive waste, plants conditioning the waste, storing facilities or for the planned final repository the practice of handling, conditioning or storing is described; different methods are discussed. As far as possible and reasonable hints or recommendations are worked out. In some areas problems could be identified, e.g. some nuclides as tritium or radium, are not easily conditioned for a final repository, the lack of final prescriptions how to process the waste for the final repository, differing conditions for the waste to be transferred to the intermediate storage facilities, lack of guidelines how to analyse the waste contaminated with short-lifed nuclides after the decay-time before it is deposited, and the lack of harmonized and perhaps centralized facilities to process the waste before it will be stored in the final repository. Facilities should be capable to cope with non-radioactive aspects as chemical or toxic aspects during processing. It may be summarized, that the handling of radioactive waste produced in non-fuel cycle facilities in general has been regulated and planned for the complete line from the beginning to the repository. Though there are still some aspects as those summarized above that may and should be improved

47

21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.  

Science.gov (United States)

21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01...17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...are designed to release a measured amount...liquid, powdered, tablet, capsule...information panel of the immediate container...

2010-04-01

48

76 FR 20509 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food  

Science.gov (United States)

...irradiation of refrigerated or frozen uncooked meat, meat byproducts, and certain meat food products to control food-borne pathogens...toxicology studies of irradiated foods, including red meat, chicken, fish and eggs, which are...

2011-04-13

49

Physiological and subjective assessment of food grain handling workers in West Godavari district, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many rice mills and food grain depots where a large number of workers are engaged for processing paddy and rice, storage and distribution. Lifting, carrying and depositing sacs of food grain are the major jobs carried out by these workers. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the workers with respect to their nutritional status, workload, energy expenditure and musculoskeletal pain or discomfort resulting out of work practice. Average peak heart rate of the depot and rice mill workers suggested the workload as moderate to very heavy. Their average energy expenditure values also indicated the workload as moderate to heavy. Subjective assessment of the workers showed the workload as heavy for 60.7% depot workers and 23.1% rice mill workers. Musculoskeletal pain or discomfort was maximally reported in knee by 59% depot workers whereas low back and knee was reported by 61.5% rice mill workers. Besides the weight of the sac, awkward postures like bending and twisting of trunk adopted frequently causes the problem. Further studies and rationalization of work method may improve the health and safety of the workers. PMID:17284889

Pradhan, Chandan K; Thakur, Sridhar; Chowdhury, Amal R

2007-01-01

50

Myths and facts about Minnesota's new safe patient handling statute and your dental practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the passage of a safe patient handling statute in 2009, Minnesota became one of a growing number of states requiring health care providers to become more aware and accountable about providing appropriate assistance during the movement of patients in clinical care settings. The Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry and the Minnesota Dental Association have been working together to ensure that Minnesota's SPH regulations are as practical as possible for dental providers while still achieving the objectives of the statute. A template Safe Patient Handling Program for Clinics has been developed with substantial input from MDA's ESNA Committee and is now available on the DLI website: www.dli.mn.gov/WSC/SPHlegislation.asp. All Minnesota dental practices should use this template to develop their own safe patient handling program as soon as possible. Additional background information and resources related to Minnesota's SPH regulations are also available on the DLI website. MDA and DLI are currently also developing a hazard assessment tool for dental practices to assess their specific risks associated with patient movement. This hazard assessment will, in turn, guide decisions about what type of safe patient handling equipment and staff training will be necessary for total compliance with the new statute. MDA, in cooperation with DLI, will continue to keep dental professionals informed about when these materials will be available. Additionally, MDA is working to ensure appropriate training options will be available for compliance with SPH regulations. The University of Minnesota's School of Dentistry's Oral Health Services for Older Adults Program and Department of Continuing Dental Education have been regularly providing such training in conjunction with the school's "Miniresidency in Nursing Home and Long-term Care for the Dental Team," and efforts are now underway at the dental school to create stand-alone training options for Minnesota's dental professionals. Further information about SPH training may also be found on the DLI website (www.dli.mn.gov/WSC/SPHlegislation.asp). MDA members can also contact MDA's Elderly and Special Needs Adults Committee via the MDA central office. PMID:21932630

Shuman, Stephen; Simonson, Peggy; Tschida, Breca; Owen, Mary; Ofstehage, John; Glasrud, Patricia

2011-01-01

51

Pooling raw shell eggs: Salmonella contamination and high risk practices in the United Kingdom food service sector.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salmonella contamination of pooled raw shelled egg mix (RSEM) used as an ingredient in lightly cooked or uncooked foods and high-risk kitchen hygiene practices in United Kingdom food service establishments using RSEM were investigated. Samples were collected from 934 premises. Salmonella was found in 1 (0.13%) of 764 RSEM samples, 2 (0.3%) of 726 samples from surfaces where ready-to-eat foods were prepared, and 7 (1.3%) of 550 cleaning cloths. Poor RSEM storage and handling practices were highlighted. Workers in 40% of the premises sampled failed to use designated utensils when RSEM was added to other ingredients, workers in 17% of the premises did not clean surfaces and utensils thoroughly after use with RSEM and before preparing other foods, only 42% of workers washed and dried their hands after handling eggs or RSEM, workers in 41% of the premises did not store RSEM at refrigeration temperature before use, and workers in 8% of the premises added RSEM to cooked rice at the end of cooking when preparing egg fried rice. Take-away premises, especially those serving Chinese cuisine, were least likely to have a documented food safety management system and awareness of the key food safety points concerning the use of RSEM compared with other food service premises (P < 0.0001). Food service businesses using RSEM must be aware of the continuing hazard from Salmonella, must adopt appropriate control measures, and must follow advice provided by national food agencies to reduce the risk of Salmonella infection. PMID:20202348

Gormley, F J; Little, C L; Murphy, N; de Pinna, E; McLauchlin, J

2010-03-01

52

Food safety in hospital: knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing staff of two hospitals in Sicily, Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Food hygiene in hospital poses peculiar problems, particularly given the presence of patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. Moreover, in nosocomial outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, the mortality risk has been proved to be significantly higher than the community outbreaks and highest for foodborne outbreaks. On the other hand, the common involvement in the role of food handlers of nurses or domestic staff, not specifically trained about food hygiene and HACCP, may represent a further cause of concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning food safety of the nursing staff of two hospitals in Palermo, Italy. Association with some demographic and work-related determinants was also investigated. Methods The survey was conducted, by using a semi-structured questionnaire, in March-November 2005 in an acute general hospital and a paediatric hospital, where nursing staff is routinely involved in food service functions. Results Overall, 401 nurses (279, 37.1%, of the General Hospital and 122, 53.5%, of the Paediatric Hospital, respectively) answered. Among the respondents there was a generalized lack of knowledge about etiologic agents and food vehicles associated to foodborne diseases and proper temperatures of storage of hot and cold ready to eat foods. A general positive attitude towards temperature control and using clothing and gloves, when handling food, was shared by the respondents nurses, but questions about cross-contamination, refreezing and handling unwrapped food with cuts or abrasions on hands were frequently answered incorrectly. The practice section performed better, though sharing of utensils for raw and uncooked foods and thawing of frozen foods at room temperatures proved to be widely frequent among the respondents. Age, gender, educational level and length of service were inconsistently associated with the answer pattern. More than 80% of the respondent nurses did not attend any educational course on food hygiene. Those who attended at least one training course fared significantly better about some knowledge issues, but no difference was detected in both the attitude and practice sections. Conclusion Results strongly emphasize the need for a safer management of catering in the hospitals, where non professional food handlers, like nursing or domestic staff, are involved in food service functions. PMID:17407582

Buccheri, Cecilia; Casuccio, Alessandra; Giammanco, Santo; Giammanco, Marco; La Guardia, Maurizio; Mammina, Caterina

2007-01-01

53

Food safety in hospital: knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing staff of two hospitals in Sicily, Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Food hygiene in hospital poses peculiar problems, particularly given the presence of patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. Moreover, in nosocomial outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, the mortality risk has been proved to be significantly higher than the community outbreaks and highest for foodborne outbreaks. On the other hand, the common involvement in the role of food handlers of nurses or domestic staff, not specifically trained about food hygiene and HACCP, may represent a further cause of concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning food safety of the nursing staff of two hospitals in Palermo, Italy. Association with some demographic and work-related determinants was also investigated. Methods The survey was conducted, by using a semi-structured questionnaire, in March-November 2005 in an acute general hospital and a paediatric hospital, where nursing staff is routinely involved in food service functions. Results Overall, 401 nurses (279, 37.1%, of the General Hospital and 122, 53.5%, of the Paediatric Hospital, respectively answered. Among the respondents there was a generalized lack of knowledge about etiologic agents and food vehicles associated to foodborne diseases and proper temperatures of storage of hot and cold ready to eat foods. A general positive attitude towards temperature control and using clothing and gloves, when handling food, was shared by the respondents nurses, but questions about cross-contamination, refreezing and handling unwrapped food with cuts or abrasions on hands were frequently answered incorrectly. The practice section performed better, though sharing of utensils for raw and uncooked foods and thawing of frozen foods at room temperatures proved to be widely frequent among the respondents. Age, gender, educational level and length of service were inconsistently associated with the answer pattern. More than 80% of the respondent nurses did not attend any educational course on food hygiene. Those who attended at least one training course fared significantly better about some knowledge issues, but no difference was detected in both the attitude and practice sections. Conclusion Results strongly emphasize the need for a safer management of catering in the hospitals, where non professional food handlers, like nursing or domestic staff, are involved in food service functions.

La Guardia Maurizio

2007-04-01

54

21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...be set off in a box by use of hairlines. (f) Foods containing psyllium husk. (1) Foods containing dry or incompletely hydrated psyllium husk, also known as psyllium seed husk, and bearing a health claim on the association between...

2010-04-01

55

FoodNet survey of food use and practices in long-term care facilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Foodborne illness is an important problem among the elderly. One risk factor for foodborne illness and diarrhea-associated mortality among the elderly is residence in a long-term care facility (LTCF); thus, these facilities must implement measures to ensure safe food. To assess safe food practices, knowledge, and policies, we used a mailed, self-administered questionnaire to survey food service directors at LTCFs that were certified to receive Medicare or Medicaid at eight Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) sites. Surveys were distributed to 1,630 LTCFs; 55% (865 of 1,568) of eligible facilities returned a completed questionnaire. Only three LTCFs completely followed national recommendations for prevention of Listeria monocytogenes contamination. Nine percent of LTCFs reported serving soft cheeses made from unpasteurized milk. Most LTCFs reported routinely serving ready-to-eat deli meats; however, few reported always heating deli meats until steaming hot before serving (only 19% of the LTCFs that served roast beef, 13% of those that served turkey, and 11% of those that served ham). Most LTCFs (92%) used pasteurized liquid egg products, but only 36% used pasteurized whole shell eggs. Regular whole shell eggs were used by 62% of facilities. Few LTCFs used irradiated ground beef (7%) or irradiated poultry products (6%). The results of this survey allowed us to identify several opportunities for prevention of foodborne illnesses in LTCFs. Some safety measures, such as the use of pasteurized and irradiated foods, were underutilized, and many facilities were not adhering to national recommendations on the avoidance of certain foods considered high risk for elderly persons. Enhanced educational efforts focusing on food safety practices and aimed at LTCFs are needed. PMID:18326188

Nelson, Jennifer M; Bednarczyk, Robert; Nadle, Joelle; Clogher, Paula; Gillespie, Jennifer; Daniels, Allison; Plantenga, Melissa; Ingram, Amanda; Edge, Karen; Furuno, Jon P; Scallan, Elaine

2008-02-01

56

Hygienic Practices among Food Vendors in Educational Institutions in Ghana: The Case of Konongo  

OpenAIRE

With the booming street food industry in the developing world there is an urgent need to ensure food vendors adhere to hygienic practices to protect public health. This study assessed the adherence to food hygiene practices by food vendors in educational institutions in Konongo, Ghana. Structured questionnaires, extensive observation and interviews were used for the study involving 60 food vendors from 20 basic schools. Attributable to the influence of school authorities and the level of in-t...

Isaac Monney; Dominic Agyei; Wellington Owusu

2013-01-01

57

Food Hygiene Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of the Food Handlers in the Military Hospitals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Improper practices and lack of knowledge by food handlers are contributing factors for the spread of foodborne outbreaks. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitude and practice of food handlers in military hospitals in Jordan. A Self completed questionnaire was answered by 200 employees; 150 military employees and 50 civilian employees in 7 Jordanian military hospitals selected randomly one from the capital Amman and two from the three provinces. The results showed that the means of the percentage scores for the knowledge, attitude, practice, were 84.82, 88.88, 89.43, respectively and the overall knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP mean percentage score was 87.88. A significant difference (P 0.05 in these values was observed between the military and civilian employee. The mean percentage scores for knowledge, attitude and practice were 88.5, 93.2, and 91.4, respectively for military employee compared to those for civilian employee of 73.7, 75.8, and 83.5, respectively. A significant difference for the overall (KAP mean percentage score was also observed between gender, education and specific occupation of the food handler. Female KAP percentage mean score was 90.0 and that for males was 86.6; The college or university educations employee had a mean score of 91.6 while the elementary school education employee had a mean score of 79.7; The nutritionists and cooks had statistically similar means of 91.6 but these occupations significantly differ from the waiters 84.4 and cleaners 80.2.

Labib Sharif

2013-03-01

58

Irradiation in the production, processing and handling of food. Final rule.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the food additive regulations to increase the maximum dose of ionizing radiation permitted in the treatment of poultry products, to include specific language intended to clarify the poultry products covered by the regulations, and to remove the limitation that any packaging used during irradiation of poultry shall not exclude oxygen. This action is in response to a petition filed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA/FSIS). PMID:23227569

2012-11-30

59

21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...out of reach of children. In case of...foods requires consumption with adequate...difficulties to avoid consumption of the product...from one or more fruits or vegetables, purees of the...serious illness in children, the...

2010-04-01

60

Special Handling for Ready-to-Eat, Refrigerated Foods: Reducing the Risks of Foodborne Listeria  

Science.gov (United States)

... the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Reducing the Risks of Foodborne Listeria - Easy as . . . Available in ( PDF - ... the refrigerator clean is also important! Who's At Risk People with weakened immune systems are not able ...

61

The significance of post-harvest maize handling to food sufficiency in subsistence farm households in Aframso; Ejura-Sekyeredumansi District, Ghana  

OpenAIRE

The study concentrated on the role postharvest maize handling in subsistence farm household’s food sufficiency in Aframso, Ejura-Sekyeredumansi District, located in the middle belt Ghana. Maize remains an integral crop for subsistence farm households and plays a vital role in safe guarding food security in the country as a whole. It is the most widely consumed staple food in the district and Ghana in general, it happens to be the most important cereal grain in the country. Subsistence farme...

Omane, Kwabena Sarpong

2014-01-01

62

Food irradiation in the control of storage and handling losses in the Philippine onions and garlic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information will be provided on the nature and magnitude of the control of postharvest losses in onions and garlic from the application of irradiation. Control of losses is measured in storage and during post storage marketing of the commodities. Information will also be presented on market tests and survey of consumer reaction to irradiated onions. The benefits of irradiation will be discussed in relation to the need to reduce postharvest losses in the food supply and to address consumer concerns over the safety of food due to the use of chemicals. (author)

63

77 FR 27586 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food  

Science.gov (United States)

...permitting the irradiation of seeds for sprouting to control food-borne pathogens, FDA received numerous...labeling of sprouts grown from seeds that have been irradiated...McCready, ``Nutrients in Seeds and Sprouts of Alfalfa, Lentils, Mung Beans and Soybeans,''...

2012-05-11

64

21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...supplement in solid oral dosage form (e...adequate amounts of fluids, alerting them...food is exposed to fluids. (2) The statement...application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control...feasible, prior oral approval shall be...and may present oral or written...

2010-04-01

65

Putting local food on the menu: comparing the food purchasing practices of Vancouver’s Chinese and fine dining restaurants  

OpenAIRE

In recent years, the concept of local food has attracted a great amount of attention. Little is known, however, about the organization and particular characteristics of local agrifood systems in different regions. This research paper examines the extent to which Chinese and fine dining restaurants in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), purchase products from the local BC food system. The study also explores what factors affect the food purchasing practices, marketing strategies and supply chain...

Smith, Sarah M.

2011-01-01

66

Identifying Key Risk Behaviors Regarding Personal Hygiene and Food Safety Practices of Food Handlers Working in Eating Establishments Located Within a Hospital Campus in Kolkata  

OpenAIRE

Background: Hospital canteens cater to a large population group and personal hygiene and food safety practices of food handlers assume immense importance to prevent food borne disease outbreaks. Objectives: To assess the self-reported behaviour of food handlers on personal hygiene and food safety practices and to find out their morbidity profile. Methods: An observational study was conducted by interviewing 67 consenting food handlers working in different eateries inside a hospital campus, us...

Prianka Mukhopadhyay, Gautam Kr Joardar

2012-01-01

67

Code of practice for the control and safe handling of radioactive sources used for therapeutic purposes (1988)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Code is intended as a guide to safe practices in the use of sealed and unsealed radioactive sources and in the management of patients being treated with them. It covers the procedures for the handling, preparation and use of radioactive sources, precautions to be taken for patients undergoing treatment, storage and transport of radioactive sources within a hospital or clinic, and routine testing of sealed sources

68

A practical approach to the assesment of manual handling equipment for cargo: multinational abrasives in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Manual Handling of Loads is an activity present in virtually all production system, when developed without ergonomic principles of design and sizing can generate several instances of discomfort and musculoskeletal disorders. This work was carried out to measure, set limits and risks and guide specifications for the cargo handling carts in a specific company, tracing the anthropometric profile of the productive population and performing a quantitative evaluation of forces and design models of cars used in the company. PMID:22317569

Barbosa Neto, João; Centeio, Eduardo Aparecido; de Sampaio Siqueira, Fernando; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

2012-01-01

69

Generic Planning and Control of Automated Material Handling Systems: Practical Requirements Versus Existing Theory  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses the problem of generic planning and control of Automated Material Handling Systems (AMHSs). The paper illustrates the relevance of this research direction, and then addresses three different market sectors where AMHSs are used. These market sectors are: baggage handling, distribution, and parcel & postal. Research in these sectors is heavily motivated by a collaboration between the authors and a major global company supplying AMHSs. The paper analyzes requirements from pr...

Haneyah, Sameh; Zijm, Henk; Schutten, Marco; Schuur, Peter

2011-01-01

70

Standard Practice for Handling, Transporting, and Installing Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) Sample Plates Used in Environmentally Controlled Areas for Spacecraft  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This practice covers the handling, transporting, and installing of sample plates used for the gravimetric determination of nonvolatile residue (NVR) within and between facilities. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2007-01-01

71

76 FR 51308 - Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule  

Science.gov (United States)

...Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices...may file a comment online or on paper, by...Retail Food Store Advertising Rule, Project No...file your comment online at https://ftcpublic...with respect to the advertising by retail food stores...can file a comment online or on paper....

2011-08-18

72

Clarifying concepts of food parenting practices. A Delphi study with an application to snacking behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inconsistencies in measurements of food parenting practices continue to exist. Fundamental to this problem is the lack of clarity about what is understood by different concepts of food parenting practices. The purpose of this study was to clarify food parenting practice concepts related to snacking. A three round Delphi study among an international group of experts (n = 63) was conducted. In the first round, an open-ended survey was used to collect food parenting practice descriptions and concept labels associated with those practices. In the second round, participants were asked to match up descriptions with the appropriate concept labels. The third and final round allowed participants to reconsider how descriptions and concept labels were matched, taking into account the opinions expressed in round two. Round one produced 408 descriptions of food parenting practices and 110 different concept names. Round two started with 116 descriptions of food parenting practices and 20 concept names. On 40 descriptions, consensus regarding the underlying concept name was reached in round two. Of the remaining 76 descriptions, consensus on 47 descriptions regarding the underlying concept name was reached in round three. The present study supports the essential process of consensus development with respect to food parenting practices concepts. PMID:24732407

Gevers, D W M; Kremers, S P J; de Vries, N K; van Assema, P

2014-08-01

73

Facts about food irradiation: Microbiological safety of irradiated food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This fact sheet considers the microbiological safety of irradiated food, with especial reference to Clostridium botulinum. Irradiated food, as food treated by any ''sub-sterilizing'' process, must be handled, packaged and stored following good manufacturing practices to prevent growth and toxin production of C. botulinum. Food irradiation does not lead to increased microbiological hazards, nor can it be used to save already spoiled foods. 4 refs

74

Sexuality and the Schools: Handling the Critical Issues. the Practicing Administrator's Leadership Series. Roadmaps to Success.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book provides suggestions for handling important and emotionally charged issues of sexuality in the schools. Six chapters offer information on teenage pregnancy, HIV and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), sexual orientation, sexual harassment, and sex education. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Searching for Intimacy"…

Curcio, Joan L.; And Others

75

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food irradiation is a promising technology in which food products are exposed to a controlled amount of radiant energy to eliminate disease-causing bacteria. The process can also control parasites and insects, reduce spoilage and inhibit ripening and sprouting. Food irradiation is endorsed by the most important health organisations (WHO, CDC, USDA, FDA, EFSA, etc.) and allowed in nearly 40 Countries. It is to remember that irradiation is not a substitute either for comprehensive food safety programs or for good food-handling practices. Irradiated foods must be labelled with either the statement treated with radiation or treated by irradiation and the international symbol for irradiation, the radura. Some consumer associations suppose negative aspects of irradiation, such as increase of the number of free radicals in food and decrease of antioxidant vitamins that neutralize them

76

A Collective Case Study of the Influence of Teachers' Beliefs and Knowledge on Error-Handling Practices during Class Discussion of Mathematics  

Science.gov (United States)

This collective case study examines the influence of 4 third-grade teachers' beliefs and knowledge on their error-handling practices during class discussion of mathematics. Study findings suggest that, although teachers' ways of handling student errors during class discussion of mathematics are clearly linked to both teacher beliefs and teacher…

Bray, Wendy S.

2011-01-01

77

Sample handling in surface sensitive chemical and biological sensing: a practical review of basic fluidics and analyte transport.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper gives an overview of the advantages and associated caveats of the most common sample handling methods in surface-sensitive chemical and biological sensing. We summarize the basic theoretical and practical considerations one faces when designing and assembling the fluidic part of the sensor devices. The influence of analyte size, the use of closed and flow-through cuvettes, the importance of flow rate, tubing length and diameter, bubble traps, pressure-driven pumping, cuvette dead volumes, and sample injection systems are all discussed. Typical application areas of particular arrangements are also highlighted, such as the monitoring of cellular adhesion, biomolecule adsorption-desorption and ligand-receptor affinity binding. Our work is a practical review in the sense that for every sample handling arrangement considered we present our own experimental data and critically review our experience with the given arrangement. In the experimental part we focus on sample handling in optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) measurements, but the present study is equally applicable for other biosensing technologies in which an analyte in solution is captured at a surface and its presence is monitored. Explicit attention is given to features that are expected to play an increasingly decisive role in determining the reliability of (bio)chemical sensing measurements, such as analyte transport to the sensor surface; the distorting influence of dead volumes in the fluidic system; and the appropriate sample handling of cell suspensions (e.g. their quasi-simultaneous deposition). At the appropriate places, biological aspects closely related to fluidics (e.g. cellular mechanotransduction, competitive adsorption, blood flow in veins) are also discussed, particularly with regard to their models used in biosensing. PMID:24846752

Orgovan, Norbert; Patko, Daniel; Hos, Csaba; Kurunczi, Sándor; Szabó, Bálint; Ramsden, Jeremy J; Horvath, Robert

2014-09-01

78

Principles of the Codex general standard for irradiated foods and associated code of practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Codex Alimentarius Commission, which is the Executive Organ of the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, adopted in 1983 a General Standard for Irradiated Foods and a Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods. The Standard takes into account the conclusions of Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committees, convened to evaluate all available data concerning the effects of irradiation treatment on food, including extensive wholesomeness data and animal tests. The Standard represents a set of principles and requirements for the process and for the irradiated product. It does not go into details concerning the application of food irradiation to individual food products on groups of food products in accordance with good irradiation practice. Such details are covered in a special Codes of Good Irradiation Practice elaborated by the FAO/IAEA/WHO International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation. The lecture will describe the various provisions of the Codex Standard for Irradiated Foods and the Code and provide explanation of the intent of these provisions, drawing attention to the actual practices followed by Governments in regulating food irradiation. (author). 12 refs

79

Survey of Food-hygiene Practices at Home and Childhood Diarrhoea in Hanoi, Viet Nam  

OpenAIRE

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the potential factors of food-hygiene practices of mothers on the prevalence of diarrhoea among their children. Mothers who had children aged 6 months–5 years were recruited in a hamlet in Viet Nam. The food-hygiene practices included hand-washing, method of washing utensils, separation of utensils for raw and cooked food, and the location where foods were prepared for cooking. A face-to-face interview was conducted, and data on 206 mothe...

Takanashi, Kumiko; Chonan, Yuko; Quyen, Dao To; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine

2009-01-01

80

What do Andy Warhol, pecorino and wasabi have in common? Food practices in Ljubljana and Maribor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors present an analysis of food practices based on the research project »Media consumption, class and cultural stratification«. A cluster analysis of data obtained from a random sample of the adult population in Ljubljana and Maribor, the two biggest cities in Slovenia, revealed four food cultures: Aspiring traditionalists (27% of the sample, Struggling traditionalists (32%, Health conscious and socially responsible hedonists (29% and Traditionalists, adapted to urban trends (12%. The findings support previous research which recognises significant associations between food practices, socio-demographic factors (particularly education, values and cultural consumption. The data show that food practices in Ljubljana and Maribor are still primarily traditionalistic, as are several other practices of everyday life.

Tanja Kamin

2012-12-01

81

Knowledge and Practice of Prechewing/Prewarming Food by HIV-Infected Women  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: HIV transmission has been associated with offering a child food prechewed by an HIV-infected caregiver. We assessed awareness of prechewing and oral prewarming of food by an adult before offering it to a child among HIV-infected pregnant women and clinical investigators in 3 Latin American countries. METHODS: HIV-infected pregnant women at 12 sites (Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Longitudinal Study in Latin American Countries, a prospective cohort trial) in Argentina, Brazil, and Peru were administered a screening survey about prechewing/prewarming of infant foods and cautioned against these feeding practices. Survey responses were analyzed, overall, and stratified according to country. RESULTS: Of the 401 HIV-infected pregnant women interviewed, 34% had heard about prechewing (50% from Argentina, 32% from Brazil, and 36% from Peru), 23% knew someone who prechewed food for infants, and 4% had prechewed food in the past. Seventeen percent had heard about oral prewarming of food, 13% knew someone who prewarmed food for infants, and 3% had prewarmed food for an infant in the past. Women who reported knowing someone who prechewed were more likely to also know someone who prewarmed food (P < .0001). Few site investigators anticipated that their patients would be aware of these practices. CONCLUSIONS: Prechewing food, a potential risk factor for HIV transmission, and orally prewarming food, which has not been associated with HIV transmission but might expose a child to blood from an HIV-infected adult, are not uncommon practices in Latin America. Both practices should be further investigated. Site investigator responses underscore that health care providers could be missing information about cultural practices that patients may not report unless specifically asked. PMID:21482608

Freimanis-Hance, Laura; Dominguez, Kenneth; Mitchell, Charles; Menezes, Jacqueline; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Peixoto, Mario F.; Alarcon, Jorge; Coelho, Debora F.; Read, Jennifer S.

2011-01-01

82

Food irradiation in practice, present status in the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When an irradiated human food item is considered to be feasible for commercialization, two obstacles are still to be taken: governmental approval and consumer acceptance. The present Dutch situation is compared to recent developments towards approval of the technique by international authorities. The effect of this approval and of the remaining problems with respect to consumer acceptance on the Dutch market for food items is discussed. Three commodities are used as examples to demonstrate the present Dutch situation

83

MEMS product engineering handling the diversity of an emerging technology best practices for cooperative development  

CERN Document Server

This book provides the methodological background to directing cooperative product engineering projects in a micro and nanotechnology setting. The methodology is based on well-established methods like PRINCE2 and StageGate, which are supplemented by best practices that can be individually tailored to the actual nature and size of the project at hand. This book is intended for everyone who takes an active role in either practical product engineering or in teaching it. This includes project and product management staff and program management offices in companies working on innovation projects, those active in innovation, as well as professors and students in engineering and management.

Ortloff, Dirk; Hahn, Kai; Bieniek, Tomasz; Janczyk, Grzegorz; Bruck, Rainer

2014-01-01

84

Assessing the Level of Hygienic Practices among Street Food Vendors in Sunyani Township  

OpenAIRE

In recent time, there has been an increased in the springing up of street food vendors across the country and there is therefore an urgent need to ensure that street food vendors adhere to hygienic practices to protect public health. The main aim of the study is to assess the level of hygienic practices of street Food vendors in Sunyani Township. The study adopted descriptive approach and survey was used to gather primary data from 140 respondents. Questionnaires were used to gather data from...

Noble Amoako Sarkodie; Emmanuel Kofi Bempong; Olivia Naa Tetteh; Asana Constance Saaka; Golly Kwaku Moses

2014-01-01

85

Practical applications of phage-based technologies in food safety  

OpenAIRE

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major foodborne pathogen. It produces Shiga toxins that cause bloody diarrhea and, in some cases, hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. E. coli O157:H7 mainly colonizes the intestine of cattle. Once infected, cattle can shed high concentrations of the bacteria leading to widespread transmission along the food production chain. Here, we describe the successful application of bacteriophages for the control of E. coli O157:H7 in food matrices. Sixteen of wild-type an...

Pan, Yanying

2013-01-01

86

Street-Vended Foods Improvement: Contamination Mechanisms and Application of Food Safety Objective Strategy : Critical Review  

OpenAIRE

Data collected from street-vended food enterprises and on vendors in west African countries revealed that, they provide a variety of ready-to-eat foods to a high proportion of the populations. Nevertheless, their handling and trading practices are not permit to obtain safe food. While, street-vended foods are easily contaminated by food borne pathogen and others chemicals compounds. The street-vended foods contamination mechanisms were identified and improvement pathways were suggested. Indee...

Barro Nicolas; Bello Abdoul Razack; Itsiembou Yollande; Savadogo Aly; Ouattara Cheik Amadou Tidiane; de Souza Comlan A.; Traore Alfred Sababenedjo; Nikiema Augustin Philippe

2007-01-01

87

Identifying Key Risk Behaviors Regarding Personal Hygiene and Food Safety Practices of Food Handlers Working in Eating Establishments Located Within a Hospital Campus in Kolkata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Hospital canteens cater to a large population group and personal hygiene and food safety practices of food handlers assume immense importance to prevent food borne disease outbreaks. Objectives: To assess the self-reported behaviour of food handlers on personal hygiene and food safety practices and to find out their morbidity profile. Methods: An observational study was conducted by interviewing 67 consenting food handlers working in different eateries inside a hospital campus, using a pretested, predesigned schedule. Results: Majority (46.3% of food handlers were educated upto primary level. Only 14.9% foodhandlers received preplacement training and 10.5%, preplacement medical checkup. Though practices of hand washing after going to toilet (95.5% and before preparing food (79.1% was reported to be quite high but for most other practices, hygiene was found to be low. Cuts/injuries on hands was reported as the most common morbidity in 44.8% but 11.9% continued work without any treatment. Conclusion: Preplacement training and in-service education on personal / food hygiene should be provided to all food handlers. Periodic medical checkups and routine sanitary inspection can improve their adherence to personal hygiene and food safety practices and prevent outbreak of food borne illnesses

Prianka Mukhopadhyay*, Gautam Kr. Joardar, Kanad Bag, Amrita Samanta, Sonali Sain and Sesadri Koley

2012-01-01

88

Practical issues in handling data input and uncertainty in a budget impact analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this paper was to address the importance of dealing systematically and comprehensively with uncertainty in a budget impact analysis (BIA) in more detail. The handling of uncertainty in health economics was used as a point of reference for addressing the uncertainty in a BIA. This overview shows that standard methods of sensitivity analysis, which are used for standard data set in a health economic model (clinical probabilities, treatment patterns, resource utilisation and prices/tariffs), cannot always be used for the input data for the BIA model beyond the health economic data set for various reasons. Whereas in a health economic model, only limited data may come from a Delphi panel, a BIA model often relies on a majority of data taken from a Delphi panel. In addition, the dataset in a BIA model also includes forecasts (e.g. annual growth, uptakes curves, substitution effects, changes in prescription restrictions and guidelines, future distribution of the available treatment modalities, off-label use). As a consequence, the use of standard sensitivity analyses for BIA data set might be limited because of the lack of appropriate distributions as data sources are limited, or because of the need for forecasting. Therefore, scenario analyses might be more appropriate to capture the uncertainty in the BIA data set in the overall BIA model. PMID:20364289

Nuijten, M J C; Mittendorf, T; Persson, U

2011-06-01

89

Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: Initiatives, practices, and consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discarded electronic goods contain a range of toxic materials requiring special handling. Developed countries have conventions, directives, and laws to regulate their disposal, most based on extended producer responsibility. Manufacturers take back items collected by retailers and local governments for safe destruction or recovery of materials. Compliance, however, is difficult to assure, and frequently runs against economic incentives. The expense of proper disposal leads to the shipment of large amounts of e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other developing countries. Shipment is often through middlemen, and under tariff classifications that make quantities difficult to assess. There, despite the intents of national regulations and hazardous waste laws, most e-waste is treated as general refuse, or crudely processed, often by burning or acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released, harm to the environment, workers, and area residents is inevitable. The faster growth of e-waste generated in the developing than in the developed world presages continued expansion of a pervasive and inexpensive informal processing sector, efficient in its own way, but inherently hazard-ridden. - Highlights: ? Much e-waste, expensive to process safely, illegally goes to developing countries. ? E-waste processing in developing countries pollutes with heavy metals and dioxins. ? Well-conceived developing world waste regulations lack enforceability. ? Crude e-waste processing cannot recover several rare materials. ? The amount of e-waste unsafely processed will continue to grow.

Sthiannopkao, Suthipong, E-mail: suthisuthi@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Dong-A University, 37 Nakdong-Daero 550 beon-gil Saha-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Wong, Ming Hung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

2013-10-01

90

Impact Analysis of Knowledge Practice for Food Safety in Urban Area of Varanasi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was planned with main objective of identifying buying practices of homemakers and their awareness in food practices in Varanasi (urban area. For this objective, questionnaire was prepared and distributed among selected people depends on their age group, sex and educational background. Statistical test were carried out on the basis of frequency of male and female respondents obtained in total respondents (n = 300. Chi square test were carried out and the calculated value were compared with value of t test (0.05 and on this basis, conclusion were drawn. Correlation between different variables was determined for their impact. Study revealed that educated people of both sexes follow slightly good buying practices while homemakers are not following food practices and also they differ significantly in following the practices in term of use of quality water which affects the family health. Study also revealed that age and awareness are not interlinked while education is interlinked with good practices.

S.M. Bhatt

2010-01-01

91

Command and Data Handling Flight Software test framework: A Radiation Belt Storm Probes practice  

Science.gov (United States)

During the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission, a test framework was developed by the Embedded Applications Group in the Space Department at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The test framework is implemented for verification of the Command and Data Handling (C& DH) Flight Software. The RBSP C& DH Flight Software consists of applications developed for use with Goddard Space Flight Center's core Flight Executive (cFE) architecture. The test framework's initial concept originated with tests developed for verification of the Autonomy rules that execute with the Autonomy Engine application of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software. The test framework was adopted and expanded for system and requirements verification of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software. During the evolution of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software test framework design, a set of script conventions and a script library were developed. The script conventions and library eased integration of system and requirements verification tests into a comprehensive automated test suite. The comprehensive test suite is currently being used to verify releases of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software. In addition to providing the details and benefits of the test framework, the discussion will include several lessons learned throughout the verification process of RBSP C& DH Flight Software. Our next mission, Solar Probe Plus (SPP), will use the cFE architecture for the C& DH Flight Software. SPP also plans to use the same ground system as RBSP. Many of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software applications are reusable on the SPP mission, therefore there is potential for test design and test framework reuse for system and requirements verification.

Hill, T. A.; Reid, W. M.; Wortman, K. A.

92

Practical radioprotection data for the handling of radionuclides. The case of tritium and tritiated compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document assembles the latest facts available on tritium and its compounds. Practical values are given on questions to which experimentalists and users must normally reply to insure their safety. The medical aspect of supervision is also broached. This kind of data presentation complements the information on technical radioprotection sheets sent out under the double stamp of the S.C.P.R.I. and the INRS. They deserve to be examined seriously as a model on which to base equivalent documents concerning commonly used radionuclides

93

Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment and Excess Sludge Handling Practices in the Federated States of Micronesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of wastewater treatment facilities in the Federated States of Micronesia revealed a lack of fully functional treatment systems and conditions that potentially could lead to adverse environmental impacts and public health concerns. Due to inadequate facilities, the amount and composition of wastewater entering the plants as well as the degree of treatment being achieved is largely unknown. In some cases raw sewage is being discharged directly into the ocean and waste sludge is regularly taken by local residents for agricultural purposes without adequate treatment. In addition, the need to establish best management practices for placement and maintenance of septic tanks is urgent. Furthermore, development of eco-friendly solutions is needed to more effectively treat wastewater from industrial and agricultural sources in an effort to abate current pollution problems. Comparisons of treatment methods being used and problems encountered at different locations in the islands would provide valuable information to aid in the development of sustainable treatment practices throughout Micronesia.

Joseph D. Rouse

2013-09-01

94

Assessing the Level of Hygienic Practices among Street Food Vendors in Sunyani Township  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent time, there has been an increased in the springing up of street food vendors across the country and there is therefore an urgent need to ensure that street food vendors adhere to hygienic practices to protect public health. The main aim of the study is to assess the level of hygienic practices of street Food vendors in Sunyani Township. The study adopted descriptive approach and survey was used to gather primary data from 140 respondents. Questionnaires were used to gather data from the respondents and with the help of research assistance the questionnaire were delivered to the premises of the vendors. Data obtained from the study were analyzed by using SPSS and the results were presented in the form of tables. The study revealed that street food vending trade is predominantly a job for women in Sunyani and 85% of the respondents had no any form of training workshop on personal, food and kitchen hygiene. Furthermore, the study revealed that, respondents practiced minimal hygienic practices. The researchers strongly recommended that, Sunyani Metropolitan Assembly should occasionally organized seminars on basic training in personal, kitchen and food hygiene. This is to ensure that they follow the required rules for proper hygiene and sanitation.

