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1

Application of the WHO Keys of Safer Food to Improve Food Handling Practices of Food Vendors in a Poor Resource Community in Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data was collected from food vendors in a poor resource community in Ghana, which showed that the vendors constituted an important source of oro-faecal transmission. Following this, the WHO five keys of safer food were utilized in an evidence based training programme for the vendors to improve their food handling practices. Impact assessment of the food safety training showed that 67.6% of the vendors had acquired some knowledge from the workshop and were putting it into practice. Lack of food safety equipment was a major hinderance to behavioral change among the vendors as far food handling practices are concerned.

Eric S. Donkor; Boniface B. Kayang; Jonathan Quaye; Moses L. Akyeh

2009-01-01

2

Safe Food Handling: Knowledge, Perceptions, and Self-Reported Practices of Turkish Consumers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines Turkish consumers’ perceptions and knowledge of safe food handling practices. Theirattitudes, opinions, and self-reported practices in the purchase, transportation, storage, preparation, andconsumption of food were studied. Data was collected from a total of 440 consumers living in Istanbul, Turkeythrough the use of a self-administered, structured, and undisguised questionnaire. A combination of stratified andsystematic random sampling was used based on the incidence of having or not having experienced food-relatedillness within the past year. Significant differences were found to exist in the perceptions, opinions, knowledge,and self-reported practices of those who had experienced food-borne illness in the past twelve months versusthose who had not. Significant differences were also found with respect to various demographic variables,especially, with respect to age and education levels. Implications of the study for various parties, namely,consumers, producers, retailers, and the state together with further research are also presented in the paper. Theseimplications may be applicable in different countries as well, since food-borne diseases experienced due to badfood-handling practices still present a major challenge to peoples’ health, in both the developed and thedeveloping world.

Gul F. Aygen

2012-01-01

3

Safe Food Handling  

Science.gov (United States)

... Forms FSIS Forms Administrative Forms Standard Forms FSIS Food Safety and Inspection Service United States Department of ... Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Safe Food Handling Fact Sheets At-Risk & Underserved Populations Cooking ...

4

Device for handling food  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The apparatus comprises a rotating device (104) arranged partially in an interior of the apparatus with a rotation-symmetrical atomization element for mechanically atomizing liquids. The atomization element is formed, so that the liquid fed to the atomization element is mechanically atomized based on the rotation of the atomization element, where the desired atomization is adjustable by the selection of adequate rotational speed of the atomization element. The rotating device is movably mounted inside the apparatus. The atomization element is an atomizer plate (106). The apparatus comprises a rotating device (104) arranged partially in an interior of the apparatus with a rotation-symmetrical atomization element for mechanically atomizing liquids. The atomization element is formed, so that the liquid fed to the atomization element is mechanically atomized based on the rotation of the atomization element, where the desired atomization is adjustable by the selection of adequate rotational speed of the atomization element. The rotating device is movably mounted inside the apparatus. The atomization element is an atomizer plate (106) with a plane surface or a bell-shaped atomizer plate. The atomization element is directly driven by an electric motor. The apparatus includes a supply device for supplying the atomization element with liquid at front side of the atomization element. The atomization element has an opening in the area of the rotation axis for a liquid feedthrough to feed the liquid to the atomization element from its rear side. The rotating device has a separate rotary feedthrough with a first coupling area for connecting the liquid feedthrough and a second coupling area for connecting an external water line. The rotary feedthrough has a gap sealing, stages in the form of a radial diameter difference opposite to the liquid feedthrough, and Archimedes screw. The rotating device has a drivable element such as a pulley (112) and/or a driving shaft arranged in the area of the rotation axis, and is positively, non-positively and/or materially connected with a housing wall of the apparatus for treating the food products. The atomization element is arranged at the inner side of a fermentation cabinet nearer to the rear wall, so that the rotation axis of the atomization element horizontally runs. An independent claim is included for a method for operating an apparatus for treating food products.

HEID ANDREAS

5

Reconceptualising manual handling: Foundations for practice change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Healthcare involves complex manual handling tasks that are unique to the industry. Despite research intended to improve carer safety, substantial rates of manual handling injuries persist within the nursing profession. This paper reviews manual handling issues arising from patient care activities and the strategies deployed in healthcare facilities to reduce musculoskeletal injuries. Discussion: Conventional programs aimed at reducing nurses’ work-related manual handling injuries include assumptions regarding evidence, transferability to the clinical setting and efficacy. Additionally, intervention success is commonly measured by administrative data comprising incident reports and injury rates. However official statistics are contrasted with self-reported injury rates in several studies. The complex nature of the injury mechanism and the obscured visibility of musculoskeletal disorders hinder detection of manual handling injuries and attribution of causality. In turn, this hampers the development of successful injury prevention strategies. Training programs reliant on specific techniques and assistive devices have had limited success. This paper questions the appropriateness of training and compliance strategies to manage manual handling risks in nursing practice and expounds a re-examination of the premises upon which manual handling programs are based. Conclusion: It is argued that the current conceptualisation of manual handling has limited the development of effective injury prevention programs for healthcare. It emphasises the enforcement of guidelines rather than a critique of other influences on practice. Approaching manual handling from a different perspective, inclusive of nurses’ knowledge, is a way forward into the complex environment of manual handling in healthcare contexts. Voicing and validation of nurses’ manual handling knowledge offers critical knowledge necessary to improve manual handling safety for nurses by foregrounding contextual influences that have previously been undervalued.

Kate Kay; Nel Glass; Alicia Evans

2012-01-01

6

Comparison of food safety cognitions and self-reported food-handling behaviors with observed food safety behaviors of young adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Developing tailored and effective food safety education for young adults is critical given their future roles as caregivers likely to be preparing food for populations who may be at greater risk for foodborne disease (FBD). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between food safety self-reported food-handling behaviors and cognitions of young adults to observed food-handling behaviors. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants were 153 young adults (mean age 20.74+/-1.30 s.d.) attending a major American university. Each prepared a meal under observation in a controlled laboratory setting, permitted researchers to observe their home kitchen and completed an online survey assessing food safety knowledge, behavior and psychosocial measures. Descriptive statistics were generated for participants' self-reported food-handling behaviors, psychosocial characteristics, knowledge, food preparation observations and home kitchen observations. Determinants of compliance with safe food-handling procedures while preparing a meal and home food storage/rotation practices were identified using backward regression models. RESULTS: Participants engaged in less than half of the recommended safe food-handling practices evaluated and correctly answered only two-thirds of the food safety knowledge items. They reported positive food safety beliefs and high food safety self-efficacy. Self-reported compliance with cross-contamination prevention, disinfection procedures and knowledge of groups at greatest risk for FBD were the best measures for predicting compliance with established safe food-handling practices. CONCLUSION: Food safety education directed toward young adults should focus on increasing awareness of FBD and knowledge of proper cross-contamination prevention procedures to help promote better compliance with actual safe food handling.

Abbot JM; Byrd-Bredbenner C; Schaffner D; Bruhn CM; Blalock L

2009-04-01

7

Hazards of chemotherapy. Implementing safe handling practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decade, concerns about the hazards of handling cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents increased as various studies were published. Analysis of these data suggest possible carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic risk for health professionals (predominantly nurses and pharmacists) that handle these drugs. However, the research is inconclusive. The nature of the problem, along with methodologic issues, may make it difficult or impossible to provide definitive data on the type and degree of risk for those exposed to chemotherapeutic agents. Guidelines and recommendations have been published by various groups including the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, the Oncology Nursing Society, and others. In essence, they recommend that only health professionals with specialized training should prepare or administer chemotherapeutic agents. In addition, equipment, unused drugs, and human excreta should be treated as chemically hazardous waste and disposed of according to the individual facility's policies and procedures. These guidelines should provide protection for those involved in preparing chemotherapy for administration, regardless of where this is done. Studies have shown differences in the degree and type of procedures followed and between existing procedures and actual practice. Some of these differences are based on the site of care (e.g., hospital [also influenced by bed size], private practice, or home care). Issues involved in implementing reasonable approaches to lower the relative risk for health-care professionals that handle cytotoxic chemotherapy will be discussed. PMID:1638469

Mayer, D K

1992-08-15

8

Hazards of chemotherapy. Implementing safe handling practices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the last decade, concerns about the hazards of handling cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents increased as various studies were published. Analysis of these data suggest possible carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic risk for health professionals (predominantly nurses and pharmacists) that handle these drugs. However, the research is inconclusive. The nature of the problem, along with methodologic issues, may make it difficult or impossible to provide definitive data on the type and degree of risk for those exposed to chemotherapeutic agents. Guidelines and recommendations have been published by various groups including the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, the Oncology Nursing Society, and others. In essence, they recommend that only health professionals with specialized training should prepare or administer chemotherapeutic agents. In addition, equipment, unused drugs, and human excreta should be treated as chemically hazardous waste and disposed of according to the individual facility's policies and procedures. These guidelines should provide protection for those involved in preparing chemotherapy for administration, regardless of where this is done. Studies have shown differences in the degree and type of procedures followed and between existing procedures and actual practice. Some of these differences are based on the site of care (e.g., hospital [also influenced by bed size], private practice, or home care). Issues involved in implementing reasonable approaches to lower the relative risk for health-care professionals that handle cytotoxic chemotherapy will be discussed.

Mayer DK

1992-08-01

9

Problems of food handling and trade in ASEAN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand) with a population of some 280 million population is a major producer of several food commodities and also a large, and growing, market for many food items. The handling of food products in ASEAN is undertaken under many constraints, related mainly to small and traditional production structures with less than efficient distribution and marketing systems. Activities of the ASEAN Food Handling Project in promoting more efficient food handling methods and technologies in ASEAN are discussed in relation to the existing post harvest losses (50% in fish, 30% in grains and 20-40% in fruits and vegetables) and attempts to reduce these. Activities in this project include training courses and the establishment of laboratories as training and research centres pilot packing houses for fruit and vegetable handling, improvement of transportation systems for fish and livestock, and improvement of post harvest grain handling technologies. The extent of food trade in ASEAN is assessed and problems of food handling and trade are discussed, with special focus on problems of standardization of quality, and tariff and non-tariff barriers for external trade. (author)

1986-01-01

10

Safe Food Handling: What You Need to Know  

Science.gov (United States)

... This is especially common when handling raw meat, poultry, seafood and eggs. ... Poultry. Chicken & Turkey, Whole. 165 o F. Poultry Parts. 165 o F. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/buystoreservesafefood

11

Irradiated food: too hot to handle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discusses current arguments for and against the irradiation of food for human consumption. The technique, which involves bombarding batches of food with gamma rays, x rays or accelerated electrons, is claimed to halt spoilage, kill bacteria and thus extend the shelf-life of various foodstuffs. Irradiated foods are at present indistinguishable from non-irradiated food and this problem may not be solved before the government's bill legalizes the process. Opponents claim the technique may not be safe and that the food industry may use it to fool consumers into buying rotten foods. Proponents say that even though many foods, such as poultry, seafood, fruits, vegetables and spices may be treated, it is unlikely that more than a small proportion will be. They reject safety worries as alarmist exaggeration. (UK).

Coghlan, Andy

1990-02-17

12

Primer on tritium safe handling practices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Primer is designed for use by operations and maintenance personnel to improve their knowledge of tritium safe handling practices. It is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. It is presented in general terms for use throughout the DOE Complex. After reading it, one should be able to: describe methods of measuring airborne tritium concentration; list types of protective clothing effective against tritium uptake from surface and airborne contamination; name two methods of reducing the body dose after a tritium uptake; describe the most common method for determining amount of tritium uptake in the body; describe steps to take following an accidental release of airborne tritium; describe the damage to metals that results from absorption of tritium; explain how washing hands or showering in cold water helps reduce tritium uptake; and describe how tritium exchanges with normal hydrogen in water and hydrocarbons.

1994-12-01

13

Reconceptualising manual handling: Foundations for practice change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Healthcare involves complex manual handling tasks that are unique to the industry. Despite research intended to improve carer safety, substantial rates of manual handling injuries persist within the nursing profession. This paper reviews man...

Kate Kay; Nel Glass; Alicia Evans

14

Survey of tritiated oil sources and handling practices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tritium interactions with oil sources (primarily associated with pumps) in tritium-handling facilities can lead to the incorporation of tritium in the oil and the production of tritiated hydrocarbons. This results in a source of radiological hazard and the need for special handling considerations during maintenance, decontamination, decommissioning and waste packaging and storage. The results of a general survey of tritiated-oil sources and their associated characteristics, handling practices, analysis techniques and waste treatment/storage methods are summarized here. Information was obtained from various tritium-handling laboratories, fusion devices, and CANDU plants. 38 refs., 1 fig

1994-01-01

15

Comparison between self-reported and observed food handling behaviors among Latinas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study was conducted to compare and identify the magnitude of differences between self-reported and observed food safety behaviors among women preparing a chicken and salad dish at home. The observed food safety practices also were compared according to sociodemographic variables and prior food safety education. Sixty Puerto Rican women who were the main meal preparers for their households were recruited in Hartford, Conn. Three household visits were made to (i) deliver food ingredients to prepare the chicken and salad meal, (ii) conduct household observation, and (iii) conduct a self-reported survey. The difference between self-reported and observed behaviors varied across food handling and sanitation behaviors. There was a high level of inaccuracy for socially desirable behaviors such as hand washing; the vast majority of participants reported practicing these behaviors but they were not observed doing so. Cutting board washing also was considerably overreported, questioning the validity of these self-reported data for regression analyses. There was a significant association (P < 0.05) between proper thawing method and prior food safety education, use of cutting board and higher income, and washing tomatoes and having a positive attitude towards food safety. Results revealed that overreporting errors must be considered when analyzing and/or interpreting data derived from self-reported food safety consumer surveys and that food safety education and positive food safety attitudes are associated with recommended food safety behaviors.

Dharod JM; Pérez-Escamilla R; Paciello S; Bermúdez-Millán A; Venkitanarayanan K; Damio G

2007-08-01

16

High-risk food consumption and food safety practices in a Canadian community.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding consumers' high-risk food consumption patterns and food handling in the home is critical in reducing foodborne illness. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of unsafe food practices of individuals in a Canadian-based population, specifically, high-risk food consumption and home food safety practices. During November 2005 to March 2006, a sample of 2,332 randomly selected residents of the Waterloo Region (Ontario, Canada) participated in a telephone survey of food consumption and food safety. Questions covered consumption of high-risk foods, hand washing practices, safe food handling knowledge, source of food safety education, meat thawing and cooking practices, cross-contamination after raw food preparation, and refrigeration temperatures. Certain high-risk food behaviors were common among respondents and were associated with demographic characteristics. In general, unsafe practices increased with increasing total annual household income level. Males were more likely to report engaging in risky practices than were females. Specific high-risk behaviors of public health concern were reported by elderly individuals (e.g., consuming undercooked eggs), children (e.g., consuming chicken nuggets), and rural residents (e.g., drinking unpasteurized milk). Respondents appeared to know proper food safety practices, but did not put them into practice. Thus, educational programs emphasizing specific practices to improve food safety should be directed to targeted audiences, and they should stress the importance of consumer behavior in the safety of foods prepared at home. Further investigation of consumer perceptions is needed to design such programs to effectively increase the implementation of safe food practices by consumers.

Nesbitt A; Majowicz S; Finley R; Marshall B; Pollari F; Sargeant J; Ribble C; Wilson J; Sittler N

2009-12-01

17

High-risk food consumption and food safety practices in a Canadian community.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding consumers' high-risk food consumption patterns and food handling in the home is critical in reducing foodborne illness. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of unsafe food practices of individuals in a Canadian-based population, specifically, high-risk food consumption and home food safety practices. During November 2005 to March 2006, a sample of 2,332 randomly selected residents of the Waterloo Region (Ontario, Canada) participated in a telephone survey of food consumption and food safety. Questions covered consumption of high-risk foods, hand washing practices, safe food handling knowledge, source of food safety education, meat thawing and cooking practices, cross-contamination after raw food preparation, and refrigeration temperatures. Certain high-risk food behaviors were common among respondents and were associated with demographic characteristics. In general, unsafe practices increased with increasing total annual household income level. Males were more likely to report engaging in risky practices than were females. Specific high-risk behaviors of public health concern were reported by elderly individuals (e.g., consuming undercooked eggs), children (e.g., consuming chicken nuggets), and rural residents (e.g., drinking unpasteurized milk). Respondents appeared to know proper food safety practices, but did not put them into practice. Thus, educational programs emphasizing specific practices to improve food safety should be directed to targeted audiences, and they should stress the importance of consumer behavior in the safety of foods prepared at home. Further investigation of consumer perceptions is needed to design such programs to effectively increase the implementation of safe food practices by consumers. PMID:20003742

Nesbitt, Andrea; Majowicz, Shannon; Finley, Rita; Marshall, Barbara; Pollari, Frank; Sargeant, Jan; Ribble, Carl; Wilson, Jeff; Sittler, Nancy

2009-12-01

18

Safety aspects in preparation and handling of infant food.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Powdered infant formula (PIF) can become contaminated during production with harmful bacteria such as Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii). Inadequate conditions of preparation and handling of PIF can therefore exacerbate the risk of severe infection, especially in preterm infants. The WHO emphasized three main interventions for preparation and handling of PIF: (1) to dilute the powdered milk in water at a temperature of at least 70°C to inactivate Cronobacter spp.; (2) to consume milk right after each preparation, and (3) to store reconstituted milk at <5°C. The European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) and the French Food Safety Agency (Afssa) disagree with the heating process because of possible adverse effects on nutrients and the risk of severe burns. In home settings, PIF should be prepared fresh for each meal and be kept warm in bottle warmers or thermos bottles. In institutional settings, written guidelines for preparation and handling of PIF should be established. The use of sterile liquid formula is encouraged for healthy newborn infants in maternity wards; PIF should be prepared on a daily basis. Safe infant feeding involves the production of microbiologically cleaner infant formula by industry, and both education and support for the caregivers in preparing and handling the formula.

Turck D

2012-01-01

19

Comparison between self-reported and observed food handling behaviors among Latinas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was conducted to compare and identify the magnitude of differences between self-reported and observed food safety behaviors among women preparing a chicken and salad dish at home. The observed food safety practices also were compared according to sociodemographic variables and prior food safety education. Sixty Puerto Rican women who were the main meal preparers for their households were recruited in Hartford, Conn. Three household visits were made to (i) deliver food ingredients to prepare the chicken and salad meal, (ii) conduct household observation, and (iii) conduct a self-reported survey. The difference between self-reported and observed behaviors varied across food handling and sanitation behaviors. There was a high level of inaccuracy for socially desirable behaviors such as hand washing; the vast majority of participants reported practicing these behaviors but they were not observed doing so. Cutting board washing also was considerably overreported, questioning the validity of these self-reported data for regression analyses. There was a significant association (P consumer surveys and that food safety education and positive food safety attitudes are associated with recommended food safety behaviors. PMID:17803151

Dharod, Jigna Morarji; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Paciello, Stefania; Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar; Damio, Grace

2007-08-01

20

Control of food irradiation facilities and good irradiation practices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Expansion of irradiation facilities employing commercial scale processes is evident in several countries. The list compiled by the Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, Vienna (April 1988) showed that 34 counties have approved the use of irradiation process for more than 40 food commodities. In Asia and the Pacific Region, the main commercial application of irradiation process is still the sterilization of medical devices but applications to food processing are on the rise. To ensure the safety of irradiated foods, laws and regulations have to be promulgated to govern the facilities, the operations and the products. In most cases, there may be more than one governmental agency involved in regulatory control. The control activities include licensing/registration of a food irradiation premises as a food processing plant, registration of irradiated food in accordance with prescribed standards and regulating labelling practice as well as regularly conducting a comprehensive inspection of the facilities. The quality control programme must cover all aspects of treatment, handling, and distribution. It is emphasized that, as with all food technologies, effective quality control systems needs to be installed and adequately monitored at critical control points at the irradiation facility. Foods should be handled, stored, and transported according to GMP before, during, and after irradiation. Only foods meeting microbiological criteria and other quality standards should be accepted for irradiation. Besides, good irradiation practice (GIP) is also a fundamental principle of practice required specifically for food irradiation. With this recognition, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) has elaborated a set of eight codes of GIP. The quality control system would also include proper packaging suitable for the product. Additional use of a logo to identify irradiated food should be permitted and may even become recognized as a symbol of quality. (author).

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Debunking the manual handling myth: an investigation of manual handling knowledge and practices in the Australian private health sector.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nursing care involves complex patient handling tasks. Strategies to address associated manual handling issues commonly include training programmes, despite conflicting evidence regarding training efficacy for manual handling injury reduction. Resultant knowledge acquisition and skills transfer from training programmes are prerequisites for subsequent practice changes in the clinical setting. This paper draws upon the findings from a questionnaire completed by 100 nurses in an Australian private hospital in 2008. A substantial knowledge deficit was identified, despite previous training undertaken by participants. A striking finding was that although 82% (n = 82) of nurses surveyed believed they used safe manual handling practices, only 18% (n = 15) of these nurses correctly answered items assessing manual handling knowledge. The study suggests prudence in the assumption of skills and knowledge acquisition during manual handling training. It informs the development of future implementation strategies, and provides a contributory explanation for the limited application of recommended practices after training completion.

Kay K; Glass N

2011-06-01

22

Debunking the manual handling myth: an investigation of manual handling knowledge and practices in the Australian private health sector.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nursing care involves complex patient handling tasks. Strategies to address associated manual handling issues commonly include training programmes, despite conflicting evidence regarding training efficacy for manual handling injury reduction. Resultant knowledge acquisition and skills transfer from training programmes are prerequisites for subsequent practice changes in the clinical setting. This paper draws upon the findings from a questionnaire completed by 100 nurses in an Australian private hospital in 2008. A substantial knowledge deficit was identified, despite previous training undertaken by participants. A striking finding was that although 82% (n = 82) of nurses surveyed believed they used safe manual handling practices, only 18% (n = 15) of these nurses correctly answered items assessing manual handling knowledge. The study suggests prudence in the assumption of skills and knowledge acquisition during manual handling training. It informs the development of future implementation strategies, and provides a contributory explanation for the limited application of recommended practices after training completion. PMID:21605262

Kay, Kate; Glass, Nel

2011-06-01

23

Food Safety and Hyienic Practices of Street Food Vendors in Owerri, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper examines the food safety and hygienic practices of street food vendors in Owerri, Nigeria. It argues that although street foods play an important role in meeting the food demands of urban dwellers, there are several health hazards associated with them. The study found that women made up 66.67% of the vendors while males made up 33.33%. The average age group was 31-40 years. 23.81% of the vendors prepared food in unhygienic conditions. 42.86% did not use aprons; 47.62% handled food with bare hands and 52.38% wore no hair covering while 61.90% handled money while serving food. 19.05% wore jewelry while serving food and 28.57% blew air into polythene bag before use. 9.52% of the vendors stored food for serving openly in the stalls while 23.81% stored them in the wheelbarrows. 42.86% had leftovers for serving the next day with poor storage facilities. 47.62% of the vendors washed their utensils with dirty water which is recycled and used severally in 28.57% despite the fact that only 9.52% of them complained of water shortages. Thr paper recommends that there is need for health education of these vendors in order to ensure food safety for the consumers. Keywords: food safety; hygienic; street food; vendors; Owerri Nigeria

Comfort O. Chukuezi

2010-01-01

24

Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p

2011-06-23

25

Air-handling energy efficiency and design practices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With good design practices and life-cycle cost optimization, specific fan power for individual fans will be between 0.5 and 1kW/m{sup 3}/s. Data from nearly 1000 audited fans in Sweden show that the average measured SFPI weighted by drawn motor power is 1.5 kW/m{sup 3}/s and the situation appears to be similar in other countries. Contract forms used by Swedish builders, and consultants` design practices are analyzed here to search for an explanation to the low performance of installed systems. Identified as two major barriers to efficient system design are the lack of performance specifications when procuring systems and the incentive structure in the building sector. As a consequence, duct design methods, rules of thumb, and vendor recommendations are not leading to system optimization. The broad minima in life cycle costs over a range of air-handling unit sizes show that potential economic welfare losses from efficiency standards are likely to be smaller than the losses that result from today`s design practices. 73 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

Nilsson, Lars J.

1993-12-31

26

Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic-nozzle sprays.

Lyons, Shawn M; Harrison, Mark A [Food Science and Technology Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-2610 (United States); Law, S Edward, E-mail: edlaw@engr.uga.edu [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Applied Electrostatics Laboratory www.ael.engr.uga.edu, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-4435 (United States)

2011-06-23

27

School food practices of prospective teachers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Schoolteachers can affect students' eating habits in several ways: through nutrition knowledge, positive role modeling, and avoidance of unhealthy classroom food practices. In this study, the knowledge, attitudes, and eating behaviors of prospective teachers as determinants of intended classroom food practices and the school environment and its potential impact on classroom food practices were examined and explored. METHODS: One hundred and three students (response rate 79%) enrolled in the final year of a bachelor of education program with at least 22 weeks of practice teaching completed a self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at School teaching staff survey. Indexes related to classroom food practices, school food environment, personal health, fat intake, and nutrition knowledge were constructed and explored quantitatively using linear modeling techniques and contingency table analysis. RESULTS: The majority of respondents reported a high fat intake (65%) and had mid-to-low nutrition knowledge (72%). While most respondents (93%) believed that a healthy school food environment was important, two thirds reported unhealthy classroom food practices. Unhealthy classroom food practices were more likely to be used by those intending to teach at the secondary level, those who held a high personal health belief, and those who demonstrated less support for a healthy school environment. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that knowledge, attitudes, and food behaviors of prospective teachers may be barriers to promoting healthy food habits to their future students. Further, prospective teachers would benefit from policies and programs that support healthy classroom practices and from compulsory nutrition education in the teacher training curriculum.

Rossiter M; Glanville T; Taylor J; Blum I

2007-12-01

28

[Experimental design and data handling in food microbiology  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A discussion on the problems associated with designing experiments in Food Microbiology research is presented. After defining what is meant by Design of an Experiment, a series of questions are raised that, once answered, will help in properly designing the experiment. It is emphasized the chain research-design-model-analysis-design and the danger in blindly using well-known designs and canned programs.

Carbonell EA

1993-02-01

29

[Experimental design and data handling in food microbiology].  

Science.gov (United States)

A discussion on the problems associated with designing experiments in Food Microbiology research is presented. After defining what is meant by Design of an Experiment, a series of questions are raised that, once answered, will help in properly designing the experiment. It is emphasized the chain research-design-model-analysis-design and the danger in blindly using well-known designs and canned programs. PMID:8484911

Carbonell, E A

1993-02-01

30

Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good handling practices. Revision 7  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is continuing the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies in sharing with the nuclear industry their experience in the area of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) shipping containers and handling procedures. The USEC has reviewed Revision 6 or ORO-651 and is issuing this new edition to assure that the document includes the most recent information on UF6 handling procedures and reflects the policies of the USEC. This manual updates the material contained in earlier issues. It covers the essential aspects of UF6 handling, cylinder filling and emptying, general principles of weighing and sampling, shipping, and the use of protective overpacks. The physical and chemical properties of UF6 are also described. The procedures and systems described for safe handling of UF6 presented in this document have been developed and evaluated during more than 40 years of handling vast quantities of UF6. With proper consideration for its nuclear properties, UF6 may be safely handled in essentially the same manner as any other corrosive and/or toxic chemical.

1995-01-01

31

Critical control points of complementary food preparation and handling in eastern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate microbial contamination and critical control points (CCPs) in the preparation and handling of complementary foods in 120 households in Imo state, Nigeria. METHODS: The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach was used to investigate processes and procedures that contributed to microbial contamination, growth and survival, and to identify points where controls could be applied to prevent or eliminate these microbiological hazards or reduce them to acceptable levels. Food samples were collected and tested microbiologically at different stages of preparation and handling. FINDINGS: During cooking, all foods attained temperatures capable of destroying vegetative forms of food-borne pathogens. However, the risk of contamination increased by storage of food at ambient temperature, by using insufficiently high temperatures to reheat the food, and by adding contaminated ingredients such as dried ground crayfish and soybean powder at stages where no further heat treatment was applied. The purchasing of contaminated raw foodstuffs and ingredients, particularly raw akamu, from vendors in open markets is also a CCP. CONCLUSION: Although an unsafe environment poses many hazards for children?s food, the hygienic quality of prepared food can be assured if basic food safety principles are observed. When many factors contribute to food contamination, identification of CCPs becomes particularly important and can facilitate appropriate targeting of resources and prevention efforts.

Ehiri John E.; Azubuike Marcel C.; Ubbaonu Collins N.; Anyanwu Ebere C.; Ibe Kasimir M.; Ogbonna Michael O.

2001-01-01

32

Waste Handling Practices for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solid waste handling operations refers to all activities associated with the segregation, collection, packaging, assay, storage, and removal of solid radioactive waste from radiological facilities. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) is expected to generate the following types of radiological waste, as defined in WSRC Manual 1S, ''Waste Acceptance Criteria'': Low level waste; Mixed hazardous waste; TRU waste; and Mixed TRU waste. Historically, waste handling activities have been demanding proportionately larger amounts of labor, time, and space to effectively manage waste in accordance with increasing regulatory requirements. Since the PIP will be designed for an annual throughput of five metric tonnes plutonium, the facility waste handling operations can be expected to have at least twice the impact of such operations at existing facilities.

Severynse, T.F.

2000-08-04

33

Handling of maximum acceptable levels of radionuclide contamination of food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Since the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the Federal Government has kept the Land Governments informed and has passed on scientifically based recommendations relating to adequate behaviour and food consumption of the population. The Federal Government and the Commission for Radiation Protection (SSK) proceeded according to the so-called 'minimizing principle'. That's why the limiting value for iodine 131 in milk has been so determined as to make sure that an infant who drinks one litre of milk a day for one week, is exposed to not more than 3 rem. The limiting value for iodine 131 in fresh milk has been set at 500 Bq/l. This results in the above-mentioned radiation exposure of the maximum rate of 3 rem. The limiting value for green-leaf vegetables, e.g. spinach, is set at 250 Bq/kg. Thus, a further safety margin is provided for. (orig./HSCH)

1986-08-19

34

Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good handling practices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For many years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have shared with the nuclear industry their experience in the area of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) shipping containers and handling procedures. The information contained in this manual updates information contained in earlier issues. It covers the essential aspects of UF6 handling, cylinder filling and emptying, general principles of weighing and sampling, shipping, and the use of protective overpacks. The physical and chemical properties of UF6 are also described and tabulated. The nuclear industry is responsible for furnishing its own shipping cylinders and suitable protective overpacks. A substantial effort has been made by the industry to standardize UF6 cylinders, samples, and overpacks. The quality of feed materials is important to the safe and efficient operation of the enriching facilities, and the UF6 product purity from the enriching facilities is equally important to the fuel fabricator, the utilities, the operators of research reactors, and other users. The requirements have been the impetus for an aggressive effort by DOE and its contractors to develop accurate techniques for sampling and for chemical and isotopic analysis. A quality control program is maintained within the DOE enriching facilities to ensure that the proper degree of accuracy and precision are obtained for all the required measurements. The procedures and systems described for safe handling of UF6 presented in this document have been developed and evaluated in DOE facilities during more than 40 years of handling vast quantities of UF6. With proper consideration for its nuclear properties, UF6 may be safely handled in essentially the same manner as any other corrosive and/or toxic chemical.

1991-01-01

35

Prey size, prey nutrition, and food handling by shrews of different body sizes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some predictions relating metabolic constraints of foraging behavior and prey selection were tested by comparison of food handling and utilization in four sympatric shrew species: Sorex minutus (mean body mass=3.0 g), S. araneus (8.0 g), Neomys anomalus (10.0 g), and N. fodiens (14.4 g). Live fly la...

Rychlik, Leszek; Jancewicz, El?bieta

36

The impact of food manufacturing practices on food borne diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food-borne illness is a major international problem and an important cause of reduced economic growth. The contamination of the food supply with the pathogens and its persistence, growth, multiplication and/or toxin production has emerged as an important public health concern. Most of these problems could be controlled with the efforts on the part of the food handlers, whether in a processing plant, a restaurant, and others. In contrast with most chemical hazardous compounds, the concentration of food pathogens changes during the processing, storage, and meal preparation, making it difficult to estimate the number of the microorganisms or the concentration of their toxins at the time of ingestion by the consumer. This review shows main microorganisms related to the manipulation practices such as Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. and describes the factors regarding the food-borne illness highlighting the impact of good manipulation practices on the food safety and food quality.Doenças veiculadas por alimentos são um dos maiores problemas de Saúde Pública no mundo, sendo responsáveis por reduções no crescimento econômico global. A contaminação de alimentos com patógenos e sua persistência, crescimento, multiplicação e/ou produção de toxinas é de interesse da Saúde Pública. Estes problemas podem ser controlados com esforços e treinamento constante de manipuladores de alimentos. Em contraste com perigos químicos e físicos, a concentração de patógenos em alimentos é modificada durante etapas de processamento, acondicionamento e preparação, tornando difícil estimar e quantificar o número de microrganismos ou a concentração de suas toxinas no momento da ingestão do alimento. Esta revisão comenta sobre os principais microrganismos bacterianos relacionados à práticas de manipulação como Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp. ressaltando o consumo de alimentos em ruas, o desenvolvimento de doenças veiculadas por alimentos e enfatizando o impacto de boas práticas de manipulação na segurança e qualidade de alimentos.

Cristina Paiva de Sousa

2008-01-01

37

Empowering staff nurses to use research to change practice for safe patient handling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although evidence supports safe patient handling practices, nurses are not always involved in the process of evaluating and selecting lifting equipment. This study used a descriptive design to: (1) assess staff's perceived barriers and attitudes toward safe patient handling, (2) identify staff needs for equipment and education concerning safe patient handling, and (3) involve staff in the equipment selection process before implementing a safe patient handling program. Overall, staff on all units indicated that they wanted more equipment and education. Major barriers identified by staff were lack of: a "no lift" policy, adequate lifting equipment, and adequate space on patient care units. Staff had the opportunity to participate in a vendor fair and select equipment for trial. An appraisal was conducted with 2 vendors for trialing and evaluating the equipment. Nursing staff had the ability to participate in research and change practice for safe patient handling.

Krill C; Staffileno BA; Raven C

2012-05-01

38

Getting a handle on the general practice workforce in Ireland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: General practice makes a critical contribution to healthcare in Ireland. However, there is a weak understanding of the general practice workforce in Ireland. AIMS: The aim of this study is to estimate the number of general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses in Ireland. METHODS: A variety of data sources was used to corroborate counts of general practitioners and practice nurses. Capture-recapture methods were used to estimate the hidden population of GPs not identified by the databases included. RESULTS: There are 2,954 general practitioners in Ireland, equivalent to 64.4 per 100,000 population. There are 1,700 practice nurses nationally, equivalent to 37.1 per 100,000 persons. There is substantial regional variation in the number of general practitioners and practice nurses per 100,000. To some extent, deficits in one discipline may be counterbalanced by a surplus in the other. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of a centralised register, it is not possible to track the number of GPs or practice nurses working in Ireland at present. This is despite the fact that there are twice as many general practice visits per annum compared to hospital visits.

Teljeur C; Tyrrell E; Kelly A; O'Dowd T; Thomas S

2013-07-01

39

Alberta Recommended Practices : volume 4 : well testing and fluid handling; 2. ed.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The environmental, safety and health risks associated with well testing and fluid handling can be minimized by properly trained personnel using prudent procedures and properly designed equipment. Accordingly, the Well Testing and Fluid Handling Subcommittee and representatives of the Oilwell Drilling Contractors (CAODC), the Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB), the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), the Petroleum Services Association of Canada (PSAC) and Alberta Occupational Health and Safety, developed a set of recommendations to promote safety in well testing and fluid handling in Alberta. This volume provides recommendations in the areas of: (1) drill stem testing, (2) well testing, (3) other flowbacks, and (4) loading, unloading and transportation of fluids. The practices described herein should be considered in conjunction with other industry recommended practices, individual operator`s well testing and fluid handling practices and site specific consideration, and all existing ERCB regulations, as well as other ARPs. refs., tabs., figs.

NONE

1993-06-01

40

Food storage and disposal: consumer practices and knowledge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose - Consumer food handling behaviour is important in preventing food borne disease and this paper proposes examining consumer behaviour and knowledge concerning food storage and disposal. Design/methodology/approach - Interviews and observations were used to investigate the storage methods and...

Terpstra, P.M.J.; Steenbekkers, L.P.A.; Maertelaere, N.C.M., de; Nijhuis, S.

 
 
 
 
41

Evidence-Based Practices for Safe Patient Handling and Movement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Efforts to reduce injuries associated with patient handling are often based on tradition and personal experience rather than scientific evidence. The purpose of this article is to summarize current evidence for interventions designed to reduce caregiver injuries, a significant problem for decades. Despite strong evidence, published over three decades, the most commonly used strategies have strong evidence that demonstrate they are ineffective. There is a growing body of evidence to support newer interventions that are effective or show promise in reducing musculoskeletal pain and injuries in care providers. The authors have organized potential solutions into three established ergonomic solution types: engineering based, administrative, and behavioral. For each intervention, the level of evidence to support its use is provided.

Nelson, A., Baptiste, A

2004-01-01

42

Different ways to handle topography in practical geoid determination  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper two different methods of how to handle topography in geoid determination is investigated. First method employs the Residual Terrain Model (RTM) remove-restore technique and yields the quasigeoid, whereas the second method is the classical Helmert condensation method, yielding the geoid. Both methods were used with the Earth Gravity Model (1996) (EGM96) geopotential model as reference, and results are compared to precise Global Positioning System (GPS) levelling networks in Scandinavia, especially an accurate GPS data set from the very rugged Sognefjord region, where the topography was represented by either a detailed (100 m) or a coarse (1000 m) digital terrain model. The inclusion of bathymetry in the terrain model was also investigated. Even if two different methods were used, they produced almost identical results at the 5 cm level in the mountains, but small systematic differences exist. Results show the importance of comparing the right types of geoid (classical geoid or quasigeoid), since differences in residuals are significant.

Dahl, O.C.; Forsberg, René

1999-01-01

43

How to handle topography in practical geoid determination: three examples  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Three different methods of handling topography in geoid determination were investigated. The first two methods employ the residual terrain model (RTM) remove-restore technique, yielding the quasi-geoid, whereas the third method uses the classical Helmert condensation method, yielding the geoid. All three methods were used with the geopotential model Earth Gravity Model (1996) (EGM96) as a reference, and the results were compared to precise global positioning system (GPS) levelling networks in Scandinavia. An investigation of the Helmert method, focusing on the different types of indirect effects and their effects on the geoid, was also carried out. The three different methods used produce almost identical results at the 5-cm level, when compared to the GPS levelling networks. However, small systematic differences existed.

Omang, O.C.D.; Forsberg, René

2000-01-01

44

Practical application of food irradiation in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Turkey is the world's leading producer and exporter of dried fruits (dried figs, raisins,and dried apricots etc.) and nuts (hazelnuts, wall nuts, pistachios, peanuts etc.) all of which have to be fumigated by methyl bromide a few times prior to export. Last fumigation is obligatory before shipment according to current quarantine treatment. Methyl Bromide (MeBr) fumigation is the most commonly used insect quarantine treatment for dried fruits and nuts in Turkey to protect from potential infestations. In accordance with the Montreal Protocol, Turkey as an Article 5(1) country will take actions to regulate and take measures to phase-out MeBr use. So, Turkey has to total phase-out in 2015 but according to Turkey MeBr Phase-out Action Plan prepared and published by The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural affairs in 2001, using MeBr should be reduced for stored commodities by 50 % by 2002 and phased-out totally by 2004. Irradiation technology is ready as an alternative to MeBr fumigation under the Action Plan of Turkey. Intensive research studies on food irradiation in Turkey have started in early 1970's and have still been continued. After careful and intensive works of all related authorities and specialists for a long period and with the help of ICGFI, the food irradiation regulation of Turkey was published in Official Newspaper on November 6, 1999. Having the Food Irradiation Regulation has supported to initiate commercialization study in Turkey in Co-operation with IAEA (TUR 5022). Feasibility study of a commercial food irradiation facility for the potential application of food irradiation in Turkey was prepared by IAEA experts Dr.M.Ahmed and Ir. J.P.Lacroix and together with TUR 5022 Research Team in April 2001 in Izmir, Turkey. Gamma-Pak Irradiation Facility in Cerkeskoy-Tekirdag got the commercial food irradiation licence and registration certificate in Feb. 2002. Practical application of food irradiation is getting more attraction in Turkey in parallel with other countries.

2002-01-01

45

A hygienically designed force gripper for flexible handling of variable and easily damaged natural food products  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To overcome present difficulties in robotized food handling a force sensing robot gripper for flexible production is presented. A magnetic coupling is used to completely encapsulate the actuator mechanism, improving hygiene and enabling a future hose-down proof design. Product location, orientation and product type and width are extracted by a vision system to aid the gripping process. Knowing the product type the grip force is set individually for each product. In the paper data of achievable grip strength, positioning accuracy and gripping times for force controlled gripping are presented. Grip times of 410-530ms for grip forces of 50-700g respectively are realized. An initial microbiology study on a model system showed that an intermediate decontamination can be used to reduce the cross contamination of Listeria innocua (SIK215) significantly. The gripper is further shown to be able to handle an in-feed mixture of tomatoes, apples, carrots, broccoli and grapes without intermediate adjustments. Industrial relevance: This paper covers the development and evaluation of a hygienically designed universal robot food gripper. The gripper enables an increased use of robots in the food industry and makes very flexible production with minimal changeover times possible.

Pettersson A; Ohlsson T; Davis S; Gray JO; Dodd TJ

2011-07-01

46

A survey on knowledge and self-reported formula handling practices of parents and child care workers in Palermo, Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Powdered infant formula (PIF) is not a sterile product, but this information appears to be poorly diffused among child caregivers. Parents and child care workers may behave in an unsafe manner when handling PIF. Methods This study involved parents and child care workers in the 24 municipal child care centres of Palermo. Knowledge and self-reported practices about PIF handling were investigated by a structured questionnaire. A Likert scale was used to measure the strength of the respondent's feelings. Association of knowledge and self-reported practices with demographic variables was also evaluated. Results 42.4% of parents and 71.0% of child care workers filled in the questionnaire. Significant differences were found between parents and child care workers for age and education. 73.2% of parents and 84.4% of child care workers were confident in sterility of PIF. Generally, adherence to safe procedures when reconstituting and handling PIF was more frequently reported by child care workers who, according to the existing legislation, are regularly subjected to a periodic training on food safety principles and practices. Age and education significantly influenced the answers to the questionnaire of both parents and child care workers. Conclusion The results of the study reveal that parents and child care workers are generally unaware that powdered formulas may contain viable microorganisms. However, child care workers consistently chose safer options than parents when answering the questions about adherence to hygienic practices. At present it seems unfeasible to produce sterile PIF, but the risk of growth of hazardous organisms in formula at the time of administration should be minimized by promoting safer behaviours among caregivers to infants in both institutional settings and home.

