WorldWideScience
1

Survey of domestic food handling practices in New Zealand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this survey was to obtain information on the domestic meat and poultry handling practices of New Zealanders in order to support the development of quantitative risk models, as well as providing data to underpin food safety campaigns to consumers. A sample of 1000 New Zealand residents, over 18 years of age, were randomly selected from the electoral roll and asked to participate in a national postal food safety study during 2005. Three hundred and twenty six respondents completed and returned questionnaires containing usable answers, and most of these respondents 'always' prepared the main meal within the household. The majority of meat (84.6%) and poultry (62.9%) purchased by New Zealanders was fresh (rather than frozen), and most consumers (94.4%) claimed that the time taken from food selection to reaching their home was 1 h or less. The majority (approximately 64%) of fresh meat and poultry was frozen in the home and the most favoured method of thawing was at room temperature for up to 12 h. The most common time period for storing cooked or raw meat and poultry in domestic refrigerators was up to 2 days. Most survey respondents preferred their meat and poultry to be cooked either medium or well done. The most popular cooking method for chicken was roasting or baking, while most respondents preferred to pan-fry steak/beef cuts, minced beef or sausages/hamburgers. The potential for undercooking was greatest with pan-fried steak with 19.8% of respondents preferring to consume this meat raw or rare. In answer to questions relating to food handling hygiene practices, 52.2% of respondents selected a hand washing sequence that would help prevent cross contamination. However, it was estimated that 41% and 28% of respondents would use knives and kitchen surfaces respectively in a manner that could allow cross contamination. The data in this survey are self-reported and, particularly for the hygiene questions, respondents may report an answer that they perceive as being correct rather than reflecting their actual behaviour. Nevertheless, the data on food processing, transport, storage and cooking preferences represent useful inputs into the assessment of food safety along the meat and poultry food chains. PMID:17566578

Gilbert, S E; Whyte, R; Bayne, G; Paulin, S M; Lake, R J; van der Logt, P

2007-07-15

2

Varying influences of motivation factors on employees' likelihood to perform safe food handling practices because of demographic differences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food safety training has been the primary avenue for ensuring food workers are performing proper food handling practices and thus, serving safe food. Yet, knowledge of safe food handling practices does not necessarily result in actual performance of these practices. This research identified participating food service employees' level of agreement with four factors of motivation (internal motivations, communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and determined if respondents with different demographic characteristics reported different motivating factors. Data were collected from 311 food service employees who did not have any supervisory responsibilities. Intrinsic motivation agreement scores were consistently the highest of all four motivational factors evaluated and did not differ across any of the demographic characteristics considered. In contrast, motivation agreement scores for communication, reward-punishment, and resources did differ based on respondents' gender, age, place of employment, job status, food service experience, completion of food handler course, or possession of a food safety certification. In general, respondents agreed that these motivation factors influenced their likelihood to perform various safe food handling procedures. This research begins to illustrate how employees' demographic characteristics influence their responses to various motivators, helping to clarify the complex situation of ensuring safe food in retail establishments. Future research into why employee willingness to perform varies more for extrinsic motivation than for intrinsic motivation could assist food service managers in structuring employee development programs and the work environment, in a manner that aids in improving external motivation (communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and capitalizing on internal motivation. PMID:21219719

Ellis, Jason D; Arendt, Susan W; Strohbehn, Catherine H; Meyer, Janell; Paez, Paola

2010-11-01

3

Eating Outdoors, Handling Food Safely  

Science.gov (United States)

... this page Home Food Resources for You Consumers Eating Outdoors, Handling Food Safely Available in (PDF - 586KB ). ... during warm-weather months, safe food handling when eating outdoors is critical. Read on for simple food ...

4

Tomato handling practices in restaurants.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, multiple outbreaks of Salmonella infection have been associated with fresh tomatoes. Investigations have indicated that tomato contamination likely occurred early in the farm-to-consumer chain, although tomato consumption occurred mostly in restaurants. Researchers have hypothesized that tomato handling practices in restaurants may contribute to these outbreaks. However, few empirical data exist on how restaurant workers handle tomatoes. This study was conducted to examine tomato handling practices in restaurants. Members of the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) observed tomato handling practices in 449 restaurants. The data indicated that handling tomatoes appropriately posed a challenge to many restaurants. Produce-only cutting boards were not used on 49% of tomato cutting observations, and gloves were not worn in 36% of tomato cutting observations. Although tomatoes were washed under running water as recommended in most (82%) of the washing observations, tomatoes were soaked in standing water, a practice not recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), in 18% of observations, and the temperature differential between the wash water and tomatoes did not meet FDA guidelines in 21% of observations. About half of all batches of cut tomatoes in holding areas were above 41 degrees F (5 degrees C), the temperature recommended by the FDA. The maximum holding time for most (73%) of the cut tomatoes held above 41 degrees F exceeded the FDA recommended holding time of 4 h for unrefrigerated tomatoes (i.e., tomatoes held above 41 degrees F). The information provided by this study can be used to inform efforts to develop interventions and thus prevent tomato-associated illness outbreaks. PMID:19722402

Kirkland, Elizabeth; Green, Laura R; Stone, Carmily; Reimann, Dave; Nicholas, Dave; Mason, Ryan; Frick, Roberta; Coleman, Sandra; Bushnell, Lisa; Blade, Henry; Radke, Vincent; Selman, Carol

2009-08-01

5

Determinants of aflatoxin levels in Ghanaians: sociodemographic factors, knowledge of aflatoxin and food handling and consumption practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aflatoxins are among the most potent of carcinogens found in staple foods such as groundnuts, maize and other oil seeds. This study was conducted to measure the levels of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) albumin adducts in blood and aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) metabolite in urine of people in a heavy peanut and maize consuming region of Ghana and to examine the association between aflatoxin levels and several socio-demographic factors and food handling and consumption practices. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four villages in the Ejura Sekyedumase district of Ghana. A socio-demographic survey was administered to 162 participants. Blood samples were collected from 140 and urine samples from 91 of the participants and AFB(1) albumin-adduct levels in blood and AFM(1) levels in urine were measured. High AFB(1) albumin-adduct levels were found in the plasma (mean+/-SD=0.89+/-0.46pmol/mg albumin; range=0.12-3.00pmol/mg; median=0.80pmol/mg) and high AFM(1) levels in the urine (mean+/-SD=1,800.14+/-2602.01pg/mg creatinine; range=non-detectable to 11,562.36pg/mg; median=472.67pg/mg) of most of the participants. There was a statistically significant correlation (r=0.35; p=0.007) between AFB(1)-albumin adduct levels in plasma and AFM(1) levels in urine. Several socio-demographic factors, namely, educational level, ethnic group, the village in which participants lived, number of individuals in the household, and number of children in the household attending secondary school, were found to be significantly associated with AFB(1) albumin-adduct levels by bivariate analysis. By multivariate analyses, ethnic group (p=0.04), the village in which participants live (p=0.02), and the number of individuals in the household (p=0.01), were significant predictors of high AFB(1) albumin-adducts. These findings indicate strongly that there is need for specifically targeted post-harvest and food handling and preparation interventions designed to reduce aflatoxin exposure among the different ethnic groups in this region of Ghana. PMID:16644281

Jolly, Pauline; Jiang, Yi; Ellis, William; Awuah, Richard; Nnedu, Obinna; Phillips, Timothy; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Afriyie-Gyawu, Evans; Tang, Lili; Person, Sharina; Williams, Jonathan; Jolly, Curtis

2006-07-01

6

Basics for Handling Food Safely  

Science.gov (United States)

... F or colder. · When serving food at a buffet, keep food hot with chafing dishes, slow cookers, ... to imply endorsement of a commercial product or service. Call the USDA Meat & Poultry Hotline If you ...

7

21 CFR 1250.35 - Health of persons handling food.  

Science.gov (United States)

...ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...CONVEYANCE SANITATION Food Service Sanitation on Land and...Health of persons handling food. (a) Any person...serving of water, other beverages, or food....

2010-04-01

8

Reconceptualising manual handling: Foundations for practice change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Healthcare involves complex manual handling tasks that are unique to the industry. Despite research intended to improve carer safety, substantial rates of manual handling injuries persist within the nursing profession. This paper reviews manual handling issues arising from patient care activities and the strategies deployed in healthcare facilities to reduce musculoskeletal injuries. Discussion: Conventional programs aimed at reducing nurses’ work-related manual handling injuries include assumptions regarding evidence, transferability to the clinical setting and efficacy. Additionally, intervention success is commonly measured by administrative data comprising incident reports and injury rates. However official statistics are contrasted with self-reported injury rates in several studies. The complex nature of the injury mechanism and the obscured visibility of musculoskeletal disorders hinder detection of manual handling injuries and attribution of causality. In turn, this hampers the development of successful injury prevention strategies. Training programs reliant on specific techniques and assistive devices have had limited success. This paper questions the appropriateness of training and compliance strategies to manage manual handling risks in nursing practice and expounds a re-examination of the premises upon which manual handling programs are based. Conclusion: It is argued that the current conceptualisation of manual handling has limited the development of effective injury prevention programs for healthcare. It emphasises the enforcement of guidelines rather than a critique of other influences on practice. Approaching manual handling from a different perspective, inclusive of nurses’ knowledge, is a way forward into the complex environment of manual handling in healthcare contexts. Voicing and validation of nurses’ manual handling knowledge offers critical knowledge necessary to improve manual handling safety for nurses by foregrounding contextual influences that have previously been undervalued.

Kate Kay

2012-05-01

9

Problems of food handling and trade in ASEAN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand) with a population of some 280 million population is a major producer of several food commodities and also a large, and growing, market for many food items. The handling of food products in ASEAN is undertaken under many constraints, related mainly to small and traditional production structures with less than efficient distribution and marketing systems. Activities of the ASEAN Food Handling Project in promoting more efficient food handling methods and technologies in ASEAN are discussed in relation to the existing post harvest losses (50% in fish, 30% in grains and 20-40% in fruits and vegetables) and attempts to reduce these. Activities in this project include training courses and the establishment of laboratories as training and research centres pilot packing houses for fruit and vegetable handling, improvement of transportation systems for fish and livestock, and improvement of post harvest grain handling technologies. The extent of food trade in ASEAN is assessed and problems of food handling and trade are discussed, with special focus on problems of standardization of quality, and tariff and non-tariff barriers for external trade. (author)

10

Safe Handling of Take-Out Foods  

Science.gov (United States)

... purchase or delivery. If the food is in air temperatures above 90 °F, refrigerate within 1 hour. Keep ... coolers longer than 2 hours; 1 hour in air temperatures above 90 °F. Leftovers? Discard all perishable foods, ...

11

Irradiated food: too hot to handle?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses current arguments for and against the irradiation of food for human consumption. The technique, which involves bombarding batches of food with gamma rays, x rays or accelerated electrons, is claimed to halt spoilage, kill bacteria and thus extend the shelf-life of various foodstuffs. Irradiated foods are at present indistinguishable from non-irradiated food and this problem may not be solved before the government's bill legalizes the process. Opponents claim the technique may not be safe and that the food industry may use it to fool consumers into buying rotten foods. Proponents say that even though many foods, such as poultry, seafood, fruits, vegetables and spices may be treated, it is unlikely that more than a small proportion will be. They reject safety worries as alarmist exaggeration. (UK)

12

Reconceptualising manual handling: Foundations for practice change  

OpenAIRE

Background: Healthcare involves complex manual handling tasks that are unique to the industry. Despite research intended to improve carer safety, substantial rates of manual handling injuries persist within the nursing profession. This paper reviews manual handling issues arising from patient care activities and the strategies deployed in healthcare facilities to reduce musculoskeletal injuries. Discussion: Conventional programs aimed at reducing nurses’ work-related manual handling injurie...

Kate Kay; Nel Glass; Alicia Evans

2012-01-01

13

Handling Food Safely on the Road  

Science.gov (United States)

... ice or freezer packs. When carrying drinks, consider packing them in a separate cooler so the food ... change(function() { $('body').addClass('tableReRender').removeClass('tableReRender'); }) }) Site Map A-Z Index Help About FSIS District Offices ...

14

Handling of bulk solids theory and practice  

CERN Document Server

Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

Shamlou, P A

1990-01-01

15

High-risk food consumption and food safety practices in a Canadian community.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding consumers' high-risk food consumption patterns and food handling in the home is critical in reducing foodborne illness. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of unsafe food practices of individuals in a Canadian-based population, specifically, high-risk food consumption and home food safety practices. During November 2005 to March 2006, a sample of 2,332 randomly selected residents of the Waterloo Region (Ontario, Canada) participated in a telephone survey of food consumption and food safety. Questions covered consumption of high-risk foods, hand washing practices, safe food handling knowledge, source of food safety education, meat thawing and cooking practices, cross-contamination after raw food preparation, and refrigeration temperatures. Certain high-risk food behaviors were common among respondents and were associated with demographic characteristics. In general, unsafe practices increased with increasing total annual household income level. Males were more likely to report engaging in risky practices than were females. Specific high-risk behaviors of public health concern were reported by elderly individuals (e.g., consuming undercooked eggs), children (e.g., consuming chicken nuggets), and rural residents (e.g., drinking unpasteurized milk). Respondents appeared to know proper food safety practices, but did not put them into practice. Thus, educational programs emphasizing specific practices to improve food safety should be directed to targeted audiences, and they should stress the importance of consumer behavior in the safety of foods prepared at home. Further investigation of consumer perceptions is needed to design such programs to effectively increase the implementation of safe food practices by consumers. PMID:20003742

Nesbitt, Andrea; Majowicz, Shannon; Finley, Rita; Marshall, Barbara; Pollari, Frank; Sargeant, Jan; Ribble, Carl; Wilson, Jeff; Sittler, Nancy

2009-12-01

16

Survey of tritiated oil sources and handling practices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tritium interactions with oil sources (primarily associated with pumps) in tritium-handling facilities can lead to the incorporation of tritium in the oil and the production of tritiated hydrocarbons. This results in a source of radiological hazard and the need for special handling considerations during maintenance, decontamination, decommissioning and waste packaging and storage. The results of a general survey of tritiated-oil sources and their associated characteristics, handling practices, analysis techniques and waste treatment/storage methods are summarized here. Information was obtained from various tritium-handling laboratories, fusion devices, and CANDU plants. 38 refs., 1 fig

17

Microbiological surveillance of food handling at NASA-MSFC  

Science.gov (United States)

A microbiological surveillance program of cafeterias and snack bars was conducted to supplement the inspections by NASA Medical Center personnel and to gather information for cafeteria management to pinpoint areas of possible contamination. The work conducted under the program from its inception in January, 1972, to its termination on September 15, 1972 is summarized. Ten food handling facilities were included in the surveillance at NASA-MSFC.

Beyerle, F. J.

1973-01-01

18

Ground beef handling and cooking practices in restaurants in eight States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eating in table-service restaurants has been implicated as a risk factor for Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. To explore this association and learn about the prevalence of risky ground beef preparation practices in restaurants, the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) assessed ground beef handling policies and practices in restaurants in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. Eligible restaurants prepared and served hamburgers. EHS-Net specialists interviewed a restaurant employee with authority over the kitchen (defined as the manager) using a standard questionnaire about food safety policies, hamburger preparation policies, and use of irradiated ground beef. Interviews were followed by observations of ground beef preparation. Data from 385 restaurants were analyzed: 67% of the restaurants were independently owned and 33% were chain restaurants; 75% of the restaurants were sit down, 19% were quick service or fast food, and 6% were cafeteria or buffet restaurants. Eighty-one percent of restaurants reported determining doneness of hamburgers by one or more subjective measures, and 49% reported that they never measure the final cook temperatures of hamburgers. At least two risky ground beef handling practices were observed in 53% of restaurants. Only 1% of restaurants reported purchasing irradiated ground beef, and 29% were unfamiliar with irradiated ground beef. Differences in risky ground beef handling policies and practices were noted for type of restaurant ownership (independently owned versus chain) and type of food service style (sit down versus quick service or fast food). This study revealed the pervasiveness of risky ground beef handling policies and practices in restaurants and the need for educational campaigns targeting food workers and managers. These results highlight the importance of continued efforts to reduce the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef. PMID:24290692

Bogard, April K; Fuller, Candace C; Radke, Vincent; Selman, Carol A; Smith, Kirk E

2013-12-01

19

Reliability of the Rasch Food Safety Practices scale  

OpenAIRE

A reduced version of the Rasch Food Safety Practices scale [Fischer, A. R. H., Frewer, L. J., & Nauta, M. J. (2006). Towards improving food safety in the domestic environment: a multi-item Rasch scale for the measurement of the safety efficacy of domestic food handling practices. Risk Analysis, 26(5), 1323¿1338] was investigated to establish its reliability and robustness. A second set of survey data were collected using the reduced Rasch scale. We discuss the reliability and robustness of t...

Fischer, A. R. H.; Frewer, L. J.