Noble Amoako Sarkodie

2014-01-01

95

Analysis of School Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine how school districts have implemented food safety programs based on HACCP principles. Specific objectives included: (1) Evaluate how schools are implementing components of food safety programs; and (2) Determine foodservice employees food-handling practices related to food safety.…

Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin; Sneed, Jeannie; Kwon, Junehee; Olds, David; Cole, Kerri; Shanklin, Carol

2014-01-01

96

78 FR 34565 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam...X-Ray Sources for Irradiation of Poultry Feed...regulations for irradiation of animal feed and pet food that appeared in...regulations for irradiation of animal feed and pet food that appeared...

2013-06-10

97

Practical Experience with Remediation of a Former Active Handling Building Site in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the year 2000, Nuvia has been contracted to carry out the decommissioning of a former Active Handling Building A59 on the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) site at Winfrith in Dorset. This is in support of UKAEA's mission, which is to carry out environmental restoration of its nuclear sites and to put them to alternative uses wherever possible. Latterly, a new body, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), has become responsible for managing the UK decommissioning legacy and since 2004 UKAEA has been contracted to the NDA to deliver decommissioning work at Winfrith and other UK sites. The earlier operations concentrated mainly upon the clearance and decontamination of two heavily shielded suites of caves, originally used to carry out remote examination of irradiated nuclear fuel elements, together with a range of within-building support facilities. In 2006 the main containment building structure was demolished as well as the two suites of caves, leaving the base slab for final removal. The demolition contract with UKAEA required removal of the base slab and recovery for disposal of a quantity of encast, internally contaminated items such as secondary active drain pipes, active ventilation ducting and more than 100 steel mortuary tubes set up to 6.6 m deep into the slab. The scope of the work also required the underlying soil to be carefully monitored for the presence of radioactive contamination and, if detected, its remediation to an end state detected, its remediation to an end state suitable for un-restricted use without planning or nuclear regulatory controls. These latter operations form the basis of this paper, which reviews some of the significant tasks undertaken during the process and also sets out the development of a robust waste monitoring strategy for the recovered concrete debris ahead of its disposal. This has enabled more than four thousand tons of debris to be classified as SOLA (Substance of Low Activity), allowing disposal to landfill. This will include details of the development of a system, including a bag monitoring procedure, used to support the classification of some concrete debris as SOLA material. Currently, the base slab has been completely demolished and all encast items recovered for disposal, including the deep mortuary tubes. This was only achievable by the installation of a dewatering system which enabled safe excavation. These latter operations were challenging owing to the significant depth of some of the items to be removed and the unconsolidated sediments underlying the site. The paper will discuss the main issues involved with the remediation of features within the concrete slab and the underlying soils. These will include comments on the ground conditions, soil structures, groundwater levels and problems associated with provision of waste storage areas and their various impacts upon project progress. Several challenging areas of the slab such as the original decontamination bay and pressurised suit area sump have been removed and the paper will describe how the underlying soils were monitored using a GroundhogTM based system ahead of final remediation and waste sentencing. One area of particular significance to the remediation process has been the use of office-based contaminated land assessment tools including ReCLAIM, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet based tool used to assess current and future impacts of radiological contamination at nuclear licensed sites. Finally, during these operations, evidence of ground contamination has been detected by routine monitoring and the methods taken to remove and remediate the underlying soils will be described together with details of the surveillance systems utilised. Some examples of the problems encountered during the remediation will be described, potentially of value to others working in a similar field. (authors)

98

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice between Medical and Non-Medical Sciences Students about Food Labeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Considering the significant role of consumers’ awareness about food labels in making healthy food choices, this study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and prac-tice of university students about food labeling.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 332 students aged 18-25 yr in five different academic ma-jors (including Nutrition, Public Health, Health Services Administration, Paramedical and En-gineering were asked to complete an approved questionnaire contained fifteen questions. The chi-square test was applied to examine the differences across various major groups.Results: 89.2% of the students believed that food labels had effect on nutritional awareness. 77.4% were agreed with the usefulness of the food labels and 79.2% did not feel that nutrition claims on food label were truthful. For 84% of students, the expiry date and storage conditions information were the most important informational cues to appear on the food labels. From 47.6% of students who reported the use of nutrition facts label in their often or always shopping; only 32.3% used the information on labels to fit the food into their daily diet. Surprisingly, fatty acids were the least noteworthy items (1.9% on nutrition facts labels. Regarding students’ major, there was significant difference in their knowledge, attitude and practice about truth of the nutri-tion claims, using food labels and importance of health claims (P<0.05.Conclusion: Food labels were more useful tools for students and had an effect on their nutri-tional awareness. Designing and implementation of the educational programs in order to increase the level of knowledge about food labels is suggested.

Aida Malek Mahdavi

2012-12-01

99

Practical handling of AIO admixtures – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 10  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available All-in-one admixtures (AIO-admixtures provide safe, effective and low-risk PN (parenteral nutrition for practically all indications and applications. Water, energy (carbohydrates and lipids, amino acids, vitamins and trace elements are infused together with PN either as industrially-manufactured AIO admixtures provided as two- or three-chamber bags (shelf life usually more than 12 months completed with electrolytes and micronutrients where appropriate or as individually compounded ready-to-use AIO admixtures (compounding, usually prepared by a pharmacy on either a daily or weekly basis and stored at 2–8°C. Physico-chemical and microbial stability of an AIO admixture is essential for the safety and effectiveness of patient-specific PN, and its assurance requires specialist pharmaceutical knowledge. The stability should be documented for an application period of 24 (–48 hours. It is advisable to offer a limited selection of different PN regimes in each hospital. For reasons of drug and medication safety, PN admixtures prepared for individual patients must be correctly labelled and specifications for storage conditions must also be followed during transport. Monitoring is required where applicable. Micronutrients are usually administered separately to AIO admixtures. In case compatibility and stability have been well documented trace elements and/or combination preparations including water-soluble or water-soluble/fat soluble vitamin supplements can be added to PN admixtures under strict aseptic conditions. AIO admixtures are usually not used as vehicles for drugs (incompatibilities.

Stanga, Z.

2009-11-01

100

"Our" food versus "my" food. Investigating the relation between childhood shared food practices and adult prosocial behavior in Belgium.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on the connection between prosocial behavior, defined as acting in ways that benefit others, and shared meals, defined as meals that consist of food(s) shared with others. In contrast to individual meals, where consumers eat their own food and perhaps take a sample of someone else's dish as a taste, shared meals are essentially about sharing all the food with all individuals. Consequently, these meals create situations where consumers are confronted with issues of fairness and respect. One should not be greedy and consume most of a dish; instead, rules of polite food sharing need to be obeyed. It is therefore proposed that those who have often engaged in shared meals during childhood will have a more prosocial personality, as compared to those who less often took part in shared meals during childhood. To test this hypothesis, data about frequency of shared meals during childhood and altruistic personality in early adulthood were collected using a cross-sectional survey in Belgium (n?=?487). Results confirm that higher levels of shared meal consumption correspond to higher scores on the self-report altruism scale among students. PMID:25265154

De Backer, Charlotte J S; Fisher, Maryanne L; Poels, Karolien; Ponnet, Koen

2015-01-01

101

Social innovation in local food in Japan: Choku-bai-jo markets and Teikei cooperative practices  

OpenAIRE

The working paper depicts two innovative examples from Japan of the direct supply of food, which involves the development of closer producer-consumer relations, as well as closer producer-producer networks. Choku-bai-jo and Teikei networks are considered as examples of practices implicated in alternative food networks (AFNs). One example has become a quasi-public endeavour and is seen by the Japanese state as a legitimate part of rural development and is promoted in support of small producer...

Parker, Gavin

2014-01-01

102

What do Andy Warhol, pecorino and wasabi have in common? Food practices in Ljubljana and Maribor  

OpenAIRE

The authors present an analysis of food practices based on the research project »Media consumption, class and cultural stratification«. A cluster analysis of data obtained from a random sample of the adult population in Ljubljana and Maribor, the two biggest cities in Slovenia, revealed four food cultures: Aspiring traditionalists (27% of the sample), Struggling traditionalists (32%), Health conscious and socially responsible hedonists (29%) and Traditionalists, adapted to urban trends (12%...

Tanja Kamin; Blanka Tivadar; Samo Kropivnik

2012-01-01

103

Food Safety Practices on Dairy Farms in Turkey: A Case Study of Izmir Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the food safety and quality practices on dairy farms that are located in Izmir province. By means of a survey in which dairy farmers responded to a special questionnaire, data were collected from 103 dairy farmers. Chi-square (Test of Independence, Variance (one-way ANOVA and Kruskall Wallis Test were used to analyze the data. The 5-point Likert scale was used in measuring problems raised in dairy farming about food safety and quality practices and proposed solutions for problems from farmers.

Figen Cukur

2012-01-01

104

INDIGENOUS FOOD GRAIN STORAGE PRACTICES FOLLOWED BY TRIBAL FARMERS OF NANDURBAR DISTRICT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out during 2013-2014 to assess the current status of various traditional food grain storage practices followed by farmers in different villages of Nandurbar district of Maharashtra state. The storage practices were found to vary depending upon the climatic conditions and rainfall. In traditional method of storage, farmers are depending on local resources and practices. Observations revealed that a large number of farmers still practice the traditional storage system such as use of natural products like dry neem leaves, wood or cow dung ,ash, smearing of neem oil, turmeric, lime powder and camphor for effective storage. These eco-friendly methods of storage food grains in use since a very long period have withstood the test of time.

Rekha Bhaskar Karabhari

2014-10-01

105

Children's Visual Representations of Food and Meal Time: Towards an Understanding of Nutrition and Educational Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the broad perspective of school and social exclusion, this article pays attention to an important factor of exclusion: overweight and obesity in primary school children. An interdisciplinary research was conducted and aimed at the study of social representations and practices surrounding food which primary school children, their parents and…

Savoie-Zajc, Lorraine

2005-01-01

106

Identifying and Clarifying Values and Reason Statements that Promote Effective Food Parenting Practices, Using Intensive Interviews  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Generate and test parents' understanding of values and associated reason statements to encourage effective food parenting practices. Methods: This study was cross-sectional. Sixteen parents from different ethnic groups (African American, white, and Hispanic) living with their 3- to 5-year-old child were recruited. Interested parents…

Beltran, Alicia; Hingle, Melanie D.; Knesek, Jessica; O'Connor, Teresia; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom

2011-01-01

107

A survey of current ostrich handling and transport practices in North America with reference to ostrich welfare and transportation guidelines set up in other countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Appropriate management of an ostrich's exposure to stressors during preslaughter handling and transport practices can improve its well-being and product quality. Because of the lack of information about ostrich farming and transportation in North America and lack of developed Codes of Practice for ratite transport in Canada and the United States, the first objective of our research was to identify current preslaughter handling and transport practices of the ostrich industry in Canada and the United States, and to identify potential welfare issues based on the current practices. The second objective of this research was to review ostrich transport welfare standards and guidelines from Australia, European Union, New Zealand, and South Africa to investigate if those guidelines are applicable to Canadian and American ostrich production systems. Preliminary producer interviews, on-farm visits, and literature review information sources were used to design a producer questionnaire that was used to survey producers by Internet and mail surveying methods to identify existing ostrich transport norms in Canada and the United States. Based on the results of our producer survey and review of the transport standards and guidelines, we conclude that following factors are potential ostrich handling and transport welfare issues in Canada and the United States: lack of scientific information about welfare of ostriches during handling and transport; unfamiliarity of handlers and birds with handling and transport practices; not considering birds' social bounds, sex, behavior, and physical state in mixing them during handling and transport process; lack of an established specific maximum water and feed withdrawal duration for ostrich transport in Canada and the United States; lack of a specific vehicle designed for ratite transportation in Canada and the United States considering different physical body characteristics of ostriches compared with other species; exposure of birds to natural light during transport inside the trailer; overcrowding; and long transportation in Canada and the United States. Results of this research will contribute toward developing Codes of Practice for preslaughter handling, transportation, and slaughter of ostriches in Canada and the United States. PMID:24570450

Bejaei, M; Cheng, K M

2014-02-01

108

Investigation of Food Acceptability and Feeding Practices for Lipid Nutrient Supplements and Blended Flours Used to Treat Moderate Malnutrition  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To examine acceptability and feeding practices associated with different supplementary food items and identify practices associated with weight gain. Methods: Caregivers (n = 409) whose children had been enrolled in a trial comparing a fortified corn-soy blended flour (CSB++), soy ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF), and soy/whey…

Wang, Richard J.; Trehan, Indi; LaGrone, Lacey N.; Weisz, Ariana J.; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M.; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Manary, Mark J.

2013-01-01

109

Codex general standard for irradiated foods and recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission was established to implement the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. The purpose of this programme is to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. At its 15th session, held in July 1983, the Commission adopted a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and a Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods. This Standard takes into account the recommendations and conclusions of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committees convened to evaluate all available data concerning the various aspects of food irradiation. This Standard refers only to those aspects which relate to the processing of foods by ionising energy. The Standard recognizes that the process of food irradiation has been established as safe for general application to an overall average level of absorbed dose of 10 kGy. The latter value should not be regarded as a toxicological upper limit above which irradiated foods become unsafe; it is simply the level at or below which safety has been established. The Standard provides certain mandatory provisions concerning the facilities used and for the control of the process in the irradiation plants. The present Standard requires that shipping documents accompanying irradiated foods moving in trade should indicate the fact of irradiation. The labelling of prepackaged irradiated foods intended for direct sale to the cod foods intended for direct sale to the consumer is not covered in this Standard

110

Codex general standard for irradiated foods and recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission was established to implement the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. The purpose of this programme is to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. At its 15th session, held in July 1983, the Commission adopted a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and a Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods. This Standard takes into account the recommendations and conclusions of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committees convened to evaluate all available data concerning the various aspects of food irradiation. This Standard refers only to those aspects which relate to the processing of foods by ionising energy. The Standard recognizes that the process of food irradiation has been established as safe for general application to an overall average level of absorbed dose of 10 KGy. The latter value shold not be regarded as a toxicological upper limit above which irradiated foods become unsafe; it is simply the level at or below which safety has been established. The Standard provides certain mandatory provisions concerning the facilities used and for the control of the process in the irradiation plants. The present Standard requires that shipping documents accompanying irradiated foods moving in trade should indicate the fact of irradiation. The labelling of prepackaged irradiated foods intended for direct sale to the consumer is not covered in this Standard

111

Robust ASPNET Exception Handling  

CERN Document Server

This Wrox Blox will teach you how to unravel the mysteries of exception handling in ASP.NET.   First, you'll get a thorough introduction to structured exception handling in the .NET Framework, learn about the Exception class, the related C# language constructs, and how exceptions propagate up the call stack. Then, you'll delve into a variety of practical topics such as: when, where, and how to properly throw, catch, and handle exceptions in your code; how to employ "defensive programming" techniques to avoid triggering the most common CLR exceptions; adopting exception handling "best practices

Dumond, Lee

2009-01-01

112

Household Food Security Is Associated with Infant Feeding Practices in Rural Bangladesh1,2  

OpenAIRE

Although household food security (HHFS) has been shown to affect diet, nutrition, and health of adults and also learning in children, no study has examined associations with infant feeding practices (IFP). We studied 1343 infants born between May 2002 and December 2003 in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention in Matlab study to investigate the effect of HHFS on IFP in rural Bangladesh. We measured HHFS using a previously developed 11-item scale. Cumulative and current infant feeding ...

Saha, Kuntal K.; Frongillo, Edward A.; Alam, Dewan S.; Arifeen, Shams E.; Persson, Lars A?ke; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.

2008-01-01

113

Women Food Safety Practices from Shopping to Eating in Ankara, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the methods used for food storage and preparation in the Turkish household and to determine the domestic knowledge on food hygiene and food safety. A sample of 250 randomly selected, voluntary, married Turkish women participated in the survey. The research data were collected through a questionnaire and face-to-face interviews. The research findings revealed that the great majority of the women purchased meat at the end of shopping, thawed raw meat in the refrigerator, left hot food to cool in the room temperature and did not know the required refrigerator temperature for proper food storage. It was determined that 89.2% of the women deemed hand washing very important, but 43.2% of them did not wash their hands appropriately. Ninety point four percent of the women did not know the definition of cross contamination. The findings proved that some practices of the women changed according to their educational status. Considering the foodborne poisonings, the importance of education provided for women becomes evidently clear.

Canan Talas

2009-01-01

114

Assessment of food, nutrition, and physical activity practices in Oklahoma child-care centers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the current study was to determine the obesogenic practices in all-day child-care centers caring for preschool-aged children. This study used a cross-sectional, self-reported survey mailed to centers across Oklahoma (n=314). Frequency of responses and ?(2) were calculated comparing region and star rating. Items where the majority of centers frequently report best practices include: daily fruits served (76%), daily nonfried vegetables served (71%), rarely/never served sugary drinks (92%), rarely/never used food to encourage good behaviors (88%), staff join children at table most of the time (81%), staff rarely eat different foods in view of children (69%), visible self-serve or request availability of water (93%), regular informal communication about healthy eating (86%), opportunities for outdoor play (95%), not withholding activity for punishment (91%), accessible play equipment (59% to 80% for different types of equipment), and minimization of extended sitting time (78%). Practices where centers can improve include increasing variety of vegetables (18%), reducing frequency of high-fat meats served (74% serve more than once per week), increasing high-fiber and whole-grain foods (35% offer daily), serving style of "seconds" (28% help kids determine whether they are still hungry), nonfood holiday celebrations (44% use nonfood treats), having toys and books that encourage healthy eating (27%) and physical activity (25%) in all rooms in the center, a standard nutrition (21%) and physical education (50%) curriculum, and following a written physical activity policy (43%). Practitioners can use these data to develop benchmarks and interventions, as this was the first study to assess statewide obesogenic practices in child care. PMID:22818731

Sisson, Susan B; Campbell, Janis E; May, Kellie B; Brittain, Danielle R; Monroe, Lisa A; Guss, Shannon H; Ladner, Jennifer L

2012-08-01

115

Food vulnerability and livelihoods securitization trajectories in Hanoi: a reading of everyday practices in an emerging metropolis  

OpenAIRE

With a focus on underpriviledged urban dwellers' everyday practices in Hanoi, this study aims to show the construction of individual and household food insecurity in a city where living standards have dramatically improved over the last three decades. It demonstrates that food budget plays a key role in livelihoods management in an unstable context, by serving as a tool for underprivileged people to adjust to shocks. Therefore, individuals' food vulnerability should be understood as a long-te...

Pulliat, Gwenn

2013-01-01

116

Identifying Practical Solutions to Meet America’s Fiber Needs: Proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the “Food & Fiber Summit,” which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber’s role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap.

Amy R. Mobley

2014-07-01

117

Identifying practical solutions to meet America's fiber needs: proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the "Food & Fiber Summit," which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber's role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap. PMID:25006857

Mobley, Amy R; Jones, Julie Miller; Rodriguez, Judith; Slavin, Joanne; Zelman, Kathleen M

2014-07-01

118

Product development practice in medium-sized food processing companies : Increasing the level of market orientation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Market orientation has in numerous empirical NPD-studies been identified as critical for success. However, this study reveals a severe gap between the normative implications regarding market orientation and current product development practice in number of Danish food-processing companies. Through an action-research project it is attempted to increase the level of market orientation. Results show that market orientation can be improved, but that the change process is difficult and time-con and improvements rather incremental. Implications of results include a questining of the possibility of an almost automatic application of normative results, which often seems to be presumed in NPD-research.

Harmsen, Hanne

119

Isolation and identification of some unknown substances in disposable nitrile-butadiene rubber gloves used for food handling.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Japan, disposable gloves made from nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) are frequently used in contact with foods. In a previous paper, we investigated substances migrating from various gloves made of polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, natural rubber and NBR. Zinc di-n-butyldithiocarbamate (ZDBC), diethyldithiocarbamate (ZDEC) used as vulcanization accelerators, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) used as a plasticizer and many unknown compounds that migrated from NBR gloves into n-heptane were detected by GC/MS. In this paper, six unknown compounds were obtained from one kind of NBR glove by n-hexane extraction and each was isolated by silica gel chromatography. From the results of NMR and mass spectral analysis of the six unknown compounds, their structures are proposed as 1,4-dione-2,5-bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl)cyclohexadiene (1), 2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetra methylbutyl)phenol (2), 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (3), 2,4-bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (4), 2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)4,6-bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (5) and 2,4,6-tris(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (6). Compound 1 was observed in five of the seven kinds of NBR gloves, and compounds 2-4 and 6, which are not listed in Chemical Abstract (CA), were present in four kinds of gloves. PMID:12456282

Mutsuga, M; Wakui, C; Kawamura, Y; Maitani, T

2002-11-01

120

Radiation processing of food and allied products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

121

How practice contributes to trolley food waste. A qualitative study among staff involved in serving meals to hospital patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the generation of trolley food waste at the ward level in a hospital in order to provide recommendations for how practice could be changed to reduce food waste. Three separate focus group discussions were held with four nurses, four dietitians and four service assistants engaged in food service. Furthermore, single qualitative interviews were conducted with a nurse, a dietitian and two service assistants. Observations of procedures around trolley food serving were carried out during lunch and supper for a total of 10 weekdays in two different wards. All unserved food items discarded as waste were weighed after each service. Analysis of interview and observation data revealed five key themes. The findings indicate that trolley food waste generation is a practice embedded within the limitations related to the procedures of meal ordering. This includes portion size choices and delivery, communication, tools for menu information, portioning and monitoring of food waste, as well as the use of unserved food. Considering positive changes to these can be a way forward to develop strategies to reduce trolley food waste at the ward level. PMID:25108237

Ofei, K T; Holst, M; Rasmussen, H H; Mikkelsen, B E

2014-12-01

122

Limited evidence that competitive food and beverage practices affect adolescent consumption behaviors. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity is emerging as a considerable public health problem with no clear antidote. The school food environment is a potential intervention point for policy makers, with competitive food and beverage regulation as a possible policy lever. This research examines the link between competitive food and beverage availability in school and adolescent consumption patterns using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999.

123

Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association with Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for…

Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2010-01-01

124

Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcal Food-Borne Disease: An Ongoing Challenge in Public Health  

OpenAIRE

Staphylococcal food-borne disease (SFD) is one of the most common food-borne diseases worldwide resulting from the contamination of food by preformed S. aureus enterotoxins. It is one of the most common causes of reported food-borne diseases in the United States. Although several Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) have been identified, SEA, a highly heat-stable SE, is the most common cause of SFD worldwide. Outbreak investigations have found that improper food handling practices in the retail ...

Jhalka Kadariya; Smith, Tara C.; Dipendra Thapaliya

2014-01-01

125

Basics for Handling Food Safely  

Science.gov (United States)

... 1 year Does not freeze well EGGS LIQUID PASTEURIZED EGGS, EGG SUBSTITUTES opened unopened Refrigerate after opening ... or chicken breasts stuffed with dressing Soups & Stews Vegetable or meat added 2 weeks “Use- By” date ...

126

Food Preparation at Home an Example of New Practical Strategies in the Swedish Municipal Food Service - A Qualitative Study  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of the present study was to describe how one of 290 Swedish municipalities improved its FS service by terminating their earlier service of food distribution (FD) which was the delivery of ready cooked meals produced at a central kitchen in the community and introducing food preparation at the client’s home. The revised system is referred to as the new FS. This study was performed using an action research approach. The data was collected by individual- and group interviews and...

Zada Pajalic

2013-01-01

127

Reflexões metodológicas para o estudo das práticas alimentares / Methodological approaches on the studies of food practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A alimentação humana, envolvendo aspectos psicológicos, fisiológicos e socioculturais, é um fenômeno de grande complexidade e, em assim sendo, o estudo das práticas alimentares tem suscitado o desenvolvimento de instrumentos e métodos no interior de várias disciplinas. Neste artigo, que apresenta a [...] alimentação humana sob abordagem da Sociologia e da Antropologia, definem-se as diferentes dimensões do espaço social alimentar, desde o registro do consumo alimentar até os processos de diferenciação social envolvendo as formas de cozinhar, as formas de consumir e a temporalidade. Analisam-se os diferentes tipos de dados que podem ser utilizados, tomando-se o cuidado de distinguir os dados comportamentais (que podem ser obtidos tanto pela observação quanto pela declaração) dos dados de representação. Apresentam-se, em seguida, os diferentes instrumentos de coleta e as vias de entrada no fenômeno alimentar. Esses instrumentos metodológicos, construídos no interior de um quadro teórico-sociológico, são propostos aos pesquisadores da área, objetivando a construção de uma possível visão comum, que proporcione uma abordagem pluridisciplinar do fato alimentar. Abstract in english Human nutrition is a very complex phenomenon as it invites at the same time the physiology, the psychology and the socio-cultural. That's also why food practice measures have caused the development of tools and methodologies within several disciplines. This article presents the approach of sociology [...] and anthropology. It defines first of all the different dimensions of the social food space; from the eatable order to the process of social differentiation via the culinary, the consumption forms and the temporality. It analyses in detail the data types which can be used taking care in distinguishing the behavioural data that can be obtained either by observation or by declaration from the representation data. It presents the different collect tools and the ways of entry in the food phenomenon. These methodological tools built within a sociological theoretical framing are proposed to the researchers engaged in the study of the food facts so as to walk towards a pooling likely to result on a multi-field approach.

Jean-Pierre, Poulain; Rossana Pacheco da Costa, Proença.

2003-12-01

128

The Influence of the Secondary School Setting on the Food Practices of Young Teenagers from Disadvantaged Backgrounds in Scotland  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we explore the secondary school environment as an important context for understanding young teenagers eating habits and food practices. We draw on data collected during semi-structured interviews with 36 young teenagers (aged 13/14 years) living in disadvantaged circumstances in Scotland. We found that the systems inherent in school…

Wills, W.; Backett-Milburn, K.; Gregory, S.; Lawton, J.

2005-01-01

129

Translating knowledge into dietetic practice: a Functional Foods for Healthy Aging Toolkit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The advance of functional foods has evolved because of research linking functional foods to health, a regulatory environment that allows health claims on foods, and consumer demand for health-promoting food products. Among consumers, the rapidly growing older adult segment is poised to benefit from functional foods because of age-related health issues that are linked to food and health. Registered Dietitians (RDs) are recognized as food and nutrition experts and are well positioned to communicate the benefits of functional foods. The Functional Foods for Healthy Aging Toolkit was developed to provide guidance and resource materials to assist RDs in communicating with older adults about functional foods. The toolkit provides background on functional foods, including definitions, regulations, and case studies of functional food product labels. The role of functional foods in Canada's aging demographic is examined and the relevance to disease risk is discussed. The toolkit is appended with educational resource sheets on common functional food bioactives, including antioxidants, dietary fibre, omega-3 fatty acids, plant sterols, prebiotics, and probiotics. This publicly available toolkit can help RDs and other healthcare professionals in their interactions with older adults to maximize the value and health benefits that dietary inclusion of functional foods can offer. PMID:24766248

Duncan, Alison M; Dunn, Hilary A; Stratton, Laura M; Vella, Meagan N

2014-05-01

130

What Bacteria Are Living in My Food?: An Open-Ended Practical Series Involving Identification of Unknown Foodborne Bacteria Using Molecular Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

This open-ended practical series titled "Molecular Identification of Unknown Food Bacteria" which extended over a 6-week period was designed with the aims of giving students an opportunity to gain an understanding of naturally occurring food bacteria and skills in contemporary molecular methods using real food samples. The students first isolated…

Prasad, Prascilla; Turner, Mark S.

2011-01-01

131

Fuel handling benchmarking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On-power fuelling is unique to the CANDU type of reactor. The systems and equipment used to handle the fuel from the time it enters the station to the time it is transferred to the spent fuel bay are designed, operated and maintained exclusively for the CANDU stations. Over the last ten years it was perceived by several CANDU utility executives and outside organizations that CANDU fuel handling (FH) performance was degrading. FH organizations were seen as insular from the rest of the station and did not appear to be working to the same standards of excellence as the rest of the industry. The concerns raised were common to the industry. In 2005, COG was requested by one of its members to undertake an industry wide fuel handling Benchmarking (FHB) exercise of CANDU fuel handling organizations. The COG members decided to 'Take the cape off fuel handling' allowing all CANDU stations to see: actual performance of FH organizations; i.e. based on performance not perception, FH best practices, and identification of stations with best practices available for widespread use. All COG members joined COG project JP 4207. Taken together, the FH Benchmarking Final Report and the station Reports provide a good picture of current CANDU FH best practices and performance. (author)

132

Neofobias Alimentares: importância na prática clínica / Food neophobia: importance in clinical practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: Revisão da evidência científica do tema Neofobias Alimentares (NA), focando os aspetos mais importantes da sua aplicação na prática clínica. Métodos de revisão: Pesquisa bibliográfica da literatura em Inglês e Português, de Janeiro de 2001 a Fevereiro de 2012 através da Medline/Pubmed, sít [...] ios de Medicina Baseada na Evidência e livros de texto de Fisiologia. Resultados: O termo NA define-se como uma relutância na aceitação de novos sabores. O gosto por certos alimentos é um processo complexo que se inicia no útero, continua com o aleitamento e permanece pela vida fora. Embora exista influência de fatores genéticos, estes podem ser influenciados por exposições precoces e repetidas aos diferentes sabores, o que irá modular o paladar e diminuir o risco de patologias futuras, nomeadamente obesidade infantil. A janela para habituação aos sabores é estreita e a rejeição de alimentos introduzidos após os quatro anos é maior. A aceitação de um novo sabor até aos cinco anos necessita frequentemente de 10 a 15 exposições repetidas. As emoções, aspetos sociais e processos digestivos, são fatores influenciadores da aquisição do gosto. Conclusões: As preferências gustativas são muito estáveis e podem durar toda a vida, pelo que devemos dar uma especial atenção às crianças e pais no processo de “educação do gosto”. Ao dar à criança alguns alimentos preferidos juntamente com os novos alimentos e ao manter a calma para as neofobias temporárias, talvez seja a chave para o desenvolvimento das preferências gustativas. Reforços negativos, nomeadamente pressões, devem ser evitados, devendo-se valorizar os reforços positivos. Abstract in english Objective: To review the scientific evidence of the theme Food Neophobias (FN), focus on the most important aspects of their application in clinical practice. Review methods: A systematic review was performed for papers published between January 2001 to February 2012, in Portuguese/English, in the m [...] edical databases Medline/Pubmed, Cochrane Library, National Guideline Clearinghouse, evidence-based medicine sites and Physiology text books. Results: The term FN is defined as a reluctant acceptance of new flavours. The taste for certain foods is a complex process that begins in utero, continues during breastfeeding and remains throughout life. Although there is an influence of genetic factors, these can be contradicted by early and repeated exposure to different flavours, which will modulate the taste and will reduce the risk of future diseases, including childhood obesity. As the window for habituation to new flavours is thin, the rejection of foods introduced after four years is higher. The acceptance of a new flavour up to five years often requires 10 to 15 repeated exposures. Emotions, social aspects and digestive processes, are factors that influence the acquisition of taste. Conclusions: The gustatory preferences are very stable and can follow up lifelong and we should pay particular attention to children and parents in the “taste education” process. By giving the child some favourite foods with new foods and to stay calm for temporary neophobias, may be the key to the development of taste preferences. The negative reinforcement, such pressures, should be avoided, and the positive reinforcement should be implemented.

Ana Isabel, Silva; Andreia, Teles.

2013-09-01

133

Popularising right food and feeding practices in Spain (1847-1950): The handbooks of domestic economy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to analyze a sample of domestic economy handbooks in order to assess the popularization of correct food and feeding practices in Spain between 1847 and 1950. With this contribution, we wish to evaluate another factor that would influence the Spanish food transition. We are a [...] ware that this is a very indirect source, given the high levels of illiteracy among women in Spain during the last third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. A further factor to be considered is the low proportion of girls attending school. We have analyzed the handbooks published in three periods. The first ranges from the last third of the 19th century to the first decade of the 20th. These handbooks are considered in order to provide background for a comparison with the works published from 1900 onwards. The second period focuses on the 1920s and the 1930s. The last period covers the handbooks published after the Civil War under the monopoly of the Sección Femenina (women's section of the Falange). Over the years under consideration, recommendations underwent a progressive modification from the very simple leaflets used in the 19th century to the introduction of scientific factors into the teaching of domestic economy. The work of Rosa Sensat represented the beginnings of this trend. A further modernizing factor was the appearance of vitamins in some of the handbooks. After the war, the number of handbooks decreased and they were, in general, very poor. If we consider the content on vitamins, there was a lack or shortage of information in comparison with some of the books published in the same period outside the monopoly of the Sección Femenina. In conclusion, we can state that the repetition of recommendations on good feeding habits and the increase in girls attending school would exert a positive influence on the food transition of the Spanish population.

Enrique, Perdiguero-Gil; Ramón, Castejón-Bolea.

134

The Domestic Foodscapes of Young Low-Income Women in Montreal: Cooking Practices in the Context of an Increasingly Processed Food Supply  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the course of the past century, the quantity of prepackaged, pre-prepared foods available in the North American context has increased dramatically. This study examines the shifts in food practices that are taking place through an exploration of the day-to-day cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal and considers…

Engler-Stringer, Rachel

2010-01-01

135

Survival or Growth of Inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on Yellow Onions (Allium cepa) under Conditions Simulating Food Service and Consumer Handling and Storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whole and diced yellow onions (Allium cepa) were inoculated with five-strain cocktails of rifampin-resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella and stored under conditions to simulate food service or consumer handling. The inoculum was grown in broth (for both whole and diced onion experiments) or on agar plates (for whole onion experiments). Marked circles (3.3 cm in diameter) on the outer papery skin of whole onions were spot inoculated (10 ?l in 10 drops) at 7 log CFU per circle, and onions were stored at 4°C, 30 to 50 % relative humidity, or at ambient conditions (23°C, 30 to 50 % relative humidity). Diced onions were inoculated at 3 log CFU/g and then stored in open or closed containers at 4°C or ambient conditions. Previously inoculated and ambient-stored diced onions were also mixed 1:9 (wt/wt) with refrigerated uninoculated freshly diced onions and stored in closed containers at ambient conditions. Inoculated pathogens were recovered in 0.1 % peptone and plated onto selective and nonselective media supplemented with 50 ?g/ml rifampin. Both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella populations declined more rapidly on onion skins when the inoculum was prepared in broth rather than on agar. Agar-prepared E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella declined by 0.4 and 0.3 log CFU per sample per day, respectively, at ambient conditions; at 4°C the rates of reduction were 0.08 and 0.06 log CFU per sample per day for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, respectively. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella did not change over 6 days of storage at 4°C in diced onions. Lag times of 6 to 9 h were observed with freshly inoculated onion at ambient conditions; no lag was observed when previously inoculated and uninoculated onions were mixed. Growth rates at ambient conditions were 0.2 to 0.3 log CFU/g/h for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in freshly inoculated onion and 0.2 log CFU/g/h in mixed product. Diced onions support pathogen growth and should be kept refrigerated. PMID:25581176

Lieberman, Vanessa M; Zhao, Irene Y; Schaffner, Donald W; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J

2015-01-01

136

food -  

SCPinfonet

...Fletcher | Posted in Uncategorized | Also tagged FOE, Friends of the Earth | Comments (0) Asparagus insight March 23, 2010 - 8:58 pm Working late ...a meal with my wife last night and I was offered fresh asparagus, the asparagus season here is in June so it must ...] By Jon Fletcher | Posted in Light hearted | Also tagged asparagus, food miles, local, seasonal | Comments (0) ...

137

A practical approach to handling the uncertainty analysis in gamma spectroscopy with the software's Gamma Vision and Genie  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The national Swedish network of laboratories in emergency response and preparedness should provide with fast and reliable measurements. That is why these results should be given with a measure of its quality, which is the measurement uncertainty, as has been stated in several international standards. Many gamma spectroscopy software packages contain advance algorithms for calculation of the activity and its measurement uncertainty. They even include elements of quality assurance and quality control. Despite of that, not all sources of uncertainty are always taken into account. The two most used analysis software packages in the Swedish network of laboratories in emergency response are Gamma Vision from Ortec and Genie (with and without APEX) from Canberra. The purpose of this paper is to present two groups of practical evaluations of uncertainty components for the same kind of gamma-spectroscopy analysis, one that would suit Gamma Vision users and other for Genie users, including the Labsocs tool. The main idea is to profit as much as possible of the software capabilities and semi-manually add the contribution of uncertainty sources that are not been taken into account. The reports from both the software packages are modified so as to reflect the contribution of all sources of uncertainty into the reported relative combined uncertainty. The examples of gamma spectroscopy analysis are for samples of the same matrix and the different geometries foreseen in the context of emergency response by the Swedish emergency network. Together with the evaluation of the uncertainty components a review on the uncertainty propagation and the assumptions taken in each of the software packages is presented. (author)

138

Limited Evidence That Competitive Food and Beverage Practices Affect Adolescent Consumption Behaviors  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity is emerging as a considerable public health problem with no clear antidote. The school food environment is a potential intervention point for policy makers, with competitive food and beverage regulation as a possible policy lever. This research examines the link between competitive food and beverage availability in school and…

Vericker, Tracy C.

2013-01-01

139

Radiation processing of food and agricultural commodities: opportunities and challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while eliminating post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy can play a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

140

Radiation technology for value addition to food and agro commodities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

141

Enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Food Handlers during Hajj Season in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Food poisoning during Hajj season is one of the main hazardous issues where most of the health services in Saudi Arabia are targeting to minimize every year during Hajj seasons. Ordinarily, food handlers are subjected to medical examination before assignment to work. However, they are mostly lacking proper training in food handling operations, mass feeding, and sanitary practices. This situation may encourage causing food poisoning especially with staphylococcus enterotoxins. 1516 clinical sp...