Calamusa Giuseppe; Valenti Rosalia; Guida Ivana; Mammina Caterina

2009-01-01

47

A survey on knowledge and self-reported formula handling practices of parents and child care workers in Palermo, Italy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Powdered infant formula (PIF) is not a sterile product, but this information appears to be poorly diffused among child caregivers. Parents and child care workers may behave in an unsafe manner when handling PIF. METHODS: This study involved parents and child care workers in the 24 municipal child care centres of Palermo. Knowledge and self-reported practices about PIF handling were investigated by a structured questionnaire. A Likert scale was used to measure the strength of the respondent's feelings. Association of knowledge and self-reported practices with demographic variables was also evaluated. RESULTS: 42.4% of parents and 71.0% of child care workers filled in the questionnaire. Significant differences were found between parents and child care workers for age and education. 73.2% of parents and 84.4% of child care workers were confident in sterility of PIF. Generally, adherence to safe procedures when reconstituting and handling PIF was more frequently reported by child care workers who, according to the existing legislation, are regularly subjected to a periodic training on food safety principles and practices. Age and education significantly influenced the answers to the questionnaire of both parents and child care workers. CONCLUSION: The results of the study reveal that parents and child care workers are generally unaware that powdered formulas may contain viable microorganisms. However, child care workers consistently chose safer options than parents when answering the questions about adherence to hygienic practices.At present it seems unfeasible to produce sterile PIF, but the risk of growth of hazardous organisms in formula at the time of administration should be minimized by promoting safer behaviours among caregivers to infants in both institutional settings and home.

Calamusa G; Valenti RM; Guida I; Mammina C

2009-01-01

48

Sheep pre-slaughter handling practices and their effect on meat quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aspects related to ovine production systems in Mexico were revisited, as well as the relationship between the transport and the ante-mortem handling with ovine welfare and pre slaughter operations. Animals stress evaluation is fundamental importance for this process, where the observation of animal behavior is basic to determinate and understands the scope of this biological phenomenon. Finally, we make reference to two of the main meat quality attributes that can be affected as consequence of non-appropriated handling practice and operations that implies the un-knowledge of animal conduct. The conclusion is that the handling practices previous to slaughter of ovine specie had a considerable influence on carcass quality. In Mexico is important to focus the cattle research on the productive systems improvement in consideration to animal welfare in the different productive process steps.

Jose Leonardo Bolado-Sarabia; Cristina Pérez-Linares; Francisco Gerardo Ríos-Rincón

2013-01-01

49

Gender Difference in Safe and Unsafe Practice of Pesticide Handling in Tobacco Farmers of Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To identify gender difference in safe and unsafe practice of pesticide handling in tobacco farmers of Malaysia, we conducted a 20-item questionnaire interview on storage of pesticide (4 questions), mixing of pesticide (3 questions), use of personal protective equipment and clothing while spraying pe...

BIN NORDIN, Rusli; ARAKI, Shunichi; SATO, Hajime; YOKOYAMA, Kazuhito; BIN WAN MUDA, Wan Abdul Manan; WIN KYI, Daw

50

Review: Lyn Richards (2005). Handling Qualitative Data: A Practical Guide Review: Lyn Richards (2005). Handling Qualitative Data: A Practical Guide Reseña: Lyn Richards (2005). Handling Qualitative Data: A Practical Guide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Handling Qualitative Data: A Practical Guide ist ein Einführungsbuch, das sich mit dem gesamten Forschungsprozess von der anfänglichen Konzeptualisierung eines Projekts über die Datenerhebung und die Datenauswertung bis hin zur Veröffentlichung der Ergebnisse befasst. Die Autorin, Lyn RICHARDS, hat selbst zwei wichtige qualitative Softwareprogramme entwickelt, NUD*IST und NVivo, wobei ihr Buch bei der Verwendung unterschiedlichster qualitativer Software hilfreich sein kann. Die Autorin konzentriert sich zum einen auf praktische Ratschläge zur Handhabung von Software für die Organisation und Analyse qualitativer Daten. Zum anderen setzt sie sich ausführlich mit Fragen teambasierter qualitativer Forschung auseinander. Insgesamt bleibt das behandelte Themenspektrum jedoch – wohl auch der Kürze des Bandes geschuldet – teilweise auf der Oberfläche. Insoweit wird denjenigen Studierenden nicht hinreichend detaillierte Unterstützung gewährt, die Handling Qualitative Data: A Practical Guide tatsächlich als Hauptquelle für ihre eigene Forschungsarbeit nutzen wollen. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0602244Handling Qualitative Data: A Practical Guide is an introductory textbook covering all stages of qualitative research from the initial conceptualisation of a project, through data collection and analysis, to writing up. The author, Lyn RICHARDS, is a well-known developer of two key qualitative software analysis packages, NUD*IST and NVivo. While RICHARDS clearly advocates the use of qualitative analysis software, the text is "generic" and could be used in tandem with any qualitative software package. The book concentrates on practical advice about the use of software to manage and analyse qualitative data, and provides insights in these areas. The consideration of issues around team-based qualitative research is another strong point. However, due in part to its short length, the overall coverage of topics tends to be superficial. In itself, the book does not provide sufficient detailed support for a student who would like to use it as her/his main source of guidance for carrying out a qualitative research project. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0602244Handling Qualitative Data: A Practical Guide es un libro de texto introductorio que cubre todas etapas de la investigación cualitativa desde la conceptualización inicial de un proyecto, a través de la recolección de datos y el análisis, hasta la redacción del informe. La autora, Lyn RICHARDS, es una reconocida desarrolladora de dos programas clave del análisis cualitativo, NUD*IST y NVivo. Aunque Richards propugna claramente por el uso del software de análisis cualitativo, el texto es "genérico" y podría ser utilizado de acuerdo con cualquier software cualitativo. El libro se centra en consejos prácticos para el uso del software para administrar y analizar datos cualitativos y provee buenas pautas en estas áreas. La consideración de los temas sobre la investigación cualitativa en equipo es otro de sus fuertes. Sin embargo, debido en parte a su breve extensión, la cobertura de los temas resulta, en conjunto, superficial. Por sí mismo, el libro no proporciona el soporte suficientemente detallado para un estudiante a quien le gustaría utilizarlo como fuente principal de su orientación para llevar a cabo un proyecto de investigación cualitativa. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0602244

Robert L. Miller

2006-01-01

51

Standard Practice for Sampling Airborne Particulate Contamination in Cleanrooms for Handling Aerospace Fluids  

CERN Multimedia

1.1 This practice covers a procedure for sampling airborne particulate matter larger than 5 m in size. The method is designed to be used in specific areas, commonly called cleanrooms in the aerospace industry, where aerospace fluids are handled. Note 1 Practice F 50 is an alternative procedure. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2006-01-01

52

Handling practice changes before and later slaughter to reduce the presence of DFD meat in beef  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the production chain, animals are exposed to a series of factors and commercial practices that result in stress. These factors are mainly climatic variations, transport, handling, pre-slaughter waiting, stunning and slaughter. Any negative effect is in function of the type, duration and intensity of the stressing factors before slaughter and the individual susceptibility of animals. These pre-slaughter adverse effects have impact not only on animal welfare, but they also have clear repercussion in meat quality and economic profit of livestock producers. The presence of DFD meat is an issue that affects the quality and economic aspects and this can be minimized through giving major importance to animal welfare, implying changes in animal handling before slaughter. Personal involved in animal handling must be capacitated besides preventive maintenance to equipment in order to improve production.

Cristina Pérez-Linares

2011-01-01

53

Sanitation Practices among Food Handlers in a Military Food Service Institution, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted over a period of two months to assess the food hygiene practices among food handlers in a military food service institution that have been trained with food safety practices and knowledge. Since limited data was published for the services rendered to governmental agencies such as the military, this study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and motivation of food handlers under this institution that was responsible for the provision of food to the armed forces in Malaysia. Findings from this study offered an insight for food sanitation practices and influence of the authority towards food service institutions under the policy of voluntary HACCP practices.

Hai Yen Lee; Wan Nadirah Wan Chik; Fatimah Abu Bakar; Nazamid Saari; Nor Ainy Mahyudin

2012-01-01

54

Influence of Handling Practices on Material Recovery from Residential Solid Waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Material recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) is becoming widely adopted in several developing countries. Residential solid waste is one of the most important components of MSW and the handling practices of the MSW by the generators have a major impact on the quality and quantity of the materials for recovery. This article analyzes the generation and composition of residential solid waste and the handling practices by users in three municipalities in Colombia that have a solid waste management plant (SWMP). The findings show that, although there are significant amounts of useful materials, their handling of the materials as “garbage”, the low recognition of recovery work, and the inadequate storage and source management practices, affect material recovery and the operation of SWMPs. These results may be taken as a reference for this type of municipality, because the solid waste management system and the type of operation of the SWMPs analyzed is similar to all of the SWMPs in the country as well as in other countries in the region.

Luis F. Marmolejo; Luis F. Diaz; Patricia Torres; Mariela García; Mary H. Burbano; Carolina Blanco; Katherine Erazo; Jairo F. Pereira

2010-01-01

55

Pesticide-handling practices of smallholder coffee farmers in Eastern Jamaica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticide use among smallholder coffee producers in Jamaica has been associated with significant occupational health effects. Research on pesticide handling practices, however, has been scarce, especially in eastern Jamaica. This explorative study aims at filling this gap and provides a first basis to develop effective interventions to promote a safer pesticide use. A random sample of 81 coffee farmers was surveyed. The majority of farmers reported to suffer from at least one health symptom associated with pesticide handling, but safety practices were scarcely adopted. There was also the risk that other household members and the wider local community are exposed to pesticides. The lack of training on pesticide management, the role of health services and the cost for protective equipment seemed to be the most significant factors that influence current pesticide handling practices in eastern Jamaica. Further research is recommended to develop a systemic understanding of farmer’s behaviour to provide a more solid basis for the development of future intervention programmes.

Dwayne Henry; Giuseppe Feola

2013-01-01

56

Oral chemotherapy handling and storage practices among Veterans Affairs oncology patients and caregivers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PurposeThis questionnaire-based study was designed to identify the oral chemotherapy medication handling, storage, and disposal practices among cancer patients and their caregivers. METHODS: /st>This was a single-center observational survey study approved by the Investigational Review Board and VA Research & Development Committee. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they had an active order for an oral antineoplastic medication and an appointment at the oncology clinic. A questionnaire related to the storage, handling, disposal, patient education and counseling, and patients' perception of safety of oral antineoplastic medications was developed and given to patients in the clinic. Survey responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: /st>A total of 45 surveys were given to eligible patients in the oncology clinic and 42 surveys were returned to the study team. The majority, 40 participants (95%) were male. Participants ranged in age from 51 to 85 years (median, 65 years). Thirty-eight patients (90.5%) responded that the medication was stored away from extreme heat, cold, and humidity. Thirty-two patients (76%) reported keeping their medications in the original container. Hand washing was not a consistent practice among patients. Eleven patients (26%) reported always washing their hands after handling their anticancer medication; another 6 (14%) responded "sometimes". Of the 42 participants who answered, only 6 patients (14%) reported always or sometimes wearing gloves. CONCLUSION: /st>The majority of patients responding to this survey store their oral anticancer medications appropriately, but patients' and caregivers' handling and disposal practices are inconsistent and frequently do not follow the published recommendations.

Trovato JA; Tuttle LA

2013-03-01

57

Evaluation of moving and handling training for pre-registration nurses and its application to practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes preliminary questionnaire survey work in a research programme exploring M&H training for student nurses (n=106) and its application to practice. The aim of the study was to provide evidence of the students' experiences of M&H in the clinical setting to inform future educational development. The students were able to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable practice they observed. Good practice comprised planning and coordination within the nursing team and careful reassurance of the patient. Regarding poor practice, the students identified that equipment was unavailable or not used and that staff demonstrated poor posture in this work or used condemned techniques thought to be detrimental to the staff and the patients. Fewer students had observed: risk assessments, equipment safety checks and use of a hoist for lifting fallen patients, than had seen other accepted M&H procedures. Contrary to the Manual Handling Operations Regulations (HSE. 1992; 1998. Manual Handling Operations Regulations. HMSO, London.) and hospital 'no-lifting' policies, 71% of the respondents had been asked to participate in a manoeuvre that they thought was wrong and a similar number had been asked to physically lift patients without using recommended equipment. Perceived injuries to both staff and patients were also described.

Cornish J; Jones A

2007-05-01

58

Evaluation of moving and handling training for pre-registration nurses and its application to practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes preliminary questionnaire survey work in a research programme exploring M&H training for student nurses (n=106) and its application to practice. The aim of the study was to provide evidence of the students' experiences of M&H in the clinical setting to inform future educational development. The students were able to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable practice they observed. Good practice comprised planning and coordination within the nursing team and careful reassurance of the patient. Regarding poor practice, the students identified that equipment was unavailable or not used and that staff demonstrated poor posture in this work or used condemned techniques thought to be detrimental to the staff and the patients. Fewer students had observed: risk assessments, equipment safety checks and use of a hoist for lifting fallen patients, than had seen other accepted M&H procedures. Contrary to the Manual Handling Operations Regulations (HSE. 1992; 1998. Manual Handling Operations Regulations. HMSO, London.) and hospital 'no-lifting' policies, 71% of the respondents had been asked to participate in a manoeuvre that they thought was wrong and a similar number had been asked to physically lift patients without using recommended equipment. Perceived injuries to both staff and patients were also described. PMID:17689435

Cornish, Jocelyn; Jones, Anne

2006-06-22

59

Practical application of food irradiation in Asia and the Pacific  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first regional seminar on food irradiation in Asia was held in Tokyo in 1981. In view of several significant international developments on food irradiation it was considered timely to convene the second seminar in this field to assess practical application of food irradiation in the Asian and Pacific region. Over 70 papers were submitted for the Seminar. Eight technical sessions covering practical aspects of food irradiation (e.g. technology transfer, legislation and control, food irradiation facilities and their economics, transportation trials, market testing and consumer acceptance, commercial development of food irradiation, etc.) were included in the Seminar programme. A Working Group to assess the present situation and future application of food irradiation in the region was convened during the Seminar. The report of the Working Group is included in the Proceedings. Refs, figs and tabs.

1988-01-01

60

A survey of needle handling practices and needlestick injuries in veterinary technicians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey of veterinary technicians identified that needlestick injuries are very common, with 210/226 (93%) technicians reporting at least one needlestick injury over the course of their career. One hundred sixty-seven (74%) had experienced a needlestick injury during the preceding year. Exposure to animal blood and various drugs was common. It was particularly concerning that needlestick injuries involving chemotherapeutic agents and prostaglandin were reported. Eight (3.5%) technicians had required medical care for a needlestick injury and 2 (0.8%) had lost time at work. The approach to sharps handling and needlestick injury avoidance was poor and most needlestick injuries had not been reported to employers. Measures need to be undertaken to improve sharps handling practices to reduce the number of needlestick injuries among veterinary technicians.

Weese JS; Faires M

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Sharps-handling practices among junior surgical residents: a video analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Although “universal precautions” are standard for sharps handling, there has been poor compliance among surgeons. We used video analysis to assess sharps handling practices among junior surgical residents. Methods Postgraduate year (PGY)-2 general surgery and PGY-1 plastic surgery residents were videotaped performing pediatric inguinal hernia repairs. For each procedure, the resident was the principal operator, with the attending surgeon assisting. Retrospective assessment of safe and unsafe sharps handling was determined based on published guidelines. We assessed safety performance in personal sharps tasks, passage of sharps and verbal notification regarding sharps. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results Data were collected from 18 residents’ videos (4 plastic surgery, 14 general surgery). Residents safely performed sharps tasks, passed and verbally notified about sharps an average of 69.2%, 93.2% and 9.9% of the time, respectively. Suture needle manipulation was handled safely 56.2% of the time (mean 4.4 safe v. 4.3 unsafe actions). Surgical residents demonstrated a safe suture tying technique in 91.8% of cases, proper tissue retraction in 85.2% and safe handling of injection needles in 72.2% of cases. When assessing the safety performance of the surgical team, attending surgeons acting as surgical assistants safely passed sharps 80.0% of the time, while scrub nurses demonstrated safe passing at all times. Attending surgeons used verbal notification when passing sharps 22.7% of the time, while scrub nurses verbally notified the team 4.3% of the time. Conclusion Junior surgical residents consistently passed sharps safely. Personal sharps tasks were less likely to be performed safely, and only a minority of residents verbally notified the team about sharps placement.

Tso, David; Langer, Monica; Blair, Geoff K.; Butterworth, Sonia

2012-01-01

62

Factors affecting practical application of food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

FAO and IAEA convened an Advisory Group Meeting on Commercial Use of Food Irradiation in order to discuss problems of the industry's acceptance of food irradiation and their remedies. Senior executives from major food industries, trade and consumer organizations were invited to discuss these problems and to prepare a report which would serve as the basis for future plan of action by sponsoring Organizations in the field of food irradiation. This publication contains the report of the meeting, papers presented by the participants and their recommendations to the sponsoring Organizations. Refs and tabs.

1988-07-01

63

Tritium-processing operations at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory with emphasis on safe-handling practices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), considerable improvement in tritium-handling procedures has resulted from developments in the Isotope Program. Specific ORNL programs involving tritium are described with emphasis on the safe-handling practices as developed and used these programs. (orig./HSI).

1989-01-01

64

Evaluation of Food Hygiene Knowledge Attitudes and Practices of Food Handlers in Food Businesses in Accra, Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food handlers have a prime role to play in food businesses, and that is to guarantee that meals served are hygienic for consumption. Conscious or inadvertent contamination of such food places consumers at risk of suffering from food- borne illnesses. For this reason the study was carried out to document the food hygiene knowledge, attitudes and practices of some food handlers, in food businesses in Accra, Ghana and also to determine the microbiological load of the foods sold by the food businesses. The study targeted food handlers in the hotel industry. The study involved a field survey, followed by a laboratory assessment of microbiological status of food samples obtained from the sampled hotels. Cross tabulations and chi – squared tests (5% significance level) as well as frequency distributions were used to analyze the data obtained from the field survey. Data obtained from the laboratory assessment were also compared to standard values of microbiological counts. Majority of respondents were between the ages of 30 - 40 years (42.9%) with tertiary or post secondary education. Food hygiene knowledge and attitudes were satisfactory, however its practice was challenging. Gender, age and educational level of respondents did not influence their food hygiene practices. Microbial counts of all food samples was generally high ranging from 1.2 × 105 CFU/g to 1.1 × 108 CFU /g. The total coliform counts of foods ranged from 1.0 × 104 CFU/g to 5.0 × 106 CFU/g, and these were obtained from three out of the five hotel kitchens sampled. The study concluded that, the food hygiene knowledge and attitudes of the food handlers did not result in efficient food hygiene practices.

George Amponsah Annor; Ekua Anamoaba Baiden

2011-01-01

65

Food expenditure pattern, storage practices, food fads and fallacies of seven villages of Guntur districts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study was carried out to assess the food expenditure pattern, storage practices, Food fads, and fallacies of seven villages of Guntur districts. Expenditure on protective foods in Buddam village isn nil, due to which the preschool children are in Grade II and Grade III malnutrition. Introduction of weaning food to the children in all the villages is after 6 months. The most commonly used storage structure for paddy are gunny bag, puri and patra.

Khader V

1997-01-01

66

Practice of handling radioactive wastes outside the nuclear fuel cycle in Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the handling of radioactive wastes, which are not produced in facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. The actual amounts of radioactive waste are given showing also the fractions coming from institutions under consideration with respect to the total amount. For different areas as institutions producing radioactive waste, plants conditioning the waste, storing facilities or for the planned final repository the practice of handling, conditioning or storing is described; different methods are discussed. As far as possible and reasonable hints or recommendations are worked out. In some areas problems could be identified, e.g. some nuclides as tritium or radium, are not easily conditioned for a final repository, the lack of final prescriptions how to process the waste for the final repository, differing conditions for the waste to be transferred to the intermediate storage facilities, lack of guidelines how to analyse the waste contaminated with short-lifed nuclides after the decay-time before it is deposited, and the lack of harmonized and perhaps centralized facilities to process the waste before it will be stored in the final repository. Facilities should be capable to cope with non-radioactive aspects as chemical or toxic aspects during processing. It may be summarized, that the handling of radioactive waste produced in non-fuel cycle facilities in general has been regulated and planned for the complete line from the beginning to the repository. Though there are still some aspects as those summarized above that may and should be improved

1990-01-01

67

On the nature and practical handling of the Bayesian aggregation anomaly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper addresses the issue, arising in probabilistic parameter estimation, which is sometimes referred to as the 'Bayesian anomaly,' or also as the problem of 'imperfect aggregation in Bayesian estimation.' The issue is clarified here from a generalized and theoretical point of view, but also in terms of a practical and mathematically consistent solution for probabilistic parameter estimation cases arising in actual reliability analysis and probabilistic risk assessment applications. More specifically, both theoretical and practical technical arguments are presented to show the reasons that make the purported anomaly manifest itself, and how the situations where it could in theory lead to serious estimation errors can be correctly handled. Interpretations and conclusions previously drawn with respect to the anomaly are also examined and re-evaluated in light of the new information and developments presented by the paper.

2009-01-01

68

On the nature and practical handling of the Bayesian aggregation anomaly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper addresses the issue, arising in probabilistic parameter estimation, which is sometimes referred to as the 'Bayesian anomaly,' or also as the problem of 'imperfect aggregation in Bayesian estimation.' The issue is clarified here from a generalized and theoretical point of view, but also in terms of a practical and mathematically consistent solution for probabilistic parameter estimation cases arising in actual reliability analysis and probabilistic risk assessment applications. More specifically, both theoretical and practical technical arguments are presented to show the reasons that make the purported anomaly manifest itself, and how the situations where it could in theory lead to serious estimation errors can be correctly handled. Interpretations and conclusions previously drawn with respect to the anomaly are also examined and re-evaluated in light of the new information and developments presented by the paper.

Guarro, Sergio [ASCA Inc., 1720 South Catalina Avenue, Redondo Beach, CA 90277 (United States)], E-mail: sergio.guarro@ascainc.com; Yau, Michael [ASCA Inc., 1720 South Catalina Avenue, Redondo Beach, CA 90277 (United States)

2009-06-15

69

Practice and Reflection on Developing Food Banks in XI CHANG  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food bank is a kind of savings service for the grain enterprises involving the unused grain in the business turnover to control the grain resources after the revolution of purchase and sale food market. This paper talks about the necessity and feasibility of promoting the food bank in XI CHANG from perspectives of increasing farmers’ income, declining food consumption and facilitating people’s life and from perspectives of the background of food bank development, the successful experience domestically, the success of the pilot and the support of national policies and regulations respectively, and analyzes the problems the food bank brings and at last puts forward strategies to accelerate the promotion of the food bank combining the practical situation of XI CHANG.

Chenghua Liu; Shengyu He

2012-01-01

70

Chefs' attitudes toward healthful food preparation are more positive than their food science knowledge and practices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine if chefs' and student chefs' attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding healthful food preparation are consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. DESIGN: An analytical survey questionnaire was distributed to 4 chef groups. Sections 1 and 2 of the survey measured chefs' food science knowledge (13 questions) and likelihood of using food preparation practices (15 questions) necessary to meet the 1990 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Section 3 (22 questions) measured chefs' attitudes toward nutrition in general, toward the importance of healthful food preparation practices, and toward the US Dietary Guidelines. SAMPLE: Of 512 surveys distributed by mail, at culinary meetings, and in classes at 2 culinary schools, 447 (86%) were returned (158 from practicing chefs and 289 from student chefs). Practicing chefs included chef educators, foodservice chefs from a national corporation, and independent chef members of the American Culinary Federation of New York City. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Descriptive statistics included frequencies, means, and standard deviations of survey items and of individual survey sections. Reliability and validity were determined using alpha coefficients and principal components analysis. Analysis of variance was used to examine differences in practice, attitudes, and knowledge among chef groups. RESULTS: Both practicing chefs and student chefs answered more than 70% of the food science questions correctly; independent chefs scored significantly lower than educator and corporate chefs. More than two thirds of the chefs and student chefs correctly responded to questions about the nutrient composition of food and how cooking affects the nutrient content of food. All chef groups were confused about fat and cholesterol in food and in the body. Few healthful food preparation practices were likely to be used by any chef group more than two thirds of the time, although the subscale of the attitude toward the importance of these practices was very positive. The majority of practicing chefs thought that customers do not care about the US Dietary Guidelines and nutrition; student chefs thought that customers do care. Both groups strongly agreed that, as chefs, they are responsible for the nutritional content of the food they prepared. APPLICATION: Both chefs and student chefs are willing to learn about food science and recipe modification principles as they apply to healthful cooking practices. The opportunities are clear: Dietitians have the expertise to teach chefs healthful food preparation techniques, recipe modification, and food composition information.

Reichler G; Dalton S

1998-02-01

71

77 FR 71312 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food  

Science.gov (United States)

...Highbarger, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-255), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch...13. Memorandum from Food Additives Evaluation Branch, FDA (HFS-156), to C. Takaguchi, Petition Control Branch,...

2012-11-30

72

77 FR 71316 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food  

Science.gov (United States)

...Highbarger, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-255), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch...14. Memorandum from Food Additives Evaluation Branch, FDA (HFS-156), to C. Takaguchi, Petition Control Branch,...

2012-11-30

73

Ageing and life extension practices for fuel handling system at Madras Atomic Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reliable functioning of all fuel handling system components, as per design intent is essential to execute the on power refuelling operations of PHWR reactors for sustained power operation. For several critical equipment, as no standby provisions exist, monitoring the performance and timely replacement of equipment are to be done meticulously to achieve adequate system availability. At the same time, too frequent servicing activities cannot be afforded, on cost, availability and high manrem exposure consideration. Though at design stage through proper selection of materials, equipment and process applications, dependable systems are envisaged, certain modification in operating practices, logics, process parameters, and addition of new equipment become necessary to assess the ageing as well as to extend the life of the equipment. In Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) fuel handling system several changes have been incorporated, improving upon the system performance reliability which inherently helps in extending the life of the critical equipment. In this paper some significant modifications implemented are presented, which are contributing to improve upon the life span of the equipment. (author).

1994-01-01

74

76 FR 51308 - Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 424 Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule AGENCY...FTC's rule for ``Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices'' (``Unavailability...16 CFR Part 424-- Retail Food Store Advertising Rule, Project No. P104203'' on...

2011-08-18

75

Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, from practice to theory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an allergic disease, probably non-IgE-mediated, with expression predominantly in the GI tract. The most characteristic symptom is repeated, debilitating vomiting. It occurs 2-6 h after ingestion of culprit food and is usually accompanied by pallor and lethargy. There may be diarrhea, and in 10-20% of cases, severe hypotension. These symptoms resolve completely within a few hours. The food most frequently involved is cow's milk, followed by rice, but many other foods may be involved. The prognosis is generally good in a few years. In this review the authors try to cope, with the help of some case histories, with the practical clinical aspects of FPIES. The authors also try to provide a management approach based on current knowledge, and finally, to point out the aspects of FPIES that are still controversial.

Miceli Sopo S; Greco M; Monaco S; Tripodi S; Calvani M

2013-08-01

76

Irradiation in the production, processing and handling of food. Final rule.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the food additive regulations to increase the maximum dose of ionizing radiation permitted in the treatment of poultry products, to include specific language intended to clarify the poultry products covered by the regulations, and to remove the limitation that any packaging used during irradiation of poultry shall not exclude oxygen. This action is in response to a petition filed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA/FSIS).

2012-11-01

77

Irradiation in the production, processing and handling of food. Final rule.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of a 4.5 kilogray (kGy) maximum absorbed dose of ionizing radiation to treat unrefrigerated (as well as refrigerated) uncooked meat, meat byproducts, and certain meat food products to reduce levels of foodborne pathogens and extend shelf life. This action is in response to a petition filed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA/FSIS).

2012-11-01

78

Irradiation in the production, processing, and handling of food. Final rule.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of a carbon dioxide laser for etching information on the surface of fresh, intact citrus fruit. This action is in response to a petition filed by Durand-Wayland, Inc.

2012-06-01

79

PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for PFP's Vault Operations system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to perform its safety function. The changes in these specifications have no detrimental effect on the descriptions and parameters related to handling plutonium solids in the authorization basis. Because no parameters or sequences exceed the limits described in the authorization bases, no accident or abnormal conditions are affected. The specifications prescribed in this critical characteristics document do not represent an unreviewed safety question

1999-01-01

80

A practical approach to the assesment of manual handling equipment for cargo: multinational abrasives in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Manual Handling of Loads is an activity present in virtually all production system, when developed without ergonomic principles of design and sizing can generate several instances of discomfort and musculoskeletal disorders. This work was carried out to measure, set limits and risks and guide specifications for the cargo handling carts in a specific company, tracing the anthropometric profile of the productive population and performing a quantitative evaluation of forces and design models of cars used in the company. PMID:22317569

Barbosa Neto, João; Centeio, Eduardo Aparecido; de Sampaio Siqueira, Fernando; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

A practical approach to the assesment of manual handling equipment for cargo: multinational abrasives in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Manual Handling of Loads is an activity present in virtually all production system, when developed without ergonomic principles of design and sizing can generate several instances of discomfort and musculoskeletal disorders. This work was carried out to measure, set limits and risks and guide specifications for the cargo handling carts in a specific company, tracing the anthropometric profile of the productive population and performing a quantitative evaluation of forces and design models of cars used in the company.

Barbosa Neto J; Centeio EA; de Sampaio Siqueira F; Padula RS

2012-01-01

82

77 FR 27586 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food  

Science.gov (United States)

...Except where evidence is submitted which justifies use of a different safety factor, a safety factor in applying animal experimentation data to man of 100 to 1, will be used; that is, a food additive for use by man will not be granted a...

2012-05-11

83

Handling radioactivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this book is to present an overall view in a descriptive and essentially nonmathematical way of the practicalities of handling radioactivity. It is hoped that the material will be particularly helpful to those entering the nuclear field for the first time and to those working in related areas whose responsibilities require them to have a general knowledge of the subject of radioactivity handling and its vocabulary.

Stewart, D.C.

1988-01-01

84

USDA food and nutrient databases provide the infrastructure for food and nutrition research, policy, and practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The USDA food and nutrient databases provide the basic infrastructure for food and nutrition research, nutrition monitoring, policy, and dietary practice. They have had a long history that goes back to 1892 and are unique, as they are the only databases available in the public domain that perform these functions. There are 4 major food and nutrient databases released by the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), part of the USDA's Agricultural Research Service. These include the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database, the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, and the USDA Food Patterns Equivalents Database. The users of the databases are diverse and include federal agencies, the food industry, health professionals, restaurants, software application developers, academia and research organizations, international organizations, and foreign governments, among others. Many of these users have partnered with BHNRC to leverage funds and/or scientific expertise to work toward common goals. The use of the databases has increased tremendously in the past few years, especially the breadth of uses. These new uses of the data are bound to increase with the increased availability of technology and public health emphasis on diet-related measures such as sodium and energy reduction. Hence, continued improvement of the databases is important, so that they can better address these challenges and provide reliable and accurate data.

Ahuja JK; Moshfegh AJ; Holden JM; Harris E

2013-02-01

85

The knowledge, attitude and practices of food handlers in food sanitation in a metropolis in south eastern Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The spread of diseases through food is still a common problem which results in appreciable morbidity and occasional mortality. Food handlers play an important role in ensuring food safety throughout the chain of production, processing, storage and preparation. This study was designed to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of food handlers towards food-borne diseases and food safety. A total of 430 food handlers were randomly selected from Owerri Metropolis of Imo State Nigeria and interviewed using structured pretested questionnaire. Almost half (48.4%) of the respondents had poor knowledge of food sanitation. Multiple logistic regression showed type of premise [Odd Ratio (OR) = 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.8 - 7.5, P = 0.0004], educational level (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = 1.8 -7.4, P = 0.0003) and job status of food handlers (OR = 0.5, 95%, CI = 0.3 - 0.8, P = 0.0031) significantly influenced the score level of knowledge. There was no significant difference in attitude and practice between trained and untrained food handlers. Findings of this study may be important in planning health education intervention programs for food handlers in order to improve their knowledge, attitude and practice towards food borne diseases and food safety. This will help in reducing morbidity and mortality due to food-borne diseases.

Chukwuocha UM; Dozie IN; Amadi AN; Nwankwo BO; Ukaga CN; Aguwa OC; Abanobi OC; Nwoke EA

2009-12-01

86

Food safety knowledge and practices of abattoir and butchery shops and the microbial profile of meat in Mekelle City, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the food safety knowledge and practices in meat handling, and to determine microbial load and pathogenic organisms in meat at Mekelle city. METHODS: A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practiced in the abattoir and butcher shops. Workers from the abattoir and butcher shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to assess their food safety knowledge. Bacterial load was assessed by serial dilution method and the major bacterial pathogens were isolated by using standard procedures. RESULTS: 15.4% of the abattoir workers had no health certificate and there was no hot water, sterilizer and cooling facility in the abattoir. 11.3% of the butchers didn't use protective clothes. There was a food safety knowledge gap within the abattoir and butcher shop workers. The mean values of bacterial load of abattoir meat, butcher shops and street meat sale was found to be 1.1×10(5), 5.6×10(5) and 4.3×10(6) cfu/g, respectively. The major bacterial pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that there is a reasonable gap on food safety knowledge by abattoir and butcher shop workers. The microbial profile was also higher compared to standards set by World Health Organization. Due attention should be given by the government to improve the food safety knowledge and the quality standard of meat sold in the city.

Haileselassie M; Taddele H; Adhana K; Kalayou S; Tadesse G

2013-05-01

87

Knowledge and Practices on Food Safety among Secondary School Students in Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issue of food safety is an issue that is discussed widely, but cases of food poisoning in particular, are still continuing. This may be associated with their own level of knowledge and practices on food safety. This study was aimed to examine the level of food safety knowledge and practices from two secondary school students, to investigate the association between food safety knowledge and practices with gender, to identify the correlation between food safety knowledge levels with practices and to compare the difference of knowledge and practices level between both of the school. Information concerning demographic, food safety knowledge and practices were collected using self-administered questionnaire. 339 students comprising 202 male and 197 female from two schools were randomly selected to answer the questionnaire provided. Analyzed data obtained stated that knowledge on food safety was good for both school and their also practiced on food safety by 79.1% included in good practice range. Results also showed that a high level of food safety knowledge and practices was possessed by both groups, male and female students in quite similar value of means. Correlation between food safety knowledge and practices on food safety indicated, there was a small positive correlation with [r = 0.148, n = 221, p<0.05] for Sekolah Tinggi Arab Maahad and [r = 0.053, n = 178, p<0.5] for Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Gelang Patah.

M.N. Norazmir; M.A. Noor Hasyimah; A. Siti Shafurah; B. Siti Sabariah; D. Ajau; H. Norazlanshah

2012-01-01

88

Practical issues in handling data input and uncertainty in a budget impact analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this paper was to address the importance of dealing systematically and comprehensively with uncertainty in a budget impact analysis (BIA) in more detail. The handling of uncertainty in health economics was used as a point of reference for addressing the uncertainty in a BIA. This ov...

Nuijten, M.J.C.; Mittendorf, T.; Persson, U.

89

Food Hygiene Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of the Food Handlers in the Military Hospitals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Improper practices and lack of knowledge by food handlers are contributing factors for the spread of foodborne outbreaks. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitude and practice of food handlers in military hospitals in Jordan. A Self completed questionnaire was answered by 200 employees; 150 military employees and 50 civilian employees in 7 Jordanian military hospitals selected randomly one from the capital Amman and two from the three provinces. The results showed that the means of the percentage scores for the knowledge, attitude, practice, were 84.82, 88.88, 89.43, respectively and the overall knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP) mean percentage score was 87.88. A significant difference (P 0.05) in these values was observed between the military and civilian employee. The mean percentage scores for knowledge, attitude and practice were 88.5, 93.2, and 91.4, respectively for military employee compared to those for civilian employee of 73.7, 75.8, and 83.5, respectively. A significant difference for the overall (KAP) mean percentage score was also observed between gender, education and specific occupation of the food handler. Female KAP percentage mean score was 90.0 and that for males was 86.6; The college or university educations employee had a mean score of 91.6 while the elementary school education employee had a mean score of 79.7; The nutritionists and cooks had statistically similar means of 91.6 but these occupations significantly differ from the waiters 84.4 and cleaners 80.2.

Labib Sharif; Mohammad M. Obaidat; Mohammad-Raed Al-Dalalah

2013-01-01

90

A Collective Case Study of the Influence of Teachers' Beliefs and Knowledge on Error-Handling Practices during Class Discussion of Mathematics  

Science.gov (United States)

This collective case study examines the influence of 4 third-grade teachers' beliefs and knowledge on their error-handling practices during class discussion of mathematics. Study findings suggest that, although teachers' ways of handling student errors during class discussion of mathematics are clearly linked to both teacher beliefs and teacher…

Bray, Wendy S.

2011-01-01

91

Hygienic Practices among Food Vendors in Educational Institutions in Ghana: The Case of Konongo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the booming street food industry in the developing world there is an urgent need to ensure food vendors adhere to hygienic practices to protect public health. This study assessed the adherence to food hygiene practices by food vendors in educational institutions in Konongo, Ghana. Structured questionnaires, extensive observation and interviews were used for the study involving 60 food vendors from 20 basic schools. Attributable to the influence of school authorities and the level of in-training of food vendors, the study points out that food vendors in educational institutions generally adhered to good food hygiene practices, namely, regular medical examination (93%), protection of food from flies and dust (55%); proper serving of food (100%); good hand hygiene (63%); and the use of personal protective clothing (52%). The training of food vendors on food hygiene, instead of the level of education had a significant association (p < 0.05) with crucial food hygiene practices such as medical examination, hand hygiene and protection of food from flies and dust. Further, regulatory bodies legally mandated to efficiently monitor the activities of food vendors lacked the adequate capacity to do so. The study proposes that efforts should be geared towards developing training programmes for food vendors as well as capacity building of the stakeholders.

Isaac Monney; Dominic Agyei; Wellington Owusu

2013-01-01

92

Measures taken to reduce damage and repair costs of rigid endoscopes during their handling and processing in surgical practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An increased number of surgical procedures using endoscopic techniques has resulted in a more frequent use of rigid endoscopes. A side effect of this is that more instrument damage has been noticed. Measures must be taken in instrument handling procedures to reduce the incidence of instrument damage and the cost of instrument repairs. Impacts of such changes have been studied. The incidence and types of damage to rigid endoscopes was followed during a six-year period. During the time period of the study certain changes in instrument handling and processing were introduced. Improved education and training of personnel was instituted as well as a change in sterilization practice. Measures taken in instrument processing have resulted in a total reduction of instrument damage of 35%. High temperature damage to lenses was reduced in the order of 80% when low-temperature hydrogen peroxide gas plasma was applied for sterilization instead of steam autoclaving. The introduction of educational and training programs to raise the awareness of the staff in instrument handling and the use of low-temperature gas plasma for sterilization can considerably reduce the incidence of instrument damage and reduce the cost for instrument repair. It can be assumed that the reduction of damage to instruments also has a beneficial influence on the quality of the endoscopic surgical procedures because less time is lost, and possibly the image quality can be improved.

Skogås; Mårvik

2003-03-01

93

Food insecurity, food based coping strategies and suboptimal dietary practices of adolescents in Jimma zone Southwest Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the high prevalence of adolescent food insecurity in Ethiopia, there is no study which documented its association with suboptimal dietary practices. The objective of this study is to determine the association between adolescent food insecurity and dietary practices. We used data on 2084 adolescents in the age group of 13-17 years involved in the first round survey of the five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. Adolescents were selected using residence stratified random sampling methods. Food insecurity was measured using scales validated in developing countries. Dietary practices were measured using dietary diversity score, food variety score and frequency of consuming animal source food. Multivariable regression models were used to compare dietary behaviors by food security status after controlling for socio-demographic and economic covariates. Food insecure adolescents had low dietary diversity score (P<0.001), low mean food variety score (P<0.001) and low frequency of consuming animal source foods (P<0.001). After adjusting for other variables in a multivariable logistic regression model, adolescent food insecurity (P<0.001) and rural residence (P<0.001) were negatively associated with the likelihood of having a diversified diet (P<0.001) and frequency of consuming animal source foods, while a high household income tertile was positively associated. Similarly, multivariable linear regression model showed that adolescent food insecurity was negatively associated with food variety score, while residence in semi-urban areas (P<0.001), in urban areas (P<0.001) and high household income tertile (P = 0.013) were positively associated. Girls were less likely to have diversified diet (P = 0.001) compared with boys. Our findings suggest that food insecurity has negative consequence on optimal dietary intake of adolescents. Food security interventions should look into ways of targeting adolescents to mitigate these dietary consequences and provide alternative strategies to improve dietary quality of adolescents in Southwest Ethiopia.