2009-01-01

20

Practices of Handling : On embodied methodology in professional fashion design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract While few will dispute the idea that fashion designers relate to the notion of the body in their work practice, the actual embodied engagement of the designer, and the role that the personal bodies of the designers play in processes of fashion design, is an underexposed although nascent area within fashion research. This paper proposes an understanding of the work process of fashion designers as practices of handling comprising a number of embodied methodologies tied to both spatial and temporal dimensions. The term handling encompasses four meanings. As a verb it is literally to touch, pick up, carry, or feel with the hands. Figuratively it is to manage, deal with, direct, train, or control. Additionally, as a noun, a handle is something by which we grasp or open up something. Lastly, handle also has a Nordic root, here meaning to trade, bargain or deal. Together all four meanings seem to merge in the fashion design process, thus opening up for an embodied engagement with matter that entails direction giving, organizational management and negotiation. By seeing processes of handling as a key fashion methodological practice, it is possible to divert the discourse away from a dichotomized idea of design as combined, alternating or parallel processes of thinking and doing. In other words, the notion of handling is not about reflection in or on action, as brought to the fore by Scho?n (1984), but about reflection as action. Below the methodological macro level of handling, the paper introduces four ways whereby fashion designers apply their own bodies as tools for design; a) re-activating past garment-design experiences, b) testing present garment-design experiences c) probing for new garment-design experiences and d) design of future garment experiences by body proxy. The paper is based on the Ph.D. thesis Addressing the Body – methodological practises in professional fashion design finalised October 2014 (Ræbild, in press)

Ræbild, Ulla

21

Food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs of primary food preparers in families with young children. A mixed methods study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food preparers in families with young children are responsible for safe food preparation and handling to prevent foodborne illness. To explore the food safety perceptions, beliefs, and practices of primary food preparers in families with children 10 years of age and younger, a mixed methods convergent parallel design and constructs of the Health Belief Model were used. A random sampling of 72 primary food handlers (36.2±8.6 years of age, 88% female) within young families in urban and rural areas of two Midwestern states completed a knowledge survey and participated in ten focus groups. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for codes and common themes. Forty-four percent scored less than the average knowledge score of 73%. Participants believe children are susceptible to foodborne illness but perceive its severity to be low with gastrointestinal discomfort as the primary outcome. Using safe food handling practices and avoiding inconveniences were benefits of preventing foodborne illness. Childcare duties, time and knowledge were barriers to practicing food safety. Confidence in preventing foodborne illness was high, especially when personal control over food handling is present. The low knowledge scores and reported practices revealed a false sense of confidence despite parental concern to protect their child from harm. Food safety messages that emphasize the susceptibility and severity of foodborne illness in children are needed to reach this audience for adoption of safe food handling practices. PMID:24211815

Meysenburg, Rebecca; Albrecht, Julie A; Litchfield, Ruth; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K

2014-02-01

22

Food hygiene practices in different food establishments  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to investigate three dimensions of food hygiene in three European cities -Belgrade, Thessaloniki and Porto. The first dimension of the survey was to evaluate the level of hygiene indifferent food establishments supplying food direct to consumers. A total of 91 food businesses wereincluded in the survey with 30 food businesses from Belgrade and Porto, and 31 from Thessaloniki. Inparallel with scoring the premises, the second dimension of the study was to examine the o...

Djeki, I.; Smigic, N.; Kalogianni, E. P.; Rocha, Ada; Zamioudi, L.; Pacheco, A.

2014-01-01

23

Control of food irradiation facilities and good irradiation practices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Expansion of irradiation facilities employing commercial scale processes is evident in several countries. The list compiled by the Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, Vienna (April 1988) showed that 34 counties have approved the use of irradiation process for more than 40 food commodities. In Asia and the Pacific Region, the main commercial application of irradiation process is still the sterilization of medical devices but applications to food processing are on the rise. To ensure the safety of irradiated foods, laws and regulations have to be promulgated to govern the facilities, the operations and the products. In most cases, there may be more than one governmental agency involved in regulatory control. The control activities include licensing/registration of a food irradiation premises as a food processing plant, registration of irradiated food in accordance with prescribed standards and regulating labelling practice as well as regularly conducting a comprehensive inspection of the facilities. The quality control programme must cover all aspects of treatment, handling, and distribution. It is emphasized that, as with all food technologies, effective quality control systems needs to be installed and adequately monitored at critical control points at the irradiation facility. Foods should be handled, stored, and transported according to GMP before, during, and after irradiation. Only foods meeting microbiological criteria and other quality stanbiological criteria and other quality standards should be accepted for irradiation. Besides, good irradiation practice (GIP) is also a fundamental principle of practice required specifically for food irradiation. With this recognition, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) has elaborated a set of eight codes of GIP. The quality control system would also include proper packaging suitable for the product. Additional use of a logo to identify irradiated food should be permitted and may even become recognized as a symbol of quality. (author)

24

Novel Additive Manufacturing Pneumatic Actuators and Mechanisms for Food Handling Grippers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conventional pneumatic grippers are widely used in industrial pick and place robot processes for rigid objects. They are simple, robust and fast, but their design, motion and features are limited, and they do not fulfil the final purpose. Food products have a wide variety of shapes and textures and are susceptible to damaged. Robot grippers for food handling should adapt to this wide range of dimensions and must be fast, cheap, reasonably reliable, and with cheap and reasonable maintenance costs. They should not damage the product and must meet hygienic conditions. The additive manufacturing (AM process is able to manufacture parts without significant restrictions, and is Polyamide approved as food contact material by FDA. This paper presents that, taking the best of plastic flexibility, AM allows the implementation of novel actuators, original compliant mechanisms and practical grippers that are cheap, light, fast, small and easily adaptable to specific food products. However, if they are not carefully designed, the results can present problems, such as permanent deformations, low deformation limits, and low operation speed. We present possible solutions for the use of AM to design proper robot grippers for food handling. Some successful results, such as AM actuators based on deformable air chambers, AM compliant mechanisms, and grippers developed in a single part will be introduced and discussed.

Carlos Blanes

2014-07-01

25

Waste-handling practices at red meat abattoirs in South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abattoir waste disposal must be carefully managed because the wastes can be a source of food-borne diseases (Nemerow & Dasgupta Industrial and Hazardous Waste Treatment, p. 284, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991; Bradshaw et al. The Treatment and Handling of Wastes, p. 183, The Royal Society, Chapman & Hall, London, 1992). Disposal of food that has been condemned because it is known to be diseased is of particular concern, and this paper looks at current disposal methods for such waste in the light of new scientific developments and waste-management strategies. Questionnaires were presented to management and workers at low- and high-throughput red meat abattoirs in the Free State Province, South Africa to determine current waste-handling procedures for condemned products. The waste-handling practices, almost without exception, did not fully comply with the requirements of the South African Red Meat Regulations of 2004, framed under the Meat Safety Act (Act 40 of 2000). The survey highlighted the need to improve current waste-handling strategies to prevent condemned products from re-entering the food chain and contributing to environmental pollution. PMID:19220989

Roberts, Hester; de Jager, Linda; Blight, Geoffrey

2009-02-01

26

Home storage temperatures and consumer handling of refrigerated foods in Sweden.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lack of data on consumer refrigeration temperatures and storage times limits our ability to assess and manage risks associated with microbial hazards. This study addressed these limitations by collecting data on temperatures and storage handling practices of chilled foods. Consumers from 102 households in Uppsala, Sweden, were instructed to purchase seven food items (minced meat, fresh herring fillets, soft cheese, milk, sliced cooked ham, vacuum-packed smoked salmon, and ready-to-eat salad) and to store them using their normal practices. They were interviewed the next day, and food temperatures were measured. In general, there were no significant relations between temperature and characteristics of the respondents (e.g., sex, age, education, age of the refrigerator). Mean storage temperatures ranged from 6.2 degrees C for minced meat to 7.4 degrees C for ready-to-eat salad. Maximum temperatures ranged from 11.3 to 18.2 degrees C. Data were not significantly different from a normal distribution, except for ready-to-eat salad, although distributions other than the normal fitted data better in most cases. Five percent to 20% of the food items were stored at temperatures above 10 degrees C. Most respondents knew the recommended maximum temperature, but less than one fourth claimed to know the temperature in their own refrigerator. Practical considerations usually determined where food was stored. For products with a long shelf life, stated storage times were different for opened and unopened packages. The current situation might be improved if consumers could be persuaded to use a thermometer to keep track of refrigerator temperature. PMID:15553644

Marklinder, I M; Lindblad, M; Eriksson, L M; Finnson, A M; Lindqvist, R

2004-11-01

27

Liberalisation of municipal waste handling : compatible with sustainable practices?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Liberalisation of municipal waste handling: How are sustainable practices pursued? In the process of liberalization of public services in Europe contracting out the collection of municipal waste has surged. Research in Denmark has shown that municipalities in general have pursued a narrow policy of price reductions in stead of quality demands in both environmental and working environmental terms. A recent study showed major deficits in the capacities of the municipalities to administer qualitative requirements in the tender process and to manage the contracts as an integral part of a scheme for improved performance of municipal waste management. The study stresses the need for training and guidance of municipal administrators. Highlighting ‘best practice’ examples the study shows, however, that it is perfectly possible to end up with quality service on contract. It takes a mixture of careful design of requirement specifications in the tender material and deployment of resources to follow up on the contract and cooperate with the contractor in problem-solving. The study finds the municipalities in a key position to break the ‘vicious circle’ of renouncement of responsibility, untamed market forces and low quality performance. By assuming responsibility, setting and following up on high quality standards the tender instrument presents an additional instrument to legislation and market based means to institutionalize more sustainable practices in waste management

Busck, Ole Gunni

2006-01-01

28

Air-handling energy efficiency and design practices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With good design practices and life-cycle cost optimization, specific fan power for individual fans will be between 0.5 and 1kW/m{sup 3}/s. Data from nearly 1000 audited fans in Sweden show that the average measured SFPI weighted by drawn motor power is 1.5 kW/m{sup 3}/s and the situation appears to be similar in other countries. Contract forms used by Swedish builders, and consultants` design practices are analyzed here to search for an explanation to the low performance of installed systems. Identified as two major barriers to efficient system design are the lack of performance specifications when procuring systems and the incentive structure in the building sector. As a consequence, duct design methods, rules of thumb, and vendor recommendations are not leading to system optimization. The broad minima in life cycle costs over a range of air-handling unit sizes show that potential economic welfare losses from efficiency standards are likely to be smaller than the losses that result from today`s design practices. 73 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

Nilsson, Lars J.

1993-12-31

29

A practical guide to handling laser diode beams  

CERN Document Server

This book offers the reader a practical guide to the control and characterization of laser diode beams.  Laser diodes are the most widely used lasers, accounting for 50% of the global laser market.  Correct handling of laser diode beams is the key to the successful use of laser diodes, and this requires an in-depth understanding of their unique properties. Following a short introduction to the working principles of laser diodes, the book describes the basics of laser diode beams and beam propagation, including Zemax modeling of a Gaussian beam propagating through a lens.  The core of the book is concerned with laser diode beam manipulations: collimating and focusing, circularization and astigmatism correction, coupling into a single mode optical fiber, diffractive optics and beam shaping, and manipulation of multi transverse mode beams.  The final chapter of the book covers beam characterization methods, describing the measurement of spatial and spectral properties, including wavelength and linewidth meas...

Sun, Haiyin

2015-01-01

30

FOOD EMULSIONS: PRINCIPLES, PRACTICES, AND TECHNIQUES  

Science.gov (United States)

The newly published book by David Julian McClements entitled, “Food Emulsions: Principles, Practices, and Techniques”, Second edition, was reviewed. The novice entering this field, as well as the expert food scientist, will find this book valuable as specific details throughout the book are referen...

31

Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety  

Science.gov (United States)

Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (pspray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic-nozzle sprays.

Lyons, Shawn M.; Harrison, Mark A.; Law, S. Edward

2011-06-01

32

Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic-nozzle sprays.

Lyons, Shawn M; Harrison, Mark A [Food Science and Technology Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-2610 (United States); Law, S Edward, E-mail: edlaw@engr.uga.edu [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Applied Electrostatics Laboratory www.ael.engr.uga.edu, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-4435 (United States)

2011-06-23

33

Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic-nozzle sprays.

34

Food Irradiation Regulations And Code Of Practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Official attitude towards irradiated food is determined by factors such as: level of scientific knowledge, consumer habits, food shortages, agricultural production and technological know-how. To date, 39 countries have accepted the process for one or more food items while 27 nations carry out the process on a commercial basis. Regulations and codes of practice is essential for consumer confidence while uniformity of regulations, at the international level, will enhance international trade in irradiated food items. The internationally accepted Codex Standard on irradiated food and Codes of Practice for the operation of irradiation facilities, adopted in 1983, forms the basis for International regulations and a template for nations in the development of regulations. This paper discusses the basic legal requirements for licensing the process, procedures, facility and the operator and suggests a framework for a national regulation based on experiences of Hungary, Brazil and Israel

35

Asymmetry in food handling behavior of a tree-dwelling rodent (Sciurus vulgaris).  

Science.gov (United States)

Asymmetry in motor patterns is present in a wide variety of animals. Many lateralized behaviors seem to depend on brain asymmetry, as it is the case of different tasks associated to food handling by several bird and mammal species. Here, we analyzed asymmetry in handling behavior of pine cones by red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). Red squirrels devote most of their daily activity to feeding, thus this species constitutes an appropriate model for studying asymmetry in food processing. We aimed to explore 1) the potential lateralization in handling of pine cones by squirrels, 2) the dominant pattern for this behavior (left- vs. right-handed), and 3) whether this pattern varies among populations and depending on the pine tree species available. Results revealed that red squirrels handle pine cones in an asymmetrical way, and that direction of asymmetry varies among populations and seems to be determined more by local influences rather than by the pine tree species. PMID:25714614

Polo-Cavia, Nuria; Vázquez, Zoraida; de Miguel, Francisco Javier

2015-01-01

36

The impact of food manufacturing practices on food borne diseases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Doenças veiculadas por alimentos são um dos maiores problemas de Saúde Pública no mundo, sendo responsáveis por reduções no crescimento econômico global. A contaminação de alimentos com patógenos e sua persistência, crescimento, multiplicação e/ou produção de toxinas é de interesse da Saúde Pública. [...] Estes problemas podem ser controlados com esforços e treinamento constante de manipuladores de alimentos. Em contraste com perigos químicos e físicos, a concentração de patógenos em alimentos é modificada durante etapas de processamento, acondicionamento e preparação, tornando difícil estimar e quantificar o número de microrganismos ou a concentração de suas toxinas no momento da ingestão do alimento. Esta revisão comenta sobre os principais microrganismos bacterianos relacionados à práticas de manipulação como Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp. ressaltando o consumo de alimentos em ruas, o desenvolvimento de doenças veiculadas por alimentos e enfatizando o impacto de boas práticas de manipulação na segurança e qualidade de alimentos. Abstract in english Food-borne illness is a major international problem and an important cause of reduced economic growth. The contamination of the food supply with the pathogens and its persistence, growth, multiplication and/or toxin production has emerged as an important public health concern. Most of these problems [...] could be controlled with the efforts on the part of the food handlers, whether in a processing plant, a restaurant, and others. In contrast with most chemical hazardous compounds, the concentration of food pathogens changes during the processing, storage, and meal preparation, making it difficult to estimate the number of the microorganisms or the concentration of their toxins at the time of ingestion by the consumer. This review shows main microorganisms related to the manipulation practices such as Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. and describes the factors regarding the food-borne illness highlighting the impact of good manipulation practices on the food safety and food quality.

Cristina Paiva de, Sousa.

2008-08-01

37

The impact of food manufacturing practices on food borne diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food-borne illness is a major international problem and an important cause of reduced economic growth. The contamination of the food supply with the pathogens and its persistence, growth, multiplication and/or toxin production has emerged as an important public health concern. Most of these problems could be controlled with the efforts on the part of the food handlers, whether in a processing plant, a restaurant, and others. In contrast with most chemical hazardous compounds, the concentration of food pathogens changes during the processing, storage, and meal preparation, making it difficult to estimate the number of the microorganisms or the concentration of their toxins at the time of ingestion by the consumer. This review shows main microorganisms related to the manipulation practices such as Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. and describes the factors regarding the food-borne illness highlighting the impact of good manipulation practices on the food safety and food quality.Doenças veiculadas por alimentos são um dos maiores problemas de Saúde Pública no mundo, sendo responsáveis por reduções no crescimento econômico global. A contaminação de alimentos com patógenos e sua persistência, crescimento, multiplicação e/ou produção de toxinas é de interesse da Saúde Pública. Estes problemas podem ser controlados com esforços e treinamento constante de manipuladores de alimentos. Em contraste com perigos químicos e físicos, a concentração de patógenos em alimentos é modificada durante etapas de processamento, acondicionamento e preparação, tornando difícil estimar e quantificar o número de microrganismos ou a concentração de suas toxinas no momento da ingestão do alimento. Esta revisão comenta sobre os principais microrganismos bacterianos relacionados à práticas de manipulação como Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp. ressaltando o consumo de alimentos em ruas, o desenvolvimento de doenças veiculadas por alimentos e enfatizando o impacto de boas práticas de manipulação na segurança e qualidade de alimentos.

Cristina Paiva de Sousa

2008-08-01

38

Critical control points of complementary food preparation and handling in eastern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate microbial contamination and critical control points (CCPs in the preparation and handling of complementary foods in 120 households in Imo state, Nigeria. METHODS: The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP approach was used to investigate processes and procedures that contributed to microbial contamination, growth and survival, and to identify points where controls could be applied to prevent or eliminate these microbiological hazards or reduce them to acceptable levels. Food samples were collected and tested microbiologically at different stages of preparation and handling. FINDINGS: During cooking, all foods attained temperatures capable of destroying vegetative forms of food-borne pathogens. However, the risk of contamination increased by storage of food at ambient temperature, by using insufficiently high temperatures to reheat the food, and by adding contaminated ingredients such as dried ground crayfish and soybean powder at stages where no further heat treatment was applied. The purchasing of contaminated raw foodstuffs and ingredients, particularly raw akamu, from vendors in open markets is also a CCP. CONCLUSION: Although an unsafe environment poses many hazards for children?s food, the hygienic quality of prepared food can be assured if basic food safety principles are observed. When many factors contribute to food contamination, identification of CCPs becomes particularly important and can facilitate appropriate targeting of resources and prevention efforts.

Ehiri John E.