Anas Serag Dablool; Saeed Saeed Al-Ghamdi

2011-01-01

142

Traditional and Alternative Community Food Security Interventions in Montréal, Québec: Different Practices, Different People.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food insecurity is steadily increasing in developed countries. Traditional interventions adopted to tackle food insecurity, like food banks, address the urgent need for food. By contrast, alternative interventions, such as community gardens and kitchens, are oriented towards social integration and the development of mutual aid networks. The objective of this paper is to examine whether the populations served by traditional and alternative interventions in food security differ according to measures of vulnerability. We studied newly registered participants to food security interventions. Participants were selected from a random sample of food security community organizations in a two-stage cluster sampling frame. The categorizing variable was participation in a community organization providing either traditional interventions or alternative interventions. Seven measures of vulnerability were used: food security; perceived health; civic participation; perceived social support of the primary network, social isolation, income and education. Regression multilevel models were used to assess associations. 711 participants in traditional interventions and 113 in alternative interventions were enrolled in the study. Between group differences were found with respect to food insecurity, health status perception, civic participation, education and income, but not with respect to social isolation or perceived social support from primary social network. Traditional and alternative food security interventions seem to reach different populations. Participants in traditional interventions were found to have less access to resources, compared to those in alternative interventions. Thus, new participants in traditional interventions may have higher levers of vulnerability than those in alternative interventions. PMID:25012098

Roncarolo, Federico; Adam, Caroline; Bisset, Sherri; Potvin, Louise

2014-07-11

143

Food irradiation and habitual consumption of food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last years, an increasing amount of people is consuming more fruits, vegetables, seeds and sprouts, with the health effects of food in mind. Otherwise, the accepted shelf food safety found in some countries led to a growing trust in the product's hygienic quality, that leads to behaviors like opening a package and immediately consume the contents. Besides the well disseminated knowledge of good cooking practices, the lack of time, found mainly in big cities, may take to the dinning tables food with an increasing potential of pathogenic organisms contamination. For instance, the alfalfa, beam, clover and radish sprouts caused many reported Salmonella and E. coli outbreaks in countries like the USA, United Kingdom, Japan, Sweden, Finland, Canada and Denmark. Many of the likely source of contaminations were the contamination of the seeds before sprouting. To control these contaminations, the irradiation doses over 1 kGy is effective and the association of irradiation and chemical treatments is being studied. The bacteriological control performance of the irradiation becomes this technique one of the most applied to dry herbs and spices witch, without adequate treatment, could be important sources of foodborne outbreaks. Good production, handling, packing and distribution practices may, with the use of ionizing radiation to reach the desired bacteriological inactivation or decontamination level, significantly contribute to the necessary food safety, allowing it to the necessary food safety, allowing it to be safely ready to eat. (author)

144

Women Food Safety Practices from Shopping to Eating in Ankara, Turkey  

OpenAIRE

This study was conducted to determine the methods used for food storage and preparation in the Turkish household and to determine the domestic knowledge on food hygiene and food safety. A sample of 250 randomly selected, voluntary, married Turkish women participated in the survey. The research data were collected through a questionnaire and face-to-face interviews. The research findings revealed that the great majority of the women purchased meat at the end of shopping, thawed raw meat in the...

Canan Talas; Asli Ucar; Ozfer Ozcelik

2009-01-01

145

Pesticide safety risk, food chain organization, and the adoption of sustainable farming practices: The case of Moroccan early tomatoes  

OpenAIRE

Fresh produce pesticide safety risk has grown into a major concern of North European consumers and governments for the last twenty years. Our study expands on safety control issues and gives insights into how fresh vegetable chains organize to comply with retail private safety standards and thus get access to export and modern domestic markets. Most studies on the adoption of good agricultural practice certifications and integrated pest management overlook the influence of food chain organiza...

Aubert, M.; Bouhsina, Z.; Codron, J. M.; Rousset, S.

2013-01-01

146

Total Quality Management (TQM) Practices Toward Product Quality Performance: Case at Food and Beverage Industry in Makassar, Indonesia  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this research was to test and analyze the effect of TQM practices impelementation which consists of leadership, strategic planning, customer focus, information and analysis, people management, and process management to product quality performance. The population were 108 food and beverage companies in Makassar, Indonesia. Respondents are production managers or operation managers. Sample technique which used is population sampling. Method of analysis which use both descriptive s...

Munizu, Musran

2008-01-01

147

Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant women with high-risk pregnancies in Canada: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundImmigrant women may be regarded as a vulnerable population with respect to access and navigation of maternity care services. They may encounter difficulties when accessing culturally safe and appropriate maternity care, which may be further exacerbated by language difficulties and discriminatory practices or attitudes. The project aimed to understand ethnocultural food and health practices and how these intersect in a particular social context of cultural adaptation and adjustment in order to improve the care-giving capacities of health practitioners working in multicultural perinatal clinics.MethodsThis four-phase study employed a case study design allowing for multiple means of data collection and different units of analysis. Phase one consists of a scoping review of the literature. Phases two and three incorporate pictorial representations of food choices with semi-structured photo-elicited interviews. This study was undertaken at a Prenatal and Obstetric Clinic, in an urban Canadian city. In phase four, the research team will inform the development of culturally appropriate visual tools for health promotion.ResultsFive themes were identified: (a) Perceptions of Health, (b) Social Support (c) Antenatal Foods (d) Postnatal Foods and (e) Role of Health Education. These themes provide practitioners with an understanding of the cultural differences that affect women¿s dietary choices during pregnancy. The project identified building collaborations between practitioners and families of pregnant immigrant women to be of utmost importance in supporting healthy pregnancies, along with facilitating social support for pregnant and breastfeeding mothers.ConclusionIn a multicultural society that contemporary Canada is, it is challenging for health practitioners to understand various ethnocultural dietary norms and practices. Practitioners need to be aware of customary practices of the ethnocultural groups that they work with, while simultaneously recognizing the variation within¿not everyone follows customary practices, individuals may pick and choose which customary guidelines they follow. What women choose to eat is also influenced by their own experiences, access to particular foods, socioeconomic status, family context, and so on.The pilot study demonstrated the efficacy of the employed research strategies and we subsequently acquired funding for a national study. PMID:25467067

Higginbottom, Gina; Vallianatos, Helen; Forgeron, Joan; Gibbons, Donna; Mamede, Fabiana; Barolia, Rubina

2014-12-01

148

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gives details of sources used for food irradiation, brief description of the process, safety of food irradiation process, practical applications and the amount of doses used for spices, condiments, mangoes etc., limitations of food irradiation, international status of clearance of irradiated foods, versatility of the process

149

Safe handling of tritium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance and recommendations on operational radiation protection aspects related to the safe handling of tritium in laboratories, industrial-scale nuclear facilities such as heavy-water reactors, tritium removal plants and fission fuel reprocessing plants, and facilities for manufacturing commercial tritium-containing devices and radiochemicals. The requirements of nuclear fusion reactors are not addressed specifically, since there is as yet no tritium handling experience with them. However, much of the material covered is expected to be relevant to them as well. Annex III briefly addresses problems in the comparatively small-scale use of tritium at universities, medical research centres and similar establishments. However, the main subject of this publication is the handling of larger quantities of tritium. Operational aspects include designing for tritium safety, safe handling practice, the selection of tritium-compatible materials and equipment, exposure assessment, monitoring, contamination control and the design and use of personal protective equipment. This publication does not address the technologies involved in tritium control and cleanup of effluents, tritium removal, or immobilization and disposal of tritium wastes, nor does it address the environmental behaviour of tritium. Refs, figs and tabs

150

Comparison of Nutrition Standards and Other Recommended Procurement Practices for Improving Institutional Food Offerings in Los Angeles County, 2010–2012123  

OpenAIRE

National, state, and local institutions that procure, distribute, sell, and/or serve food to employees, students, and the public are increasingly capitalizing on existing operational infrastructures to create healthier food environments. Integration of healthy nutrition standards and other recommended practices [e.g., energy (kilocalories) postings at point-of-purchase, portion size restrictions, product placement guidelines, and signage] into new or renewing food service and vending contract...

Robles, Brenda; Wood, Michelle; Kimmons, Joel; Kuo, Tony

2013-01-01

151

THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE IODINE FORTIFICATION OF THE FOOD PRODUCTS  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of this study was the investigation of the principles of food fortification with iodine. It was researched the opportunity of molecular iodine incorporation in vegetable oil, physical and chemical properties of iodized vegetable oil and other food products fortified with iodized oil. By physical and chemical methods it was established the presence of iodine-triglyceride compounds in iodized oil, formed by fixing the molecular iodine at the double bound of the unsaturated ...

Rodica Sturza

2010-01-01

152

Food Projects in London: Lessons for Policy and Practice--A Hidden Sector and the Need for "More Unhealthy Puddings ... Sometimes"  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Objective: Successive governments have promoted local action to address food components of public health. This article presents findings from research commissioned by the (then) London NHS Office, scoping the range of food projects in the London area, and the potential challenges to public health practice. Methods: Research followed…

Caraher, Martin; Dowler, Elizabeth

2007-01-01

153

What does the food handler in the home know about salmonellosis and food safety?  

Science.gov (United States)

Food-borne illness causes a significant burden of disease globally. The majority of confirmed cases of food-borne illness in Malta are caused by salmonellosis. Detailed case investigations by the Disease Surveillance Unit, Malta, revealed that most of the notified cases of infectious intestinal disease are most likely to be due to poor food safety practices in the home. Consumer awareness studies have shown that, in general, consumers are aware of the recommended food safety precautions, yet still adopt high-risk behaviours. Three focus groups and a small case control group were formed to gather information on local consumer knowledge and attitudes towards safe food handling in the home. The responses from the three focus groups were analysed and grouped into general themes. The information obtained from these results was then used to plan a local food safety health promotion strategy. The results show that individuals who had been exposed to salmonellosis, or who had a dependant who had been exposed, had developed a higher level of food safety knowledge and awareness. Variations between knowledge and self-reported practices make it apparent that persons have to be convinced that food safety measures are effective before they take action to change their behaviour. In conclusion, consumer education strategies need to emphasise the burden of illness, making safe food handling meaningful to consumers. Continuous reinforcement of the messages may be effective in empowering the consumer to foster behaviour change. PMID:15920928

Gauci, Charmaine; Gauci, Andrew Amato

2005-05-01

154

Interrupt Handling  

Science.gov (United States)

The Oâ??Reilly Online Catalog provides us with a look at Chapter 9 of the book Linux Device Drivers by Alessandro Rubini and Jonathon Corbet. The chapter is entitled Interrupt Handling and it covers the overall control of interrupts, preparing the parallel port, installing and interrupt handler, interrupt sharing, race conditions, and more. The website offers example functions and codes to assist in the installation, implementation, and comprehension processes. The easily navigable table of contents makes the amount of text on the website easy and stress-free and the ordering information is available if the entire book seems of interest to those computer science teachers and students.

Corbet, Jonathan

155

Modeling Food Web Interactions in Benthic Deep-Sea Ecosystems: A Practical Guide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deep-sea benthic systems are notoriously difficult to sample. Even more than for other benthic systems, many flows among biological groups cannot be directly measured, and data sets remain incomplete and uncertain. In such cases, mathematical models are often used to quantify unmeasured biological interactions. Here, we show how to use so-called linear inverse models (LIMs to reconstruct material and energy flows through food webs in which the number of measurements is a fraction of the total number of flows. These models add mass balance, physiological and behavioral constraints, and diet information to the scarce measurements. We explain how these information sources can be included in LIMs, and how the resulting models can be subsequently solved. This method is demonstrated by two examples—a very simple three-compartment food web model, and a simplified benthic carbon food web for Porcupine Abyssal Plain. We conclude by elaborating on recent developments and prospects.

Karline Soetaert

2009-03-01

156

'I don't think I ever had food poisoning'. A practice-based approach to understanding foodborne disease that originates in the home.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food stored, prepared, cooked and eaten at home contributes to foodborne disease which, globally, presents a significant public health burden. The aim of the study reported here was to investigate, analyse and interpret domestic kitchen practices in order to provide fresh insight about how the domestic setting might influence food safety. Using current theories of practice meant the research, which drew on qualitative and ethnographic methods, could investigate people and material things in the domestic kitchen setting whilst taking account of people's actions, values, experiences and beliefs. Data from 20 UK households revealed the extent to which kitchens are used for a range of non-food related activities and the ways that foodwork extends beyond the boundaries of the kitchen. The youngest children, the oldest adults and the family pets all had agency in the kitchen, which has implications for preventing foodborne disease. What was observed, filmed and photographed was not a single practice but a series of entangled encounters and actions embedded and repeated, often inconsistently, by the individuals involved. Households derived logics and principles about foodwork that represented rules of thumb about 'how things are done' that included using the senses and experiential knowledge when judging whether food is safe to eat. Overall, food safety was subsumed within the practice of 'being' a household and living everyday life in the kitchen. Current theories of practice are an effective way of understanding foodborne disease and offer a novel approach to exploring food safety in the home. PMID:25464023

Wills, Wendy J; Meah, Angela; Dickinson, Angela M; Short, Frances

2015-02-01

157

Handling Sports Pressure and Competition  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Sports > Handling Sports Pressure and Competition Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? How Can Stress ... deal with sports stress like your coach or fitness instructor. Here are some other things you can ...

158

On-The-Job Training: A Practical Guide for Food Service Supervisors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The on-the-job training guide was developed to assist food service supervisors in preparing, presenting, and evaluating a Job Instruction Training (JIT) lesson, a method which employs step-by-step learning of job-related tasks. Part 1, preparing for a JIT lesson, discusses the checklist of duties, the job description, the skills inventory, the…

Hospital Research and Educational Trust, Chicago, IL.

159

Modifications of agricultural and zoo-technical practices to reduce food chain contamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many methods for decreasing radioactive transfers all along the food chains may be used for post-accidental situations. In some contaminated CIS countries (Ukraine, Belarus), real size applications have quantified these methods for vegetables transfers (liming, fertilizers, zeolite...), for animals transfers (iodine, clay, cyanoferrates...), and for soil rehabilitation (striping, deep ploughing...). (A.B.). 27 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

160

Aproximación práctica al diagnóstico de la alergia alimentaria / Practical approach to the diagnosis of food allergy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La alergia alimentaria representa la primera expresión clínica de atopia durante la vida, ya sea con manifestaciones gastrointestinales o cutáneas, seguidas de asma y rinitis. A este continuo desarrollo de enfermedades se ha denominado "marcha atópica". Es un problema importante de salud, no sólo pa [...] ra los pacientes sino también incluye al grupo familiar y social. Se define como una respuesta inmunológica anormal ante la ingesta de proteínas alimenticias que ocasionan una reacción clínica adversa. La mayoría de las personas desarrolla tolerancia a los antígenos alimentarios, los cuales constantemente acceden al organismo. Sin embargo, cuando la tolerancia falla, el sistema inmune responde con reacciones de hipersensibilidad. El diagnóstico de la alergia alimentaria todavía es un ejercicio clínico que depende de una historia cuidadosa, de la determinación específica de IgE, pruebas de parche, una apropiada dieta de exclusión y la realización de reto cegado. Abstract in english Food allergy has become the first clinical expression of atopy, beginning with dermal o gastric manifestations to continue with asthma an rhinitis ("the atopic march"), a very severe health problem not only for many children and parents, but also for the entire medical and paramedical community. Foo [...] d allergy is defined as an abnormal immunological reaction to food proteins, which causes an adverse clinical reaction. Most of the people become tolerant to many foods; however, these tolerances sometimes fail and become an immunological reaction. The evaluation of a child with suspected food allergy includes detailed medical history, physical examination, screening tests and response to elimination diet and to oral food challenge. None of the screening tests -alone or in combination- can definitely diagnose or exclude it.

Marco Antonio, Góngora-Meléndez; Juan José Luis, Sienra-Monge; Blanca Estela, Del Río-Navarro; Lourdes, Ávila Castañón.

2010-10-01

161

Handling tongs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design is presented of remotely controlled handling tongs for placing fuel assemblies of a fast nuclear reactor in the desired positions in the reactor vessel. The tongs consist of a head and clamps pivoted an the head. The head machined at the end of an inner pull rod which is swing connected to the main pull rod guide bar. The connection is effected from the inner pull rod side. Grip pins are pivoted on the main pull rod guide bar. The side projections of the grip pins engage the inner wall of the channel while the grip pin bodies lean against the opening link. The link pull rod and its height is adjustable. Its inner cut-outs engage the upper tips of the clamps. A fixing ring which the grip pin bodies engage is attached to the opening link such that it can be deflected to both sides. (E.S.)

162

Same island, different diet: Cultural evolution of food practice on Öland, Sweden, from the Mesolithic to the Roman Period  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Mesolithic–Neolithic transition in north-west Europe has been described as rapid and uniform, entailing a swift shift from the use of marine and other wild resources to domesticated terrestrial resources. Here, we approach the when, what and how of this transition on a regional level, using empirical data from Öland, an island in the Baltic Sea off the Swedish east coast, and also monitor changes that occurred after the shift. Radiocarbon dating and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of bones and teeth from 123 human individuals, along with faunal isotope data from 27 species, applying to nine sites on Öland and covering a time span from the Mesolithic to the Roman Period, demonstrate a great diversity in food practices, mainly governed by culture and independent of climatic changes. There was a marked dietary shift during the second half of the third millennium from a mixed marine diet to the use of exclusively terrestrial resources, interpreted as marking the large-scale introduction of farming. Contrary to previous claims, this took place at the end of the Neolithic and not at the onset. Our data also show that culturally induced dietary transitions occurred continuously throughout prehistory. The availability of high-resolution data on various levels, from intra-individual to inter-population, makes stable isotope analysis a powerful tool for studying the evolution of food practices.

Eriksson, Gunilla; Linderholm, Anna

2008-01-01

163

An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contam...

Hedberg, Craig W.; Onyeneho, Sylvester N.

2013-01-01

164

Modeling Food Web Interactions in Benthic Deep-Sea Ecosystems: A Practical Guide  

OpenAIRE

Deep-sea benthic systems are notoriously difficult to sample. Even more than for other benthic systems, many flows among biological groups cannot be directly measured, and data sets remain incomplete and uncertain. In such cases, mathematical models are often used to quantify unmeasured biological interactions. Here, we show how to use so-called linear inverse models (LIMs) to reconstruct material and energy flows through food webs in which the number of measurements is a fraction of the tota...

Karline Soetaert; Dick van Oevelen

2009-01-01

165

THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE IODINE FORTIFICATION OF THE FOOD PRODUCTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this study was the investigation of the principles of food fortification with iodine. It was researched the opportunity of molecular iodine incorporation in vegetable oil, physical and chemical properties of iodized vegetable oil and other food products fortified with iodized oil. By physical and chemical methods it was established the presence of iodine-triglyceride compounds in iodized oil, formed by fixing the molecular iodine at the double bound of the unsaturated fatty acids. The results of the investigations of the physical-chemical, microbiological and organoleptic properties, the oxidation stability of iodine fortified products compared to the control samples, indicate the absence of sensitive difference during the maturation and storage processes. The iodine bioavailability in fortified lipid products has been investigated in vitro and in vivo conditions. It was established, that the recovery percent of iodine represents 57-92?0(in vitro. In vivo researches have proved that iodized lipid products are influencing the metabolic processes by accumulation of iodine in animal’s body, as a result of an efficient digestion and a high iodine bioavailability from the present complexes.

Rodica Sturza

2010-04-01

166

The NOURISH randomised control trial: Positive feeding practices and food preferences in early childhood - a primary prevention program for childhood obesity  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Primary prevention of childhood overweight is an international priority. In Australia 20-25% of 2-8 year olds are already overweight. These children are at substantially increased the risk of becoming overweight adults, with attendant increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Early feeding practices determine infant exposure to food (type, amount, frequency) and include responses (eg coercion) to infant feeding behaviour (eg. food refusal). There is corre...

Farrell Ann; Nicholson Jan M; Battistutta Diana; Magarey Anthea; Daniels Lynne A; Davidson Geoffrey; Cleghorn Geoffrey

2009-01-01

167

Effect of the food production chain from farm practices to vegetable processing on outbreak incidence.  

Science.gov (United States)

The popularity in the consumption of fresh and fresh-cut vegetables continues to increase globally. Fresh vegetables are an integral part of a healthy diet, providing vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and other health-promoting compounds. The diversity of fresh vegetables and packaging formats (spring mix in clamshell container, bagged heads of lettuce) support increased consumption. Unfortunately, vegetable production and processing practices are not sufficient to ensure complete microbial safety. This review highlights a few specific areas that require greater attention and research. Selected outbreaks are presented to emphasize the need for science-based 'best practices'. Laboratory and field studies have focused on inactivation of pathogens associated with manure in liquid, slurry or solid forms. As production practices change, other forms and types of soil amendments are being used more prevalently. Information regarding the microbial safety of fish emulsion and pellet form of manure is limited. The topic of global climate change is controversial, but the potential effect on agriculture cannot be ignored. Changes in temperature, precipitation, humidity and wind can impact crops and the microorganisms that are associated with production environments. Climate change could potentially enhance the ability of pathogens to survive and persist in soil, water and crops, increasing human health risks. Limited research has focused on the prevalence and behaviour of viruses in pre and post-harvest environments and on vegetable commodities. Globally, viruses are a major cause of foodborne illnesses, but are seldom tested for in soil, soil amendments, manure and crops. Greater attention must also be given to the improvement in the microbial quality of seeds used in sprout production. Human pathogens associated with seeds can result in contamination of sprouts intended for human consumption, even when all appropriate 'best practices' are used by sprout growers. PMID:25251466

Jung, Yangjin; Jang, Hyein; Matthews, Karl R

2014-11-01

168

Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran and others

2006-01-15

169

Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study

170

Radionuclides in food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence i the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the representative sampling, appropriate methods of measurement and the traceable results. Finally it is possible to advise and to help the national responsible authorities to define a minimal universe of food to monitor to protect the consumers

171

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report 'Comments on proposed regulations on irradiation in the production, processing and handling of food' by K.M. Tucker and R. Alvarez is reviewed. The reviewer hopes that the inquiry into food irradiation being undertaken by the Australian government will reach conclusions similar to those in the report: that is, a comprehensive, independent environmental impact study or technology assessment, to evaluate fully the potential economic costs of this technology, be required before any further consideration be given to adopting food irradiation in Australia

172

An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999, cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992, and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878. The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri.

Craig W. Hedberg

2013-08-01

173

Envisioning Agricultural Sustainability from Field to Plate: Comparing Producer and Consumer Attitudes and Practices toward "Environmentally Friendly" Food and Farming in Washington State, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

A substantial body of sociological research has examined the relationship between farmers' environmental attitudes and their conservation behaviors, but little research has compared the attitudes of producers and consumers toward the environment with their behaviors or practices in support of sustainable agri-food systems. This paper addresses…

Selfa, Theresa; Jussaume, Raymond A., Jr.; Winter, Michael

2008-01-01

174

21 CFR 58.107 - Test and control article handling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Test and control article handling. 58...SERVICES GENERAL GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Test and Control Articles § 58.107 Test and control article handling....

2010-04-01

175

Determination of te spontaneous ignition temperature of bulk materials. Simple to handle possibility for the practice; Bestimmung der Selbstentzuendungstemperatur von Schuettguetern. Einfach handhabbarer Weg fuer die Praxis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bulk materials are widely used in industry. Bulk materials come up not only in mining (coal), in agriculture (flour) and food industry (coffee), but also in the pharmaceutical industry for example in the production of specialty chemicals and pigments. Mass-produced goods in tonnages are produced, processed, transported and stored. Due to the poor heat transfer in the bulks the relatively large storage volumes are especially critical in view of a possible self-ignition.

Kimpel, Sebastian; Horn, Joerg; Franke, Juergen [consilab Gesellschaft fuer Anlagensicherheit mbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2012-06-15

176

A Study on Consumer Awareness, Safety Perceptions & Practices about Food Preservatives and Flavouring Agents Used in Packed /Canned Foods from South India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Conclusion: Though there was awareness, the knowledge was inadequate. Unfavourable practices were observed. The gaps in the knowledge and unhealthy practices need to be addressed by public awareness campaign.

Harsha Kumar H N, Anshu Kumar Jha, Khushboo K Taneja, Krishan Kabra, Hafeez M Sadiq

2013-01-01

177

The NOURISH randomised control trial: Positive feeding practices and food preferences in early childhood - a primary prevention program for childhood obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary prevention of childhood overweight is an international priority. In Australia 20-25% of 2-8 year olds are already overweight. These children are at substantially increased the risk of becoming overweight adults, with attendant increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Early feeding practices determine infant exposure to food (type, amount, frequency and include responses (eg coercion to infant feeding behaviour (eg. food refusal. There is correlational evidence linking parenting style and early feeding practices to child eating behaviour and weight status. A focus on early feeding is consistent with the national focus on early childhood as the foundation for life-long health and well being. The NOURISH trial aims to implement and evaluate a community-based intervention to promote early feeding practices that will foster healthy food preferences and intake and preserve the innate capacity to self-regulate food intake in young children. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial (RCT aims to recruit 820 first-time mothers and their healthy term infants. A consecutive sample of eligible mothers will be approached postnatally at major maternity hospitals in Brisbane and Adelaide. Initial consent will be for re-contact for full enrolment when the infants are 4-7 months old. Individual mother- infant dyads will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will provide anticipatory guidance via two modules of six fortnightly parent education and peer support group sessions, each followed by six months of regular maintenance contact. The modules will commence when the infants are aged 4-7 and 13-16 months to coincide with establishment of solid feeding, and autonomy and independence, respectively. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, with follow up at nine and 18 months. These will include infant intake (type and amount of foods, food preferences, feeding behaviour and growth and self-reported maternal feeding practices and parenting practices and efficacy. Covariates will include sociodemographics, infant feeding mode and temperament, maternal weight status and weight concern and child care exposure. Discussion Despite the strong rationale to focus on parents' early feeding practices as a key determinant of child food preferences, intake and self-regulatory capacity, prospective longitudinal and intervention studies are rare. This trial will be amongst to provide Level II evidence regarding the impact of an intervention (commencing prior to age 12 months on children's eating patterns and behaviours. Trial Registration ACTRN12608000056392

Farrell Ann

2009-10-01

178

78 FR 28228 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Best Practices for Conducting and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration...Research (CBER), Food and Drug Administration...1800. Send one self-addressed adhesive...http://www.regulations.gov. Submit written...Management (HFA 305), Food and Drug Administration...of a guidance for industry and FDA staff...

2013-05-14

179

76 FR 9027 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Best Practices for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration...Research (CBER), Food and Drug Administration...301-827-1800. Send one self-addressed adhesive...http://www.regulations.gov. Submit written...Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration...draft guidance for industry and FDA staff...

2011-02-16

180

Control of good irradiation practices and the role of the ICGFI guidelines and codes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Considerable guidance is available to managers of an irradiator plant on ways and means to produce safe, wholesome, quality irradiated foods. The foundation for good manufacturing practices (GMPs), which apply to all food processes, is the Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene. These principles provide good common sense procedures in the handling of food for human consumption in order to ensure safe, wholesome quality products. The GMPs cover the growing, harvesting, preparation, processing, packaging, storage, transport, distribution and sale of food. They provide good check lists for safety and quality. More detailed guidelines specifically aimed at food irradiation are found in the Codex Code of Practice for the Operation of Irradiation Facilities and in the Codes of Good Irradiation Practice (GIPs) developed by the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation. GIPs are available for eight commodity groups. They provide guidance on pre-irradiation handling (including microbiological guidelines), packaging, pre-irradiation storage and transport, irradiation facilities and absorbed doses, post-irradiation storage and handling, final product specifications, labelling, re-irradiation and the quality of irradiated products. In order to apply GIPs effectively, it recommended that the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point concept (HACCP) be implemented. The HACCP concept emphasizes prevention of, rather than detection of defects. The HACCP concept has been adoof defects. The HACCP concept has been adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and is being applied to Codex Codes of Practice. (author). 7 refs

181

Handling Food Safely on the Road  

Science.gov (United States)

... function() { $('body').addClass('tableReRender').removeClass('tableReRender'); }) }) Site Map A-Z Index Help About FSIS District Offices Careers Contact Us Ask Karen askFSIS En Español FSIS Home | ...

182

Fermentation--a traditional anti-diarrhoeal practice lost? The use of fermented foods in urban and rural Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whereas modern dietary advice emphasizes the importance of freshly preparing food, many African communities leave food to ferment. Fermentation of cereals is a traditional method of reducing the microbial contamination of porridges. Beliefs and consumption patterns of fermented food were examined among mothers of children aged under five and health workers in a rural and urban community in Kenya. The majority (83%) of rural mothers reported that their families regularly consumed fermented food and over half (66%) gave their young children fermented food. In the urban area, fewer mothers (56%) reported that their families ate fermented food and only (40%) gave their children some kind of fermented food. Several reasons for the declining uses of fermented food were given including education by health workers that fermented foods were bad, declining production and availability, and substitution of traditional foods by commercial products such as soft drinks. Health educators need to consider that mothers may be missing out on a potentially useful means of preventing diarrhoea in their children. PMID:8833182

Watson, F E; Ngesa, A; Onyang'o, J; Alnwick, D; Tomkins, A M

1996-03-01

183

21 CFR 179.21 - Sources of radiation used for inspection of food, for inspection of packaged food, and for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Section 179.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation...

2010-04-01

184

Development of online learning activities to enhance student knowledge of animal behaviour prior to engaging in live animal handling practical sessions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Learning activities were developed to increase the awareness of animal behaviour among first year students enrolled in animal-associated degrees prior to students engaging in hands-on live animal practical sessions. Learning activities were developed in an easy to use collegial online environment and to encourage student engagement in learning activities. One hundred and one students were given a preliminary and post learning activity survey to assess their initial knowledge and experience of animal behaviour, as well as to determine if the learning activities increased the students’ knowledge of animal behaviour after engaging in the learning activities. Of the students surveyed, most currently owned pets or have had pets (91.1%, some had animal-related qualifications (22.8% and currently worked in an animal-related position (24.8%. There was a significant difference (70.3% increase in student responses after engaging in the learning activities with the major change occurring in the students’ understanding of the term ‘ethology’, regardless of the level of qualifications or animal-related career experience. In addition, after engaging in the learning activities, most students believed that they could better articulate and interpret animal behaviors based on their observations. Overall, the inclusion of learning activities successfully increased the ability of students to understand behavioral traits of animals, which will increase safety in live animal practical sessions. The learning activities also encouraged a collegial learning environment that enhanced new knowledge construction amongst the students.

Julie M Old

2011-07-01

185

Consumer-phase Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis risk assessment for egg-containing food products.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a one-dimensional probabilistic model of the role of domestic food handling behaviors on salmonellosis risk associated with the consumption of eggs and egg-containing foods. Six categories of egg-containing foods were defined based on the amount of egg contained in the food, whether eggs are pooled, and the degree of cooking practiced by consumers. We used bootstrap simulation to quantify uncertainty in risk estimates due to sampling error, and sensitivity analysis to identify key sources of variability and uncertainty in the model. Because of typical model characteristics such as nonlinearity, interaction between inputs, thresholds, and saturation points, Sobol's method, a novel sensitivity analysis approach, was used to identify key sources of variability. Based on the mean probability of illness, examples of foods from the food categories ranked from most to least risk of illness were: (1) home-made salad dressings/ice cream; (2) fried eggs/boiled eggs; (3) omelettes; and (4) baked foods/breads. For food categories that may include uncooked eggs (e.g., home-made salad dressings/ice cream), consumer handling conditions such as storage time and temperature after food preparation were the key sources of variability. In contrast, for food categories associated with undercooked eggs (e.g., fried/soft-boiled eggs), the initial level of Salmonella contamination and the log10 reduction due to cooking were the key sources of variability. Important sources of uncertainty varied with both the risk percentile and the food category under consideration. This work adds to previous risk assessments focused on egg production and storage practices, and provides a science-based approach to inform consumer risk communications regarding safe egg handling practices. PMID:16834632

Mokhtari, Amirhossein; Moore, Christina M; Yang, Hong; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Morales, Roberta; Cates, Sheryl C; Cowen, Peter

2006-06-01

186

Street-Vended Foods Improvement: Contamination Mechanisms and Application of Food Safety Objective Strategy : Critical Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data collected from street-vended food enterprises and on vendors in west African countries revealed that, they provide a variety of ready-to-eat foods to a high proportion of the populations. Nevertheless, their handling and trading practices are not permit to obtain safe food. While, street-vended foods are easily contaminated by food borne pathogen and others chemicals compounds. The street-vended foods contamination mechanisms were identified and improvement pathways were suggested. Indeed, Food Safety Objective (FSO concept developed by FAO and WHO, can be used as ideal strategy for safe street food production. However, to reach this goal, the Critical Control Points (CCP, Microbiological and Risks Assessment (MRA, and hygienic status during street food production and sale were gathered. By assembling and analyzing the data, the safety assurance for safe street food obtaining was evaluated at every step of production chain. The data were juxtaposed to FSO concept frame work and applied along the street-vended food production chain. We applied Performance Objective (PO and Control Measure (CM respectively at operational levels, measure at relevant points of risk and points, that permit reduction of all contamination risks along the chain, to enhancing safe food obtaining. The FSO concept could help government to elaborate guidance for street foods production, vending and consumption, producers and vendors, training about HACCP pre-requisites and information for global view on safe street-vended food (SSF production. This will be an important task for the primary health care system aiming at `health for all`.

Barro Nicolas

2007-01-01

187

Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

Farkas, J. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary)); Zukal, E. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary))

1992-01-01

188

Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

189

Introduction to the Microbiological Spoilage of Foods and Beverages  

Science.gov (United States)

Though direct evidence of ancient food-handling practices is difficult to obtain and examine, it seems safe to assume that over the span of several million years, prehistoric humans struggled to maintain an adequate food supply. Their daily food needed to be hunted or harvested and consumed before it spoiled and became unfit to eat. Freshly killed animals, for example, could not have been kept for very long periods of time. Moreover, many early humans were nomadic, continually searching for food. We can imagine that, with an unreliable food supply, their lives must have often been literally "feast or famine." Yet, our ancestors gradually learned by accident, or by trial and error, simple techniques that could extend the storage time of their food (Block, 1991). Their brain capacity was similar to that of modern humans; therefore, some of them were likely early scientists and technologists. They would have learned that primitive cereal grains, nuts and berries, etc. could be stored in covered vessels to keep them dry and safer from mold spoilage. Animal products could be kept in cool places or dried and smoked over a fire, as the controlled use of fire by humans is thought to have begun about 400,000 years ago. Quite likely, naturally desiccated or fermented foods were also noticed and produced routinely to provide a more stable supply of edible food. Along with the development of agricultural practices for crop and animal production, the "simple" food-handling practices developed during the relatively countless millennia of prehistory paved the way for human civilizations.

Sperber, William H.

190

Avaliação do consumo alimentar e da ingestão de nutrientes na prática clínica / Assessment of food consumption and nutrient intake in clinical practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A avaliação do consumo alimentar na prática clínica é realizada com a finalidade de fornecer subsídios para o desenvolvimento e a implantação de planos nutricionais. Fatores como condições do estado geral do indivíduo/paciente, evolução da condição clínica e os motivos pelos quais o indivíduo necess [...] ita de orientação nutricional direcionam a escolha do método de avaliação do consumo alimentar. O método escolhido deve fornecer informações que permitam ao profissional orientar uma alimentação que vise promover a saúde, prevenir outras intercorrências e adequar o estado nutricional do paciente. Apesar de a literatura nacional disponibilizar informações abrangentes sobre métodos e técnicas para estimativa do consumo alimentar, o ambiente de atuação profissional ainda está permeado de dúvidas a respeito dos métodos mais adequados para essa avaliação na prática diária. O presente artigo se propôs a apresentar uma análise crítica, no contexto da aplicabilidade clínica, dos métodos disponíveis de inquéritos alimentares e suas características. Abstract in english The assessment of food consumption in clinical practice is often carried out to develop and implement nutritional advice. Factors as the patient health conditions, the evolution of his/her clinical condition as well as the reasons that motivated the search for advice will guide the selection of the [...] best method of assessment of food consumption or nutrient intake to employ. The chosen method might drive the professional to offer a food plan that aims to promote health, to prevent illness, and to alter the nutritional state of the patient. Despite the easily available national literature on methods and techniques to estimate food consumption, it is not uncommon that professionals still have doubts about what methods are the most appropriated in daily practice. This study aimed to present a critical analysis, taking into account the clinical applicability, of the food assessment methods and its characteristics.

Regina Mara, Fisberg; Dirce Maria Lobo, Marchioni; Ana Carolina Almada, Colucci.

2009-07-01

191

Remote handling for an ISIS target change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1987 two ISIS targets were changed. This document describes the main features of the remote handling aspects of the work. All the work has to be carried out using remote handling techniques. The radiation level measured on the surface of the reflector when the second target had been removed was about 800 mGy/h demonstrating that hands on operations on any part of the target reflector moderator assembly is not practical. The target changes were the first large scale operations in the Target Station Remote Handling Cell and a great deal was learned about both equipment and working practices. Some general principles emerged which are applicable to other active handling tasks on facilities like ISIS and these are discussed below. 8 figs

192

Safe Handling of Radioisotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

193

Moving and Handling of Patients with Dementia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Moving and handling is an important aspect of caring for patients with dementia. This can be a serious risk to health care staff, and requires careful risk assessment and planning before execution to minimise any injury. This article explores some of the challenges nurses may face when moving and handling people with dementia. It offers guidance on how to deal with these challenges to promote safe practice and improve patient outcomes.

Dev Jootun

2012-10-01

194

SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION (SRI) Economic and Ecological Benefits of Improved production practice for Food Security and Resource Conservation  

OpenAIRE

Being the important ingredient of food basket of the common people, the declining productivity of rice and its per capita availability is a policy concern, which has a global connotation. System of rice intensification (SRI) is a relevant innovation, which increases production, reduces yield gap and ensures the household food security for the vulnerable section of small and marginal farmers. It has also tremendous potential for resource conservation; and important aspect for sustainability. T...

Barah, B. C.