Belachew T; Lindstrom D; Gebremariam A; Hogan D; Lachat C; Huybregts L; Kolsteren P

2013-01-01

94

Food insecurity, food based coping strategies and suboptimal dietary practices of adolescents in Jimma zone Southwest Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the high prevalence of adolescent food insecurity in Ethiopia, there is no study which documented its association with suboptimal dietary practices. The objective of this study is to determine the association between adolescent food insecurity and dietary practices. We used data on 2084 adolescents in the age group of 13-17 years involved in the first round survey of the five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. Adolescents were selected using residence stratified random sampling methods. Food insecurity was measured using scales validated in developing countries. Dietary practices were measured using dietary diversity score, food variety score and frequency of consuming animal source food. Multivariable regression models were used to compare dietary behaviors by food security status after controlling for socio-demographic and economic covariates. Food insecure adolescents had low dietary diversity score (P<0.001), low mean food variety score (P<0.001) and low frequency of consuming animal source foods (P<0.001). After adjusting for other variables in a multivariable logistic regression model, adolescent food insecurity (P<0.001) and rural residence (P<0.001) were negatively associated with the likelihood of having a diversified diet (P<0.001) and frequency of consuming animal source foods, while a high household income tertile was positively associated. Similarly, multivariable linear regression model showed that adolescent food insecurity was negatively associated with food variety score, while residence in semi-urban areas (P<0.001), in urban areas (P<0.001) and high household income tertile (P = 0.013) were positively associated. Girls were less likely to have diversified diet (P = 0.001) compared with boys. Our findings suggest that food insecurity has negative consequence on optimal dietary intake of adolescents. Food security interventions should look into ways of targeting adolescents to mitigate these dietary consequences and provide alternative strategies to improve dietary quality of adolescents in Southwest Ethiopia. PMID:23554864

Belachew, Tefera; Lindstrom, David; Gebremariam, Abebe; Hogan, Dennis; Lachat, Carl; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick

2013-03-12

95

Performance factors as a basis of practical fault detection and diagnostic methods for air-handling units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technical term performance is defined as how well a system fulfills its intended purpose in different operational circumstances. This paper describes the process of establishing the performance factors of air-handling units (AHUs), defining the performance requirements, and connecting them to fault detection and diagnosis methods. The most important performance requirements of AHUs are related to heating and cooling energy, the supply airflow rate and purity, energy efficiency, and control quality. Many solutions made during different life-cycle phases affect the final system performance. These solutions are discussed in this paper. Diagnostic tools and methods can be developed for monitoring the defined performance criteria. Practical FDD methods have been developed for the system considered here. The methods are simple and easy to apply in practice. Methods for monitoring the heat recovery unit and the AHU energy use are presented. Examples of utilizing characteristic curves and fault-symptom trees are also described.

Kaerki, S.H.; Karjalainen, S.J.

1999-07-01

96

Handling uncertainty : policy and organizational practices in Tanzania's small-scale gold mining sector  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Small-scale mining supports the livelihoods of several hundred thousand rural households in Africa. Nonetheless, the understanding of the organizational dynamics of small-scale miners' activities is modest. The paper outlines the small-scale mining codes in Tanzania and contrasts them to prevalent organizational practices in two Tanzanian small-scale mining settlements. It is argued that there is a need to adjust the regulatory mechanisms to well-consolidated practices: If basic practices differ substantially from official prescriptions of the mining codes over an extended period of time, certain elements of the regulatory framework need reconsideration. The paper examines three pertinent operational components that vary in form and managing practices between the two study sites: dealing with licence acquisition, accessing working capital, and sharing output. These components are considered vital for the proper manoeuvring of local small-scale mining operators and the reasons for the variations are essential to understand for policymakers and development practitioners. By incorporating prevalent practices and context-dependent variations in some of the crucial organizational components, it is possible to design a robust and resilient regulatory framework for small-scale mining. A number of policy adjustments are consequently proposed.

JØnsson, Jesper Bosse; Fold, Niels

2009-01-01

97

Guideline to good practices for material receipt, inspection, handling, storage, retrieval, and issuance at DOE nuclear facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guide is intended to assist facility maintenance organization in the review of existing methods and in the development of new methods for establishing a material receipt, inspection, handling, storage, retrieval, and issuance process/system which ensures timely delivery of the proper parts and materials, in the condition required for effective maintenance activities, and periodic services which provide unique and/or supplemental maintenance support. It is expected that each DOE facility may use approaches or methods different from those defined in this guide. The specific guidelines that follow reflect generally accepted industry practices. Therefore, deviation from any particular guideline would not, in itself, indicate a problem. If substantive differences exist between the intent of this guideline and actual practice, management should evaluate current practice to determine the meed to include/exclude proposed features. A change in maintenance practice would be appropriate if a performance weakness were determined to exist. The development, documentation, and implementation of other features that further enhance these guidelines for specific applications are encouraged.

1994-06-01

98

Manual materials handling: knowledge and practices among Portuguese health and safety practitioners.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: There are several methodologies to assess the risk involved in Manual Materials Handling (MMH). The aim of this study was to identify the knowledge and use of risk assessment methods among Portuguese Health and Safety (H&S) practitioners. PARTICIPANTS: The study involved the participation of 331 H&S practitioners and other related prevention professionals. METHOD: An e-mail invitation to complete an online survey was sent to all Portuguese registered H&S practitioners. The previously developed and validated questionnaire included three different sections: (1) company characteristics; (2) description of types of MMH tasks performed; and (3) the respondents' use of and knowledge about risk assessment methods for MMH tasks. RESULTS: The answers obtained were collected from almost 350 companies. The characteristics of the companies showed that there is a predominance of external and internal H&S services for Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) and large companies, respectively. The NIOSH equation, Key Indicator Method (KIM) and Manual Assessment Chart (MAC) were identified as the most used and recognised risk assessment methods. CONCLUSION: Questionnaire results show that an important number of Portuguese H&S practitioners recognise some methods but have difficulty applying them correctly. Some practitioners reported that they had never used any type of risk assessment method.

Arezes PM; Miguel AS; Colim AS

2011-01-01

99

Use of concept mapping to explore the influence of food security on food buying practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paradoxically, individuals with food insecurity have been observed to have higher rates of obesity compared with their counterparts with food security. The factors influencing food purchasing behaviors in households with food security vs food insecurity are poorly understood. Using the mixed methods approach of concept mapping, we examined the perceptions and preferences driving the food purchasing behaviors of households with food security vs food insecurity. Twenty-six men and women with food security and 41 men and women with food insecurity from four neighborhoods in Boston, MA, completed the concept mapping process during 2010. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was greater among participants with food insecurity (80.5%) compared with those with food security (61.5%). Participants identified 163 unique factors that influenced their food purchasing behavior. Using multivariate analyses, these factors were grouped into eight unique concepts or clusters that reflected their perceptions of factors hindering healthy eating. Average cluster ratings were similar between participants with food security and food insecurity, suggesting that similar food purchasing behaviors are employed and are perceived similarly in how they hinder or promote healthy eating. The use of emergency food assistance programs may play a role in minimizing the burden of food insecurity while providing access to foods with varying degrees of nutritional quality that may be associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity observed in individuals and households with food insecurity. PMID:22709776

Walker, Renee E; Kawachi, Ichiro

2012-04-25

100

Use of concept mapping to explore the influence of food security on food buying practices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Paradoxically, individuals with food insecurity have been observed to have higher rates of obesity compared with their counterparts with food security. The factors influencing food purchasing behaviors in households with food security vs food insecurity are poorly understood. Using the mixed methods approach of concept mapping, we examined the perceptions and preferences driving the food purchasing behaviors of households with food security vs food insecurity. Twenty-six men and women with food security and 41 men and women with food insecurity from four neighborhoods in Boston, MA, completed the concept mapping process during 2010. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was greater among participants with food insecurity (80.5%) compared with those with food security (61.5%). Participants identified 163 unique factors that influenced their food purchasing behavior. Using multivariate analyses, these factors were grouped into eight unique concepts or clusters that reflected their perceptions of factors hindering healthy eating. Average cluster ratings were similar between participants with food security and food insecurity, suggesting that similar food purchasing behaviors are employed and are perceived similarly in how they hinder or promote healthy eating. The use of emergency food assistance programs may play a role in minimizing the burden of food insecurity while providing access to foods with varying degrees of nutritional quality that may be associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity observed in individuals and households with food insecurity.

Walker RE; Kawachi I

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

Facts about food irradiation: Microbiological safety of irradiated food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This fact sheet considers the microbiological safety of irradiated food, with especial reference to Clostridium botulinum. Irradiated food, as food treated by any ''sub-sterilizing'' process, must be handled, packaged and stored following good manufacturing practices to prevent growth and toxin production of C. botulinum. Food irradiation does not lead to increased microbiological hazards, nor can it be used to save already spoiled foods. 4 refs

1991-01-01

102

Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment and Excess Sludge Handling Practices in the Federated States of Micronesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of wastewater treatment facilities in the Federated States of Micronesia revealed a lack of fully functional treatment systems and conditions that potentially could lead to adverse environmental impacts and public health concerns. Due to inadequate facilities, the amount and composition of wastewater entering the plants as well as the degree of treatment being achieved is largely unknown. In some cases raw sewage is being discharged directly into the ocean and waste sludge is regularly taken by local residents for agricultural purposes without adequate treatment. In addition, the need to establish best management practices for placement and maintenance of septic tanks is urgent. Furthermore, development of eco-friendly solutions is needed to more effectively treat wastewater from industrial and agricultural sources in an effort to abate current pollution problems. Comparisons of treatment methods being used and problems encountered at different locations in the islands would provide valuable information to aid in the development of sustainable treatment practices throughout Micronesia.

Joseph D. Rouse

2013-01-01

103

Handling and reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens: A practice survey among pathologists  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are controversies on how to best sample and report radical prostatectomy specimens in order to accurately assess prognostic factors. The propensity for obedience to proposed guidelines are controversial likewise. We conducted a survey among Turkish pathologists and residents to assess the attitudes on this issue. Participants were asked about their pathology practice and how they fix, cut and sample the gland or report histologic-based prognostic factors. The results are discussed in the light of the current literature. Fifty-five percent of the 103 participants were studying in centers reporting over 10000 surgical specimens per year, 20% of which were non-university settings. The results showed that submission of whole gland (55%) and volume assessment (25%) were usually practiced in university hospitals (p<0.001 and p=0.02, respectively). Whole mount sectioning was not performed in any center. None of the participants use an alternative grading system, 19% comment upon tertiary Gleason pattern but define it as either the third most frequent pattern (10%) or the highest grade constituting less than 5% of tumor (8%). Prognostic factors of proven significance as Gleason score, extraprostatic extension, vesicula seminalis invasion, and margin status are searched and commented by all respondents while the factors that require validation in multivariate studies are generally assessed by university members.

Ba?ak DO?ANAV?ARG?L; ?lke NALBANTO?LU; Mine HEK?MG?L

2007-01-01

104

The handling of urinary incontinence in Danish general practices after distribution of guidelines and voiding diary reimbursement: an observational study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Though urinary incontinence (UI) is a bothersome condition for the individual patient, the patients tend not to inform their physician about UI and the physician tend not to ask the patient. Recently different initiatives have been established in Danish general practices to improve the management of UI. The aim of this study was to identify the handling of urinary incontinence (UI) in Danish general practices after distribution of clinical guidelines and reimbursement for using a UI diary. Methods In October 2001, a questionnaire was sent to 243 general practitioners (GPs) in Frederiksborg County following distribution of clinical guidelines in July 1999 (UI in general practice) and September 2001 (UI in female, geriatric, or neurological patients). A policy for a small reimbursement to GPs for use of a fluid intake/voiding diary in the assessment of UI in general practice was implemented in October 2001. Information concerning monthly reimbursement for using a voiding diary, prescribed drugs (presumably used for treating UI), UI consultations in outpatient clinics, and patient reimbursement for pads was obtained from the National Health Service County Registry. Results Of the 132 (54%) GPs who replied, 87% had read the guidelines distributed 2 years before, but only 47% used them daily. The majority (69%) of the responding GPs had read and appreciated 1–3 other UI guidelines distributed before the study took place. Eighty-three percent of the responding GPs sometimes or often actively asked their patients about UI, and 92% sometimes or often included a voiding diary in the UI assessment. The available registry data concerning voiding diary reimbursement, prescribed UI drugs, UI consultations in outpatient clinics, and patient reimbursement for pads were insufficient or too variable to determine significant trends. Conclusion GPs management of UI in a Danish county may be reasonable, but low response rate to the questionnaire and insufficient registry data made it difficult to evaluate the impact of different UI initiatives.

Viktrup Lars; Møller Lars

2004-01-01

105

Practical handling of AIO admixtures - Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 10.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

All-in-one admixtures (AIO-admixtures) provide safe, effective and low-risk PN (parenteral nutrition) for practically all indications and applications. Water, energy (carbohydrates and lipids), amino acids, vitamins and trace elements are infused together with PN either as industrially-manufactured AIO admixtures provided as two- or three-chamber bags (shelf life usually more than 12 months) completed with electrolytes and micronutrients where appropriate or as individually compounded ready-to-use AIO admixtures (compounding, usually prepared by a pharmacy on either a daily or weekly basis and stored at 2-8 degrees C). Physico-chemical and microbial stability of an AIO admixture is essential for the safety and effectiveness of patient-specific PN, and its assurance requires specialist pharmaceutical knowledge. The stability should be documented for an application period of 24 (-48) hours. It is advisable to offer a limited selection of different PN regimes in each hospital. For reasons of drug and medication safety, PN admixtures prepared for individual patients must be correctly labelled and specifications for storage conditions must also be followed during transport. Monitoring is required where applicable. Micronutrients are usually administered separately to AIO admixtures. In case compatibility and stability have been well documented trace elements and/or combination preparations including water-soluble or water-soluble/fat soluble vitamin supplements can be added to PN admixtures under strict aseptic conditions. AIO admixtures are usually not used as vehicles for drugs (incompatibilities).

Mühlebach S; Franken C; Stanga Z

2009-01-01

106

Practical handling of AIO admixtures – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 10  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available All-in-one admixtures (AIO-admixtures) provide safe, effective and low-risk PN (parenteral nutrition) for practically all indications and applications. Water, energy (carbohydrates and lipids), amino acids, vitamins and trace elements are infused together with PN either as industrially-manufactured AIO admixtures provided as two- or three-chamber bags (shelf life usually more than 12 months) completed with electrolytes and micronutrients where appropriate or as individually compounded ready-to-use AIO admixtures (compounding, usually prepared by a pharmacy on either a daily or weekly basis and stored at 2–8°C). Physico-chemical and microbial stability of an AIO admixture is essential for the safety and effectiveness of patient-specific PN, and its assurance requires specialist pharmaceutical knowledge. The stability should be documented for an application period of 24 (–48) hours. It is advisable to offer a limited selection of different PN regimes in each hospital. For reasons of drug and medication safety, PN admixtures prepared for individual patients must be correctly labelled and specifications for storage conditions must also be followed during transport. Monitoring is required where applicable. Micronutrients are usually administered separately to AIO admixtures. In case compatibility and stability have been well documented trace elements and/or combination preparations including water-soluble or water-soluble/fat soluble vitamin supplements can be added to PN admixtures under strict aseptic conditions. AIO admixtures are usually not used as vehicles for drugs (incompatibilities).

Mühlebach, S.; Franken, C.; Stanga, Z.; Working group for developing the guidelines for parenteral nutrition of The German Association for Nutritional Medicine

2009-01-01

107

Principles of the Codex general standard for irradiated foods and associated code of practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Codex Alimentarius Commission, which is the Executive Organ of the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, adopted in 1983 a General Standard for Irradiated Foods and a Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods. The Standard takes into account the conclusions of Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committees, convened to evaluate all available data concerning the effects of irradiation treatment on food, including extensive wholesomeness data and animal tests. The Standard represents a set of principles and requirements for the process and for the irradiated product. It does not go into details concerning the application of food irradiation to individual food products on groups of food products in accordance with good irradiation practice. Such details are covered in a special Codes of Good Irradiation Practice elaborated by the FAO/IAEA/WHO International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation. The lecture will describe the various provisions of the Codex Standard for Irradiated Foods and the Code and provide explanation of the intent of these provisions, drawing attention to the actual practices followed by Governments in regulating food irradiation. (author). 12 refs.

1993-01-01

108

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of University Students Regarding the Use of Nutritional Information and Food Labels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The food nutrition label provides the nutrition information that helps consumers on food choices and used to give us information so that customer can choose between foods. This study was aimed to determine the association between knowledge, attitude and practices on food label use and to determine the factors that influence the use of food labels during making food purchasing decision among university students. A cross-sectional study of undergraduate students at UiTM Puncak Alam in the Kuala Selangor district of Malaysia was conducted in June until July 2011. Three hundred twenty nine students (n = 329) volunteered to complete a Food Label Use Questionnaire (FLUQ) which included question about sociodemographics, level of knowledge about food and nutrition, attitude and practices related to using food labels and factors affecting the use of food labelling. Hypothesis testing was completed using Independent t-test, Pearson chi-square and descriptive analysis in which the statistical significant level was set at a = 0.05. The results show that, only 21.6% of the students often use the food label during food purchasing decision. These study shows that the practices by read the nutrition information were significantly associated with the use of food label (p<0.05). The important aspect during buying food product was expiry date (98.5%), taste (95.7%), price (92.4%) and nutrient content (90.5%) were significantly associated with the use of food label. The students attitude which is do not know how to use nutritional information label (p = 0.028) and label was not attractive (p = 0.037) were significantly associated on food label use.

G. Nurliyana; M.N. Norazmir; M.I. Khairil Anuar

2011-01-01

109

'Going green' in food services: Can health care adopt environmentally friendly practices?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sustainability and the environment are issues influencing individual and organizational choices on purchasing, waste management, and energy-saving practices. The food service industry and related stakeholders have reported active pursuit of initiatives to reduce environmental impacts. We examine reported environmentally friendly practices being implemented in the food service industry and consider ways in which health care or hospital food services can adopt some of these programs. Building and equipment, waste management, food, and non-food supplies and procurement are considered. Suggestions are made for small changes to start the green initiative in each of these areas. A health care food service department is a large consumer of resources, and therefore food service workers, managers, dietitians, and administrators can make a significant difference by supporting and adopting environmentally friendly practices. Further studies are needed to determine which practices are currently being implemented in health care facilities in Canada, as well as perceived facilitators and barriers to these practices in the food service area.

Wilson ED; Garcia AC

2011-01-01

110

Food proteins and gut mucosal barrier. IV. Effects of acute and chronic ethanol administration on handling and uptake of bovine serum albumin by rat small intestine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of ethanol exposure on small intestinal handling and uptake of radiolabeled bovine serum albumin were investigated using everted gut sacs. There was less breakdown of BSA after acute ethanol administration in vitro and after acute and chronic in vivo exposure. Thus, the vascular compartment of the small intestine was confronted with more complete and potentially more antigenic material after ethanol. Changes in BSA binding and uptake after acute exposure were shown to be reversible after 4-6 hr. In all groups, there was more BSA binding when the small intestine was exposed to ethanol. This difference was most pronounced after chronic exposure. In the same group, uptake of BSA was correlated with binding and significantly increased. Combined effects of ethanol on the gut mucosal barrier may account for changes in food antigen handling and uptake.

Stern, M.; Carter, E.A.; Walker, W.A.

1986-11-01

111

What do Andy Warhol, pecorino and wasabi have in common? Food practices in Ljubljana and Maribor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors present an analysis of food practices based on the research project »Media consumption, class and cultural stratification«. A cluster analysis of data obtained from a random sample of the adult population in Ljubljana and Maribor, the two biggest cities in Slovenia, revealed four food cultures: Aspiring traditionalists (27% of the sample), Struggling traditionalists (32%), Health conscious and socially responsible hedonists (29%) and Traditionalists, adapted to urban trends (12%). The findings support previous research which recognises significant associations between food practices, socio-demographic factors (particularly education), values and cultural consumption. The data show that food practices in Ljubljana and Maribor are still primarily traditionalistic, as are several other practices of everyday life.

Tanja Kamin; Blanka Tivadar; Samo Kropivnik

2012-01-01

112

4 Management of Food Safety Practices – Achieving Active ...  

Science.gov (United States)

Text Version... adverse advisory. Tetrodoxin Puffer fish (Fugu; Blowfish) Do not consume these fish. Mycotoxins Aflatoxin Patulin Corn and ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation

113

Food safety knowledge and practice among elderly people living at home  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the food storage knowledge and practice of elderly people living at home. METHODS: Three phase survey data collection: face to face interviews; dietary diaries with a food frequency questionnaire; and follow up interviews. SETTING: Urban Nottingham. PARTICIPANTS: 809 elderly...

Johnson, A. E.; Donkin, A. J.; Morgan, K.; Lilley, J. M.; Neale, R. J.; Page, R. M.; Silburn, R.

114

Handling Stress  

Science.gov (United States)

... with your baby has a soothing effect. Handling stress More information on handling stress Both short and ... stress. Return to top More information on handling stress Explore other publications and websites Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep — ...

115

Practical Use Of It In Traceability In Food Value Chains  

Science.gov (United States)

Traceability is today considered an essential requirement for the food value chain due to the need to provide consumers with accurate information in the event of food safety recalls, to provide assurance with regard the source and production systems for food products and in certain countries to comply with government legislation. Within an individual business traceability can be quite simple to implement, however, in a global trading market, traceability of the entire supply chain, including logistics is extremely complex. For this reason IT solutions such as TraceTracker have been developed which not only provide electronic solutions for complete traceability but also allow products to be tracked at any point in the supply chain.

Ratcliff, Jon; Boddington, Michael

116

78 FR 28228 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Best Practices for Conducting and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Best Practices for Conducting and Reporting...for industry and FDA staff entitled ``Best Practices for Conducting and Reporting...The guidance is intended to describe best practices pertaining to conducting...

2013-05-14

117

School food policies and practices: a state-wide survey of secondary school principals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe food-related policies and practices in secondary schools in Minnesota. DESIGN: Mailed anonymous survey including questions about the secondary school food environment and food-related practices and policies. SUBJECTS/SETTING: Members of a statewide professional organization for secondary school principals (n = 610; response rate: 463/610 = 75%). Of the 463 surveys returned, 336 met the eligibility criteria (current position was either principal or assistant principal and school included at least one of the grades of 9 through 12). STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Descriptive statistics examined the prevalence of specific policies and practices. Chi2 analysis examined associations between policies and practices and school variables. RESULTS: Among principals, 65% believed it was important to have a nutrition policy for the high school; however, only 32% reported a policy at their school. Principals reported positive attitudes about providing a healthful school food environment, but 98% of the schools had soft drink vending machines and 77% had contracts with soft drink companies. Food sold at school fundraisers was most often candy, fruit, and cookies. APPLICATIONS: Dietetics professionals who work in secondary school settings should collaborate with other key school staff members and parents to develop and implement a comprehensive school nutrition policy. Such a policy could foster a school food environment that is supportive of healthful food choices among youth.

French SA; Story M; Fulkerson JA

2002-12-01

118

Impact of Food Allergies on School Nursing Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Food allergies affect 11 million Americans, including 6-8% of children. The rate of peanut allergies in children doubled from 1997 to 2002. There is no cure; therefore, strict avoidance of the allergen is the only way to avoid a reaction. Fatalities are associated with delays in or lack of epinephrine administration. Severe reactions, called…

Weiss, Christopher; Munoz-Furlong, Anne; Furlong, Terence J.; Arbit, Julie

2004-01-01

119

Identifying Key Risk Behaviors Regarding Personal Hygiene and Food Safety Practices of Food Handlers Working in Eating Establishments Located Within a Hospital Campus in Kolkata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Hospital canteens cater to a large population group and personal hygiene and food safety practices of food handlers assume immense importance to prevent food borne disease outbreaks. Objectives: To assess the self-reported behaviour of food handlers on personal hygiene and food safety practices and to find out their morbidity profile. Methods: An observational study was conducted by interviewing 67 consenting food handlers working in different eateries inside a hospital campus, using a pretested, predesigned schedule. Results: Majority (46.3%) of food handlers were educated upto primary level. Only 14.9% foodhandlers received preplacement training and 10.5%, preplacement medical checkup. Though practices of hand washing after going to toilet (95.5%) and before preparing food (79.1%) was reported to be quite high but for most other practices, hygiene was found to be low. Cuts/injuries on hands was reported as the most common morbidity in 44.8% but 11.9% continued work without any treatment. Conclusion: Preplacement training and in-service education on personal / food hygiene should be provided to all food handlers. Periodic medical checkups and routine sanitary inspection can improve their adherence to personal hygiene and food safety practices and prevent outbreak of food borne illnesses

Prianka Mukhopadhyay*, Gautam Kr. Joardar, Kanad Bag, Amrita Samanta, Sonali Sain and Sesadri Koley

2012-01-01

120

Eat this, not that! Parental demographic correlates of food-related parenting practices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To understand how parents of adolescents attempt to regulate their children's eating behaviors, the prevalence of specific food-related parenting practices (restriction, pressure-to-eat) by sociodemographic characteristics (parent gender, race/ethnicity, education level, employment status, and household income) were examined within a population-based sample of parents (n=3709) of adolescents. Linear regression models were fit to estimate the association between parent sociodemographic characteristics and parental report of food restriction and pressure-to-eat. Overall, findings suggest that use of controlling food-related parenting practices, such as pressuring children to eat and restricting children's intake, is common among parents of adolescents, particularly among parents in racial/ethnic minority subgroups, parents with less than a high school education, and parents with a low household income. Results indicate that that social or cultural traditions, as well as parental access to economic resources, may contribute to a parent's decision to utilize specific food-related parenting practices. Given that previous research has found that restriction and pressure-to-eat food-related parenting practices can negatively impact children's current and future dietary intake, differences in use of these practices by sociodemographic characteristics may contribute, in part, to the disparities that exist in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents by their race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

Loth KA; MacLehose RF; Fulkerson JA; Crow S; Neumark-Sztainer D

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

School food environments and practices affect dietary behaviors of US public school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Changes to school food environments and practices that lead to improved dietary behavior are a powerful strategy to reverse the childhood obesity epidemic. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the effects of school food environments and practices, characterized by access to competitive foods and beverages, school lunches, and nutrition promotion, on children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, low-nutrient energy-dense foods, and fruits/vegetables at school. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using data from the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study, a nationally representative sample of public school districts, schools, and children in school year 2004-2005. Data from school principals and foodservice directors, school menu analysis, and on-site observations were used to characterize school food environments and practices. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls. SUBJECTS/SETTING: The sample consists of 287 schools and 2,314 children in grades one through 12. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Ordinary least squares regression was used to identify the association between school food environments and practices (within elementary, middle, and high schools) and dietary outcomes, controlling for other school and child/family characteristics. RESULTS: Sugar-sweetened beverages obtained at school contributed a daily mean of 29 kcal in middle school children and 46 kcal in high school children across all school children. Attending a school without stores or snack bars was estimated to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by 22 kcal per school day in middle school children (P<0.01) and by 28 kcal in high school children (P<0.01). The lack of a pouring rights contract in a school reduced sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by 16 kcal (P<0.05), and no à la carte offerings in a school reduced consumption by 52 kcal (P<0.001) in middle school children. The most effective practices for reducing energy from low-energy, energy-dense foods were characteristics of the school meal program; not offering french fries reduced low-nutrient, energy-dense foods consumption by 43 kcal in elementary school children (P<0.01) and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by 41 kcal in high school children (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: To improve children's diet and reduce obesity continued changes to school food environments and practices are essential. Removing sugar-sweetened beverages from school food stores and snack bars, improving à la carte choices, and reducing the frequency of offering french fries merit testing as strategies to reduce energy from low-nutrient, energy-dense foods at school.

Briefel RR; Crepinsek MK; Cabili C; Wilson A; Gleason PM

2009-02-01

122

Kinematic analysis of an appetitive food-handling behavior: the functional morphology of Syrian hamster cheek pouches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prodigious food hoarding in Syrian hamsters Mesocricetus auratus Waterhouse is strongly linked to appetite and is made possible by large internal cheek pouches. We provide a functional analysis of the cheek pouch and its associated retractor muscle. Frame-by-frame analysis of videotaped pouch-filling behavior revealed multiple jaw cycles for each food item pouched and the use of more jaw cycles to pouch large food items ( approximately 2.5 g chow pellets) than small (corn kernels or sunflower seed with husks). These results stand in contrast to previously reported pouching kinematics in the externally pouched Dipodomys deserti, which uses only one jaw cycle per pouching event. Comparison of pouching and mastication in the same individuals also suggests that in Syrian hamsters, feeding jaw cycles are modulated to accommodate pouch filling primarily by the addition of a pause between fast open and fast close phases, which we call ;gape phase'. Contrary to previous assertions, the retractor muscle does not merely provide structural support for the full pouch during locomotion. Video analysis of ten hamsters with unilaterally denervated retractor muscles and electrophysiological study of an anaesthetized subject confirmed that retractor muscle activity during pouch filling increases pouching efficiency for food items subsequent to the first. PMID:17704084

Buckley, Carolyn A; Schneider, Jill E; Cundall, David

2007-09-01

123

Influence of postharvest handling practices and dip treatments on development of black root rot on fresh market carrots.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Standard postharvest handling practices for fresh market carrots (Daucus carota) grown in organic soils in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia were monitored during 1990–1992 at two grading and packaging operations. Root samples were obtained from 29 loads over the harvest season (July to November) at various stages after carrots were washed, sized, graded, and packaged; and the samples were assessed for the development of black root rot, caused by Chalara elegans (Thielaviopsis basicola). Disease was not detected on carrots harvested by hand from fields infested with the pathogen, and was less than 5% on carrots sampled from the truck following mechanized harvesting. The percentage of carrots that developed disease upon incubation at 25 C increased after each step of the grading and packaging operation (washer, brush rollers, sizer, and grader). The highest disease incidence was observed on carrots that were graded and packaged into polyethylene bags and stored at room temperature; however, no visible disease symptoms developed on these carrots when they were stored at 7–10 C. The pathogen was detected with a carrot root disk baiting assay in more than 60% of the carrot loads, mostly in soil adhering to the roots, and was also found in the wash water and on the surface of the conveyor belts. The inoculum level was generally found to increase with each step of the grading process. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the effects of wounding, time and frequency of inoculation, and incubation temperature on the development of black root rot. Wounding at harvest, a postharvest inoculation treatment, incubation at 30 C for 24 hr, and additional postharvest wounding were all found to significantly (P = 0.05) enhance disease development. When artificially wounded and inoculated carrot roots or root slices were dipped in a 0.05 or 0.1 M solution of either calcium propionate or potassium sorbate for 2 min, disease development was significantly (P = 0.05) reduced compared to the standard sodium hypochlorite treatment (100 ?g/ml of chlorine). Treatments applied to carrot tissues within 24 hr after inoculation provided a significantly higher level of disease reduction than those applied just prior to inoculation. The effectiveness of both calcium propionate and sodium hypochlorite was considerably better at low pH than at a higher pH. Ammonium bicarbonate, potassium carbonate, and sodium bicarbonate also reduced disease development compared to the water control; but the level of disease control achieved was not economically acceptable.

Punja ZK; Gaye MM

1993-10-01

124

Food webs: a ladder for picking strawberries or a practical tool for practical problems?  

Science.gov (United States)

While food webs have provided a rich vein of research material over the last 50 years, they have largely been the subject matter of the pure ecologist working in natural habitats. While there are some notable exceptions to this trend, there are, as I explain in this paper, many applied questions that could be answered using a food web approach. The paper is divided into two halves. The first half provides a brief review of six areas where food webs have begun to be used as an applied tool: restoration ecology, alien species, biological control, conservation ecology, habitat management and global warming. The second half outlines five areas in which a food web approach could prove very rewarding: urban ecology, agroecology, habitat fragmentation, cross-habitat food webs and ecosystem services. PMID:19451120

Memmott, Jane

2009-06-27

125

Food webs: a ladder for picking strawberries or a practical tool for practical problems?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While food webs have provided a rich vein of research material over the last 50 years, they have largely been the subject matter of the pure ecologist working in natural habitats. While there are some notable exceptions to this trend, there are, as I explain in this paper, many applied questions that could be answered using a food web approach. The paper is divided into two halves. The first half provides a brief review of six areas where food webs have begun to be used as an applied tool: restoration ecology, alien species, biological control, conservation ecology, habitat management and global warming. The second half outlines five areas in which a food web approach could prove very rewarding: urban ecology, agroecology, habitat fragmentation, cross-habitat food webs and ecosystem services.

Memmott J

2009-06-01

126

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

1985-01-01

127

Impact of Media and Education on Food Practices in Urban Area of Varanasi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Currently food malpractices are increasing in various metro cities of India and all the measures taken by agencies are failed to detect rapidly and many times it becomes late when the adulteration is detected. Worst scenario is the adulteration of some branded items of the children’s and in the women’s use such as milk cheese, ghee and oils. Therefore, Study for food practices and safety measures was done in selected area of Varanasi which was also validated by the wetlab methods. Methods: For this objective, questionnaire was prepared and distributed among selected people depending on their age group, sex and educational background. Statistical test were carried out on the basis of frequency of male and female respondents obtained in total respondents (n = 300). Chi square test were done and the calculated value were compared with value of t test (0.05) and on this basis, conclusion were drawn. Results: Result shows that regardless of the age income and religion, all of the groups are well aware the food adulteration and educated people are less prone to the effect. In terms of adulteration any how all the stores contains adulterated food however branded items contains less %age of adulteration than local item. This may be caused due to inactive agencies or longer process of legal system Conclusions: Study show that there is lag in following the food practices by all the ages in spite of having good media awareness program and knowledge of food practices.

Bhatt Shuchi R, Bhatt Sheeendra M, Singh Anita

2012-01-01

128

Bringing good food to others: investigating the subjects of alternative food practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Under the banner of food justice, the last few years has seen a profusion of projects focused on selling, donating, bringing or growing fresh fruits and vegetables in neighborhoods inhabited by African Americans — often at below market prices — or educating them to the quality of locally grown, seas...

Guthman, Julie

129

Bringing good food to others: investigating the subjects of alternative food practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Under the banner of food justice, the last few years has seen a profusion of projects focused on selling, donating, bringing or growing fresh fruits and vegetables in neighborhoods inhabited by African Americans — often at below market prices — or educating them to the quality of lo...

130

Food packaging and shelf life : a practical guide / edited by Gordon L. Robertson.  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

"The importance of packaging hardly needs stressing since only a handful of foods are sold in an unpackaged state. With an increasing focus on sustainability and cost-effectiveness, responsible companies no longer want to over-package their food products, yet many remain unsure just where reductions can effectively be made. Food Packaging and Shelf Life: A Practical Guide provides package developers with the information they need to specify just the right amount of protective packaging to maintain food quality and maximize shelf life. Current food packaging must take into consideration the biochemical, chemical, physical, and biological changes that occur during processing, distribution, and storage. Organized according to chapters devoted to specific food products, this practical handbook defines - for the first time - the indices of failure for foods as diverse as milk, fruits, bottled water, juices, vegetables, fish, and beef. It discusses the deteriorative reactions for each and reviews how different packaging materials may influence time to failure and thus shelf life."--Publisher's description.

131

Practice for dosimetry in gamma irradiation facilities for food processing. 1. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This practice outlines dosimetric procedures to be followed in irradiator characterization, process qualification and routine processing of food with ionizing radiation from isotopic gamma sources to ensure that all products have been treated within a predetermined range of absorbed dose. Other procedures related to irradiator characterization, process qualification and routine processing that may influence absorbed dose in the product are also discussed. Information about effective or regulatory dose limits for food products is not within the scope of this practice (see Guides F 1355 and F 1356). Dosimetry is only one component of a total quality assurance program for adherence to good manufacturing practices used in the production of safe and wholesome food. Practice E 1431 describes dosimetric procedures for electron beam and bremsstrahlung (X-ray) irradiation facilities for food processing. For guidance on the selection, calibration, and use of specific dosimeters and interpretation of absorbed doses in the product from dosimetry measurements, see Guide E 1261; Practices E 666, E 668, E 1026, E 1205, E 1275, E 1276, E 1310 and E 1401. For discussion on radiation dosimetry for gamma rays and X-rays see ICRU Report 14

1998-01-01

132

Impact of the changing food environment on dietary practices of an Inuit population in Arctic Canada.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Nutritional inadequacies and increasing chronic disease prevalence amongst Inuit in the Canadian Arctic highlight the need to address dietary practices. Research is needed to investigate the individual and environmental factors impacting diet to guide interventions. The present study aimed to explore multiple community perspectives of key factors affecting food choice and availability in Inuit communities in Nunavut, Canada. METHODS: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with Inuit adults (n=43) in two communities in Nunavut, Canada, and included community members, community leaders, elders, health staff and food shop staff. The interviewer transcribed the audio-taped interviews. Data were analysed using codes and the constant comparative method to determine categories and emergent themes. RESULTS: Thirty-three Inuit (27 females and six males) and 10 non-Inuit (four females and six males) adults participated. Traditional foods procured through hunting and gathering were considered the healthiest by community members, although multiple factors inhibited their procurement, including high petrol cost and decrease in traditional knowledge about hunting and gathering practices. Cost and quality were the main barriers to purchasing healthy foods at the shops. Community leaders and health staff identified multiple barriers to healthy eating in the community, such as skills to prepare some shop-bought foods. Shop managers identified several challenges to providing fresh produce and other perishable foods, such as long transportation routes that increase costs and harsh climatic conditions that may cause spoilage. They also cited factors influencing their decisions regarding whether to stock/discontinue certain foods, such as customers' requests, food cost and shelf-life. CONCLUSIONS: An intervention to reduce chronic disease risk and improve dietary adequacy amongst Nunavut Inuit may be effective by supporting individual behaviour modifications with food environment changes.

Mead E; Gittelsohn J; Kratzmann M; Roache C; Sharma S

2010-10-01

133

The Importance of Prebiotics in Functional Foods and Clinical Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prebiotics are substances that can promote the growth of beneficial microorganisms, mainly in the intestinal tract, and will modify the colonic microbiota. The following health benefits are attributed to prebiotics: relief from poor digestion of lactose, increased resistance to bacterial infection, better immune response and possible protection against cancer, reduction of the risk of diseases such as intestinal disease, cardiovascular disease, non-insulin dependent diabetes, obesity and osteoporosis. This article presents a discussion of prebiotics, with descriptions of the concepts and its use in clinical practice, and a review of some recent research showing the benefits that these ingredients provide to human health and providing data on the recommended intakes for consumption.

Valéria Maria Caselato de Sousa; Elisvânia Freitas dos Santos; Valdemiro Carlos Sgarbieri

2011-01-01

134

The influence of infant food advertising on infant feeding practices in St. Vincent.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey designed to examine the extent to which infant food advertising could be shown measurably to influence infant feeding practices was carried out in St. Vincent in the eastern Caribbean. A questionnaire was administered to mothers of about 200 children one to two years old, nearly a complete sample in each of two towns. Infant food advertising was found to be uncommon. The typical infant feeding pattern, largely a combination of both breast feeding and bottle feeding, had existed for decades. Despite the fact that this was not a very appropriate setting for such a study and that there were a number of methodological constraints, the results of two multiple regression analyses suggested that the more a mother was influenced by infant food advertising, the sooner she began to bottle feed and the sooner she stopped breastfeeding. The cessation of all promotion of commercial infant foods, to the public as well as to health professionals, is called for.

Greiner T; Latham MC

1982-01-01

135

Adolescents' perspectives and food choice behaviors in terms of the environmental impacts of food production practices: application of a psychosocial model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to investigate adolescents' perspectives about the environmental impacts of food production practices and whether these perspectives are related to their food choice. Food choice was operationalized as consumption and purchase of organic foods and locally grown foods. A survey questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of adolescents and analyzed for descriptive information and relationships among variables. Subjects were 651 ethnically diverse, urban and suburban high school senior students in a major metropolitan area. Variables of an Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior were measured including beliefs, attitudes, perceived social influences, motivation to comply, perceived behavioral control, self-identity, perceived responsibility, behavioral intention, and behavior. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used. Surveyed adolescents did not have strong or consistent beliefs or attitudes about the environmental impact of food production practices. Cognitive-motivational processes were at work, however, since their perspectives were significantly correlated with behavioral intentions and food choice behaviors. Behavioral intention was best accounted for by attitudes and perceived social influences (and perceived responsibility for organic food), and behavior was best accounted for by behavioral intentions, beliefs, and perceived social influences (and self-identity for local food). There is a need to make salient to adolescents the environmental impact of food production practices through both cognitive and experiential approaches.

Bissonnette MM; Contento IR

2001-03-01

136

Adolescents' perspectives and food choice behaviors in terms of the environmental impacts of food production practices: application of a psychosocial model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to investigate adolescents' perspectives about the environmental impacts of food production practices and whether these perspectives are related to their food choice. Food choice was operationalized as consumption and purchase of organic foods and locally grown foods. A survey questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of adolescents and analyzed for descriptive information and relationships among variables. Subjects were 651 ethnically diverse, urban and suburban high school senior students in a major metropolitan area. Variables of an Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior were measured including beliefs, attitudes, perceived social influences, motivation to comply, perceived behavioral control, self-identity, perceived responsibility, behavioral intention, and behavior. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used. Surveyed adolescents did not have strong or consistent beliefs or attitudes about the environmental impact of food production practices. Cognitive-motivational processes were at work, however, since their perspectives were significantly correlated with behavioral intentions and food choice behaviors. Behavioral intention was best accounted for by attitudes and perceived social influences (and perceived responsibility for organic food), and behavior was best accounted for by behavioral intentions, beliefs, and perceived social influences (and self-identity for local food). There is a need to make salient to adolescents the environmental impact of food production practices through both cognitive and experiential approaches. PMID:12031187

Bissonnette, M M; Contento, I R

137

Best Practices for Serving Students with Special Food and/or Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research project was to identify goals and establish best practices for school nutrition (SN) programs that serve students with special food and/or nutrition needs based on the four practice categories identified in previous National Food Service Management Institute, Applied Research Division (NFSMI, ARD)…

Castillo, Alexandra; Carr, Deborah; Nettles, Mary Frances

2010-01-01

138

Development of an Edible Antimicrobial Coating for Perishable Foods  

Science.gov (United States)

Foods, particularly fresh produces, are vulnerable to bacterial contamination during processing, transportation, and handling in grocery stores and at home. Food grade antimicrobial coating on perishable foods is promising new area of research and practical applications. In this study, we develope...

139

Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially.