2001-01-01

39

Critical control points of complementary food preparation and handling in eastern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate microbial contamination and critical control points (CCPs) in the preparation and handling of complementary foods in 120 households in Imo state, Nigeria. METHODS: The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach was used to investigate processes and procedures that contributed to microbial contamination, growth and survival, and to identify points where controls could be applied to prevent or eliminate these microbiological hazards or reduce them to acceptable levels. Food samples were collected and tested microbiologically at different stages of preparation and handling. FINDINGS: During cooking, all foods attained temperatures capable of destroying vegetative forms of food-borne pathogens. However, the risk of contamination increased by storage of food at ambient temperature, by using insufficiently high temperatures to reheat the food, and by adding contaminated ingredients such as dried ground crayfish and soybean powder at stages where no further heat treatment was applied. The purchasing of contaminated raw foodstuffs and ingredients, particularly raw akamu, from vendors in open markets is also a CCP. CONCLUSION: Although an unsafe environment poses many hazards for children's food, the hygienic quality of prepared food can be assured if basic food safety principles are observed. When many factors contribute to food contamination, identification of CCPs becomes particularly important and can facilitate appropriate targeting of resources and prevention efforts. PMID:11417038

Ehiri, J. E.; Azubuike, M. C.; Ubbaonu, C. N.; Anyanwu, E. C.; Ibe, K. M.; Ogbonna, M. O.

2001-01-01

40

Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good handling practices. Revision 7  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is continuing the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies in sharing with the nuclear industry their experience in the area of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) shipping containers and handling procedures. The USEC has reviewed Revision 6 or ORO-651 and is issuing this new edition to assure that the document includes the most recent information on UF{sub 6} handling procedures and reflects the policies of the USEC. This manual updates the material contained in earlier issues. It covers the essential aspects of UF{sub 6} handling, cylinder filling and emptying, general principles of weighing and sampling, shipping, and the use of protective overpacks. The physical and chemical properties of UF{sub 6} are also described. The procedures and systems described for safe handling of UF{sub 6} presented in this document have been developed and evaluated during more than 40 years of handling vast quantities of UF{sub 6}. With proper consideration for its nuclear properties, UF{sub 6} may be safely handled in essentially the same manner as any other corrosive and/or toxic chemical.

NONE

1995-01-01

41

Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good handling practices. Revision 7  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is continuing the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies in sharing with the nuclear industry their experience in the area of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) shipping containers and handling procedures. The USEC has reviewed Revision 6 or ORO-651 and is issuing this new edition to assure that the document includes the most recent information on UF6 handling procedures and reflects the policies of the USEC. This manual updates the material contained in earlier issues. It covers the essential aspects of UF6 handling, cylinder filling and emptying, general principles of weighing and sampling, shipping, and the use of protective overpacks. The physical and chemical properties of UF6 are also described. The procedures and systems described for safe handling of UF6 presented in this document have been developed and evaluated during more than 40 years of handling vast quantities of UF6. With proper consideration for its nuclear properties, UF6 may be safely handled in essentially the same manner as any other corrosive and/or toxic chemical

42

Food Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Hospital Food Handlers in Davao City  

OpenAIRE

The study determined the relationships between food safety knowledge and practices of hospital food handlers in Davao City and also between their attitudes and practices regarding food safety. Questionnaire patterned after the Key Food Safety Guidelines of Pacific Northwest Publications was administered to 51 food handlers to generate the data. It was found that hospital food handlers in Davao City are highly knowledgeable and have favorable attitudes in food safety. The extent of food sa...

Molina, Jason O.

2012-01-01

43

Novel Additive Manufacturing Pneumatic Actuators and Mechanisms for Food Handling Grippers  

OpenAIRE

Conventional pneumatic grippers are widely used in industrial pick and place robot processes for rigid objects. They are simple, robust and fast, but their design, motion and features are limited, and they do not fulfil the final purpose. Food products have a wide variety of shapes and textures and are susceptible to damaged. Robot grippers for food handling should adapt to this wide range of dimensions and must be fast, cheap, reasonably reliable, and with cheap and reasonable maintenance co...

Carlos Blanes; Martín Mellado; Pablo Beltran

2014-01-01

44

Study of Parasitic and Bacterial Infections in the Food-Handling Personnel, Ramadan, Iran  

OpenAIRE

Background: Food-handling personnel play an important role in ensuring food safety throughout the chain of production, processing, storage and preparation. Mishandling and disregard of hygienic measures o...

Zahra Heidar Barghi; Farasat Habibi; Heshmatollah Taherkhani; Siavash Sadeghian; Mohammad Fallah

2011-01-01

45

Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good handling practices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For many years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have shared with the nuclear industry their experience in the area of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) shipping containers and handling procedures. The information contained in this manual updates information contained in earlier issues. It covers the essential aspects of UF6 handling, cylinder filling and emptying, general principles of weighing and sampling, shipping, and the use of protective overpacks. The physical and chemical properties of UF6 are also described and tabulated. The nuclear industry is responsible for furnishing its own shipping cylinders and suitable protective overpacks. A substantial effort has been made by the industry to standardize UF6 cylinders, samples, and overpacks. The quality of feed materials is important to the safe and efficient operation of the enriching facilities, and the UF6 product purity from the enriching facilities is equally important to the fuel fabricator, the utilities, the operators of research reactors, and other users. The requirements have been the impetus for an aggressive effort by DOE and its contractors to develop accurate techniques for sampling and for chemical and isotopic analysis. A quality control program is maintained within the DOE enriching facilities to ensure that the proper degree of accuracy and precision are obtained for all the required measurements. The procedures and systems described for safe handling of UF6 presented in this document have been developed and evaluated in DOE facilities during more than 40 years of handling vast quantities of UF6. With proper consideration for its nuclear properties, UF6 may be safely handled in essentially the same manner as any other corrosive and/or toxic chemical

46

Evaluation of Food Hygiene Knowledge Attitudes and Practices of Food Handlers in Food Businesses in Accra, Ghana  

OpenAIRE

Food handlers have a prime role to play in food businesses, and that is to guarantee that meals served are hygienic for consumption. Conscious or inadvertent contamination of such food places consumers at risk of suffering from food- borne illnesses. For this reason the study was carried out to document the food hygiene knowledge, attitudes and practices of some food handlers, in food businesses in Accra, Ghana and also to determine the microbiological load of the foods sold by the food busin...

George Amponsah Annor; Ekua Anamoaba Baiden

2011-01-01

47

Empowering staff nurses to use research to change practice for safe patient handling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although evidence supports safe patient handling practices, nurses are not always involved in the process of evaluating and selecting lifting equipment. This study used a descriptive design to: (1) assess staff's perceived barriers and attitudes toward safe patient handling, (2) identify staff needs for equipment and education concerning safe patient handling, and (3) involve staff in the equipment selection process before implementing a safe patient handling program. Overall, staff on all units indicated that they wanted more equipment and education. Major barriers identified by staff were lack of: a "no lift" policy, adequate lifting equipment, and adequate space on patient care units. Staff had the opportunity to participate in a vendor fair and select equipment for trial. An appraisal was conducted with 2 vendors for trialing and evaluating the equipment. Nursing staff had the ability to participate in research and change practice for safe patient handling. PMID:21872285

Krill, Candice; Staffileno, Beth A; Raven, Claudette

2012-01-01

48

Sanitation Practices among Food Handlers in a Military Food Service Institution, Malaysia  

OpenAIRE

This study was conducted over a period of two months to assess the food hygiene practices among food handlers in a military food service institution that have been trained with food safety practices and knowledge. Since limited data was published for the services rendered to governmental agencies such as the military, this study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and motivation of food handlers under this institution that was responsible for the provision of food to t...

Hai Yen Lee; Wan Nadirah Wan Chik; Fatimah Abu Bakar; Nazamid Saari; Nor Ainy Mahyudin

2012-01-01

49

Evidence-Based Practices for Safe Patient Handling and Movement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Efforts to reduce injuries associated with patient handling are often based on tradition and personal experience rather than scientific evidence. The purpose of this article is to summarize current evidence for interventions designed to reduce caregiver injuries, a significant problem for decades. Despite strong evidence, published over three decades, the most commonly used strategies have strong evidence that demonstrate they are ineffective. There is a growing body of evidence to support newer interventions that are effective or show promise in reducing musculoskeletal pain and injuries in care providers. The authors have organized potential solutions into three established ergonomic solution types: engineering based, administrative, and behavioral. For each intervention, the level of evidence to support its use is provided.

Nelson, A., Baptiste, A

2004-09-01

50

How to handle topography in practical geoid determination: three examples  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Three different methods of handling topography in geoid determination were investigated. The first two methods employ the residual terrain model (RTM) remove-restore technique, yielding the quasi-geoid, whereas the third method uses the classical Helmert condensation method, yielding the geoid. All three methods were used with the geopotential model Earth Gravity Model (1996) (EGM96) as a reference, and the results were compared to precise global positioning system (GPS) levelling networks in Scandinavia. An investigation of the Helmert method, focusing on the different types of indirect effects and their effects on the geoid, was also carried out. The three different methods used produce almost identical results at the 5-cm level, when compared to the GPS levelling networks. However, small systematic differences existed.

Omang, O.C.D.; Forsberg, René

2000-01-01

51

Different ways to handle topography in practical geoid determination  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper two different methods of how to handle topography in geoid determination is investigated. First method employs the Residual Terrain Model (RTM) remove-restore technique and yields the quasigeoid, whereas the second method is the classical Helmert condensation method, yielding the geoid. Both methods were used with the Earth Gravity Model (1996) (EGM96) geopotential model as reference, and results are compared to precise Global Positioning System (GPS) levelling networks in Scandinavia, especially an accurate GPS data set from the very rugged Sognefjord region, where the topography was represented by either a detailed (100 m) or a coarse (1000 m) digital terrain model. The inclusion of bathymetry in the terrain model was also investigated. Even if two different methods were used, they produced almost identical results at the 5 cm level in the mountains, but small systematic differences exist. Results show the importance of comparing the right types of geoid (classical geoid or quasigeoid), since differences in residuals are significant.

Dahl, O.C.; Forsberg, René

1999-01-01

52

Validation of a Pre- and Post-Evaluation Process: A Tool for Adult Training in Food Handling  

OpenAIRE

Education in food safety is a well-recognized health intervention, which allows the prevention of a wide range of diseases. Among the strategies of control and prevention of foodborne diseases, it is indicated that food safety education has the double advantage of having low costs and high potential effectiveness, as long as it is carried out with the active participation of food handling workers. In many countries, the Food Code has made compulsory the sanitary training of food workers. Howe...

Guido Mastrantonio; Mariana Dulout; María Lourdes González; Pedro Zeinsteger

2013-01-01

53

Practical application of food irradiation in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Turkey is the world's leading producer and exporter of dried fruits (dried figs, raisins,and dried apricots etc.) and nuts (hazelnuts, wall nuts, pistachios, peanuts etc.) all of which have to be fumigated by methyl bromide a few times prior to export. Last fumigation is obligatory before shipment according to current quarantine treatment. Methyl Bromide (MeBr) fumigation is the most commonly used insect quarantine treatment for dried fruits and nuts in Turkey to protect from potential infestations. In accordance with the Montreal Protocol, Turkey as an Article 5(1) country will take actions to regulate and take measures to phase-out MeBr use. So, Turkey has to total phase-out in 2015 but according to Turkey MeBr Phase-out Action Plan prepared and published by The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural affairs in 2001, using MeBr should be reduced for stored commodities by 50 % by 2002 and phased-out totally by 2004. Irradiation technology is ready as an alternative to MeBr fumigation under the Action Plan of Turkey. Intensive research studies on food irradiation in Turkey have started in early 1970's and have still been continued. After careful and intensive works of all related authorities and specialists for a long period and with the help of ICGFI, the food irradiation regulation of Turkey was published in Official Newspaper on November 6, 1999. Having the Food Irradiation Regulation has supported to initiate commercialization study in Turkey in Co-operation with IAEA study in Turkey in Co-operation with IAEA (TUR 5022). Feasibility study of a commercial food irradiation facility for the potential application of food irradiation in Turkey was prepared by IAEA experts Dr.M.Ahmed and Ir. J.P.Lacroix and together with TUR 5022 Research Team in April 2001 in Izmir, Turkey. Gamma-Pak Irradiation Facility in Cerkeskoy-Tekirdag got the commercial food irradiation licence and registration certificate in Feb. 2002. Practical application of food irradiation is getting more attraction in Turkey in parallel with other countries

54

Poultry-handling Practices during Avian Influenza Outbreak, Thailand  

OpenAIRE

With poultry outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 continuing in Thailand, preventing human infection remains a priority. We surveyed residents of rural Thailand regarding avian influenza knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Results suggest that public education campaigns have been effective in reaching those at greatest risk, although some high-risk behavior continues.

Olsen, Sonja J.; Laosiritaworn, Yongjua; Pattanasin, Sarika; Prapasiri, Prabda; Dowell, Scott F.

2005-01-01

55

A survey on knowledge and self-reported formula handling practices of parents and child care workers in Palermo, Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Powdered infant formula (PIF is not a sterile product, but this information appears to be poorly diffused among child caregivers. Parents and child care workers may behave in an unsafe manner when handling PIF. Methods This study involved parents and child care workers in the 24 municipal child care centres of Palermo. Knowledge and self-reported practices about PIF handling were investigated by a structured questionnaire. A Likert scale was used to measure the strength of the respondent's feelings. Association of knowledge and self-reported practices with demographic variables was also evaluated. Results 42.4% of parents and 71.0% of child care workers filled in the questionnaire. Significant differences were found between parents and child care workers for age and education. 73.2% of parents and 84.4% of child care workers were confident in sterility of PIF. Generally, adherence to safe procedures when reconstituting and handling PIF was more frequently reported by child care workers who, according to the existing legislation, are regularly subjected to a periodic training on food safety principles and practices. Age and education significantly influenced the answers to the questionnaire of both parents and child care workers. Conclusion The results of the study reveal that parents and child care workers are generally unaware that powdered formulas may contain viable microorganisms. However, child care workers consistently chose safer options than parents when answering the questions about adherence to hygienic practices. At present it seems unfeasible to produce sterile PIF, but the risk of growth of hazardous organisms in formula at the time of administration should be minimized by promoting safer behaviours among caregivers to infants in both institutional settings and home.

Mammina Caterina

2009-12-01

56

Sheep pre-slaughter handling practices and their effect on meat quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aspects related to ovine production systems in Mexico were revisited, as well as the relationship between the transport and the ante-mortem handling with ovine welfare and pre slaughter operations. Animals stress evaluation is fundamental importance for this process, where the observation of animal behavior is basic to determinate and understands the scope of this biological phenomenon. Finally, we make reference to two of the main meat quality attributes that can be affected as consequence of non-appropriated handling practice and operations that implies the un-knowledge of animal conduct. The conclusion is that the handling practices previous to slaughter of ovine specie had a considerable influence on carcass quality. In Mexico is important to focus the cattle research on the productive systems improvement in consideration to animal welfare in the different productive process steps.

Francisco Gerardo Ríos-Rincón

2013-06-01

57

Norovirus transmission between hands, gloves, utensils, and fresh produce during simulated food handling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human noroviruses (HuNoVs), a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, are easily transferred via ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, often prepared by infected food handlers. In this study, the transmission of HuNoV and murine norovirus (MuNoV) from virus-contaminated hands to latex gloves during gloving, as well as from virus-contaminated donor surfaces to recipient surfaces after simulated preparation of cucumber sandwiches, was inspected. Virus transfer was investigated by swabbing with polyester swabs, followed by nucleic acid extraction from the swabs with a commercial kit and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. During gloving, transfer of MuNoV dried on the hand was observed 10/12 times. HuNoV, dried on latex gloves, was disseminated to clean pairs of gloves 10/12 times, whereas HuNoV without drying was disseminated 11/12 times. In the sandwich-preparing simulation, both viruses were transferred repeatedly to the first recipient surface (left hand, cucumber, and knife) during the preparation. Both MuNoV and HuNoV were transferred more efficiently from latex gloves to cucumbers (1.2% ± 0.6% and 1.5% ± 1.9%) than vice versa (0.7% ± 0.5% and 0.5% ± 0.4%). We estimated that transfer of at least one infective HuNoV from contaminated hands to the sandwich prepared was likely to occur if the hands of the food handler contained 3 log10 or more HuNoVs before gloving. Virus-contaminated gloves were estimated to transfer HuNoV to the food servings more efficiently than a single contaminated cucumber during handling. Our results indicate that virus-free food ingredients and good hand hygiene are needed to prevent HuNoV contamination of RTE foods. PMID:24951789

Rönnqvist, M; Aho, E; Mikkelä, A; Ranta, J; Tuominen, P; Rättö, M; Maunula, L

2014-09-01

58

PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This screening addresses the critical characteristics for food industry type cans and containers used for handling and storage of special nuclear materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). HNF-5460, Revision 0 specified a minimum tin plate of 0.50 Ib./base box. Since the food pack cans currently used and that have been tested have a listed tin plate of 0.20 lbs. per base box, Revision 1 reduced the tin plate to {ge} 0.20 Ib./base box (i.e., No. 20 tinned commercial steel or heavier). This revision lists Critical Characteristics for two (2) large filtered containers, and associated shielding over-packs. These new containers are called ''Nuclear Material Containers'' (NMCs). They are supplied in various sizes, which can be nested, one inside another. The PFP will use NMCs with volumes up to 8-quarts as needed to over-pack largely bulged containers.

BONADIE, E.P.