2010-01-01

195

The TTC Approach in Practice and its Impact on Risk Assessment and Risk Management in Food Safety. A Regulatory Toxicologist's Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many substances in food and drinking water from different contamination sources for which only insufficient or no toxicity data exist. In order to prioritize and preliminarily assess the human health risks, the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) approach was developed between 1996 and 2004. This concept has since been applied increasingly by regulatory food safety authorities. In parallel, the safety of this approach has been discussed by stakeholders, primarily on a conceptual basis. However, real examples showing the practical benefits of this approach have not been discussed. In this paper, the technical feasibility, applicability, safety, and further benefits of the TTC approach are illustrated and discussed based on four real cases: 1) halogenated contaminants of unknown origin in the drinking water (polychlorinated butadienes), 2) an unwanted by-product from epoxy resin coatings in canned fish (Cyclo-di-BADGE), 3) two cyclic compounds occurring in polyamide food packaging materials and kitchen utensils, and 4) mycotoxins (from Alternaria). These examples from different fields of application clearly demonstrate that the results of the TTC approach are an extremely useful starting point for adequate decisions and actions (if necessary) by risk assessment and risk management in food safety. PMID:25437163

Brüschweiler, Beat J

2014-10-01

196

PERKEMBANGAN DAN PROSPEK PROSES RADIASI PANGAN DI INDONESIA [Development and Prospect of Food Radiation Processing in Indonesia  

OpenAIRE

Several factors such as insufficient harvesting and handling methods as well as inadequate methods of storage and distribution, poor processing techniques and poor quality of raw materials used in making ready to eat foods may lead to the cumulative causes of food borne illness particularly in developing countries. Public trend in the world nowadays are demanding access to more and more fresh eating products practical but nutritious, safe and preferably processed under non thermal treatments...

Zubaidah Irawati

2008-01-01

197

21 CFR 205.50 - Minimum requirements for the storage and handling of prescription drugs and for the establishment...  

Science.gov (United States)

... 205.50 Section 205.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...initiated at the request of the Food and Drug Administration or other...protect against, and handle any crisis that affects security or...

2010-04-01

198

Research status of food irradiation in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research on food preservation by gamma irradiation in Malaysia encompasses various food items such as paddy, milled rice, pepper, fruits, tomatoes, groundnuts and frozen prawns. Studies were mainly aimed to determine disinfestation efficacy against insects and microorganisms and the storability in terms of effects on organoleptic properties of these postharvest raw agricultural produce. Researches in important commodities such as rice and pepper include intergrating irradiation treatments with improved handling (packaging materials) and in rice, comparison with conventional treatments was also evaluated. Generally, irradiation method is effective in suppressing insects, moulds and bacterial load in all commodities associated with the problems. In the case of stored rice, irradiation provided better protection than insecticides, phosphine gas (fumigant) and insect repellant, though reinfestation prevailed over extended storage period as in other methods. Storage life of perishable items were variably extended due to irradiation-induced biochemical changes. Practical application of irradiation is possible, foreseeably as complimentary treatment, considering the inadequacy of present preservation methods its applicability to a wide range of food commodities, and the possible cost-benefit under existing postharvest system. Actual utilization of irradiation can be economically justified if sited at the port of entry for preservations of various food and non-food items thatns of various food and non-food items that enter/leave the country. (author)

199

Nuclear fuel handling apparatus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fuel handling machine for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor in which a retractable handling tube and gripper are lowered into the reactor to withdraw a spent fuel assembly into the handling tube. The handling tube containing the fuel assembly immersed in liquid sodium is then withdrawn completely from the reactor into the outer barrel of the handling machine. The machine is then used to transport the spent fuel assembly directly to a remotely located decay tank. The fuel handling machine includes a decay heat removal system which continuously removes heat from the interior of the handling tube and which is capable of operating at its full cooling capacity at all times. The handling tube is supported in the machine from an articulated joint which enables it to readily align itself with the correct position in the core. An emergency sodium supply is carried directly by the machine to provide make up in the event of a loss of sodium from the handling tube during transport to the decay tank. 5 claims, 32 drawing figures

200

Targeted interventions of ultra-poor women in rural Rangpur, Bangladesh: do they make a difference to appropriate cooking practices, food habits and sanitation?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to assess whether teaching good cooking practices, food habits and sanitation to ultra-poor rural women in four rural communities of Rangpur district, Bangladesh, with a high density of extremely poor households, would improve the overall health of the community. The sample size was 200 respondents combined from the target and control areas. In the target area, twelve in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were undertaken for knowledge dissemination. Descriptive and mixed-model analyses were performed. The results show that washing hands with soap was 1.35 times more likely in the target than the control group (phand-washing behaviour: before cutting vegetables, preparing food, feeding a child and eating, and after defecating and cleaning a baby (phand-washing in every-day life. PMID:24355498

Yeasmin, Lubna; Akter, Shamima; Shahidul Islam, A M; Mizanur Rahman, Md; Akashi, Hidechika; Jesmin, Subrina

2014-07-01

201

Irradiation pilot plants and experimental facilities available for food preservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the ever-increasing world food crisis mankind has to face today, the prevention of spoilage of perishable food is gaining in momentum. The World Food Conference (Rome, November 1974) of the United Nations clearly recognized the importance of food preservation and urged action in this field. Irradiation is one of the recently discovered methods to preserve food. Its practical introduction largely depends on three main factors: (a) proof of the safety for human consumption of the irradiated product, (b) technological feasibility and (c) economic competitiveness of the process. As data on safety for consumption ('wholesomeness') continue to become available, the number of countries authorizing the irradiation of certain food items is growing (present total: 17 countries), and the same is true for the number of licensed irradiated commodities (total: 23). Under these conditions, testing of the technological and economic feasibility of food irradiation is a matter of increasing importance. Economic feasibility of any industrial operation can only be studied in larger-scale experiments. Thus, they can only be performed with radiation sources larger than those found in laboratories, i.e. in pilot irradiators, capable of handling from a few hundred to a few thousand kilograms of material within a short period of time. The Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has attempted to collect data on the availability, foed to collect data on the availability, for food preservation, of suitable irradiators in Member States

202

Towards Architecture-Level Middleware-Enabled Exception Handling of Component-based Systems  

OpenAIRE

Exception handling is a practical and important way to improve the availability and reliability of a component-based system. The classical code-level exception handling approach is usually applied to the inside of a component, while some exceptions can only or properly be handled outside of the components. In this paper, we propose a middleware-enabled approach for exception handling at architecture level. Developers specify what exceptions should be handled and how to handle them with the su...

Huang, Gang; Wu, Yihan

2011-01-01

203

Preventing and Treating Food Allergy  

Science.gov (United States)

... publications Clinical Practice Guidelines Food Allergy Clinical Practice Guidelines help clinicians and patients make appropriate decisions about health care. Volunteer for NIAID-funded clinical studies related to food allergy on ClinicalTrials.gov. Vaccine Update ...

204

Food irradiation seminar: Asia and the Pacific  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report covers the Seminar for Asia and the Pacific on the practical application of food irradiation. The seminar assessed the practical application of food irradiation processes, commercial utilisation and international trade of irradiated food

205

As principais evoluções dos comportamentos alimentares: o caso da França / Main evolutions in human food practices: French example  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Durante a segunda metade do século XX, o desenvolvimento econômico e as evoluções dos modos de vida ocasionaram modificações importantes nos comportamentos alimentares. Tais evoluções foram particularmente analisadas para o caso da França. Confrontadas a um contexto de abundância, as populações adot [...] aram uma conduta alimentar mais energética. Tal conduta resume-se, sobretudo, em um alto consumo de produtos de origem animal. Porém, entre grupos de indivíduos ricos e após um período de saturação, a atração pelo consumo desmedido tal produto, tornou-se menos intensiva. Novas preocupações orientadas à saúde e às formas de mantê-la em bom estado foram despertadas. O aumento do número de mulheres salariadas e o desenvolvimento das atividades de lazer alteraram a gestão do tempo empregado à alimentação. Na busca pelo ganho de tempo, os consumidores passaram a procurar por alimentos prontos para serem consumidos e a realizarem suas refeições fora do domicílio. As culturas alimentares não evoluem tão rapidamente como as transformações ocorridas em todo o sistema de oferta alimentar, com isso afirma-se que a industrialização, a internacionalização e as inovações de toda a cadeia agroalimentar geram ansiedades no consumidor. Todas essas transformações e tendências, que são observadas em países ricos, podem ser percebidas quando os comportamentos alimentares de populações ricas de países em desenvolvimento são analisados. Abstract in english Important modifications in consumer food habits were caused by both economic development and evolutions in life style during the second part of the XX century. These evolutions were analyzed, in particular, in the case of France. Easy accessibility to food (abundance context) led the populations to [...] adopt high caloric food intakes, such conduct resulting, above all, in an elevated consumption of products of animal origin. However, after a period of saturation, the unlimited attraction to the consumption of such products became less intense amongst the richer, more privileged social groups. New, health oriented concerns, and ways to maintain good health became important. The rise in the number of women earning salaries and the development of leisure activities altered the management of time with respect to feeding. Aiming at gaining time, the consumers concentrated more on ready-to-eat foods and eating out of the home. However the food cultures failed to evolve as quickly as the transformations occurring in the food marketing system, and thus it can be affirmed that industrialization, internationalization and innovations throughout the whole agro-food chain led to consumer anxiety. All such transformations and tendencies observed in the rich countries can also be perceived in the food habits of rich populations in developing countries.

Jean Louis, Lambert; Mário Otávio, Batalha; Renato Luiz, Sproesser; Andréa Lago da, Silva; Thelma, Lucchese.

2005-10-01

206

Remote handling technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economical operation of a fusion reactor requires intensive maintenance. For this purpose and due to the special conditions with regard to the components of a fusion reactor, remote handling instruments and machinery have to be developed. The state-of-the-art of such remote handling technique, in particular of multi-purpose and special devices (master-slave-manipulators), is described. (DG)

207

15 years of existence of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ICGFI essentially contributed to international dissemination of unbiased information about the advantages and risks of food irradiation. The body has issued ICGFI publications containing codes of good practice for a variety of purposes, as eg. for operation of irradiation facilities for the treatment of food (GIP), or guidelines for due handling of irradiated food (GMP). Training courses have been offered to scientists, especially from developing countries, as well as for inspectors of national supervisory authorities. The activities of the advisory group as well as the conditions governing future activities are discussed. (orig./CB)

208

Oficinas de boas práticas de fabricação: construindo estratégias para garantir a segurança alimentar / Workshops for good manufacturing practices: building strategies for ensuring food security  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A comercialização de alimentos tradicionais resgata a história e a cultura presentes nos alimentos. Os pescadores artesanais são os principais responsáveis pelo abastecimento do mercado nacional. Considerando-se a importância da adoção de procedimentos de Boas Práticas de Fabricação em toda cadeia p [...] rodutiva, o presente trabalho visa a socializar uma experiência construtiva de uma oficina de Boas Práticas de Fabricação para pescadoras. Diante disso, realizou-se um levantamento de conceitos e atitudes voltadas para produção segura de alimentos, utilizando-se como instrumento entrevistas, além da observação de seus hábitos e atitudes. Os resultados evidenciam que estas pescadoras percebem as Boas Práticas de Fabricação como sinônimo de higiene e de poder comercializar o pescado sem reclamações; porém, as mesmas não têm noção dos procedimentos de Boas Práticas de Fabricação na sua atividade. O processo formativo se constitui como uma das estratégias de base para consolidação dos grupos, sendo as oficinas alternativas eficientes, de fácil execução e baixo custo. Abstract in english The marketing of traditional foods recalls the history and culture in feeding. The fishermen are primarily responsible for supplying the domestic market. Considering the importance of adopting procedures for Good Manufacturing Practices throughout the production chain, this paper aims to socialize a [...] constructive experience of a Good Manufacturing Practices workshop for fishers. Therefore, we carried out a survey of concepts and attitudes towards safe food production, using interviews as an instrument, and are observed their habits and attitudes. The results show that these Good Manufacturing Practices perceive as synonymous with health and able to market the fish without complaint, but they are not aware of the procedures for Good Manufacturing Practices activities. The training process is constituted as one of the basic strategies for strengthening these groups, workshops efficient alternatives, easy implementation and low cost.

Tarcisio da Silva, Costa; Gabrielly Sobral, Neiva; Valéria Macedo Almeida, Camilo; Fernanda de, Freitas; Isabella de Matos Mendes da, Silva.

2012-05-01

209

Conocimientos y prácticas de los trabajadores de un hospital sobre el manejo de residuos hospitalarios, Chocó, Colombia, 2012 / Knowledge and practices of workers of a Hospital about handling of hospital waste, Chocó Colombia, 2012  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: los residuos hospitalarios y similares constituyen un grave problema de salud por el riesgo de contaminación biológica y química, y sus impactos negativos sobre la calidad de vida humana y el ambiente. Objetivo: describir los conocimientos y prácticas de los trabajadores de una Empresa [...] Social del Estado de Chocó-Colombia sobre el manejo de residuos hospitalarios y su asociación con sexo, edad, área de servicios y tiempo de labor en la Institución. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal, en 67 empleados de seis áreas de trabajo de un hospital de Colombia. Se aplicó una escala sobre conocimientos y prácticas relacionadas con el manejo de residuos hospitalarios. Los datos se almacenaron y analizaron en Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for Windows, software SPSS 20, con medidas de resumen, frecuencias, chi cuadrado y Anova. Resultados: en los conocimientos el 40% presentó un grado insatisfactorio, en las prácticas el 17,9% fue regular y solo 3% excelente. Los conocimientos no presentaron asociación estadística con el sexo, el área de servicios, la edad y el tiempo laborado en la Institución Prestadora de Servicios de Salud, excepto en el personal del laboratorio clínico, donde 89% presentaron un conocimiento entre bueno y excelente. Las prácticas no presentaron asociación estadística con el sexo, el área de servicio, la edad y el tiempo de servicio. Conclusión: se observó una elevada proporción de conocimientos y prácticas inadecuadas o insatisfactorias frente al manejo de residuos, independiente del sexo, la edad, el área de trabajo y el tiempo de servicio; esto implica que el problema es generalizado en la Institución y evidencia la necesidad de mejorar los programas de educación y capacitación. (MÉD.UIS. 2013;26(1)9:20) Abstract in english Introduction: hospital waste and similar are relevant health problem for the biological and chemicals risk, and negative impacts on the human quality of life and the environment. Objective: to describe the knowledge and practices of the workers of a Empresa Social del Estado from Chocó, Colombia abo [...] ut the handle of the hospital waste. Materials and methods: cross sectional study in 67 workers of six work areas of a hospital from Colombia. A scale about knowledge and practices about hospital waste was applied. The data is stored and analyzed in SPSS 20, with summary measures, frequencies, chi2 and Anova. Results: in knowledge 40% presented an unsatisfactory grade, in practice 17.9% was regular and only 3.0% excellent. The knowledge do not presented statistical association with sex, area of service, age and the time worked in the IPS, except in clinical laboratory staff, where 89% had a good knowledge. Practices showed no statistical association with sex, area of service, age and length of service. Conclusion: there was a high proportion of practices and knowledge unsatisfactory related with waste management, independent of gender, age, work area and service time, this implies that the problem is widespread in the institution and highlights the need to improve education programs and training. (MÉD.UIS. 2013;26(1)9:20).

Yulenny, Quinto-Mosquera; Luz Marina, Jaramillo-Pérez; Jaiberth Antonio, Cardona-Arias.

2013-04-01

210

Alergia alimentar: atualização prática do ponto de vista gastroenterológico Food allergy: a practical update from the gastroenterological viewpoint  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Apresentar uma revisão atualizada e crítica sobre alergias alimentares, focando principalmente em tratamento e prevenção. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão da literatura publicada obtida através do banco de dados MEDLINE, sendo selecionados os mais atuais e representativos do tema (2000-2006. A pesquisa incluiu os sites da European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN e American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A prevalência de doenças alérgicas tem aumentado nas últimas décadas e alergia alimentar parece fazer parte desse aumento. Alergia alimentar é muito mais comum em pediatria e apresenta impacto médico, financeiro e social significativos em crianças menores e suas famílias. Tratamento e prevenção da alergia alimentar são desafios maiores do ponto de vista da saúde pública e para as comunidades médica e científica. Há muita informação incorreta e condutas médicas discutíveis nessa área. Apresentamos e discutimos as recomendações publicadas pelos Comitês de Nutrição da ESPGHAN juntamente com a Sociedade Européia Pediátrica de Alergologia e Imunologia Clínica (ESPACI e AAP. CONCLUSÃO: Excesso de diagnósticos de alergia alimentar é bastante prevalente. Há necessidade de uniformização de definições e procedimentos diagnósticos. O objetivo primário do manejo deve ser o de instituir medidas efetivas de prevenção das alergias alimentares. Há necessidade de métodos precisos para confirmar ou excluir o diagnóstico. Os pacientes necessitam tratamento apropriado através da eliminação de alimentos que causam sintomas, ao mesmo tempo evitando os efeitos adversos nutricionais e o custo de dietas inadequadas.OBJECTIVE: To present an up-to-date and critical review regarding food allergies, focusing mainly on treatment and prevention. SOURCES: Review of published literature searched on MEDLINE database; those data which were the most up-to-date and representative were selected (2000-2006. The search included the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased over the last decades, and food allergy seems to be part of this increase. Food allergy is much more common in pediatrics and has a significant medical, financial and social impact on young children and their families. Treatment and prevention of food allergy is a major challenge for public health, scientific and medical communities. There is a lot of misinformation and the medical management of this condition is still discussable. We present and discuss the guidelines regarding criteria for the prevention of food allergy and atopic diseases published by the Nutrition Committees of ESPGHAN jointly with the European Society for Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (ESPACI and AAP. CONCLUSION: The overdiagnosis of food allergy is quite prevalent. There is a need for standardization of definitions and diagnostic procedures. The primary goal of therapy should be to first establish effective means of preventing food allergies. There is a need for accurate diagnostic methods to confirm or rule out the diagnosis. Patients need appropriate treatment by eliminating foods that cause symptoms, while avoiding the nutritional side effects and the cost of inappropriate diets.

Cristina Targa Ferreira

2007-02-01

211

Alergia alimentar: atualização prática do ponto de vista gastroenterológico / Food allergy: a practical update from the gastroenterological viewpoint  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Apresentar uma revisão atualizada e crítica sobre alergias alimentares, focando principalmente em tratamento e prevenção. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão da literatura publicada obtida através do banco de dados MEDLINE, sendo selecionados os mais atuais e representativos do tema (2000-2006). A [...] pesquisa incluiu os sites da European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) e American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A prevalência de doenças alérgicas tem aumentado nas últimas décadas e alergia alimentar parece fazer parte desse aumento. Alergia alimentar é muito mais comum em pediatria e apresenta impacto médico, financeiro e social significativos em crianças menores e suas famílias. Tratamento e prevenção da alergia alimentar são desafios maiores do ponto de vista da saúde pública e para as comunidades médica e científica. Há muita informação incorreta e condutas médicas discutíveis nessa área. Apresentamos e discutimos as recomendações publicadas pelos Comitês de Nutrição da ESPGHAN juntamente com a Sociedade Européia Pediátrica de Alergologia e Imunologia Clínica (ESPACI) e AAP. CONCLUSÃO: Excesso de diagnósticos de alergia alimentar é bastante prevalente. Há necessidade de uniformização de definições e procedimentos diagnósticos. O objetivo primário do manejo deve ser o de instituir medidas efetivas de prevenção das alergias alimentares. Há necessidade de métodos precisos para confirmar ou excluir o diagnóstico. Os pacientes necessitam tratamento apropriado através da eliminação de alimentos que causam sintomas, ao mesmo tempo evitando os efeitos adversos nutricionais e o custo de dietas inadequadas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To present an up-to-date and critical review regarding food allergies, focusing mainly on treatment and prevention. SOURCES: Review of published literature searched on MEDLINE database; those data which were the most up-to-date and representative were selected (2000-2006). The search incl [...] uded the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased over the last decades, and food allergy seems to be part of this increase. Food allergy is much more common in pediatrics and has a significant medical, financial and social impact on young children and their families. Treatment and prevention of food allergy is a major challenge for public health, scientific and medical communities. There is a lot of misinformation and the medical management of this condition is still discussable. We present and discuss the guidelines regarding criteria for the prevention of food allergy and atopic diseases published by the Nutrition Committees of ESPGHAN jointly with the European Society for Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (ESPACI) and AAP. CONCLUSION: The overdiagnosis of food allergy is quite prevalent. There is a need for standardization of definitions and diagnostic procedures. The primary goal of therapy should be to first establish effective means of preventing food allergies. There is a need for accurate diagnostic methods to confirm or rule out the diagnosis. Patients need appropriate treatment by eliminating foods that cause symptoms, while avoiding the nutritional side effects and the cost of inappropriate diets.

Cristina Targa, Ferreira; Ernest, Seidman.

2007-02-01

212

Future of remote handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The field of remote handling started with the invention of mechanical master-slave and electromechanical manipulators in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Those developments and that of shielding windows applied in hot cells and bays remain the dominant application of remote handling. The development of electric master-slave manipulators in the 1950s under the direction of Ray Goertz, and further development and applications in accelerator and nuclear fuel reprocessing, has made advanced remote handling a viable scheme for many applications. In very recent times, the application of robotics to analytical chemistry, fuel pellet fabrication, and explosives handling is a precursor to an expanded application of that technology. This paper will review the state-of-the-art in three areas and offer the authors view of the future over approximately the next ten years

213

Tritium handling facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the development of the controlled thermonuclear reactor, some of the most important and urgent matters are to get necessary amounts of deuterium and tritium as fuel gases and to establish the technologies for safe handling and control of tritium. The design of tritium handling facilities has been carried out. The objective is to study the safe handling technologies and to get the research and development programs of fuel cycling system in the controlled thermonuclear reactor. This report summarized the results of our studies on the multiple barrier containment systems based on the design philosophy of ''Defence in Depth'' and also based on the tritium storage and removal systems to satisfy the maximum permissible concentration of tritium in the atmosphere (MPCa). In addition, it summarized the research and development programs to design and construct a large-scale tritium handling facilities in future. (author)

214

Handling Pyrophoric Reagents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pyrophoric reagents are extremely hazardous. Special handling techniques are required to prevent contact with air and the resulting fire. This document provides several methods for working with pyrophoric reagents outside of an inert atmosphere.

Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Haynie, Todd O.

2009-08-14

215

Consumer-reported handling of raw poultry products at home: results from a national survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salmonella and Campylobacter cause an estimated combined total of 1.8 million foodborne infections each year in the United States. Most cases of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis are associated with eating raw or undercooked poultry or with cross-contamination. Between 1998 and 2008, 20% of Salmonella and 16% of Campylobacter foodborne disease outbreaks were associated with food prepared inside the home. A nationally representative Web survey of U.S. adult grocery shoppers (n = 1,504) was conducted to estimate the percentage of consumers who follow recommended food safety practices when handling raw poultry at home. The survey results identified areas of low adherence to current recommended food safety practices: not washing raw poultry before cooking, proper refrigerator storage of raw poultry, use of a food thermometer to determine doneness, and proper thawing of raw poultry in cold water. Nearly 70% of consumers reported washing or rinsing raw poultry before cooking it, a potentially unsafe practice because "splashing" of contaminated water may lead to the transfer of pathogens to other foods and other kitchen surfaces. Only 17.5% of consumers reported correctly storing raw poultry in the refrigerator. Sixty-two percent of consumers own a food thermometer, and of these, 26% or fewer reported using one to check the internal temperature of smaller cuts of poultry and ground poultry. Only 11% of consumers who thaw raw poultry in cold water reported doing so correctly. The study results, coupled with other research findings, will inform the development of science-based consumer education materials that can help reduce foodborne illness from Salmonella and Campylobacter. PMID:25581194

Kosa, Katherine M; Cates, Sheryl C; Bradley, Samantha; Chambers Iv, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria

2015-01-01

216

Keeping up appearances: perceptions of street food safety in urban Kumasi, Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

The growing street food sector in low-income countries offers easy access to inexpensive food as well as new job opportunities for urban residents. While this development is positive in many ways, it also presents new public health challenges for the urban population. Safe food hygiene is difficult to practice at street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been linked to street food. This study investigates local perceptions of food safety among street food vendors and their consumers in Kumasi, Ghana in order to identify the most important aspects to be included in future public health interventions concerning street food safety. This qualitative study includes data from a triangulation of various qualitative methods. Observations at several markets and street food vending sites in Kumasi were performed. Fourteen street food vendors were chosen for in-depth studies, and extensive participant observations and several interviews were carried out with case vendors. In addition, street interviews and Focus Group Discussions were carried out with street food customers. The study found that although vendors and consumers demonstrated basic knowledge of food safety, the criteria did not emphasize basic hygiene practices such as hand washing, cleaning of utensils, washing of raw vegetables, and quality of ingredients. Instead, four main food selection criteria could be identified and were related to (1) aesthetic appearance of food and food stand, (2) appearance of the food vendor, (3) interpersonal trust in the vendor, and (4) consumers often chose to prioritize price and accessibility of food--not putting much stress on food safety. Hence, consumers relied on risk avoidance strategies by assessing neatness, appearance, and trustworthiness of vendor. Vendors were also found to emphasize appearance while vending and to ignore core food safety practices while preparing food. These findings are discussed in this paper using social and anthropological theoretical concepts such as 'purity', 'contamination', 'hygiene puzzles', and 'impression behaviors' from Douglas, Van Der Geest, and Goffman. The findings indicate that educating vendors in safe food handling is evidently insufficient. Future public health interventions within the street food sector should give emphasis to the importance of appearance and neatness when designing communication strategies. Neglected aspects of food safety, such as good hand hygiene and cleanliness of kitchen facilities, should be emphasized. Local vendor networks can be an effective point of entry for future food hygiene promotion initiatives. PMID:18821020

Rheinländer, Thilde; Olsen, Mette; Bakang, John Abubakar; Takyi, Harriet; Konradsen, Flemming; Samuelsen, Helle

2008-11-01

217

21 CFR 179.39 - Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Section 179.39 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation...

2010-04-01

218

21 CFR 179.30 - Radiofrequency radiation for the heating of food, including microwave frequencies.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Section 179.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation...

2010-04-01

219

21 CFR 179.41 - Pulsed light for the treatment of food.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Section 179.41 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation...

2010-04-01

220

9 CFR 381.201 - Means of conveyance and equipment used in handling poultry products offered for entry to be...  

Science.gov (United States)

...handling poultry products offered for entry to be maintained in sanitary condition. 381...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...handling poultry products offered for entry to be maintained in sanitary condition....

2010-01-01

221

Alimentos funcionales: análisis de la recomendación en la práctica diaria / Functional foods: analysis of the recommendation in the daily practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción:La investigación científica, la innovación tecnológica y la tendencia hacia lo saludable revolucionaron la industria alimenticia con el nuevo concepto de "alimentos funcionales". Surgen en Japón en los años 80 y actualmente el mercado internacional se encuentra en pleno auge. Los Licenc [...] iados en Nutrición, como nexo entre ciencia, industria y consumidor, constituyen una pieza clave y cumplen un rol fundamental en educación y asesoramiento.El objetivodel estudio fue establecer el nivel de conocimiento que poseen los Licenciados en Nutrición en éste área sobre el concepto de "alimento funcional", fuentes de información y capacitación utilizadas, recomendación y uso adecuado. Material y métodos:se realizó un estudio cualitativo, descriptivo y transversal. Se entrevistaron 57 Licenciados de Ciudad de Buenos Aires y Conurbano Bonaerense. Resultados:La mitad de los entrevistados tenía información previa sobre los alimentos funcionales y, aunque el 63% desconocía su definición, los identificaban correctamente. Los más nombrados fueron los diseñados. Las fuentes bibliográficas y medios de información más nombrados fueron: "Internet", "libros", "congresos". El 91% consideró importante conocerlos y/o usarlos por el beneficio a la salud y utilidad. El resto no los consideró importantes por ausencia de necesidad, falta de información y desconfianza. El 72% recomendaría alimentos funcionales entre los que destacan lácteos (con probióticos, fitoesteroles y omega 3), cereales, frutas y hortalizas (semillas de lino, chía, salvado de avena). Entre las causas de no recomendación destacan precio y rótulos poco claros. Existe un marcado interés sobre capacitación y uso adecuado. Conclusiones:Los conocimientos que poseen los expertos en nutrición sobre alimentos funcionales son claves ya que deben interpretar y "traducir" la información científica y de la industria a la comunidad en general, como fuentes confiables e idóneas. Asegurar información adecuada a la población permitiría facilitar elecciones saludables y mejorar la calidad de vida. Abstract in english Introduction: Scientific research, technological innovation and the ongoing trend towards healthy things revolutionized the food industry with the new concept of "functional foods". They emerged in Japan in the 80´s and nowadays, the international market is booming. Dietitians, as the link between s [...] cience, industry and consumer, are a key piece and fulfill a fundamental role in education and advising. Theaimof this study was to establish the level of knowledge Dietitians have on the functional food concept, sources of information and training, recommendation and suitable use. Methods: A qualitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out. 57 Dietitians were interviewed in Buenos Aires City and Buenos Aires suburbs. Results:Half of the interviewed people had previous information on functional foods; although 63% did not know their definition, they identifed them correctly. The most named were the designed ones. The bibliography and means of information most named were: "Internet", "books", "congresses". 91% considered important to know them and/or use them due to health benefts and utility. The rest did not consider them important because of absence of necessity, lack of information and distrust. 72% would recommend functional dairies (with Probiotics, Phytosterol and Omega 3) and cereals, fruits and vegetables (fax seed, chia, oat bran). Among the causes of non-recommendation, Dietitians emphasize price and unclear labels. There is a strong interest in training and proper use. Conclusion: The knowledge of experts in nutrition on functional foods is key because they must interpret and "translate" the scientific and industrial information to the community as reliable and appropriate sources. The right information enables people to make healthy choices to improve their quality of life.

MV, Millone; GF, Olagnero; EC, Santana.

2011-03-01

222

Alimentos funcionales: análisis de la recomendación en la práctica diaria Functional foods: analysis of the recommendation in the daily practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción:La investigación científica, la innovación tecnológica y la tendencia hacia lo saludable revolucionaron la industria alimenticia con el nuevo concepto de "alimentos funcionales". Surgen en Japón en los años 80 y actualmente el mercado internacional se encuentra en pleno auge. Los Licenciados en Nutrición, como nexo entre ciencia, industria y consumidor, constituyen una pieza clave y cumplen un rol fundamental en educación y asesoramiento.El objetivodel estudio fue establecer el nivel de conocimiento que poseen los Licenciados en Nutrición en éste área sobre el concepto de "alimento funcional", fuentes de información y capacitación utilizadas, recomendación y uso adecuado. Material y métodos:se realizó un estudio cualitativo, descriptivo y transversal. Se entrevistaron 57 Licenciados de Ciudad de Buenos Aires y Conurbano Bonaerense. Resultados:La mitad de los entrevistados tenía información previa sobre los alimentos funcionales y, aunque el 63% desconocía su definición, los identificaban correctamente. Los más nombrados fueron los diseñados. Las fuentes bibliográficas y medios de información más nombrados fueron: "Internet", "libros", "congresos". El 91% consideró importante conocerlos y/o usarlos por el beneficio a la salud y utilidad. El resto no los consideró importantes por ausencia de necesidad, falta de información y desconfianza. El 72% recomendaría alimentos funcionales entre los que destacan lácteos (con probióticos, fitoesteroles y omega 3, cereales, frutas y hortalizas (semillas de lino, chía, salvado de avena. Entre las causas de no recomendación destacan precio y rótulos poco claros. Existe un marcado interés sobre capacitación y uso adecuado. Conclusiones:Los conocimientos que poseen los expertos en nutrición sobre alimentos funcionales son claves ya que deben interpretar y "traducir" la información científica y de la industria a la comunidad en general, como fuentes confiables e idóneas. Asegurar información adecuada a la población permitiría facilitar elecciones saludables y mejorar la calidad de vida.Introduction: Scientific research, technological innovation and the ongoing trend towards healthy things revolutionized the food industry with the new concept of "functional foods". They emerged in Japan in the 80´s and nowadays, the international market is booming. Dietitians, as the link between science, industry and consumer, are a key piece and fulfill a fundamental role in education and advising. Theaimof this study was to establish the level of knowledge Dietitians have on the functional food concept, sources of information and training, recommendation and suitable use. Methods: A qualitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out. 57 Dietitians were interviewed in Buenos Aires City and Buenos Aires suburbs. Results:Half of the interviewed people had previous information on functional foods; although 63% did not know their definition, they identifed them correctly. The most named were the designed ones. The bibliography and means of information most named were: "Internet", "books", "congresses". 91% considered important to know them and/or use them due to health benefts and utility. The rest did not consider them important because of absence of necessity, lack of information and distrust. 72% would recommend functional dairies (with Probiotics, Phytosterol and Omega 3 and cereals, fruits and vegetables (fax seed, chia, oat bran. Among the causes of non-recommendation, Dietitians emphasize price and unclear labels. There is a strong interest in training and proper use. Conclusion: The knowledge of experts in nutrition on functional foods is key because they must interpret and "translate" the scientific and industrial information to the community as reliable and appropriate sources. The right information enables people to make healthy choices to improve their quality of life.

MV Millone

2011-03-01

223

A high intensity beam handling system at the KEK-PS new experimental hall  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We would like to summarize newly developed technology for handling high-intensity beams. This was practically employed in the beam-handling system of primary protons at the KEK-PS new experimental hall. (author)

224

Salmonella Thompson associated with improper handling of roast beef at a restaurant in Sioux Falls, South Dakota.  

Science.gov (United States)

In October 1996, we investigated an outbreak of Salmonella serotype Thompson infections associated with Restaurant A in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, and conducted two cohort studies among persons who ate at luncheons catered by Restaurant A. Fifty-two Salmonella Thompson infections were identified between 29 September and 14 October 1996. Infections occurred among employees and patrons at Restaurant A and among attendees at three luncheons catered by the restaurant on 7 October. Roast beef cooked at Restaurant A was the only food item significantly associated with illness. Cooking times and storage temperatures for roast beef were inadequate to prevent multiplication of Salmonella, and the chefs were unaware of proper cooking and storage temperatures. We conclude that improper handling of roast beef probably caused this outbreak of Salmonella Thompson infections. Better knowledge of food safety practices by the cooking staff at Restaurant A, through required food safety education, might have prevented the outbreak. PMID:10030628

Shapiro, R; Ackers, M L; Lance, S; Rabbani, M; Schaefer, L; Daugherty, J; Thelen, C; Swerdlow, D

1999-02-01

225

Sample handling of clinical specimens for ultra trace element analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper brings forward some simple logistics to an improved sample handling of clinical specimens. This comprises clean room conditions, clean laboratory ware, ultra-pure reagents and good analytical practice. Sample handling procedures for blood, urine, soft tissues and pharmaceuticals will be briefly discussed. (author)

226

Using vignettes to tap into moral reasoning in public health policy: practical advice and design principles from a study on food advertising to children.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we describe a process for designing and applying vignettes in public health policy research and practice. We developed this methodology for a study on moral reasoning underpinning policy debate on food advertising to children. Using vignettes prompted policy actors who were relatively entrenched in particular ways of speaking professionally about a controversial and ethically challenging issue to converse in a more authentic and reflective way. Vignettes hold benefits and complexities. They can focus attention on moral conflicts, draw out different types of evidence to support moral reasoning, and enable simultaneous consideration of real and ideal worlds. We suggest a process and recommendations on design features for crafting vignettes for public health policy. PMID:25121818

Mah, Catherine L; Taylor, Emily; Hoang, Sylvia; Cook, Brian

2014-10-01

227

Food Culture in the Home Environment: Family Meal Practices and Values Can Support Healthy Eating and Self-Regulation in Young People in Four European Countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Overweight epidemics, including among children and adolescents, are fuelled by contemporary obesogenic environments. Recent research and theory highlight the importance of socio-cultural factors in mitigating adverse impacts of the abundance of food in high-income countries. The current study examines whether family meal culture shapes young people's eating behaviors and self-regulation. Methods: Young people aged 10-17 years were recruited through schools in four European countries: the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom. A total of 2,764 participants (mean age 13.2 years; 49.1% girls) completed a self-report questionnaire in class, providing information on healthy and unhealthy eating, joint family meals and communal meal values and use of eating-related self-regulation strategies. Results: Path analysis found that family meal culture variables were significantly associated with young people's eating behaviors, as was self-regulation. Significant indirect effects of family meal culture were also found, through self-regulation. Conclusions: Results confirm that family meal culture, encompassing values as well as practices, shapes young people's eating behaviors. Findings extend and link previously separate lines of enquiry by showing how food cultures can play out in the home environment. Importantly, the study contributes novel evidence suggesting that self-regulation is shaped by the home environment and mediates its influence. PMID:25346476

de Wit, John B F; Stok, F Marijn; Smolenski, Derek J; de Ridder, Denise D T; de Vet, Emely; Gaspar, Tania; Johnson, Fiona; Nureeva, Lyliya; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

2014-10-27

228

Critical control points of complementary food preparation and handling in eastern Nigeria / Points de contrôle critiques dans la préparation et la manipulation des aliments de complément dans l’est du Nigéria / Puntos críticos de control en la preparación y manipulación de alimentos complementarios en el este de Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Investigar la contaminación microbiana y los puntos críticos de control (PCC) en la preparación y manipulación de alimentos complementarios en 120 hogares del Estado de Imo (Nigeria). MÉTODOS: Se empleó el sistema de análisis de peligros en puntos críticos de control (HACCP) para investiga [...] r los procesos y procedimientos que favorecían la contaminación microbiana y el crecimiento y la supervivencia de los microbios, así como para identificar los puntos donde podían aplicarse controles a fin de prevenir, eliminar o reducir esos riesgos microbiológicos hasta niveles admisibles. Se sometieron a análisis microbiológico muestras de alimentos recogidas en diferentes etapas de la preparación y manipulación. RESULTADOS: Durante la cocción todos los alimentos alcanzaron temperaturas capaces de destruir las formas vegetativas de los patógenos de transmisión alimentaria. Sin embargo, el riesgo de contaminación aumentó al almacenar los alimentos a temperatura ambiente, cuando se usaron temperaturas insuficientemente altas para recalentar el alimento, y al añadir ingredientes - por ejemplo cangrejo seco molido o soja en polvo - contaminados en etapas tras las cuales no se aplicaba ningún tratamiento térmico. La compra en mercados de alimentos e ingredientes crudos, especialmente de akamu, contaminados también constituye un PCC. CONCLUSIÓN: Aunque un entorno insalubre acarrea muchos peligros para la alimentación de los niños, si se observan los principios básicos de inocuidad de los alimentos es posible asegurar la calidad higiénica de los alimentos preparados. Cuando la contaminación es el resultado de muchos factores, la identificación de los PCC resulta especialmente importante y puede facilitar la adecuada focalización de los recursos y de las actividades de prevención. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate microbial contamination and critical control points (CCPs) in the preparation and handling of complementary foods in 120 households in Imo state, Nigeria. METHODS: The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach was used to investigate processes and procedures t [...] hat contributed to microbial contamination, growth and survival, and to identify points where controls could be applied to prevent or eliminate these microbiological hazards or reduce them to acceptable levels. Food samples were collected and tested microbiologically at different stages of preparation and handling. FINDINGS: During cooking, all foods attained temperatures capable of destroying vegetative forms of food-borne pathogens. However, the risk of contamination increased by storage of food at ambient temperature, by using insufficiently high temperatures to reheat the food, and by adding contaminated ingredients such as dried ground crayfish and soybean powder at stages where no further heat treatment was applied. The purchasing of contaminated raw foodstuffs and ingredients, particularly raw akamu, from vendors in open markets is also a CCP. CONCLUSION: Although an unsafe environment poses many hazards for children’s food, the hygienic quality of prepared food can be assured if basic food safety principles are observed. When many factors contribute to food contamination, identification of CCPs becomes particularly important and can facilitate appropriate targeting of resources and prevention efforts.