Hjelmar U

2011-04-01

140

Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially. PMID:21192997

Hjelmar, Ulf

2010-12-28

 
 
 
 
141

Weaning foods and their impact on child-feeding practices among low-income Nigerian mothers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Many children in rural communities of developing countries die of nutrition-related causes due to lack of nutrition education and low purchasing power of the families, which result in low-quality weaning foods and poor feeding practices. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nutritional composition of local weaning foods and their impact on child feeding practices among low-income Nigerian mothers. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and June 2005 among 294 randomly selected pairs of nursing mothers and their children who attended the postnatal clinic of State Specialist Hospital and Comprehensive Health Centers in Akure community, Ondo State, Nigeria. A structured, self-or interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on infant demographic characteristics, feeding, and socioeconomic characteristics of the parents. The children's weights were recorded, and samples of the weaning foods were analyzed. RESULTS: The mothers' ages ranged from 22 to 37 years, and the children's from one to 12 months. Among the parents, two-fifths of the respondents worked as drivers, mechanics, carpenters, and the like, while the remaining respondents were civil servants, health professionals, teachers, merchants, and housewives. The educational attainment of the parents ranged from no formal education (1.4%) to higher education (46%); 13% had completed primary school, and 39.6% had completed secondary school. The average monthly family income was between 3,500 and 30,000 naira (US dollar 23.3-dollar 200). Among the children, 58.3% were of normal weight, 41.1% were mildly underweight, 0.3% moderately underweight, and 0.3% severely underweight; 23.1% were exclusively breastfed, 9.5% received breastmilk and traditional medicinal herbs, 15.6% received breastmilk and commercial weaning food, 7.4% received commercial weaning food only, 14.8% received local weaning foods only, 24.1% received local weaning foods plus breastmilk, and 5.8% received the family diet. CONCLUSIONS: We found that a high proportion of the nursing mothers used local ingredients to formulate weaning foods for their babies. The nutritional compositions of these foods is of high quality and are suitable as weaning foods, particularly for infants of low-income parents who do not have access to commercial weaning foods.

Ijarotimi OS; Ogunsemore MT

2006-12-01

142

Food selection and preparation practices in a group of young low-income women in Montreal.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents results from an interview and focus group study of cooking practices in a group of young, low-income women in Montreal. Overall, food choices appeared to be high in refined carbohydrates and relatively low in fresh vegetables and fruit. Participants prepared packaged noodle and sauce dishes often, as well as other packaged sauces, in part because of concern for food waste. Participants felt that the cost of spices was prohibitive. Results illustrate how individuals manage their resources under conditions of financial challenge, given other life circumstances. PMID:21145934

Engler-Stringer, Rachel

2010-12-09

143

Food selection and preparation practices in a group of young low-income women in Montreal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents results from an interview and focus group study of cooking practices in a group of young, low-income women in Montreal. Overall, food choices appeared to be high in refined carbohydrates and relatively low in fresh vegetables and fruit. Participants prepared packaged noodle and sauce dishes often, as well as other packaged sauces, in part because of concern for food waste. Participants felt that the cost of spices was prohibitive. Results illustrate how individuals manage their resources under conditions of financial challenge, given other life circumstances.

Engler-Stringer R

2011-02-01

144

Engine handling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thirty-one papers are included in the following subject areas: general considerations of design, experience with combat aircraft engine handling, thermal transients effects on components characteristics, aerothermodynamic interactions and modeling for compressor systems and engine transient behavior, and control system concepts for advanced engine handling. (MHR)

1983-02-01

145

Well handled: offshore manual handling solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is to help employers in the offshore oil and gas industry to reduce or eliminate risks from manual handling to their employees. Work in this industry requires extensive manual handling during drilling, production and support activities. Unfortunately these handling tasks often contribute to musculoskeletal injuries, especially to the lower back and shoulders. This book consists of a set of 43 case studies describing real solutions implemented by North Sea operators and contractors. Many of the solutions are simple, cost-effective measures which were developed through co-operation between employers and their employees, and often through joint initiatives between contractors and operating companies. These case studies serve as examples of good practice which can be applied by other employers throughout the offshore industry. The basic principles can also be applied by many onshore industries. (author)

NONE

1997-11-01

146

Feeding Style Differences in Food Parenting Practices Associated with Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Children from Low-Income Families.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the moderating effects of feeding styles on the relationship between food parenting practices and fruit and vegetable (F & V) intake in low-income families with preschool-aged children. DESIGN: Focus group meetings with Head Start parents were conducted by using the nominal group technique. Parents completed information on food parenting practices and feeding styles. Three dietary recalls were collected on each child. SETTING: Parents completed measures in Head Start centers and/or over the telephone. PARTICIPANTS: 667 parents of preschool-aged children participated. OUTCOMES: Food parenting practices and F & V intake. ANALYSIS: Mean differences in the food parenting practices across the 4 feeding styles were established through multivariate general linear modeling using MANOVA. Moderated multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the moderating role of feeding style on food parenting practices and child F & V intake. RESULTS: The indulgent feeding style moderated the relationship between food parenting practices and child F & V intake. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: This study indicates that parents' feeding styles have a moderating effect on the relationship between the food parenting practices and children's F & V intake. This finding can facilitate the development of interventions aimed at reducing childhood overweight.

Papaioannou MA; Cross MB; Power TG; Liu Y; Qu H; Shewchuk RM; Hughes SO

2013-07-01

147

The Social Determinants of Food Purchasing Practices: Who Chooses Price-before-Health, Taste-before-Price or Organic Foods in Australia?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of the extent to which cost, taste and health considerations impact food purchasing practices in Australia was conducted. Data were gathered from a national computer assisted telephone survey of 1109 randomly sampled house- holders and analysed using multiple logistic regression analysis. 88% of respondents considered the taste of food before its price, with females and people on higher incomes more likely to do so. 52% of respondents said that they considered the price of food before its health and nutritional benefits, with males, younger people and people with lower educa- tional qualifications more likely to do so. 49% said that they purchase organic food, with people with 1 child, full-time employed and people never married more likely to do so. Overall, gender, income, education, work status, age and family size are all important predictors of food purchasing practices in Australia.

Paul R. Ward; Loreen Mamerow; Julie Henderson; Anne W. Taylor; Samantha B. Meyer; John Coveney

2012-01-01

148

Measuring parent food practices: a systematic review of existing measures and examination of instruments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in development of instruments to measure parent food practices. Because these instruments often measure different constructs, or define common constructs differently, an evaluation of these instruments is needed. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify existing measures of parent food practices and to assess the quality of their development. The initial search used terms capturing home environment, parenting behaviors, feeding practices and eating behaviors, and was performed in October of 2009 using PubMed/Medline, PsychInfo, Web of knowledge (ISI), and ERIC, and updated in July of 2012. A review of titles and abstracts was used to narrow results, after which full articles were retrieved and reviewed. Only articles describing development of measures of parenting food practices designed for families with children 2-12 years old were retained for the current review. For each article, two reviewers extracted data and appraised the quality of processes used for instrument development and evaluation. The initial search yielded 28,378 unique titles; review of titles and abstracts narrowed the pool to 1,352 articles; from which 57 unique instruments were identified. The review update yielded 1,772 new titles from which14 additional instruments were identified. The extraction and appraisal process found that 49% of instruments clearly identified and defined concepts to be measured, and 46% used theory to guide instrument development. Most instruments (80%) had some reliability testing, with internal consistency being the most common (79%). Test-retest or inter-rater reliability was reported for less than half the instruments. Some form of validity evidence was reported for 84% of instruments. Construct validity was most commonly presented (86%), usually with analysis of associations with child diet or weight/BMI. While many measures of food parenting practices have emerged, particularly in recent years, few have demonstrated solid development methods. Substantial variation in items across different scales/constructs makes comparison between instruments extremely difficult. Future efforts should be directed toward consensus development of food parenting practices constructs and measures.

Vaughn AE; Tabak RG; Bryant MJ; Ward DS

2013-01-01

149

Knowledge and practice of physicians and nutritionists regarding the prevention of food allergy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND & AIMS: To evaluate the knowledge and practice of pediatricians, pediatric gastroenterologists, allergists and nutritionists regarding the primary prevention of food allergy. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study that enrolled pediatricians (n = 80), pediatric gastroenterologists (n = 120), allergists (n = 100) and nutritionists (n = 220). A self-administered questionnaire concerning the current recommendations was used. RESULTS: Despite the lack of current recommendations, 17.1% (n = 89) of all professionals, mainly nutritionists, recommended a maternal exclusion diet during pregnancy. More professionals in the sample group, 40.8% (n = 212), recommended a maternal exclusion diet during breastfeeding, and the rates of recommendation were higher in nutritionists and pediatricians compared to allergists and pediatric gastroenterologists (p < 0.001). Regarding the recommended timing of the introduction of complementary feeding, 41.9% (n = 218) of the professionals recommended modifying the age of introduction to prevent the development of food allergy. The majority of the professionals believed that prebiotics (61.2%; n = 318) and probiotics (44.4%; 231) prevent the development of food allergy. The recommended age of introduction for the main allergenic foods was 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that there are gaps in the knowledge of professionals about the primary prevention of food allergy.

Ribeiro CC; Leite Speridião Pda G; de Morais MB

2013-08-01

150

Women Food Safety Practices from Shopping to Eating in Ankara, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the methods used for food storage and preparation in the Turkish household and to determine the domestic knowledge on food hygiene and food safety. A sample of 250 randomly selected, voluntary, married Turkish women participated in the survey. The research data were collected through a questionnaire and face-to-face interviews. The research findings revealed that the great majority of the women purchased meat at the end of shopping, thawed raw meat in the refrigerator, left hot food to cool in the room temperature and did not know the required refrigerator temperature for proper food storage. It was determined that 89.2% of the women deemed hand washing very important, but 43.2% of them did not wash their hands appropriately. Ninety point four percent of the women did not know the definition of cross contamination. The findings proved that some practices of the women changed according to their educational status. Considering the foodborne poisonings, the importance of education provided for women becomes evidently clear.

Canan Talas; Asli Ucar; Ozfer Ozcelik

2009-01-01

151

Handling gripper  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The handling gripper has a plate with two locating pins, an angular positioning pin and four hooks that latch onto the end piece of a fuel assembly. An extra locating arm is associated with the angular positioning pin

1988-03-03

152

Cardiac resynchronization therapy: do patient selection and implant practice vary depending on the volume a center handles?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The annual volume of implants may condition and determine many aspects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). METHODS: After the Spanish centers performing CRT were identified, data were recorded voluntarily by each implantation team from September 2010 to September 2011. RESULT: A total of 88 implanter centers were identified, and of these 85 (96.5%) answered the questionnaire. In total, 2,147 device implantations were reported, comprising 85% of the Eucomed's overall estimate for the same period, which was 2,518 implantations. Centers handling a higher volume of implants have a higher percentage of patients referred from other centers and more indications in patients over 80 years of age, with atrial fibrillation (AF), right bundle branch block, and unspecific disorders of intraventricular conduction. These high-volume centers stimulate more frequently in patients with very wide QRS > 200 ms. Lower-volume centers select more classic patients for resynchronization, whereas higher-volume centers increase the rate of patients with AF and prior cardiac stimulation (upgrade). Implant duration is shorter for higher-volume centers, which also perform implants in patients with congenital heart disease. By contrast, there are no significant differences in terms of heart disease, device type (pacemaker or defibrillator), implant techniques, achieved optimal site location, or complications. CONCLUSIONS: High-volume centers perform CRT more frequently in elderly patients, mostly with AF and other alternative implants. No significant differences were found between the complications reported by high-volume centers and those reported by low-volume centers.

Hernández Madrid A; Matía Francés R; Moro C; Zamorano J

2013-07-01

153

Food-related parenting practices and adolescent weight status: a population-based study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine food-related parenting practices (pressure-to-eat and food restriction) among mothers and fathers of adolescents and associations with adolescent weight status within a large population-based sample of racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse parent-adolescent pairs. METHODS: Adolescents (N = 2231; 14.4 years old [SD = 2.0]) and their parents (N = 3431) participated in 2 coordinated population-based studies designed to examine factors associated with weight status and weight-related behaviors in adolescents. Adolescents completed anthropometric measurements and surveys at school. Parents (or other caregivers) completed questionnaires via mail or phone. RESULTS: Findings suggest that the use of controlling food-related parenting practices, including pressure-to-eat and restriction, is common among parents of adolescents. Mean restriction levels were significantly higher among parents of overweight and obese adolescents compared with nonoverweight adolescents. However, levels of pressure-to-eat were significantly higher among nonoverweight adolescents. Results indicate that fathers are more likely than mothers to engage in pressure-to-eat behaviors and boys are more likely than girls to be on the receiving end of parental pressure-to-eat. Parental report of restriction did not differ significantly by parent or adolescent gender. No significant interactions by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status were seen in the relationship between restriction or pressure-to-eat and adolescent weight status. CONCLUSIONS: Given that there is accumulating evidence for the detrimental effects of controlling feeding practices on children's ability to self-regulate energy intake, these findings suggest that parents should be educated and empowered through anticipatory guidance to encourage moderation rather than overconsumption and emphasize healthful food choices rather than restrictive eating patterns.

Loth KA; MacLehose RF; Fulkerson JA; Crow S; Neumark-Sztainer D

2013-05-01

154

Intervention effects on kindergarten and first-grade teachers' classroom food practices and food-related beliefs in American Indian reservation schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prevalence of obesity among American Indian children is higher than the general US population. The school environment and teachers play important roles in helping students develop healthy eating habits. The aim of this prospective study was to examine teachers' classroom and school food practices and beliefs and the effect of teacher training on these practices and beliefs. Data were used from the Bright Start study, a group-randomized, school-based trial that took place on the Pine Ridge American Indian reservation (fall 2005 to spring 2008). Kindergarten and first-grade teachers (n=75) from 14 schools completed a survey at the beginning and end of the school year. Thirty-seven survey items were evaluated using mixed-model analysis of variance to examine the intervention effect for each teacher-practice and belief item (adjusting for teacher type and school as random effect). At baseline, some teachers reported classroom and school food practices and beliefs that supported health and some that did not. The intervention was significantly associated with lower classroom use of candy as a treat (P=0.0005) and fast-food rewards (P=0.008); more intervention teachers disagreed that fast food should be offered as school lunch alternatives (P=0.019), that it would be acceptable to sell unhealthy foods as part of school fundraising (P=0.006), and that it would not make sense to limit students' food choices in school (P=0.035). School-based interventions involving teacher training can result in positive changes in teachers' classroom food practices and beliefs about the influence of the school food environment in schools serving American Indian children on reservations. PMID:23885704

Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J; Himes, John H; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

2013-08-01

155

Intervention effects on kindergarten and first-grade teachers' classroom food practices and food-related beliefs in American Indian reservation schools.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prevalence of obesity among American Indian children is higher than the general US population. The school environment and teachers play important roles in helping students develop healthy eating habits. The aim of this prospective study was to examine teachers' classroom and school food practices and beliefs and the effect of teacher training on these practices and beliefs. Data were used from the Bright Start study, a group-randomized, school-based trial that took place on the Pine Ridge American Indian reservation (fall 2005 to spring 2008). Kindergarten and first-grade teachers (n=75) from 14 schools completed a survey at the beginning and end of the school year. Thirty-seven survey items were evaluated using mixed-model analysis of variance to examine the intervention effect for each teacher-practice and belief item (adjusting for teacher type and school as random effect). At baseline, some teachers reported classroom and school food practices and beliefs that supported health and some that did not. The intervention was significantly associated with lower classroom use of candy as a treat (P=0.0005) and fast-food rewards (P=0.008); more intervention teachers disagreed that fast food should be offered as school lunch alternatives (P=0.019), that it would be acceptable to sell unhealthy foods as part of school fundraising (P=0.006), and that it would not make sense to limit students' food choices in school (P=0.035). School-based interventions involving teacher training can result in positive changes in teachers' classroom food practices and beliefs about the influence of the school food environment in schools serving American Indian children on reservations.

Arcan C; Hannan PJ; Himes JH; Fulkerson JA; Rock BH; Smyth M; Story M

2013-08-01

156

'I mean I expect that it's pretty safe': Perceptions of food trust in pregnancy - implications for primary health care practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a time in which food choice is of particular importance. Trust in the food supply and those who regulate it is receiving greater acknowledgement because of the influence of trust on food choice. No prior investigation into pregnant women and food trust has been conducted. AIMS: This paper identifies factors that determine the nature and extent of pregnant women's trust in food; sources of information which influence pregnant women's food choices; and how trust impacts on pregnant women's food choices. METHOD: In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 pregnant women; nine were pregnant with their first child and four were in their second or subsequent pregnancy. RESULTS: Food choices of pregnant women were predominantly influenced by nutrition and perceived quality of food. Risktaking behaviour, such as the consumption of foods considered high risk during pregnancy, was common amongst participants. The sample was characterised by a dependence on expert information, limited reflexivity in relation to food safety, and contradictory practice such as risk-taking behaviours in regard to high risk foods were observed. CONCLUSION: Further research is needed to confirm findings in this study. Research into consumption of high-risk foods and the information received from healthcare providers would be useful in creating a clearer understanding of whether provision of information is sufficient in communicating risks and promoting a healthy pregnancy.

House E; Coveney J

2013-01-01

157

Farming practices change food web structures in cereal aphid-parasitoid-hyperparasitoid communities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Agricultural intensification has been shown to result in a decline in biodiversity across many taxa, but the changes in community structure and species interactions remain little understood. We have analysed and compared the structure of feeding interactions for cereal aphids and their primary and secondary parasitoids in organically and conventionally managed winter wheat fields using quantitative food web metrics (interaction evenness, generality, vulnerability, link density). Despite little variation in the richness of each trophic group, food web structures between the two farming systems differed remarkably. In contrast to common expectations, aphids and primary parasitoids were characterized by (1) a higher evenness of interaction frequencies (interaction evenness) in conventional fields, which cascaded to interactions at the next trophic level, with (2) a higher interaction evenness, (3) a higher ratio of primary parasitoid taxa per secondary parasitoid (generality) and (4) a higher link density. Aphid communities in the organically managed fields almost exclusively consisted of a single ear-colonizing species, Sitobion avenae, while highly fertilized conventional fields were mainly infested by leaf-colonizing aphids that benefit from the nutritional status of winter wheat. In conclusion, agricultural intensification appears to foster the complexity of aphid-parasitoid food webs, thereby not supporting the general expectation on the importance of organic farming practices for species richness and food web complexity.

Lohaus K; Vidal S; Thies C

2013-01-01

158

Radiation processing of food and allied products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

2009-01-01

159

Droplet Handling  

Science.gov (United States)

When quantitative analysis or quantitative chemical synthesis is performed using a micrototal analysis system (microTAS), the technologies for precise metering, transporting, and mixing of droplets are required. In this chapter, several technologies for the handling of droplets are described. For metering, dispensing and transporting of droplets, pneumatic and electrokinetic forces are used. Separation of cells and particles is also performed by electrical operation. Other handling technique, such as ultrasonic or centrifugal force applications, are also reviewed. Robotic synthesis devices or high throughput screening devices are promising applications for these technologies.

Torii, Toru

160

Food safety and risk communication: cases history and best practice (in avian flu)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of institutional communication in the case of health risks and emergencies. The article is divided in three sections. The first section examines the most recent theories on risk and on its communicational aspect; the second analyses a recent state of emergency crisis, specifically the panic which stemmed from the perceived danger of an avian flu pandemic in Italy; and finally an example of best practice in the form of a food safety handbook designed and edited by the Italian Ministry of Rural Affairs, which was based on the skills and knowledge acquired during the avian flu emergency.

Piermarco Aroldi; Simone Carlo; Fausto Colombo

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant and Aboriginal women in Canada: a study protocol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to understand ethnocultural food and health practices of Aboriginal and immigrant women, and how these intersect with respect to the legacy of Aboriginal colonialism and to the social contexts of cultural adaptation and adjustment of immigrants. The findings will inform the development of visual tools for health promotion by practitioners. Methods/Design This four-phase study employs a case study design allowing for multiple means of data collection and different units of analysis. Phase 1 consists of a scoping review of the literature. Phases 2 and 3 incorporate pictorial representations of food choices (photovoice in Phase 2) with semi-structured photo-elicited interviews (in Phase 3). The findings from Phases 1-3 and consultations with key stakeholders will generate key understandings for Phase 4, the production of culturally appropriate visual tools. For the scoping review, an emerging methodological framework will be utilized in addition to systematic review guidelines. A research librarian will assist with the search strategy and retrieval of literature. For Phases 2 and 3, recruitment of 20-24 women will be facilitated by team member affiliations at perinatal clinics in one of the city's most diverse neighbourhoods. The interviews will reveal culturally normative practices surrounding maternal food choices and consumption, including how women negotiate these practices within their own worldview and experiences. A structured and comprehensive integrated knowledge translation plan has been formulated. Discussion The findings of this study will provide practitioners with an understanding of the cultural differences that affect women's dietary choices during maternity. We expect that the developed resources will be of immediate use within the women's units and will enhance counseling efforts. Wide dissemination of outputs may have a greater long term impact in the primary and secondary prevention of these high risk conditions.

Higginbottom Gina MA; Vallianatos Helen; Forgeron Joan; Gibbons Donna; Malhi Rebecca; Mamede Fabiana

2011-01-01

162

Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant and Aboriginal women in Canada: a study protocol.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to understand ethnocultural food and health practices of Aboriginal and immigrant women, and how these intersect with respect to the legacy of Aboriginal colonialism and to the social contexts of cultural adaptation and adjustment of immigrants. The findings will inform the development of visual tools for health promotion by practitioners. METHODS/DESIGN: This four-phase study employs a case study design allowing for multiple means of data collection and different units of analysis. Phase 1 consists of a scoping review of the literature. Phases 2 and 3 incorporate pictorial representations of food choices (photovoice in Phase 2) with semi-structured photo-elicited interviews (in Phase 3). The findings from Phases 1-3 and consultations with key stakeholders will generate key understandings for Phase 4, the production of culturally appropriate visual tools. For the scoping review, an emerging methodological framework will be utilized in addition to systematic review guidelines. A research librarian will assist with the search strategy and retrieval of literature. For Phases 2 and 3, recruitment of 20-24 women will be facilitated by team member affiliations at perinatal clinics in one of the city's most diverse neighbourhoods. The interviews will reveal culturally normative practices surrounding maternal food choices and consumption, including how women negotiate these practices within their own worldview and experiences. A structured and comprehensive integrated knowledge translation plan has been formulated. DISCUSSION: The findings of this study will provide practitioners with an understanding of the cultural differences that affect women's dietary choices during maternity. We expect that the developed resources will be of immediate use within the women's units and will enhance counseling efforts. Wide dissemination of outputs may have a greater long term impact in the primary and secondary prevention of these high risk conditions.

Higginbottom GM; Vallianatos H; Forgeron J; Gibbons D; Malhi R; Mamede F

2011-01-01

163

Handling and acceptability of the Easi-Breathe device compared with a conventional metered dose inhaler by patients and practice nurses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study compared the handling and acceptability of the Easi-Breathe, a breath-actuated metered dose inhaler (MDI), with that of a conventional MDI. A total of 104 patients and 14 practice nurses took part in interviews at a central location. An additional 100 practice nurses were interviewed in a telephone study. Significantly more patients (86%) found Easi-Breathe easier than a conventional MDI to use correctly (p < or = 0.001). Overall, more patients preferred Easi-Breathe (82% vs 18%; p < or = 0.001), ease of use and confidence in successful dose delivery being the main reasons for their preference. Nurses thought that Easi-Breathe was easier for the vast majority of patients (97%) to use correctly, as well as being easier to teach and to use correctly in a crisis (p < or = 0.001). Overall, 79% of nurses preferred the Easi-Breathe to the conventional MDI (p < or = 0.001), ease of use and ease of teaching being the main reasons for their preference.

Price DB; Pearce L; Powell SR; Shirley J; Sayers MK

1999-01-01

164

The practical analysis of food: the development of Sakalar quantification table of DNA (SQT-DNA).  

Science.gov (United States)

Practical and highly sensitive Sakalar quantification table of DNA (SQT-DNA) has been developed for the detection% of species-specific DNA amount in food products. Cycle threshold (Ct) data were obtained from multiple curves of real-time qPCR. The statistical analysis was done to estimate the concentration of standard dilutions. Amplicon concentrations versus each Ct value were assessed by the predictions of targets at known concentrations. SQT-DNA was prepared by using the percentage versus each Ct values. The applicability of SQT-DNA to commercial foods was proved by using sausages containing varying ratios of beef, chicken, and soybean. The results showed that SQT-DNA can be used to directly quantify food DNA by a single PCR without the need to construct a standart curve in parallel with the samples every time the experiment is performed, and also quantification by SQT-DNA is as reliable as standard curve quantification for a wide range of DNA concentrations. PMID:23790839

Sakalar, Ergün

2013-03-25

165

The Social Determinants of Food Purchasing Practices: Who Chooses Price-before-Health, Taste-before-Price or Organic Foods in Australia?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A survey of the extent to which cost, taste and health considerations impact food purchasing practices in Australia was conducted. Data were gathered from a national computer assisted telephone survey of 1109 randomly sampled house- holders and analysed using multiple logistic regression analysis. 8...

Paul R. Ward; Loreen Mamerow; Julie Henderson; Anne W. Taylor; Samantha B. Meyer; John Coveney

166

Educação alimentar e nutricional no contexto da promoção de práticas alimentares saudáveis Food and nutrition education in the context of promoting healthy food practices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo fazer uma reflexão sobre a educação alimentar e nutricional no contexto da promoção das práticas alimentares saudáveis, apontada como importante estratégia para enfrentar os novos desafios no campo da saúde, alimentação e nutrição. O ponto de partida é a análise de publicações oficiais e documentos recentes do governo brasileiro que norteiam as políticas nesse campo. Embora a relevância da educação alimentar e nutricional seja reconhecida nesse contexto, poucas referências são feitas a ela no que tange à delimitação dos seus limites e possibilidades, como também sobre os elementos que norteiam a sua prática. Os documentos indicam que o objetivo das propostas educativas em alimentação e nutrição é mais subsidiar os indíviduos com informações adequadas, corretas e consistentes sobre alimentos, alimentação e prevenção de problemas nutricionais do que os auxiliar na tomada de decisões. Dessa forma, cresce a importância dos campos da informação e da comunicação, nos quais se enfatizam as estratégias de produção, circulação e controle das informações referentes à alimentação e nutrição, em detrimento das estratégias da educação alimentar e nutricional. Os dois campos parecem se confundir. Argumenta-se, no entanto, que embora os campos do acesso à informação e à comunicação sejam de extrema relevância, eles não são suficientes para a construção de práticas alimentares saudáveis. Assim, urge uma reflexão sobre as bases da educação alimentar e nutricional no contexto que se configura e as possibilidades de sua contribuição.This article deals with food and nutrition education in the context of promoting healthy food practices, considered as an important strategy to face the challenges of health, food and nutrition problems. An analysis of official publications about food and nutrition policies was the starting point. It concluded that food and nutrition education was recognised as important in this context, but there were few references to the delimitation of its limits and possibilities or to the elements directing such practices. The documents indicated that the aim of the proposals for education in food and nutrition were centred more on giving adequate information about food, nutrition and prevention of nutrition problems than on helping people take decisions. Thus there has been an increase in the importance of the information and communication fields with respect to strategies for the production, circulation and control of information about food and nutrition, in detriment of food and nutrition education. In fact, the two fields appear to be mixed. It is argued that although the access to information and communication is very relevant, this is not enough to construct healthy food practices. Therefore, it is essential to reflect on the bases of food and nutrition education in this context as well as the possibilities for its contribution.

Ligia Amparo da Silva Santos

2005-01-01

167

Restrictive feeding practices and adiposity are differentially related to P3b cortical responses to food stimuli in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Across two studies, we examined the association between adiposity, restrictive feeding practices and cortical processing bias to food stimuli in children. We assessed P3b event-related potential (ERP) during visual oddball tasks in which the frequently presented stimulus was non-food and the infrequently presented stimulus was either a food (Study 1) or non-food (Study 2) item. Children responded to the infrequently presented stimulus and accuracy and speed responses were collected. Restrictive feeding practices, children's height and weight were also measured. In Study 1, the difference in P3b amplitude for infrequently presented food stimuli, relative to frequently presented non-food stimuli, was negatively associated with adiposity and positively associated with restrictive feeding practices after controlling for adiposity. There was no association between P3b amplitude difference and adiposity or restriction in Study 2, suggesting that the effects seen in Study 1 were not due to general attentional processes. Taken together, our results suggest that attentional salience, as indexed by the P3b amplitude, may be important for understanding the neural correlates of adiposity and restrictive feeding practices in children.

Hill C; Wu J; Crowley MJ; Fearon P

2013-04-01

168

Safe handling of tritium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance and recommendations on operational radiation protection aspects related to the safe handling of tritium in laboratories, industrial-scale nuclear facilities such as heavy-water reactors, tritium removal plants and fission fuel reprocessing plants, and facilities for manufacturing commercial tritium-containing devices and radiochemicals. The requirements of nuclear fusion reactors are not addressed specifically, since there is as yet no tritium handling experience with them. However, much of the material covered is expected to be relevant to them as well. Annex III briefly addresses problems in the comparatively small-scale use of tritium at universities, medical research centres and similar establishments. However, the main subject of this publication is the handling of larger quantities of tritium. Operational aspects include designing for tritium safety, safe handling practice, the selection of tritium-compatible materials and equipment, exposure assessment, monitoring, contamination control and the design and use of personal protective equipment. This publication does not address the technologies involved in tritium control and cleanup of effluents, tritium removal, or immobilization and disposal of tritium wastes, nor does it address the environmental behaviour of tritium. Refs, figs and tabs

1991-01-01

169

Environmental and health impacts of household solid waste handling and disposal practices in third world cities: the case of the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Inadequate provision of solid waste management facilities in Third World cities results in indiscriminate disposal and unsanitary environments, which threatens the health of urban residents. The study reported here examined household-level waste management and disposal practices in the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana. The residents of Accra currently generate large amounts of solid waste, beyond the management capabilities of the existing waste management system. Because the solid waste infrastructure is inadequate, over 80 percent of the population do not have home collection services. Only 13.5 percent of respondents are served with door-to-door collection of solid waste, while the rest dispose of their waste at communal collection points, in open spaces, and in waterways. The majority of households store their waste in open containers and plastic bags in the home. Waste storage in the home is associated with the presence of houseflies in the kitchen (r = .17, p < .0001). The presence of houseflies in the kitchen during cooking is correlated with the incidence of childhood diarrhea (r = .36, p < .0001). Inadequate solid waste facilities result in indiscriminate burning and burying of solid waste. There is an association between waste burning and the incidence of respiratory health symptoms among adults (r = .25, p < .0001) and children (r = .22, p < .05). Poor handling and disposal of waste are major causes of environmental pollution, which creates breeding grounds for pathogenic organisms, and the spread of infectious diseases. Improving access to solid waste collection facilities and services will help achieve sound environmental health in Accra.

Boadi KO; Kuitunen M

2005-11-01

170

Popularizing right food and feeding practices in Spain (1847-1950). The handbooks of domestic economy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this paper is to analyze a sample of domestic economy handbooks in order to assess the popularization of correct food and feeding practices in Spain between 1847 and 1950. With this contribution, we wish to evaluate another factor that would influence the Spanish food transition. We are aware that this is a very indirect source, given the high levels of illiteracy among women in Spain during the last third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. A further factor to be considered is the low proportion of girls attending school. We have analyzed the handbooks published in three periods. The first ranges from the last third of the 19th century to the first decade of the 20th. These handbooks are considered in order to provide background for a comparison with the works published from 1900 onwards. The second period focuses on the 1920s and the 1930s. The last period covers the handbooks published after the Civil War under the monopoly of the Sección Femenina (women's section of the Falange). Over the years under consideration, recommendations underwent a progressive modification from the very simple leaflets used in the 19th century to the introduction of scientific factors into the teaching of domestic economy.The work of Rosa Sensat represented the beginnings of this trend. A further modernizing factor was the appearance of vitamins in some of the handbooks. After the war, the number of handbooks decreased and they were, in general, very poor. If we consider the content on vitamins, there was a lack or shortage of information in comparison with some of the books published in the same period outside the monopoly of the Sección Femenina. In conclusion, we can state that the repetition of recommendations on good feeding habits and the increase in girls attending school would exert a positive influence on the food transition of the Spanish population.

Perdiguero-Gil E; Castejón-Bolea R

2010-01-01

171

Popularising right food and feeding practices in Spain (1847-1950): The handbooks of domestic economy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to analyze a sample of domestic economy handbooks in order to assess the popularization of correct food and feeding practices in Spain between 1847 and 1950. With this contribution, we wish to evaluate another factor that would influence the Spanish food transition. We are aware that this is a very indirect source, given the high levels of illiteracy among women in Spain during the last third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th centu (more) ry. A further factor to be considered is the low proportion of girls attending school. We have analyzed the handbooks published in three periods. The first ranges from the last third of the 19th century to the first decade of the 20th. These handbooks are considered in order to provide background for a comparison with the works published from 1900 onwards. The second period focuses on the 1920s and the 1930s. The last period covers the handbooks published after the Civil War under the monopoly of the Sección Femenina (women's section of the Falange). Over the years under consideration, recommendations underwent a progressive modification from the very simple leaflets used in the 19th century to the introduction of scientific factors into the teaching of domestic economy. The work of Rosa Sensat represented the beginnings of this trend. A further modernizing factor was the appearance of vitamins in some of the handbooks. After the war, the number of handbooks decreased and they were, in general, very poor. If we consider the content on vitamins, there was a lack or shortage of information in comparison with some of the books published in the same period outside the monopoly of the Sección Femenina. In conclusion, we can state that the repetition of recommendations on good feeding habits and the increase in girls attending school would exert a positive influence on the food transition of the Spanish population.

Perdiguero-Gil, Enrique; Castejón-Bolea, Ramón

2010-01-01

172

Practical issues in adopting a traveling wave thermoacoustic cooler for use in a food storage refrigerator  

Science.gov (United States)

CFIC/QDrive has developed a food storage refrigerator for the Army based on thermoacoustic technology. This ``Phase II'' SBIR project is a continuation of a ``Phase I'' effort that explored using a standing-wave thermoacoustic cooler for the refrigerator. The standing-wave cooler was found to be too inefficient with too low a power density to be practical, so it was switched to an acoustic Stirling, or traveling-wave thermoacoustic (regenerator based) cooler for Phase II. The major challenges of this project were adapting the Stirling-style cooler to a food storage application, and not the fundamentals of the cooler itself (the one exception being the issue of acoustic streaming). The challenges include: Running at 60 Hz (without frequency-shifting electronics), heat exchange without circulating fluids, dynamic balance, guarantee of long life, efficiency, and compactness (power density). How these challenges were met and how they drove the design, in most cases away from what would be ideal for the cycle itself, will be discussed. Time permitting, how the additional pressure of low unit cost would affect this type of product development will also be discussed. [Research supported by the U. S. Army through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant.

Spoor, Philip S.

2005-09-01

173

'We eat together; today she buys, tomorrow I will buy the food': adolescent best friends' food choices and dietary practices in Soweto, South Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To explore if and how female adolescents engage in shared eating and joint food choices with best friends within the context of living in urban Soweto, South Africa. DESIGN: A qualitative, exploratory, multiple case study was conducted using semi-structured duo interviews of best friend pairs to ascertain their eating patterns, friendship and social interactions around dietary habits. SETTING: Participants were recruited from three high schools in the urban township of Soweto, South Africa. SUBJECTS: Fifty-eight female adolescents (twenty-nine friend pairs) still in high school (mean age of 18 years) were enrolled. RESULTS: Although overweight rates were high, no association between friends was found; neither did friends share dieting behaviours. Both at school and during visits to the shopping mall, foods were commonly shared and money pooled together by friends to make joint purchases. Some friends carefully planned expenditures together. Foods often bought at school were mostly unhealthy. Availability, price and quality were reported to affect choice of foods purchased at school. Preference shaped joint choices within the shopping mall environment. CONCLUSIONS: Food sharing practices should be investigated in other settings so as to identify specific behaviours and contexts for targeted and tailored obesity prevention interventions. School-based interventions focusing on price and portion size should be considered. In the Sowetan context, larger portions of healthy food may improve dietary intake of fruit and vegetables where friends are likely to share portions.

Voorend CG; Norris SA; Griffiths PL; Sedibe MH; Westerman MJ; Doak CM

2013-03-01

174

Handling tongs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design is presented of remotely controlled handling tongs for placing fuel assemblies of a fast nuclear reactor in the desired positions in the reactor vessel. The tongs consist of a head and clamps pivoted an the head. The head machined at the end of an inner pull rod which is swing connected to the main pull rod guide bar. The connection is effected from the inner pull rod side. Grip pins are pivoted on the main pull rod guide bar. The side projections of the grip pins engage the inner wall of the channel while the grip pin bodies lean against the opening link. The link pull rod and its height is adjustable. Its inner cut-outs engage the upper tips of the clamps. A fixing ring which the grip pin bodies engage is attached to the opening link such that it can be deflected to both sides. (E.S.).

1981-06-17

175

Consumer Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards the Use of Monosodium Glutamate and Food Grade Bullion Cubes as Dietary Constituents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The knowledge attitude and practice in use of Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) and food Grade Bullion Cubes (FGBCs) by 240 respondents randomly selected from the rural and urban areas of Enugu and Nsukka in Enugu state were investigated. Information was obtained by means of questionnaires feeding regime a...

H.N. Henry-Unaeze

176

How signifying practices constitute food (in)security: The case of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper argues that the question of food (in)security in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is not necessarily indicative of the country's actual nutritional conditions but is rather constituted through meaning-making behavior-signifying practices-predominantly on the part of humanitarian ...

Shim, David

177

Handling Sports Pressure and Competition  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Sports > Handling Sports Pressure and Competition Print A A A Text Size What's in this ... reviewed: October 2010 Back 1 ? 2 ? 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC ...

178

Radiation processing of food and agricultural commodities: opportunities and challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while eliminating post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy can play a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

2009-10-01

179

Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges in Brazilian children: adaptation to clinical practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) is considered the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy, but because of methodological difficulties it is rarely conducted in clinical practice, especially in paediatric patients. The purpose of the study was to propose a DBPCFC protocol that is adapted to our conditions for the diagnosis of an IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy (CMA) in a Brazilian reference centre for paediatric allergies. METHODS: This study includes the experimental phase (choice of materials, adjustments made to protocols described in the literature) and the test execution phase. DBPCFCs were performed in 58 patients aged 1-15 years who were separated into two groups: Group 1 (n=39), sex 1.6 M:F, 5.3 years median age, suggestive history of IgE-mediated CMA; and Group 2 (n=19), sex 1.4 M:F, 8.3 years median age with symptoms not associated with milk ingestion and laboratory data not compatible with IgE-mediated CMA. RESULTS: The materials were standardised for testing: containers and disposable products, low-lactose cow's milk (CM) and vehicles, such as natural fruit juice, vegetable soup and soybean-based beverages. Each DBPCFC was performed in a single day with two blind, randomised phases with a 2-h interval between them. The milk doses were gradually increased and offered in regular intervals of 15-30 min. Following negative or inconclusive results, patients underwent an open oral challenge test with 200 mL of low-lactose CM. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed adaptation for the DBPCFC allowed to implement this important test for the diagnosis of IgE-mediated CMA in a reference centre for paediatric allergies. It was considered feasible and safe if performed in an appropriate setting with physician supervision.

Gushken AK; Castro AP; Yonamine GH; Corradi GA; Pastorino AC; Jacob CM

2013-03-01

180

What Bacteria Are Living in My Food?: An Open-Ended Practical Series Involving Identification of Unknown Foodborne Bacteria Using Molecular Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

This open-ended practical series titled "Molecular Identification of Unknown Food Bacteria" which extended over a 6-week period was designed with the aims of giving students an opportunity to gain an understanding of naturally occurring food bacteria and skills in contemporary molecular methods using real food samples. The students first isolated…

Prasad, Prascilla; Turner, Mark S.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

The Domestic Foodscapes of Young Low-Income Women in Montreal: Cooking Practices in the Context of an Increasingly Processed Food Supply  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the course of the past century, the quantity of prepackaged, pre-prepared foods available in the North American context has increased dramatically. This study examines the shifts in food practices that are taking place through an exploration of the day-to-day cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal and considers…

Engler-Stringer, Rachel

2010-01-01

182

From food safety guidelines to quantified sustainability indicators: A transition to good practice schemes in food production in Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the last decade and a half various aspects of the sustainability of food production have been evaluated by different groups of stakeholders. National and federal legislators have looked at the types of chemicals allowed and the acceptable maximum residue levels permitted for particular crops an...

Haverkort, A.J.; Jansen, D.M.; Ruijter, F.J., de; Verhagen, A.

183

Educação alimentar e nutricional no contexto da promoção de práticas alimentares saudáveis/ Food and nutrition education in the context of promoting healthy food practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho tem como objetivo fazer uma reflexão sobre a educação alimentar e nutricional no contexto da promoção das práticas alimentares saudáveis, apontada como importante estratégia para enfrentar os novos desafios no campo da saúde, alimentação e nutrição. O ponto de partida é a análise de publicações oficiais e documentos recentes do governo brasileiro que norteiam as políticas nesse campo. Embora a relevância da educação alimentar e nutricion (more) al seja reconhecida nesse contexto, poucas referências são feitas a ela no que tange à delimitação dos seus limites e possibilidades, como também sobre os elementos que norteiam a sua prática. Os documentos indicam que o objetivo das propostas educativas em alimentação e nutrição é mais subsidiar os indíviduos com informações adequadas, corretas e consistentes sobre alimentos, alimentação e prevenção de problemas nutricionais do que os auxiliar na tomada de decisões. Dessa forma, cresce a importância dos campos da informação e da comunicação, nos quais se enfatizam as estratégias de produção, circulação e controle das informações referentes à alimentação e nutrição, em detrimento das estratégias da educação alimentar e nutricional. Os dois campos parecem se confundir. Argumenta-se, no entanto, que embora os campos do acesso à informação e à comunicação sejam de extrema relevância, eles não são suficientes para a construção de práticas alimentares saudáveis. Assim, urge uma reflexão sobre as bases da educação alimentar e nutricional no contexto que se configura e as possibilidades de sua contribuição. Abstract in english This article deals with food and nutrition education in the context of promoting healthy food practices, considered as an important strategy to face the challenges of health, food and nutrition problems. An analysis of official publications about food and nutrition policies was the starting point. It concluded that food and nutrition education was recognised as important in this context, but there were few references to the delimitation of its limits and possibilities or (more) to the elements directing such practices. The documents indicated that the aim of the proposals for education in food and nutrition were centred more on giving adequate information about food, nutrition and prevention of nutrition problems than on helping people take decisions. Thus there has been an increase in the importance of the information and communication fields with respect to strategies for the production, circulation and control of information about food and nutrition, in detriment of food and nutrition education. In fact, the two fields appear to be mixed. It is argued that although the access to information and communication is very relevant, this is not enough to construct healthy food practices. Therefore, it is essential to reflect on the bases of food and nutrition education in this context as well as the possibilities for its contribution.