2000-08-22

59

A mixed methods study of food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs in Hispanic families with young children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Children are at a higher risk for foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to explore food safety knowledge, beliefs and practices among Hispanic families with young children (?10 years of age) living within a Midwestern state. A convergent mixed methods design collected qualitative and quantitative data in parallel. Food safety knowledge surveys were administered (n?=?90) prior to exploration of beliefs and practices among six focus groups (n?=?52) conducted by bilingual interpreters in community sites in five cities/towns. Descriptive statistics determined knowledge scores and thematic coding unveiled beliefs and practices. Data sets were merged to assess concordance. Participants were female (96%), 35.7 (±7.6) years of age, from Mexico (69%), with the majority having a low education level. Food safety knowledge was low (56%?±?11). Focus group themes were: Ethnic dishes popular, Relating food to illness, Fresh food in home country, Food safety practices, and Face to face learning. Mixed method analysis revealed high self confidence in preparing food safely with low safe food handling knowledge and the presence of some cultural beliefs. On-site Spanish classes and materials were preferred venues for food safety education. Bilingual food safety messaging targeting common ethnic foods and cultural beliefs and practices is indicated to lower the risk of foodborne illness in Hispanic families with young children. PMID:25178898

Stenger, Kristen M; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K; Perry, Christina; Albrecht, Julie A

2014-12-01

60

Study of Parasitic and Bacterial Infections in the Food-Handling Personnel, Ramadan, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background: Food-handling personnel play an important role in ensuring food safety throughout the chain of production, processing, storage and preparation. Mishandling and disregard of hygienic measures on their part may enable pathogens to come into contact with food and to cause illness in the consumers. Occasionally, food-handling personnel may transfer to food pathogens that they are carrying in or on their bodies.

Methods: In order to evaluate the role of persons who was working in food handling and processing centers, the study carried out in above-mentioned centers in Ramadan the west of Iran. A total of 938 stool samples collected of persons who were working in the restaurants, confectionaries, milk products stores, Chelo-Kabab houses, sandwich shops etc. All samples examined by culture for entero-pathogens bacteria and by formalin-ether concentration technique for ova and parasites.

Results: A total of 21 samples were suspected to bacteria that, finally 7 samples confirmed by sere-typing identified. These were Shigella boydii (5 samples and Shigella flexeneri (2 samples. Over 74% of stool samples contained one species parasite. Entamoeba coli (45% was the most common parasite followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (39%, E.histolytica (14.5%, and Giardia lamblia (9%. Prevalence rate for helminthes, pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoa were 43%, 26%, and 52.7% respectively. The prevalence of intestinal parasites, as well as intestinal helminthes in persons who had three-monthly check-up and health care were significantly less than others (p < 0.02 .

Conclusion: This study showed food handling personnel are an important source of E. histolytica, G. lamblia pinworm and Shigella distribution in this city.

Zahra Heidar Barghi

2011-09-01

61

Establishing powder-handling workflow practices and standard operating procedures: compounding pharmacy and safety.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an ongoing discussion and analysis of powder-handling safety in the compounding pharmacy laboratory that started in the November/December 2013 issue of the International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding. In the previous technical article, we established that most chemical powders handled during compounding procedures have an established occupational exposure limits and that powders are micronized during manipulation. All micronized powders handled on an open bench create health hazards to the technicians and create a potential for cross-contamination to the lab environment. Proper identification of the chemical hazard and established standard operating procedures in direct correlation to Good Lab Practices when working inside a powder hood will positively improve the compounding pharmacy's work environment. PMID:25306770

Prince, Bryan; Lundevall, Jeremy

2014-01-01

62

Food composition data: the foundation of dietetic practice and research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food composition databases and dietary assessment systems are important tools for food and nutrition professionals. The availability and accessibility of data have improved over time along with the technology to convert the information into useful formats for planning diets, writing educational materials, counseling patients, and conducting research. Primary sources of food composition data include government, academic, and other institutional databases; the food industry; and scientific literature. Changes in the marketplace affect food availability and composition and affect the accuracy and adequacy of food composition databases. Improvements in both food composition data and in dietary assessment methods have worked synergistically to improve estimates of dietary intake. The development of databases for food frequency assessment systems requires special considerations for data aggregation for each food or food grouping in the questionnaires. Considerations for selecting a dietary assessment system include appropriateness of the data for the intended audience or purpose, efficiency of the search strategy for retrieving data, content and format of summary information, and cost. Needs for food composition data vary depending on dietetic practice area; however, most food and nutrition professionals will benefit from becoming more informed about food composition data, exploring new ways to educate themselves about databases and database systems, and advocating for what is most needed in dietetic practice. PMID:18060896

Pennington, Jean A T; Stumbo, Phyllis J; Murphy, Suzanne P; McNutt, Suzanne W; Eldridge, Alison L; McCabe-Sellers, Beverly J; Chenard, Catherine A

2007-12-01

63

Practical application of food irradiation in Asia and the Pacific  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first regional seminar on food irradiation in Asia was held in Tokyo in 1981. In view of several significant international developments on food irradiation it was considered timely to convene the second seminar in this field to assess practical application of food irradiation in the Asian and Pacific region. Over 70 papers were submitted for the Seminar. Eight technical sessions covering practical aspects of food irradiation (e.g. technology transfer, legislation and control, food irradiation facilities and their economics, transportation trials, market testing and consumer acceptance, commercial development of food irradiation, etc.) were included in the Seminar programme. A Working Group to assess the present situation and future application of food irradiation in the region was convened during the Seminar. The report of the Working Group is included in the Proceedings. Refs, figs and tabs

64

Regulation and practice of workers' protection from chemical exposures during container handling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Fumigation of freight containers to prevent spread of pests and off-gassing of freight are sources of volatile chemicals that may constitute significant health risks when released. The aim of the study was to investigate the regulation and practice of container handling in Denmark with focus on preventive measures to reduce risk of chemical exposure. Methods: A comprehensive systematic search of scientific literature, legislation and recommendations related to safe work with transport containers from international and Danish regulatory bodies was performed. The practice of handling containers was investigated in a qualitative study based on a series of semi-structured interviews with key informants, including managers and health and safety representatives of organizations that handle containers. Results: Although several international and national regulations and local safety instructions relate to container handling, the provided information is not sufficiently detailed to conduct safe practicein many aspects. In accordance with the scientific literature, the interviewees estimate that there is a high frequency (5 to 50%) of containers with hazardous chemical exposure that are regarded as potentially damaging to health, although recognisable health effects are rare. There is limited knowledge about the types of chemicals, which mostly cannot be measured by available devices at the worksite. Aeration and use of personal protective equipment are typical preventive measures in practice, but their use is not consistent and does not necessarily ensure adequate protection. Conclusions: Managers, workers, even occupational health professionals have limited knowledge about the hazardous chemicals that can be released from containers. Detailed risk assessment and specific instructions on risk management are needed for safe handling of transport containers.

NØrgaard FlØe Pedersen, Randi; Jepsen, JØrgen Riis

2014-01-01

65

Evaluation of Food Hygiene Knowledge Attitudes and Practices of Food Handlers in Food Businesses in Accra, Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food handlers have a prime role to play in food businesses, and that is to guarantee that meals served are hygienic for consumption. Conscious or inadvertent contamination of such food places consumers at risk of suffering from food- borne illnesses. For this reason the study was carried out to document the food hygiene knowledge, attitudes and practices of some food handlers, in food businesses in Accra, Ghana and also to determine the microbiological load of the foods sold by the food businesses. The study targeted food handlers in the hotel industry. The study involved a field survey, followed by a laboratory assessment of microbiological status of food samples obtained from the sampled hotels. Cross tabulations and chi – squared tests (5% significance level as well as frequency distributions were used to analyze the data obtained from the field survey. Data obtained from the laboratory assessment were also compared to standard values of microbiological counts. Majority of respondents were between the ages of 30 - 40 years (42.9% with tertiary or post secondary education. Food hygiene knowledge and attitudes were satisfactory, however its practice was challenging. Gender, age and educational level of respondents did not influence their food hygiene practices. Microbial counts of all food samples was generally high ranging from 1.2 × 105 CFU/g to 1.1 × 108 CFU /g. The total coliform counts of foods ranged from 1.0 × 104 CFU/g to 5.0 × 106 CFU/g, and these were obtained from three out of the five hotel kitchens sampled. The study concluded that, the food hygiene knowledge and attitudes of the food handlers did not result in efficient food hygiene practices.

George Amponsah Annor

2011-10-01

66

Factors affecting practical application of food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

FAO and IAEA convened an Advisory Group Meeting on Commercial Use of Food Irradiation in order to discuss problems of the industry's acceptance of food irradiation and their remedies. Senior executives from major food industries, trade and consumer organizations were invited to discuss these problems and to prepare a report which would serve as the basis for future plan of action by sponsoring Organizations in the field of food irradiation. This publication contains the report of the meeting, papers presented by the participants and their recommendations to the sponsoring Organizations. Refs and tabs

67

Gender Difference in Safe and Unsafe Practice of Pesticide Handling in Tobacco Farmers of Malaysia  

OpenAIRE

To identify gender difference in safe and unsafe practice of pesticide handling in tobacco farmers of Malaysia, we conducted a 20-item questionnaire interview on storage of pesticide (4 questions), mixing of pesticide (3 questions), use of personal protective equipment and clothing while spraying pesticide (7 questions), activities during and after spraying of pesticide (5 questions), and maintenance of pesticide sprayer (1 question) in 496 tobacco farmers (395 males and 101 females) in Bacho...

Bin Nordin, Rusli; Araki, Shunichi; Sato, Hajime; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Bin Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan; Win Kyi, Daw

2001-01-01

68

Pesticide-handling practices of smallholder coffee farmers in Eastern Jamaica  

OpenAIRE

Pesticide use among smallholder coffee producers in Jamaica has been associated with significant occupational health effects. Research on pesticide handling practices, however, has been scarce, especially in eastern Jamaica. This explorative study aims at filling this gap and provides a first basis to develop effective interventions to promote a safer pesticide use. A random sample of 81 coffee farmers was surveyed. The majority of farmers reported to suffer from at least one health symptom a...

Giuseppe Feola; Dwayne Henry

2013-01-01

69

Pesticide-handling practices of smallholder coffee farmers in Eastern Jamaica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticide use among smallholder coffee producers in Jamaica has been associated with significant occupational health effects. Research on pesticide handling practices, however, has been scarce, especially in eastern Jamaica. This explorative study aims at filling this gap and provides a first basis to develop effective interventions to promote a safer pesticide use. A random sample of 81 coffee farmers was surveyed. The majority of farmers reported to suffer from at least one health symptom associated with pesticide handling, but safety practices were scarcely adopted. There was also the risk that other household members and the wider local community are exposed to pesticides. The lack of training on pesticide management, the role of health services and the cost for protective equipment seemed to be the most significant factors that influence current pesticide handling practices in eastern Jamaica. Further research is recommended to develop a systemic understanding of farmer’s behaviour to provide a more solid basis for the development of future intervention programmes.

Giuseppe Feola

2013-08-01

70

Practice of handling radioactive wastes outside the nuclear fuel cycle in Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the handling of radioactive wastes, which are not produced in facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. The actual amounts of radioactive waste are given showing also the fractions coming from institutions under consideration with respect to the total amount. For different areas as institutions producing radioactive waste, plants conditioning the waste, storing facilities or for the planned final repository the practice of handling, conditioning or storing is described; different methods are discussed. As far as possible and reasonable hints or recommendations are worked out. In some areas problems could be identified, e.g. some nuclides as tritium or radium, are not easily conditioned for a final repository, the lack of final prescriptions how to process the waste for the final repository, differing conditions for the waste to be transferred to the intermediate storage facilities, lack of guidelines how to analyse the waste contaminated with short-lifed nuclides after the decay-time before it is deposited, and the lack of harmonized and perhaps centralized facilities to process the waste before it will be stored in the final repository. Facilities should be capable to cope with non-radioactive aspects as chemical or toxic aspects during processing. It may be summarized, that the handling of radioactive waste produced in non-fuel cycle facilities in general has been regulated and planned for the complete line from the beginning to the repository. Though there are still some aspects as those summarized above that may and should be improved

71

Safety of vendor-prepared foods: evaluation of 10 processing mobile food vendors in Manhattan.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: Unsanitary food handling is a major public health hazard. There are over 4,100 mobile food vendors operating in New York City, and of these, approximately forty percent are processing vendors--mobile food units on which potentially hazardous food products are handled, prepared, or processed. This pilot study assesses the food handling practices of 10 processing mobile food vendors operating in a 38-block area of midtown Manhattan (New York City) from 43rd Street to 62nd Street bet...

Burt, Bryan M.; Volel, Caroline; Finkel, Madelon

2003-01-01

72

Toward practical definitions of quality for food science  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A new practical approach to developing workable definitions of quality is presented to overcome the numerous semantic and conceptual difficulties that an common with the use of the word quality in food science. This approach links the concept of quality, through a general definition, by adding the missing link of specific definitions related to measurable attributes and properties determined by standard methods to provide values that can be used to evaluate foods or to set specifications. It is compatible with control, assurance, HACCP, regulatory, TQM, and other normal uses of the both the word quality, and the concept quality, in food science and technology.

Bremner, Allan

2000-01-01

73

76 FR 50740 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Procedures for Handling...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket...FDA-2011-D-0514] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Procedures...Surveillance Studies; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS....

2011-08-16

74

Many Americans Don't Handle Poultry Safely When Cooking, Study Finds  

Science.gov (United States)

... Many Americans Don't Handle Poultry Safely When Cooking, Study Finds Too few use food thermometers, too ... not follow recommended safety practices when handling and cooking poultry, a new study finds. Fewer than two- ...

75

Food Preferences, Beliefs and Practices of Southeast Asian Refugee Adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Results from a study of 207 Southeast Asian refugee high school students indicate that these students have maintained strong ties to their native foods and traditional meal patterns. Cambodian, Vietnamese, and Hmong students showed varying degrees of nutritional awareness. Implications of beliefs, preferences, and practices for nutrition education…

Story, Mary; Harris, Linda J.

1988-01-01

76

A survey on knowledge and self-reported formula handling practices of parents and child care workers in Palermo, Italy  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Powdered infant formula (PIF) is not a sterile product, but this information appears to be poorly diffused among child caregivers. Parents and child care workers may behave in an unsafe manner when handling PIF. Methods This study involved parents and child care workers in the 24 municipal child care centres of Palermo. Knowledge and self-reported practices about PIF handling were investigated by a structured questionnaire. A Likert scale was used to measure the strength o...

Mammina Caterina; Guida Ivana; Valenti Rosalia; Calamusa Giuseppe

2009-01-01

77

Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, from practice to theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an allergic disease, probably non-IgE-mediated, with expression predominantly in the GI tract. The most characteristic symptom is repeated, debilitating vomiting. It occurs 2-6 h after ingestion of culprit food and is usually accompanied by pallor and lethargy. There may be diarrhea, and in 10-20% of cases, severe hypotension. These symptoms resolve completely within a few hours. The food most frequently involved is cow's milk, followed by rice, but many other foods may be involved. The prognosis is generally good in a few years. In this review the authors try to cope, with the help of some case histories, with the practical clinical aspects of FPIES. The authors also try to provide a management approach based on current knowledge, and finally, to point out the aspects of FPIES that are still controversial. PMID:23971749

Miceli Sopo, Stefano; Greco, Monica; Monaco, Serena; Tripodi, Salvatore; Calvani, Mauro

2013-08-01

78

21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...mass is not formed when the food is exposed to fluids. (2...this section; or (ii) Any beverage containing juice where neither the juice ingredient nor the beverage has been processed in the...in the manufacture of other foods or that is to be...

2010-04-01

79

76 FR 15841 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food; Confirmation of Effective Date  

Science.gov (United States)

...evidence that radiolytic products from sugars present in irradiated foods cause toxic...food in question to the overall dietary intake of the vitamin. The Agency has concluded...cause negligible changes in total dietary intake of the affected vitamins as a result...

2011-03-22

80

77 FR 71312 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food  

Science.gov (United States)

...dated August 10, 2010.* 2. Diehl, J. F., ``Chemical Effects of Ionizing...1995. 3. Elias, P. S. and A. J. Cohen, ``Recent Advances in Food Irradiation...Press, Boca Raton, 1982. 6. Diehl, J. F., ``Radiolytic Effects in...

2012-11-30

81

Special Handling for Ready-to-Eat, Refrigerated Foods: Reducing the Risks of Foodborne Listeria  

Science.gov (United States)

... Eat, Refrigerated Foods Reducing the Risks of Foodborne Listeria - Easy as . . . Available in ( PDF - 766KB) . También disponible ... to 8 hours. Frequently Asked Questions "What is Listeria monocytogenes ?" It's a harmful bacterium that causes a ...

82

Food irradiation in the control of storage and handling losses in the Philippine onions and garlic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information will be provided on the nature and magnitude of the control of postharvest losses in onions and garlic from the application of irradiation. Control of losses is measured in storage and during post storage marketing of the commodities. Information will also be presented on market tests and survey of consumer reaction to irradiated onions. The benefits of irradiation will be discussed in relation to the need to reduce postharvest losses in the food supply and to address consumer concerns over the safety of food due to the use of chemicals. (author)

83

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of University Students Regarding the Use of Nutritional Information and Food Labels  

OpenAIRE

The food nutrition label provides the nutrition information that helps consumers on food choices and used to give us information so that customer can choose between foods. This study was aimed to determine the association between knowledge, attitude and practices on food label use and to determine the factors that influence the use of food labels during making food purchasing decision among university students. A cross-sectional study of undergraduate students at UiTM Puncak Alam in the Kuala...

Khairil Anuar, M. I.; Norazmir, M. N.; Nurliyana, G.

2011-01-01

84

77 FR 71316 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food  

Science.gov (United States)

...dated August 10, 2010.* 2. Diehl, J. F., ``Chemical Effects of Ionizing...1999.* 4. Elias, P.S. and A.J. Cohen, ``Recent Advances in Food Irradiation...Press, Boca Raton, 1982. 7. Diehl, J.F., ``Radiolytic Effects in...