John E., Ehiri; Marcel C., Azubuike; Collins N., Ubbaonu; Ebere C., Anyanwu; Kasimir M., Ibe; Michael O., Ogbonna.

229

TRANSPORT/HANDLING REQUESTS  

CERN Multimedia

A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

Groupe ST/HM

2002-01-01

230

Traditional Fish Handling and Preservation in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The time elapsing between lifting of the nets and delivery to the shore can vary with the distance that has to be covered. It can at times be a period of several hours. The fish, when brought aboard is usually more or less alive. It is stored simply on the bottom of the canoe, lying there in a pool of warm, dirty water. The fish is never gutted and freely exposed to the sun. Needless to say the product thus handled has an extremely short keeping period that could be improved by more hygienic handling and by keeping the fish in shade. The ultimate aim at least for the fish to be entered into the fresh fish trade should of course be to have the fish iced. The same applies to the handling after landing. No precautions are taken to prevent the fish from being covered with sand, leaves, sticks, etc. Better handling practices would be a prerequisite to the development of a fresh fish export trade towards the larger towns in the north and south. It is a well known fact that fishes' rigor mortis period lasts longest with fish kept at a low temperature and is also favourably influenced by killing the fish as soon as possible after catching; in other words by shortening its death struggle and avoiding chemical and enzymic deterioration after passing the rigor mortis period at the lowest possible level. It is recommended that future research tries to establish whether the relationship between killing the fish right after landing on board and a consequent extension of the rigor mortis period is of sufficient significance to be taken up in a programme of improvement of fish handling. Fish handling, filleting, fish preservation, chilling, super chilling, freezing, drying, smoking, salting and fermentation are reviewed in this article to provide information for improvement of culture fisheries management and practices in Nigeria.

C.C. Tawari

2011-11-01

231

The Vermicelli and Capellini Handling Tests: Simple quantitative measures of dexterous forepaw function in rats and mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous characterizations of rodent eating behavior have revealed that they use coordinated forepaw movements to manipulate food pieces. We have extended upon this work to develop a simple quantitative measure of forepaw dexterity that is sensitive to lateralized impairments and age-dependent changes. Rodents learn skillful forepaw and digit movements to manage thin pasta pieces, which they eagerly consume. We have previously described methods for quantifying vermicelli handling in rats and showed that the measures are very sensitive to forelimb impairments resulting from unilateral ischemic lesions, middle cerebral artery occlusions and unilateral striatal dopamine depletion [Allred, R.P., Adkins, D.L., Woodlee, M.T., Husbands, L.C., Maldonado M.A., Kane, J.R., Schallert, T. & Jones, T.A. The Vermicelli Handling Test: a simple quantitative measure of dexterous forepaw function in rats. J. Neurosci. Methods 170, 229-244 (2008)]. Here we present a more detailed protocol for this test in rats and compare it with a newly developed version for mice, the Capellini Handling Test. Rats and mice are videotaped while handling short lengths of uncooked vermicelli or capellini pasta, respectively, with a camera positioned to optimize the view of paw movements. Slow motion video playback allows for the identification of forepaw adjustments, defined as any distinct removal and replacement of the paw, or of any number of digits, on the pasta piece after eating commences. Forepaw adjustments per piece are averaged over trials per each testing session. Repeated testing permits sensitive quantitative analysis of changes in forepaw dexterity over time. Protocols for pre-testing habituation and handling practice, as well as procedures for characterizing atypical handling patterns, are described. Because rats and mice perform the pasta handling tests slightly differently, species-specific differences in administration and scoring of these tests are highlighted. All animal use was in accordance with protocols approved by the University of Texas at Austin Animal Care and Use Committee. PMID:20689506

Tennant, Kelly A.; Asay, Aaron L.; Allred, Rachel P.; Ozburn, Angela R.; Kleim, Jeffrey A.; Jones, Theresa A.

2010-01-01

232

Food Concerns. Research Notes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adolescent vegetarianism is most frequent among females, and involves meat avoidance, concern for the environment and animal welfare, gender equality, weight loss behaviors, and a concern with body appearance. It can be a precursor to eating disorders. Training and ongoing follow-up are necessary to instill proper food handling procedures in…

Jordan, Debra J.

1998-01-01

233

Food irradiation and habitual consumption of food; A irradiacao de alimentos e os habitos alimentares atuais  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the last years, an increasing amount of people is consuming more fruits, vegetables, seeds and sprouts, with the health effects of food in mind. Otherwise, the accepted shelf food safety found in some countries led to a growing trust in the product's hygienic quality, that leads to behaviors like opening a package and immediately consume the contents. Besides the well disseminated knowledge of good cooking practices, the lack of time, found mainly in big cities, may take to the dinning tables food with an increasing potential of pathogenic organisms contamination. For instance, the alfalfa, beam, clover and radish sprouts caused many reported Salmonella and E. coli outbreaks in countries like the USA, United Kingdom, Japan, Sweden, Finland, Canada and Denmark. Many of the likely source of contaminations were the contamination of the seeds before sprouting. To control these contaminations, the irradiation doses over 1 kGy is effective and the association of irradiation and chemical treatments is being studied. The bacteriological control performance of the irradiation becomes this technique one of the most applied to dry herbs and spices witch, without adequate treatment, could be important sources of foodborne outbreaks. Good production, handling, packing and distribution practices may, with the use of ionizing radiation to reach the desired bacteriological inactivation or decontamination level, significantly contribute to the necessary food safety, allowing it to be safely ready to eat. (author)

Omi, Nelson M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: nminoru@ipen.br

2005-07-01

234

Food for Thought: A Critical Overview of Current Practical and Conceptual Challenges in Trace Element Analysis in Natural Waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The practical and conceptual challenges faced by the analysis of trace elements present in natural waters are not merely, as is often thought, an endless race towards lower detection limits or to the development of techniques allowing the determination of any possible chemical species formed by all chemical elements. Rather, as discussed in this paper, they include the development of (i robust, cheap, and reliable methods that could also be used by laypeople (the experience gained in the development of field kits for As is discussed as an example from which similar developments for other elements may be drawn; (ii more environmentally-friendly methods (the current guiding criteria probably being too simplistic; and (iii methods making it possible to follow diel concentration changes and sharp concentration variations caused by the probable increase of heavy rainfall events. This paper also claims that neither the measurement of total concentrations (reliable methods are lacking for many elements of the periodic table of trace elements, as illustrated through the cases of Bi, Te, and Sb, nor chemical speciation analysis, are as mature as often thought. In particular, chemical speciation studies demand the development of a better, comprehensive conceptual framework. A trial is carried out to lay the basis of such a framework.

Montserrat Filella

2013-07-01

235

Research on remote handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of remote-handled pipe connections as a central problem of remote-controlled maintenance in the process cells of a reprocessing plant is presented, and a description of the results of the development work of the last three years is given. The experience made resulted in recommendations for the design of the pipe connections for the industrial-scale reprocessing plant in the Federal Republic of Germany. (RB)

236

Solid waste handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.)

237

Food, design, users: how to design food interaction modes  

OpenAIRE

Food is becoming a design material: its use and consumption along with the entire related scenario have changed. Food, in particular, is no longer of interest only to cooks and pastry chefs but also to designers, of food and otherwise. The design of the new "material-food" creates new sensory worlds: as a result, the taste is analysed as a new and unexpected experience. At the same time, food handling is another crucial aspect that has acquired growing importance: what is the consumer's behav...

Allione, Cristina; Lerma, Beatrice; Giorgi, Claudia

2012-01-01

238

Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

1991-12-31

239

Uranium hexafluoride handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF6 from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride

240

Puck Handling Glovebox  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This project will disposition excess weapons grade plutonium in a solid ceramic form. The plutonium, in oxide powder form, will be mixed with uranium oxide powder, ceramic precursors and binders. The combined powder mixture will be milled and possibly granulated; this processed powder will then be dispensed to a (dual action) cold press where it will be formed into green (unsintered) compacts. The compact will have the shape of a puck measuring approximately 3 1/2'' in diameter and 1 3/8'' thick. The green puck, once ejected from the press die, will be picked up by a robot and transferred into the Puck Handling Glovebox. Here the green puck will be inspected and then palletized onto furnace trays. The loaded furnace trays will be stacked/assembled and transported to the furnace where sintering operations will be performed. Finally the sintered pucks will be off loaded, inspected and transferred onto Transfer Trays which will carry the pucks from the Puck Handling Glovebox downstream to subsequent Bagless Transfer Can (BTC) operations. Due to contamination potential and high radiation rates, all Puck Handling Glovebox operations will be performed remotely using robots and specialized automation

241

CLINICAL WASTE HANDLING AND OBSTACLES IN MALAYSIA  

OpenAIRE

As in many other developing countries, the generation of clinical waste in Malaysia has increased significantly over the last few decades. Even though the serious impact of the clinical waste on human beings and the environment is significant, only minor attention is directed to its proper handling and legal aspects. This study seeks to examine the management of clinical waste in Selangor’s government hospitals as well as problems that arise from the current practice of clinical waste manag...

Shaidatul Shida Razali; Mohd Bakri Ishak

2010-01-01

242

Food hygiene on the wards  

OpenAIRE

A problem that is often overlooked or simply not given enough attention: the food served to patients from the kitchen is not sterile. If food is allowed to stand at room temperature for a long time, both in the case of food cooked for lunch and of food intended for supper which has been previously chilled, there is the possibility of massive spore germination or of dangerous toxin formation. Therefore regulations on how to handle food and beverages (e.g. tea) must be set out in the infection ...

Steuer, W.

2007-01-01

243

The Neckarwestheim fuel handling procedure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the procedure applied in Nuclear Power Plant Neckarwestheim II to prevent fuel handling errors at the planning and the operation stage. In this procedure an interlock logic protected against malfunction is used for the loading machine hindering this machine from handling operations which are not laid down in a 'handling sequence plan' established by an authorized person and checked by an empowered person according to the quality assurance requirements. The 'handling sequence plan' is generated with the computer code ALFA which uses appropriate interlock logic schemes to prevent fuel handling errors already at the planning stage. Fuel handling operations cannot be executed until the 'handling sequence plan' is installed in the control unit of the fuel handling machine by an authorized person. (author)

244

Operational semantics for signal handling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Signals are a lightweight form of interprocess communication in Unix. When a process receives a signal, the control flow is interrupted and a previously installed signal handler is run. Signal handling is reminiscent both of exception handling and concurrent interleaving of processes. In this paper, we investigate different approaches to formalizing signal handling in operational semantics, and compare them in a series of examples. We find the big-step style of operational semantics to be well suited to modelling signal handling. We integrate exception handling with our big-step semantics of signal handling, by adopting the exception convention as defined in the Definition of Standard ML. The semantics needs to capture the complex interactions between signal handling and exception handling.

Maxim Strygin

2012-08-01

245

Human Waste Handling-Kooyman  

Science.gov (United States)

Title : Human Waste Handling-Kooyman Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : June 26, 1992 ... DPP Subject: Environmental Action Memorandum (Human Waste Handling by G. Kooyman's "S-026" Field ...

246

Alimentación del paciente de cáncer en fase avanzada y terminal: consideraciones éticas y recomendaciones prácticas Ethical and practical recommendations: How to food terminal and advanced stage cancer patents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo fundamental del tratamiento al paciente de cáncer en fase avanzada y terminal es alcanzar la mejor calidad de vida posible. Para ello se requiere una atención integral cuya base científica, filosófica y ética preserve, en el final de la vida, la dimensión humana. La eficiencia y eficacia de la atención depende de cuanto se adapte a las peculiaridades y condiciones concretas de cada paciente. Entre los síntomas que inciden con mayor frecuencia en estos pacientes se encuentra la anorexia, la que tiene consecuencias no sólo físicas sino que afecta otras esferas de la vida personal del enfermo. Se exponen las posibles causas de la anorexia, se plantean algunas consideraciones éticas en torno a la alimentación de estos pacientes y se brindan recomendaciones prácticas encaminadas a lograr un manejo adecuado de la alimentación que contribuya a mantener una calidad de vida aceptable en esta etapa de la vida.The main objective of the treatment to the cancer patient in advanced and terminal phases is to reach to the possible best quality of life. For this an integral attention is required, which scientific, philosophical and ethics base preserves, in the end of life, the human dimension. The efficiency and effectiveness of attention depends on how much attention is adapted to each patient's peculiarities and concrete conditions. Among the symptoms that more frequently impact in this patients is the anorexia, that not only carries physical consequences, but rather it anorexia are exposed, some ethical considerations around the feeding of these patients and practical recommendations are offered, guided to achieve an appropriate handling of the feeding that contributes to maintain an acceptable quality of life in this stage

Ángela J Suárez Pérez

2006-08-01

247

Sonic ingredients in television food programmes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main focus of this article is the use, significance, and role of sound in food and food travel programmes, exemplified by cooking programmes broadcast on Danish television – public service and commercial channels. The aim is to demonstrate how sound and music in this kind of programme plays an important part mediating both the cooking and the kitchen as wellordered and well organized. The use of music represents flow, but refers also to locality, globality and identity, and is often linked to the notions of nostalgia, tradition and authenticity, and contributes to an aesthetization of food programmes as it forms part of the performance and presentation of meals. The early kitchen programmes emphasized on information, as a kind of living cooking books as the idea was to enlighten the housewives and their practices by challenging their common sense choices introducing a more French inspired kitchen. In relation to such kitchen programmes todays cooking programmes seem to appeal to a broader sensibility as they present us to the possibilities of modern life, and the chefs’ multisensuorious performances underlines this – often induced by the sound. It is through the sounds in food programmes that an authentic experience of taste and smell is mediated to the viewer: both through the lustful, approving sounds made by presenters and through the cooks’ handling of raw materials. What looks delicious, also smells and tastes delicious – mediated through sound.

Charlotte Rørdam Larsen

2013-12-01

248

Evaluative Practices in the Culinary Field : A Case of Restaurant Rankings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper is concerned with evaluative practices within the culinary field. The focus is on the evaluative practices performed by two restaurant ranking systems, respectively the Michelin Red Guide system handled by the French tire manufacturer Michelin and the San Pellegrino ’World’s 50 Best Restaurant’ list organized by the English based Restaurant Magazine. Both ranking systems evaluate and rate restaurants (judging their food, service, physical setting and so forth) but in different ways through different practices and means, and with somewhat different results.

Christensen, Bo; Strandgaard, Jesper

2011-01-01

249

Safe handling of radiopharmaceuticals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There has been tremendous growth in the number of industrial and medical institutions using radioisotopes produced in nuclear reactors. This is associated with potential hazards and dangers if appropriate precautions are not taken in handling these. Hence, an effective and meaningful control programme is a must to regulate situations involving potential exposure to radiation such as the production, uses, transport, storage and disposal of radioisotopes. Such regulatory control is generally aimed at protecting the workers and the public from dangers or risks related to ionizing radiation taking into account the net benefit derived. (author)

250

Handling of potassium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result for the Fast Breeder Development extensive experience is available worldwide with respect to Sodium technology. Due to the extension of the research program to topping cycles with Potassium as the working medium, test facilities with Potassium have been designed and operated in the Institute of Reactor Safety. The different chemical properties of Sodium and Potassium give rise in new safety concepts and operating procedures. The handling problems of Potassium are described in the light of theoretical properties and own experiences. Selected literature on main safety and operating problems complete this report. (Author)

251

Crud handling circuit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process for handling the problems of crud formation during the solvent extraction of wet-process phosphoric acid, e.g. for uranium and rare earth removal, is described. It involves clarification of the crud-solvent mixture, settling, water washing the residue and treatment of the crud with a caustic wash to remove and regenerate the solvent. Applicable to synergistic mixtures of dialkylphosphoric acids and trialkylphosphine oxides dissolved in inert diluents and more preferably to the reductive stripping technique. (U.K.)

252

Aircraft handling qualities data  

Science.gov (United States)

Available information on weight and inertia, aerodynamic derivatives, control characteristics, and stability augmentation systems is documented for 10 representative contemporary airplanes. Data sources are given for each airplane. Flight envelopes are presented and dimensional derivatives, transfer functions for control inputs, and several selected handling qualities parameters have been computed and are tabulated for 10 different flight conditions including the power approach configuration. The airplanes documented are the NT-33A, F-104A, F-4C, X-15, HL-10, Jetstar, CV-880M, B-747, C-5A, and XB-70A.

Heffley, R. K.; Jewell, W. F.

1972-01-01

253

Microbiological hazard identification and exposure assessment of food prepared and served in rural households of Lungwena, Malawi.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of food-borne pathogens, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella species, Campylobacter jejuni and non-pathogenic E. coli, in 132 home cooked food samples consisting of maize flour porridge (MFP), (n=41), fish (n=37), vegetables (n=28), beans (n=13) and "Others" (n=13), collected from 6 villages in Lungwena, Malawi was investigated. It was found that 35% of the food samples were contaminated with one or more pathogens; with 48%, 8%, 61% and 23% of the food samples being found to harbour E. coli, pathogenic E. coli 0157: H7, S aureus and Salmonella species, respectively. C. jejuni was not detected in any food sample. Using a 95% level of significance, pathogen concentration among food categories demonstrated a statistical difference (p=0.001). Distribution of pathogens among villages was also found to be significant (p=0.03). MFP was the most contaminated food. Practices that promote the spread of the pathogens in the rural household kitchens were investigated. Food was thought to be contaminated as a result of poor food handling, preparation and storage practices. PMID:18558451

Taulo, Steven; Wetlesen, Anne; Abrahamsen, Roger; Kululanga, Grant; Mkakosya, Rajab; Grimason, Anthony

2008-07-15

254

Food safety information and food demand  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze how news about food-related health risks affects consumers’ demands for safe food products. Design/methodology/approach – By identifying structural breaks in an econometrically estimated demand model, news with permanent impact on demand is distinguished from news with temporary impact. The Danish demand for pasteurized versus shell eggs is used as an illustrative case. Findings – Negative safety news about one product variety can provide significant stimulation to the demand for safe varieties. Severe negative news about the safety of shell eggs induces a permanent increase in the demand for pasteurized eggs, while more moderate negative news influences demand temporarily and to a lesser extent. There is, however, considerable variation in the response to food safety news across socio-demographic groups of consumers. Research limitations/implications – The study has focused on the demand for raw eggs. Responses to food safety news may differ across foods. Furthermore, the study abstracts from possible cross-effects of safety news concerning other foods. Practical implications – The findings may be utilized for optimization of the timing and targeting of food safety information campaigns. Originality/value – The paper combines information, food safety and econometric methods to analyze the cross-impacts between negative food safety news and the demand for safe foods.

Smed, Sinne; Jensen, JØrgen Dejgård

2005-01-01

255

Control of automatic materials handling in radiation fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some agricultural and food industry raw materials and products can be effectively sterilized by ionizing radiation for better quality and longer shelf-life. A microelectronically controlled automatic materials handling system installed in an irradiation facility of AGROSTER Company, Hungary, is described. Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) type FESTO FPC 606 were applied to control the motion of containers. (R.P.) 6 figs

256

CLINICAL WASTE HANDLING AND OBSTACLES IN MALAYSIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As in many other developing countries, the generation of clinical waste in Malaysia has increased significantly over the last few decades. Even though the serious impact of the clinical waste on human beings and the environment is significant, only minor attention is directed to its proper handling and legal aspects. This study seeks to examine the management of clinical waste in Selangor’s government hospitals as well as problems that arise from the current practice of clinical waste management. A depth interview with the responsible concession who handles the clinical waste management in those hospitals also has been taken. In general, it was found that the consortium’s administration was reasonably aware of the importance of clinical waste management. However, significant voids were presented that need to be addressed in future including efficient segregation, better handling and transfer means, as well as the need for training and awareness programs for the personnel. Other obstacles faced by consortiums were to handle the clinical waste including the operational costs. Waste minimizing and recycling, as well as the alternative treatment methods for incineration are regarded to be major challenges in the future.

Shaidatul Shida Razali

2010-12-01

257

The impact of food regulation on the food supply chain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, 'a hazard' is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that mark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer

258

76 FR 82311 - Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Food and Drug Administration Report on Good...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2009-N-0247] Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Food and Drug Administration Report on Good Guidance Practices: Improving...

2011-12-30

259

Remote handling in ZEPHYR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A conceptual design of the ZEPHYR building is described. The listed radiation data show that remote handling devices will be necessary in most areas of the building. For difficult repair and maintenance works it is intended to transfer complete units from the experimental hall to a hot cell which provides better working conditions. The necessary crane systems and other transport means are summarized as well as suitable commercially available manipulators and observation devices. The conept of automatic devices for cutting and welding and other operations inside the vacuum vessel and the belonging position control system is sketched. Guidelines for the design of passive components are set up in order to facilitate remote operation. (orig.)

260

Handling and Transport Problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I. The handling and transport of radioactive waste involves the risk of irradiation and contamination. It is necessary to draw up special regulations governing the removal and transport of waste within the centres or from one centre to another, and to entrust transport to a group in charge of specialized teams. The organization, equipment and efficiency of such teams is then considered. II. Certain types of transport operation are particularly dangerous and require special transport units and fixed installations. This applies, in particular, to the disposal of highly radioactive liquids. A description is given of a composite transport unit, consisting of a towing vehicle, semi-trailer and tank holding 500 l of liquid with an activity of up to 1,000 c/l. The drawing-off of the liquid waste, routing of the transport unit and precautions to be taken are discussed. (author)

261

Handling of the light  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Handling of the light' means to adjust the position, dispersion, energy, phase and timing of the synchrotron light by controlling the beamline apparatus for experiments at the end station. The fundamental technologies of the interface between the apparatuses and the control system, of the network system and of the security management are presented. Examples of the control system architecture to optimize the beamline apparatuses including the spectrometer for each experiment are shown and the principle of the beamline control is explained. The standardizing of the control system has been started at the KEK-PF, where a system of message delivery type is employed. At the SPring-8, on the other hand, all the beamline control systems as well as the accelerator control system are all in a common computer environment. (K. Yoshida)

262

Reprocessing, plutonium handling, recycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Working Group 4 was set up as one of the eight Working Groups appointed by the Organizing Conference of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) in Washington on 19-21 October 1977. The Group held a series of meetings between December 1977 and October 1979 to study reprocessing, plutonium handling and the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors. The Group agreed that its primary objectives were: (a) To evaluate the need for reprocessing of thermal reactor fuel on an industrial scale and for recycling it in thermal and fast reactors, taking account of economic, environmental, energy resource, technological and institutional aspects and of the work of the other relevant Working Groups; (b) To identify means of minimizing the risk of proliferation in relation to the reprocessing and recycle of nuclear fuels. This publication is a final report of INFCE Working Group 4

263

New transport and handling contract  

CERN Multimedia

A new transport and handling contract entered into force on 1.10.2008. As with the previous contract, the user interface is the internal transport/handling request form on EDH: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TransportRequest/ To ensure that you receive the best possible service, we invite you to complete the various fields as accurately as possible and to include a mobile telephone number on which we can reach you. You can follow the progress of your request (schedule, completion) in the EDH request routing information. We remind you that the following deadlines apply: 48 hours for the transport of heavy goods (up to 8 tonnes) or simple handling operations 5 working days for crane operations, transport of extra-heavy goods, complex handling operations and combined transport and handling operations in the tunnel. For all enquiries, the number to contact remains unchanged: 72202. Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 72672 - 160319

SC Department

2008-01-01

264

Procedure of safe handling with cytostatic drugs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Working group for safe handling with cytostatic drugs has been formed by the Ministry of Health, and it consists of professionals from IORS, Federal Bureau of Weights and Measures, Industrial Medicine, Institute of Hematology, Military Medical Academy, and Crown Agents. The aim of this working group is to prepare procedures for safe handling with cytostatic drugs, as well as program for educational seminar for nurses, medical technicians, and pharmaceutical technicians. The procedures will serve as a guide of good practice of oncology health care, and will refer to all actions that health care professionals carry out from the moment of drugs arrival to the pharmacy to the moment of their application. In the first segment of this procedure, general rules are given for working with cytotoxic agents, control for risky exposures, safe system of work, control of working environment, monitoring of the employees' health condition adequate protection in the working environment, protective equipment of the employees (gloves, mask, cap, eyeglasses, shoe covers, coats and chambers for vertical laminary air stream. Storing of cytostatics, procedure in case of accident, and waste handling and removal are also described in this segment. Fifty-three standard operational procedures are described in detail in the second segment. Training scheme for preparation of chemotherapy is given in the third segment - education related to various fields and practical part, which would be carried out through workshops, and at the end of the course participants would pass a test and obtain certificate. After the procedures for safe handling with cytostatics are legally regulated employer will have to provide minimum of protective equipment, special rooms for the drugs dissolving, chambers with laminar airflow, 6 hours working time, rotation of the staff working with drugs dissolving in intervals of every five years, higher efficiency, better health control. In conclusion this specific field of work requires great psychological and physical efforts, and know-how. When taking care of ourselves, we are taking care of the others, as well.

Kodžo Dragan

2003-01-01

265

A revolution in food preservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief consumer guide to food irradiation is presented. Aspects covered include some of the advantages of food irradiation compared to other methods of food preservation, the type of radiation used, the mechanism of action, some practical applications, safety and future benefits. (UK)

266

Food Technology. Specification for Irradiated Food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Ghana Standard specifies the requirements and methods of sampling and testing for foods processed by irradiation for sprout inhibition, insect disinfestation, microbial decontamination, delaying ripening, shelf-life extension and general phytosanitary treatment. The absorbed dose range covered by this guide is between 0.2kGy and 10kGy. The practical minimum or maximum dose of a treatment may be lower or higher than this range, depending on the purpose of irradiation and the radiation tolerance of the particular type of food. This standard does not apply to foods exposed to radiation imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes

267

Remote handling and accelerators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The high-current levels of contemporary and proposed accelerator facilities induce radiation levels into components, requiring consideration be given to maintenance techniques that reduce personnel exposure. Typical components involved include beamstops, targets, collimators, windows, and instrumentation that intercepts the direct beam. Also included are beam extraction, injection, splitting, and kicking regions, as well as purposeful spill areas where beam tails are trimmed and neutral particles are deposited. Scattered beam and secondary particles activate components all along a beamline such as vacuum pipes, magnets, and shielding. Maintenance techniques vary from hands-on to TV-viewed operation using state-of-the-art servomanipulators. Bottom- or side-entry casks are used with thimble-type target and diagnostic assemblies. Long-handled tools are operated from behind shadow shields. Swinging shield doors, unstacking block, and horizontally rolling shield roofs are all used to provide access. Common to all techniques is the need to make operations simple and to provide a means of seeing and reaching the area

268

TFTR tritium handling concepts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, to be located on the Princeton Forrestal Campus, is expected to operate with 1 to 2.5 MA tritium--deuterium plasmas, with the pulses involving injection of 50 to 150 Ci (5 to 16 mg) of tritium. Attainment of fusion conditions is based on generation of an approximately 1 keV tritium plasma by ohmic heating and conversion to a moderately hot tritium--deuterium ion plasma by injection of a ''preheating'' deuterium neutral beam (40 to 80 keV), followed by injection of a ''reacting'' beam of high energy neutral deuterium (120 to 150 keV). Additionally, compressions accompany the beam injections. Environmental, safety and cost considerations led to the decision to limit the amount of tritium gas on-site to that required for an experiment, maintaining all other tritium in ''solidified'' form. The form of the tritium supply is as uranium tritide, while the spent tritium and other hydrogen isotopes are getter-trapped by zirconium--aluminum alloy. The issues treated include: (1) design concepts for the tritium generator and its purification, dispensing, replenishment, containment, and containment--cleanup systems; (2) features of the spent plasma trapping system, particularly the regenerable absorption cartridges, their integration into the vacuum system, and the handling of non-getterables; (3) tritium permeation through the equipment and the anticipated releases to the environment; (4) overview of the tritium related ventilation systems; and (5) design bases for the facility's tritium clean-up systems

269

Can you handle failure?  

Science.gov (United States)

Handling failure and blame is key to managerial success. But roughly 70 % of Americans have a personality type that tends to react inappropriately when things go wrong. Some people are extrapunitive, always pointing a finger at someone else. Others are impunitive, denying there's a problem or that they played any role. And still others are intrapunitive, heaping too much blame on themselves and seeing disasters where none exist. Fortunately, there are ways to fix such flawed responses. The first step is to cultivate self-awareness; several personality tests can help you assess your interaction style. Next, deepen your political awareness to better understand what messages others are receiving. Once you've identified your bad habits, you can move toward more-adaptive responses. Dattner and Hogan describe several strategies that can benefit any of the personality types. You should make sure to listen and communicate well, reflect on the situation and the people involved, think carefully before acting, and look for lessons when mistakes do happen. Using detailed examples, the authors illustrate how people with the various personality types are apt to react to specific failures and explain what they might do differently. They also offer insights to help you recognize when your bosses, peers, or subordinates fit into one of the problematic categories and suggest ways to influence their behavior. The taxonomy and tactics they present will help you approach failure with an open mind and react in a balanced, constructive way. PMID:21510523

Dattner, Ben; Hogan, Robert

2011-04-01

270

Network Handle by mobile  

OpenAIRE

Now a days Administrator has to present to at his organization if he want to put control on the existing system. He has go to individual client to keep an eye, But practically its not possible for any Administrator, now we are providing a facility to user put controller on whole system using his mobile whether he is present in the office or not he will get the all the information on his mobile in form of sms

Shelokar, Nitin D.

2011-01-01

271

Network Handle by mobile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Now a days Administrator has to present to at his organization if he want to put control on the existing system. He has go to individual client to keep an eye, But practically its not possible for any Administrator, now we are providing a facility to user put controller on whole system using his mobile whether he is present in the office or not he will get the all the information on his mobile in form of sms

Nitin D. Shelokar

2011-06-01

272

Contamination from handling cytotoxic agents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contamination of personnel who handle cytotoxics has been proven via traces in urine. Despite safety standards for handling cytotoxics, operators can still be exposed to them, mainly through skin contact. Identification of sources of contamination is recommended to improve working procedures.

Jean François Latour

2010-01-01

273

Safety measuring for sodium handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the report for the safety measures of sodium handling. These contents are prerequisites for the development of sodium technology and thus the workers participate in sodium handling and experiments have to know them perfectly. As an appendix, the relating parts of the laws are presented

274

Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the ''Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study'' is to develop proposed design requirements for the repository Waste Handling System in sufficient detail to allow the surface facility design to proceed to the License Application effort if the proposed requirements are approved by DOE. Proposed requirements were developed to further refine waste handling facility performance characteristics and design constraints with an emphasis on supporting modular construction, minimizing fuel inventory, and optimizing facility maintainability and dry handling operations. To meet this objective, this study attempts to provide an alternative design to the Site Recommendation design that is flexible, simple, reliable, and can be constructed in phases. The design concept will be input to the ''Modular Design/Construction and Operation Options Report'', which will address the overall program objectives and direction, including options and issues associated with transportation, the subsurface facility, and Total System Life Cycle Cost. This study (herein) is limited to the Waste Handling System and associated fuel staging system

275

Food irradiation now  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the start the Netherlands has made an important contribution to the irradiation of food through microbiological and toxicological research as well as through the setting-up of a pilot plant by the government and through the practical application of 'Gammaster' on a commercial basis. The proceedings of this tenth anniversary symposium of 'Gammaster' present all aspects of food irradiation and will undoubtedly help to remove the many misunderstandings. They offer information and indicate to the potential user a method that can make an important contribution to the prevention of decay and spoilage of foodstuffs and to the exclusion of food-borne infections and food poisoning in man. The book includes 8 contributions and 4 panel discussions in the field of microbiology; technology; legal aspects; and consumer aspects of food irradiation. As an appendix, the report 'Wholesomeness of irradiated food' of a joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee has been added. (orig./G.J.P.)

276

7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205...and air circulation, to prevent pest reproduction. (b) Pests may be controlled...

2010-01-01

277

Cultural Eating Practices among Jordanians  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Culture has an enormous impact on individuals’ food choices and practices. This research aimed to screen cultural eating practices among Jordanians. Jordanian adults (N = 4750 completed a survey with regard to common eating practices in Jordan. Practices were classified into 4 themes, namely regular eating practices (7 practices, seasonal eating practices (4 practices, eating practices in social occasions (6 practices, and eating practices in religious occasions (10 practices. Interestingly, most nutritional practices during Ramadan and Eids (religious occasions were agreed upon from 100% of the participating sample. In conclusion, culture in Jordan has a huge influences eating practices and food choice. Negative culture’s influence over eating practices may exist, thus increasing awareness about unhealthy eating practices related to culture is necessary.

Fwzieh Hammad

2012-06-01

278

Compressed Air System Renovation Project Improves Production at a Food Processing Facility: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the food processing facility project

279

Science and Our Food Supply  

Science.gov (United States)

Each year millions of people in the United States are known to become ill due to food poisoning (food-borne illness) How ill can you become? Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cramps, and fever are just some of the symptoms that a person can have from food poisoning. Not very pleasant is it? Health authorities have a saying: "First you're afraid that you're going to die, then you're afraid your not going to die." In 1999 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that there were over 76 million cases of gastrointestinal disease including 325,000 hospitalizations and over 5,000 deaths that were directly attributable to food poisoning. The main concern in food-service sanitation is the prevention of illness caused by contaminated food. Bacteria, parasitic worms, and chemicals can all cause food-borne illness. Unfortunately, most food-borne illness is not recognized as such and is therefore seldom reported. By now you are probably wondering why someone would prepare or eat poisoned food? Doesn't poisoned food taste, look, or smell bad? No! If it did, people wouldn't eat it. Would you eat a piece of pie that smelled bad? Would you cook a piece of green chicken? Of course not! You may be asking yourself hows food to becomes poisoned. According to experts at the CDC, the leading factors causing food-borne illness are: � Improper cooling, such as leaving cooked foods at room temperature. � Lapse of a day or more between preparing and serving. � Holding hot foods at the wrong temperature. � Improper and inadequate refrigeration of foods. � Infected persons touching and handling food. � Improper reheating of previously cooked foods. � Improper cleaning of kitchen equipment such as knives, pots, and cutting boards.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

280

Fuel handling options for commercial fast breeder reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic requirements of a fast reactor fuel handling system are noted as well as some of the basic principles and how some of those principles are achieved in practice. Several fuel handling options are outlined and certain advantages and disadvantages illustrated, the most attractive systems for commercial exploitation are noted. Note is made of features and processes that could be developed in the future to assist in the further advancement of fast reactor fuel handling systems. It is concluded that with the increased commitment, particularly in Europe, to the development of large fast reactor systems, fuel handling and fuel cycle costs can be reduced and thereby make a contribution to the further exploitation of the fast reactor principle. (author)

281

Safety considerations when handling metal powders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Metal powder compaction offers unique advantages in the manufacture of net-shape components using techniques such as laser sintering, conventional press and sintering, metal injection moulding, direct rolling, direct forging, and hot isostatic pressing. If the output from the primary metal productio [...] n process is in powder form, then considerable cost and energy savings can be realized by direct conversion to semi-finished or final shapes. This possibility exists for titanium and possibly also for Ta, Zr, Hf, and Nb metals. However, these attractive benefits are associated with some significant risks. The high surface-to-volume ratio of powder particles coupled with the reactive nature of these metals means that special care must be taken when handling them. Powder explosions are unfortunately still a regular occurrence internationally and these often result in serious injury and loss of life. Even seemingly 'safe' compounds such as sugar, flour, and grain can be extremely hazardous when handled or milled and dust clouds are produced. In addition, exposure to airborne particles can have adverse effects on the human body, especially when particles are inhaled on a regular basis. Furthermore, the medical consequences of these are not fully understood, especially in the case of nanoparticles. The impact is often not observed immediately and debilitating illnesses may emerge only years or decades later. As far as is known, there are no South African guidelines for handling of metal powders. This paper attempts to provide an awareness of the risks associated with metal powders (including those produced indirectly by other metalworking/finishing operations) as well as some guidelines for their safe handling, based on international best practices.

J.M., Benson.