Santos, Ligia Amparo da Silva

2005-10-01

184

Handling biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the problems in using biomass as a fuel has been to obtain a good flow of material from storage bins and hoppers. This problem is solved by a new type of non-consolidating (NC) feeder described in this article. In April 1980, B.C. Research was awarded a 2-year contract to design and construct suitable flow tests on biomass materials, and to develop guidelines for biomass bin designs. Much of the research has been done on bin design for hog fuel, but saw dust, grain dust and peat were also tested. The desirable flow pattern is discussed; it was found that hopper outlet sizes and slopes must suit the material and the conditions of its storage, and that the material must be drawn from the full opening by the discharge feeder. The NC feeder (US Patent n: 4,828,448) essentially consists of one or more slots that traverse back and forth; the discharge of the material takes place through the slots while the slots are moving, and stops when the slots are stationary. This system eliminates compaction or consolidation of the material, the stored material is not damaged, the flow pattern is first in; first out, and the power required to operate the feeder is low. The definitive system comprises a complete wrap-up deck, and the material discharged at the slot is picked up by a shuttle conveyor belt that traverses back and forth with the slot. The trials of the system and the first field installations (hog fuel boiler at a paper pulp mill, feeder of grain out of a 25 m high silo, and wood chip heating furnace at a fish hatchery) are described. The kinematics of the feeder have been modified to allow for the handling of the large lumps of frozen material that occur during the winter months. 1 refs., 6 figs.

Bundalli, N. (B.C. Research, Vancouver, BC (Canada))

1990-03-01

185

Trichinella diagnostics and control: Mandatory and best practices for ensuring food safety  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Because of its role in human disease, there are increasing global requirements for reliable diagnostic and control methods for Trichinella in food animals to ensure meat safety and to facilitate trade. Consequently, there is a need for standardization of methods, programs, and best practices used in the control of Trichinella and trichinellosis. This review article describes the biology and epidemiology of Trichinella, and describes recommended test methods as well as modified and optimized procedures that are used in meat inspection programs. The use of ELISA for monitoring animals for infection in various porcine and equine pre- and post-slaughter programs, including farm or herd certification programs is also discussed. A brief review of the effectiveness of meat processing methods, such as freezing, cooking and preserving is provided. The importance of proper quality assurance and its application in all aspects of a Trichinella diagnostic system is emphasized. It includes the use of international quality standards, test validation and standardization, critical control points, laboratory accreditation, certification of analysts and proficiency testing. Also described, are the roles and locations of international and regional reference laboratories for trichinellosis where expert advice and support on research and diagnostics are available. Crown

Gajadhar, A. A.; Pozio, E.

2009-01-01

186

Women Food Safety Practices from Shopping to Eating in Ankara, Turkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was conducted to determine the methods used for food storage and preparation in the Turkish household and to determine the domestic knowledge on food hygiene and food safety. A sample of 250 randomly selected, voluntary, married Turkish women participated in the survey. The research data ...

Canan Talas; Asli Ucar; Ozfer Ozcelik

187

Food  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A food product which incorporates polyunsaturated fatty acids and an encapsulated pro-oxidant, said food product having a water activity of 0.75 or less. The pro-oxidants may be metal salts such as copper, manganese, iron and/or zinc salts. Sources of omega-3 fatty acids include fish oil. The present invention is directed especially to nutrition products, such as nutrition bars and soups, sweet powders and other food products, with a water activity (aw) of 0.75 or less, as well as to processes for preparing such products, wherein the products incorporate omega-3 and/or omega-6 and/or other polyunsaturated fatty acids in combination with encapsulated pro-oxidants, such as salts of copper, iron, manganese and zinc. The formulations according to the invention can be expected to have a very good shelf life, yet include polyunsaturated fatty acids which generally have a tendency to oxidize, together with normally pro-oxidant compounds in encapsulated form. Previously, it would have been expected that where pro-oxidants and omega-3 or other unsaturated fatty acids are combined in the same formulation, the fatty acids would oxidize and the shelf life of the food product would be unacceptable.

MATTHEW PALMER ALAN E RUDAN BR

188

Current situation of food irradiation practice in U.S.A  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is essential that private food companies adopt the process and retail stores sell irradiated food products in order to popularize food irradiation among consumers. FOOD TECHnology Inc. (former Vindicator Inc.), which is founded in Florida 1992 for the purpose of decontamination of fruit flies infected in Oranges using {sup 60}Co gamma-irradiation, and Carrot Top, which has been selling irradiated foods since 1992, are well known to be actively involved in PA activity of irradiated foods. Carrot Top is now strongly interested in selling tropical fruits from Hawaii, which has been prohibited to ship from Hawaii to the mainland without decontamination treatment by US government because of fruit fly infestation. They got a temporal permit for the shipment of those fruits with irradiation at Chicago. FOOD TECHnology Inc. irradiates chicken, tomatoes, strawberries and mushrooms. Foods for hospitalized patients and astronauts are also irradiated at FOOD TECHnology Inc.. All food supply for the `Space Shuttle` program has been provided. Recently they began to irradiate frozen shrimps and salmons. Carrot Top says that irradiated food items gain popularity among their customers although they changed the information transfer method from news letter to news paper advertisement as well as minimizing the description in the store. They noted that the goods sold well whether or not they are irradiated if they are fresh, good-looking and reasonable in price. FOOD TECHnology also commented that food industries has become more friendly towards food irradiation and they petitioned FDA for clearance of beef irradiation to decontaminate E. coli 0157:H7, but the private companies still hesitated to pick up this process therefore we need more efforts of PR. (J.P.N.)

Furuta, Masakazu [Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology

1996-12-31

189

The domestic foodscapes of young low-income women in Montreal: cooking practices in the context of an increasingly processed food supply.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the course of the past century, the quantity of prepackaged, pre-prepared foods available in the North American context has increased dramatically. This study examines the shifts in food practices that are taking place through an exploration of the day-to-day cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal and considers how these contribute to health problems such as obesity and nutritional deficiencies in addition to health inequalities within populations. The participatory study uses data from five focus groups with a total of 22 participants to contribute to our understanding of how social and physical food environments (the "foodscape") shape daily food and cooking practices. Aspects of these environments that were discussed include household roles and responsibilities that require complex management, personal food choice and skill, as well as health, learning, and access to food.

Engler-Stringer R

2010-04-01

190

Position of the American Dietetic Association: food and nutrition professionals can implement practices to conserve natural resources and support ecological sustainability.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association to encourage environmentally responsible practices that conserve natural resources, minimize the quantity of waste generated, and support the ecological sustainability of the food system-the process of food production, transformation, distribution, access, and consumption. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, play various roles in the food system and work in settings where efforts to conserve can have significant effects. Natural resources that provide the foundation for the food system include biodiversity, soil, land, energy, water, and air. A food system that degrades or depletes its resource base is not sustainable. Making wise food purchases and food management decisions entails understanding the external costs of food production and foodservice and how these external costs affect food system sustainability. This position paper provides information, specific action-oriented strategies, and resources to guide registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, in food decision making and professional practice. Food and nutrition professionals also can participate in policy making at the local, state, and national levels, and can support policies that encourage the development of local sustainable food systems. Our actions today have global consequences. Conserving and protecting resources will contribute to the sustainability of the global food system now and in the future. PMID:17571455

Harmon, Alison H; Gerald, Bonnie L

2007-06-01

191

Position of the American Dietetic Association: food and nutrition professionals can implement practices to conserve natural resources and support ecological sustainability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association to encourage environmentally responsible practices that conserve natural resources, minimize the quantity of waste generated, and support the ecological sustainability of the food system-the process of food production, transformation, distribution, access, and consumption. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, play various roles in the food system and work in settings where efforts to conserve can have significant effects. Natural resources that provide the foundation for the food system include biodiversity, soil, land, energy, water, and air. A food system that degrades or depletes its resource base is not sustainable. Making wise food purchases and food management decisions entails understanding the external costs of food production and foodservice and how these external costs affect food system sustainability. This position paper provides information, specific action-oriented strategies, and resources to guide registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, in food decision making and professional practice. Food and nutrition professionals also can participate in policy making at the local, state, and national levels, and can support policies that encourage the development of local sustainable food systems. Our actions today have global consequences. Conserving and protecting resources will contribute to the sustainability of the global food system now and in the future.

Harmon AH; Gerald BL

2007-06-01

192

Human health risk from Heavy metal via food crops consumption with wastewater irrigation practices in Pakistan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current study was designed to investigate the potential human health risks associated with consumption of food crops contaminated with toxic heavy metals. Cadmium (Cd) concentration in surface soils; Cd, lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr) in the irrigation water and food crops were above permissible limits. The accumulation factor (AF) was >1 for manganese (Mn) and Pb in different food crops. The Health Risk Index (HRI) was >1 for Pb in all food crops irrigated with wastewater and tube well water. HRI >1 was also recorded for Cd in all selected vegetables; and for Mn in Spinacia oleracea irrigated with wastewater. All wastewater irrigated samples (soil and food crops) exhibited high relative contamination level as compared to samples irrigated with tube well water. Our results emphasized the need for pretreatment of wastewater and routine monitoring in order to avoid contamination of food crops from the wastewater irrigation system.

Khan MU; Malik RN; Muhammad S

2013-09-01

193

Limited evidence that competitive food and beverage practices affect adolescent consumption behaviors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity is emerging as a considerable public health problem with no clear antidote. The school food environment is a potential intervention point for policy makers, with competitive food and beverage regulation as a possible policy lever. This research examines the link between competitive food and beverage availability in school and adolescent consumption patterns using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. Results from value-added multivariate regression models reveal limited evidence that competitive food policy affects fruit and vegetable consumption. Findings suggest a stronger link between competitive beverage policy and consumption of sweetened beverages for population subgroups. PMID:22491007

Vericker, Tracy C

2012-04-04

194

Limited evidence that competitive food and beverage practices affect adolescent consumption behaviors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Childhood obesity is emerging as a considerable public health problem with no clear antidote. The school food environment is a potential intervention point for policy makers, with competitive food and beverage regulation as a possible policy lever. This research examines the link between competitive food and beverage availability in school and adolescent consumption patterns using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. Results from value-added multivariate regression models reveal limited evidence that competitive food policy affects fruit and vegetable consumption. Findings suggest a stronger link between competitive beverage policy and consumption of sweetened beverages for population subgroups.

Vericker TC

2013-02-01

195

Healthy Characters? An Investigation of Marketing Practices in Children's Food Advertising.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the nutritional quality of foods advertised with familiar children's characters and health-related messages. DESIGN: Children's programming aired on the most popular broadcast and cable channels during 2011 was sampled to form a composite weekday and weekend day. All food advertisements (ads) included in this programming were content analyzed. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred seventy-seven food ads. VARIABLES MEASURED: Familiar characters promoting products were either trade or licensed characters. A product's nutritional quality was determined using the United States Department of Health and Human Services' categorizations, based on the frequency foods should be consumed. Health cues were present when a food was claimed to be healthy, physical activity was depicted, or the product was associated with fruit. ANALYSIS: Frequencies and chi square analyses were conducted; P < .05. RESULTS: Nearly three quarters (73%) of food ads targeting children use a familiar character. The majority of these ads (72%) promote foods of low nutritional quality, yet 53% employ a health-related message. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Familiar characters proliferate in food advertising to children, yet marketers do not adhere to recommendations that characters promote strictly healthy foods. Future research is needed to investigate effects and inform policy decisions in this realm.

Castonguay J; Kunkel D; Wright P; Duff C

2013-07-01

196

ALTERNATE METHODS OF MANURE HANDLING  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this research project were to (a) construct an inexpensive storage facility for solid dairy cow manure, (b) evaluate its performance and the extent of pollutants in runoff from storage facilities, and (c) determine current manure handling practices in Vermont an...

197

Buying Practices and Prevalence of Adulteration in Selected Food items in a Rural Area of Wardha District: A Cross - Sectional Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Food adulteration in India includes both willful adulteration and substandard food which do not confirm to prescribe food standard. There is striking paucity of reliable data with regard to extent of adulteration and documentation of food borne illnesses reflecting lack of attention and focus on this problem. Objectives: To find the prevalence of food adulteration, buying practices of selected food items and their awareness towards food adulteration act. Also assess relationship between per-capita incomes, education of respondents, and food borne illnesses with magnitude of adulteration in each house-hold. Methods: With the best estimate of 50%, sample size comes to 89. By stratifying the village according to social strata and randomly selecting the households with PPS. Questionnaire was administered to fulfill our objectives and food items were tested. Data analyzed by numeral with percentage, Pearson moment correlation, F test and chi square test. Results: In 68.5% Households, wife (home-maker) buys the grocery. Majority of them never read the food labels. All the selected food items were adulterated ranging from 76 % to 11%. Mean percentage of purity was highest in literates (47.5 ± 22.48) than illiterates and just literates. Food borne illness was prevalent in households with low purity of food. Association was found between per capita income and percentage of purity (0.765).

Khapre MP; Mudey A; Sonali Chaudhary; Wagh V; Ajay Dawale

2011-01-01

198

Parent calcium-rich-food practices/perceptions are associated with calcium intake among parents and their early adolescent children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to (i) segment parents of early adolescents into subgroups according to their Ca-rich-food (CRF) practices and perceptions regarding early adolescent CRF intake and (ii) determine whether Ca intake of parents and early adolescents differed by subgroup. DESIGN: A cross-sectional convenience sample of 509 parents and their early adolescent children completed a questionnaire in 2006-2007 to assess parent CRF practices and perceptions and to estimate parent and child Ca intakes. SETTING: Self-administered questionnaires were completed in community settings or homes across nine US states. SUBJECTS: Parents self-reporting as Asian, Hispanic or non-Hispanic White with a child aged 10-13 years were recruited through youth or parent events. RESULTS: Three parent CRF practice/perception segments were identified, including 'Dedicated-Milk Providers/Drinkers' (49 %), 'Water Regulars' (30 %) and 'Sweet-Drink-Permissive Parents' (23 %). Dedicated-Milk Providers/Drinkers were somewhat older and more likely to be non-Hispanic White than other groups. Ca intakes from all food sources, milk/dairy foods and milk only, and milk intakes, were higher among early adolescent children of Dedicated-Milk Providers/Drinkers compared with early adolescents of parents in other segments. Soda pop intakes were highest for early adolescents with parents in the Water Regulars group than other groups. Dedicated-Milk Providers/Drinkers scored higher on culture/tradition, health benefits and ease of use/convenience subscales and lower on a dairy/milk intolerance subscale and were more likely to report eating family dinners daily than parents in the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Parent education programmes should address CRF practices/perceptions tailored to parent group to improve Ca intake of early adolescent children.

Reicks M; Degeneffe D; Ghosh K; Bruhn C; Goodell LS; Gunther C; Auld G; Ballejos M; Boushey C; Cluskey M; Misner S; Olson B; Wong S; Zaghloul S

2012-02-01

199

School nutritional capacity, resources and practices are associated with availability of food/beverage items in schools.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The school food environment is important to target as less healthful food and beverages are widely available at schools. This study examined whether the availability of specific food/beverage items was associated with a number of school environmental factors. METHODS: Principals from elementary (n=369) and middle/high schools (n=118) in British Columbia (BC), Canada completed a survey measuring characteristics of the school environment. Our measurement framework integrated constructs from the Theories of Organizational Change and elements from Stillman's Tobacco Policy Framework adapted for obesity prevention. Our measurement framework included assessment of policy institutionalization of nutritional guidelines at the district and school levels, climate, nutritional capacity and resources (nutritional resources and participation in nutritional programs), nutritional practices, and school community support for enacting stricter nutritional guidelines. We used hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression analyses to examine associations with the availability of fruit, vegetables, pizza/hamburgers/hot dogs, chocolate candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and french fried potatoes. RESULTS: In elementary schools, fruit and vegetable availability was more likely among schools that have more nutritional resources (OR=6.74 and 5.23, respectively). In addition, fruit availability in elementary schools was highest in schools that participated in the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutritional Program and the BC Milk program (OR=4.54 and OR=3.05, respectively). In middle/high schools, having more nutritional resources was associated with vegetable availability only (OR=5.78). Finally, middle/high schools that have healthier nutritional practices (i.e., which align with upcoming provincial/state guidelines) were less likely to have the following food/beverage items available at school: chocolate candy (OR=?.80) and sugar-sweetened beverages (OR=?.76). CONCLUSIONS: School nutritional capacity, resources, and practices were associated with the availability of specific food/beverage items in BC public schools. Policies targeting the school environment are increasingly being considered as one of the strategies used to address childhood obesity, as a result it is important to further understand the factors associated with the availability of specific food/beverage items at school.

Mâsse LC; de Niet JE

2013-01-01

200

Food irradiation and habitual consumption of food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last years, an increasing amount of people is consuming more fruits, vegetables, seeds and sprouts, with the health effects of food in mind. Otherwise, the accepted shelf food safety found in some countries led to a growing trust in the product's hygienic quality, that leads to behaviors like opening a package and immediately consume the contents. Besides the well disseminated knowledge of good cooking practices, the lack of time, found mainly in big cities, may take to the dinning tables food with an increasing potential of pathogenic organisms contamination. For instance, the alfalfa, beam, clover and radish sprouts caused many reported Salmonella and E. coli outbreaks in countries like the USA, United Kingdom, Japan, Sweden, Finland, Canada and Denmark. Many of the likely source of contaminations were the contamination of the seeds before sprouting. To control these contaminations, the irradiation doses over 1 kGy is effective and the association of irradiation and chemical treatments is being studied. The bacteriological control performance of the irradiation becomes this technique one of the most applied to dry herbs and spices witch, without adequate treatment, could be important sources of foodborne outbreaks. Good production, handling, packing and distribution practices may, with the use of ionizing radiation to reach the desired bacteriological inactivation or decontamination level, significantly contribute to the necessary food safety, allowing it to be safely ready to eat. (author)

2005-09-02

 
 
 
 
201

Food and dietary pattern-based recommendations: an emerging approach to clinical practice guidelines for nutrition therapy in diabetes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the nutritional management of diabetes mellitus have evolved considerably over the last 25 years. As major diabetes associations have focussed on the individualization of nutrition therapy, there has been a move toward a broader more flexible macronutrient distribution that emphasizes macronutrient quality over quantity. There is now a call for the integration of food- and dietary pattern-based approaches into diabetes association CPGs. The main argument has been that an approach that focuses on nutrients alone misses important nutrient interactions oversimplifying the complexity of foods and dietary patterns, both of which have been shown to have a stronger influence on disease risk than nutrients alone. Although cancer and heart associations have begun to integrate this approach into their dietary guidelines, diabetes associations have not yet adopted this approach. We provide a rationale for the adoption of this approach for The Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) 2013 CPGs for nutrition therapy. The systematic review for the development of these guidelines revealed emerging evidence to support the use of vegetarian, Mediterranean, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary patterns as well as specific foods such as dietary pulses and nuts in people with diabetes. Popular and conventional weight loss diets were also found to have similar advantages in people with diabetes, although poor dietary adherence remains an issue with these diets. The CDA 2013 CPGs will support an even greater individualization of nutrition therapy for people with diabetes and appeal to a broader range of practice styles of health professionals.

Sievenpiper JL; Dworatzek PD

2013-02-01

202

Food and dietary pattern-based recommendations: an emerging approach to clinical practice guidelines for nutrition therapy in diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the nutritional management of diabetes mellitus have evolved considerably over the last 25 years. As major diabetes associations have focussed on the individualization of nutrition therapy, there has been a move toward a broader more flexible macronutrient distribution that emphasizes macronutrient quality over quantity. There is now a call for the integration of food- and dietary pattern-based approaches into diabetes association CPGs. The main argument has been that an approach that focuses on nutrients alone misses important nutrient interactions oversimplifying the complexity of foods and dietary patterns, both of which have been shown to have a stronger influence on disease risk than nutrients alone. Although cancer and heart associations have begun to integrate this approach into their dietary guidelines, diabetes associations have not yet adopted this approach. We provide a rationale for the adoption of this approach for The Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) 2013 CPGs for nutrition therapy. The systematic review for the development of these guidelines revealed emerging evidence to support the use of vegetarian, Mediterranean, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary patterns as well as specific foods such as dietary pulses and nuts in people with diabetes. Popular and conventional weight loss diets were also found to have similar advantages in people with diabetes, although poor dietary adherence remains an issue with these diets. The CDA 2013 CPGs will support an even greater individualization of nutrition therapy for people with diabetes and appeal to a broader range of practice styles of health professionals. PMID:24070749

Sievenpiper, John L; Dworatzek, Paula D N

2013-03-14

203

Food Projects in London: Lessons for Policy and Practice--A Hidden Sector and the Need for "More Unhealthy Puddings ... Sometimes"  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Objective: Successive governments have promoted local action to address food components of public health. This article presents findings from research commissioned by the (then) London NHS Office, scoping the range of food projects in the London area, and the potential challenges to public health practice. Methods: Research followed…

Caraher, Martin; Dowler, Elizabeth

2007-01-01

204

Food irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The survey deals with some significant aspects of food irradiation, discussing practical food irradiation on an industrial level and results of applications, also pointing to foodstuffs envisaged for radiation treatment in the near future. (orig./PW).

Gruenewald, T.

1985-01-01

205

Modeling Food Web Interactions in Benthic Deep-Sea Ecosystems: A Practical Guide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deep-sea benthic systems are notoriously difficult to sample. Even more than for other benthic systems, many flows among biological groups cannot be directly measured, and data sets remain incomplete and uncertain. In such cases, mathematical models are often used to quantify unmeasured biological interactions. Here, we show how to use so-called linear inverse models (LIMs) to reconstruct material and energy flows through food webs in which the number of measurements is a fraction of the total number of flows. These models add mass balance, physiological and behavioral constraints, and diet information to the scarce measurements. We explain how these information sources can be included in LIMs, and how the resulting models can be subsequently solved. This method is demonstrated by two examples—a very simple three-compartment food web model, and a simplified benthic carbon food web for Porcupine Abyssal Plain. We conclude by elaborating on recent developments and prospects.

Karline Soetaert; Dick van Oevelen

2009-01-01

206

Practice to introduce complementary foods to infants in Taiwan--changes from 1997 to 2008.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of the study was to understand present infant complementary foods eating and compare trends over the past 10 years in Taiwan. We investigated the methods used to introduce infants to complementary foods, difficulties encountered, sources of information and the principle caregiver's knowledge about infant feeding. This study focused on findings from the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) and compared with those from the 1997-1999 Child NAHSIT. Interviews in both surveys were carried out by trained interviewers. In 2005-2008 survey, 50% of infants aged 7-12 months had started eating baby cereals or juice at age 4-6 months as recommended. The proportions of infants aged 10-12 months who were introduced to particular complementary foods at recommended periods varied from biscuits (51.1%) to tofu (1.1%). The proportions were higher in 2005-2008 than in 1997-1999 for only 3 items. In both survey, more than 80% of mothers were the one who made the decision to introduce their children to complementary foods. More than 75% of caregivers fed baby cereals to their babies from milk bottles. In 2005-2008, the most commonly encountered problem was that the child wouldn't eat. Nutrition knowledge of the caregivers have improved since 1999, but still needs fostering. The timing to introduce complementary foods become later than ten years ago. Whether the delay will affect the normal dietary intakes of children after one year of age needs attention. The government should not only promote breastfeeding, but also reevaluate current evidence-based recommendation on complementary food introduction time.

Lin JR; Tzeng MS; Kao MD; Yang YH; Pan WH

2011-01-01

207

O fazer educação alimentar e nutricional: algumas contribuições para reflexão Practical food and nutrition education: some points for reflection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente artigo reflete sobre as práticas de educação alimentar e nutricional vigentes no contexto atual. São discutidas no âmbito das políticas públicas de alimentação e nutrição partindo de uma análise sobre as ações governamentais empreendidas e de suas ações no âmbito local, particularmente na nutrição clínica ambulatorial e/ou na atenção a grupos específicos, buscando identificar as tendências teóricas e metodológicas que norteiam as práticas educativas. Considera-se que a educação alimentar e nutricional tem sido alvo de debates na busca de concebê-la como uma ação governamental. Entretanto, em que pese seus avanços, se reconhece a existência de um hiato entre as formulações das políticas e as ações desenvolvidas no âmbito local. Permanece também um hiato entre discursos e as práticas em seu torno das ações educativas. Conclui-se que a educação alimentar e nutricional é menos um instrumento do que um dispositivo de ações conjugadas que devem envolver diferentes setores e disciplinas, entretanto, demanda investimentos na formação profissional e na produção de conhecimento no campo.This article reflects on the practices of existing food and nutrition education in the current context. Practices in public policy in food and nutrition are discussed starting from an analysis of government actions undertaken and their actions at the local level, particularly in outpatient clinical nutrition and/or attention to specific groups, seeking to identify theoretical and methodological trends guiding educational practices. It is considered that the food and nutrition education has been the subject of debate in seeking to construe it as government action. However, despite their achievements, one perceives the existence of a gap between the formulation of policies and actions developed at the local level. There is also a gap between rhetoric and practice in terms of educational activities. The conclusion reached is that food and nutrition education is less an instrument than a measure for joint actions that must involve different sectors and disciplines, however, it calls for investment in vocational training and production of knowledge in the field.

Ligia Amparo da Silva Santos

2012-01-01

208

Practical implications of developments in legislation on food irradiation in the European Union  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Food irradiation legislation is very different in most member-states of the EU. For many years there was the desire by many interested groups to harmonise this legislation. As the member-states had a different view on irradiated foods, often based on their existing regulation, it took many years and revised drafts to come to a harmonised regulation acceptable to the majority. The background on the development of this EU-legislation and the final draft is discussed. Some information is also given on the possible influence of WTO (SPS- and TBT-agreements) and Codex Alimentarius on this EU-legislation. (author)

Neyssen, Peter J.G. E-mail: info@gammaster.fr

2000-03-01

209

Best practices for single-laboratory validation of chemical methods for trace elements in foods. Part I--background and general considerations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The metals subgroup of AOAC INTERNATIONAL's Community on Chemical Contaminants and Residues in Food has been engaged for the past several years in discussions concerning the requirements for the single-laboratory validation (SLV) of methods for the determination of trace elements in foods. This paper reviews the general guidance currently available related to validation of chemical analytical methods and current typical validation practices found in publications on the analysis of elements in food and other matrixes, such as environmental and clinical samples. Based on the available guidance on SLV requirements and a review of current practices in elemental analysis, a general approach based on best practices is proposed for SLV of a method for elements in food to demonstrate the method as "fit-for-purpose."

Murphy CJ; MacNeil JD; Capar SG

2013-01-01

210

MIVAR: Transition from Productions to Bipartite Graphs MIVAR Nets and Practical Realization of Automated Constructor of Algorithms Handling More than Three Million Production Rules  

CERN Document Server

The theoretical transition from the graphs of production systems to the bipartite graphs of the MIVAR nets is shown. Examples of the implementation of the MIVAR nets in the formalisms of matrixes and graphs are given. The linear computational complexity of algorithms for automated building of objects and rules of the MIVAR nets is theoretically proved. On the basis of the MIVAR nets the UDAV software complex is developed, handling more than 1.17 million objects and more than 3.5 million rules on ordinary computers. The results of experiments that confirm a linear computational complexity of the MIVAR method of information processing are given. Keywords: MIVAR, MIVAR net, logical inference, computational complexity, artificial intelligence, intelligent systems, expert systems, General Problem Solver.

Varlamov, Oleg O

2011-01-01

211

Surface-near geothermal power. Handling of hydro-economic requirements in the practice; Oberflaechennahe Geothermie. Umgang mit den wasserwirtschaftlichen Anforderungen in der Praxis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the meeting of the Bavarian Environment Agency (Augsburg, Federal Republic of Germany) at 1st December, 2009, the following lectures were held: (1) Hydro-economical requirements and working assistance of the Bavarian Environment Agency (Hannes Berger); (2) Technology, dimensioning and safety devices for heat pumps and heat source plants soil - groundwater (Erich Ramming); (3) Well devices for the thermal utilization of the groundwater - planning, production and quality assurance (Michael Thoren); (4) Geothermal probes: Handling of raw materials and welding at the building site (Hubert Graf); (5) Geothermal probes - planning and calculation (Burkhard Sanner); (6) Geothermal probes - drilling operations (Sven Tewes); (7) Certification of drilling companies according to W 120 (Udo Peth); (8) Operation of geothermal plants - Examples from one-family house to football stadium (Arno Poehlmann).

NONE

2009-12-15

212

Laser light handle  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A light handle of an illuminating light is provided which produces a directed beam of light in order to precisely orient and align the illuminating light on a work area. Preferably, a laser producing light source is incorporated within the handle housing, and the directed beam of laser light projects from the distal end of the light handle. The laser light source may be battery powered, or may be powered by a solar panel mounted to the light handle; the illuminating light providing sufficient light to power the solar panel. To maintain sterility in a surgical environment, a light handle cover may be mounted to the light handle. For non-sterile applications, the light handle may simply be attached to the illuminating light without the light handle cover.

NAUGHTON MICHAEL L

213

Patient cares and handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contents of this chapter are follows - Patient cares and handling: responsibility, clinical responsibility, ethical responsibility, legal responsibility, patient care and handling: before examination, during examination, after examination, other consideration, children and infants, elderly patients.

2004-01-01

214

Sharing food, sharing taste? Consumption practices, gender relations and individuality in Czech families  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A la lumière des théories sociologiques et anthropologiques de la famille et de la parenté, cet article pose la question de la préparation et de la consommation de nourriture dans les familles tchèques de différentes générations, et ce, aussi bien en milieu rural qu’urbain. Sur la base d’une enquête qualitative (entretiens) ainsi que de données d’observation, l’article interroge le rôle que joue réellement le partage alimentaire dans la vie quotidienne des familles étudiées, ainsi que dans la construction de liens entre les membres de la famille, en particulier concernant les relations entre hommes et femmes. Ensuite, l’article se focalise sur la famille en tant qu’«unité de consommation», ainsi que sur son développement dans le temps. Comment se construit le régime alimentaire familial et jusqu’où se développent, entre les membres de la famille, des préférences alimentaires partagées? Sur la base des modèles émergeants relatifs aux pratiques alimentaires, le débat est ouvert quant aux rôles entre hommes et femmes ainsi que sur les thèmes relatifs au traditionalisme et au pouvoir. L’argument principal est que la formation de relations au sein même de la famille dépend moins du partage de nourriture que du rôle joué par les femmes dans la préparation et la distribution des repas, compte tenu des désirs de chacun des membres de la famille.In the context of sociological and anthropological theories about family and kinship, this article discusses the preparation and consumption of food in Czech families of different generations, both urban and rural. Based on a qualitative interview study and participant observation, the article begins by investigating the role played by the sharing of food in everyday family life and in the shaping of relations, including gender relations, between family members. Next, the article focuses on the family as a consumption unit and on its development over time. What does the family diet consist of and to what extent do family members develop a taste for the same foods? The article discusses gender roles, traditionalism and power based on evolving patterns of food consumption. It is mainly argued that relationship building within families depends less on shared food consumption than on the role played by women in the cooking and distribution of food, bearing in mind the likes and dislikes of individual family members.

Haldis Haukanes

2008-01-01

215

Same island, different diet: Cultural evolution of food practice on Öland, Sweden, from the Mesolithic to the Roman Period  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Mesolithic–Neolithic transition in north-west Europe has been described as rapid and uniform, entailing a swift shift from the use of marine and other wild resources to domesticated terrestrial resources. Here, we approach the when, what and how of this transition on a regional level, using empirical data from Öland, an island in the Baltic Sea off the Swedish east coast, and also monitor changes that occurred after the shift. Radiocarbon dating and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of bones and teeth from 123 human individuals, along with faunal isotope data from 27 species, applying to nine sites on Öland and covering a time span from the Mesolithic to the Roman Period, demonstrate a great diversity in food practices, mainly governed by culture and independent of climatic changes. There was a marked dietary shift during the second half of the third millennium from a mixed marine diet to the use of exclusively terrestrial resources, interpreted as marking the large-scale introduction of farming. Contrary to previous claims, this took place at the end of the Neolithic and not at the onset. Our data also show that culturally induced dietary transitions occurred continuously throughout prehistory. The availability of high-resolution data on various levels, from intra-individual to inter-population, makes stable isotope analysis a powerful tool for studying the evolution of food practices.

Eriksson, Gunilla; Linderholm, Anna

2008-01-01

216

Handling of radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book deals with one of the most important questions in the practice of radiation safety: the radiation hazards. Chapter I ''Radiation hazards - fundamental concepts, determination and examples'' gives the definition of the concept ''hazard'' and the criteria for evaluation of accidents; some cases of radiation accidents in Bulgaria and abroad are reported. Chapter II ''External body irradiation accidents'' covers the following topics: dose determination of body irradiation; clinical manifestations of acute radiation sickness and emergency aid in accidental external irradiation. Chapter III deals with ''Accidents causing incorporation of radioactive substances''. The authors have focussed their attention on the pathways of incorporation of radioactive substances in the human body, the metabolism of radioactive isotopes in the human organs, assessment of body irradiation when radioactive substances have been incorporated, clinical manifestations and diagnosis of radiaton injuries caused by incorporation of radioactive substances and iodine prophylaxis in conditions of nuclear plant accidents. Chapter IV entitled ''Accidents as a consequence of body radioactive contamination, decontamination and combined radioactive injuries. Organization of medical assistance in radiation hazards'' is discussed in the last, fifth chapter book. Much accent is placed on the practical aspects in handling casualtries: these are illustrated by different diagrams and exposures, computational and equipment methods for dose monitoring, prescriptions for decontamination of materials, quidelines for emergency programmes, tables and annexes. (M.Kh.)

1978-01-01

217

Practical handling of AIO admixtures - Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 10 Praktische Handhabung von AIO-Mischungen - Leitlinie Parenterale Ernährung, Kapitel 10  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

All-in-one admixtures (AIO-admixtures) provide safe, effective and low-risk PN (parenteral nutrition) for practically all indications and applications. Water, energy (carbohydrates and lipids), amino acids, vitamins and trace elements are infused together with PN either as industrially-manufactured ...

Mühlebach, S; Franken, C; Stanga, Z; Working group for developing the guidelines for parenteral nutrition of The German Association for Nutritional Medicine

218

Development of online learning activities to enhance student knowledge of animal behaviour prior to engaging in live animal handling practical sessions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Learning activities were developed to increase the awareness of animal behaviour among first year students enrolled in animal-associated degrees prior to students engaging in hands-on live animal practical sessions. Learning activities were developed in an easy to use collegial online environment an...

Julie M Old; Ricky-John Spencer

219

Double-blind food challenges in children in general paediatric practice: Useful and safe, but not without pitfalls.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe results of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC) with cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanut and hazelnut in general paediatric practice. METHODS: Food challenges were performed between January 2006 and June 2011, in children 0-18 years of age, on two half-day hospital admissions with a one-week interval. Tests were performed in a double-blind fashion following a standardised protocol with validated recipes. RESULTS: Overall, 234 food challenges were performed in 209 children: 160 with cow's milk, 35 with peanut, 21 with hen's egg, 11 with hazelnuts, and 7 with soy. In two thirds of the cases, the DBPCFC was negative (cow's milk: 57.5%; peanut: 40.0%; hen's egg: 66.7%, hazelnut: 90.9%, soy: 100%). The only patient characteristic significantly associated with a positive DBPCFC was the presence of symptoms from three different organ systems (p=0.007). Serious systemic allergic reactions with wheeze or anaphylaxis occurred in only two children (0.9%). Symptoms were recorded on 29.3% of placebo days. In 30/137 children with a negative test (22%), symptoms returned when reintroducing the allergen into the diet, mostly (66.7%) transient. Of the 85 tests regarded as positive by the attending physician, 19 (22.4%) did not meet predefined criteria for a positive test. This was particularly common with non-specific symptoms. CONCLUSION: A DBPCFC can be safely performed in a general hospital for a range of food allergens. The test result is negative in most cases except for peanut. Non-specific symptoms may hamper the interpretation of the DBPCFC, increasing the risk of a false-positive result.

Oole-Groen CJ; Brand PL

2013-08-01

220

An application of meta-analysis in food safety consumer research to evaluate consumer behaviors and practices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Meta-analysis provides a structured method for combining results from several studies and accounting for and differentiating between study variables. Numerous food safety consumer research studies often focus on specific behaviors among different subpopulations but fail to provide a holistic picture of consumer behavior. Combining information from several studies provides a broader understanding of differences and trends among demographic subpopulations, and thus, helps in developing effective risk communication messages. In the illustrated example, raw/undercooked ground beef consumption and hygienic practices were evaluated according to gender, ethnicity, and age. Percentages of people engaging in each of the above behaviors (referred to as effect sizes) were combined using weighted averages of these percentages. Several measures, including sampling errors, random variance between studies, sample sizes of studies, and homogeneity of findings across studies, were used in the meta-analysis. The statistical significance of differences in behaviors across demographic segments was evaluated using analysis of variance. The meta-analysis identified considerable variability in effect sizes for raw/undercooked ground beef consumption and poor hygienic practices. More males, African Americans, and adults between 30 and 54 years (mid-age) consumed raw/undercooked ground beef than other demographic segments. Males, Caucasians, and Hispanics and young adults between 18 and 29 years were more likely to engage in poor hygienic practices. Compared to traditional qualitative review methods, meta-analysis quantitatively accounts for interstudy differences, allows greater consideration of data from studies with smaller sample sizes, and offers ease of analysis as newer data become available, and thus, merits consideration for its application in food safety consumer research.

Patil SR; Morales R; Cates S; Anderson D; Kendall D

2004-11-01

 
 
 
 
221

A practice theoretical perspective on everyday dealings with environmental challenges of food consumption Une perspective théorique des pratiques alimentaires quotidiennes liées à la durabilité de la consommation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Expectations concerning the contribution of ordinary consumers to solving a broad array of societal problems have risen. This is particularly prevalent in issues such as environmental sustainability and food consumption, where ordinary food routines are being challenged through mediatised discourses on the environmental responsibilities of food consumers. In this article, in order to discuss the potential of ordinary food consumers in contributing to sustainability, we start from a theoretical stance and discuss how two different understandings of food consumption lead to different possibilities of "environmentalising" food consumption. Discussion is based on three Danish empirical qualitative research projects about food practices. We argue that it is difficult to judge which position offers more openings for sustainability: to consider environmentalised food consumption as part of broader food practices, or rather as a part of practices themselves? This is related to the interdependency of social actors and the dynamics of food.Les attentes portant sur la contribution des consommateurs ordinaires pour résoudre un vaste éventail de problèmes de société ne cessent de croître. Cela se constate particulièrement en matière de développement durable et de consommation alimentaire, car les habitudes ordinaires se trouvent bousculées par les discours médiatisés concernant les responsabilités des mangeurs en matière d’environnement. Dans cet article, nous partons d’une position théorique et discutons la manière dont deux modes de consommation alimentaire mènent à différentes manières d’ « environnementaliser » la consommation alimentaire. La discussion se fonde sur trois recherches empiriques qualitatives danoises. Nous avançons qu’il est difficile de juger quelle posture permet davantage de durabilité: doit-on considérer la notion de consommation alimentaire « respectueuse de l’environnement » comme un élément de pratiques plus larges, ou plutôt comme une partie indissociable de ces pratiques ? On peut relier cela à l’interdépendance des acteurs sociaux et aux dynamiques des pratiques alimentaires.

Bente Halkier

2009-01-01

222

Standard practice for dosimetry in electron and bremsstrahlung irradiation facilities for food processing. ASTM standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E-10 on Nuclear Technology and Applications and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E10.01 on Dosimetry for Radiation Processing. Current edition approved Jan. 10, 1998. Published June 1998. Originally published as E 1431-91. Last previous edition E 1431-91

1998-01-01

223

THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE IODINE FORTIFICATION OF THE FOOD PRODUCTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this study was the investigation of the principles of food fortification with iodine. It was researched the opportunity of molecular iodine incorporation in vegetable oil, physical and chemical properties of iodized vegetable oil and other food products fortified with iodized oil. By physical and chemical methods it was established the presence of iodine-triglyceride compounds in iodized oil, formed by fixing the molecular iodine at the double bound of the unsaturated fatty acids. The results of the investigations of the physical-chemical, microbiological and organoleptic properties, the oxidation stability of iodine fortified products compared to the control samples, indicate the absence of sensitive difference during the maturation and storage processes. The iodine bioavailability in fortified lipid products has been investigated in vitro and in vivo conditions. It was established, that the recovery percent of iodine represents 57-92?0(in vitro). In vivo researches have proved that iodized lipid products are influencing the metabolic processes by accumulation of iodine in animal’s body, as a result of an efficient digestion and a high iodine bioavailability from the present complexes.

Rodica Sturza

2010-01-01

224

Knowledge and Practices of Using Food Label Information Among Adolescents Attending Schools in Kolkata, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge and use of label information among adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents (N = 316) from 6 schools selected randomly using cluster sampling. A pre-coded questionnaire was used to assess frequently consumed packaged foods, whether label information was read, knowledge of symbols, and usefulness of nutrition information display. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. RESULTS: Although 88% of adolescents read food labels, many read only date of manufacture (79%), expiration (74%) or best used before dates (65%). Fewer adolescents read ingredients (50%) and nutrition information (20%). Their knowledge about quality symbols was low. Many of them (over 60%) recognized the symbols but had no knowledge of what they indicated. About 66% believed that nutrition information on labels was too complex to understand. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: There is a need to provide education on different aspects of label information to promote label use. The effectiveness of alternative methods of nutrition information display should also be investigated.

Saha S; R Vemula S; Mendu VV; M Gavaravarapu S

2013-09-01

225

Development of online learning activities to enhance student knowledge of animal behaviour prior to engaging in live animal handling practical sessions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Learning activities were developed to increase the awareness of animal behaviour among first year students enrolled in animal-associated degrees prior to students engaging in hands-on live animal practical sessions. Learning activities were developed in an easy to use collegial online environment and to encourage student engagement in learning activities. One hundred and one students were given a preliminary and post learning activity survey to assess their initial knowledge and experience of animal behaviour, as well as to determine if the learning activities increased the students’ knowledge of animal behaviour after engaging in the learning activities. Of the students surveyed, most currently owned pets or have had pets (91.1%), some had animal-related qualifications (22.8%) and currently worked in an animal-related position (24.8%). There was a significant difference (70.3% increase) in student responses after engaging in the learning activities with the major change occurring in the students’ understanding of the term ‘ethology’, regardless of the level of qualifications or animal-related career experience. In addition, after engaging in the learning activities, most students believed that they could better articulate and interpret animal behaviors based on their observations. Overall, the inclusion of learning activities successfully increased the ability of students to understand behavioral traits of animals, which will increase safety in live animal practical sessions. The learning activities also encouraged a collegial learning environment that enhanced new knowledge construction amongst the students.