2012-11-30

85

Food Safety Knowledge and Beliefs of Middle School Children: Implications for Food Safety Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

To create effective educational interventions that address the food safety informational needs of youth, a greater understanding of their knowledge and skills is needed. The purposes of this study were to explore, via focus groups, the food-handling responsibilities of middle school youth and obstacles they face in practicing safe food handling

Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Abbot, Jaclyn Maurer; Quick, Virginia

2010-01-01

86

Standard Practice for Handling, Transporting, and Installing Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) Sample Plates Used in Environmentally Controlled Areas for Spacecraft  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This practice covers the handling, transporting, and installing of sample plates used for the gravimetric determination of nonvolatile residue (NVR) within and between facilities. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2007-01-01

87

"Current Good Manufacturing Practices" and the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act  

OpenAIRE

The Food and Drug Administration (hereinafter, FDA) regulates food, drugs, and cosmetics in order to ensure that these products are safe and truthfully labelled. As part of its responsibilities under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (hereinafter, Act), the FDA monitors the manufacturing practices of companies involved in the production of food, drugs, and medical devices. The manufacturing practices used by these companies must comply with certain standards, identified in the Act as "...

Goldstein, Beth F.

1995-01-01

88

Identifying Key Risk Behaviors Regarding Personal Hygiene and Food Safety Practices of Food Handlers Working in Eating Establishments Located Within a Hospital Campus in Kolkata  

OpenAIRE

Background: Hospital canteens cater to a large population group and personal hygiene and food safety practices of food handlers assume immense importance to prevent food borne disease outbreaks. Objectives: To assess the self-reported behaviour of food handlers on personal hygiene and food safety practices and to find out their morbidity profile. Methods: An observational study was conducted by interviewing 67 consenting food handlers working in different eateries inside a hospital campus, us...

Prianka Mukhopadhyay, Gautam Kr Joardar

2012-01-01

89

Practical handling skills during road transport of fattening pigs from farm to slaughterhouse: A brief review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The transport of fattening pigs is characterized by a strong human-animal interaction. Consequent handling is important because of animal welfare, meat quality and matching economic consequences. During road transport, human impact can be divided in different steps: 1 driving pigs from the pens via an alley to the trailer, 2 loading, 3 actual transport, 4 unloading to the lairage, and 5 the final phase driving pigs to the stunning. An inadequate design and a poor condition of the facilities will negatively affect the ease of handling pigs. Because of the consequences, acute stress during transport and slaughter should be minimized by acting on the education of people, on equipment and on preparation of animals for the journey. Education programs have to be repeated regularly so that knowledge can be refreshed.

Bert Driessen

2013-12-01

90

Chemotherapy-Knowledge and Handling Practice of Nurses Working in a Medical University of Nepal  

OpenAIRE

Background: Many antineoplastic agents are known to be teratogenic and mutagenic to humans. Nurses are the main groups that are exposed to these drugs in hospital setting. Generally, the occupational activities that pose to greatest risk of exposure are the preparation and administration of antineoplastic agents, cleaning of chemotherapy spills, and handling of patient excreta. Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of nurse regarding the way of exposure of Cyt...

Ramanand Chaudhary; Basant Kumar Karn

2012-01-01

91

Creating healthy food environments through global benchmarking of government nutrition policies and food industry practices  

OpenAIRE

Unhealthy processed food products are increasingly dominating over healthy foods, making food and nutrition environments unhealthier. Development and implementation of strong government healthy food policies is currently being circumvented in many countries by powerful food industry lobbying. In order to increase accountability of both governments and the private sector for their actions, and improve the healthiness of food environments, INFORMAS (the International Network for Food and Obesit...

Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

2014-01-01

92

Use of concept mapping to explore the influence of food security on food buying practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paradoxically, individuals with food insecurity have been observed to have higher rates of obesity compared with their counterparts with food security. The factors influencing food purchasing behaviors in households with food security vs food insecurity are poorly understood. Using the mixed methods approach of concept mapping, we examined the perceptions and preferences driving the food purchasing behaviors of households with food security vs food insecurity. Twenty-six men and women with food security and 41 men and women with food insecurity from four neighborhoods in Boston, MA, completed the concept mapping process during 2010. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was greater among participants with food insecurity (80.5%) compared with those with food security (61.5%). Participants identified 163 unique factors that influenced their food purchasing behavior. Using multivariate analyses, these factors were grouped into eight unique concepts or clusters that reflected their perceptions of factors hindering healthy eating. Average cluster ratings were similar between participants with food security and food insecurity, suggesting that similar food purchasing behaviors are employed and are perceived similarly in how they hinder or promote healthy eating. The use of emergency food assistance programs may play a role in minimizing the burden of food insecurity while providing access to foods with varying degrees of nutritional quality that may be associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity observed in individuals and households with food insecurity. PMID:22709776

Walker, Renee E; Kawachi, Ichiro

2012-05-01

93

Traditional foods and practices of Spanish-speaking Latina mothers influence the home food environment: implications for future interventions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to obtain in-depth information from low-income, Spanish-speaking Latino families with young children to guide the development of culturally appropriate nutrition interventions. Focus groups were used to assess parent's knowledge about healthful eating, the home food environment, perceived influences on children's eating habits, food purchasing practices, and commonly used strategies to promote healthful eating among their children. Thirty-four Latino parents (33 women; 27 born in Mexico; 21 food-insecure) of preschool-aged children participated in four focus group discussions conducted in Spanish by a trained moderator. The focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and coded by independent raters. Results suggest that in general, parents were very knowledgeable about healthful eating and cited both parents and school as significant factors influencing children's eating habits; at home, most families had more traditional Mexican foods available than American foods; cost and familiarity with foods were the most influential factors affecting food purchasing; many parents had rules regarding sugar intake; and parents cited role modeling, reinforcement, and creative food preparation as ways to encourage children's healthful eating habits. Finally, parents generated ideas on how to best assist Latino families through interventions. Parents indicated that future interventions should be community based and teach skills to purchase and prepare meals that include low-cost and traditional Mexican ingredients, using hands-on activities. In addition, interventions could encourage and reinforce healthy food-related practices that Latino families bring from their native countries. PMID:21703381

Evans, Alexandra; Chow, Sherman; Jennings, Rose; Dave, Jayna; Scoblick, Kathryn; Sterba, Katherine Regan; Loyo, Jennifer

2011-07-01

94

Facts about food irradiation: Microbiological safety of irradiated food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This fact sheet considers the microbiological safety of irradiated food, with especial reference to Clostridium botulinum. Irradiated food, as food treated by any ''sub-sterilizing'' process, must be handled, packaged and stored following good manufacturing practices to prevent growth and toxin production of C. botulinum. Food irradiation does not lead to increased microbiological hazards, nor can it be used to save already spoiled foods. 4 refs

95

Developing a Multicomponent Model of Nutritious Food Access and Related Implications for Community and Policy Practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to nutritious foods is limited in disenfranchised communities in the United States. Policies are beginning to focus on improving nutritious food access in these contexts; yet, few theories are available to guide this work. We developed a conceptual model of nutritious food access based on the qualitative responses of food consumers in 2 different regions of the American South. Five domains (economic, service delivery, spatial-temporal, social, and personal) and related dimensions of nutritious food access were identified. The conceptual model provides practical guidance to researchers, policy makers, and practitioners working to improve nutritious food access in communities. PMID:24563605

Freedman, Darcy A; Blake, Christine E; Liese, Angela D

2013-01-01

96

Wild Food Summit: Anishinaabe Relearning Traditional Gathering Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild Food Summits is a program initiated by Steve Dahlberg, the White Earth Tribal & Community College Extension director. Dahlberg began Wild Food Summits to teach people about identifying and gathering wild greens, mushrooms, and other edible plant life. The whole community comes together to cook and eat the foods. The tribal college has…

Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

2011-01-01

97

Clarifying concepts of food parenting practices. A Delphi study with an application to snacking behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inconsistencies in measurements of food parenting practices continue to exist. Fundamental to this problem is the lack of clarity about what is understood by different concepts of food parenting practices. The purpose of this study was to clarify food parenting practice concepts related to snacking. A three round Delphi study among an international group of experts (n = 63) was conducted. In the first round, an open-ended survey was used to collect food parenting practice descriptions and concept labels associated with those practices. In the second round, participants were asked to match up descriptions with the appropriate concept labels. The third and final round allowed participants to reconsider how descriptions and concept labels were matched, taking into account the opinions expressed in round two. Round one produced 408 descriptions of food parenting practices and 110 different concept names. Round two started with 116 descriptions of food parenting practices and 20 concept names. On 40 descriptions, consensus regarding the underlying concept name was reached in round two. Of the remaining 76 descriptions, consensus on 47 descriptions regarding the underlying concept name was reached in round three. The present study supports the essential process of consensus development with respect to food parenting practices concepts. PMID:24732407

Gevers, D W M; Kremers, S P J; de Vries, N K; van Assema, P

2014-08-01

98

MEMS product engineering handling the diversity of an emerging technology best practices for cooperative development  

CERN Document Server

This book provides the methodological background to directing cooperative product engineering projects in a micro and nanotechnology setting. The methodology is based on well-established methods like PRINCE2 and StageGate, which are supplemented by best practices that can be individually tailored to the actual nature and size of the project at hand. This book is intended for everyone who takes an active role in either practical product engineering or in teaching it. This includes project and product management staff and program management offices in companies working on innovation projects, those active in innovation, as well as professors and students in engineering and management.

Ortloff, Dirk; Hahn, Kai; Bieniek, Tomasz; Janczyk, Grzegorz; Bruck, Rainer

2014-01-01

99

Food Safety Education Using an Interactive Multimedia Kiosk in a WIC Setting: Correlates of Client Satisfaction and Practical Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To assess acceptability of food safety education delivered by interactive multimedia (IMM) in a Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children Program (WIC) clinic. Methods: Female clients or caregivers (n = 176) completed the food-handling survey; then an IMM food safety education program on a computer kiosk.…

Trepka, Mary Jo; Newman, Frederick L.; Huffman, Fatma G.; Dixon, Zisca

2010-01-01

100

Survey of Food-hygiene Practices at Home and Childhood Diarrhoea in Hanoi, Viet Nam  

OpenAIRE

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the potential factors of food-hygiene practices of mothers on the prevalence of diarrhoea among their children. Mothers who had children aged 6 months–5 years were recruited in a hamlet in Viet Nam. The food-hygiene practices included hand-washing, method of washing utensils, separation of utensils for raw and cooked food, and the location where foods were prepared for cooking. A face-to-face interview was conducted, and data on 206 mothe...

Takanashi, Kumiko; Chonan, Yuko; Quyen, Dao To; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine

2009-01-01

101

Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: Initiatives, practices, and consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discarded electronic goods contain a range of toxic materials requiring special handling. Developed countries have conventions, directives, and laws to regulate their disposal, most based on extended producer responsibility. Manufacturers take back items collected by retailers and local governments for safe destruction or recovery of materials. Compliance, however, is difficult to assure, and frequently runs against economic incentives. The expense of proper disposal leads to the shipment of large amounts of e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other developing countries. Shipment is often through middlemen, and under tariff classifications that make quantities difficult to assess. There, despite the intents of national regulations and hazardous waste laws, most e-waste is treated as general refuse, or crudely processed, often by burning or acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released, harm to the environment, workers, and area residents is inevitable. The faster growth of e-waste generated in the developing than in the developed world presages continued expansion of a pervasive and inexpensive informal processing sector, efficient in its own way, but inherently hazard-ridden. - Highlights: ? Much e-waste, expensive to process safely, illegally goes to developing countries. ? E-waste processing in developing countries pollutes with heavy metals and dioxins. ? Well-conceived developing world waste regulations lack enforceability. ? Crude e-waste processing cannot recover several rare materials. ? The amount of e-waste unsafely processed will continue to grow.

Sthiannopkao, Suthipong, E-mail: suthisuthi@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Dong-A University, 37 Nakdong-Daero 550 beon-gil Saha-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Wong, Ming Hung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

2013-10-01

102

Practical handling of AIO admixtures – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 10  

OpenAIRE

All-in-one admixtures (AIO-admixtures) provide safe, effective and low-risk PN (parenteral nutrition) for practically all indications and applications. Water, energy (carbohydrates and lipids), amino acids, vitamins and trace elements are infused together with PN either as industrially-manufactured AIO admixtures provided as two- or three-chamber bags (shelf life usually more than 12 months) completed with electrolytes and micronutrients where appropriate or as individually compounded ready-t...

Stanga, Z.; Franken, C.; Mu?hlebach, S.; Working group for developing the guidelines for parenteral nutrition of The German Association for Nutritional Medicine

2009-01-01

103

Practical handling of AIO admixtures - Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 10  

OpenAIRE

All-in-one admixtures (AIO-admixtures) provide safe, effective and low-risk PN (parenteral nutrition) for practically all indications and applications. Water, energy (carbohydrates and lipids), amino acids, vitamins and trace elements are infused together with PN either as industrially-manufactured AIO admixtures provided as two- or three-chamber bags (shelf life usually more than 12 months) completed with electrolytes and micronutrients where appropriate or as individually compounded ready-t...

Mu?hlebach, S.; Franken, C.; Stanga, Z.; Working group for developing the guidelines for parenteral nutrition of The German Association for Nutritional Medicine

2009-01-01

104

Air-Guiding Photonic Bandgap Fibers: Spectral Properties, Macrobending Loss, and Practical Handling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For development of hollow-core transmission fibers, the realizable fibers lengths, bandwidth, characterization, and compatibility with standard technology are important issues. We report record-length air-guiding fiber, spectral properties, splicing, and optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) measurements. Furthermore, spectral macrobending loss measurements for two different designs of air-core photonic bandgap fibers are presented. While bending loss is observed, it does not limit operation for all practical bending diameters (>tex/tex

Hansen, Theis Peter; Broeng, Jes

2004-01-01

105

'Going green' in food services: Can health care adopt environmentally friendly practices?  

Science.gov (United States)

Sustainability and the environment are issues influencing individual and organizational choices on purchasing, waste management, and energy-saving practices. The food service industry and related stakeholders have reported active pursuit of initiatives to reduce environmental impacts. We examine reported environmentally friendly practices being implemented in the food service industry and consider ways in which health care or hospital food services can adopt some of these programs. Building and equipment, waste management, food, and non-food supplies and procurement are considered. Suggestions are made for small changes to start the green initiative in each of these areas. A health care food service department is a large consumer of resources, and therefore food service workers, managers, dietitians, and administrators can make a significant difference by supporting and adopting environmentally friendly practices. Further studies are needed to determine which practices are currently being implemented in health care facilities in Canada, as well as perceived facilitators and barriers to these practices in the food service area. PMID:21382231

Wilson, Elisa D; Garcia, Alicia C

2011-01-01

106

Practical radioprotection data for the handling of radionuclides. The case of tritium and tritiated compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document assembles the latest facts available on tritium and its compounds. Practical values are given on questions to which experimentalists and users must normally reply to insure their safety. The medical aspect of supervision is also broached. This kind of data presentation complements the information on technical radioprotection sheets sent out under the double stamp of the S.C.P.R.I. and the INRS. They deserve to be examined seriously as a model on which to base equivalent documents concerning commonly used radionuclides

107

Microbial Quality, Nutritional Knowledge and Food Hygienic Practices among Street Food Vendors  

Science.gov (United States)

Since all categories of people from different socio-economic sectors purchase street foods; the street foods should not only be cheap but also hygienic and rich in nutrition. The investigators with their nutrition knowledge had an urge to study the nutrition knowledge of the vendors, whether the foods prepared are nutritionally sound or not?, are…

Gowri, B.; Vasantha Devi, K. P.; Sivakumar, M.

2011-01-01

108

How to Handle Worsening of Condition during Treatment - Risk Assessment in Homeopathic Practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Even though homeopathy is regarded as a harmless intervention, homeopathic practice may not be entirely risk-free. Risk in homeopathy can be divided into direct and indirect risk. Direct risk refers to traditional adverse effects of an intervention; indirect risk is related to adverse effects in a treatment context, e.g. the practitioner. Available data suggest that the risk profile of homeopathic remedies in ultra-molecular potencies is minor, but there is a potential for indirect risk related to homeopathic practice. The concept of 'homeopathic aggravation' which is unique for homeopathy may impose a particular risk as it allows the health status of the patients to deteriorate before there is a possible improvement. In that respect it is imperative to distinguish homeopathic aggravations from adverse effects. In a general risk evaluation of the homeopathic treatment it may be useful to assess the patient's symptoms in accordance with the natural course of disease and to evaluate any negative deviation from the normal curve as a possible adverse effect of the treatment. It is imperative that more emphasis is placed on patient safety during the education in homeopathy, and that students are trained to identify serious and red flag situations. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. PMID:25824402

Stub, Trine; Salamonsen, Anita; Kristoffersen, Agnete; Musial, Frauke

2015-01-01

109

Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment and Excess Sludge Handling Practices in the Federated States of Micronesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of wastewater treatment facilities in the Federated States of Micronesia revealed a lack of fully functional treatment systems and conditions that potentially could lead to adverse environmental impacts and public health concerns. Due to inadequate facilities, the amount and composition of wastewater entering the plants as well as the degree of treatment being achieved is largely unknown. In some cases raw sewage is being discharged directly into the ocean and waste sludge is regularly taken by local residents for agricultural purposes without adequate treatment. In addition, the need to establish best management practices for placement and maintenance of septic tanks is urgent. Furthermore, development of eco-friendly solutions is needed to more effectively treat wastewater from industrial and agricultural sources in an effort to abate current pollution problems. Comparisons of treatment methods being used and problems encountered at different locations in the islands would provide valuable information to aid in the development of sustainable treatment practices throughout Micronesia.

Joseph D. Rouse

2013-09-01

110

Balancing food values: Making sustainable choices within cooking practices:  

OpenAIRE

Within user-centred design and topics such as persuasive design, pleasurable products, and design for sustainable behaviour, there is a danger of over-determining, pacifying or reducing people’s diversity. Taking the case of sustainable food, we have looked into the social aspects of cooking at home, in specific related to the type of food that is purchased. This paper describes what it means for people to make more sustainable choices in food shopping and how that can be mediated while ...

Jong, A.; Kuijer, S. C.; Rydell, T.