282

Antimicrobial activity of allyl isothiocyanate used to coat biodegradable composite films as affected by storage and handling conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the effects of storage and handling conditions on the antimicrobial activity of biodegradable composite films (polylactic acid and sugar beet pulp) coated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT). Polylactic acid and chitosan were incorporated with AIT and used to coat one side of the film. The films were subjected to different storage conditions (storage time, storage temperature, and packed or unpacked) and handling conditions (washing, abrasion, and air blowing), and the antimicrobial activity of the films against Salmonella Stanley in tryptic soy broth was determined. The films (8.16 ?l of AIT per cm(2) of surface area) significantly (P growth of Salmonella during 24 h of incubation at 22°C, while the populations of Salmonella in controls increased from ca. 4 to over 8 log CFU/ml, indicating a minimum inactivation of 4 log CFU/ml on films in comparison to the growth on controls. Statistical analyses indicated that storage time, storage temperature, and surface abrasion affected the antimicrobial activity of the films significantly (P < 0.05). However, the differences in microbial reduction between those conditions were less than 0.5 log cycle. The results suggest that the films' antimicrobial properties are stable under practical storage and handling conditions and that these antimicrobial films have potential applications in food packaging. PMID:23212023

Li, Weili; Liu, Linshu; Jin, Tony Z

2012-12-01

283

Desenvolvimento e reprodutibilidade de questionário para avaliar práticas e conhecimentos em segurança alimentar de nutricionistas da área clínica / Development and reliability of a questionnaire to assess clinical dietitians' practices and knowledge of food safety  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Os propósitos deste estudo foram desenvolver um questionário para avaliar práticas e conhecimentos em segurança sanitária alimentar, de nutricionistas da área clínica, e medir o nível de reprodutibilidade deste questionário. MÉTODOS: O questionário foi desenvolvido a partir de seis áreas t [...] emáticas: prevenção da contaminação cruzada; higiene pessoal/ambiental; controle de temperaturas e de alimentos de alto risco e segurança alimentar para indivíduos portadores do vírus da imunodeficiência humana/síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida. Para medir o nível de reprodutibilidade, utilizou-se o procedimento de teste e re-teste e a estatística kappa simples. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram os níveis de reprodutibilidade: >0,61 para 95,0%; entre 0,60-0,40 para 2,5% e 0,61), sugerindo que o mesmo representa uma boa opção para avaliar as práticas e os conhecimentos em segurança alimentar de nutricionistas da área clínica, visando ao planejamento de estratégias educativas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to develop a questionnaire to assess clinical dietitians´ practices and knowledge of food safety and determine the reliability of this instrument. METHODS: The questionnaire was developed around six areas: prevention of cross contamination, personal and env [...] ironmental hygiene; control of temperature and high-risk foods and food safety for individuals with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The reliability of the questionnaire was determined by the test-retest method and simple Kappa statistics. RESULTS: The results showed the reliability levels: >0.61 for 95.0%, from 0.60 to 0.40 for 2.5% and 0.61), suggesting that it is a good device to assess clinical dietitians´ practices and knowledge of food safety, which allows for the planning of educational strategies.

Luísa Helena Maia, Leite; William, Waissmann; Alessandra Bento, Veggi.

2007-08-01

284

Hazard analysis and critical control point to irradiated food in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food borne diseases, in particular gastro-intestinal infections, represent a very large group of pathologies with a strong negative impact on the health of the population because of their widespread nature. Little consideration is given to such conditions due to the fact that their symptoms are often moderate and self-limiting. This has led to a general underestimation of their importance, and consequently to incorrect practices during the preparation and preservation of food, resulting in the frequent occurrence of outbreaks involving groups of varying numbers of consumers. Despite substantial efforts in the avoidance of contamination, an upward trend in the number of outbreaks of food borne illnesses caused by non-spore forming pathogenic bacteria are reported in many countries. Good hygienic practices can reduce the level of contamination but the most important pathogens cannot presently be eliminated from most farms, nor is it possible to eliminate them by primary processing, particularly from those foods which are sold raw. Several decontamination methods exist but the most versatile treatment among them is the ionizing radiation procedure. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product. For successful implementation of a HACCP plan, management must be strongly committed to the HACCP concept. A firm commitment to HACCP by top management provides company employees with a sense of the importance of producing safe food. At the same time, it has to be always emphasized that, like other intervention strategies, irradiation must be applied as part of a total sanitation program. The benefits of irradiation should never be considered as an excuse for poor quality or for poor handling and storage conditions, i.e.. as a substitute for good manufacturing practices. By adopting an HACCP based approach to food safety management, it can be clearly demonstrated that the application of a technology like food irradiation is essential for ensuring the safety of raw food stuffs. Such an intervention should be considered as a CCP (Critical Control Point) in the food chain. Therefore, the potential benefit of irradiation, which is endorsed by national and international bodies surely merits serious consideration by public health authorities, industry and consumer groups worldwide. For such, a system of HACCP and the irradiation is primordial so that the alimentary .safety is maintained processes if they are applied correctly. (author)

285

Order Handling in Convergent Environments  

CERN Document Server

The rapid development of IT&T technology had big impact on the traditional telecommunications market, transforming it from monopolistic market to highly competitive high-tech market where new services are required to be created frequently. This paper aims to describe a design approach that puts order management process (as part of enterprise application integration) in function of rapid service creation. In the text we will present a framework for collaborative order handling supporting convergent services. The design splits the order handling processes in convergent environments in three business process groups: order capture, order management and order fulfillment. The paper establishes abstract framework for order handling and provides design guidelines for transaction handling implementation based on the checkpoint and inverse command strategy. The proposed design approach is based in a convergent telecommunication environment. Same principles are applicable in solving problems of collaboration in fun...

Vrtanoski, Jordan

2012-01-01

286

Safe handling of radiation sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter discussed the subjects related to the safe handling of radiation sources: type of radiation sources, method of use: transport within premises, transport outside premises; Disposal of Gamma Sources

287

Tritium handling in vacuum systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

Gill, J.T. [Monsanto Research Corp., Miamisburg, OH (United States). Mound Facility; Coffin, D.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1986-10-01

288

ISO& food  

SCPinfonet

ISO& food Qualit y and s afet y from f arm to fork ...food standards create confidence in the products we eat and drink ... food standards provide benefits for all participants in the supply chain, from farm to transportation and

289

Food ionizing treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment of food with ionizing radiation is increasingly being recognized as a means of reducing food-borne illnesses and associated medical and other costs. In addition, the process may contribute to food security by preventing post-harvest losses, thereby making more food available to more people, eventually at lower cost. An ever increasing number of countries has approved the irradiation of a long and growing list of different food items, groups of classes, ranging from spices to grains to fruit and vegetables to meats and poultry and seafood. However, perception by consumers has been controversial and concerns have been expressed, particularly related to the safety of irradiated food. Therefore, the toxicological aspects of irradiated food are addressed in this dossier. It should be recognized that food irradiation is perhaps the most thoroughly investigated food processing technology. According to the World Health Organization 'irradiated food produced in accordance with established Good Manufacturing Practice can be considered safe and nutritionally adequate'. A recent evaluation by a WHO/FAO/IAEA study group (Geneva, Sept. 1997) even came to the conclusion, 'that as long as sensory qualities of food are retained and harmful microorganisms are destroyed, the actual amount of ionizing radiation applied is of secondary consideration'. Thus, also treatment of food with doses greater than the currently recommended upper level of 10 kGy by the Codex Alimentarius Covel of 10 kGy by the Codex Alimentarius Commission will not lead to changes in the composition of the food that, from a toxicological point of view, would have an adverse effect on human health. (author)

290

Food security  

OpenAIRE

The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks); redistribution of food availability within the country or out through internatio...

Dorina Ardelean

2007-01-01

291

Food allergy  

OpenAIRE

Food allergies affect up to 6% of young children and 3%–4% of adults. They encompass a range of disorders that may be IgE and/or non-IgE mediated, including anaphylaxis, pollen food syndrome, food-protein–induced enterocolitis syndrome, food-induced proctocolitis, eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, and atopic dermatitis. Many complex host factors and properties of foods are involved in the development of food allergy. With recent advances in the understanding of how these factors interact,...

Wang, Julie; Sampson, Hugh A.

2011-01-01

292

Chinese traditional food therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chinese food therapy has endured and evolved from the beginning of Chinese civilization to the present day. Basic tenets central to food therapy such as "curing and nourishing come from the same source" and "when you eat, satisfy only seven-tenths of your hunger" have been passed down from generation to generation. Dietetic practice today must take into consideration and respect many of the ancient beliefs for maximum effectiveness with many of today's Chinese. PMID:7217561

Whang, J

1981-01-01

293

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

294

RICE HARVEST HANDLING TO REDUCE YIELD LOSSES IN SOUTH SULAWESI  

OpenAIRE

Milled rice is main food has to priority to increasing the productivity. There was Yield losses at the harvesting time. The best harvest handling by using thresher machine could be reduce yield losses and time allocation. Experiment was conducted at South Sulawesi, during May - December 2009. The objectives the experiments were to known the effect of rice harvest machineries on save yield losses. The replication arranged in randomized complete design with three replication .Treatment consist ...

Sunanto; Razak, Nasruddin; Nasrullah

2011-01-01

295

Asthma, guides for diagnostic and handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper defines the asthma, includes topics as diagnostic, handling of the asthma, special situations as asthma and pregnancy, handling of the asthmatic patient's perioperatory and occupational asthma

296

Safety and reliability in fuel handling and storage system of Dhruva  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fuel handling and storage system of Dhruva is provided to ensure safe handling of fresh fuel component; storage, inspection, assembly and out-of-pile testing of the components; handling the fresh and irradiated assembly in reactor core and storage areas; various under water handling operations with irradiated fuel assemblies and finally shipment of irradiated fuel assemblies. The most significant safety problems that arise during handling and storage of fuel are those concerned with inadvertent criticality, high levels of radiation exposure and unacceptable release of radioactivity. Accordingly, certain general design features related to these problems are identified and practiced at every stage. Based on the operating experience gathered over around 20 years, additional safety up gradations was incorporated to enhance reliability and availability of fuelling machine. This paper briefly describes about the operating experiences of fuel handling during the last 20 years and various measures taken towards enhancing safety during fuel handling operations. (author)

297

[Chemical contaminants in food].  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to a direct material linking between environment and man via breath, food and potable water, toxic substances have always been in the food of man, only modern analytical methods have made it possible to safely register concentrations in the ppb-range and below. This is why we discover more and more potential hazardous substances in food, becoming conscious of the full extent of contamination more and more. Such concentrations make a toxicological evaluation very difficult, most of all when a long-term effect is concerned. There are different reasons for the occurrence of toxic substances in our food. Substances occurring naturally in food like trypsin inhibitors, solanine and cumarin. Substances that are added to food purposely. To these belong artificial dyes and sweetening agents, sulphur dioxide and pesticides resp. herbicides. Substances that are formed during the production, preparation or storage of food like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, peroxides of unsaturated fatty acids, mycotoxins and nitrosamines. Substances that are taken in due to environmental influences, considering primarily the toxic heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Legislative authorities have taken numerous steps to protect the consumer against food that is detrimental to his health, based mainly on the so-called "principle of prohibition" that stands for the general prohibition of additives as long as they are not formally permitted. The fundamental prohibition of the "Lebensmittel- und Bedarfsgegenständegesetz" (law for food and requirements) to produce or handle food in such a way that its consumption is qualified to harm the health of the consumer, has an extensive protective effect. This effect is supported by regulation for additives and special directives. An important group of possibly toxic substances in our food are pesticides and their residues. In 1985 1839 pesticides based on 302 active components were officially admitted in the Federal Republic of Germany, 40% of these as herbicides, 23% as insecticides. The investigations of the food control authorities are oriented on the regulation of maximum amounts for pesticides which includes maximum values for about 470 active substances. There is a report on special investigations of the "Landesuntersuchungsamt" (office for the investigation of food and requirements).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3107271

Coduro, E

1986-12-01

298

Guidelines for safe handling, use and disposal of nanoparticles  

Science.gov (United States)

Health, safety and environmental (HSE) risks of a technology is an inseparable part of it which threatens all exposed employees. It has been proved for many years that exposure to particles, in an occupational setting, could be linked with the onset of lung diseases, such as pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and mesotelioma and lung cancer. Nanoparticles, due to their unique characteristics including; small size, shape, high surface area, charge, chemical properties, solubility, and degree of agglomeration can cross cell boundaries or pass directly from the lungs into the blood stream and ultimately reach to all of the organs in the body. This is the reason why they may pose higher risk than the same mass and material of larger particles. Moreover, biodegradation of nanoparticles by some kinds of fungi (like wood decay fungi) may result in metabolites which may be toxic to microorganisms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bacteria and living cells can take up nanoparticles, providing the basis for potential bioaccumulation in the food chain. Considering Iran's prominent position in nanotechnologies and fast-growing in research and industrial activities, controlling nanoparticles related HSE risks should be highly considered. In general, there are three main approaches to risk and exposure control: engineering techniques, administrative means and personal protective equipments. These complementary approaches especially engineering techniques should be considered starting with the design stage of an industrial process. Administrative means of control constitute an additional approach when the other methods have not achieved the expected control levels. Administrative means of control must never substitute for engineering techniques, which always be performed according to standard practices. In some situations, due to insufficiently advanced technology and prohibitive costs, engineering measerus can not be implemended. In these situations, performing administrative means of control constitute other ways of limiaiting the occupational exposure risks. Accordingly, to minimize the risks from know and unknown health, safety and invironment hazards in research and occupational setting of the country, guideline for safe handling, use and disposal of manopractical has provided.

Amoabediny, G. H.; Naderi, A.; Malakootikhah, J.; Koohi, M. K.; Mortazavi, S. A.; Naderi, M.; Rashedi, H.

2009-05-01

299

Eggs and Poultry Purchase, Storage, and Preparation Practices of Consumers in Selected Asian Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to begin characterizing purchase, storage, handling, and preparation of poultry products and eggs by selected consumers in three Asian countries: India, Korea, and Thailand. Approximately 100 consumers in each location were recruited to participate in this study. The consumers were surveyed about eggs and poultry purchase behavior characteristics, such as temperatures and locations, storage behavior, such as storage locations in the refrigerator or freezer, preparation behavior, such as washing eggs and poultry before cooking, and handling behavior, such as using cutting boards during cooking. The results indicated differences in purchase and storage practices of raw eggs. Most Korean consumers purchased refrigerated eggs and stored the eggs in the refrigerator, while Indian and Thai consumers bought eggs that were stored at room temperature, but would refrigerate the eggs at home. Approximately half of the consumers in each country froze raw meat, poultry, or seafood. Food preparation practices showed potential for cross-contamination during cooking, such as using the same cutting board for different kinds of foods or not washing hands with soap and water. The results presented in this pilot study may lead to development of educational messages and raising consumer awareness of food safety practices in Asian countries.

Kadri Koppel

2014-01-01

300

Do residents of food deserts express different food buying preferences compared to residents of food oases? A mixed-methods analysis  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Many people lack access to food stores that provide healthful food. Neighborhoods with poor supermarket access have been characterized as “food deserts” (as contrast with “food oases”). This study explored factors influencing food buying practices among residents of food deserts versus food oases in the city of Boston, USA. Methods We used the mixed-methods approach of concept mapping, which allows participants to identify, list, and ...

Walker Renee E; Block Jason; Kawachi Ichiro

2012-01-01

301

Dosimetry for food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Manual of Food Irradiation Dosimetry was published in 1977 under the auspices of the IAEA as Technical Reports Series No. 178. It was the first monograph of its kind and served as a reference in the field of radiation processing and in the development of standards. While the essential information about radiation dosimetry in this publication has not become obsolete, other publications on radiation dosimetry have become available which have provided useful information for incorporation in this updated version. There is already a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and an associated Code of Practice for Operation of Irradiation Facilities used for Treatment of Food, issued in 1984 by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of the FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme. The Codex Standard contains provisions on irradiation facilities and process control which include, among other requirements, that control of the processes within facilities shall include the keeping of adequate records including quantitative dosimetry. Appendix A of the Standard provides an explanation of process control and dosimetric requirements in compliance with the Codex Standard. By 1999, over 40 countries had implemented national regulations or issued specific approval for certain irradiated food items/classes of food based on the principles of the Codex Standard and its Code of Practice. Food irradiation is thus expanding, as over 30 countries are now actually applying this process for the treatmenlly applying this process for the treatment of one or more food products for commercial purposes. Irradiated foods are being marketed at retail level in several countries. With the increasing recognition and application of irradiation as a sanitary and phytosanitary treatment of food based on the provisions of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization, international trade in irradiated food is expected to expand during the next decade. It is therefore essential that proper dosimetry systems are used to ensure the compliance of trade in irradiated food with national and international standards. In view of the foregoing, FAO and the IAEA, through their Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, considered it timely to revise the Manual of Food Irradiation Dosimetry. A Consultants' Meeting was convened in Vienna from 27 to 30 October 1998 to revise the Manual

302

The Internationalization Process of the E-marketplace FoodIT A/S  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This case describes the early internationalization process and the considerations about a future international expansion of an e-marketplace. The case illustrates the complexity of internationalizing an internet-based SME. FoodIT is trying to identify the most suitable entry modes; i.e. entry modes that can handle a fast, broad and deep international expansion process with very limited resources. The case raises important questions as to the importance of physical presence for a dot.com firm selling digital products; products that in theory can be distributed digitally but in practice need to be organized by real people having real face-to-face dialog.

Rask, Morten

2007-01-01

303

TNO reticle handling test platform  

Science.gov (United States)

Particle free handling of EUV reticles is a major concern in industry. For reaching economically feasible yield levels, it is reported that Particle-per-Reticle-Pass (PRP) levels should be better than 0.0001 for particles larger than 18 nm. Such cleanliness levels are yet to be reported for current reticle handling systems. A reticle handler was built based on a modular concept with three uniform linked base frames. In the first stage of the project a dual pod loading unit, two exchange units for opening inner pods and a reticle flip unit are installed on the base frames. In the near future improvements on cleanliness will be tested and particle detection equipment will be integrated. The system will act as a testing platform for clean handling technology for industry.

Crowcombe, W. E.; Hollemans, C. L.; Fritz, E. C.; van der Donck, J. C. J.; Koster, N. B.

2014-04-01

304

Handling device, especially for handling nuclear power plant components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The handling device has a base moving on a horizontal track, a carriage moving on the base in a horizontal direction perpendicular to the track, a vertical hood on the carriage and a winch carried by the upper end of the hood. On the lower end of the hood different devices can be coupled

305

The handling of chemical data  

CERN Document Server

The Handling of Chemical Data deals with how measurements, such as those arrived at from chemical experimentation, are handled. The book discusses the different kinds of measurements and their specific dimensional characteristics by starting with the origin and presentation of chemical data. The text explains the units, fixed points, and relationships found between scales, the concept of dimensions, the presentation of quantitative data (whether in a tabular or graphical form), and some uses of empirical equations. The book also explains the relationship between two variables, and how equatio

Lark, P D; Bosworth, R C L

1968-01-01

306

International status of food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation processing of foods has been studied for over 30 years. To a considerable extent this research was carried out in the framework of various international projects. After optimistic beginnings in the 1950s and long delays, caused by uncertainty about the health safety of foods so treated, food irradiation has now reached the stage of practical application in several countries. In order to prepare the way for world-wide accceptance of the new process, the Codex Alimentarius Commission has accepted an 'International General Standard for Irradiated Foods' and an 'International Code of Practice for the Operation of Irradiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Foods'. Psychological barriers to a process associated with the word 'radiation' are still formidable; it appears, however, that acceptance by authorities, food industry and consumers continues to grow

307

The effect of an iodine restricted including no sea foods diet, on technetium-99m thyroid scintigraphy: a neglected issue in nuclear medicine practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although it is recommended to patients to avoid sea food and iodine-containing medications prior to iodine-131 (¹³¹I) scanning, the efficacy of this diet as for technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99m)Tc-P) thyroid scintigraphy is not well addressed in the literature. We evaluated a self-managed, outpatients, iodine restricted diet (IRD) designed to reduce total body iodine in preparation for such a scan. We have studied 39 patients who referred to our Department for multinodular goiter, 30 females and 9 males, aged:14-54 years and their (99m)Tc-P thyroid scintigraphy showed poor visualization of the thyroid gland. These patiens were living in regions with high consumption of sea foods went underwent a two-weeks iodine restriction including restriction of sea food diet for the reduction of iodine body content. These patients were called for a repeated scan after going on a IRD for at least two weeks. The two scans were compared visually, and by semiquantitative analysis. Semiquantitative analysis was applied in 8 regions of interest (ROI) by using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Thirty-six subjects had better quality scintigraphy images in the post IRD thyroid scan, as was visually assessed by two nuclear medicine physicians. Semiquantitatetively, there was a significant difference in the mean counts of ROI of the right and the left thyroid lobes in favor of the post IRD scans (P99m)Tc-P scan. PMID:22413111

Javadi, Hamid; Neshandarasli, Isa; Mogharrabi, Mehdi; Jalallat, Sara; Nabipour, Iraj; Assadi, Majid

2012-01-01

308

78 FR 36784 - Survey of Nanomaterial Risk Management Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

...and risk mitigation practices for safe handling of...and ``General Safe Practices for Working With Engineered Nanomaterials...from a survey, what alternative methods should be considered...addressing risk management practices for ENMs? (5)...

2013-06-19

309

Detection of Genetically Modified Foods  

OpenAIRE

In recent years, Genetically Modified (GM) foods have become increasingly common on our supermarket shelves. Consumer concerns regarding their safety have prompted codes of practice and legislation requiring labelling of all GM-food-containing products. Labelling requires some means of verification. There is no simple means of detecting GM food and until recently, there were no tests available. The object of this study was to develop a simple, rapid and user-friendly method of detecting genet...

Boyce, Olivia

1999-01-01

310

Software for handling MFME1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report deals with SEMFIP, a computer code for determining magnetic field measurements. The program is written in FORTRAN and ASSEMBLER. The preparations for establishing SEMFIP, the actual measurements, data handling and the problems that were experienced are discussed. Details on the computer code are supplied in an appendix

311

Importância das práticas alimentares no primeiro ano de vida na prevenção da deficiência de ferro / Importance of food practices during the first year of life to prevent iron deficiency  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A reconhecida relevância da anemia por deficiência de ferro, em termos de saúde pública, decorre não apenas da magnitude de sua ocorrência, mas, principalmente, dos efeitos deletérios que ocasiona à saúde da criança. Com o objetivo de investigar as práticas alimentares no primeiro ano de vida e sua [...] associação com a deficiência de ferro, realizou-se revisão da literatura científica nacional e internacional sobre a questão, selecionando os artigos mais relevantes. Crianças que nascem atermo e com peso adequado, ao receberem o leite materno de forma exclusiva suprem suas necessidades de ferro, sendo desnecessário qualquer complemento nos primeiros seis meses de vida. Próximo aos seis meses de idade ocorre gradualmente o esgotamento das reservas de ferro e a alimentação complementar passa a ter papel predominante no atendimento às necessidades desse nutriente. O papel do aleitamento materno na ocorrência da deficiência de ferro é ainda controverso e parece depender do país, região e tipo de leite utilizado em substituição ao leite materno. Na impossibilidade da continuidade do aleitamento materno, a substituição deste por leite de vaca aumenta o risco de a criança apresentar deficiência de ferro. Práticas complementares que comprovadamente contribuem com a prevenção da deficiência de ferro são: alimentação complementar com alta biodisponibilidade de ferro, alimentos fortificados e suplemento de ferro em doses profiláticas. Dieta com alta biodisponibilidade de ferro é aquela que contém os alimentos básicos da família, desde que saudáveis, com a presença de carne, vitamina A e vitamina C. A alimentação no primeiro ano de vida tem papel importante na prevenção da anemia por deficiência de ferro e, para sua adequada implementação, é necessário que suas diretrizes sejam adotadas como rotina nas unidades básicas de saúde. Abstract in english The well-known relevance of iron deficiency anemia for public health derives not only from its prevalence, but mainly from its harmful effects on child health. In order to investigate feeding practices in the first year of life and their association with iron deficiency, domestic and international s [...] cientific articles were reviewed and the most relevant articles were selected. Children born at term and with appropriate birth weight get all the iron they need from exclusive breastfeeding, with complementary foods of any kind being unnecessary in the first six months of life. At about six months of life, the iron reserves are gradually depleted and complementary foods take on a predominant role in meeting the iron requirement. The role of breastfeeding in the occurrence of iron deficiency is still debated, and appears to depend on the country, region and type of milk used to replace breast milk. The replacement of breast milk with cow's milk increases the risk of the child developing iron deficiency. Complementary practices that have been proven to contribute to the prevention of iron deficiency are complementary foods high in bioavailable iron, enriched foods and iron supplementation in prophylactic doses. A diet high in iron bioavailability is that which contains the staple foods of the family, as long as they are healthy, with the presence of meat, vitamin A and vitamin C. The foods consumed in the first year of life have an important role in the prevention of iron deficiency anemia, and their correct implementation depends on guidelines that should be adopted as standard practice by primary healthcare units.

GiSele Ane, Bortolini; Márcia Regina, Vitolo.

1051-10-01

312

Food allergies.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

O'Leary, Paula F G

2012-02-03

313

Práticas e mudanças no comportamento alimentar na população de Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil / Behavioral changes in food intake practices in the population of Brasília, Federal District, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: investigar as práticas e mudanças alimentares na população de Brasília, Distrito Federal, com as variáveis escolaridade, renda e sexo. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, com uma amostra probabilística de 500 domicílios, com entrevista a pessoas >15 anos. As entrevistas foram feitas no Plano Pil [...] oto, Cidades Satélites e Vila Estrutural do Distrito Federal, entre março de 2003 e março de 2004. O marco amostral foi definido com base nos setores censitários do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, referentes ao censo demográfico de 2000. Foram sorteados 20 setores censitários dentre os 2548 existentes no Distrito Federal. RESULTADOS: os alimentos consumidos diariamente foram: arroz, feijão, pão, frutas, legumes e verduras. Consumo semanal de frango (85,0%), carne bovina (76,0%), massas (69,6%) e ovos (62,0%). A maioria (71,0%) relatou preocupar-se com alimentação saudável. Apenas, 37% dos entrevistados relataram mudança alimentar nos últimos seis meses, e dentre eles 32,6% atribuíram à perda de peso, 25,4% à preocupação com a saúde e 20,0% à reeducação alimentar. A mudança foi mantida por 84,2% dos respondentes. CONCLUSÕES: os dados apontam a preocupação com a alimentação saudável e mudanças nas práticas alimentares. As razões alegadas para as mudanças estão relacionadas com a estética e preocupação com a saúde. Renda e escolaridade constituem preditores significativos das mudanças nas práticas alimentares. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: to investigate food habits changes in the population of Brasília, Federal District through variables such as schooling, income and sex. METHODS: A cross sectional study, with a probabilistic sample of 500 homes through interviews of people aged over 15. The interviews were held at the Pl [...] ano Piloto, Cidades Satélites and Vila Estrutural regions of the Federal District between March 2003 and March 2004. The sample landmark was defined based on Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística census sectors related to the 2000 demographic census. Twenty census sectors were randomly selected among the 2548 in the Federal District. RESULTS: daily food intake consisted of: rice, beans, bread, fruit and vegetables. Chicken weekly consumption (85.0%), beef (76.0 %), pasta (69.6%) and eggs (62.0%). The majority (71.0%) reported concern with healthy nourishment. Only 37% of the respondents reported food habits change in the last six months and among them 32.6% change was related to the wish of losing weight, 25.4% to health concerns and 20.0% to food reeducation. Change was maintained by 84.2% of the respondents. CONCLUSIONS: data indicate concern with healthy nourishment and change in food habits. Reasons reported for change are related to aesthetics and health concerns. Income and schooling are significant predictors of changes in food habits.

Maria Cristina Sebba, Marinho; Edgar Merchán, Hamann; Ana Carolina da Cunha Floresta, Lima.

2007-09-01

314

Optimization of General Arrangement for Fuel Handling Equipment in Fuel Handling Area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study is to provide an optimized general arrangement for fuel handling in fuel handling area for APR1400. The general arrangement for fuel handling area should be optimized in the viewpoints of safety functions for fuel handling, efficiency for operation and maintenance of fuel handling equipment during the fuel handling from receipt of new fuel to shipment of spent fuel. In this study, general arrangement for the fuel handling area was evaluated and proposed to ensure a safe and efficient operation and maintenance for the fuel handling equipment in the fuel handling area. The results of this study can be a beneficial suggestion regarding the general arrangement of the fuel handling areas and equipment. The general arrangement in the fuel handling area is optimized in the viewpoints of safety functions for fuel handling, efficiency for operation and maintenance for fuel handling equipment.

Chang, Sanggyoon; Choi, Taeksang [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Duckhee [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-05-15

315

Optimization of General Arrangement for Fuel Handling Equipment in Fuel Handling Area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to provide an optimized general arrangement for fuel handling in fuel handling area for APR1400. The general arrangement for fuel handling area should be optimized in the viewpoints of safety functions for fuel handling, efficiency for operation and maintenance of fuel handling equipment during the fuel handling from receipt of new fuel to shipment of spent fuel. In this study, general arrangement for the fuel handling area was evaluated and proposed to ensure a safe and efficient operation and maintenance for the fuel handling equipment in the fuel handling area. The results of this study can be a beneficial suggestion regarding the general arrangement of the fuel handling areas and equipment. The general arrangement in the fuel handling area is optimized in the viewpoints of safety functions for fuel handling, efficiency for operation and maintenance for fuel handling equipment

316

Food Chains  

Science.gov (United States)

In this project, you will discover the way food chains function by viewing four different types of food chains and designing your favorite one. How is the flow of energy traced through a food chain? Use your cluster organizer to record information for four different food chains and what the consumers, 1st level consumers, 2nd level consumers, and 3rd level consumers are and what they eat. Begin by viewing ecosystems: Introduction to Ecosystems Now that you know what an ...

Hammond, Ms.

2009-10-21

317

NKS FOOD Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the workshop was to share national practice and experience on the use of different tools (handbooks, late phase models etc.) during a crisis with focus on operational implementation and use, interpretation and verification of results and production of decision basis. The main goal was to establish a common ground to better understand how these are used in the different countries, identify differences and exchange knowledge to increase competence. Second goal was to gather stakeholders and authorities with interest or responsibility for countermeasures against radioactive contamination of food products to share experience in different topics as: 1) Cooperation among stakeholders and organisations responsible for food safety in each country. 2) Adaptation of the Euranos handbook ''Countermeasures for the management of food production systems'' to national conditions and implementation of the handbook in each country. 3) Establishing a Nordic network for food authorities and radiation protection authorities responsible for food safety with respect to radioactivity. There were 23 participants representing all the Nordic countries. Some of the speakers present were Klas Rosen (SLU), Kasper Andersson (RISOe), representatives from the Nordic food authorities and Ministries, representatives from the radiation protection authorities and one speaker from the food industry. (Author)

318

Recent situation of food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarized recent situation of food irradiation from July 2002 to June 2003. The Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for Radiation Processing of Food were revised by 26th CAC, 2003. The maximum absorbed dose delivered to a food should not exceed 10 kGy, except when necessary to achieve a legitimate technological purpose. Guidelines for the Use of Irradiation as a Phytosanitary Measure were carried by 5th Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (ICPM) in April 2003. The Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) permitted irradiation of eight kinds of foods. Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) in EU published Revision of the Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on the irradiation of food. In United States, the amount of irradiated beef is increasing. To keep safety of our foods in today's changing environment, Parliament in Japan passed the Food Safety Basic Law in May, 2003. Under the law, the Japanese government promotes several key food safety policies. (S.Y.)

319

Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment.

Carvalho, Fernando P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt

2006-11-15

320

Fried foods  

Science.gov (United States)

Fried foods may taste good, but they can have terrible effects on your body if you eat too many of them. Someone who has bulimia would be likely to binge eat these fried foods. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted binge eats and then purges, or gets rid of, all of the food they just ate.

Sakurai Midori (None; )

2006-10-31

321

Food-safety hazards in the pork chain in Nagaland, North East India: implications for human health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system. We investigated samples from pigs and pork sourced at slaughter in urban and rural environments, and at retail, to assess a selection of food-borne hazards. In addition, consumer exposure was characterized using information about hygiene and practices related to handling and preparing pork. A qualitative hazard characterization, exposure assessment and hazard characterization for three representative hazards or hazard proxies, namely Enterobacteriaceae, T. solium cysticercosis and antibiotic residues, is presented. Several important potential food-borne pathogens are reported for the first time including Listeria spp. and Brucella suis. This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland. We also characterise possible interventions to be addressed by policy makers, and supply data to inform future risk assessments. PMID:24368430

Fahrion, Anna Sophie; Jamir, Lanu; Richa, Kenivole; Begum, Sonuwara; Rutsa, Vilatuo; Ao, Simon; Padmakumar, Varijaksha P; Deka, Ram Pratim; Grace, Delia

2014-01-01

322

Food-Safety Hazards in the Pork Chain in Nagaland, North East India: Implications for Human Health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system. We investigated samples from pigs and pork sourced at slaughter in urban and rural environments, and at retail, to assess a selection of food-borne hazards. In addition, consumer exposure was characterized using information about hygiene and practices related to handling and preparing pork. A qualitative hazard characterization, exposure assessment and hazard characterization for three representative hazards or hazard proxies, namely Enterobacteriaceae, T. solium cysticercosis and antibiotic residues, is presented. Several important potential food-borne pathogens are reported for the first time including Listeria spp. and Brucella suis. This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland. We also characterise possible interventions to be addressed by policy makers, and supply data to inform future risk assessments.

Anna Sophie Fahrion

2013-12-01

323

Observations of marketing on food packaging targeted to youth in retail food stores. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

There is growing evidence that exposure to food marketing influences dietary preferences among youth. Few studies exploring this association, however, have focused on the retail food store environment where families negotiate the influence of food and beverage marketing on purchasing practices.

324

HACCP, food quality, food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper summarizes the principles and purposes of the ''Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points'' (HACCP) system and its application and implementation within the European Union for the purposes of food quality and safety control, including food irradiation. (orig./CB)

325

9 CFR 3.139 - Food and water requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Warmblooded Animals...Nonhuman Primates, and Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.139 Food...every 12 hours after such transportation is initiated, and...

2010-01-01

326

System operation, safety and handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper reviews the design system, operation, and safe handling of liquid alkali metals. The hazardous characteristics of alkali metals are outlined, as well as the procedures for shipping and storage of the chemicals. Design and construction of equipment for a liquid metal system, and system operation, are both described, including cover materials of construction, pre-cleaning, leaks and repairs. Post operation cleaning procedures, disposal of residues, and firefighting, are also discussed. (U.K.)

327

Remote handling equipment for SNS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives information on the areas of the SNS, facility which become highly radioactive preventing hands-on maintenance. Levels of activity are sufficiently high in the Target Station Area of the SNS, especially under fault conditions, to warrant reactor technology to be used in the design of the water, drainage and ventilation systems. These problems, together with the type of remote handling equipment required in the SNS, are discussed

328

About raising and handling exceptions  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a unified framework for dealing with a deduction system and a denotational semantics of exceptions. It is based on the fact that handling exceptions can be seen as a kind of generalized case distinction. This point of view on exceptions has been introduced in 2004, it is based on the notion of diagrammatic logic, which assumes some familiarity with category theory. Extensive sums of types can be used for dealing with case distinctions. The aim of this new...

Duval, Dominique; Reynaud, Jean-claude

2006-01-01

329

Towards integrated microliquid handling systems  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we describe components for integrated microliquid handling systems such as fluid injection analysis, and first results of planar integration of components. The components discussed are channels, passive and active valves, actuators for micropumps, micromixers, microflow sensors, optical detectors, pumps and dosage systems. The dosage system described comprises a flow sensor and a pump micromachined on a single silicon wafer sandwiched between Pyrex wafers. The liquid pump is of ...

Elwenspoek, M.; Lammerink, T. S. J.; Miyake, R.; Fluitman, J. H. J.

1994-01-01

330

Incidence Handling and Response System  

OpenAIRE

A computer network can be attacked in a number of ways. The security-related threats have become not only numerous but also diverse and they may also come in the form of blended attacks. It becomes difficult for any security system to block all types of attacks. This gives rise to the need of an incidence handling capability which is necessary for rapidly detecting incidents, minimizing loss and destruction, mitigating the weaknesses that were exploited and restoring the com...

Kalbande, Prof Dhananjay R.; Thampi, Dr G. T.; Singh, Manish

2009-01-01

331

A multigrid fluid pressure solver handling separating solid boundary conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a multigrid method for solving the linear complementarity problem (LCP) resulting from discretizing the Poisson equation subject to separating solid boundary conditions in an Eulerian liquid simulation’s pressure projection step. The method requires only a few small changes to a multigrid solver for linear systems. Our generalized solver is fast enough to handle 3D liquid simulations with separating boundary conditions in practical domain sizes. Previous methods could only handle relatively small 2D domains in reasonable time, because they used expensive quadratic programming (QP) solvers. We demonstrate our technique in several practical scenarios, including nonaxis-aligned containers and moving solids in which the omission of separating boundary conditions results in disturbing artifacts of liquid sticking to solids. Our measurements show, that the convergence rate of our LCP solver is close to that of a standard multigrid solver. PMID:22411885

Chentanez, Nuttapong; Müller-Fischer, Matthias

2012-08-01

332

[Food allergy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Food allergy is an important public health problem. The prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy is estimated at 3.24% of French population. Clinical pictures are varied: atopic dermatitis, urticaria and oedema, asthma, rhinitis, anaphylactic shock. Their comparative frequencies change with age. The risk of fatal anaphylactic reactions (acute asthma, anaphylactic shock, laryngeal oedema) is underlined. The role of risk factors on expression of food allergy is important: exercise, concomitant intake of alcohol, aspirin NAIDS, beta-blockers or converting enzyme inhibitors. The modifications of food habits and of food allergenicity by agro-alimentary technology, the consumption of novel foods and masked allergens explain the present aspects of food allergy. The role of intestinal flora and early diversification of food influence the acquisition of tolerance. The diagnosis of food allergy depends of the expert appraisement of the allergologist. Oral challenge tests distinguish sensitisation from true food allergy. Treatment is based on targeted eviction diet. Contact with food allergen must be avoided by other way: skin (cosmetic), respiratory tract and drug intake. The control of risk factors is essential. PMID:11797470

Kanny, G

2001-11-01

333

Hard to Stomach: Food Insecurity and Inequitable Access to Nutritious Food in Vancouver  

OpenAIRE

Food insecurity is a problem in Vancouver, BC. Through analysis of the systemic causes and negative correlates of food insecurity, this study examines effective ways to mitigate food insecurity in Vancouver by enabling consistent access to sufficient, nutritious food. Assessments of the economics of food insecurity and multi-level governmental positions on the issue provide a theoretical and practical basis for the research. A literature review and four in-depth stakeholder interviews identif...