Julie M Old; Ricky-John Spencer

2011-01-01

226

An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999), cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992), and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878). The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri.

Sylvester N. Onyeneho; Craig W. Hedberg

2013-01-01

227

WIC infant food package issuance data are a valid measure of infant feeding practices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Multiple datasets collect breastfeeding data in the United States (US), but a coordinated monitoring and surveillance system does not currently exist. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) reaches over 50% of all infants in the US and provides a potential wealth of administrative data about the breastfeeding practices of low-income women. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to assess whether WIC administrative data are a valid source of information about breastfeeding practices. METHODS: A phone survey of 2015 postpartum WIC mothers in Southern California was conducted to assess the feeding practices of mothers with infants 2-12 months old. Survey data were linked with WIC administrative records from the same month in order to assess the percent agreement between feeding behavior as reported by survey methods and as documented in WIC administrative records. RESULTS: The unweighted ? test statistic was used to test the agreement between survey responses and WIC administrative data. Substantial to almost perfect agreement was found between the two measures. CONCLUSIONS: WIC administrative data are a valid source of information about breastfeeding. With appropriate funding support, WIC administrative data should be considered for use in nationwide breastfeeding surveillance and monitoring systems.

Whaley SE; Koleilat M; Jiang L

2012-05-01

228

Practical problems in the transfer of the food irradiation technology from the laboratory to the industry and trade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Not all applications of food irradiation developed in laboratories appear feasible at the commercial level. Without taking into account the social and economic factors, some of the obstacles regarding the commodities themselves and some practical aspects of a commercial irradiator are reviewed. The dose distribution found in most facilities make it almost impossible to irradiate products with a narrow dose range tolerance. Treatment of perishable commodities may turn to be difficult, especially in contract facilities, as it is not easy to plan. Similarly, combination of processes will not always be achievable. Applications to products for which the production is both seasonal and scattered do not appear feasible. Some progress is still needed in fields such as, packaging to avoid insect reinfestation after irradiation routine dosimetry and irradiators design.

1986-09-05

229

Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran and others

2006-01-15

230

Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

2006-01-01

231

Safe Handling of Radioisotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

1958-01-01

232

Research in coal handling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In no aspect of fuel use is the disadvantage of coal, relative to oil and gas, more obvious to the industrial consumer than in the matter of fuel handling and storage. Coal Research Association's achievements in materials-handling research, which relate to pneumatic handling, screw conveyors, stacking- reclaiming screws, traversing screws, bin-discharging devices, automated grabs, and containers, are described. 12 references.

Llewellyn, W.

1985-01-01

233

Nuclear fuel handling apparatus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A fuel handling machine for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor in which a retractable handling tube and gripper are lowered into the reactor to withdraw a spent fuel assembly into the handling tube. The handling tube containing the fuel assembly immersed in liquid sodium is then withdrawn completely from the reactor into the outer barrel of the handling machine. The machine is then used to transport the spent fuel assembly directly to a remotely located decay tank. The fuel handling machine includes a decay heat removal system which continuously removes heat from the interior of the handling tube and which is capable of operating at its full cooling capacity at all times. The handling tube is supported in the machine from an articulated joint which enables it to readily align itself with the correct position in the core. An emergency sodium supply is carried directly by the machine to provide make up in the event of a loss of sodium from the handling tube during transport to the decay tank. 5 claims, 32 drawing figures

1977-01-01

234

Developments in coal handling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In no aspect of fuel use is the disadvantage of coal relative to oil and gas more obvious to the industrial consumer than in the matter of fuel handling and storage. The challenge to the coal technologist is to increase the convenience and cleanliness of coal handling and storage systems without involving high capital expenditure which might erode the economic advantage of the cheaper coal. The achievements of the Coal Research Association of New Zealand in materials-handling research, which relate to pneumatic handling, screw conveyors, stacking reclaiming screws, traversing screws, bin-charging devices, automated grabs and containers, are described.

Llewelleyn, W.

1986-07-01

235

Remote handling for an ISIS target change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1987 two ISIS targets were changed. This document describes the main features of the remote handling aspects of the work. All the work has to be carried out using remote handling techniques. The radiation level measured on the surface of the reflector when the second target had been removed was about 800 mGy/h demonstrating that hands on operations on any part of the target reflector moderator assembly is not practical. The target changes were the first large scale operations in the Target Station Remote Handling Cell and a great deal was learned about both equipment and working practices. Some general principles emerged which are applicable to other active handling tasks on facilities like ISIS and these are discussed below. 8 figs

1989-01-01

236

Food irradiation: Public opinion surveys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Canadian government are discussing the legislation, regulations and practical protocol necessary for the commercialization of food irradiation. Food industry marketing, public relations and media expertise will be needed to successfully introduce this new processing choice to retailers and consumers. Consumer research to date including consumer opinion studies and market trials conducted in the Netherlands, United States, South Africa and Canada will be explored for signposts to successful approaches to the introduction of irradiated foods to retailers and consumers. Research has indicated that the terms used to describe irradiation and information designed to reduce consumer fears will be important marketing tools. Marketers will be challenged to promote old foods, which look the same to consumers, in a new light. Simple like or dislike or intention to buy surveys will not be effective tools. Consumer fears must be identified and effectively handled to support a receptive climate for irradiated food products. A cooperative government, industry, health professional, consumer association and retailer effort will be necessary for the successful introduction of irradiated foods into the marketplace. Grocery Products Manufacturers of Canada is a national trade association of more than 150 major companies engaged in the manufacture of food, non-alcoholic beverages and array of other national-brand consumer items sold through retail outlets.

1987-01-01

237

Human factors issues in fuel handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The staff of the Atomic Energy Control Board wish to further their understanding of human factors issues of potential concern associated with fuel handling in CANDU nuclear power stations. This study contributes to that objective by analysing the role of human performance in the overall fuel handling process at Ontario Hydro's Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, and reporting findings in several areas. A number of issues are identified in the areas of design, operating and maintenance practices, and the organizational and management environment.

1994-01-01

238

[The detection of chronic Salmonella typhi carriers: a practical method applied to food handlers].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We evaluated the anti Vi test to detect S typhi carriers in 1006 food handlers of 65 locations in central Santiago (Chile): 710 males and 296 females, age range 17 to 67. Positive reactions were found in 27 subjects, titers varying from 1/40 in 9 to 1/160 in 1 subject. Culture of feces, along with urine and bile cultures in those with very high titers allowed isolation of S typhi in 2 subjects, one with a 1/40 titer, the other 1/160. None had clinical history of typhoid fever, both had received parenteral vaccination. These results compare favorably with the classic technique which would have required 3018 fecal cultures (vs 108 in the present study) and a total cost of US$ 1730 vs US$ 364. In addition, anti-Vi detection is readily accepted by the subjects. Therefore, we recommend this technique as a screening prior to culture techniques in the identification of chronic S typhi carriers.

Ferreccio C; Levine M; Astroza L; Berrios G; Solari V; Misraji A; Pefaur C

1990-01-01

239

Food for Thought  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... home. The findings suggest that parents are often controlling when it comes to food and adolescents. Food ... is increasing evidence about the detrimental effects of controlling food practices, so it's important for parents to ...

240

About the handling of mistakes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Handling of mistakes in the area of nuclear engineering does not yet present a uniform picture. Almost all development stages of the human factor analysis can be found and are accepted. From the objective 'safety first and availability second' conjured up by all sides, the dealing with the man-made mistake component in interdisciplinary cooperation cannot automatically be deduced. Moreover, there are good and practical reasons for not clarifying and specifying human factors in a concrete incident. These were analysed in several areas of nuclear engineering and should be representative also for other branches. (orig./DG)

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Comparing coal handling system costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Good maintenance practices and proactive planning are essential to ensure coal handling equipment performance, but a look at the entire cost of handling coal has yielded some surprising conclusions. Optimizing a given system can be challenging and requires a close analysis of the total cost. This article addresses the cost analysis of the coal handling system at the Northern States Power Co. (NSP) Sherburne County Plant (Sherco); the largest coal-fired plant in Minnesota. Sherco consists of two Combustion Engineering 750-MW tangentially fired boilers and one 850-MW Babcock and Wilcox wall-fired unit. The two 750-MW units are fitted with wet limestone scrubbers to control both particulates and sulfur. The 850-MW unit, on the other hand, is connected to a Joy Niro dry scrubber and baghouse. All of the coal consumed by Sherco is sub-bituminous Powder River Basin Coal from Montana and Wyoming. The coal is purchased from half a dozen mines including Westmoreland, Colestrip, Black Thunder, Antelope and Rochelle. Although quite similar in heating value and moisture content, these coals differ markedly in ash content, sulfur content, dustiness and spontaneous heating characteristics.

Lehto, J.M. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1996-03-01

242

The NOURISH randomised control trial: Positive feeding practices and food preferences in early childhood - a primary prevention program for childhood obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary prevention of childhood overweight is an international priority. In Australia 20-25% of 2-8 year olds are already overweight. These children are at substantially increased the risk of becoming overweight adults, with attendant increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Early feeding practices determine infant exposure to food (type, amount, frequency) and include responses (eg coercion) to infant feeding behaviour (eg. food refusal). There is correlational evidence linking parenting style and early feeding practices to child eating behaviour and weight status. A focus on early feeding is consistent with the national focus on early childhood as the foundation for life-long health and well being. The NOURISH trial aims to implement and evaluate a community-based intervention to promote early feeding practices that will foster healthy food preferences and intake and preserve the innate capacity to self-regulate food intake in young children. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial (RCT) aims to recruit 820 first-time mothers and their healthy term infants. A consecutive sample of eligible mothers will be approached postnatally at major maternity hospitals in Brisbane and Adelaide. Initial consent will be for re-contact for full enrolment when the infants are 4-7 months old. Individual mother- infant dyads will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will provide anticipatory guidance via two modules of six fortnightly parent education and peer support group sessions, each followed by six months of regular maintenance contact. The modules will commence when the infants are aged 4-7 and 13-16 months to coincide with establishment of solid feeding, and autonomy and independence, respectively. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, with follow up at nine and 18 months. These will include infant intake (type and amount of foods), food preferences, feeding behaviour and growth and self-reported maternal feeding practices and parenting practices and efficacy. Covariates will include sociodemographics, infant feeding mode and temperament, maternal weight status and weight concern and child care exposure. Discussion Despite the strong rationale to focus on parents' early feeding practices as a key determinant of child food preferences, intake and self-regulatory capacity, prospective longitudinal and intervention studies are rare. This trial will be amongst to provide Level II evidence regarding the impact of an intervention (commencing prior to age 12 months) on children's eating patterns and behaviours. Trial Registration ACTRN12608000056392

Daniels Lynne A; Magarey Anthea; Battistutta Diana; Nicholson Jan M; Farrell Ann; Davidson Geoffrey; Cleghorn Geoffrey

2009-01-01

243

Technical communication: new teaching model for practicing ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia techniques: no perishable food products!  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is a pronounced learning curve for the technique of ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia. Practicing with a simulator model has been shown to speed the acquisition of these skills for various ultrasound-guided procedures. However, commercial models for ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia may be too costly or not readily available. Models using turkey breasts or tofu blocks have the disadvantage of containing perishable food products that can be a source for infection. We describe an alternative inexpensive model that is made from nonperishable components readily available in the operating room. METHODS: The materials required include 1 clean used 500-mL bag of IV fluids, a bottle of Premisorb (TYCO Healthcare Group, Mansfield, MA), and a piece of foam material approximately 0.3 cm in diameter and 5 cm in length trimmed from operating room foam pads. After filling the IV bag with tap water and inserting the foam into the IV bag from the outlet port of the IV bag, one-third of a bottle of Premisorb (approximately 15 g) is poured into the IV bag. The outlet port of the bag is then sealed by taping the rubber stopper that originally came with the bag. RESULTS: Premisorb, a solidifying agent frequently used to absorb irrigating fluids or blood in operating room suction canisters, produces a gel-like material in the IV bag. The foam inserted into the bag creates a relatively hyperechoic target. This gel-like substance in the bag will seal the holes created after multiple practice needle insertions, resulting in minimal leakage. The semitransparent nature of the gel allows the trainee to visualize the target directly and on the ultrasound screen. CONCLUSION: The model we describe is inexpensive and easy to make from materials readily available in the operating room with the advantages of being nonperishable, easy to carry, and reusable.

Liu Y; Glass NL; Power RW

2010-04-01

244

The Case Handling Case  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

On the Dutch workflow market a new and interesting paradigm named "case handling" is emerging. The goal of case handling is to overcome the limitations of existing workflow management systems. By using a data-driven approach combined with implicit routing and carefully avoiding context tunneling, awareness and flexibility are improved. Currently, many organizations are considering case handling systems such as FLOWer (Pallas Athena) rather than the more traditional workflow management systems. This paper provides a critical assessment of this development. The goal is to show the pro's and con's of case handling. Moreover, based on this assessment an alternative approach using slightly extended traditional workflow management systems is proposed. This approach is being pursued by the Dutch governmental agency CJIB in a project involving the workflow management system Staffware. Based on our experiences thus far, we provide guidelines for selecting the proper technology.

Hajo Reijers; Jaap Rigter; Deloitte Touche Consultdata

245

Nurses and dietitians differ in food safety information provided to highly susceptible clients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine content, education channels, and motivational factors that influence what health professionals teach about safe food handling to populations who are highly susceptible for foodborne illnesses. To assess the differences in information provided by health professionals to highly susceptible populations. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional, Web-based survey. SETTING: National convenience sample from across the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Registered nurses (RNs; n = 232) and registered dietitians (RDs; n = 267). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Content, motivation, and education channels used to educate highly susceptible populations. ANALYSIS: Various nonparametric tests were applied to measure differences. Significance was declared at P < .05. RESULTS: Although both RDs and RNs were providing some food safety information to their high-risk clients, RDs had more training than RNs in safe food handling and were more likely to provide comprehensive food safety messages to their highly susceptible clients; however, neither professional type provided consistent food safety information to patients at high risk for foodborne illness. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: There is a need for more information about what motivates the health professional to teach safe food handling and a need for a universally adopted, evidence-based practice for teaching safe food handling to patients at high risk for foodborne illness.

Buffer J; Kendall P; Medeiros L; Schroeder M; Sofos J

2013-03-01

246

Coal stockyard handling expertise  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article profiles recently supplied coal handling equipment. Equipment covered includes: a large opencast spreader supplied by MAN for an Indian coal mine; a 85t grab-type ship unloader for the deepwater terminal at EMO in Rotterdam; a non-pollution coal handling system featuring low noise and dust emission for a thermal power station in Bremen; and a continuous ship unloader able to stack and reclaim coal built for Avedove Power Station, Denmark. 2 photos.

1992-08-01

247

[The "Bolsa Familia" family grant scheme: the interface between professional practice and the human right to adequate food and nutrition].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Human Right to Adequate Nutrition must be ensured through the public policies included in SAN, namely the Food and Nutritional Security campaign. Besides the income transfer geared to ensuring access to basic social rights, the "Bolsa Família" Program (PBF) is included in this context. This study seeks to analyze the operational aspects of the PBF and also ascertain whether or not the health professionals see the program as a core element of the SAN public policy. With this in mind, semi-structured interviews were conducted with primary healthcare workers involved directly both with the PBF and with the families who receive this benefit. By the end of the study, it was possible to perceive the importance of training health professionals who work in this area, because when one dissociates the social reality in which the beneficiaries live from the program objectives, this can lead to the simple mechanization of these practices. In this respect, it should be stressed that health professionals need to understand the proposals of the program as political and social strategies which, in addition to providing immediate relief, strive to overcome the problems related to poverty and hunger.

Ramos CI; Cuervo MR

2012-08-01

248

Exploring the concepts of food sovereignty and social capital in relation to The organic principles, practices and policies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Food sovereignty is a concept based on an idea of food security (a varied diet with diversified, nutritious and culturally appropriate food) for everybody including the right of people, communities and nations to define their own food and agriculture, to protect and regulate domestic agricultural production and trade in order to achieve sustainable development objectives. Food sovereignty is increasingly discussed and debated, e.g. in relation to power over seed, water, land and food, which become privatized and do not belong the people, communities and countries, where farming and food processing take place. Social capital refers to social networking and mobilisation of resources, forming communities and societies taking collective action and exchanging of e.g. knowledge and experience. Strengthening social capital in local societies empower peasants, processors and societies, which are in risk of losing power over land, food, other agricultural products and trade. The food sovereignty concept can be argued to be strongly related to the organic principles. This paper explores the concept of food sovereignty and the potential role of active social capital building to develop organic farming built on agro-ecological methods. Social and learning networks for farmers, processors and small businesses for collective action and common learning can be important pathways to organic farming and food systems with food sovereignty.

Vaarst, Mette

249

Harvesting and handling agricultural residues for energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Significant progress in understanding the needs for design of agricultural residue collection and handling systems has been made but additional research is required. Recommendations are made for research to (a) integrate residue collection and handling systems into general agricultural practices through the development of multi-use equipment and total harvest systems; (b) improve methods for routine evaluation of agricultural residue resources, possibly through remote sensing and image processing; (c) analyze biomass properties to obtain detailed data relevant to engineering design and analysis; (d) evaluate long-term environmental, social, and agronomic impacts of residue collection; (e) develop improved equipment with higher capacities to reduce residue collection and handling costs, with emphasis on optimal design of complete systems including collection, transportation, processing, storage, and utilization; and (f) produce standard forms of biomass fuels or products to enhance material handling and expand biomass markets through improved reliability and automatic control of biomass conversion and other utilization systems. 118 references.

Jenkins, B.M.; Summer, H.R.

1986-05-01

250

Handle latching mechanism  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A power tool comprising: at least a pair of handles (10, 20), wherein each of the pair of handles has (a) a respective actuator (14, 24) for operating the power tool and (b) a respective guard member (16, 26) for restricting access to the respective actuator the power tool further comprising a latch mechanism (72, 74) for latching the pair of handles together, wherein the latch mechanism has a first component (72) mounted on a first one (16) of the guard members and a second component (74) mounted on a second one (26) of the guard members and adapted to engage with the first component. Thus, the components of the latch mechanism are mounted on the respective guard members for the actuators, rather than directly on the handles themselves. This ensures that the components of the latch mechanism are able to latch the handles together without being impeded by the presence of the guard members or the actuators. In a preferred embodiment, the latch mechanism further comprises user-operable means (72a, 72f) for holding the latch mechanism both in a latched condition and in an unlatched condition but not otherwise, such that the latch mechanism has only a first stable configuration which is the latched condition and a second stable configuration which is the unlatched condition. This ensures that the handles can be latched together as desired by the user, but without becoming latched together accidentally at unwanted times or alternatively becoming unlatched accidentally.

MADDISON IAN

251

Microbiological Testing of Skylab Foods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Skylab manned space flight program presented unique food microbiology problems. This challenge was successfully met by careful evaluation of the total Skylab food system by considering the nature of Skylab foods, their processing and handling, and Skylab food safety requirements. Some of the uni...

Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rowley, D. B.; Powers, E. M.; Bourland, C. T.; McQueen, J. L.

252

Case studies for practical food effect assessments across BCS/BDDCS class compounds using in silico, in vitro, and preclinical in vivo data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Practical food effect predictions and assessments were described using in silico, in vitro, and/or in vivo preclinical data to anticipate food effects and Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS)/Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) class across drug development stages depending on available data: (1) limited in silico and in vitro data in early discovery; (2) preclinical in vivo pharmacokinetic, absorption, and metabolism data at candidate selection; and (3) physiologically based absorption modeling using biorelevant solubility and precipitation data to quantitatively predict human food effects, oral absorption, and pharmacokinetic profiles for early clinical studies. Early food effect predictions used calculated or measured physicochemical properties to establish a preliminary BCS/BDDCS class. A rat-based preclinical BCS/BDDCS classification used rat in vivo fraction absorbed and metabolism data. Biorelevant solubility and precipitation kinetic data were generated via animal pharmacokinetic studies using advanced compartmental absorption and transit (ACAT) models or in vitro methods. Predicted human plasma concentration-time profiles and the magnitude of the food effects were compared with observed clinical data for assessment of simulation accuracy. Simulations and analyses successfully identified potential food effects across BCS/BDDCS classes 1-4 compounds with an average fold error less than 1.6 in most cases. ACAT physiological absorption models accurately predicted positive food effects in human for poorly soluble bases after oral dosage forms. Integration of solubility, precipitation time, and metabolism data allowed confident identification of a compound's BCS/BDDCS class, its likely food effects, along with prediction of human exposure profiles under fast and fed conditions. PMID:23139017

Heimbach, Tycho; Xia, Binfeng; Lin, Tsu-han; He, Handan

2012-11-10

253

Multiple grip dental handle  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A multiple grip handle for dental and other hand-held oral hygiene implements, the handle being adapted to render the implement to which it is applied useable by individuals who have difficulty in firmly grasping a conventional oral hygiene implement handle, difficulty manipulating and stabilizing a handle during oral hygiene, or by individuals who have varying types of preferred grips. The multiple grip handle in the preferred embodiment is fabricated of thermoplastic with an elastomeric coating material having good cushioning, non-slipping, and antimicrobial properties.The handle also has a variable elliptical cross section, a central cavity to socket a brush neck or other equipment, a unique thumb/knuckle grip on the dorsal surface, a plurality of gripping elements on the ventral surface, and an extended distal portion to afford fine control, comfort and stability for whatever gripping style the user prefers. This invention is unique in that it is reverse-engineered and designed from the perspectives of ergonomics, sports, fitness, and disability as well as from a hygiene perspective. It was designed by forming a moldable material into multiple oral hygiene and dental fitness grip styles superimposed onto each other such that a multiple grip handle resulted that is especially applicable to toothbrushes but may also be adapted to other oral hygiene devices and possibly even other household implements that must be manipulated by hand.A unique dental fitness routine was designed, which resulted in further refinements to the handle. Oral hygiene has been redefined as dental fitness and the invention thus becomes a new type of oral hygiene device called a dental fitness device. The invention is stocky enough to eventually incorporate many types of modifications internally and externally. It is the first oral hygiene device ever designed that advances the concept of hygiene into fitness and is the basis for a proposed line of upcoming dental fitness products. The handle can turn almost any toothbrush and insertable toothbrush neck into a dental fitness device. Very importantly, this invention addresses the issues of self-inflicted cavities and gum problems as well as the naturally occurring ones and aims to help prevent both types of problems more effectively than prior art.

EDWARDS STEVEN JOSEPH

254

Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

Farkas, J. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary)); Zukal, E. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary))

1992-01-01

255

Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.).

1992-01-01

256

The influence of flexible management practices on the sharing of experiential knowledge in the workplace: a case study of food service helpers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies have shown that the job knowledge and prudent knowledge of experienced workers constitute a wealth that needs to be shared in workplaces to promote worker integration, job retention and occupational health and safety. It appears, however, that certain management practices undermine this knowledge sharing process. This case study of food service helpers in institutional food service departments is part of a research project aimed at comparing the impact of different work organization methods on knowledge sharing in the workplace on the basis of case studies carried out in several organizations. The results of this case study reveal that by destabilizing and weakening the work teams, flexible management practices create an environment that is not conducive to experiential knowledge sharing.

Ledoux E; Cloutier E; Fournier PS

2012-01-01

257

TRANSPORT/HANDLING REQUESTS  

CERN Multimedia

A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

Groupe ST/HM

2002-01-01

258

Remote handling machines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In nuclear power facilities, the management of radioactive wastes is made with its technology plus the automatic techniques. Under the radiation field, the maintenance or aid of such systems is important. To cope with this situation, MF-2 system, MF-3 system and a manipulator system as remote handling machines are described. MF-2 system consists of an MF-2 carrier truck, a control unit and a command trailer. It is capable of handling heavy-weight objects. The system is not by hydraulic but by electrical means. MF-3 system consists of a four-crawler truck and a manipulator. The truck is versatile in its posture by means of the four independent crawlers. The manipulator system is bilateral in operation, so that the delicate handling is made possible. (Mori, K.)

1985-01-01

259

Level of knowledge, attitude and practice of night market food outlet operators in Kuala Lumpur regarding the usage of repeatedly heated cooking oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Consumption of repeatedly heated oil can be detrimental to health. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of night market food outlet operators in Kuala Lumpur regarding the usage of repeatedly heated cooking oil. The quality of cooking oil was also investigated. A cross-sectional study involving pretested questionnaire was undertaken in April 2009. The questionnaire was designed as a tool to collect data from the respondents (n=100) by face-to-face interview. The results showed that majority of respondents had only moderate (53.0%) or low (18.0%) level of knowledge regarding this issue. Most respondents (67.0%) agreed that it is not a good practice. The majority (69.0%) agreed that the usage of repeatedly heated cooking oil is detrimental to health. Despite that, most respondents (63.0%) admitted that they had used cooking oil repeatedly. Most (62.0%) of the cooking oil samples taken from the night market food outlets were considered fit for human consumption. In conclusion, the level of knowledge of night market food outlet operators in Kuala Lumpur regarding this issue needs to be improved in order to ensure the safety of fried food purchased from such establishments. PMID:22582556

Azman, A; Mohd Shahrul, S; Chan, S X; Noorhazliza, A P; Khairunnisak, M; Nur Azlina, M F; Qodriyah, H M S; Kamisah, Y; Jaarin, K

2012-02-01

260

Level of knowledge, attitude and practice of night market food outlet operators in Kuala Lumpur regarding the usage of repeatedly heated cooking oil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Consumption of repeatedly heated oil can be detrimental to health. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of night market food outlet operators in Kuala Lumpur regarding the usage of repeatedly heated cooking oil. The quality of cooking oil was also investigated. A cross-sectional study involving pretested questionnaire was undertaken in April 2009. The questionnaire was designed as a tool to collect data from the respondents (n=100) by face-to-face interview. The results showed that majority of respondents had only moderate (53.0%) or low (18.0%) level of knowledge regarding this issue. Most respondents (67.0%) agreed that it is not a good practice. The majority (69.0%) agreed that the usage of repeatedly heated cooking oil is detrimental to health. Despite that, most respondents (63.0%) admitted that they had used cooking oil repeatedly. Most (62.0%) of the cooking oil samples taken from the night market food outlets were considered fit for human consumption. In conclusion, the level of knowledge of night market food outlet operators in Kuala Lumpur regarding this issue needs to be improved in order to ensure the safety of fried food purchased from such establishments.

Azman A; Mohd Shahrul S; Chan SX; Noorhazliza AP; Khairunnisak M; Nur Azlina MF; Qodriyah HM; Kamisah Y; Jaarin K

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
261

Introduction to the Microbiological Spoilage of Foods and Beverages  

Science.gov (United States)

Though direct evidence of ancient food-handling practices is difficult to obtain and examine, it seems safe to assume that over the span of several million years, prehistoric humans struggled to maintain an adequate food supply. Their daily food needed to be hunted or harvested and consumed before it spoiled and became unfit to eat. Freshly killed animals, for example, could not have been kept for very long periods of time. Moreover, many early humans were nomadic, continually searching for food. We can imagine that, with an unreliable food supply, their lives must have often been literally "feast or famine." Yet, our ancestors gradually learned by accident, or by trial and error, simple techniques that could extend the storage time of their food (Block, 1991). Their brain capacity was similar to that of modern humans; therefore, some of them were likely early scientists and technologists. They would have learned that primitive cereal grains, nuts and berries, etc. could be stored in covered vessels to keep them dry and safer from mold spoilage. Animal products could be kept in cool places or dried and smoked over a fire, as the controlled use of fire by humans is thought to have begun about 400,000 years ago. Quite likely, naturally desiccated or fermented foods were also noticed and produced routinely to provide a more stable supply of edible food. Along with the development of agricultural practices for crop and animal production, the "simple" food-handling practices developed during the relatively countless millennia of prehistory paved the way for human civilizations.

Sperber, William H.

262

Getting to grips with remote handling and robotics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report on the Canadian Nuclear Society Conference on robotics and remote handling in the nuclear industry, September 1984. Remote handling in reactor operations, particularly in the Candu reactors is discussed, and the costs and benefits of use of remote handling equipment are considered. Steam generator inspection and repair is an area in which practical application of robotic technology has made a major advance. (U.K.).

1984-01-01

263

Operation and maintenance of bulk handling systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume contains 18 papers presented at a two-day workshop on operation and maintenance of bulk handling systems. Headings of papers are as follows: the operation and maintenance of steel cord conveyors - experience with CBM technology; condition monitoring at the longwall coal face; Port Waratah Coal Services ship unloading system; operation of a computer controlled mixed fertilizer blending and despatch plant; computerization of the Hunter Valley coal chain; controlling a conveyor system supplying coal to two power stations; maintenance and operation of cargo handling equipment on the self loading/unloading bulk materials vessels - M.V. Accolade II; asset management of grain handling systems; reliability and maintainability - a practical application; belt cleaning in the superphosphate manufacturing industry; the application of air cannons on high temperature cement kilns; belt cleaning systems to solve carry-back and maintenance problems; maintenance and operation practices for safe silo operation; mass flow rail loading bin - shell plate wear; operations and control systems for grain handling and storage; explosion protection for bag filters in grain handling, storage and milling industries; dust control; tooth breakage of reclaimer slow bearing ring gear. Relevant papers are abstracted separately.

1987-11-01

264

Improving coal handling effectiveness  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Appropriate coal handling systems are essential for successful coal utilisation. The paper looks at some of the options available, including crushers and hammer mills, wear-resistant liners for chutes and wagons, and dewatering systems. These are individual components within larger systems such as stockyard stacking and reclaiming installations. 5 photos.

Walker, S.

2003-10-01

265

A high intensity beam handling system at the KEK-PS new experimental hall  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We would like to summarize newly developed technology for handling high-intensity beams. This was practically employed in the beam-handling system of primary protons at the KEK-PS new experimental hall. (author).

1991-01-01

266

Adaptation on a regional level. From national and supranational strategies to practical actions in the local and regional government and the economic life; Klimatilpassing paa regionalt nivaa. Fraa nasjonale og overnasjonale strategiar til praktisk handling i fylke, kommunar og naeringsliv  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presentation reviews various national strategies in the climate policies with emphasis on challenge approaches and greenhouse gas emissions. Measures in and implementations of the climatic handling and policies both regionally, nationally and supranationally are discussed (tk)

Flaete, Oddvar

2008-07-01

267

Plutonium Immobilization Puck Handling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) will immobilize excess plutonium and store the plutonium in a high level waste radiation field. To accomplish these goals, the PIP will process various forms of plutonium into plutonium oxide, mix the oxide powder with ceramic precursors, press the mixture into pucks, sinter the pucks into a ceramic puck, load the pucks into metal cans, seal the cans, load the cans into magazines, and load the magazines into a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DPWF) canister. These canisters will be sent to the DWPF, an existing Savannah River Site (SRS) facility, where molten high level waste glass will be poured into the canisters encapsulating the ceramic pucks. Due to the plutonium radiation, remote equipment will perform these operations in a contained environment. The Plutonium Immobilization Project is in the early design stages and the facility will begin operation in 2005. This paper will discuss the Plutonium Immobilization puck handling conceptual design and the puck handling equipment testing.

Kriikku, E.

1999-01-26

268

Alarm handling techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Alarm processing is an area with a low level of standardisation. Current systems from different providers have customization possibilities that make alarm applications completely different on each implementation. Summary of the current situation for alarm processing and the different techniques with the intention of having a reference to improve this area of control systems. It focuses on alarm handling for system operation but adds new ideas for use of alarms in other areas.

NONE

2001-07-01

269

Renal phosphate handling: Physiology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23) and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

Prasad N; Bhadauria D

2013-07-01

270

Uranium hexafluoride handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF6 from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride

1991-01-01

271

Traditional Fish Handling and Preservation in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The time elapsing between lifting of the nets and delivery to the shore can vary with the distance that has to be covered. It can at times be a period of several hours. The fish, when brought aboard is usually more or less alive. It is stored simply on the bottom of the canoe, lying there in a pool of warm, dirty water. The fish is never gutted and freely exposed to the sun. Needless to say the product thus handled has an extremely short keeping period that could be improved by more hygienic handling and by keeping the fish in shade. The ultimate aim at least for the fish to be entered into the fresh fish trade should of course be to have the fish iced. The same applies to the handling after landing. No precautions are taken to prevent the fish from being covered with sand, leaves, sticks, etc. Better handling practices would be a prerequisite to the development of a fresh fish export trade towards the larger towns in the north and south. It is a well known fact that fishes' rigor mortis period lasts longest with fish kept at a low temperature and is also favourably influenced by killing the fish as soon as possible after catching; in other words by shortening its death struggle and avoiding chemical and enzymic deterioration after passing the rigor mortis period at the lowest possible level. It is recommended that future research tries to establish whether the relationship between killing the fish right after landing on board and a consequent extension of the rigor mortis period is of sufficient significance to be taken up in a programme of improvement of fish handling. Fish handling, filleting, fish preservation, chilling, super chilling, freezing, drying, smoking, salting and fermentation are reviewed in this article to provide information for improvement of culture fisheries management and practices in Nigeria.

C.C. Tawari; J.F.N. Abowei

2011-01-01

272

Supermarket and grocery store-based interventions to promote healthful food choices and eating practices: a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Increasingly high rates of obesity have heightened interest among researchers and practitioners in identifying evidence-based interventions to increase access to healthful foods and beverages. Because most food purchasing decisions are made in food stores, such settings are optimal for interventions aimed at influencing these decisions. The objective of this review was to synthesize the evidence on supermarket and grocery store interventions to promote healthful food choices. METHODS: We searched PubMed through July 2012 to identify original research articles evaluating supermarket and grocery store interventions that promoted healthful food choices. We categorized each intervention by type of intervention strategy and extracted and summarized data on each intervention. We developed a scoring system for evaluating each intervention and assigned points for study design, effectiveness, reach, and availability of evidence. We averaged points for each intervention category and compared the strength of the evidence for each category. RESULTS: We identified 58 articles and characterized 33 interventions. We found 7 strategies used alone or in combination. The most frequently used strategy was the combination of point-of-purchase and promotion and advertising (15 interventions); evidence for this category was scored as sufficient. On average, of 3 points possible, the intervention categories scored 2.6 for study design, 1.1 for effectiveness, 0.3 for reach, and 2 for availability of evidence. Three categories showed sufficient evidence; 4 showed insufficient evidence; none showed strong evidence. CONCLUSION: More rigorous testing of interventions aimed at improving food and beverage choices in food stores, including their effect on diet and health outcomes, is needed.

Escaron AL; Meinen AM; Nitzke SA; Martinez-Donate AP

2013-01-01

273

Economics of Food Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To-day very reliable irradiation equipment is available, and for an industrialist it is largely an economic consideration whether he should go in for an otherwise acceptable irradiation processing. In Denmark an industrial concern has now found it economically justifiable to establish a multi-purpose industrial plant, equipped with an American linac, and this facility will be able to process food.l To date, few plants in the world have recorded actual cost experiences for industrial food processing, but cost figures from other fields may serve as a guide. In practical calculations it is convenient to divide the work into certain typical groups, e.g. facilities for ''bulk'', ''medium'', ''thin'', and ''multi-purpose'', but food products may come under any of these headings. Costs of irradiation depend on product properties, type of plant, annual and monthly quantities, doses, control standards, special requirements for re-packing or other additional handling, etc. Definite figures for a particular case must be based on an exact calculation, but for a preliminary judgement many general price-range indications are available to the industrialist, and for a variety of purposes it is already evident that irradiation processing is economically sound. Apart from plant economy it is advisable for the industrialist to study some general commercial problems also, such as consumer preference and marketing structure, for the commodity in question. This can often best be done by marketing a pilot production of some quantity, before final decisions are taken regarding major investments in highly-specialized equipment. For some products market testing has already been done with good results by existing research or production facilities, and indeed actual commercial marketing has been reported. In conclusion, many food irradiation processes seem to be promising from an economic point of view. (author)

1966-01-01

274

Timely information key to food assistance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract: This is an excerpt from an article by F.A. Makkan from the Agriculture Economics Research Institute in the Hague. The article describes techniques to enable the Food and Agriculture Organization to better handle food aid.

1988-10-01

275

Operational semantics for signal handling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Signals are a lightweight form of interprocess communication in Unix. When a process receives a signal, the control flow is interrupted and a previously installed signal handler is run. Signal handling is reminiscent both of exception handling and concurrent interleaving of processes. In this paper, we investigate different approaches to formalizing signal handling in operational semantics, and compare them in a series of examples. We find the big-step style of operational semantics to be well suited to modelling signal handling. We integrate exception handling with our big-step semantics of signal handling, by adopting the exception convention as defined in the Definition of Standard ML. The semantics needs to capture the complex interactions between signal handling and exception handling.

Maxim Strygin; Hayo Thielecke

2012-01-01

276

[Hygiene provisions for the processing of food in nurseries and child care facilities. Approaching problems in practical experience].  

Science.gov (United States)

In Germany more than 2 million children under the age of six attend child care institutions. Among the duties, these institutions have to provide meals to the children. Several food-borne viruses pose a particular threat to infants. In accordance with the new European Law on Food Hygiene nurseries and child care facilities are business premises as they process and dispense food. Law requires guarding all stages of food acquisition, storage, preparation and dispersal against health hazards. Furthermore, facilities are legally required to provide risk control and to ensure that food issued by their kitchen does not pose a health hazard upon consumption. Overall, child care facilities are given by far a more comprehensive responsibility under the new European Law. This article introduces a hygiene manual for child care facilities in accordance with the EU Law on Hygiene, which was field tested in more than 70 child care facilities during the course of the extensive organisational process. The manual supplies easy-tohandle instructions and form sheets for documentation and hence assists in realising legal provisions. PMID:19043756

Bosche, H; Schmeisser, N

2008-11-01

277

[Hygiene provisions for the processing of food in nurseries and child care facilities. Approaching problems in practical experience].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Germany more than 2 million children under the age of six attend child care institutions. Among the duties, these institutions have to provide meals to the children. Several food-borne viruses pose a particular threat to infants. In accordance with the new European Law on Food Hygiene nurseries and child care facilities are business premises as they process and dispense food. Law requires guarding all stages of food acquisition, storage, preparation and dispersal against health hazards. Furthermore, facilities are legally required to provide risk control and to ensure that food issued by their kitchen does not pose a health hazard upon consumption. Overall, child care facilities are given by far a more comprehensive responsibility under the new European Law. This article introduces a hygiene manual for child care facilities in accordance with the EU Law on Hygiene, which was field tested in more than 70 child care facilities during the course of the extensive organisational process. The manual supplies easy-tohandle instructions and form sheets for documentation and hence assists in realising legal provisions.

Bosche H; Schmeisser N

2008-11-01

278

As principais evoluções dos comportamentos alimentares: o caso da França Main evolutions in human food practices: French example  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Durante a segunda metade do século XX, o desenvolvimento econômico e as evoluções dos modos de vida ocasionaram modificações importantes nos comportamentos alimentares. Tais evoluções foram particularmente analisadas para o caso da França. Confrontadas a um contexto de abundância, as populações adotaram uma conduta alimentar mais energética. Tal conduta resume-se, sobretudo, em um alto consumo de produtos de origem animal. Porém, entre grupos de indivíduos ricos e após um período de saturação, a atração pelo consumo desmedido tal produto, tornou-se menos intensiva. Novas preocupações orientadas à saúde e às formas de mantê-la em bom estado foram despertadas. O aumento do número de mulheres salariadas e o desenvolvimento das atividades de lazer alteraram a gestão do tempo empregado à alimentação. Na busca pelo ganho de tempo, os consumidores passaram a procurar por alimentos prontos para serem consumidos e a realizarem suas refeições fora do domicílio. As culturas alimentares não evoluem tão rapidamente como as transformações ocorridas em todo o sistema de oferta alimentar, com isso afirma-se que a industrialização, a internacionalização e as inovações de toda a cadeia agroalimentar geram ansiedades no consumidor. Todas essas transformações e tendências, que são observadas em países ricos, podem ser percebidas quando os comportamentos alimentares de populações ricas de países em desenvolvimento são analisados.Important modifications in consumer food habits were caused by both economic development and evolutions in life style during the second part of the XX century. These evolutions were analyzed, in particular, in the case of France. Easy accessibility to food (abundance context) led the populations to adopt high caloric food intakes, such conduct resulting, above all, in an elevated consumption of products of animal origin. However, after a period of saturation, the unlimited attraction to the consumption of such products became less intense amongst the richer, more privileged social groups. New, health oriented concerns, and ways to maintain good health became important. The rise in the number of women earning salaries and the development of leisure activities altered the management of time with respect to feeding. Aiming at gaining time, the consumers concentrated more on ready-to-eat foods and eating out of the home. However the food cultures failed to evolve as quickly as the transformations occurring in the food marketing system, and thus it can be affirmed that industrialization, internationalization and innovations throughout the whole agro-food chain led to consumer anxiety. All such transformations and tendencies observed in the rich countries can also be perceived in the food habits of rich populations in developing countries.