2013-01-01

111

Food and Nutrition Practices and Education Needs in Florida's Adult Family Care Homes  

Science.gov (United States)

A statewide survey was carried out to determine food and nutrition practices and education needs of Florida's adult family care homes (AFCHs). The 30-item survey included questions on food and nutrition education, supplement use, and menu planning. Infrequent use of menus and nutrition supplements was reported. A strong need was indicated for…

Dahl, Wendy J.; Ford, Amanda L.; Gal, Nancy J.

2014-01-01

112

Practical Experience with Remediation of a Former Active Handling Building Site in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the year 2000, Nuvia has been contracted to carry out the decommissioning of a former Active Handling Building A59 on the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) site at Winfrith in Dorset. This is in support of UKAEA's mission, which is to carry out environmental restoration of its nuclear sites and to put them to alternative uses wherever possible. Latterly, a new body, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), has become responsible for managing the UK decommissioning legacy and since 2004 UKAEA has been contracted to the NDA to deliver decommissioning work at Winfrith and other UK sites. The earlier operations concentrated mainly upon the clearance and decontamination of two heavily shielded suites of caves, originally used to carry out remote examination of irradiated nuclear fuel elements, together with a range of within-building support facilities. In 2006 the main containment building structure was demolished as well as the two suites of caves, leaving the base slab for final removal. The demolition contract with UKAEA required removal of the base slab and recovery for disposal of a quantity of encast, internally contaminated items such as secondary active drain pipes, active ventilation ducting and more than 100 steel mortuary tubes set up to 6.6 m deep into the slab. The scope of the work also required the underlying soil to be carefully monitored for the presence of radioactive contamination and, if detected, its remediation to an end state detected, its remediation to an end state suitable for un-restricted use without planning or nuclear regulatory controls. These latter operations form the basis of this paper, which reviews some of the significant tasks undertaken during the process and also sets out the development of a robust waste monitoring strategy for the recovered concrete debris ahead of its disposal. This has enabled more than four thousand tons of debris to be classified as SOLA (Substance of Low Activity), allowing disposal to landfill. This will include details of the development of a system, including a bag monitoring procedure, used to support the classification of some concrete debris as SOLA material. Currently, the base slab has been completely demolished and all encast items recovered for disposal, including the deep mortuary tubes. This was only achievable by the installation of a dewatering system which enabled safe excavation. These latter operations were challenging owing to the significant depth of some of the items to be removed and the unconsolidated sediments underlying the site. The paper will discuss the main issues involved with the remediation of features within the concrete slab and the underlying soils. These will include comments on the ground conditions, soil structures, groundwater levels and problems associated with provision of waste storage areas and their various impacts upon project progress. Several challenging areas of the slab such as the original decontamination bay and pressurised suit area sump have been removed and the paper will describe how the underlying soils were monitored using a GroundhogTM based system ahead of final remediation and waste sentencing. One area of particular significance to the remediation process has been the use of office-based contaminated land assessment tools including ReCLAIM, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet based tool used to assess current and future impacts of radiological contamination at nuclear licensed sites. Finally, during these operations, evidence of ground contamination has been detected by routine monitoring and the methods taken to remove and remediate the underlying soils will be described together with details of the surveillance systems utilised. Some examples of the problems encountered during the remediation will be described, potentially of value to others working in a similar field. (authors)

113

Street-Vended Foods Improvement: Contamination Mechanisms and Application of Food Safety Objective Strategy : Critical Review  

OpenAIRE

Data collected from street-vended food enterprises and on vendors in west African countries revealed that, they provide a variety of ready-to-eat foods to a high proportion of the populations. Nevertheless, their handling and trading practices are not permit to obtain safe food. While, street-vended foods are easily contaminated by food borne pathogen and others chemicals compounds. The street-vended foods contamination mechanisms were identified and improvement pathways were suggested. Indee...

Barro Nicolas; Bello Abdoul Razack; Itsiembou Yollande; Savadogo Aly; Ouattara Cheik Amadou Tidiane; de Souza Comlan A.; Traore Alfred Sababenedjo; Nikiema Augustin Philippe

2007-01-01

114

Bringing good food to others: investigating the subjects of alternative food practice  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Under the banner of food justice, the last few years has seen a profusion of projects focused on selling, donating, bringing or growing fresh fruits and vegetables in neighborhoods inhabited by African Americans — often at below market prices — or educating them to the quality of locally grown, seasonal, and organic food. The focus of this article is the subjects of such projects — those who enroll in such projects `to bring good food to others,' in this case undergr...

Guthman, Julie

2008-01-01

115

Assessing the Level of Hygienic Practices among Street Food Vendors in Sunyani Township  

OpenAIRE

In recent time, there has been an increased in the springing up of street food vendors across the country and there is therefore an urgent need to ensure that street food vendors adhere to hygienic practices to protect public health. The main aim of the study is to assess the level of hygienic practices of street Food vendors in Sunyani Township. The study adopted descriptive approach and survey was used to gather primary data from 140 respondents. Questionnaires were used to gather data from...

Noble Amoako Sarkodie; Emmanuel Kofi Bempong; Olivia Naa Tetteh; Asana Constance Saaka; Golly Kwaku Moses

2014-01-01

116

Practical Use Of It In Traceability In Food Value Chains  

Science.gov (United States)

Traceability is today considered an essential requirement for the food value chain due to the need to provide consumers with accurate information in the event of food safety recalls, to provide assurance with regard the source and production systems for food products and in certain countries to comply with government legislation. Within an individual business traceability can be quite simple to implement, however, in a global trading market, traceability of the entire supply chain, including logistics is extremely complex. For this reason IT solutions such as TraceTracker have been developed which not only provide electronic solutions for complete traceability but also allow products to be tracked at any point in the supply chain.

Ratcliff, Jon; Boddington, Michael

117

Analysis of School Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine how school districts have implemented food safety programs based on HACCP principles. Specific objectives included: (1) Evaluate how schools are implementing components of food safety programs; and (2) Determine foodservice employees food-handling practices related to food safety.…

Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin; Sneed, Jeannie; Kwon, Junehee; Olds, David; Cole, Kerri; Shanklin, Carol

2014-01-01

118

Identifying Key Risk Behaviors Regarding Personal Hygiene and Food Safety Practices of Food Handlers Working in Eating Establishments Located Within a Hospital Campus in Kolkata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Hospital canteens cater to a large population group and personal hygiene and food safety practices of food handlers assume immense importance to prevent food borne disease outbreaks. Objectives: To assess the self-reported behaviour of food handlers on personal hygiene and food safety practices and to find out their morbidity profile. Methods: An observational study was conducted by interviewing 67 consenting food handlers working in different eateries inside a hospital campus, using a pretested, predesigned schedule. Results: Majority (46.3% of food handlers were educated upto primary level. Only 14.9% foodhandlers received preplacement training and 10.5%, preplacement medical checkup. Though practices of hand washing after going to toilet (95.5% and before preparing food (79.1% was reported to be quite high but for most other practices, hygiene was found to be low. Cuts/injuries on hands was reported as the most common morbidity in 44.8% but 11.9% continued work without any treatment. Conclusion: Preplacement training and in-service education on personal / food hygiene should be provided to all food handlers. Periodic medical checkups and routine sanitary inspection can improve their adherence to personal hygiene and food safety practices and prevent outbreak of food borne illnesses

Prianka Mukhopadhyay*, Gautam Kr. Joardar, Kanad Bag, Amrita Samanta, Sonali Sain and Sesadri Koley

2012-01-01

119

Impact of Food Allergies on School Nursing Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Food allergies affect 11 million Americans, including 6-8% of children. The rate of peanut allergies in children doubled from 1997 to 2002. There is no cure; therefore, strict avoidance of the allergen is the only way to avoid a reaction. Fatalities are associated with delays in or lack of epinephrine administration. Severe reactions, called…

Weiss, Christopher; Munoz-Furlong, Anne; Furlong, Terence J.; Arbit, Julie

2004-01-01

120

Contamination of Foods by Food Handlers: Experiments on Hepatitis A Virus Transfer to Food and Its Interruption  

OpenAIRE

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an important pathogen which has been responsible for many food-borne outbreaks. HAV-excreting food handlers, especially those with poor hygienic practices, can contaminate the foods which they handle. Consumption of such foods without further processing has been known to result in cases of infectious hepatitis. Since quantitative data on virus transfer during contact of hands with foods is not available, we investigated the transfer of HAV from artificially contamin...

Bidawid, S.; Farber, J. M.; Sattar, S. A.

2000-01-01

121

Vitamin profile of cooked foods: how healthy is the practice of ready-to-eat foods?  

Science.gov (United States)

During recent years importance of B complex vitamins, beta-carotene and vitamin C has been realised in terms of their antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. Fruits and vegetables are the rich sources of these vitamins. However, there are considerable cooking losses of vitamins, and information on vitamin contents of cooked foods is essential for assessing the adequacy of vitamin intakes. Secondly, there is a growing trend to consume ready-to-eat foods such as stuffed pancakes (samosa, patties), pastries, French fries; replacing traditional foods for lunch or dinner like roti, vegetable curry, bread, non-vegetarian items. Ready-to-eat foods are considered to give empty calories rather than a balanced diet. A study was undertaken to estimate ascorbic acid, folic acid, riboflavin, thiamine and beta-carotene of 263 cooked food samples and 260 meals representing dietary patterns of Asia, Africa, Europe, USA and Latin America by spectrophotometry and photoflurometry. A broad range of beta-carotene (84-2038 mcg%), riboflavin (0.01-0.48 mg%), thiamine (0.04-0.36 mg%), vitamin C (1-28 mg%) and folate (26-111 mcg%) was observed in individual foods. Bakery products and sweets were found to be poor sources and green leafy vegetables and fruits were good sources of these five vitamins. The differences between ready-to-eat foods and meals consumed during lunch or dinner were prominent for beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, riboflavin and folic acid (P consumption. PMID:11951583

Agte, Vaishali; Tarwadi, Kirtan; Mengale, Sangeeta; Hinge, Ashwini; Chiplonkar, Shashi

2002-05-01

122

Relations between parental mealtime practices and children's food intake.  

Science.gov (United States)

The food intake of children aged 3-7 years was related to selected parental and child mealtime behaviours from video recordings of meals in 50 Swedish families and a 7-day weighed record of dietary intake from 39 of these. The children's mean intakes of fat and sucrose were relatively high (23% of energy from sugar-rich snacks) and their energy intake and number of meals were evenly distributed over the day. No relationship between energy intake and overweight was found. Children spent 50% of the total mealtime eating. One-third of all child mealtime behaviours were verbal. Most parental behaviours were verbal with negative, non-eating statements about the child being very common and negatively correlated with child energy intake. The child's energy intake was positively correlated with the child taking food on recommendation by the parent. The results indicate parental influences on children's eating which may have implications for the development of food preferences and overweight in childhood. PMID:7979342

Koivisto, U K; Fellenius, J; Sjödén, P O

1994-06-01

123

A survey of current ostrich handling and transport practices in North America with reference to ostrich welfare and transportation guidelines set up in other countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Appropriate management of an ostrich's exposure to stressors during preslaughter handling and transport practices can improve its well-being and product quality. Because of the lack of information about ostrich farming and transportation in North America and lack of developed Codes of Practice for ratite transport in Canada and the United States, the first objective of our research was to identify current preslaughter handling and transport practices of the ostrich industry in Canada and the United States, and to identify potential welfare issues based on the current practices. The second objective of this research was to review ostrich transport welfare standards and guidelines from Australia, European Union, New Zealand, and South Africa to investigate if those guidelines are applicable to Canadian and American ostrich production systems. Preliminary producer interviews, on-farm visits, and literature review information sources were used to design a producer questionnaire that was used to survey producers by Internet and mail surveying methods to identify existing ostrich transport norms in Canada and the United States. Based on the results of our producer survey and review of the transport standards and guidelines, we conclude that following factors are potential ostrich handling and transport welfare issues in Canada and the United States: lack of scientific information about welfare of ostriches during handling and transport; unfamiliarity of handlers and birds with handling and transport practices; not considering birds' social bounds, sex, behavior, and physical state in mixing them during handling and transport process; lack of an established specific maximum water and feed withdrawal duration for ostrich transport in Canada and the United States; lack of a specific vehicle designed for ratite transportation in Canada and the United States considering different physical body characteristics of ostriches compared with other species; exposure of birds to natural light during transport inside the trailer; overcrowding; and long transportation in Canada and the United States. Results of this research will contribute toward developing Codes of Practice for preslaughter handling, transportation, and slaughter of ostriches in Canada and the United States. PMID:24570450

Bejaei, M; Cheng, K M

2014-02-01

124

Health claims in the labelling and marketing of food products:: the Swedish food sector's Code of Practice in a European perspective  

OpenAIRE

Since 1990 certain health claims in the labelling and marketing of food products have been allowed in Sweden within the food sector's Code of Practice. The rules were developed in close dialogue with the authorities. The legal basis was a decision by the authorities not to apply the medicinal products’ legislation to “foods normally found on the dinner table” provided the rules defined in the Code were followed. The Code of Practice lists nine well-established diet–health relationship...

Asp, Nils-georg; Bryngelsson, Susanne

2007-01-01

125

Food safety knowledge and practice among elderly people living at home  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To assess the food storage knowledge and practice of elderly people living at home. METHODS: Three phase survey data collection: face to face interviews; dietary diaries with a food frequency questionnaire; and follow up interviews. SETTING: Urban Nottingham. PARTICIPANTS: 809 elderly people (aged 65+) randomly selected from general practitioner lists. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Respondent's refrigerator temperature; knowledge of freezer star rating; understanding of "use by" and...

Johnson, A. E.; Donkin, A. J.; Morgan, K.; Lilley, J. M.; Neale, R. J.; Page, R. M.; Silburn, R.

1998-01-01

126

"Our" food versus "my" food. Investigating the relation between childhood shared food practices and adult prosocial behavior in Belgium.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on the connection between prosocial behavior, defined as acting in ways that benefit others, and shared meals, defined as meals that consist of food(s) shared with others. In contrast to individual meals, where consumers eat their own food and perhaps take a sample of someone else's dish as a taste, shared meals are essentially about sharing all the food with all individuals. Consequently, these meals create situations where consumers are confronted with issues of fairness and respect. One should not be greedy and consume most of a dish; instead, rules of polite food sharing need to be obeyed. It is therefore proposed that those who have often engaged in shared meals during childhood will have a more prosocial personality, as compared to those who less often took part in shared meals during childhood. To test this hypothesis, data about frequency of shared meals during childhood and altruistic personality in early adulthood were collected using a cross-sectional survey in Belgium (n?=?487). Results confirm that higher levels of shared meal consumption correspond to higher scores on the self-report altruism scale among students. PMID:25265154

De Backer, Charlotte J S; Fisher, Maryanne L; Poels, Karolien; Ponnet, Koen

2015-01-01

127

Food safety knowledge and practice by the stages of change model in school children  

OpenAIRE

In this study, 342 grade 4-6 elementary school students in Gyeonggi-do were recruited to determine their readiness to change food safety behavior and to compare their food safety knowledge and practices by the stages of change. The subjects were divided into three stages of change; the percentage of stage 1 (precontemplation) was 10.1%, the percentage of stage 2 (contemplation and preparation) was 62.4%, and that of stage 3 (action and maintenance) was 27.5%. Food safety knowledge scores in s...

Kang, Nam-e; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Young Soon; Ha, Ae Wha

2010-01-01

128

Oral Immunotherapy for Treatment of Immunoglobulin E-Mediated Food Allergy: The Transition to Clinical Practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Today, there is neither an effective nor an active treatment for food allergy. Allergy immunotherapy has been proposed as an attractive strategy to actively treat food allergy. Oral immunotherapy (OIT), also known as oral desensitization, is a method of inducing the body's immune system to tolerate a food that causes an allergic overreaction. It has been studied for the use in treatment of immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy to the most common foods, including milk, egg, and peanut. OIT has been able to desensitize subjects to varying degrees. However, many questions remain unanswered, including efficient formulation, optimal dosing, and induction protocol to achieve full tolerance, transition of OIT to clinical practice, and maximal safety profile. This review focuses on the use of OIT as a new and active treatment for food allergy. The possibility of transition of OIT to clinical practice represents, in this field, the next pivotal step with the goal of improving the quality of life of patients with food allergy and their families. PMID:24963452

Pajno, Giovanni B; Cox, Linda; Caminiti, Lucia; Ramistella, Vincenzo; Crisafulli, Giuseppe

2014-06-01

129

Food webs: a ladder for picking strawberries or a practical tool for practical problems?  

OpenAIRE

While food webs have provided a rich vein of research material over the last 50 years, they have largely been the subject matter of the pure ecologist working in natural habitats. While there are some notable exceptions to this trend, there are, as I explain in this paper, many applied questions that could be answered using a food web approach. The paper is divided into two halves. The first half provides a brief review of six areas where food webs have begun to be used as an applied tool: re...

Memmott, Jane

2009-01-01

130

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

131

A Study of impact of Education on Awareness, Personal Hygiene and Practices of food handlers of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kashmir, India  

OpenAIRE

Background Each year 9.4 million people suffer from food borne diseases throughout the world; everyday cases related to food borne diseases are recorded in all countries from the most to the least developed ones. A major risk of food contamination lies with the food handlers.Several food borne disease outbreaks have been reported to have been associated with poor personal hygiene of people handling food stuffs. Method A questionnaire was structured for the purpose of data collection to find ...