Moe, Jennifer Lauren

2014-01-01

334

Food allergies and food intolerances.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adverse reactions to foods, aside from those considered toxic, are caused by a particular individual intolerance towards commonly tolerated foods. Intolerance derived from an immunological mechanism is referred to as Food Allergy, the non-immunological form is called Food Intolerance. IgE-mediated food allergy is the most common and dangerous type of adverse food reaction. It is initiated by an impairment of normal Oral Tolerance to food in predisposed individuals (atopic). Food allergy produces respiratory, gastrointestinal, cutaneous and cardiovascular symptoms but often generalized, life-threatening symptoms manifest at a rapid rate-anaphylactic shock. Diagnosis is made using medical history and cutaneous and serological tests but to obtain final confirmation a Double Blind Controlled Food Challenge must be performed. Food intolerances are principally caused by enzymatic defects in the digestive system, as is the case with lactose intolerance, but may also result from pharmacological effects of vasoactive amines present in foods (e.g. Histamine). Prevention and treatment are based on the avoidance of the culprit food. PMID:16782524

Ortolani, Claudio; Pastorello, Elide A

2006-01-01

335

7 CFR 800.61 - Prohibited grain handling practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

...with subpart E of the Official United States Standards for Grain. (3) Add water to grain for purposes other than milling, malting, or similar processing operations. (c) Exemption. (1) The Administrator may grant exemptions from...

2010-01-01

336

Introduction to radiation protection practical knowledge for handling radioactive sources  

CERN Document Server

The book presents an accessible account of the sources of ionising radiation and the methods of radiation protection. The basics of nuclear physics which are directly related to radiation protection are briefly discussed. The book describes the units of radiation protection, the measurement techniques, biological effects of radiation, environmental radiation, and many applications of radiation. For each chapter there is a problem section with full solutions. A detailed glossary and many useful information in appendixes complete the book. The author has addressed the issue of internationality to make sure that the text and, in particular, the complicated regulations can be easily interpreted not only in Europe and the United States but also in other countries. The subject of radiation protection requires a certain amount of mathematics. For those who have forgotten the basic rules of calculus a short refresher course in the form of a mathematical appendix is added.

Grupen, Claus

2010-01-01

337

Need for improved UF6 handling and transportation practices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rigid design requirements for enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinder protective structural packages PSPs or simply overpacks have contributed to the nuclear industry achieving greater than 30 years of operating experience with no transportation-related accidents resulting in the release of UF6. However due to aging and continued over-the-road use, it is questionable whether all overpacks still meet the specifications to which they were manufactured. Overpacks are certified by their owners to be in conformance with U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) ORO-651 and ANSI N 14.1 specifications; however, inspections often reveal this is not the case. Overpack maintenance seems to be done infrequently or not at all. UF6 shipments from Portsmouth are not made until the existing regulations governing overpacks, tie-downs and the condition of trailers are satisfied. In numerous cases this has resulted in changing the initial shipment schedule. Inasmuch as industry standards must be met, and the overpacks are not always given necessary maintenance, the need exists for more frequent inspections and routine maintenance

338

Introduction to radiation protection. Practical knowledge for handling radioactive sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book presents an accessible account of the sources of ionising radiation and the methods of radiation protection. The basics of nuclear physics which are directly related to radiation protection are briefly discussed. The book describes the units of radiation protection, the measurement techniques, biological effects of radiation, environmental radiation, and many applications of radiation. For each chapter there is a problem section with full solutions. A detailed glossary and many useful information in appendixes complete the book. The author has addressed the issue of internationality to make sure that the text and, in particular, the complicated regulations can be easily interpreted not only in Europe and the United States but also in other countries. The subject of radiation protection requires a certain amount of mathematics. For those who have forgotten the basic rules of calculus a short refresher course in the form of a mathematical appendix is added. (orig.)

339

Object handling in the archaeology classroom – Strategies for success  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Direct encounters with archaeological materials are an effective way to teach the practical side of the discipline while developing transferable skills such as observation, deductive reasoning, critical analysis and group working. This paper draws on the authors own experiences to develop guidelines for object handling in the university classroom. Good preparation, informed implementation, consolidation of gains and integration of such sessions into the wider curriculum are key elements of an effective strategy.

Rachael Thyrza Sparks

2010-01-01

340

Object handling in the archaeology classroom – Strategies for success  

OpenAIRE

Direct encounters with archaeological materials are an effective way to teach the practical side of the discipline while developing transferable skills such as observation, deductive reasoning, critical analysis and group working. This paper draws on the authors own experiences to develop guidelines for object handling in the university classroom. Good preparation, informed implementation, consolidation of gains and integration of such sessions into the wider curriculum are key elements of an...

Rachael Thyrza Sparks

2010-01-01

341

Fast Continuous Collision Detection and Handling for Desktop Virtual Prototyping  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents an overview of our recent work on continuous collision detection methods and constraints handling for rigid polyhedral objects. We demonstrate that continuous collision detection algorithms are practical in interactive dynamics simulation of complex polyhedral rigid bodies and show how continuous collision detection and efficient constraint-based dynamics algorithms allow to perform various virtual prototyping tasks intuitively, precisely and robustly on commodity desktop ...

Redon, Stephane

2004-01-01

342

Health physics considerations in UF{sub 6} handling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Uranium is a radioactive substance that emits alpha particles and very small amounts of gamma radiation. Its daughter products emit beta and gamma radiation. In uranium handling operations these are the radiations one must consider. This presentation will review the characteristics of the radiations, the isotopes from which they originate, the growth and decay of the uranium daughter products, and some specific health physics practices dictated by these factors.

Bailey, J.C. [Norway Assoicates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1991-12-31

343

Pallet irradiators for food processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper looks at the various design concepts for the irradiation processing of food products, with particular emphasis on handling the products on pallets. Pallets appear to offer the most attractive method for handling foods from many considerations. Products are transported on pallets. Warehouse space is commonly designed for pallet storage and, if products are already palletized before and after irradiation, then labour could be saved by irradiating on pallets. This is also an advantage for equipment operation since a larger carrier volume means lower operation speeds. Different pallet irradiator design concepts are examined and their suitability for several applications are discussed. For example, low product holdup for fast turn around will be a consideration for those operating an irradiation 'service' business; others may require a very large source where efficiency is the primary requirement and this will not be consistent with low holdup. The radiation performance characteristics and processing costs of these machines are discussed. (author)

344

Pre- and postharvest preventive measures and intervention strategies to control microbial food safety hazards of fresh leafy vegetables.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review includes an overview of the most important preventive measures along the farm to fork chain to prevent microbial contamination of leafy greens. It also includes the technological and managerial interventions related to primary production, postharvest handling, processing practices, distribution, and consumer handling to eliminate pathogens in leafy greens. When the microbiological risk is already present, preventive measures to limit actual contamination events or pathogen survival are considered intervention strategies. In codes of practice the focus is mainly put on explaining preventive measures. However, it is also important to establish more focused intervention strategies. This review is centered mainly on leafy vegetables as the commodity identified as the highest priority in terms of fresh produce microbial safety from a global perspective. There is no unique preventive measure or intervention strategy that could be applied at one point of the food chain. We should encourage growers of leafy greens to establish procedures based on the HACCP principles at the level of primary production. The traceability of leafy vegetables along the chain is an essential element in ensuring food safety. Thus, in dealing with the food safety issues associated with fresh produce it is clear that a multidisciplinary farm to fork strategy is required. PMID:24915374

Gil, Maria I; Selma, Maria V; Suslow, Trevor; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Allende, Ana

2015-01-01

345

7 CFR 927.316 - Handling regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Handling regulation. 927.316 Section 927.316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.316 Handling regulation. During the period...

2010-01-01

346

Nutritional sustainability of pet foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system. PMID:23493530

Swanson, Kelly S; Carter, Rebecca A; Yount, Tracy P; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R

2013-03-01

347

Dimensions of world food problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The focus of this book is on the several principal dimensions of population and food problems and their interactions as they appear in 1976. The authors view the present situation as difficult and urgent, but certainly not as impossible. The emphasis of this book is on agriculture and providing food to hungry people to gain time for stabilizing the human population at a manageable level. Seventeen papers dealing with the issue are: A Review of Population and Trends, E.R. Duncan; Human Nutritional Needs and Food Sources, John N. Hathcock, Josefa S. Eusebio; The Food-Producing Regions of the World, Louis M. Thompson; Energy Use in Food Production, David Pimentel, Elinor Cruze Terhune; Land Ownership and Tenure, Peter Dorner; Climate and Weather for Food Production, R.H. Shaw; Soil Resources--Characteristics, Potentials, and Limitations, William D. Shrader; Animals--Potentials and Limitations for Human Food, N.L. Jacobson, G.N. Jacobson; Food Crops--Production, Limitations, and Potentials, D.G. Woolley; Crop Production Practices, J.W. Pendleton; Food Losses--Situation and Opportunities for Improvement, Harry E. Snyder; Constraints to Change--Social, Political, and Economic, Loyd K. Fischer; Institutions and Facilities--Development Considerations, Melvin G. Blase; Food Policies of Governments, Roy D. Laird, Betty A. Laird; Credit and Credit Systems for Food Production, Mervin G. Smith; Education and Training for Adoption and Diffusion of New Ideas, Joe M. Bohlen; and Assistance to Developing Nations, Douglas Ensminger.

Duncan, E.R. (ed.)

1977-01-01

348

Training in safer and healthier patient handling techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the project was to educate nursing staff on patient handling techniques to prevent low back pain. Within the framework of a multidisciplinary preventive intervention, a pre-post study design was implemented in a hospital. One hundred and forty nurses and healthcare assistants attended a two-hour lesson and a three-hour practical training session; 48 nurses attended a train-the-trainer programme that was comprised of three-hour classes, two-hour lessons on communication techniques and four hours of practical training. Improvements were tested using questionnaires and direct observations. A statistically significant improvement was noted in questionnaire scores (ptrain-the-trainer programme improved knowledge, communication skills and ability to evaluate manual handling techniques; this allowed the education programme in patient-handling techniques to be extended to all healthcare workers. This approach was effective in increasing the knowledge, practical abilities and communication skills of the workforce. It also allowed a network of internal trainer nurses to be set up, who enabled the implementation of safer and healthier working techniques in nursing staff. PMID:20505581

Carta, Angela; Parmigiani, Francesca; Roversi, Annamaria; Rossato, Rita; Milini, Cinzia; Parrinello, Giovanni; Apostoli, Pietro; Alessio, Lorenzo; Porru, Stefano

349

Instrumento de avaliação das Boas Práticas em Unidades de Alimentação e Nutrição Escolar: da concepção à validação Instrument for assessment of best practices in school food and nutrition units: from design to validation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é elaborar e validar instrumento de avaliação das Boas Práticas para Unidades de Alimentação e Nutrição Escolares. Estudo desenvolvido na cidade de Santos, realizado em dois momentos: 1 Elaboração da Lista de Verificação das Boas Práticas na Alimentação Escolar (Lista de Verificação BPAE e; 2 Validação da Lista de Verificação BPAE com aplicação desta e de outras duas listas de referência em 76 escolas municipais. A sensibilidade e a especificidade foram estimadas por meio da Curva ROC - Receiver Operating Characteristics e a lista de verificação foi avaliada de acordo com a escala de Likert. Os blocos temáticos receberam pesos para o cálculo do percentual de adequação. Após aplicação das listas nas escolas foi observado valor de área sob a curva de 0,79 em relação à lista SS-196 e 0,85 para a Portaria 542/2006, indicando boa capacidade da Lista de Verificação BPAE em identificar inadequações. Esta lista recebeu avaliação positiva dos nutricionistas da alimentação escolar revelando que a mesma auxiliará na tomada de decisões para o controle de qualidade. A Lista de Verificação de BPAE elaborada e validada pode se constituir em importante instrumento para o controle de qualidade da alimentação escolar.The scope of this study was to elaborate and validate an assessment tool for Best Practices in School Food and Nutrition Units. For this purpose a survey was conducted in the city of Santos (São Paulo - Brazil, in two stages: 1 Preparation of a Checklist for Best Practices in School Food and Nutrition Units (BPAE checklist. 2 Validation of the BPAE checklist. This checklist was applied in 76 public schools along with two other reference checklists. Sensitivity and specificity were estimated using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC Curve and the checklist was evaluated by application of the Likert scale. The thematic groups received weights to calculate the percentage of adequacy. After the application of the checklists in schools, the area under the curve value of 0.79 was found for the SS-196 checklist and 0.85 for the 542/2006 administrative checklist. These values indicate good suitability of the BPAE checklist to identify inadequacies, and it also received a positive assessment from the school food nutritionists. It proved that the checklist will assist in decision-making to ensure quality control. Once the BPAE checklist has been fully tested and validated it should prove an important tool for quality control in school nutrition.

Sueli Maria da Silva

2013-04-01

350

Instrumento de avaliação das Boas Práticas em Unidades de Alimentação e Nutrição Escolar: da concepção à validação / Instrument for assessment of best practices in school food and nutrition units: from design to validation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste artigo é elaborar e validar instrumento de avaliação das Boas Práticas para Unidades de Alimentação e Nutrição Escolares. Estudo desenvolvido na cidade de Santos, realizado em dois momentos: 1) Elaboração da Lista de Verificação das Boas Práticas na Alimentação Escolar (Lista de Ver [...] ificação BPAE) e; 2) Validação da Lista de Verificação BPAE com aplicação desta e de outras duas listas de referência em 76 escolas municipais. A sensibilidade e a especificidade foram estimadas por meio da Curva ROC - Receiver Operating Characteristics e a lista de verificação foi avaliada de acordo com a escala de Likert. Os blocos temáticos receberam pesos para o cálculo do percentual de adequação. Após aplicação das listas nas escolas foi observado valor de área sob a curva de 0,79 em relação à lista SS-196 e 0,85 para a Portaria 542/2006, indicando boa capacidade da Lista de Verificação BPAE em identificar inadequações. Esta lista recebeu avaliação positiva dos nutricionistas da alimentação escolar revelando que a mesma auxiliará na tomada de decisões para o controle de qualidade. A Lista de Verificação de BPAE elaborada e validada pode se constituir em importante instrumento para o controle de qualidade da alimentação escolar. Abstract in english The scope of this study was to elaborate and validate an assessment tool for Best Practices in School Food and Nutrition Units. For this purpose a survey was conducted in the city of Santos (São Paulo - Brazil), in two stages: 1) Preparation of a Checklist for Best Practices in School Food and Nutri [...] tion Units (BPAE checklist). 2) Validation of the BPAE checklist. This checklist was applied in 76 public schools along with two other reference checklists. Sensitivity and specificity were estimated using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) Curve and the checklist was evaluated by application of the Likert scale. The thematic groups received weights to calculate the percentage of adequacy. After the application of the checklists in schools, the area under the curve value of 0.79 was found for the SS-196 checklist and 0.85 for the 542/2006 administrative checklist. These values indicate good suitability of the BPAE checklist to identify inadequacies, and it also received a positive assessment from the school food nutritionists. It proved that the checklist will assist in decision-making to ensure quality control. Once the BPAE checklist has been fully tested and validated it should prove an important tool for quality control in school nutrition.

Elke, Stedefeldt; Diogo Thimoteo da, Cunha; Êneo Alves Silva, Júnior; Sueli Maria da, Silva; Ana Beatriz Almeida de, Oliveira.

2013-04-01

351

Instrumento de avaliação das Boas Práticas em Unidades de Alimentação e Nutrição Escolar: da concepção à validação / Instrument for assessment of best practices in school food and nutrition units: from design to validation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste artigo é elaborar e validar instrumento de avaliação das Boas Práticas para Unidades de Alimentação e Nutrição Escolares. Estudo desenvolvido na cidade de Santos, realizado em dois momentos: 1) Elaboração da Lista de Verificação das Boas Práticas na Alimentação Escolar (Lista de Ver [...] ificação BPAE) e; 2) Validação da Lista de Verificação BPAE com aplicação desta e de outras duas listas de referência em 76 escolas municipais. A sensibilidade e a especificidade foram estimadas por meio da Curva ROC - Receiver Operating Characteristics e a lista de verificação foi avaliada de acordo com a escala de Likert. Os blocos temáticos receberam pesos para o cálculo do percentual de adequação. Após aplicação das listas nas escolas foi observado valor de área sob a curva de 0,79 em relação à lista SS-196 e 0,85 para a Portaria 542/2006, indicando boa capacidade da Lista de Verificação BPAE em identificar inadequações. Esta lista recebeu avaliação positiva dos nutricionistas da alimentação escolar revelando que a mesma auxiliará na tomada de decisões para o controle de qualidade. A Lista de Verificação de BPAE elaborada e validada pode se constituir em importante instrumento para o controle de qualidade da alimentação escolar. Abstract in english The scope of this study was to elaborate and validate an assessment tool for Best Practices in School Food and Nutrition Units. For this purpose a survey was conducted in the city of Santos (São Paulo - Brazil), in two stages: 1) Preparation of a Checklist for Best Practices in School Food and Nutri [...] tion Units (BPAE checklist). 2) Validation of the BPAE checklist. This checklist was applied in 76 public schools along with two other reference checklists. Sensitivity and specificity were estimated using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) Curve and the checklist was evaluated by application of the Likert scale. The thematic groups received weights to calculate the percentage of adequacy. After the application of the checklists in schools, the area under the curve value of 0.79 was found for the SS-196 checklist and 0.85 for the 542/2006 administrative checklist. These values indicate good suitability of the BPAE checklist to identify inadequacies, and it also received a positive assessment from the school food nutritionists. It proved that the checklist will assist in decision-making to ensure quality control. Once the BPAE checklist has been fully tested and validated it should prove an important tool for quality control in school nutrition.

Elke, Stedefeldt; Diogo Thimoteo da, Cunha; Êneo Alves, Silva Júnior; Sueli Maria da, Silva; Ana Beatriz Almeida de, Oliveira.

2013-04-01

352

Food Safety Attitude of Culinary Arts Based Students in Public and Private Higher Learning Institutions (IPT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Food safety issue is not new in Malaysia as problems such as unsafe food handling, doubtful food preparation, food poisoning outbreaks in schools and education institutions and spreading of infectious food borne illness has been discussed by the public more often than before. The purpose of this study is to examine the food safety knowledge and attitude of culinary based students from four (4 public and private higher learning institutions (IPT with prior knowledge on food safety, hygiene and sanitation. The study involved a total of 114 group administered questionnaires that were usable and coded comprising of 37- questions assessing their knowledge and attitude on food safety. A series of analysis were conducted to test the significant relationship between food safety knowledge and food safety attitude and seek any differences based on the students’ demographic profiles.  The research finds that higher learning institution’s students who have prior knowledge on food safety partly do not represent their attitude towards food safety although their correlations recorded moderate positive relationships especially on personal hygiene practice (p=0.07, r=0.42 and keeping food at safe temperature (p=0.17, r=0.36. On the other hand, their knowledge in avoiding cross contamination (p=0.00, r=0.50 and avoiding food from unsafe sources (p=0.02, r=0.36 were positive and significant in influencing their food safety attitude. The finding also revealed that there were no significant differences among food safety knowledge and attitude based on the students’ demographic profiles. The results urged for more improvement in both knowledge and practice of food safety among students in public and private higher learning institutions towards recommended food safety standards and positive attitude in food preparation process. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Keywords: food safety, knowledge, attitude, food borne illness, IPT students

Mohd Onn Rashdi Abd Patah

2009-10-01

353

ACTITUDES Y PRÁCTICAS SOBRE ALIMENTACIÓN Y ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA EN NIÑOS OBESOS Y SUS MADRES EN SANTIAGO, CHILE / FOOD AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES IN OBESE CHILDREN AND THEIR MOTHERS IN SANTIAGO, CHILE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para identificar las actitudes y prácticas sobre alimentación y actividad física en niños obesos de nivel socioeconómico bajo, se aplicó una encuesta a 88 escolares (41 niños y 47 niñas) de 8 a 11 años de Santiago. 68 niños y sus madres constituyeron 16 grupos focales (4 de niños, 4 de niñas y 8 de [...] madres) en los que se estudiaron las motivaciones, barreras, sentimientos de autoestima y autoeficacia en relación a alimentación saludable y actividad física. Los resultados de la encuesta fueron analizados con el test no paramétrico de Mann-Whitney. Con la información de los grupos focales se realizó un análisis de contenido, presentada como síntesis de las expresiones de los niños. Se encontró un bajo consumo de lácteos, verduras y frutas y un elevado consumo de alimentos de alta densidad energética y bebidas con azúcar. Más del 55% de los niños no realizaba actividad física fuera del colegio. Los niños mostraron escasas motivaciones y múltiples barreras para adquirir hábitos de alimentación saludable y actividad física, así como una baja autoestima y autoeficacia. Sus madres mostraron poca motivación y baja autoeficacia para apoyar a sus hijos obesos. Los resultados de este estudio servirán de base para el diseño de intervenciones educativas centradas en la motivación y el autocuidado para prevenir el sobrepeso en los niños Abstract in english In order to identify practices and attitudes on food and physical activity in obese children of a low socioeconomic level, a survey was applied to 88 school children (41 boys, 47 girls) aged 8 to 11 years of age from Santiago. Sixty eight children and their mothers participated in 16 focus groups (4 [...] groups of boys, 4 of girls and 8 of mothers), where motivations, barriers, self-esteem and self-efficacy related to food and physical activity were studied. Survey results were analyzed with the non parametric Mann-Whitney Test. A content analysis was made with the information collected in the focus groups; it is presented in terms of children's expressions. A low dietary intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables (g/d), and a high intake of energy dense foods and beverages were found. More than 55% of children never engaged in after school physical activity. Children showed limited motivations and multiple barriers related with healthy food and physical activity habits, as well as low self-esteem and self-efficacy. Their mothers showed lack of motivation and low self-efficacy in providing support to their obese children. These results will be used as baseline information for educational interventions for preventing child overweight through motivation and self-care

Sonia, Olivares C; Nelly, Bustos Z; Ximena, Moreno H; Lydia, Lera M; Silvana, Cortez F.

2006-08-01

354

ACTITUDES Y PRÁCTICAS SOBRE ALIMENTACIÓN Y ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA EN NIÑOS OBESOS Y SUS MADRES EN SANTIAGO, CHILE FOOD AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES IN OBESE CHILDREN AND THEIR MOTHERS IN SANTIAGO, CHILE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Para identificar las actitudes y prácticas sobre alimentación y actividad física en niños obesos de nivel socioeconómico bajo, se aplicó una encuesta a 88 escolares (41 niños y 47 niñas de 8 a 11 años de Santiago. 68 niños y sus madres constituyeron 16 grupos focales (4 de niños, 4 de niñas y 8 de madres en los que se estudiaron las motivaciones, barreras, sentimientos de autoestima y autoeficacia en relación a alimentación saludable y actividad física. Los resultados de la encuesta fueron analizados con el test no paramétrico de Mann-Whitney. Con la información de los grupos focales se realizó un análisis de contenido, presentada como síntesis de las expresiones de los niños. Se encontró un bajo consumo de lácteos, verduras y frutas y un elevado consumo de alimentos de alta densidad energética y bebidas con azúcar. Más del 55% de los niños no realizaba actividad física fuera del colegio. Los niños mostraron escasas motivaciones y múltiples barreras para adquirir hábitos de alimentación saludable y actividad física, así como una baja autoestima y autoeficacia. Sus madres mostraron poca motivación y baja autoeficacia para apoyar a sus hijos obesos. Los resultados de este estudio servirán de base para el diseño de intervenciones educativas centradas en la motivación y el autocuidado para prevenir el sobrepeso en los niñosIn order to identify practices and attitudes on food and physical activity in obese children of a low socioeconomic level, a survey was applied to 88 school children (41 boys, 47 girls aged 8 to 11 years of age from Santiago. Sixty eight children and their mothers participated in 16 focus groups (4 groups of boys, 4 of girls and 8 of mothers, where motivations, barriers, self-esteem and self-efficacy related to food and physical activity were studied. Survey results were analyzed with the non parametric Mann-Whitney Test. A content analysis was made with the information collected in the focus groups; it is presented in terms of children's expressions. A low dietary intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables (g/d, and a high intake of energy dense foods and beverages were found. More than 55% of children never engaged in after school physical activity. Children showed limited motivations and multiple barriers related with healthy food and physical activity habits, as well as low self-esteem and self-efficacy. Their mothers showed lack of motivation and low self-efficacy in providing support to their obese children. These results will be used as baseline information for educational interventions for preventing child overweight through motivation and self-care

Sonia Olivares C

2006-08-01

355

The Vermicelli Handling Test: A Simple Quantitative Measure of Dexterous Forepaw Function in Rats  

OpenAIRE

Loss of function in the hands occurs with many brain disorders, but there are few measures of skillful forepaw use in rats available to model these impairments that are both sensitive and simple to administer. Whishaw and Coles (1996) previously described the dexterous manner in which rats manipulate food items with their paws, including thin pieces of pasta. We set out to develop a measure of this food handling behavior that would be quantitative, easy to administer, sensitive to the effects...

Allred, Rachel P.; Adkins, Deanna L.; Woodlee, Martin T.; Husbands, Lincoln C.; Maldonado, Mo?nica A.; Kane, Jacqueline R.; Schallert, Timothy; Jones, Theresa A.

2008-01-01

356

Safety Enhancements for TRU Waste Handling - 12258  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For years, proper Health Physics practices and 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' (ALARA) principles have fostered the use of glove boxes or other methods of handling (without direct contact) high activities of radioactive material. The physical limitations of using glove boxes on certain containers have resulted in high-activity wastes being held in storage awaiting a path forward. Highly contaminated glove boxes and other remote handling equipment no longer in use have also been added to the growing list of items held for storage with no efficient method of preparation for proper disposal without creating exposure risks to personnel. This is especially true for wastes containing alpha-emitting radionuclides such as Plutonium and Americium that pose significant health risks to personnel if these Transuranic (TRU) wastes are not controlled effectively. Like any good safety program or root cause investigation PFNW has found that the identification of the cause of a negative change, if stopped, can result in a near miss and lessons learned. If this is done in the world of safety, it is considered a success story and is to be shared with others to protect the workers. PFNW believes that the tools, equipment and resources have improved over the past number of years but that the use of them has not progressed at the same rate. If we use our tools to timely identify the effect on the work environment and immediately following or possibly even simultaneously identify the cause or some of the causal factors, we may have the ability to continue to work rather than succumb to the start and stop-work mentality trap that is not beneficial in waste minimization, production efficiency or ALARA. (authors)

357

Promoting Food Safety and Food Security in Rural Tourism Destination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted at two villages, Ban Mae Kampong, Mae On, Chiang Mai and Ban Pa Miang, Muang, Lampang, Northern Thailand. This community is supported by Thai government tourism ministry to develop their skills in order to create and offer rural tourism. The study focus on community member groups who are involved with rural tourism activities; Homestay members, food preparation management members, tour guides, community leader groups, in order to assess the acceptance, collaboration and preparation of safety indigenous food menu and food security management where will support rural tourism community objectives. This study was carried out as in a participatory stage which included various seminars and workshops of rural tourism management concluded from homestay services, Thai herbs medication beneficiary, basic and applied nutrition concepts, indigenous healthy food productivity with standardized recipes, food safety handling and food security management for preparing food for themselves as well as suitable for tourism consumption. In addition of this useful vegetarian calendar information, which is highly appropriate serving as a tool for their daily meal management.

Sikhiram N.

2014-01-01

358

Fuel handling machine of encapsulation plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary design of the fuel handling machine of the encapsulation plant is presented in this report. In the fuel handling cell the fuel assemblies are handled by the fuel handling machine when the spent nuclear fuel is encapsulated for final disposal. The aim of the preliminary design is to check that the encapsulation plant design is correct and to make the design specification for the further development of the fuel handling machine. The fuel handling machine is capable to handle the fuel assemblies of all plant units of Loviisa and Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant. The fuel handling machine is based on the bridge crane, which is moving along the rails supported on the walls of the fuel handling cell. A turntable with two identical telescopic masts is supported on the trolley of the bridge crane. The first mast is equipped with the gripping device for the fuel assemblies and the second mast is equipped with the manipulator arm, which is used for the reparation and maintenance works and for repairing the potential damages in the fuel handling cell. The report describes how postulated upset and accident situations of the fuel handling machine are solved. At the end of the report a rough cost estimate of the fuel handling machine is presented. (orig.)

359

Identification of climate-resilient integrated nutrient management practices for rice-rice cropping system—an empirical approach to uphold food security  

Science.gov (United States)

Yield datasets of long-term experiments on integrated nutrient management in rice-rice cropping systems were used to investigate the relationship of variability in rainfall, temperature, and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices in rice-rice cropping system in three different agroecological regions of India. Twelve treatments with different combinations of inorganic (chemical fertilizer) and organic (farmyard manure, green manure, and paddy straw) were compared with farmer's conventional practice. The intraseasonal variations in rice yields are largely driven by rainfall during kharif rice and by temperature during rabi rice. Half of the standard deviation from the average monthly as well as seasonal rainfall during kharif rice and 1 °C increase or decrease from the average maximum and minimum temperature during rabi rice has been taken as the classification of yield groups. The trends in the date of effective onset of monsoon indicate a 36-day delay during the 30-year period at Rajendranagar, which is statistically significant at 95 % confidence level. The mean annual maximum temperature shows an increasing trend in all the study sites. The length of monsoon also showed a shrinking trend in the rate of 40 days during the 30-year study period at Rajendranagar representing a semiarid region. At Bhubaneshwar, the application of 50 % recommended NPK through chemical fertilizers and 50 % N through green manure resulted in an overall average higher increase of 5.1 % in system productivity under both excess and deficit rainfall years and also during the years having seasonal mean maximum temperature ?35 °C. However, at Jorhat, the application of 50 % recommended NPK through chemical fertilizers and 50 % N through straw resulted in an overall average higher increase of 7.4 % in system productivity, while at Rajendranagar, the application of 75 % NPK through chemical fertilizers and 25 % N through green manusre resulted in an overall average higher increase of 8.8 % in system productivity. This study highlights the adaptive capacity of different integrated nutrient management practices to rainfall and temperature variability under a rice-rice cropping system in humid, subhumid, and semiarid ecosystems.

Subash, N.; Gangwar, B.; Singh, Rajbir; Sikka, A. K.

2014-05-01

360

Identification of climate-resilient integrated nutrient management practices for rice-rice cropping system-an empirical approach to uphold food security.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yield datasets of long-term experiments on integrated nutrient management in rice-rice cropping systems were used to investigate the relationship of variability in rainfall, temperature, and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices in rice-rice cropping system in three different agroecological regions of India. Twelve treatments with different combinations of inorganic (chemical fertilizer) and organic (farmyard manure, green manure, and paddy straw) were compared with farmer's conventional practice. The intraseasonal variations in rice yields are largely driven by rainfall during kharif rice and by temperature during rabi rice. Half of the standard deviation from the average monthly as well as seasonal rainfall during kharif rice and 1 °C increase or decrease from the average maximum and minimum temperature during rabi rice has been taken as the classification of yield groups. The trends in the date of effective onset of monsoon indicate a 36-day delay during the 30-year period at Rajendranagar, which is statistically significant at 95 % confidence level. The mean annual maximum temperature shows an increasing trend in all the study sites. The length of monsoon also showed a shrinking trend in the rate of 40 days during the 30-year study period at Rajendranagar representing a semiarid region. At Bhubaneshwar, the application of 50 % recommended NPK through chemical fertilizers and 50 % N through green manure resulted in an overall average higher increase of 5.1 % in system productivity under both excess and deficit rainfall years and also during the years having seasonal mean maximum temperature ?35 °C. However, at Jorhat, the application of 50 % recommended NPK through chemical fertilizers and 50 % N through straw resulted in an overall average higher increase of 7.4 % in system productivity, while at Rajendranagar, the application of 75 % NPK through chemical fertilizers and 25 % N through green manusre resulted in an overall average higher increase of 8.8 % in system productivity. This study highlights the adaptive capacity of different integrated nutrient management practices to rainfall and temperature variability under a rice-rice cropping system in humid, subhumid, and semiarid ecosystems. PMID:24817490

Subash, N; Gangwar, B; Singh, Rajbir; Sikka, A K

2015-01-01

361

Identification of climate-resilient integrated nutrient management practices for rice-rice cropping system—an empirical approach to uphold food security  

Science.gov (United States)

Yield datasets of long-term experiments on integrated nutrient management in rice-rice cropping systems were used to investigate the relationship of variability in rainfall, temperature, and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices in rice-rice cropping system in three different agroecological regions of India. Twelve treatments with different combinations of inorganic (chemical fertilizer) and organic (farmyard manure, green manure, and paddy straw) were compared with farmer's conventional practice. The intraseasonal variations in rice yields are largely driven by rainfall during kharif rice and by temperature during rabi rice. Half of the standard deviation from the average monthly as well as seasonal rainfall during kharif rice and 1 °C increase or decrease from the average maximum and minimum temperature during rabi rice has been taken as the classification of yield groups. The trends in the date of effective onset of monsoon indicate a 36-day delay during the 30-year period at Rajendranagar, which is statistically significant at 95 % confidence level. The mean annual maximum temperature shows an increasing trend in all the study sites. The length of monsoon also showed a shrinking trend in the rate of 40 days during the 30-year study period at Rajendranagar representing a semiarid region. At Bhubaneshwar, the application of 50 % recommended NPK through chemical fertilizers and 50 % N through green manure resulted in an overall average higher increase of 5.1 % in system productivity under both excess and deficit rainfall years and also during the years having seasonal mean maximum temperature ?35 °C. However, at Jorhat, the application of 50 % recommended NPK through chemical fertilizers and 50 % N through straw resulted in an overall average higher increase of 7.4 % in system productivity, while at Rajendranagar, the application of 75 % NPK through chemical fertilizers and 25 % N through green manusre resulted in an overall average higher increase of 8.8 % in system productivity. This study highlights the adaptive capacity of different integrated nutrient management practices to rainfall and temperature variability under a rice-rice cropping system in humid, subhumid, and semiarid ecosystems.

Subash, N.; Gangwar, B.; Singh, Rajbir; Sikka, A. K.

2015-01-01

362

21 CFR 2.35 - Use of secondhand containers for the shipment or storage of food and animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

...shipment or storage of food and animal feed. 2.35 Section 2.35 Food...shipment or storage of food and animal feed. (a) Investigations...revealed practices whereby food and animal feed stored or shipped in...

2010-04-01

363

Profile of establishments in the supermarket sector with respect to good practices in the city of Santa Maria (RS), Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to verify the compliance of the supermarket sector with respect to the Good Practice Program standards of the city of Santa Maria (RS), Brazil. Sixty nine establishments were verified using a checklist of good practices for the supermarket sector in Santa Maria, RS (B [...] razil), from April to July 2011. The data were collected by a food safety and quality professional using this checklist. The results showed that the overall adequacy of the establishments surveyed was 29.07%. The highest percentage of compliance was found for storage at ambient temperature (64.13%). The lowest compliance percentage was also found in different sections and areas in the supermarkets such as bakery and confectionery (14.93%), water supply (18.30%), food handling (21.01%), sausage and cold meat (or deli meat) (36.38%), and documentation-related items (4.97%). None of the supermarkets evaluated had the necessary documentation for the implementation of good practices. The results of this study show the importance of effectively implementing a good practice program and quality systems by raising awareness among technicians and professionals of the importance of quality programs used in food companies and the need for more thorough inspection delivered by competent authorities to ensure food safety for consumers.

Carla Cristina Bauermann, Brasil; Camila Costa, Gressler; Susana Berleze de, Pelegrini; Deise Silva de, Moura; Laissa Benites, Medeiros; Luisa Helena Rychecki, Hecktheuer.

2013-12-01

364

Food waste management in Hong Kong  

OpenAIRE

In Hong Kong, around 3,600 tonnes of food waste is produced every day. Although different pilot schemes and programmes had been operated by government and organizations, most of them were more like demonstrations on different methods in treating food waste. Up to this stage, no concrete facilities and long-term schemes have been carried out by the government to tackle the food waste generated. In this study, different approaches to treat food waste have been explored and relevant practices in...

Ng, Chiu-ue; ???

2013-01-01

365

Food allergy  

OpenAIRE

Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnostic tests,...

Waserman, Susan; Watson, Wade

2011-01-01

366

Getting a Handle on Variation  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an article explaining about variation in a population in general, using height as a specific example. The article is designed to help students and teachers think about the nature of various determinants underlying biological variation.Variation in height is easily observed and measured by learners, and quantifying height observations over time is a rich context for all ages to make key mathematics and science connections."Fast Plants, rapid cycling Brassica rapa are ideally suited for getting a handle on variation."

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

367

About raising and handling exceptions  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents a unified framework for dealing with a deduction system and a denotational semantics of exceptions. It is based on the fact that handling exceptions can be seen as a kind of generalized case distinction. This point of view on exceptions has been introduced in 2004, it is based on the notion of diagrammatic logic, which assumes some familiarity with category theory. Extensive sums of types can be used for dealing with case distinctions. The aim of this new paper is to focus on the role of generalized extensivity property for dealing with exceptions. Moreover, the presentation of this paper makes only a restricted use of category theory.

Duval, Dominique

2009-01-01

368

Taking stock of coal handling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Turnkey contracts have the potential to allow blue chip equipment manufacturers opportunities to improve the overall efficiency of stockyard management. Taim Weser has secured a contract to supply two stockyard machinery systems for a 3800 m euro expansion of the Repsol YPF Cartegena Refinery in Spain's Murcia region. ThyssenKrupp Fordertechnik (TKF) has handed over the coal handling plant at the 3 x 700 mw Jimah power station in Malaysia, following a similar turnkey contract undertaken for the Tanjung-Bin power plant project. 3 figs.