Jean Louis Lambert; Mário Otávio Batalha; Renato Luiz Sproesser; Andréa Lago da Silva; Thelma Lucchese

2005-01-01

279

As principais evoluções dos comportamentos alimentares: o caso da França/ Main evolutions in human food practices: French example  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Durante a segunda metade do século XX, o desenvolvimento econômico e as evoluções dos modos de vida ocasionaram modificações importantes nos comportamentos alimentares. Tais evoluções foram particularmente analisadas para o caso da França. Confrontadas a um contexto de abundância, as populações adotaram uma conduta alimentar mais energética. Tal conduta resume-se, sobretudo, em um alto consumo de produtos de origem animal. Porém, entre grupos de indivíduos (more) ricos e após um período de saturação, a atração pelo consumo desmedido tal produto, tornou-se menos intensiva. Novas preocupações orientadas à saúde e às formas de mantê-la em bom estado foram despertadas. O aumento do número de mulheres salariadas e o desenvolvimento das atividades de lazer alteraram a gestão do tempo empregado à alimentação. Na busca pelo ganho de tempo, os consumidores passaram a procurar por alimentos prontos para serem consumidos e a realizarem suas refeições fora do domicílio. As culturas alimentares não evoluem tão rapidamente como as transformações ocorridas em todo o sistema de oferta alimentar, com isso afirma-se que a industrialização, a internacionalização e as inovações de toda a cadeia agroalimentar geram ansiedades no consumidor. Todas essas transformações e tendências, que são observadas em países ricos, podem ser percebidas quando os comportamentos alimentares de populações ricas de países em desenvolvimento são analisados. Abstract in english Important modifications in consumer food habits were caused by both economic development and evolutions in life style during the second part of the XX century. These evolutions were analyzed, in particular, in the case of France. Easy accessibility to food (abundance context) led the populations to adopt high caloric food intakes, such conduct resulting, above all, in an elevated consumption of products of animal origin. However, after a period of saturation, the unlimite (more) d attraction to the consumption of such products became less intense amongst the richer, more privileged social groups. New, health oriented concerns, and ways to maintain good health became important. The rise in the number of women earning salaries and the development of leisure activities altered the management of time with respect to feeding. Aiming at gaining time, the consumers concentrated more on ready-to-eat foods and eating out of the home. However the food cultures failed to evolve as quickly as the transformations occurring in the food marketing system, and thus it can be affirmed that industrialization, internationalization and innovations throughout the whole agro-food chain led to consumer anxiety. All such transformations and tendencies observed in the rich countries can also be perceived in the food habits of rich populations in developing countries.

Lambert, Jean Louis; Batalha, Mário Otávio; Sproesser, Renato Luiz; Silva, Andréa Lago da; Lucchese, Thelma

2005-10-01

280

Crud handling circuit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A process for handling the problems of crud formation during the solvent extraction of wet-process phosphoric acid, e.g. for uranium and rare earth removal, is described. It involves clarification of the crud-solvent mixture, settling, water washing the residue and treatment of the crud with a caustic wash to remove and regenerate the solvent. Applicable to synergistic mixtures of dialkylphosphoric acids and trialkylphosphine oxides dissolved in inert diluents and more preferably to the reductive stripping technique. (U.K.)

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Facts about food irradiation: Irradiation and food safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This fact sheet focusses on the question of whether irradiation can be used to make spoiled food good. No food processing procedures can substitute for good hygienic practices, and good manufacturing practices must be followed in the preparation of food whether or not the food is intended for further processing by irradiation or any other means. 3 refs

1991-01-01

282

Food irradiation seminar: Asia and the Pacific  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report covers the Seminar for Asia and the Pacific on the practical application of food irradiation. The seminar assessed the practical application of food irradiation processes, commercial utilisation and international trade of irradiated food

1986-01-01

283

Sectional device handling tool  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apparatus for remotely handling a device in an irradiated underwater environment includes a plurality of tubular sections interconnected end-to-end to form a handling structure, the bottom section being adapted for connection to the device. A support section is connected to the top tubular section and is adapted to be suspended from an overhead crane. Each section is flanged at its opposite ends. Axially retractable bolts in each bottom flange are threadedly engageable with holes in the top flange of an adjacent section, each bolt being biased to its retracted position and retained in place on the bottom flange. Guide pins on each top flange cooperate with mating holes on adjacent bottom flanges to guide movement of the parts to the proper interconnection orientation. Each section carries two hydraulic line segments provided with quick-connect/disconnect fittings at their opposite ends for connection to the segments of adjacent tubular sections upon interconnection thereof to form control lines which are connectable to the device and to an associated control console.

Candee, Clark B. (Monroeville, PA)

1988-07-12

284

Food Safety in Home Kitchens: A Synthesis of the Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although foodborne illness is preventable, more than 56,000 people per year become ill in the U.S., creating high economic costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life for many. Experts agree that the home is the primary location where foodborne outbreaks occur; however, many consumers do not believe the home to be a risky place. Health care professionals need to be aware of consumers’ food safety attitudes and behaviors in the home and deliver tailored food safety interventions that are theory-based. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to synthesize/summarize the food safety literature by examining the following: consumers’ perceptions and attitudes towards food safety and their susceptibility to foodborne illness in the home, work, and school; common risky food safety practices and barriers to handling food safely; and the application of theory-based food safety interventions. Findings will help healthcare professionals become more aware of consumers’ food safety attitudes and behaviors and serve to inform future food safety interventions.

Carol Byrd-Bredbenner; Jacqueline Berning; Jennifer Martin-Biggers; Virginia Quick

2013-01-01

285

Oficinas de boas práticas de fabricação: construindo estratégias para garantir a segurança alimentar Workshops for good manufacturing practices: building strategies for ensuring food security  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comercialização de alimentos tradicionais resgata a história e a cultura presentes nos alimentos. Os pescadores artesanais são os principais responsáveis pelo abastecimento do mercado nacional. Considerando-se a importância da adoção de procedimentos de Boas Práticas de Fabricação em toda cadeia produtiva, o presente trabalho visa a socializar uma experiência construtiva de uma oficina de Boas Práticas de Fabricação para pescadoras. Diante disso, realizou-se um levantamento de conceitos e atitudes voltadas para produção segura de alimentos, utilizando-se como instrumento entrevistas, além da observação de seus hábitos e atitudes. Os resultados evidenciam que estas pescadoras percebem as Boas Práticas de Fabricação como sinônimo de higiene e de poder comercializar o pescado sem reclamações; porém, as mesmas não têm noção dos procedimentos de Boas Práticas de Fabricação na sua atividade. O processo formativo se constitui como uma das estratégias de base para consolidação dos grupos, sendo as oficinas alternativas eficientes, de fácil execução e baixo custo.The marketing of traditional foods recalls the history and culture in feeding. The fishermen are primarily responsible for supplying the domestic market. Considering the importance of adopting procedures for Good Manufacturing Practices throughout the production chain, this paper aims to socialize a constructive experience of a Good Manufacturing Practices workshop for fishers. Therefore, we carried out a survey of concepts and attitudes towards safe food production, using interviews as an instrument, and are observed their habits and attitudes. The results show that these Good Manufacturing Practices perceive as synonymous with health and able to market the fish without complaint, but they are not aware of the procedures for Good Manufacturing Practices activities. The training process is constituted as one of the basic strategies for strengthening these groups, workshops efficient alternatives, easy implementation and low cost.

Tarcisio da Silva Costa; Gabrielly Sobral Neiva; Valéria Macedo Almeida Camilo; Fernanda de Freitas; Isabella de Matos Mendes da Silva

2012-01-01

286

Radionuclides in food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the representative sampling, appropriate methods of measurement and the traceable results. Finally it is possible to advise and to help the national responsible authorities to define a minimal universe of food to monitor to protect the consumers[es] Las fuentes de la presencia de radionucleidos en los alimentos son presentadas: radiacion natural y radiacion artificial. Se exponen como temas principales la transferencia de radionucleidos a traves de las cadenas alimenticias, incorporaciones de radionucleidos al organismo con sus dosis efectivas asociadas y el consumo tipico de los alimentos basicos de una poblacion rural adulta. Tambien se muestra la dosis de radiacion proveniente de fuentes naturales y la exposicion al hombre por ingestion de alimentos contaminados con radionucleidos de origen artificial. Anota que la contribucion de la ingestion de alimentos a la exposicion del hombre depende de: caracteristicas del radionucleido, condiciones naturales, practicas agricolas y los habitos alimentarios de la poblacion. Las principales organizaciones internacionales a cargo de establecer niveles orientativos para radionucleidos en alimentos son mencionados: normas, reglas y el monitoreo. Establece que es necesario una guia para el monitoreo de alimentos; el CODEX ALIMENTARIUS solo es aplicable a situaciones de emergencias y los niveles de actuacion genericos que propone el CODEX no satisfacen todas las necesidades (carece de niveles orientativos internacionales para situaciones planificadas o existentes como NORM). Se manejan principalmente aspectos socio-economicos y politicos. Entre las acciones a emprender estan: asegurar una informacion publica comprensiva acerca de la evaluacion de riesgos en alimentos; reforzar la colaboracion entre las distintas organizaciones internacionales (OMS, OIEA, ICRP, EC) en relacion con los alimentos de conjunto; dar seguimiento al control del agua potable y la presencia de NORM en los alimentos. Ademas, se puede crear los mecanismos necesarios para reducir el numero de medidas irrelevantes y tramites burocraticos inutiles (certific

2008-01-01

287

Ground Beef and Food Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

... Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Ground Beef and Food Safety Questions about "ground meat" or " ... frequently asked questions and information about why ground beef requires careful handling. What's the difference between "hamburger" ...

288

Do residents of food deserts express different food buying preferences compared to residents of food oases? A mixed-methods analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Many people lack access to food stores that provide healthful food. Neighborhoods with poor supermarket access have been characterized as “food deserts” (as contrast with “food oases”). This study explored factors influencing food buying practices among residents...

Walker Renee E; Block Jason; Kawachi Ichiro

289

Food Storage Guide for Schools and Institutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This booklet has been prepared as a guide to show good methods of handling and storing USDA-donated and locally purchased foods. The information was drawn from many resources and includes latest research data available on types of storage facilities and equipment needed for handling and storing foods. The material is organized in five parts: (1)…

Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Div. of Child Nutrition.

290

Remote handling in ZEPHYR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A conceptual design of the ZEPHYR building is described. The listed radiation data show that remote handling devices will be necessary in most areas of the building. For difficult repair and maintenance works it is intended to transfer complete units from the experimental hall to a hot cell which provides better working conditions. The necessary crane systems and other transport means are summarized as well as suitable commercially available manipulators and observation devices. The conept of automatic devices for cutting and welding and other operations inside the vacuum vessel and the belonging position control system is sketched. Guidelines for the design of passive components are set up in order to facilitate remote operation. (orig.)

1982-01-01

291

BIOMASS HANDLING AND PROCESSING  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biomass handling and processing systems and methods are provided. In one embodiment, a method includes cutting biomass, transferring the cut biomass to an auger, utilizing the auger to form a row of biomass, and baling the row of biomass. The biomass is optionally transferred from the auger to the baler utilizing one or more conveyors. Additionally, one or more cleaning steps may be performed to separate contaminants from the biomass. In another embodiment, a biomass processing system includes a sickle, a pick-ups unit, and an auger. Biomass is cut by the sickle and transferred to the auger utilizing the pick-ups unit. The auger forms the biomass into a row. The row of biomass may then be transferred to a baler utilizing a conveyor. Systems also optionally include a rotor located between the pick-ups unit and the auger, and one or more grates that reduce contamination included with the biomass.

SPIKES WARREN W; SPIKES KIRK A; SPIKES SCOTT G

292

Device for handling packaging  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The device has a transport device (2) comprising a transport element (8), which is in contact with a region of a plastic preform (10) during transport over a contact surface (12). A treatment device (4) treats the preform in a preset manner and comprises a treatment element e.g. rectangular bar (6). The treatment element is partially in contact with a surface of the preform over another contact surface. The contact surfaces are formed as germ-killing surfaces and arranged in transport direction of the preform downstream with respect to a sterilization device (35). The transport element is formed as a gripping clamp, a welding tool and a sorting roller. The treatment element is selected from a group consisting of a blowing nozzle, a blow mold, a welding tool and a support ring. An independent claim is also included for a method for handling packages.

LAPPE ULRICH

293

Alergia alimentar: atualização prática do ponto de vista gastroenterológico/ Food allergy: a practical update from the gastroenterological viewpoint  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Apresentar uma revisão atualizada e crítica sobre alergias alimentares, focando principalmente em tratamento e prevenção. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão da literatura publicada obtida através do banco de dados MEDLINE, sendo selecionados os mais atuais e representativos do tema (2000-2006). A pesquisa incluiu os sites da European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) e American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). SÍNTESE DOS DADOS (more) : A prevalência de doenças alérgicas tem aumentado nas últimas décadas e alergia alimentar parece fazer parte desse aumento. Alergia alimentar é muito mais comum em pediatria e apresenta impacto médico, financeiro e social significativos em crianças menores e suas famílias. Tratamento e prevenção da alergia alimentar são desafios maiores do ponto de vista da saúde pública e para as comunidades médica e científica. Há muita informação incorreta e condutas médicas discutíveis nessa área. Apresentamos e discutimos as recomendações publicadas pelos Comitês de Nutrição da ESPGHAN juntamente com a Sociedade Européia Pediátrica de Alergologia e Imunologia Clínica (ESPACI) e AAP. CONCLUSÃO: Excesso de diagnósticos de alergia alimentar é bastante prevalente. Há necessidade de uniformização de definições e procedimentos diagnósticos. O objetivo primário do manejo deve ser o de instituir medidas efetivas de prevenção das alergias alimentares. Há necessidade de métodos precisos para confirmar ou excluir o diagnóstico. Os pacientes necessitam tratamento apropriado através da eliminação de alimentos que causam sintomas, ao mesmo tempo evitando os efeitos adversos nutricionais e o custo de dietas inadequadas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To present an up-to-date and critical review regarding food allergies, focusing mainly on treatment and prevention. SOURCES: Review of published literature searched on MEDLINE database; those data which were the most up-to-date and representative were selected (2000-2006). The search included the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The prevalenc (more) e of allergic diseases has increased over the last decades, and food allergy seems to be part of this increase. Food allergy is much more common in pediatrics and has a significant medical, financial and social impact on young children and their families. Treatment and prevention of food allergy is a major challenge for public health, scientific and medical communities. There is a lot of misinformation and the medical management of this condition is still discussable. We present and discuss the guidelines regarding criteria for the prevention of food allergy and atopic diseases published by the Nutrition Committees of ESPGHAN jointly with the European Society for Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (ESPACI) and AAP. CONCLUSION: The overdiagnosis of food allergy is quite prevalent. There is a need for standardization of definitions and diagnostic procedures. The primary goal of therapy should be to first establish effective means of preventing food allergies. There is a need for accurate diagnostic methods to confirm or rule out the diagnosis. Patients need appropriate treatment by eliminating foods that cause symptoms, while avoiding the nutritional side effects and the cost of inappropriate diets.

Ferreira, Cristina Targa; Seidman, Ernest

2007-02-01

294

Handle with care  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A film dealing with transport of radioactive materials by everyday means - rail, road, sea and air transport - has been made for IAEA. It illustrates in broad terms some of the simple precautions which should be followed by persons dealing with such materials during shipment. Throughout, the picture stresses the transport regulations drawn up and recommended by the Agency, and in particular the need to carry out carefully the instructions based on these regulations in order to ensure that there is no hazard to the public nor to those who handle radioactive materials in transit and storage. In straightforward language, the film addresses the porter of a goods wagon, an airline cargo clerk, a dockside crane operator, a truck driver and others who load and ship freight. It shows the various types of package used to contain different categories of radioactive substances according to the intensity of the radiation emitted. It also illustrates their robustness by a series of tests involving drops, fires, impact, crushing, etc. Clear instructions are conveyed on what to do in the event of an unlikely accident with any type of package. The film is entitled, 'The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials', and is No. 3 in the series entitled, 'Handle with Care'. It was made for IAEA through the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority by the Film Producers' Guild in the United Kingdom. It is in 16 mm colour, optical sound, with a running time of 20 minutes. It is available for order at $50 either direct from IAEA or through any of its Member Governments. Prints can be supplied in English, French, Russian or Spanish. Copies are also available for adaptation for commentaries in other languages. (author)

1965-01-01

295

Battery and handle therefor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An electric storage battery is described including a container having a carrying handle pivotal and detachably secured via mounting knobs projecting from opposite endwalls. The improvement comprises: knob comprising a head portion spaced from an endwall and a substantially cylindrical stem portion of determined diameter extending between, and in contiguous relation to, the endwall and head portion; the head portion includes a flange extending radially outboard the stem portion; a surface on the stem side of the flange confronting the endwall; a handle comprising a one-piece plastic molding having a substantially rigid gripping portion and arm portions extending from the opposite ends of the gripping portion to the knobs. The arm portions have sufficient length to permit positioning of the gripping portion above or alongside the battery as desired; an innerface on each arm portion confronting an endwall; a substantially flat terminal forming the end of each of the arm portions engaging a knob, the terminal comprising a wall lying inboard of, and substantially parallel to, the innerface adjacent to the endwall and defining a pocket containing the head. The wall engages the surface of the flange such as to prevent axial displacement of terminal with respect to the knob; a rim of the wall defines a socket in the wall for receiving the stem. The socket has a stem-retention zone and an upwardly opening mouth for the ingress and egress of the stem portion into and out of the zone by movement of the arm longitudinally and parallel to the endwall; and a pair of opposed projections extending toward each other from the rim into the socket and defining a gate which is sufficiently narrower than the diameter to permit manual snapping of the stem into and out of the stem-retention zone to engage/disengage the terminal with/from the knob yet retain the stem in the zone in normal use.

Mc Cartney, C.P.; Susko, E.W.; Crouse, T.

1987-06-16

296

Data protection training improves data handling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Clinicians are required by law to keep personal patient data secure. Data protection training (DPT) has been suggested to educate medical professionals in how to most appropriately manage such information. METHODS: Information regarding the handling, storage and disposal of patient information and prevalence of DPT was gathered using anonymous questionnaires. RESULTS: The vast majority of doctors (98.6%) handle patient lists containing patient-sensitive information: 15.8 per cent used general waste bins for the disposal of lists and 57.3 per cent removed printed patient lists from hospital premises; 43.3 per cent of doctors had received DPT. A significantly greater proportion of consultants have received DPT, compared with doctors in training. Doctors who have received DPT were less likely to take patient lists away from a hospital site (p=0.011). DPT led to a trend towards increased awareness of the security of the storage location of their patient lists and of trust policy regarding the use of personal USB devices. DISCUSSION: With the expansion of patient data collection and storage, it is important for doctors to maintain an awareness of how to handle such data. DPT is not currently common practice. Our study suggests positive benefits from DPT, and we suggest it could improve the safety with which patient data is handled.

Tahim A; Sabharwal S; Dhokia R; Bajekal R; Kyriacou S

2012-12-01

297

CLINICAL WASTE HANDLING AND OBSTACLES IN MALAYSIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As in many other developing countries, the generation of clinical waste in Malaysia has increased significantly over the last few decades. Even though the serious impact of the clinical waste on human beings and the environment is significant, only minor attention is directed to its proper handling and legal aspects. This study seeks to examine the management of clinical waste in Selangor’s government hospitals as well as problems that arise from the current practice of clinical waste management. A depth interview with the responsible concession who handles the clinical waste management in those hospitals also has been taken. In general, it was found that the consortium’s administration was reasonably aware of the importance of clinical waste management. However, significant voids were presented that need to be addressed in future including efficient segregation, better handling and transfer means, as well as the need for training and awareness programs for the personnel. Other obstacles faced by consortiums were to handle the clinical waste including the operational costs. Waste minimizing and recycling, as well as the alternative treatment methods for incineration are regarded to be major challenges in the future.

Shaidatul Shida Razali; Mohd Bakri Ishak

2010-01-01

298

Handling the unexpected  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complex engineering projects always give rise to unexpected problems, and this was appreciated when the design of the Heysham 2 and Torness Power Stations first started. The likelihood of unexpected problems arising was minimised by repeating design features from previous stations whenever it was practicable to do so. Furthermore independent staff were used to check all work done in line with standard Quality Assurance practice. Programmes for building the stations included allowances for a limited amount of unexpected re-engineering, and the superheater penetrations, standpipe cracking and control rod instability problems are used as examples of difficulties which arose and were subsequently overcome without undue adverse programme effects. (author).

1989-01-01

299

Handling the unexpected  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complex engineering projects always give rise to unexpected problems, and this was appreciated when the design of the Heysham 2 and Torness power stations started. The likelihood of unexpected problems arising was minimized by repeating design features from previous stations whenever it was practicable to do so. Furthermore independent staff were used to check all work in line with standard quality assurance practice. Programmes for building the stations included allowances for a limited amount of unexpected re-engineering. The superheater penetrations, standpipe cracking and control rod instability problems are used as examples of difficulties which arose and were subsequently overcome without undue adverse programme effects. (author).

1989-01-01

300

Hygiene and Manufacturing Practices, Interagency Collaboration, and a Proposal for Improvement: A Case Study of Community Food Enterprise in Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports the current hygiene and manufacturing practices adopted in a women’s community enterprise (WCE) for processing an herbal seasoning product in Sakon Nakhon Province, Thailand. A multidisciplinary team comprised researchers and inspectors from government agencies was formed to conduct interviews and evaluations by using a good manufacturing practice (GMP) checklist. The results showed that the WCE did not pass the GMP standard. We formed an action plan to identify the requirements for GMP implementation. Non-compliance factors were delegated to each stakeholder for action and implementation. To achieve an action plan, the participation of every stakeholder is crucial.

Sudarin Rodmanee; Wen-Chi Huang

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Control of automatic materials handling in radiation fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some agricultural and food industry raw materials and products can be effectively sterilized by ionizing radiation for better quality and longer shelf-life. A microelectronically controlled automatic materials handling system installed in an irradiation facility of AGROSTER Company, Hungary, is described. Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) type FESTO FPC 606 were applied to control the motion of containers. (R.P.) 6 figs

1987-01-01

302

Trends in Modern Exception Handling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Exception handling is nowadays a necessary component of error proof information systems. The paper presents overview of techniques and models of exception handling, problems connected with them and potential solutions. The aspects of implementation of propagation mechanisms and exception handling, their effect on semantics and general program efficiency are also taken into account. Presented mechanisms were adopted to modern programming languages. Considering design area, formal methods and formal verification of program properties we can notice exception handling mechanisms are weakly present what makes a field for future research.

Marcin Kuta

2003-01-01

303

Experience in handling abnormal and emergency situations in PHWR fuel handling system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On-power Fuel Handling System of PHWR reactor consists of complicated mechanisms operating in multiple media like heavy water, light water and oil. This remote controlled system is the lifeline of PHWR reactor. The complexity of on-power fuel handling system and the need to continuously improve its performance presents challenges at every step. A large number of innovations, modifications and improvements in the system have been made by the stations, design group and R and D units to meet the challenges of higher refueling rate. Innovations in operating/maintenance practices and the methods to safely retrieve from abnormal/emergency situations in shortest possible time had to be specifically devised from the embryonic stage. A lot of efforts were required to be put in by various agencies to develop and formalise the operating procedures for handling various emergency conditions. The implementation of these procedures required the development of special tools/fixtures which had to be tested and tried out in mock-ups before their actual use. The retrieval from emergency situations like handling of damaged bundles in MAPS in early eighties, bundles dropped in shuttle station in NAPS in 1998 and failure of fuel string to move due to damaged bundles at Kaiga in 2003 are some of the most difficult situations handled over the years.This paper focuses on the challenges faced during handling of Safety-related Events in PHWR Fuel Handling System. It also discusses development of procedures and tooling to retrieve from abnormal situations and various innovations and design improvements to avoid the recurrence of the events. (author)

2006-01-01

304

Colonic potassium handling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Homeostatic control of plasma K+ is a necessary physiological function. The daily dietary K+ intake of approximately 100 mmol is excreted predominantly by the distal tubules of the kidney. About 10% of the ingested K+ is excreted via the intestine. K+ handling in both organs is specifically regulated by hormones and adapts readily to changes in dietary K+ intake, aldosterone and multiple local paracrine agonists. In chronic renal insufficiency, colonic K+ secretion is greatly enhanced and becomes an important accessory K+ excretory pathway. During severe diarrheal diseases of different causes, intestinal K+ losses caused by activated ion secretion may become life threatening. This topical review provides an update of the molecular mechanisms and the regulation of mammalian colonic K+ absorption and secretion. It is motivated by recent results, which have identified the K+ secretory ion channel in the apical membrane of distal colonic enterocytes. The directed focus therefore covers the role of the apical Ca2+and cAMP-activated BK channel (KCa1.1) as the apparently only secretory K+ channel in the distal colon.

SØrensen, Mads Vaarby; Matos, Joana E.

2010-01-01

305

TFTR tritium handling concepts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, to be located on the Princeton Forrestal Campus, is expected to operate with 1 to 2.5 MA tritium--deuterium plasmas, with the pulses involving injection of 50 to 150 Ci (5 to 16 mg) of tritium. Attainment of fusion conditions is based on generation of an approximately 1 keV tritium plasma by ohmic heating and conversion to a moderately hot tritium--deuterium ion plasma by injection of a ''preheating'' deuterium neutral beam (40 to 80 keV), followed by injection of a ''reacting'' beam of high energy neutral deuterium (120 to 150 keV). Additionally, compressions accompany the beam injections. Environmental, safety and cost considerations led to the decision to limit the amount of tritium gas on-site to that required for an experiment, maintaining all other tritium in ''solidified'' form. The form of the tritium supply is as uranium tritide, while the spent tritium and other hydrogen isotopes are getter-trapped by zirconium--aluminum alloy. The issues treated include: (1) design concepts for the tritium generator and its purification, dispensing, replenishment, containment, and containment--cleanup systems; (2) features of the spent plasma trapping system, particularly the regenerable absorption cartridges, their integration into the vacuum system, and the handling of non-getterables; (3) tritium permeation through the equipment and the anticipated releases to the environment; (4) overview of the tritium related ventilation systems; and (5) design bases for the facility's tritium clean-up systems.

1975-09-30

306

Remote handling and accelerators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The high-current levels of contemporary and proposed accelerator facilities induce radiation levels into components, requiring consideration be given to maintenance techniques that reduce personnel exposure. Typical components involved include beamstops, targets, collimators, windows, and instrumentation that intercepts the direct beam. Also included are beam extraction, injection, splitting, and kicking regions, as well as purposeful spill areas where beam tails are trimmed and neutral particles are deposited. Scattered beam and secondary particles activate components all along a beamline such as vacuum pipes, magnets, and shielding. Maintenance techniques vary from hands-on to TV-viewed operation using state-of-the-art servomanipulators. Bottom- or side-entry casks are used with thimble-type target and diagnostic assemblies. Long-handled tools are operated from behind shadow shields. Swinging shield doors, unstacking block, and horizontally rolling shield roofs are all used to provide access. Common to all techniques is the need to make operations simple and to provide a means of seeing and reaching the area.

1983-01-01

307

Alimentos funcionales: análisis de la recomendación en la práctica diaria/ Functional foods: analysis of the recommendation in the daily practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción:La investigación científica, la innovación tecnológica y la tendencia hacia lo saludable revolucionaron la industria alimenticia con el nuevo concepto de "alimentos funcionales". Surgen en Japón en los años 80 y actualmente el mercado internacional se encuentra en pleno auge. Los Licenciados en Nutrición, como nexo entre ciencia, industria y consumidor, constituyen una pieza clave y cumplen un rol fundamental en educación y asesoramiento.El objetivod (more) el estudio fue establecer el nivel de conocimiento que poseen los Licenciados en Nutrición en éste área sobre el concepto de "alimento funcional", fuentes de información y capacitación utilizadas, recomendación y uso adecuado. Material y métodos:se realizó un estudio cualitativo, descriptivo y transversal. Se entrevistaron 57 Licenciados de Ciudad de Buenos Aires y Conurbano Bonaerense. Resultados:La mitad de los entrevistados tenía información previa sobre los alimentos funcionales y, aunque el 63% desconocía su definición, los identificaban correctamente. Los más nombrados fueron los diseñados. Las fuentes bibliográficas y medios de información más nombrados fueron: "Internet", "libros", "congresos". El 91% consideró importante conocerlos y/o usarlos por el beneficio a la salud y utilidad. El resto no los consideró importantes por ausencia de necesidad, falta de información y desconfianza. El 72% recomendaría alimentos funcionales entre los que destacan lácteos (con probióticos, fitoesteroles y omega 3), cereales, frutas y hortalizas (semillas de lino, chía, salvado de avena). Entre las causas de no recomendación destacan precio y rótulos poco claros. Existe un marcado interés sobre capacitación y uso adecuado. Conclusiones:Los conocimientos que poseen los expertos en nutrición sobre alimentos funcionales son claves ya que deben interpretar y "traducir" la información científica y de la industria a la comunidad en general, como fuentes confiables e idóneas. Asegurar información adecuada a la población permitiría facilitar elecciones saludables y mejorar la calidad de vida. Abstract in english Introduction: Scientific research, technological innovation and the ongoing trend towards healthy things revolutionized the food industry with the new concept of "functional foods". They emerged in Japan in the 80´s and nowadays, the international market is booming. Dietitians, as the link between science, industry and consumer, are a key piece and fulfill a fundamental role in education and advising. Theaimof this study was to establish the level of knowledge Dietitians (more) have on the functional food concept, sources of information and training, recommendation and suitable use. Methods: A qualitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out. 57 Dietitians were interviewed in Buenos Aires City and Buenos Aires suburbs. Results:Half of the interviewed people had previous information on functional foods; although 63% did not know their definition, they identifed them correctly. The most named were the designed ones. The bibliography and means of information most named were: "Internet", "books", "congresses". 91% considered important to know them and/or use them due to health benefts and utility. The rest did not consider them important because of absence of necessity, lack of information and distrust. 72% would recommend functional dairies (with Probiotics, Phytosterol and Omega 3) and cereals, fruits and vegetables (fax seed, chia, oat bran). Among the causes of non-recommendation, Dietitians emphasize price and unclear labels. There is a strong interest in training and proper use. Conclusion: The knowledge of experts in nutrition on functional foods is key because they must interpret and "translate" the scientific and industrial information to the community as reliable and appropriate sources. The right information enables people to make healthy choices to improve their quality of life.

Millone, MV; Olagnero, GF; Santana, EC

2011-03-01

308

Alimentos funcionales: análisis de la recomendación en la práctica diaria Functional foods: analysis of the recommendation in the daily practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción:La investigación científica, la innovación tecnológica y la tendencia hacia lo saludable revolucionaron la industria alimenticia con el nuevo concepto de "alimentos funcionales". Surgen en Japón en los años 80 y actualmente el mercado internacional se encuentra en pleno auge. Los Licenciados en Nutrición, como nexo entre ciencia, industria y consumidor, constituyen una pieza clave y cumplen un rol fundamental en educación y asesoramiento.El objetivodel estudio fue establecer el nivel de conocimiento que poseen los Licenciados en Nutrición en éste área sobre el concepto de "alimento funcional", fuentes de información y capacitación utilizadas, recomendación y uso adecuado. Material y métodos:se realizó un estudio cualitativo, descriptivo y transversal. Se entrevistaron 57 Licenciados de Ciudad de Buenos Aires y Conurbano Bonaerense. Resultados:La mitad de los entrevistados tenía información previa sobre los alimentos funcionales y, aunque el 63% desconocía su definición, los identificaban correctamente. Los más nombrados fueron los diseñados. Las fuentes bibliográficas y medios de información más nombrados fueron: "Internet", "libros", "congresos". El 91% consideró importante conocerlos y/o usarlos por el beneficio a la salud y utilidad. El resto no los consideró importantes por ausencia de necesidad, falta de información y desconfianza. El 72% recomendaría alimentos funcionales entre los que destacan lácteos (con probióticos, fitoesteroles y omega 3), cereales, frutas y hortalizas (semillas de lino, chía, salvado de avena). Entre las causas de no recomendación destacan precio y rótulos poco claros. Existe un marcado interés sobre capacitación y uso adecuado. Conclusiones:Los conocimientos que poseen los expertos en nutrición sobre alimentos funcionales son claves ya que deben interpretar y "traducir" la información científica y de la industria a la comunidad en general, como fuentes confiables e idóneas. Asegurar información adecuada a la población permitiría facilitar elecciones saludables y mejorar la calidad de vida.Introduction: Scientific research, technological innovation and the ongoing trend towards healthy things revolutionized the food industry with the new concept of "functional foods". They emerged in Japan in the 80´s and nowadays, the international market is booming. Dietitians, as the link between science, industry and consumer, are a key piece and fulfill a fundamental role in education and advising. Theaimof this study was to establish the level of knowledge Dietitians have on the functional food concept, sources of information and training, recommendation and suitable use. Methods: A qualitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out. 57 Dietitians were interviewed in Buenos Aires City and Buenos Aires suburbs. Results:Half of the interviewed people had previous information on functional foods; although 63% did not know their definition, they identifed them correctly. The most named were the designed ones. The bibliography and means of information most named were: "Internet", "books", "congresses". 91% considered important to know them and/or use them due to health benefts and utility. The rest did not consider them important because of absence of necessity, lack of information and distrust. 72% would recommend functional dairies (with Probiotics, Phytosterol and Omega 3) and cereals, fruits and vegetables (fax seed, chia, oat bran). Among the causes of non-recommendation, Dietitians emphasize price and unclear labels. There is a strong interest in training and proper use. Conclusion: The knowledge of experts in nutrition on functional foods is key because they must interpret and "translate" the scientific and industrial information to the community as reliable and appropriate sources. The right information enables people to make healthy choices to improve their quality of life.

MV Millone; GF Olagnero; EC Santana

2011-01-01

309

Procedure of safe handling with cytostatic drugs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Working group for safe handling with cytostatic drugs has been formed by the Ministry of Health, and it consists of professionals from IORS, Federal Bureau of Weights and Measures, Industrial Medicine, Institute of Hematology, Military Medical Academy, and Crown Agents. The aim of this working group is to prepare procedures for safe handling with cytostatic drugs, as well as program for educational seminar for nurses, medical technicians, and pharmaceutical technicians. The procedures will serve as a guide of good practice of oncology health care, and will refer to all actions that health care professionals carry out from the moment of drugs arrival to the pharmacy to the moment of their application. In the first segment of this procedure, general rules are given for working with cytotoxic agents, control for risky exposures, safe system of work, control of working environment, monitoring of the employees' health condition adequate protection in the working environment, protective equipment of the employees (gloves, mask, cap, eyeglasses, shoe covers, coats and chambers for vertical laminary air stream). Storing of cytostatics, procedure in case of accident, and waste handling and removal are also described in this segment. Fifty-three standard operational procedures are described in detail in the second segment. Training scheme for preparation of chemotherapy is given in the third segment - education related to various fields and practical part, which would be carried out through workshops, and at the end of the course participants would pass a test and obtain certificate. After the procedures for safe handling with cytostatics are legally regulated employer will have to provide minimum of protective equipment, special rooms for the drugs dissolving, chambers with laminar airflow, 6 hours working time, rotation of the staff working with drugs dissolving in intervals of every five years, higher efficiency, better health control. In conclusion this specific field of work requires great psychological and physical efforts, and know-how. When taking care of ourselves, we are taking care of the others, as well.

Kodžo Dragan

2003-01-01

310

Revolution in food preservation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief consumer guide to food irradiation is presented. Aspects covered include some of the advantages of food irradiation compared to other methods of food preservation, the type of radiation used, the mechanism of action, some practical applications, safety and future benefits.

1986-01-01

311

Composite insulator handling guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With a view to preventing failures this documents serves to describe how critical damage can occur in the field and the measures that should be taken to avoid such damage. Typical problems are illustrated to show the defects that can be introduced by inappropriate treatment and construction practices, to indicate the possible long term effects of such defects and to assist in their identification to facilitate the rigorous inspection of composite insulators prior to line commissioning. (author)

NONE

2001-07-01

312

The perfect food and the filth disease: milk-borne typhoid and epidemiological practice in late Victorian Britain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article explores the initial set of epidemiological investigations in Victorian Britain that linked typhoid fever to milk from dairy cattle. Because Victorian epidemiologists first recognized the milk-borne route in outbreaks of typhoid fever, these investigations served as a model for later studies of milk-borne scarlet fever, diphtheria, and perhaps tuberculosis. By focusing on epidemiological practices conducted by Medical Inspectors at the Medical Department of the Local Government Board and Medical Officers of Health, I show that Victorian epidemiology was committed to field-based, observational methods that defined the professional nature of the discipline and its theories and practices. Epidemiological investigations of milk-borne typhoid heated up several important public health debates in the second half of the nineteenth century, and demonstrate how Victorian epidemiology was not solely wedded to examining population studies using statistical methods, as historians have typically argued, but also relied on observational case-tracing in individuals, animals, and even environments.

Steere-Williams J

2010-10-01

313

Transport-materials handling index  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Transport-Materials Handling Index consists of Products and Services Index arranged alphabetically; Brand Names Index in alphabetical order; Company Index; Company Listings in alphabetical order through the following sections - road and rail; air cargo; sea transport; freight forwarding; storage and warehousing; customs agents; finance and insurance; truck service and supply; materials handling.

1988-01-01

314

Pneumatic handling with screw pumps  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The part played by pumps with screw feed for the handling of raw meal, cement and pulverized coal in the cement industry is described in this article. It reviews the development of these machines. General guidance on the design of material handling pumps and pumps for special duties, e.g., kiln pumps, is given. In addition, an improved screw pump is described.

Delfs, H.J.

1983-01-01

315

Risk training and materials handling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method developed by the IOM for investigating individual risk perception was used to examine deficiencies in knowledge or training relating to the hazards of materials handling in coal mining. A manual handling 'Risk Perception Audit' (RPA) was administered to miners at four UK collieries involved in manual handling on a regular basis, using a variety of haulage and transport systems. Two activities were identified as benefitting from a training video-using incorrect tools to break open unit loads, and overreaching when unloading deep vehicles. An RPA was developed for mineworkers handling heavy or awkward loads, planned for mineworkers attending courses. Results showed that five activities were identified after the course as bearing a significantly greater risk than was attributed to them before the course. A questionnaire indicated that the men were making fewer errors in handling loads after the course. 23 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs., 2 apps.

Symes, A.M.; Graveling, R.A.; Campbell, S.J.

1992-02-01

316

Public health nutritionists’ role in the promotion of healthy food practices Atuação do nutricionista em saúde pública na promoção da alimentação saudável  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyzes the insertion of nutritionists in the Public Health areas through studies which performed this diagnosis, and reflect about the development of competencies for promoting healthy food practices. The results of these studies are initially presented in order to quantify, describe and analyze the insertion of nutritionists in the Primary Health Network and in the Family Health Program or propose an orientation for their role in the Public Health field. The contribution of these studies is analyzed and some considerations are made about the development of competencies targeting the promotion of healthy food practices. The subjects which can contribute for the development of these competencies are then suggested: peculiarity of the intervention about daily issues, intervention in nutrition as health care, teamwork and development as educator.O artigo tem por objetivo analisar a inserção do nutricionista no campo da Saúde Pública, a partir de estudos que realizaram esse diagnóstico e refletir sobre o desenvolvimento de competências para a promoção de práticas alimentares saudáveis. Inicialmente são apresentados resultados de estudos realizados com a finalidade de quantificar, descrever e analisar a inserção do nutricionista na Rede Básica de Saúde e no Programa Saúde da Família, ou propor direcionamentos para a sua atuação no campo da Saúde Pública. Em seguida, se apresenta uma análise crítica da contribuição desses trabalhos e uma reflexão sobre o desenvolvimento de competências para promoção de práticas alimentares saudáveis. Finalmente, são sugeridos temas que podem contribuir para o desenvolvimento dessas competências: peculiaridades da intervenção sobre questões do cotidiano como é o caso da alimentação, a intervenção em nutrição como cuidado, trabalho em equipe e formação como educador.

Maria Cristina Faber Boog

2008-01-01

317

Food problems and food irradiation, recent trend  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Food irradiation is to contribute to the stable security of foodstuffs which is the fundamental condition of human survival by improving the preservation of foodstuffs and food sanitation utilizing the biological effect due to irradiation. The research and development have been carried out internationally since 1950s, but after the safety declaration of irradiated foods in 1980 by the international organ concerned, the permission and practical use for foods in various foreign countries, the technology transfer to developing countries and so on have been advanced. At present, food irradiation is permitted in 38 countries, and the practical irradiation is carried out in 24 countries. In Japan, the irradiation of potatoes to prevent germination was permitted in 1972, and the practical irradiation on potatoes of yearly 15,000 t is carried out. In the near future, irradiated foods will appear in international foodstuff market, and Japan which imports foodstuffs must cope with them. Foodstuffs and the safety, food irradiation, the soundness of irradiated foods, food irradiation in various foreign countries and Japan, the trend of international organs and the criticism of food irradiation are reported. (K.I.).

1990-11-01

318

ASEAN workshop on food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This proceedings was organized by the ASEAN Food Handling Bureau in Collaboration with the Thai Atomic Energy Commission for Peace. Experts from ASEAN and overseas were invited to present a series of papers covering the state of the art of irradiation technology and the important issues relating to food irradiation

1985-01-01

319

Food, ethics and aesthetics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors test the popular thesis of some of the most influential theorists of contemporary societies about the erosion of the social structuring of consumption choices and their consequent individualisation in westernised societies, using the example of food practices. The analysis is based on data obtained from a random sample of the Slovenian population within a research project entitled 'Lifestyles in a Mediated Society.' The aims of the analysis were: (a) to explore the role of socio-demographic variables in food practices, and (b) to discover the inherent logic that motivates each particular set of food practices and which makes them meaningful for the individual, by studying an association of respondents' food practices with their worldview and cultural consumption. A cluster analysis revealed six food cultures (Male traditionalists, Yes-sayers, Male modernists, Weight-watchers, Carefree hedonists, and Health-conscious hedonists) lying along a continuum where traditionalism occupies one end and post-traditionalism the other. The authors conclude that although two out of six food cultures crosscut socio-demographic affiliations and transform food consumption into a constituent part of a lifestyle as an identity project, there is still a significant influence of socio-demographic characteristics (particularly gender and formal education) on food practices in contemporary Slovenia. Furthermore, significant associations exist between food practices, on the one hand, and the respondent's worldview and cultural consumption, on the other.

Tivadar B; Luthar B

2005-04-01

320

A plan for the handling of externally contaminated livestock.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nuclear accidents and access to radiological weapons for terrorist organizations and countries with hostile intentions towards the United States are realistic scenarios in the current global landscape. A dispersion of radionuclides can result from a nuclear weapon detonation or from a nuclear accident occurring in facilities handling or using radioactive material, such as nuclear power reactors. Any target of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or an attack with a nuclear weapon and the surrounding area of a reactor accident could be subject to a significant amount of fallout and radioactive contamination. Therefore, a nuclear event in close proximity to agricultural areas will cause significant concern regarding the contamination of food products. In order to respond quickly and effectively to a large amount of contaminated agricultural products, such as livestock, a prepared and effective plan for handling and processing of these products is necessary. A protocol outlining the evaluation of and procedures for handling and processing radioactively contaminated livestock is proposed, to ensure safe animal food production and economic stability in the livestock industry in the wake of such a nuclear or radiological event. An evaluation of the salvageability of the contaminated livestock is performed based on the degree of exposure, the cost of decontamination, expected demand for food products, and economic impact to the owner/producer. Important factors that impact the salvageability of affected livestock are listed and analyzed to support the decision process for handling contaminated animals.