Hina; Ma, Wani; Rehana K; Jan Farooq; Pandita K.K

2013-01-01

132

Kitchen safety in hospitals: practices and knowledge of food handlers in istanbul, Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to identify the practices and knowledge of food handlers about workplace safety in hospital kitchens (four on-premises and eight off-premises) in Istanbul. A kitchen safety knowledge questionnaire was administered and a kitchen safety checklist was completed by dietitians. The mean total scores of the on-premise and off-premise hospital kitchens were 32.7 ± 8.73 and 37.0 ± 9.87, respectively. The mean scores for the items about machinery tools, electricity, gas, and fire were lower in off-premise than on-premise hospital kitchen workers. The kitchen safety knowledge questionnaire had five subsections; 43.7% of the food handlers achieved a perfect score. Significant differences were found in the knowledge of food handlers working in both settings about preventing slips and falls (p safety knowledge of the food handlers (p < .05). [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(10):415-420.]. PMID:25207588

Ercan, Aydan; Kiziltan, Gul

2014-10-01

133

Food Sanitation and Safety Self-Assessment Instrument for School Nutrition Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Like food-service establishments, child nutrition programs are responsible for preserving the quality and wholesomeness of food. Proper food-handling practices prevent contamination and job-related accidents. Application of the evaluation instrument presented in this document to individual programs helps to define proper practices, assess the…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

134

A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

2014-01-01

135

Best Practices for Serving Students with Special Food and/or Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research project was to identify goals and establish best practices for school nutrition (SN) programs that serve students with special food and/or nutrition needs based on the four practice categories identified in previous National Food Service Management Institute, Applied Research Division (NFSMI, ARD)…

Castillo, Alexandra; Carr, Deborah; Nettles, Mary Frances

2010-01-01

136

Investigation of Food Acceptability and Feeding Practices for Lipid Nutrient Supplements and Blended Flours Used to Treat Moderate Malnutrition  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To examine acceptability and feeding practices associated with different supplementary food items and identify practices associated with weight gain. Methods: Caregivers (n = 409) whose children had been enrolled in a trial comparing a fortified corn-soy blended flour (CSB++), soy ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF), and soy/whey…

Wang, Richard J.; Trehan, Indi; LaGrone, Lacey N.; Weisz, Ariana J.; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M.; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Manary, Mark J.

2013-01-01

137

Focus Group Studies on Food Safety Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practices of School-Going Adolescent Girls in South India  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To understand food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices of adolescent girls. Design: Focus group discussions (FGDs) with 32 groups selected using stratified random sampling. Setting: Four South Indian states. Participants: Adolescent girls (10-19 years). Phenomena of Interest: Food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices.…

Gavaravarapu, Subba Rao M.; Vemula, Sudershan R.; Rao, Pratima; Mendu, Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Polasa, Kalpagam

2009-01-01

138

Practice for dosimetry in gamma irradiation facilities for food processing. 2. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This practice outlines the installation qualification program for an irradiator and the dosimetric procedures to be followed during operational qualification, performance qualification, and routine processing in facilities that process food with ionizing radiation from radionuclide gamma sources to ensure that product has been treated within a predetermined range of absorbed dose. Other procedures related to operational qualification, performance qualification, and routine processing that may influence absorbed dose in the product are also discussed. Information about effective or regulatory dose limits for food products is not within the scope of this practice (see ASTM Guides F 1355, F 1356, F 1736, and F 1885). This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use

139

Codex general standard for irradiated foods and recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission was established to implement the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. The purpose of this programme is to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. At its 15th session, held in July 1983, the Commission adopted a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and a Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods. This Standard takes into account the recommendations and conclusions of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committees convened to evaluate all available data concerning the various aspects of food irradiation. This Standard refers only to those aspects which relate to the processing of foods by ionising energy. The Standard recognizes that the process of food irradiation has been established as safe for general application to an overall average level of absorbed dose of 10 kGy. The latter value should not be regarded as a toxicological upper limit above which irradiated foods become unsafe; it is simply the level at or below which safety has been established. The Standard provides certain mandatory provisions concerning the facilities used and for the control of the process in the irradiation plants. The present Standard requires that shipping documents accompanying irradiated foods moving in trade should indicate the fact of irradiation. The labelling of prepackaged irradiated foods intended for direct sale to the cod foods intended for direct sale to the consumer is not covered in this Standard

140

Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially. PMID:21192997

Hjelmar, Ulf

2011-04-01

141

The Social Determinants of Food Purchasing Practices: Who Chooses Price-before-Health, Taste-before-Price or Organic Foods in Australia?  

OpenAIRE

A survey of the extent to which cost, taste and health considerations impact food purchasing practices in Australia was conducted. Data were gathered from a national computer assisted telephone survey of 1109 randomly sampled house- holders and analysed using multiple logistic regression analysis. 88% of respondents considered the taste of food before its price, with females and people on higher incomes more likely to do so. 52% of respondents said that they considered the price of food befor...

John Coveney; Meyer, Samantha B.; Taylor, Anne W.; Julie Henderson; Loreen Mamerow; Ward, Paul R.

2012-01-01

142

Impact of Media and Education on Food Practices in Urban Area of Varanasi  

OpenAIRE

Background: Currently food malpractices are increasing in various metro cities of India and all the measures taken by agencies are failed to detect rapidly and many times it becomes late when the adulteration is detected. Worst scenario is the adulteration of some branded items of the children’s and in the women’s use such as milk cheese, ghee and oils. Therefore, Study for food practices and safety measures was done in selected area of Varanasi which was also validated by the wetlab meth...

Bhatt Shuchi R, Bhatt Sheeendra M.

2012-01-01

143

The Social Determinants of Food Purchasing Practices: Who Chooses Price-before-Health, Taste-before-Price or Organic Foods in Australia?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of the extent to which cost, taste and health considerations impact food purchasing practices in Australia was conducted. Data were gathered from a national computer assisted telephone survey of 1109 randomly sampled house- holders and analysed using multiple logistic regression analysis. 88% of respondents considered the taste of food before its price, with females and people on higher incomes more likely to do so. 52% of respondents said that they considered the price of food before its health and nutritional benefits, with males, younger people and people with lower educa- tional qualifications more likely to do so. 49% said that they purchase organic food, with people with 1 child, full-time employed and people never married more likely to do so. Overall, gender, income, education, work status, age and family size are all important predictors of food purchasing practices in Australia.

John Coveney

2012-04-01

144

Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant and Aboriginal women in Canada: a study protocol  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to unders...

Ma, Higginbottom Gina; Vallianatos Helen; Forgeron Joan; Gibbons Donna; Malhi Rebecca; Mamede Fabiana

2011-01-01

145

Eat this, not that! Parental demographic correlates of food-related parenting practices  

OpenAIRE

To understand how parents of adolescents attempt to regulate their children’s eating behaviors, the prevalence of specific food-related parenting practices (restriction, pressure-to-eat) by sociodemographic characteristics (parent gender, race/ethnicity, education level, employment status, and household income) were examined within a population-based sample of parents (n=3709) of adolescents. Linear regression models were fit to estimate the association between parent sociodemographic chara...

Loth, Katie A.; Maclehose, Richard F.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Crow, Scott; Neumark-sztainer, Dianne

2012-01-01

146

Do We Care about What We Buy or Eat? A Practical Study of the Healthy Foods Eaten by Jordanian Youth  

OpenAIRE

Scholars and practitioners have taken a deep interest in the food choice of young Jordanians and found that it hasbeen influenced by a variety of determinants that affect consumers of what they buy and eat. Such determinantshave not tested practically from scholars within the Jordanian market context. By reviewing large numbers of foodchoice studies, four factors are found essential and chosen to be investigated practically which are: food products’availability, cost, benefit and sensory ap...

Muhammad Turki Alshurideh

2014-01-01

147

Collaborative research: Development of a manual on elasmobranch handling and release best practices in tropical tuna purse-seine fisheries  

OpenAIRE

The reduction of by-catch mortality is an objective of the ecosystem approach to fisheries and a request made by consumers. Elasmobranchs, an important component of the French tropical tuna purse seine fishery by-catch, are currently thrown back into the sea. Fishers interact with various types of elasmobranchs that range widely in size, weight and shape, and could pose various degrees of danger to the crew. A diversity of discarding practices within the fleet were reported, some practices we...

Poisson, Francois; Seret, Bernard; Vernet, Anne-lise; Goujon, Michel; Dagorn, Laurent

2014-01-01

148

Identifying Practical Solutions to Meet America’s Fiber Needs: Proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the “Food & Fiber Summit,” which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber’s role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap. PMID:25006857

Mobley, Amy R.; Jones, Julie Miller; Rodriguez, Judith; Slavin, Joanne; Zelman, Kathleen M.

2014-01-01

149

Farming practices change food web structures in cereal aphid-parasitoid-hyperparasitoid communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural intensification has been shown to result in a decline in biodiversity across many taxa, but the changes in community structure and species interactions remain little understood. We have analysed and compared the structure of feeding interactions for cereal aphids and their primary and secondary parasitoids in organically and conventionally managed winter wheat fields using quantitative food web metrics (interaction evenness, generality, vulnerability, link density). Despite little variation in the richness of each trophic group, food web structures between the two farming systems differed remarkably. In contrast to common expectations, aphids and primary parasitoids were characterized by (1) a higher evenness of interaction frequencies (interaction evenness) in conventional fields, which cascaded to interactions at the next trophic level, with (2) a higher interaction evenness, (3) a higher ratio of primary parasitoid taxa per secondary parasitoid (generality) and (4) a higher link density. Aphid communities in the organically managed fields almost exclusively consisted of a single ear-colonizing species, Sitobion avenae, while highly fertilized conventional fields were mainly infested by leaf-colonizing aphids that benefit from the nutritional status of winter wheat. In conclusion, agricultural intensification appears to foster the complexity of aphid-parasitoid food webs, thereby not supporting the general expectation on the importance of organic farming practices for species richness and food web complexity. PMID:22736196

Lohaus, Katharina; Vidal, Stefan; Thies, Carsten

2013-01-01

150

Radiation processing of food and allied products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

151

Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant and Aboriginal women in Canada: a study protocol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to understand ethnocultural food and health practices of Aboriginal and immigrant women, and how these intersect with respect to the legacy of Aboriginal colonialism and to the social contexts of cultural adaptation and adjustment of immigrants. The findings will inform the development of visual tools for health promotion by practitioners. Methods/Design This four-phase study employs a case study design allowing for multiple means of data collection and different units of analysis. Phase 1 consists of a scoping review of the literature. Phases 2 and 3 incorporate pictorial representations of food choices (photovoice in Phase 2 with semi-structured photo-elicited interviews (in Phase 3. The findings from Phases 1-3 and consultations with key stakeholders will generate key understandings for Phase 4, the production of culturally appropriate visual tools. For the scoping review, an emerging methodological framework will be utilized in addition to systematic review guidelines. A research librarian will assist with the search strategy and retrieval of literature. For Phases 2 and 3, recruitment of 20-24 women will be facilitated by team member affiliations at perinatal clinics in one of the city's most diverse neighbourhoods. The interviews will reveal culturally normative practices surrounding maternal food choices and consumption, including how women negotiate these practices within their own worldview and experiences. A structured and comprehensive integrated knowledge translation plan has been formulated. Discussion The findings of this study will provide practitioners with an understanding of the cultural differences that affect women's dietary choices during maternity. We expect that the developed resources will be of immediate use within the women's units and will enhance counseling efforts. Wide dissemination of outputs may have a greater long term impact in the primary and secondary prevention of these high risk conditions.

Higginbottom Gina MA

2011-12-01

152

Evaluation of the safety of domestic food preparation in Malaysia.  

OpenAIRE

Food-handling practices were studied in 119 and 158 households, respectively, in an urban and a rural community in Peninsular Malaysia. Hazard analyses, including microbiological analysis of foods, were carried out in two households in each community and in a house that prepared food for distribution in the urban area. Kitchen hygiene was generally acceptable, although rated "poor" in some instances in the rural area. Food prepared for lunch was usually sufficient for dinner also, the leftove...

Desmarchelier, P. M.; Apiwathnasorn, C.; Vilainerun, D.; Watson, C.; Johari, M. R.; Ahmad, Z.; Barnes, A.

1994-01-01

153

Educação alimentar e nutricional no contexto da promoção de práticas alimentares saudáveis Food and nutrition education in the context of promoting healthy food practices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo fazer uma reflexão sobre a educação alimentar e nutricional no contexto da promoção das práticas alimentares saudáveis, apontada como importante estratégia para enfrentar os novos desafios no campo da saúde, alimentação e nutrição. O ponto de partida é a análise de publicações oficiais e documentos recentes do governo brasileiro que norteiam as políticas nesse campo. Embora a relevância da educação alimentar e nutricional seja reconhecida nesse contexto, poucas referências são feitas a ela no que tange à delimitação dos seus limites e possibilidades, como também sobre os elementos que norteiam a sua prática. Os documentos indicam que o objetivo das propostas educativas em alimentação e nutrição é mais subsidiar os indíviduos com informações adequadas, corretas e consistentes sobre alimentos, alimentação e prevenção de problemas nutricionais do que os auxiliar na tomada de decisões. Dessa forma, cresce a importância dos campos da informação e da comunicação, nos quais se enfatizam as estratégias de produção, circulação e controle das informações referentes à alimentação e nutrição, em detrimento das estratégias da educação alimentar e nutricional. Os dois campos parecem se confundir. Argumenta-se, no entanto, que embora os campos do acesso à informação e à comunicação sejam de extrema relevância, eles não são suficientes para a construção de práticas alimentares saudáveis. Assim, urge uma reflexão sobre as bases da educação alimentar e nutricional no contexto que se configura e as possibilidades de sua contribuição.This article deals with food and nutrition education in the context of promoting healthy food practices, considered as an important strategy to face the challenges of health, food and nutrition problems. An analysis of official publications about food and nutrition policies was the starting point. It concluded that food and nutrition education was recognised as important in this context, but there were few references to the delimitation of its limits and possibilities or to the elements directing such practices. The documents indicated that the aim of the proposals for education in food and nutrition were centred more on giving adequate information about food, nutrition and prevention of nutrition problems than on helping people take decisions. Thus there has been an increase in the importance of the information and communication fields with respect to strategies for the production, circulation and control of information about food and nutrition, in detriment of food and nutrition education. In fact, the two fields appear to be mixed. It is argued that although the access to information and communication is very relevant, this is not enough to construct healthy food practices. Therefore, it is essential to reflect on the bases of food and nutrition education in this context as well as the possibilities for its contribution.

Ligia Amparo da Silva Santos

2005-10-01

154

Educação alimentar e nutricional no contexto da promoção de práticas alimentares saudáveis / Food and nutrition education in the context of promoting healthy food practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo fazer uma reflexão sobre a educação alimentar e nutricional no contexto da promoção das práticas alimentares saudáveis, apontada como importante estratégia para enfrentar os novos desafios no campo da saúde, alimentação e nutrição. O ponto de partida é a análise de pu [...] blicações oficiais e documentos recentes do governo brasileiro que norteiam as políticas nesse campo. Embora a relevância da educação alimentar e nutricional seja reconhecida nesse contexto, poucas referências são feitas a ela no que tange à delimitação dos seus limites e possibilidades, como também sobre os elementos que norteiam a sua prática. Os documentos indicam que o objetivo das propostas educativas em alimentação e nutrição é mais subsidiar os indíviduos com informações adequadas, corretas e consistentes sobre alimentos, alimentação e prevenção de problemas nutricionais do que os auxiliar na tomada de decisões. Dessa forma, cresce a importância dos campos da informação e da comunicação, nos quais se enfatizam as estratégias de produção, circulação e controle das informações referentes à alimentação e nutrição, em detrimento das estratégias da educação alimentar e nutricional. Os dois campos parecem se confundir. Argumenta-se, no entanto, que embora os campos do acesso à informação e à comunicação sejam de extrema relevância, eles não são suficientes para a construção de práticas alimentares saudáveis. Assim, urge uma reflexão sobre as bases da educação alimentar e nutricional no contexto que se configura e as possibilidades de sua contribuição. Abstract in english This article deals with food and nutrition education in the context of promoting healthy food practices, considered as an important strategy to face the challenges of health, food and nutrition problems. An analysis of official publications about food and nutrition policies was the starting point. I [...] t concluded that food and nutrition education was recognised as important in this context, but there were few references to the delimitation of its limits and possibilities or to the elements directing such practices. The documents indicated that the aim of the proposals for education in food and nutrition were centred more on giving adequate information about food, nutrition and prevention of nutrition problems than on helping people take decisions. Thus there has been an increase in the importance of the information and communication fields with respect to strategies for the production, circulation and control of information about food and nutrition, in detriment of food and nutrition education. In fact, the two fields appear to be mixed. It is argued that although the access to information and communication is very relevant, this is not enough to construct healthy food practices. Therefore, it is essential to reflect on the bases of food and nutrition education in this context as well as the possibilities for its contribution.

Ligia Amparo da Silva, Santos.

2005-10-01

155

Limited evidence that competitive food and beverage practices affect adolescent consumption behaviors. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity is emerging as a considerable public health problem with no clear antidote. The school food environment is a potential intervention point for policy makers, with competitive food and beverage regulation as a possible policy lever. This research examines the link between competitive food and beverage availability in school and adolescent consumption patterns using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999.

156

Do We Care about What We Buy or Eat? A Practical Study of the Healthy Foods Eaten by Jordanian Youth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scholars and practitioners have taken a deep interest in the food choice of young Jordanians and found that it hasbeen influenced by a variety of determinants that affect consumers of what they buy and eat. Such determinantshave not tested practically from scholars within the Jordanian market context. By reviewing large numbers of foodchoice studies, four factors are found essential and chosen to be investigated practically which are: food products’availability, cost, benefit and sensory appeal. Quantitative analysis approach has been used in this study to collectthe suitable data. Convenience sampling and regression analysis was employed to test the hypotheses. Additionalexplanations can be found of how the hypotheses have been developed and tested.Results indicated that the main healthy food products choice and purchase determinants are food availability, foodcost, benefits and sensory appeal. Additional explanation of data collection methods, analysis and findings can befound in more details.