NONE

2009-03-15

369

Isotrace sulphur hexafluoride handling system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the SNEAP 1981 Conference, we reported on the design of the sulphur hexafluoride gas handling system for the IsoTrace 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. This system has now been installed and tested and in the past few weeks we have acquired some experience operating it. The system incorporates several unusual features: PVC pipe for the gas transfer lines, neoprane bags for storage of the gas and an oil lubricated compressor. This report discusses each of these features in greater depth and then give some typical operating details. A diagram of the entire system is shown

370

Electrostatic method of pellet handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new type of Deutrium-Tritium pellet injection system has been proposed and partly developed by the authors to serve as a target injector for a laser plasma generator. This system may also be used for refuelling a TOKAMAK type fusion reactor as well as a laser fusion reactor. The system is based on a purely electrical means of particle handling consisting of several electrostatic and electrodynamic processing components, and is designed to inject the pellets with a very high accuracy so that the laser beam can successfully collide with them. This system can be operated in both 'single-shot mode' and 'continuous-shot mode'. 9 refs

371

Safety and quality of food contact materials. Part 1: Evaluation of analytical strategies to introduce migration testing into good manufacturing practice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The results of a research project (EU AIR Research Programme CT94-1025) aimed to introduce control of migration into good manufacturing practice and into enforcement work are reported. Representative polymer classes were defined on the basis of chemical structure, technological function, migration behaviour and market share. These classes were characterized by analytical methods. Analytical techniques were investigated for identification of potential migrants. High-temperature gas chromatography was shown to be a powerful method and H-1-magnetic resonance provided a convenient fingerprint of plastic materials. Volatile compounds were characterized by headspace techniques, where it was shown to be essential to differentiate volatile compounds desorbed from those generated during the thermal desorption itself. For metal trace analysis, microwave mineralization followed by atomic absorption was employed. These different techniques were introduced into a systematic testing scheme that is envisaged as being suitable both for industrial control and for enforcement laboratories. Guidelines will be proposed in the second part of this paper.

Feigenbaum, A.; Scholler, D.

2002-01-01

372

The Biological Treatment of Organic Food Waste  

OpenAIRE

This Master Thesis “The Biological Treatment of Organic Food Waste” is done in the Master’sProgramme in Sustainable Technology at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in co-operation with the company SRV återvinning AB. The report is dedicated to analyze different biological treatment methods (that is composting andfermentation), which are used for the handling of organic food waste. From this analysis I will suggest the best method or methods for the company SRV återvinning AB (th...

Kosovska, Halyna

2006-01-01

373

Food synergy: an operational concept for understanding nutrition1234  

OpenAIRE

Research and practice in nutrition relate to food and its constituents, often as supplements. In food, however, the biological constituents are coordinated. We propose that “thinking food first”' results in more effective nutrition research and policy. The concept of food synergy provides the necessary theoretical underpinning. The evidence for health benefit appears stronger when put together in a synergistic dietary pattern than for individual foods or food constituents. A review of die...

Jacobs, David R.; Gross, Myron D.; Tapsell, Linda C.

2009-01-01

374

WIPP waste handling processes and equipment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Start Clean, Stay Clean operating philosophy of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has resulted in a total quality waste handling environment. The WIPP can handle both contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) waste independently of one another, beginning with truck or rail shipment. This article describes the waste emplacement and retrieval procedures that will be validated prior to the October 1988 receipt of waste, emphasizing the WIPP's implementation of the latest technology and the project's application of many waste handling improvement techniques

375

Prevalence of household-level food insecurity and its determinants in an urban resettlement colony in north India.  

Science.gov (United States)

An adequate food intake, in terms of quantity and quality, is a key to healthy life. Malnutrition is the most serious consequence of food insecurity and has a multitude of health and economic implications. India has the world's largest population living in slums, and these have largely been underserved areas. The State of Food Insecurity in the World (2012) estimates that India is home to more than 217 million undernourished people. Various studies have been conducted to assess food insecurity at the global level; however, the literature is limited as far as India is concerned. The present study was conducted with the objective of documenting the prevalence of food insecurity at the household level and the factors determining its existence in an urban slum population of northern India. This cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban resettlement colony of South Delhi, India. A pre-designed, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used for collecting socioeconomic details and information regarding dietary practices. Food insecurity was assessed using Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with food insecurity. A total of 250 women were interviewed through house-to-house survey. Majority of the households were having a nuclear family (61.6%), with mean family-size being 5.5 (SD +/- 2.5) and the mean monthly household income being INR 9,784 (SD +/- 631). Nearly half (53.3%) of the mean monthly household income was spent on food. The study found that a total of 77.2% households were food-insecure, with 49.2% households being mildly food-insecure, 18.8% of the households being moderately food-insecure, and 9.2% of the households being severely food-insecure. Higher education of the women handling food (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.92; p < or = 0.03) and number of earning members in the household (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.98; p < or = 0.04) were associated with lesser chance/odds of being food-insecure. The study demonstrated a high prevalence of food insecurity in the marginalized section of the urban society. The Government of India needs to adopt urgent measures to combat this problem. PMID:25076660

Chinnakali, Palanivel; Upadhyay, Ravi P; Shokeen, Deepa; Singh, Kavita; Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Arvind K; Goswami, Anil; Yadav, Kapil; Pandav, Chandrakant S

2014-06-01

376

Risk Management for Food Allergy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Risk Management for Food Allergy is developed by a team of scientists and industry professionals who understand the importance of allergen risk assessment and presents practical, real-world guidance for food manufacturers. With more than 12 million Americans suffering from food allergies and little indication of what is causing that number to continue to grow, food producers, packagers and distributors need to appropriately process, label and deliver their products to ensure the safety of customers with allergic conditions. By identifying risk factors during processing as well as determining appropriate "safe" thresholds of ingredients, the food industry must take increasingly proactive steps to avoid direct or cross-contamination as well as ensuring that their products are appropriately labeled and identified for those at risk. This book covers a range of critical topics in this area, including the epidemiology of food allergy, assessing allergen thresholds and risk, specifics of gluten management and celiac disease, and much more. The practical advice on factory risk management, catering industry practices, allergen detection and measurement and regulatory controls is key for food industry professionals as well as regulators in government and other public bodies.

2013-01-01

377

Handling Sports Pressure and Competition  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... it slowly. Repeat the exercise five times. Muscle relaxation: Contract (flex) a group of muscles tightly. Keep ... games where the pressure's on. Learn and practice relaxation techniques, like those described in the previous section. ...

378

Darlington fuel handling trolley availability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Where we were 2005? In February 2004 a landmark event occurred at Darlington, the powertrack for fueling machine trolley 2 failed catastrophically, resulting in significant damage. This failure resulted in a unit shutdown, significant repair work, and several months of trolley unavailability. Going forward, the Darlington fuel handling system continued to be plagued with frequent equipment reliability issues. Equipment not performing per design challenged unit average zone levels, staff frustration levels, and the completion of planned maintenance. A deteriorating trend was evident as demonstrated by: Frequent equipment breakdowns (>2/week) impacting fuelling capability, and challenging unit average zone levels and operator frustration levels High operator intervention required in semi-auto mode due to frequent operation stops -equipment not performing per design High maintenance frustration - equipment not available to be fixed due to the need to fuel to maintain zone levels Little planned maintenance due to frequent breakdowns- fire fighting mode Large maintenance backlogs relative to station targets By early 2005, confidence in fuel handling equipment was extremely low, a strategy to recover and sustain reliability was vital to our future operation. (author)

379

Constraint Handling in Transmission Network Expansion Planning  

Science.gov (United States)

Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is a very important and complex problem in power system. Recently, the use of metaheuristic techniques to solve TNEP is gaining more importance due to their effectiveness in handling the inequality constraints and discrete values over the conventional gradient based methods. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) generally perform unconstrained search and require some additional mechanism to handle constraints. In EA literature, various constraint handling techniques have been proposed. However, to solve TNEP the penalty function approach is commonly used while the other constraint handling methods are untested. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of different constraint handling methods like Superiority of Feasible Solutions (SF), Self adaptive Penalty (SP),E-Constraint (EC), Stochastic Ranking (SR) and the ensemble of constraint handling techniques (ECHT) on TNEP. The potential of different constraint handling methods and their ensemble is evaluated using an IEEE 24 bus system with and without security constraints.

Mallipeddi, R.; Verma, Ashu; Suganthan, P. N.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Bijwe, P. R.

380

Food preservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pamphlet contains short descriptions of many methods of preserving foods with emphasis on irradiation and its possible consequences. The views of the Federation of Danish Industries with regard to questions considered worthy of debate in relation to irradiation of food are presented. Information is directed at the general danish public. (AB)

381

Food Allergy  

Science.gov (United States)

... of links for more information about food allergy Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the ... incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food ...

382

Handling final storage of unreprocessed spent nuclear fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present second report from KBS describes how the safe final storage of spent unreprocessed nuclear fuel can be implemented. According to the Swedish Stipulation Law, the owner must specify in which form the waste is to be stored, how final storage is to be effected, how the waste is to be transported and all other aspects of fuel handling and storage which must be taken into consideration in judging whether the proposed final storage method can be considered to be absolutely safe and feasible. Thus, the description must go beyond general plans and sketches. The description is therefore relatively detailed, even concerning those parts which are less essential for evaluating the safety of the waste storage method. For those parts of the handling chain which are the same for both alternatives of the Stipulation Law, the reader is referred in some cases to the first report. Both of the alternatives of the Stipulation Law may be used in the future. Handling equipment and facilities for the two storage methods are so designed that a combination in the desired proportions is practically feasible. In this first part of the report are presented: premises and data, a description of the various steps of the handling procedure, a summary of dispersal processes and a safety analysis. (author)

383

Food-related life style in Spain  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Executive summary 1. This report contains the main results of a survey of food-related lifestyle in Spain, based on a representative sample of 1000 Spanish households. 2. Generally speaking, Spanish food consumers are very interested in shopping for food and cooking. Compared with other European food consumers, however, they are also very conservative, both in their choice and use of food. 3. Spanish food consumers can be divided into five segments, which differ both in the way they use food and in the importance it has for their attainment of central life values. The segments can only to a small extent be described by means of demographic characteristics. 4. The adventurous food consumers constitute 20% of the population. These are involved food consumers who like both shopping for food and cooking, and who are constantly on the lookout for new products and recipes. They attach a lot of importance to the social role of food. 5. The conservative food consumers constitute 26% of the population. Security is an important purchasing motive for these food consumers, which is reflected in the fact that they only buy familiar products, and cook and eat food traditionally. Apart from this, they are not particularly interested in either shopping cooking. 6. The uninvolved food consumers constitute 16% of the population. These food consumers are neither interested in shopping, cooking, nor the quality of the food they eat, and food is not an important element in their lives. The most important purchasing criterion for these food consumers is that food should be easy to cook. 7. The rational food consumers constitute 26% of the population. These are highly involved food consumers who are both price conscious and check product information when they go shopping, and who generally attach a lot of importance to food quality. They have a practical-rational attitude to cooking and eating, while at the same time stressing the social importance of food. 8. The enthusiastic food consumers constitute 12% of the population. These foodconsumers have the strongest purchasing motives of all the segments. They put a lot of energy into shopping and cooking, both of which are highly planned. These food consumers go after high quality natural product keep a watchful eye on prices. 9. The enthusiastic food consumers, followed by the rational food consumers, care most about ecology, animal welfare and genetic engineering in connection with food. Including political considerations in purchasing decisions is most widespread among the uninvolved food consumers, however.

Bredahl, Lone; BrunsØ, Karen

1996-01-01

384

Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC--28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC--28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use of these components or their related manufacturer. A component produced by one manufacturer certainly varies dimensionally from a similar product produced by a different manufacturer. The internal envelope dimensions are dependent on the selection of the individual components. The external envelope dimensions, as well as, key interface dimensions are established within this calculation and are to be treated as bounding dimensions

385

Cask system design guidance for robotic handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Remote automated cask handling has the potential to reduce both the occupational exposure and the time required to process a nuclear waste transport cask at a handling facility. The ongoing Advanced Handling Technologies Project (AHTP) at Sandia National Laboratories is described. AHTP was initiated to explore the use of advanced robotic systems to perform cask handling operations at handling facilities for radioactive waste, and to provide guidance to cask designers regarding the impact of robotic handling on cask design. The proof-of-concept robotic systems developed in AHTP are intended to extrapolate from currently available commercial systems to the systems that will be available by the time that a repository would be open for operation. The project investigates those cask handling operations that would be performed at a nuclear waste repository facility during cask receiving and handling. The ongoing AHTP indicates that design guidance, rather than design specification, is appropriate, since the requirements for robotic handling do not place severe restrictions on cask design but rather focus on attention to detail and design for limited dexterity. The cask system design features that facilitate robotic handling operations are discussed, and results obtained from AHTP design and operation experience are summarized. The application of these design considerations is illustrated by discussion of the robot systems and their operation on cask feature mock-ups used in the AHTP project. 11 refs., 11 figs

386

Apples: A Standard Food for Determining Potential Residential Pesticide Transfers  

Science.gov (United States)

Children?s unstructured eating behaviors lend themselves to potential dietary exposures to synthetic pyrethroid pesticides applied in the home. To determine the potential for excess dietary exposure of children from handling food during consumption, a standard food has been de...

387

Hazard analysis and critical control point to irradiated food in Brazil; Analise de perigos e pontos criticos de controle para alimentos irradiados no Brasil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Food borne diseases, in particular gastro-intestinal infections, represent a very large group of pathologies with a strong negative impact on the health of the population because of their widespread nature. Little consideration is given to such conditions due to the fact that their symptoms are often moderate and self-limiting. This has led to a general underestimation of their importance, and consequently to incorrect practices during the preparation and preservation of food, resulting in the frequent occurrence of outbreaks involving groups of varying numbers of consumers. Despite substantial efforts in the avoidance of contamination, an upward trend in the number of outbreaks of food borne illnesses caused by non-spore forming pathogenic bacteria are reported in many countries. Good hygienic practices can reduce the level of contamination but the most important pathogens cannot presently be eliminated from most farms, nor is it possible to eliminate them by primary processing, particularly from those foods which are sold raw. Several decontamination methods exist but the most versatile treatment among them is the ionizing radiation procedure. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product. For successful implementation of a HACCP plan, management must be strongly committed to the HACCP concept. A firm commitment to HACCP by top management provides company employees with a sense of the importance of producing safe food. At the same time, it has to be always emphasized that, like other intervention strategies, irradiation must be applied as part of a total sanitation program. The benefits of irradiation should never be considered as an excuse for poor quality or for poor handling and storage conditions, i.e.. as a substitute for good manufacturing practices. By adopting an HACCP based approach to food safety management, it can be clearly demonstrated that the application of a technology like food irradiation is essential for ensuring the safety of raw food stuffs. Such an intervention should be considered as a CCP (Critical Control Point) in the food chain. Therefore, the potential benefit of irradiation, which is endorsed by national and international bodies surely merits serious consideration by public health authorities, industry and consumer groups worldwide. For such, a system of HACCP and the irradiation is primordial so that the alimentary .safety is maintained processes if they are applied correctly. (author)

Boaratti, Maria de Fatima Guerra

2004-07-01

388

CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this facility description document (FDD) is to establish requirements and associated bases that drive the design of the Canister Handling Facility (CHF), which will allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This FDD identifies the requirements and describes the facility design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This FDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This FDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The FDD follows the design with regard to the description of the facility. The description provided in this FDD reflects the current results of the design process.

J.F. Beesley

2005-04-21

389

Fuel Handling Facility Description Document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the facility description document (FDD) is to establish the requirements and their bases that drive the design of the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) to allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. It identifies the requirements and describes the facility design as it currently exists, with emphasis on design attributes provided to meet the requirements. This FDD was developed as an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. It trails the design with regard to the description of the facility. This description is a reflection of the results of the design process to date

390

Safeguards information handling and treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper aims at the handling and treatment of nuclear safeguard relevant information by using the linguistic assessment approach. This is based on a hierarchical analysis of States' nuclear activities in a multi-layer structure of the evaluation model. Special emphasis is given to the synthesis and evaluation analysis of the Physical Model indicator information. Accordingly, we focus on the aggregation process with consideration of the different kinds of qualitative criteria. Especially we consider the symbolic approach that acts by the direct computation on linguistic values instead of the approximation approach by using the associated membership function. In this framework, several kinds of ordinal linguistic aggregation operators are presented and analyzed. The application of these linguistic aggregation operators to the combination of the Physical Model indicator information is provided. The study is undertaken in the framework of the Belgian Support Programme to the IAEA (task BEL C 01323). (author)

391

CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this facility description document (FDD) is to establish requirements and associated bases that drive the design of the Canister Handling Facility (CHF), which will allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This FDD identifies the requirements and describes the facility design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This FDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This FDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The FDD follows the design with regard to the description of the facility. The description provided in this FDD reflects the current results of the design process

392

Remotely handled vacuum flange connections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the design of ZEPHYR, a fusion experiment for ignition and burn control, remotely handled high vacuum flanges were developed. The main features are: The tightening forces are transmitted via conically shaped flanges by a clamping chain, specially formed for small friction; the clamping forces are produced by one or two screws to minimize the positioning of remotely controlled manipulators; The arrangement is such that the flanges become completely free for axial removal, combined with exact axial alignment; the sealing areas are deepened so that scratching is avoided; the flange connection is suitable for elastomer and aluminium seals in a temperature range of 80 to 430 K. Up to now flanges with inner diameter of 100 to 650 mm have been successfully tested, larger flanges are under preparation. (orig.)

393

Handling and transport problems (1960)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I. The handling and transport of radioactive wastes involves the danger of irradiation and contamination. It is indispensable: - to lay down a special set of rules governing the removal and transport of wastes within centres or from one centre to another; - to give charge of this transportation to a group containing teams of specialists. The organisation, equipment and output of these teams is being examined. II. Certain materials are particularly dangerous to transport, and for these special vehicles and fixed installations are necessary. This is the case especially for the evacuation of very active liquids. A transport vehicle is described, consisting of a trailer tractor and a recipient holding 500 litres of liquid of which the activity can reach 1000 C/l; the decanting operation, the route to be followed by the vehicle, and the precautions taken are also described. (author)

394

Madkundskab, madkendskab – food literacy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

ti. 25. feb. 2014 kl. 09:36 5412 Madkundskab, madkendskab – food literacy Blog Madkundskab, madkendskab og food literacy er nye madbegreber som kommer til at få betydning for undervisning på madområdet. Jeg skrev for knap to år siden en kommentar om maddannelse på dette site og sidste år et om nye madbegreber. Jeg vil kort følge op med et fokus i denne kommentar med yderligere perspektiver på begreberne madkundskab, madkendskab og ’food literacy’, da de i den grad er blevet sat på spisesedlen. Jeg vil begynde med sidstnævnte begreb, som både kan oversættes til kundskab og dannelse således sat som et mål for undervisning på madområdet. I de sidste 10 år har begrebet literacy vundet indpas på områder som sundhed og sundhedsrelaterede områder, men også i forbindelse med en række andre fagområder som fx eco-literacy, it-literacy. Oprindelig betyder verbet at være litterat “at være bekendt med litteratur, eller mere generelt at være veluddannet, lærd” (UNESCO, 2006, p. 148). Det uddybes i nævnte rapport af 4 forståelser af literacy: 1) som et autonomt sæt færdigheder, 2) som anvendt, praktiseret og situeret, 3) som en læreproces, 4) som tekst (UNESCO, 2006, p. 148). I rapporten ” Toward Universal Learning”, er literacy et af 7 domæner for en global læringsstruktur og det bliver sat I nær relation til kommunikation (UNESCO 2013). Paulo Freire har i en række arbejder diskuteret literacy og forstået det som ‘reading the word and the world’, og han ser literacy som et kritisk begreb og som en forudsætning for udvikling af selvet og for social empowerment (Freire & Macedo, 1987), da literacy indebærer en ‘dialektisk relation mellem mennesker og verden ‘ (Giroux in Freire & Macedo, 1987 p. 7). At læse ordet – her oversætter jeg ordet til maden, dvs. at vi kan læse maden, fødevarerne, måltidet forstået som genstandsfelt – og læse verden, betyder for mig at se, at forstå os selv som mennesker i verden i en relation til mad og andre mennesker. Forståelsen af food literacy har jeg undersøgt i et review af en række beskrevne arbjder med food literacy som tema, der var 16 i alt (Benn, in print). Her vil blot trække et af dem frem (på bloggen i 2013 beskrev jeg et par andre). Det er et par australske forskere Vidgen and Gallegos, der har udført et kvalitativt studie af begrebet blandt madprofessionelle indenfor undervisning, vejledning og kokkeprofessionen. På baggrund af dette konkluderer de, at ”food literacy” er en ny opdukket term, der kollektivt bruges til at beskrive en række kundskaber og færdigheder, der er nødvendige for at kunne forholde sig til mad’ (Vidgen & Galegos, 2008 s.2). Baseret på studiet udarbejdede de en begrebsmodel af relationen mellem food literacy, mad og ernæring. Food literacy har, hævder de, følgende komponenter: tilgængelighed, planlægning, udvælgelse og behandling, kundskab om hvor fødevarerne kommer fra, om ernæring, tilberedning, spisning og sprog om maden (ibid. p. iv and p. 26). De laver et direkte link fra food literacy til ernæring I bred forstand, som igen har følgende komponenter: 1) universalt velvære, 2) primær forebyggelse (iflg. officielle kostråd), og 3) sekundær forebyggelse og manøvrering (kompetencer) i forhold til individuelle behov. Respondenterne blev præsenteret for 3 definitioner af food literacy, og knap halvdelen gik ind for følgende definition, food literacy er ‘den relative evne til basalt at forstå madens natur, hvor vigtig mad er for dig, og at du bliver i stand til at få informationer om fødevarer og mad, tilberede den, analysere den og handle i forhold til den’ (ibid. s. 18). Det vil jeg samle op på i den kompetencemodel, jeg igennem nogle år har arbejdet med (se Benn, 2013 s. 250), her udvidet med et element mere nemlig at sanse, derudover er komponenterne: At vide, at kunne, at ville og at være elementer, der må tilgodeses for at opnå madkundskab eller food literacy. Alle elementerne må tilrettes den aktuelle målgruppe og det formål, der ligger for at arbejd

Benn, Jette

395

Consumer contribution to food contamination in Brazil: modelling the food safety risk in the home / A contribuição do consumidor para a contaminação dos alimentos no Brasil: modelagem do risco à segurança dos alimentos em residências  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As doenças transmitidas por alimentos (DTAs) estão entre os problemas de saúde pública mais comuns. As DTAs matam cerca de 2,2 milhões de pessoas anualmente e custam centenas de bilhões de dólares para os governos, as empresas, as famílias e os consumidores (WHO, 2007). No Brasil, a ocorrência de DT [...] As em residências representa 55% dos surtos notificados (BRASIL, 2012). Diversos estudos têm investigado os aspectos do comportamento do consumidor ao manipular os alimentos, mapeando práticas em casa, mas permanece o desafio de se obter uma imagem mais precisa da contribuição do consumidor para a contaminação dos alimentos (REDMOND e GRIFFITH, 2003). Este estudo teve como objetivo estimar o risco de contaminação dos alimentos em residências. Um questionário contendo 140 perguntas sobre o conhecimento de boas práticas em segurança dos alimentos, práticas de manipulação, higiene pessoal e cuidados básicos de saúde, abrangendo as etapas enquanto os alimentos estão sob o controle do consumidor, foi desenvolvido e usado para reunir dados para análise. Pontuações apropriadas foram atribuídas às questões (consequências para a segurança dos alimentos) e às respostas (probabilidade de contaminação dos alimentos). Algoritmo para estimativa do risco e escala de classificação foram utilizados para avaliar os resultados. De agosto de 2011 a março de 2012, o questionário foi aplicado em 2.775 residências de 19 capitais, de todas as regiões do país. O estudo identificou práticas de risco com potencial para causar intoxicação alimentar no ambiente doméstico, nas seguintes etapas da manipulação: transporte de alimentos, preparação e cozimento de alimentos, e manuseio das sobras, com a higiene pessoal, a idade, a escolaridade, a renda familiar e os cuidados básicos de saúde, representando os fatores que estão mais relacionados com as práticas arriscadas dos consumidores, o que poderia orientar campanhas educativas sobre segurança dos alimentos para a população brasileira. Abstract in english Foodborne diseases are among the most widespread public health issues, killing about 2.2 million people annually, and costing hundreds of billions of US dollars for governments, companies, families and consumers (WHO, 2007). In Brazil, foodborne diseases acquired in the home account for 55% of notif [...] ied outbreaks (BRASIL, 2012). Several studies have investigated aspects of consumer behaviour concerning food poisoning, mapping practices in the home, but it remains a challenge to obtain a full picture of the consumer contribution to food contamination (REDMOND and GRIFFITH, 2003). This study aimed to assess the risks of food contamination in the home. A questionnaire containing 140 questions concerning food safety knowledge, handling practices, personal hygiene and basic health care, covering the stages when the food is under the control of the consumer, was developed and used to gather data for analysis. Appropriate scores were attributed to the questions (consequences to food safety) and answers (likelihood of food contamination). A risk estimate algorithm and an appropriate risk ranking scale were used to assess the results. From August 2011 to March 2012, survey questionnaires were collected from 2,775 consumers in Brazil across 19 out of 27 state capitals. The study found risky practices with the potential to lead to food poisoning occurrences in the domestic environment in the following handling steps: food transportation, food preparation, cooking and the handling of leftovers. The personal hygiene, age, formal education, family income and basic health care habits represented the factors most related to the risky practices of consumers, which could orientate food safety educational campaigns for the Brazilian population.

Sergio Paulo Olinto da, Motta; Steve, Flint; Paul, Perry; Alasdair, Noble.

2014-06-01

396

Food allergy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnostic tests, such as skin prick testing, serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE testing and, if indicated, oral food challenges. Once the diagnosis of food allergy is confirmed, strict elimination of the offending food allergen from the diet is generally necessary. For patients with significant systemic symptoms, the treatment of choice is epinephrine administered by intramuscular injection into the lateral thigh. Although most children “outgrow” allergies to milk, egg, soy and wheat, allergies to peanut, tree nuts, fish and shellfish are often lifelong. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with food allergy.

Waserman Susan

2011-11-01

397

Food Regulation in Biblical Law  

OpenAIRE

Everyone needs to eat, yet most societies and many world religions limit the available food supply by practicing some form of dietary restriction. However, biblical law presents a special case because "few [societies] systematically define all animals as permitted or forbidden and invoke divine authority for the instructions." For at least two thousand years, people have wondered why such a complex and comprehensive system of food regulation as is found in biblical law would fail to offer any...

Wilkenfeld, Wendy A.

1998-01-01

398

Space Food  

Science.gov (United States)

In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

1994-01-01

399

Development of commercial robots for radwaste handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cost and dose burden associated with low level radwaste handling activities is a matter of increasing concern to the commercial nuclear power industry. This concern is evidenced by the fact that many utilities have begun to revaluate waste generation, handling, and disposal activities at their plants in an effort to improve their overall radwaste handling operations. This paper reports on the project Robots for Radwaste Handling, to identify the potential of robots to improve radwaste handling operations. The project has focussed on the potential of remote or automated technology to improve well defined, recognizable radwaste operations. The project focussed on repetitive, low skill level radwaste handling and decontamination tasks which involve significant radiation exposure

400

Food preservation by irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As shortages of food and energy still continue to constitute the major threats to the well-being of the human race, all actions aiming at overcoming these problems must be assigned vital importance. Of the two complementary ways of solving the food problem (i.e., increasing the production of food and decreasing the spoilage of food) a novel method designed to contribute to the latter purpose has been discussed at this symposium hosted by The Netherlands and held under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization. Progress made since the last symposium of this kind (Bombay, India, 1972) was reviewed from the technological, economic and wholesomeness points of view by participants from 39 countries (60% of the latter were of the developing world). From the reports presented on the use of radiations to control physiological changes in plants, feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions, garlic, as well as of some tropical and subtropical fruits (mangoes, papayas, litchis and avocado) was confirmed. For potatoes, onions and mangoes, optimal conditions of treatment and storage were established on a larger scale, combined with sizeable consumer trials. Combinations of ionizing radiation with chemicals (salycilic acid, for potatoes), and physical agents (ultraviolet rays, for papayas) have been reported to be successful against the incidence of rot. A considera against the incidence of rot. A considerable number of papers dealt with the control of microbiological spoilage of foods. Work since 1972 has shown that radurization of fruits and vegetables (bananas, mangoes, dried dates, endive, chickory, onions, soup-greens), meat, poultry, marine products (mackerel, cod and plaice fillets, shrimps), decontamination of food ingredients and food technology aids (enzyme preparations, proteins, starch, spices), radappertization of meat and animal feedstuffs as well as combination treatments with salt, heat and ultraviolet radiation may become practically feasible. Studies of mathematical models for microbial kill by radiation and of the influence of environmental factors on radiation sensitivity of spoilage micro-organisms were presented. The largest number of papers has dealt with rather sophisticated studies on the minor chemical changes occurring in various foods and food components treated with ionizing radiations

401

ATA diagnostic data handling system: an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The functions to be performed by the ATA diagnostic data handling system are discussed. The capabilities of the present data acquisition system (System 0) are presented. The goals for the next generation acquisition system (System 1), currently under design, are discussed. Facilities on the Octopus system for data handling are reviewed. Finally, we discuss what has been learned about diagnostics and computer based data handling during the past year

402

Enclosure for handling high activity materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With this purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. In this report a description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (Author)

403

Enterobacteriaceae associated with meats and meat handling.  

OpenAIRE

The source of Enterobacteriaceae on meats was shown to be associated with the meat-handling work surfaces in two packing plants studies. A total of 2,343 Enterobacteriaceae were isolated and identified from meat samples and work surfaces at the packing plants and at the retail facilities. Escherichia coli biotype I and Serratia liquefaciens were detected at all stages of meat handling, indicating that they may be present in meats throughout the meat-handling system. Enterobacter agglomerans a...

Stiles, M. E.; Ng, L. K.

1981-01-01

404

Scheduling coal handling processes using metaheuristics  

OpenAIRE

The operational scheduling at coal handling facilities is of the utmost importance to ensure that the coal consuming processes are supplied with a constant feed of good quality coal. Although the Sasol Coal Handling Facility (CHF) were not designed to perform coal blending during the coal handling process, CHF has to blend the different sources to ensure that the quality of the feed supplied is of a stable nature. As a result, the operation of the plant has become an extr...

Conradie, David Gideon

2008-01-01

405

Safe Re-use Practices in Wastewater-Irrigated Urban Vegetable Farming in Ghana  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Irrigation using untreated wastewater poses health risks to farmers and consumers of crop products, especially vegetables. With hardly any wastewater treatment in Ghana, a multiple-barrier approach was adopted and safe re-use practices were developed through action research involving a number of stakeholders at different levels along the food chain. This paper presents an overview of safe re-use practices including farm-based water treatment methods, water application techniques, post-harvest handling practices, and washing methods. The overview is based on a comprehensive analysis of the literature and our own specific studies, which used data from a broad range of research methods and approaches. Identifying, testing, and assessment of safe practices were done with the active participation of key actors using observations, extensive microbiological laboratory assessments, and field-based measurements. The results of our work and the work of others show that the practices developed had a great potential to reduce health risks, especially when used to complement each other at different levels of the food chain. Future challenges are the development of a comprehensive framework that best combines tested risk-reduction strategies for wide application by national stakeholders as well as their potential implementation into legally enforceable national standards

Keraita, Bernard; Abaidoo, R.C

2012-01-01

406

Food irradiation in the UK and the European Directive  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food irradiation in the UK has been authorised since the early 1990s. In principle it is possible to irradiate a wide range of foods for a variety of purposes. In practice food irradiation is virtually non-existent. The structure of food retailing in the UK, a continual stream of food safety scares and a developing public 'crisis of confidence' in the food producer/supply chain have combined to make the future for food irradiation look bleak. The new European Directive on Food Irradiation is unlikely to alter this outlook. (author)

407

Arrangement in a pipe handling system; Roerhaandteringssystem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention relates to an arrangement in a pipe handling system, especially for handling pipes in connection with a derrick. The arrangement comprises a tower and two preferably individually controlled operating arms. The pipe handling system operates favourably in connection with a finger board in which all fingers are pointing towards the centre of the pipe handling system and especially towards a disc-shaped locking unit mounted on the top of the tower, and in connection with a side-step retraction system designed for use with a top drive drilling system. 11 figs.

McGill, J.; Eilertsen, B.A.

1997-04-09

408

Food additives  

Science.gov (United States)

... gums, and propylene glycol in food stabilizers and emulsifiers Many different dyes and coloring substances Monosodium glutamate (MSG) Nitrates and nitrites in hot dogs and other processed meat products Sulfites in beer, wine, and packaged vegetables ...

409

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a growing tendency worldwide to apply ionizing radiation for food preservation, or for delaying growth or ripening processes. However, research into the effects of such irradiation with ionizing radiation is lagging behind, leaving the knowledge about effects and possible hazards incomplete. The authors very carefully have analysed the available research results and present a detailed account of the current scientific knowledge and assessments. Their conclusion is: irradiated food is to be considered noxious unless its wholesomeness has been unambiguously proven. Consumers so far had not much chance to raise their voice in the debate about the wholesomeness of food irradiation, or have not been heard, the authors say. They call for establishing a European and a worldwide information network to bring together opponents to and information speaking against food irradiation, in order to create a counterweight to the market strategies of the pro-irradiation industry, and to launch initiatives on the political level. (orig./HP)

410

Food processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the processes involved in food preparation for consumption and technological processing that could be used to reduce contamination of foodstuffs. The food processing transfer parameters - food processing retention factor, processing efficiency and the food processing factor - are defined and their relationships discussed. Data are presented for vegetables, fruit, cereals, dairy products, meat (mammals, birds and fish-edible fraction), fungi, seafoods and drinks. Processing procedures considered includes: simple washing and boiling for fruit, vegetables and mushrooms, boiling and milling for cereals, cooking and curing for meats, butter and cheese productions for dairy products and washing and cooking for seafoods. Storage times for foodstuffs have also been considered. A wide range of chemical elements are considered, with the majority of data presented caesium, strontium and iodine, stable element databases have been reviewed and relevant data used to extend the data set. A discussion of application of the data is presented with consideration of areas where cautions is needed. (author)

411

Food poisoning  

Science.gov (United States)

... Toxins in spoiled or tainted fish or shellfish Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella Shigella Infants and elderly people are at the greatest risk for food poisoning. You are also at higher risk if: ...

412

Food Tourism  

SCPinfonet

drink and finding out more about it. • Visitors ... most recent holiday or day out in \\England.* .... Chinese and Korean will be added to .... FOOD AND DRINK HAS A \\MAJOR ROLE TO PLAY IN ATTRACTING TOURISTS, BOTH FROM INSIDE AND.

413

78 FR 9529 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Childhood Obesity: Health...Prevention of Obesity in Children...foods and current State and...2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans...community. The practice of food...the Dietary Guidelines. It is also...note that current practice in...

2013-02-08

414

Hot Laboratories and Remote Handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The European Working Group on ' Hot Laboratories and Remote Handling' is firmly established as the major contact forum for the nuclear R and D facilities at the European scale. The yearly plenary meetings intend to: - Exchange experience on analytical methods, their implementation in hot cells, the methodologies used and their application in nuclear research; - Share experience on common infrastructure exploitation matters such as remote handling techniques, safety features, QA-certification, waste handling; - Promote normalization and co-operation, e.g., by looking at mutual complementarities; - Prospect present and future demands from the nuclear industry and to draw strategic conclusions regarding further needs. The 41. plenary meeting was held in CEA Saclay from September 22 to 24, 2003 in the premises and with the technical support of the INSTN (National Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology). The Nuclear Energy Division of CEA sponsored it. The Saclay meeting was divided in three topical oral sessions covering: - Post irradiation examination: new analysis methods and methodologies, small specimen technology, programmes and results; - Hot laboratory infrastructure: decommissioning, refurbishment, waste, safety, nuclear transports; - Prospective research on materials for future applications: innovative fuels (Generation IV, HTR, transmutation, ADS), spallation source materials, and candidate materials for fusion reactor. A poster session was opened to transctor. A poster session was opened to transport companies and laboratory suppliers. The meeting addressed in three sessions the following items: Session 1 - Post Irradiation Examinations. Out of 12 papers (including 1 poster) 7 dealt with surface and solid state micro analysis, another one with an equally complex wet chemical instrumental analytical technique, while the other four papers (including the poster) presented new concepts for digital x-ray image analysis; Session 2 - Hot laboratory infrastructure (including waste theme) which was divided in two parts: - First, a mutual share of real examples about the 'life' in hot laboratories: waste management, decommissioning and release, safety; - Second, a presentation of tools or facilities dealing with PIE or defueling. Special radwaste management was presented by: - ISPRA, for heavy water; - IFE Kjeller, for old stored steel waste; - FZ Juelich presented an example of decommissioning and re-opening of hot laboratories; - IFE Kjeller presented a synthesis of two questionnaires sent to European Hot Laboratories on 'the fire preparedness measures in buildings with hot laboratories'; - The creep test device settled in K6 LECI Hot Cells in CEA at the Saclay site was also described; - ITU Karlsruhe/FZ Juelich presented experimental details and results from a study on a Vicker hardness test; - CEA/Valrho presented the two newest facilities of Atalante; Session 3 - Prospective Research on Materials for Future Applications comprised four presentations concerning the development of future gas cooled reactors and the materials research for nuclear fusion plants, namely: - E.H. Toscano (European Commission, ITU-Karlsruhe,Germany) who described a new facility to measure the fission product inventory; - V. Basini (CEA Cadarache, France) who presented results of HTR fuel development and innovative elaboration processes of fuel particles; - M. Roedig (FZJ, Juelich, Germany) reported on post irradiation experiments on plasma facing materials and miniaturized components for the next step fusion device ITER; - J. P. Coad (EFDA-JET, Abingdon, U.K.) who gave an overview on the tritium related technology programs at JET

415

Cooperation and competence in global food chains : perspectives on food quality and safety  

OpenAIRE

Supermarket chains, retailers and wholesalers have made food safety and food quality an integral element of their business strategies. What does this mean for producers in the South, who have to comply with international standards for good agricultural practices as well as with strict food safety requirements? This book examines a range of business strategies and modes of governance in real-life business problems in the coffee commodity markets and the fresh food category in the retail indust...

Vellema, S.; Boselie, D. M.

2003-01-01

416

Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

417

Food Engineering within Sciences of Food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to clarify the identity of food engineering in sciences of food. A short historical description of the evolution of the branch in the Anglo Saxon and the Continental educational systems is given. Furthermore, the distinction of basic definitions such as food science, food science and technology, food technology, and food engineering is made. Finally, the objectives of food engineering within the branch of sciences of food are described.