McMillan D; Johnson T; Guo Y; Brandl A

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
321

A plan for the handling of externally contaminated livestock.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclear accidents and access to radiological weapons for terrorist organizations and countries with hostile intentions towards the United States are realistic scenarios in the current global landscape. A dispersion of radionuclides can result from a nuclear weapon detonation or from a nuclear accident occurring in facilities handling or using radioactive material, such as nuclear power reactors. Any target of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or an attack with a nuclear weapon and the surrounding area of a reactor accident could be subject to a significant amount of fallout and radioactive contamination. Therefore, a nuclear event in close proximity to agricultural areas will cause significant concern regarding the contamination of food products. In order to respond quickly and effectively to a large amount of contaminated agricultural products, such as livestock, a prepared and effective plan for handling and processing of these products is necessary. A protocol outlining the evaluation of and procedures for handling and processing radioactively contaminated livestock is proposed, to ensure safe animal food production and economic stability in the livestock industry in the wake of such a nuclear or radiological event. An evaluation of the salvageability of the contaminated livestock is performed based on the degree of exposure, the cost of decontamination, expected demand for food products, and economic impact to the owner/producer. Important factors that impact the salvageability of affected livestock are listed and analyzed to support the decision process for handling contaminated animals. PMID:21968824

McMillan, Dayton; Johnson, Thomas; Guo, Yuanqing; Brandl, Alexander

2011-11-01

322

Food irradiation and habitual consumption of food; A irradiacao de alimentos e os habitos alimentares atuais  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the last years, an increasing amount of people is consuming more fruits, vegetables, seeds and sprouts, with the health effects of food in mind. Otherwise, the accepted shelf food safety found in some countries led to a growing trust in the product's hygienic quality, that leads to behaviors like opening a package and immediately consume the contents. Besides the well disseminated knowledge of good cooking practices, the lack of time, found mainly in big cities, may take to the dinning tables food with an increasing potential of pathogenic organisms contamination. For instance, the alfalfa, beam, clover and radish sprouts caused many reported Salmonella and E. coli outbreaks in countries like the USA, United Kingdom, Japan, Sweden, Finland, Canada and Denmark. Many of the likely source of contaminations were the contamination of the seeds before sprouting. To control these contaminations, the irradiation doses over 1 kGy is effective and the association of irradiation and chemical treatments is being studied. The bacteriological control performance of the irradiation becomes this technique one of the most applied to dry herbs and spices witch, without adequate treatment, could be important sources of foodborne outbreaks. Good production, handling, packing and distribution practices may, with the use of ionizing radiation to reach the desired bacteriological inactivation or decontamination level, significantly contribute to the necessary food safety, allowing it to be safely ready to eat. (author)

Omi, Nelson M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: nminoru@ipen.br

2005-07-01

323

Sophisticated fuel handling system evolved  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The control systems at Sellafield fuel handling plant are described. The requirements called for built-in diagnostic features as well as the ability to handle a large sequencing application. Speed was also important; responses better than 50ms were required. The control systems are used to automate operations within each of the three main process caves - two Magnox fuel decanners and an advanced gas-cooled reactor fuel dismantler. The fuel route within the fuel handling plant is illustrated and described. ASPIC (Automated Sequence Package for Industrial Control) which was developed as a controller for the plant processes is described. (U.K.).

Ross, D.A.

1988-03-01

324

Sophisticated fuel handling system evolved  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The control systems at Sellafield fuel handling plant are described. The requirements called for built-in diagnostic features as well as the ability to handle a large sequencing application. Speed was also important; responses better than 50ms were required. The control systems are used to automate operations within each of the three main process caves - two Magnox fuel decanners and an advanced gas-cooled reactor fuel dismantler. The fuel route within the fuel handling plant is illustrated and described. ASPIC (Automated Sequence Package for Industrial Control) which was developed as a controller for the plant processes is described. (U.K.)

1988-01-01

325

Need for a uniform system of control for ensuring acceptance of irradiated food in trade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As national and international trade in food increases, and as markets become more knowledgeable and demanding, all food preservation techniques must be applied in a consistent, uniform manner using recognized systems of control. Such systems are particularly relevant to irradiation since inspection of the final product cannot reveal previous handling or the treatment applied. Several UN agencies provide governments with food control assistance. FAO has a major programme to provide assistance and training on food laws and regulations, on food laboratories and inspection systems, on monitoring of contaminants, and on the formulation of national strategies for the control of food quality. Other agencies have specialized programmes relating to their primary interest. For example, the WHO focuses on food safety, both chemical and microbiological. It also promotes processes, such as irradiation which can make a contribution to primary health care. The IAEA has training and support programmes for the appropriate use of nuclear techniques in food and agriculture. Together, the three agencies support the work of the International Consultative Groups on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) which provides codes of Good Irradiation Practice, guidelines, training courses and inventories of use to regulators and industry. The key areas for control in food irradiation facilities are the design, construction and operation of the facility; personnel training; raw materials; product processing, including packaging materials; record maintenance; and the environmental impact of the overall operation. (author). 6 refs.

1993-01-01

326

Waste from food processors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Food processing companies, by nature of the commodities they deal in and the products they provide, generate a much higher percentage of biodegradable, organic wastes than they do nonorganic wastes. The high percentage of food materials, and to a lesser extent, paper, found in a food processor's waste stream makes composting a highly cost-effective way to manage the wastes. This is the last in a series of articles that discussed solid waste management in various public arenas. Each segment highlighted particulars -- the waste stream; how the waste is handled; waste reduction and recovery programs; and the direction of future waste management -- that are specific to that area.

Sheehan, K.

1993-12-01

327

Fuel handling pot in reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present invention concerns a fuel handling pot used for pulling up and inserting a fuel assembly from and to a container of a reactor using liquid sodium metal as coolants. Flexible bellows are disposed between a handling head and a pot main body of the fuel handling pot. When the pot is pulled up into cover gases from the state being suspended in sodium, the upper end of the pot is made higher than the liquid surface of sodium in the pot by a height determined by the buoyancy of the pot main body and the fuel assembly in sodium, the weight of sodium in the pot and the spring constant of the bellows. Accordingly, sodium is not overflown from the pot during fuel handling, to prevent troubles caused by deposition of sodium. (I.N.)

1989-04-06

328

Fuel handling pot in reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention concerns a fuel handling pot used for pulling up and inserting a fuel assembly from and to a container of a reactor using liquid sodium metal as coolants. Flexible bellows are disposed between a handling head and a pot main body of the fuel handling pot. When the pot is pulled up into cover gases from the state being suspended in sodium, the upper end of the pot is made higher than the liquid surface of sodium in the pot by a height determined by the buoyancy of the pot main body and the fuel assembly in sodium, the weight of sodium in the pot and the spring constant of the bellows. Accordingly, sodium is not overflown from the pot during fuel handling, to prevent troubles caused by deposition of sodium. (I.N.).

Kinuta, Kenji.

1990-10-31

329

Handling gripper. Grappin de manutention  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The handling gripper has a plate with two locating pins, an angular positioning pin and four hooks that latch onto the end piece of a fuel assembly. An extra locating arm is associated with the angular positioning pin.

Clavel, R.; Schlewitz, Y.

1989-09-08

330

Advanced Material Handling Equipment Controls.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to improve the productivity, safety and reliability of Marine Corps Material Handling Equipment (MHE) in a combat environment, this investigation was divided between two specific aspects of MHE operations. The predominant of these is High Speed C...

J. A. Lusher W. V. Miller

1991-01-01

331

Tritium handling in vacuum systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

Gill, J.T. [Monsanto Research Corp., Miamisburg, OH (United States). Mound Facility; Coffin, D.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1986-10-01

332

Coal handling - environment friendly approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two inherent problems associated with coal handling, namely dust and spontaneous combustion, are discussed. The ability of dust suppressant reagents to inhibit spontaneous combustion of coal in stockpiles was investigated. 11 figs.

Handa, S.

1997-12-31

333

Safety considerations when handling metal powders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Metal powder compaction offers unique advantages in the manufacture of net-shape components using techniques such as laser sintering, conventional press and sintering, metal injection moulding, direct rolling, direct forging, and hot isostatic pressing. If the output from the primary metal production process is in powder form, then considerable cost and energy savings can be realized by direct conversion to semi-finished or final shapes. This possibility exists for titani (more) um and possibly also for Ta, Zr, Hf, and Nb metals. However, these attractive benefits are associated with some significant risks. The high surface-to-volume ratio of powder particles coupled with the reactive nature of these metals means that special care must be taken when handling them. Powder explosions are unfortunately still a regular occurrence internationally and these often result in serious injury and loss of life. Even seemingly 'safe' compounds such as sugar, flour, and grain can be extremely hazardous when handled or milled and dust clouds are produced. In addition, exposure to airborne particles can have adverse effects on the human body, especially when particles are inhaled on a regular basis. Furthermore, the medical consequences of these are not fully understood, especially in the case of nanoparticles. The impact is often not observed immediately and debilitating illnesses may emerge only years or decades later. As far as is known, there are no South African guidelines for handling of metal powders. This paper attempts to provide an awareness of the risks associated with metal powders (including those produced indirectly by other metalworking/finishing operations) as well as some guidelines for their safe handling, based on international best practices.

Benson, J.M.

2012-01-01

334

Materials handling in opencast mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This one-day symposium on materials handling in surface mining covered dragline developments, a comparison of bucket wheel excavators, mining shovels and front-end loaders, off highway trucking developments, shiftable conveyors, cross pit conveyor systems, the use of conveyor integrated material handling system at Captain Mine (USA), the design and planning of an in-pit crusher and conveyor system Grootegeluk Mine (South Africa), and planning a truck operation. Six of the papers have been abstracted separately.

1980-01-01

335

Stockyard machines for coal handling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A little unexpectedly, coal has become something like the fuel of the future. This can also be seen from the large number of projects for coal handling facilities world wide. Most of the times, stacking and reclaiming equipment forms a major, and often quite impressive part of these facilities. The contribution under consideration provides examples of such equipment for handling of coal from Sandvik Mining and Construction.

Anon.

2008-07-01

336

Cognitive failure evaluation and therapy based on pharmacy practice - utilization of anti-dementia drugs and food supplements in Lithuania.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cognitive failures of patients visiting pharmacies and to study utilization of drugs for dementia therapy in Lithuania. METHODS: 153 patients completed a Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ) at pharmacy. The ATC/DDD method was used to evaluate utilization of drugs licensed for dementia treatment, including C04AE (peripheral vasodilators), N04BD (MAO inhibitors), N06D (anti-dementia drugs), N06BX (nootropics), N07C (anti-vertigo), and A11HA (plain vitamin E) preparations. RESULTS: 53 of 153 study participants (34.6%) scored over 45 CFQ points and reported cognitive failure, assessed by three factors: F1 - forgetfulness, F2 - distractibility and F3 - false triggering. All three factors correlate with age and the most significant extent has memory performance (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs) F1 - rs = 0.85, p < 0.01; F3 - rs = 0.79, p < 0.01, and F2 - rs = 0.4, p < 0.01) and do not depend on gender or educational background. Total use of anti-dementia drugs and food supplements decreased from 27.08 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day in 2006 to 26.46 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day in 2011. Nicergoline 6.26 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day and cinnarizine 6.16 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/ day - were the most prescribed medications in 2011. Total costs for anti-dementia drugs increased from EUR 8.91 million to EUR 11.63 million during the same period. The largest amount of EUR 3.166 million was spent on nicergoline. Older people were more likely than younger people to report using prescription drugs (rs = 0.468; p < 0.01), while younger population used more supplements (rs = -0.227; p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Trend of anti-dementia drugs use in Lithuania is similar to other EU countries; however, there are some deviations from dementia treatment guidelines, particularly in terms of nicergoline and cinnarizine recommendations.

Vebraite E; Morkuniene V; Petrikonis K; Rastenyte D; Kadusevicius E

2013-04-01

337

Food for Thought: A Critical Overview of Current Practical and Conceptual Challenges in Trace Element Analysis in Natural Waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The practical and conceptual challenges faced by the analysis of trace elements present in natural waters are not merely, as is often thought, an endless race towards lower detection limits or to the development of techniques allowing the determination of any possible chemical species formed by all chemical elements. Rather, as discussed in this paper, they include the development of (i) robust, cheap, and reliable methods that could also be used by laypeople (the experience gained in the development of field kits for As is discussed as an example from which similar developments for other elements may be drawn); (ii) more environmentally-friendly methods (the current guiding criteria probably being too simplistic); and (iii) methods making it possible to follow diel concentration changes and sharp concentration variations caused by the probable increase of heavy rainfall events. This paper also claims that neither the measurement of total concentrations (reliable methods are lacking for many elements of the periodic table of trace elements, as illustrated through the cases of Bi, Te, and Sb), nor chemical speciation analysis, are as mature as often thought. In particular, chemical speciation studies demand the development of a better, comprehensive conceptual framework. A trial is carried out to lay the basis of such a framework.

Montserrat Filella

2013-01-01

338

Alimentación del paciente de cáncer en fase avanzada y terminal: consideraciones éticas y recomendaciones prácticas Ethical and practical recommendations: How to food terminal and advanced stage cancer patents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo fundamental del tratamiento al paciente de cáncer en fase avanzada y terminal es alcanzar la mejor calidad de vida posible. Para ello se requiere una atención integral cuya base científica, filosófica y ética preserve, en el final de la vida, la dimensión humana. La eficiencia y eficacia de la atención depende de cuanto se adapte a las peculiaridades y condiciones concretas de cada paciente. Entre los síntomas que inciden con mayor frecuencia en estos pacientes se encuentra la anorexia, la que tiene consecuencias no sólo físicas sino que afecta otras esferas de la vida personal del enfermo. Se exponen las posibles causas de la anorexia, se plantean algunas consideraciones éticas en torno a la alimentación de estos pacientes y se brindan recomendaciones prácticas encaminadas a lograr un manejo adecuado de la alimentación que contribuya a mantener una calidad de vida aceptable en esta etapa de la vida.The main objective of the treatment to the cancer patient in advanced and terminal phases is to reach to the possible best quality of life. For this an integral attention is required, which scientific, philosophical and ethics base preserves, in the end of life, the human dimension. The efficiency and effectiveness of attention depends on how much attention is adapted to each patient's peculiarities and concrete conditions. Among the symptoms that more frequently impact in this patients is the anorexia, that not only carries physical consequences, but rather it anorexia are exposed, some ethical considerations around the feeding of these patients and practical recommendations are offered, guided to achieve an appropriate handling of the feeding that contributes to maintain an acceptable quality of life in this stage

Ángela J Suárez Pérez

2006-01-01

339

7 CFR 1032.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1032.19 Section 1032.19 ...Handling Definitions § 1032.19 Commercial food processing establishment. See § 1000.19. Handler...

2009-01-01

340

[Assessment of the effectiveness of health training courses offered for food handlers in a health care district of Gandia, Valencia  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Food poisoning is a major Health Care issue. Health training is one of the mechanisms available for preventing these illnesses. The purpose of this study is that of ascertaining whether food handlers improve their knowledge regarding food handling practices by attending the courses which are offered for being awarded the handler card and of analyzing the impact of sociodemographic variables on the degree of knowledge prior to taking the course. METHOD: Pre-Post type assessment study on a sample of 500 handlers who came to the Public Health Center in the town of Gandfa (Valencia) to take a training course in October 1997-February 1998. A self-test questionnaire taken prior to and following the course to gauge knowledge and other variables was used. RESULTS: A significant difference was found between the pre-test and the post-test, except with regard to the subject of personal hygiene. Those handlers having worked at this occupation for a longer number of years or who had prior health training answered correctly more often. CONCLUSIONS: The training courses heighten the degree of knowledge regarding food-handling practices. In training courses, greater emphasis must be placed on the subjects of food preservation, preparation and serving than on those of personal hygiene or facility cleanliness. Nonetheless, it would be of interest to research whether any changes in attitudes occur as an initial approach to assessing the effectiveness of the training and ascertaining whether any intention exists of putting the knowledge acquired into practice.

Viedma Gil de Vergara P; Colomer Revuelta C; Serra Majem L

2000-05-01

 
 
 
 
341

Asthma, guides for diagnostic and handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper defines the asthma, includes topics as diagnostic, handling of the asthma, special situations as asthma and pregnancy, handling of the asthmatic patient's perioperatory and occupational asthma

1999-01-01

342

Autoconsumo e segurança alimentar: a agricultura familiar a partir dos saberes e práticas da alimentação Self-consumption and food security: family agriculture based on eating knowledge and practices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e analisar as classificações e representações da alimentação, bem como as práticas de produção e consumo de alimentos entre agricultores e agricultoras da região do Vale do Taquari (Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil). MÉTODOS: Os dados e as informações foram obtidos a partir de entrevistas e observação participante, orientadas por um esquema metodológico qualitativo. Participaram da pesquisa, realizada em 2004 e 2005, 48 famílias rurais, de três diferentes localidades. Os recursos teórico-analíticos utilizados foram os da antropologia da alimentação e da abordagem da reciprocidade. RESULTADOS: Entre as famílias estudadas é significativa a produção de alimentos para autoconsumo, sendo as mulheres as principais responsáveis por sua obtenção. As práticas alimentares, embora tenham sofrido modificações, em função da modernização da agricultura e da incorporação de produtos industrializados, guardam especificidades locais e estão relacionadas a diversas expressões de sociabilidade, como a circulação de alimentos e a realização de festas comunitárias, que, impregnadas por simbolismos, atualizam um modo de vida e têm garantido segurança alimentar. CONCLUSÃO: As práticas de produção para autoconsumo das famílias estudadas estão associadas à sua segurança alimentar e, desse modo, às suas estratégias de reprodução social. A circulação de alimentos e as escolhas alimentares expressam relações de sociabilidade e de identidade nas comunidades rurais estudadas. Aspectos socioculturais e distintos níveis de relações sociais apresentam-se em transformação, podendo colocar em risco a segurança alimentar das famílias. Tais processos inspiram a realização novos estudos.OBJECTIVE: To identify and to analyze eating classifications and representations as well the food production and consumption practices among farmers from Vale do Taquari (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). METHODS: The data and information were collected from interviews and participatory observation, oriented by qualitative methods. The research involved 48 rural families from three different localities in 2004 and 2005. The theoretical and analytical resources were provided by food anthropology and reciprocity approach. RESULTS: The production of food for self-consumption among the studied families is significant and the main producers are women. Food practices have changed as a result of agricultural modernization and increased use of industrialized products, yet they maintain local specificity and are related to several expressions of sociability such as food exchanges and community parties. These are permeated by symbolisms that update the way of living and assure food security. CONCLUSION: The production practices for autoconsumption of the studied families are associated with food security and, in this way, to social reproduction strategies. Food exchanges and food choices express relationships of sociability and identity in the studied rural communities. Social and cultural aspects and different levels of social relationships are undergoing a transformation which may jeopardize the food security of the families. Such processes are inspiring new studies.

Renata Menasche; Flávia Charão Marques; Cândida Zanetti

2008-01-01

343

Using irradiation for preservation of foods and agricultural commodities in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Agricultural Policy was formulated to draw the guideline for the development of Malaysian agriculture until 2000. The most important aspect of the policy is to encourage the agricultural sector to increase productivity in order to attain self-sufficiency and to promote export. To increase agricultural and food production, it is necessary to upgrade the quality and to reduce postharvest loss. The food preservation during handling, processing and storage is important, and the current preservation methods emphasize the improvement in handling, drying, chilling, freezing and the use of chemicals. The technology of food irradiation was introduced only at the research level in Malaysia in 1974. Presently, UTN (Unit Tenaga Nuklear) has a semi-commercial Co-60 facility suitable for the research and development of food irradiation. The commercial use of irradiation and the marketing of treated agricultural and food products are still prohibited. The objective of this paper is to review briefly the possibility of the practical application of food irradiation in Malaysia. The irradiation of rice, black and white pepper, frozen shrimps, cocoa, fruits and vegetables is discussed. (K.I.)

1990-07-17

344

International practices code recommended for the food processing by irradiation; Code d'usages international recommande pour le traitement des aliments par irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present code bears on the specifications of the irradiation process in a facility. It examines other aspects of the process, such primary production, harvest, treatment after harvest, storage, expedition, packaging and handling after irradiation, and training. (N.C.)

Anon

2004-07-01

345

Food safety training needs at evacuation shelters operated by faith-based organizations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors conducted a survey to identify food safety training needs at evacuation shelters operated by faith-based organizations (FBOs) in four hurricane-prone states. Five thousand randomly selected FBO leaders were asked questions about their food safety attitudes and food handling practices at evacuation shelters. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis of variance were calculated to summarize and prioritize the responses. Results from 138 leaders revealed that on average, 590 +/- 4,787 evacuees were served for 36 +/- 72 days at FBO-operated shelters. Only 19.6% felt they were well prepared for the shelter. Only 5.8% had professional food preparation staff and many accepted hot (47.8%) and cold (37%) prepared food donations. Some lacked adequate refrigerator (18.8%) or freezer (16.7%) spaces, but 40% kept hot food leftovers for later use. The majority did not provide food safety training before opening the shelters (73.2%), yet 76.9% said they will provide food to evacuation shelters again. The results show a need for food safety training and specific strategies for training at FBOs.

Kwon J; Zottarelli L; Kwon S; Lee YM; Ryu D

2013-09-01

346

Shield requirements of handling flasks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In reactor environment due to neutron irradiation, many of the components like CSRDM, DSRDM, Pump, IHX and Transfer arm get activated to high levels of induced radioactivity. It is essential to have shielded flasks to handle these components during maintenance. In the case of Pump and IHX not only the induced radioactivity but also the radioactive corrosion product deposition contributes maximum to the source term. In the present paper, radioactive source term estimation done for these components and shield requirements for the two handling flasks namely Absorber Rod Drive Mechanism flask and Pump and Intermediate Heat Exchanger flask are assessed. Different Shield design criteria have been used for the frequent and infrequent handling keeping in mind effective minimisation of occupational radiation exposure. (author)

2003-01-01

347

Stable nematic droplets with handles.  

Science.gov (United States)

We stabilize nematic droplets with handles against surface tension-driven instabilities, using a yield-stress material as outer fluid, and study the complex nematic textures and defect structures that result from the competition between topological constraints and the elasticity of the nematic liquid crystal. We uncover a surprisingly persistent twisted configuration of the nematic director inside the droplets when tangential anchoring is established at their boundaries, which we explain after considering the influence of saddle splay on the elastic free energy. For toroidal droplets, we find that the saddle-splay energy screens the twisting energy, resulting in a spontaneous breaking of mirror symmetry; the chiral twisted state persists for aspect ratios as large as ?20. For droplets with additional handles, we observe in experiments and computer simulations that there are two additional -1 surface defects per handle; these are located in regions with local saddle geometry to minimize the nematic distortions and hence the corresponding elastic free energy. PMID:23690570

Pairam, Ekapop; Vallamkondu, Jayalakshmi; Koning, Vinzenz; van Zuiden, Benjamin C; Ellis, Perry W; Bates, Martin A; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

2013-05-20

348

Stable nematic droplets with handles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We stabilize nematic droplets with handles against surface tension-driven instabilities, using a yield-stress material as outer fluid, and study the complex nematic textures and defect structures that result from the competition between topological constraints and the elasticity of the nematic liquid crystal. We uncover a surprisingly persistent twisted configuration of the nematic director inside the droplets when tangential anchoring is established at their boundaries, which we explain after considering the influence of saddle splay on the elastic free energy. For toroidal droplets, we find that the saddle-splay energy screens the twisting energy, resulting in a spontaneous breaking of mirror symmetry; the chiral twisted state persists for aspect ratios as large as ?20. For droplets with additional handles, we observe in experiments and computer simulations that there are two additional -1 surface defects per handle; these are located in regions with local saddle geometry to minimize the nematic distortions and hence the corresponding elastic free energy.

Pairam E; Vallamkondu J; Koning V; van Zuiden BC; Ellis PW; Bates MA; Vitelli V; Fernandez-Nieves A

2013-06-01

349

Sulfur solidification and handling systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article focuses on the Sandvik Rotoform system for handling solidified sulfur extracted from the feedstocks used for producing clean fuels. The benefits of the process (in which the sulfur is made into pastilles) are listed. The process is described and is said to be efficient and environmentally friendly. Diagrams show (a) the sulfur handling scheme; (b) the Sandvik Rotoform system and (c) uses of sulfur. The process is claimed to be ideal for refineries and has been well proven at all the major refineries in China and India.

Gehrmann, Stefan [Sandvik Process Systems (Germany)

2000-05-01

350

COMMODITY SPECIFIC FOOD SAFETY GUIDELINES FOR ...  

Science.gov (United States)

Text Version... may be passed on from personnel in contact with the produce, and the adverse conditions which may be present in retailing (multiple handling by ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation

351

Software for handling MFME1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The report deals with SEMFIP, a computer code for determining magnetic field measurements. The program is written in FORTRAN and ASSEMBLER. The preparations for establishing SEMFIP, the actual measurements, data handling and the problems that were experienced are discussed. Details on the computer code are supplied in an appendix

1984-01-01

352

Portable vacuum object handling device  

Science.gov (United States)

The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object.

Anderson, Gordon H. (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-08-09

353

Non-contact handling device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pressurized fluid handling nozzle has a body with a first end and a second end, a fluid conduit and a recess at the second end. The first end is configured for connection to a pressurized fluid source. The fluid conduit has an inlet at the first end and an outlet at the recess. The nozzle uses the Bernoulli effect for lifting a part.

Reece, Mark (Albuquerque, NM); Knorovsky, Gerald A. (Albuquerque, NM); MacCallum, Danny O. (Edgewood, NM)

2007-05-15

354

Instructions for handling petroleum solvent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Petroleum solvent is widely used for painting materials, printing ink, adhesive and machine cleaning, but it has the danger of causing fires and intoxication when handled erroneously. Here are, accordingly, instructions to be taken care of in order to use petroleum solvent safely. First of all, it is necessary to know the type of the organic solvent included in the products and its inclusion rate characters of products can be divided roughly into volatility, inflammability and fat solubility. Volatility and inflammability have something to do with fires and volatility and fat solubility with intoxication. As to the danger of fires, petroleum solvent is appointed as a dangerous article by the Fire protection Law and its storage and handling are regulated. As to intoxication, its handling is regulated by industrial Safety and Health Law, Specified Chemical Materials' Impediment Prevention Regulations, Organic Solvent Intoxication Prevention Regulations and Poison and Poisonous Substance Handling Regulating Law. To sum up, it is necessary to use petroleum solvent safely and effectively by understanding the character of the product and observing regulations of laws. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Matsubara, Michio (Mitsubishi Oil Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1989-03-31

355

Surface-handling - deep mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper is concerned with surface-handling systems, and deals in some depth with stackers and reclaimers, stockpile layout and coal blending. The second part of the article describes equipment associated with coal preparation, feeders, vibrating screens, crushers, loading systems and dirt disposal methods.

Cobb, D.W.

1983-11-01

356

The D? data handling system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The authors highlight strategies and choices that make the D? Data Handling system markedly different from many other experiments' systems. The authors emphasize how far the D? system has come in innovating and implementing a D?-specific Data Grid system. The authors discuss experiences during the first months of detector commissioning and give some future plans for the system

2001-01-01

357

Food irradiation control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A brief review is given of the control and monitoring of food irradiation with particular emphasis on the UK situation. After describing legal aspects, various applications of food irradiation in different countries are listed. Other topics discussed include code of practice for general control for both gamma radiation and electron beam facilities, dose specification, depth dose distribution and dosimetry. (U.K.)

1987-04-08

358

Food Safety Audits, Plant Characteristics, and Food Safety Technology Use in Meat and Poultry Plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food safety technology can increase a companys capacity to prevent a foodborne contamination. A food safety audita quality control tool in which an auditor observes whether a plants processing practices and technologies are compatible with good food afety...

M. Ollinger M. K. Muth S. A. Karbs Z. Choice

2011-01-01

359

The impact of food regulation on the food supply chain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, "a hazard" is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer. PMID:16483706

Aruoma, Okezie I

2006-02-17

360

The impact of food regulation on the food supply chain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, 'a hazard' is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer.

2006-04-03

 
 
 
 
361

Error handling strategies in multiphase inverse modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Parameter estimation by inverse modeling involves the repeated evaluation of a function of residuals. These residuals represent both errors in the model and errors in the data. In practical applications of inverse modeling of multiphase flow and transport, the error structure of the final residuals often significantly deviates from the statistical assumptions that underlie standard maximum likelihood estimation using the least-squares method. Large random or systematic errors are likely to lead to convergence problems, biased parameter estimates, misleading uncertainty measures, or poor predictive capabilities of the calibrated model. The multiphase inverse modeling code iTOUGH2 supports strategies that identify and mitigate the impact of systematic or non-normal error structures. We discuss these approaches and provide an overview of the error handling features implemented in iTOUGH2.

Finsterle, S.; Zhang, Y.

2010-12-01

362

Safety in handling helium and nitrogen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Based upon the authors' industrial experience and practices, they have provided an overview of safety in storage, handling, and transfer of both laboratory and bulk quantities of gaseous and liquid forms of nitrogen and helium. They have addressed the properties and characteristics of both the gaseous and liquid fluids, typical storage and transport containers, transfer techniques, and the associated hazards which include low temperatures, high pressures, and asphyxiation. Methods and procedures to control and eliminate these hazards are described, as well as risk remediation through safety awareness training, personal protective equipment, area ventilation, and atmosphere monitoring. They have included as an example a recent process hazards analysis performed by Air Products on the asphyxiation hazard associated with the use of liquid helium in MRI magnet systems

1991-01-01

363

Naturally Occurring Food Toxins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States.

Laurie C. Dolan; Ray A. Matulka; George A. Burdock

2010-01-01

364

Specific requirements for public exposure in medical practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cause of radiation sources, by exposure to the public, has excluded all those medical and occupational exposures and exposure to natural background radiation normal, in the area. The main sources of public exposure that have found are: practices, discharges or spills, food or merchandise contaminated, chronic exposure scenarios (radon, NORM), waste management (predisposal management, storage, disposal). Public exposure can occur in two forms. One has been by procedure: transport, storage, handling of sources, radioactive waste, radioactive patient. The second has been per incident: transportation accidents, loss of sources, spread of contamination, unchecked pollution. (author)

2012-01-01

365

Handling Defeasibilities in Action Domains  

CERN Document Server

Representing defeasibility is an important issue in common sense reasoning. In reasoning about action and change, this issue becomes more difficult because domain and action related defeasible information may conflict with general inertia rules. Furthermore, different types of defeasible information may also interfere with each other during the reasoning. In this paper, we develop a prioritized logic programming approach to handle defeasibilities in reasoning about action. In particular, we propose three action languages {\\cal AT}^{0}, {\\cal AT}^{1} and {\\cal AT}^{2} which handle three types of defeasibilities in action domains named defeasible constraints, defeasible observations and actions with defeasible and abnormal effects respectively. Each language with a higher superscript can be viewed as an extension of the language with a lower superscript. These action languages inherit the simple syntax of {\\cal A} language but their semantics is developed in terms of transition systems where transition function...

Zhang, Y

2002-01-01

366

The handling of bariatric bodies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased body mass has occurred in many countries over the past two decades. Morbidly obese individuals are prone to higher rates of cardiovascular, endocrine and malignant disease requiring hospitalization and medical care. A review of problems encountered by ambulance services, hospitals, forensic facilities and funeral service reveals common problems in examination, transport and handling. Strategies used in one area of health to deal with bariatric cases can be adapted for use in other areas. Forensic facilities may require the use bigger body bags, reinforced trolleys and vehicles, with larger refrigerator bays and CT scanning machines. The best option is for purpose built mortuaries designed with lifting hoists and passages, doorways, machinery and autopsy tables that can cope with morbidly obese bodies. Unnecessary handling and lifting of these bodies should be minimized, and so the admissions area, cool room storage and dissection theatre should be in close proximity to each other. PMID:23217377

Eitzen, David; Byard, Roger W

2012-05-16

367

The handling of bariatric bodies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increased body mass has occurred in many countries over the past two decades. Morbidly obese individuals are prone to higher rates of cardiovascular, endocrine and malignant disease requiring hospitalization and medical care. A review of problems encountered by ambulance services, hospitals, forensic facilities and funeral service reveals common problems in examination, transport and handling. Strategies used in one area of health to deal with bariatric cases can be adapted for use in other areas. Forensic facilities may require the use bigger body bags, reinforced trolleys and vehicles, with larger refrigerator bays and CT scanning machines. The best option is for purpose built mortuaries designed with lifting hoists and passages, doorways, machinery and autopsy tables that can cope with morbidly obese bodies. Unnecessary handling and lifting of these bodies should be minimized, and so the admissions area, cool room storage and dissection theatre should be in close proximity to each other.

Eitzen D; Byard RW

2013-01-01

368

International handling of fissionable material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The opinion of the ministry for foreign affairs on international handling of fissionable materials is given. As an introduction a survey is given of the possibilities to produce nuclear weapons from materials used in or produced by power reactors. Principles for international control of fissionable materials are given. International agreements against proliferation of nuclear weapons are surveyed and methods to improve them are proposed. (K.K.)

1975-01-01

369

System operation, safety and handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper reviews the design system, operation, and safe handling of liquid alkali metals. The hazardous characteristics of alkali metals are outlined, as well as the procedures for shipping and storage of the chemicals. Design and construction of equipment for a liquid metal system, and system operation, are both described, including cover materials of construction, pre-cleaning, leaks and repairs. Post operation cleaning procedures, disposal of residues, and firefighting, are also discussed. (U.K.)

1985-01-01

370

Nurses handle most admissions, discharges.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

St. John's Hospital in Springfield, IL, has a dedicated team of nurses with the sole responsibility of admitting and discharging patients. A multidisciplinary task force recommended the project during a Lean project that mapped the patient flow process and looked for roadblocks to timely throughput. Patient satisfaction scores and patient throughput have improved since the program started. Admission/discharge nurses work part time and handle 80% of all admissions and discharges.

2013-06-01

371

Remote handling innovation from fusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper demonstrates a proactive approach to remote maintenance, involving the design of plant conducive to remote handling, design of retrofit systems, use of graphic computer simulation to look at maintenance options, and the integration of state-of-the-art technology as warranted. Work performed by SPAR ATSG on magnetic confinement fusion, and for the US Environmental Restoration Program, is used to illustrate the approach. 7 refs., 8 figs.

1992-01-01

372

Safe handling of hydrogen isotopes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of hydrogen isotopes in a PHWR raises particular safety issues due to the combined effects of their physico-chemical properties and radioactive nature. Even if the safe handling of hydrogen isotopes has already been demonstrated, it is unanimously recognized that further efforts are still to be concentrated on the improvement of current concepts. The aim of this article is to verify the most prominent safety related aspects associated with the safe storage, analysis and recombination reaction of hydrogen isotopes.

Jeong, H. S.; Ahn, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Lee, S. H.; Baek, S. W.; Yim, S. P.; Joeng, K. S.; Lee, M. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

2001-05-01

373

[Prevention of food poisoning in children].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proper food storage and preparation can reduce the risk of food poisoning. For example, avoid touching between cooked and uncooked foods, refrigerate foods promptly after purchase or preparation. Washing hands and cleaning surfaces after handling raw meats, poultry, fish, and eggs before touching with other foods, and heating them thoroughly inside is also useful for reducing the risk. To avoid eating raw or undercooked meat, poultry, bivalvia (for example, oyster) is also important for prevention of food poisoning in children. In addition, it is important for medical staff to prevent secondary infection to those who may contact the patients.

Maruyama T; Takano T; Tajiri H

2012-08-01

374

Pet Food  

Science.gov (United States)

... You Title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) - Pet Food The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates ... Part 113 (21 CFR 113). FDA Regulation of Pet Food There is no requirement that pet food ...

375

Opposite effects of gentle handling on body temperature and body weight in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Opposite effects of gentle handling on body temperature and body weight in rats. PHhe aim of this study was to measure the body weight set point when rats are being handled gently and thus experience emotional rise in body temperature. Wistar male rats were used in this experiment, and each rat was its own control. Body weight set point was estimated from the rat's food hoarding behavior. The set point is the intersection of the regression line for hoarding with the X axis. During hoarding sessions the experimenter handled the rat and took its colonic temperature six to eight times, an action sufficient to arouse emotional fever. On alternate days the rats were not handled. Thus, body weight set point was obtained for each rat without handling and with handling. In sessions with handling, rats raised their body temperature, ate less, and defecated more than in control sessions. When handled, the body weight set point declined from 388 +/- 44 g to 366 +/- 47 g (p = 0.048, t = 2,39). The decline in the set point induced by gentle handling is believed to result from an elevation of the hypothalamic CRH. PMID:10549902

Michel, C; Cabanac, M

1999-10-01

376

Opposite effects of gentle handling on body temperature and body weight in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Opposite effects of gentle handling on body temperature and body weight in rats. PHhe aim of this study was to measure the body weight set point when rats are being handled gently and thus experience emotional rise in body temperature. Wistar male rats were used in this experiment, and each rat was its own control. Body weight set point was estimated from the rat's food hoarding behavior. The set point is the intersection of the regression line for hoarding with the X axis. During hoarding sessions the experimenter handled the rat and took its colonic temperature six to eight times, an action sufficient to arouse emotional fever. On alternate days the rats were not handled. Thus, body weight set point was obtained for each rat without handling and with handling. In sessions with handling, rats raised their body temperature, ate less, and defecated more than in control sessions. When handled, the body weight set point declined from 388 +/- 44 g to 366 +/- 47 g (p = 0.048, t = 2,39). The decline in the set point induced by gentle handling is believed to result from an elevation of the hypothalamic CRH.

Michel C; Cabanac M

1999-10-01

377

Ambientalização e politização do consumo nas práticas de compra de orgânicos/ Enviromentalization and politicization of consumption in organic food purchasing practices/ Sensibilisation à l'environnement et politisation de la consommation pour l'achat des produits bios  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo é refletir sobre processos de ambientalização e politização do consumo e do cotidiano, enfatizando o multifacetado campo da alimentação. O artigo se volta para os diferentes usos das práticas de compra de alimentos orgânicos, entendendo os consumidores como atores sociais. A problemática central encontra-se nas seguintes questões: as práticas de compra de alimentos orgânicos são percebidas como forma de ação política? De que forma os consumidor (more) es lidam com os discursos e cobranças de responsabilidades pela crise ambiental? Com uma etnografia das práticas de compra de alimentos orgânicos e entrevistas em profundidade, o artigo identifica um aumento da autonomia política individual no encontro das esferas pública e privada no campo do consumo. A compra de orgânicos é percebida como um repertório de ação política romântico-individualista, sendo que essas práticas alimentam pontes com a cidadania, abrindo possibilidades para novos engajamentos coletivos. Abstract in english This article's main objective is to reflect upon the processes of environmentalization and politicization of consumption in daily life, emphasizing the multisided field of alimentation. The text focuses on different forms of organic food purchasing practices, by considering the consumers as social actors. The main research questions are the following: Are the organic food purchasing practices perceived as a form of political action? How do consumers deal with the environm (more) ental discourse and the demand of responsibility regarding the environmental crisis? Through an ethnographic study of the organic food purchasing practices, the article reveals an increasing individual autonomy concerning political choices in the field of consumption, when public and private spheres meet. Organic food purchasing is perceived as part of a repertoire of individualistic romantic political actions, building bridges to citizenship and creating possibilities for new collective actions.

Castañeda, Marcelo

2012-04-01

378

Handle moves in contact surgery diagrams  

CERN Document Server

We describe various handle moves in contact surgery diagrams, notably contact analogues of the Kirby moves. As an application of these handle moves, we discuss the respective classifications of long and loose Legendrian knots.

Ding, Fan

2008-01-01

379

Safety Information Profile: Manual Handling of Containers.  

Science.gov (United States)

A safety information profile is presented for the manual handling of containers, excluding cylinder and primary glass container handling. Measures are reviewed for the control of hazards, such as biochemical stress, inguinal hernias, and intervertebral di...

E. M. Nichols

1979-01-01

380

Guidance for Industry: Importers and Filers: Food Security ...  

Science.gov (United States)

... keeping parking areas separated from entrances to food storage and processing areas and utilities, where practical. 2. Storage ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

 
 
 
 
381

How US mothers store and handle their expressed breast milk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Many mothers express and store their milk to later feed to their infant. Health organizations provide recommendations on expressed milk storage and handling because these practices can affect milk quality and safety. However, little information exists on US mothers' practices. OBJECTIVE: To describe how US mothers of healthy infants store and handle their expressed milk and to compare their practices with recommendations. METHODS: Mothers participating in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II from 2005-2006 who were expressing milk formed the cohort for this analysis (n = 436-1060, depending on infant age). Participants in this longitudinal mail survey were drawn from a consumer opinion panel and answered questions about milk expression around 2, 5, and 7 months postpartum. Data were analyzed cross sectionally using frequency procedures, and the analysis compared mothers who fed expressed milk with and without also feeding formula. RESULTS: Few mothers stored their milk longer than recommended. Among mothers of the youngest infants in this analysis, 12% heated their milk in a microwave and 17% rinsed bottle nipples with only water before reuse; percentages were similar as infants aged. These practices may pose risks to infant health. Compared with those who fed no formula, mothers who fed both expressed milk and formula were more likely to heat milk in a microwave and, among those with the youngest infants, to rinse bottle nipples with only water between uses. CONCLUSION: Consumer education should emphasize safe warming and cleaning practices for feeding expressed milk.

Labiner-Wolfe J; Fein SB

2013-02-01

382

A multigrid fluid pressure solver handling separating solid boundary conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present a multigrid method for solving the linear complementarity problem (LCP) resulting from discretizing the Poisson equation subject to separating solid boundary conditions in an Eulerian liquid simulation’s pressure projection step. The method requires only a few small changes to a multigrid solver for linear systems. Our generalized solver is fast enough to handle 3D liquid simulations with separating boundary conditions in practical domain sizes. Previous methods could only handle relatively small 2D domains in reasonable time, because they used expensive quadratic programming (QP) solvers. We demonstrate our technique in several practical scenarios, including nonaxis-aligned containers and moving solids in which the omission of separating boundary conditions results in disturbing artifacts of liquid sticking to solids. Our measurements show, that the convergence rate of our LCP solver is close to that of a standard multigrid solver.

Chentanez N; Müller-Fischer M

2012-08-01