Muhammad Turki Alshurideh

2014-03-01

157

Travelling People, Travelling Plants: An Exploration into Food-Plant Practice among Bengali Women across Transnational and Generational Landscapes  

OpenAIRE

The flow of people between urban Britain and rural Bangladesh is longstanding and continuous. In addition to people; food, plants and seeds are transported between the countries. The exchanges are both practical and highly symbolic processes and while transnational in nature have a significant impact at a local level in both places. The PhD thesis explores the nature of food and plant exchange between Sylhet (Northeastern Bangladesh) and the UK among women at a household level, how these tran...

Jennings, H. M.

2014-01-01

158

Food Safety Practices Assessment Tool: An Innovative Way to Test Food Safety Skills among Individuals with Special Needs  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes an innovative assessment tool designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a food safety skills curriculum for learners receiving special education services. As schools respond to the increased demand for training students with special needs about food safety, the need for effective curricula and tools is also increasing. A…

Carbone, Elena T.; Scarpati, Stanley E.; Pivarnik, Lori F.

2013-01-01

159

What does it mean to be a 'picky eater'? A qualitative study of food related identities and practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Picky eaters are defined as those who consume an inadequate variety of food through rejection of a substantial amount of food stuffs that are both familiar and unfamiliar. Picky eating is a relatively recent theoretical concept and while there is increasing concern within public health over the lack of diversity in some children's diets, adult picky eaters remain an under researched group. This paper reports on the findings of a qualitative study on the routine food choices and practices of 26 families in Sandwell, West Midlands, UK. Photo elicitation and go-along interview data collection methods were used to capture habitual food related behaviours and served to describe the practices of nine individuals who self identified or were described as picky eaters. A thematic analysis revealed that those with the food related identity of picky eater had very restricted diets and experienced strong emotional and physical reactions to certain foods. For some this could be a distressing and alienating experience that hindered their ability to engage in episodes of social eating. Further research is needed to illuminate the specific practices of adult picky eaters, how this impacts on their lives, and how possible interventions might seek to address the challenges they face. PMID:25450986

Thompson, Claire; Cummins, Steven; Brown, Tim; Kyle, Rosemary

2015-01-01

160

A practical approach to handling the uncertainty analysis in gamma spectroscopy with the software's Gamma Vision and Genie  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The national Swedish network of laboratories in emergency response and preparedness should provide with fast and reliable measurements. That is why these results should be given with a measure of its quality, which is the measurement uncertainty, as has been stated in several international standards. Many gamma spectroscopy software packages contain advance algorithms for calculation of the activity and its measurement uncertainty. They even include elements of quality assurance and quality control. Despite of that, not all sources of uncertainty are always taken into account. The two most used analysis software packages in the Swedish network of laboratories in emergency response are Gamma Vision from Ortec and Genie (with and without APEX) from Canberra. The purpose of this paper is to present two groups of practical evaluations of uncertainty components for the same kind of gamma-spectroscopy analysis, one that would suit Gamma Vision users and other for Genie users, including the Labsocs tool. The main idea is to profit as much as possible of the software capabilities and semi-manually add the contribution of uncertainty sources that are not been taken into account. The reports from both the software packages are modified so as to reflect the contribution of all sources of uncertainty into the reported relative combined uncertainty. The examples of gamma spectroscopy analysis are for samples of the same matrix and the different geometries foreseen in the context of emergency response by the Swedish emergency network. Together with the evaluation of the uncertainty components a review on the uncertainty propagation and the assumptions taken in each of the software packages is presented. (author)

161

Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players.

Pablo M. García-Rovés

2014-07-01

162

Survival or growth of inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on yellow onions (Allium cepa) under conditions simulating food service and consumer handling and storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whole and diced yellow onions (Allium cepa) were inoculated with five-strain cocktails of rifampin-resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella and stored under conditions to simulate food service or consumer handling. The inoculum was grown in broth (for both whole and diced onion experiments) or on agar plates (for whole onion experiments). Marked circles (3.3 cm in diameter) on the outer papery skin of whole onions were spot inoculated (10 ?l in 10 drops) at 7 log CFU per circle, and onions were stored at 4°C, 30 to 50 % relative humidity, or at ambient conditions (23°C, 30 to 50 % relative humidity). Diced onions were inoculated at 3 log CFU/g and then stored in open or closed containers at 4°C or ambient conditions. Previously inoculated and ambient-stored diced onions were also mixed 1:9 (wt/wt) with refrigerated uninoculated freshly diced onions and stored in closed containers at ambient conditions. Inoculated pathogens were recovered in 0.1 % peptone and plated onto selective and nonselective media supplemented with 50 ?g/ml rifampin. Both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella populations declined more rapidly on onion skins when the inoculum was prepared in broth rather than on agar. Agar-prepared E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella declined by 0.4 and 0.3 log CFU per sample per day, respectively, at ambient conditions; at 4°C the rates of reduction were 0.08 and 0.06 log CFU per sample per day for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, respectively. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella did not change over 6 days of storage at 4°C in diced onions. Lag times of 6 to 9 h were observed with freshly inoculated onion at ambient conditions; no lag was observed when previously inoculated and uninoculated onions were mixed. Growth rates at ambient conditions were 0.2 to 0.3 log CFU/g/h for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in freshly inoculated onion and 0.2 log CFU/g/h in mixed product. Diced onions support pathogen growth and should be kept refrigerated. PMID:25581176

Lieberman, Vanessa M; Zhao, Irene Y; Schaffner, Donald W; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J

2015-01-01

163

Droplet Handling  

Science.gov (United States)

When quantitative analysis or quantitative chemical synthesis is performed using a micrototal analysis system (microTAS), the technologies for precise metering, transporting, and mixing of droplets are required. In this chapter, several technologies for the handling of droplets are described. For metering, dispensing and transporting of droplets, pneumatic and electrokinetic forces are used. Separation of cells and particles is also performed by electrical operation. Other handling technique, such as ultrasonic or centrifugal force applications, are also reviewed. Robotic synthesis devices or high throughput screening devices are promising applications for these technologies.

Torii, Toru

164

Quality Early Education--Quality Food and Nutrition Practices? Some Initial Results from a Pilot Research Project into Food and Nutrition Practices in Early Years Settings in Kent, UK  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper draws upon work conducted as part of a research project into food and nutrition in the early years, and looks very specifically at the way in which practitioners in the field are both aware of current debates around such issues and how they put good policy into their practice. In drawing out such debates with practitioners, it also…

Alderton, Tony; Campbell-Barr, Verity

2005-01-01

165

Reflexões metodológicas para o estudo das práticas alimentares / Methodological approaches on the studies of food practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A alimentação humana, envolvendo aspectos psicológicos, fisiológicos e socioculturais, é um fenômeno de grande complexidade e, em assim sendo, o estudo das práticas alimentares tem suscitado o desenvolvimento de instrumentos e métodos no interior de várias disciplinas. Neste artigo, que apresenta a [...] alimentação humana sob abordagem da Sociologia e da Antropologia, definem-se as diferentes dimensões do espaço social alimentar, desde o registro do consumo alimentar até os processos de diferenciação social envolvendo as formas de cozinhar, as formas de consumir e a temporalidade. Analisam-se os diferentes tipos de dados que podem ser utilizados, tomando-se o cuidado de distinguir os dados comportamentais (que podem ser obtidos tanto pela observação quanto pela declaração) dos dados de representação. Apresentam-se, em seguida, os diferentes instrumentos de coleta e as vias de entrada no fenômeno alimentar. Esses instrumentos metodológicos, construídos no interior de um quadro teórico-sociológico, são propostos aos pesquisadores da área, objetivando a construção de uma possível visão comum, que proporcione uma abordagem pluridisciplinar do fato alimentar. Abstract in english Human nutrition is a very complex phenomenon as it invites at the same time the physiology, the psychology and the socio-cultural. That's also why food practice measures have caused the development of tools and methodologies within several disciplines. This article presents the approach of sociology [...] and anthropology. It defines first of all the different dimensions of the social food space; from the eatable order to the process of social differentiation via the culinary, the consumption forms and the temporality. It analyses in detail the data types which can be used taking care in distinguishing the behavioural data that can be obtained either by observation or by declaration from the representation data. It presents the different collect tools and the ways of entry in the food phenomenon. These methodological tools built within a sociological theoretical framing are proposed to the researchers engaged in the study of the food facts so as to walk towards a pooling likely to result on a multi-field approach.

Jean-Pierre, Poulain; Rossana Pacheco da Costa, Proença.

2003-12-01

166

Allergist-reported trends in the practice of food allergen oral immunotherapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food allergen oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an experimental, immune-modifying therapy that may induce clinical desensitization in some patients. OIT is still in early phase clinical research, but some providers may offer OIT as a clinical service. To understand the current practices of allergists who perform OIT, an online survey was sent by e-mail to members of the American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology. Among 442 respondents, 61 reported participating in using OIT (13.8%), including 28 in nonacademic settings. Informed consent for OIT was obtained by 91.3%, institutional review board approval by 47.7% and Investigational New Drug approval by 38.1%. Compared with nonacademic participants, more academic participants used peanut OIT, obtained institutional review board and Investigational New Drug (P OIT as a service. Significant differences exist with OITs that occur in academic versus nonacademic settings. Further assessment is needed regarding the different motivations and practice styles among providers who offer OIT and those who are considering doing so. PMID:25577615

Greenhawt, Matthew J; Vickery, Brian P

2015-01-01

167

Vegan Killjoys at the Table—Contesting Happiness and Negotiating Relationships with Food Practices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reports upon research on vegan transition, which I bring into dialogue with Sara Ahmed’s figure of the killjoy. Ahmed’s work on affect and the feminist killjoy is found to be apt for considering contemporary vegans and their transgression of normative scripts of happiness and commensality in a dominant meat and dairy consuming culture. The decentring of joy and happiness is also found to be integral to the critical deconstructive work of the vegan killjoy. Ahmed’s ideas further complement the frame of practice theory that I draw upon to understand the process of transition especially in the sense of opposing the meanings of dominant practices. Although food and veganism are not commented upon by Ahmed, the vegan subject constitutes, I argue, a potent further example of what she terms an “affect alien” who must willfully struggle against a dominant affective order and community. Drawing upon interviews with 40 vegans based in the UK, I illustrate examples of contestation and negotiation by vegans and those close to them. The article finds in the figure of the killjoy not only a frame by which to partly understand the negotiation of relationships between vegans and non-vegans but also an opportunity for further intersectional labour between veganism and feminism.

Richard Twine

2014-11-01

168

Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association With Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision  

OpenAIRE

Purpose:?Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for nutrition and medical service provision to this population.?Design and Methods:?In-home interviews and oral examinations were conducted with 635 adul...

Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2009-01-01

169

[Permanence of the piamontese culture on food practices in third generation descendants in Piamonte (Province of Santa Fe, Argentina)].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the influence of the piemontese culture on food practices of students living in Piamonte, Santa Fe, Argentina. Food practices of 96 students with Piamontese ancestry (PA) (n = 57) and without Piamontese ancestry (No-PA) (n = 39) were studied along 2002 using a self-administered questionnare. Data were analysed by Chi square test, Fisher's exact test, multiple correspondance analysis and logistic regression. Consumption of bagna cauda (p < 0.05) and polenta (p < 0.1) were higher among PA. Differences on the elaboration of polenta and pasta were found: PA add them cheese (p < 0.05) and cream (p < 0.05) whereas no-PA make use of meat (p < 0.05) and tomato sauce (p < 0.05), respectively. The frequency of consumption of traditional Piamontese meals and the role of the mother in the purchase, the elaboration and the serving of the food were similar on both groups. In conclusion, food practices of Piamontese's descendants recall the food culture of their ancestry with some reasonable adaptations to the local context. PMID:16211993

Andreatta, María M; Muñoz, Sonia E; Navarro, Alicia

2004-01-01

170

What Bacteria Are Living in My Food?: An Open-Ended Practical Series Involving Identification of Unknown Foodborne Bacteria Using Molecular Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

This open-ended practical series titled "Molecular Identification of Unknown Food Bacteria" which extended over a 6-week period was designed with the aims of giving students an opportunity to gain an understanding of naturally occurring food bacteria and skills in contemporary molecular methods using real food samples. The students first isolated…

Prasad, Prascilla; Turner, Mark S.

2011-01-01

171

Radiation technology for value addition to food and agro commodities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

172

Radiation processing of food and agricultural commodities: opportunities and challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while eliminating post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy can play a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

173

Neofobias Alimentares: importância na prática clínica / Food neophobia: importance in clinical practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: Revisão da evidência científica do tema Neofobias Alimentares (NA), focando os aspetos mais importantes da sua aplicação na prática clínica. Métodos de revisão: Pesquisa bibliográfica da literatura em Inglês e Português, de Janeiro de 2001 a Fevereiro de 2012 através da Medline/Pubmed, sít [...] ios de Medicina Baseada na Evidência e livros de texto de Fisiologia. Resultados: O termo NA define-se como uma relutância na aceitação de novos sabores. O gosto por certos alimentos é um processo complexo que se inicia no útero, continua com o aleitamento e permanece pela vida fora. Embora exista influência de fatores genéticos, estes podem ser influenciados por exposições precoces e repetidas aos diferentes sabores, o que irá modular o paladar e diminuir o risco de patologias futuras, nomeadamente obesidade infantil. A janela para habituação aos sabores é estreita e a rejeição de alimentos introduzidos após os quatro anos é maior. A aceitação de um novo sabor até aos cinco anos necessita frequentemente de 10 a 15 exposições repetidas. As emoções, aspetos sociais e processos digestivos, são fatores influenciadores da aquisição do gosto. Conclusões: As preferências gustativas são muito estáveis e podem durar toda a vida, pelo que devemos dar uma especial atenção às crianças e pais no processo de “educação do gosto”. Ao dar à criança alguns alimentos preferidos juntamente com os novos alimentos e ao manter a calma para as neofobias temporárias, talvez seja a chave para o desenvolvimento das preferências gustativas. Reforços negativos, nomeadamente pressões, devem ser evitados, devendo-se valorizar os reforços positivos. Abstract in english Objective: To review the scientific evidence of the theme Food Neophobias (FN), focus on the most important aspects of their application in clinical practice. Review methods: A systematic review was performed for papers published between January 2001 to February 2012, in Portuguese/English, in the m [...] edical databases Medline/Pubmed, Cochrane Library, National Guideline Clearinghouse, evidence-based medicine sites and Physiology text books. Results: The term FN is defined as a reluctant acceptance of new flavours. The taste for certain foods is a complex process that begins in utero, continues during breastfeeding and remains throughout life. Although there is an influence of genetic factors, these can be contradicted by early and repeated exposure to different flavours, which will modulate the taste and will reduce the risk of future diseases, including childhood obesity. As the window for habituation to new flavours is thin, the rejection of foods introduced after four years is higher. The acceptance of a new flavour up to five years often requires 10 to 15 repeated exposures. Emotions, social aspects and digestive processes, are factors that influence the acquisition of taste. Conclusions: The gustatory preferences are very stable and can follow up lifelong and we should pay particular attention to children and parents in the “taste education” process. By giving the child some favourite foods with new foods and to stay calm for temporary neophobias, may be the key to the development of taste preferences. The negative reinforcement, such pressures, should be avoided, and the positive reinforcement should be implemented.

Ana Isabel, Silva; Andreia, Teles.

2013-09-01

174

Safe handling of tritium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance and recommendations on operational radiation protection aspects related to the safe handling of tritium in laboratories, industrial-scale nuclear facilities such as heavy-water reactors, tritium removal plants and fission fuel reprocessing plants, and facilities for manufacturing commercial tritium-containing devices and radiochemicals. The requirements of nuclear fusion reactors are not addressed specifically, since there is as yet no tritium handling experience with them. However, much of the material covered is expected to be relevant to them as well. Annex III briefly addresses problems in the comparatively small-scale use of tritium at universities, medical research centres and similar establishments. However, the main subject of this publication is the handling of larger quantities of tritium. Operational aspects include designing for tritium safety, safe handling practice, the selection of tritium-compatible materials and equipment, exposure assessment, monitoring, contamination control and the design and use of personal protective equipment. This publication does not address the technologies involved in tritium control and cleanup of effluents, tritium removal, or immobilization and disposal of tritium wastes, nor does it address the environmental behaviour of tritium. Refs, figs and tabs

175

Popularising right food and feeding practices in Spain (1847-1950): The handbooks of domestic economy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to analyze a sample of domestic economy handbooks in order to assess the popularization of correct food and feeding practices in Spain between 1847 and 1950. With this contribution, we wish to evaluate another factor that would influence the Spanish food transition. We are a [...] ware that this is a very indirect source, given the high levels of illiteracy among women in Spain during the last third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. A further factor to be considered is the low proportion of girls attending school. We have analyzed the handbooks published in three periods. The first ranges from the last third of the 19th century to the first decade of the 20th. These handbooks are considered in order to provide background for a comparison with the works published from 1900 onwards. The second period focuses on the 1920s and the 1930s. The last period covers the handbooks published after the Civil War under the monopoly of the Sección Femenina (women's section of the Falange). Over the years under consideration, recommendations underwent a progressive modification from the very simple leaflets used in the 19th century to the introduction of scientific factors into the teaching of domestic economy. The work of Rosa Sensat represented the beginnings of this trend. A further modernizing factor was the appearance of vitamins in some of the handbooks. After the war, the number of handbooks decreased and they were, in general, very poor. If we consider the content on vitamins, there was a lack or shortage of information in comparison with some of the books published in the same period outside the monopoly of the Sección Femenina. In conclusion, we can state that the repetition of recommendations on good feeding habits and the increase in girls attending school would exert a positive influence on the food transition of the Spanish population.

Enrique, Perdiguero-Gil; Ramón, Castejón-Bolea.

176

Developing a Multicomponent Model of Nutritious Food Access and Related Implications for Community and Policy Practice  

OpenAIRE

Access to nutritious foods is limited in disenfranchised communities in the United States. Policies are beginning to focus on improving nutritious food access in these contexts; yet, few theories are available to guide this work. We developed a conceptual model of nutritious food access based on the qualitative responses of food consumers in 2 different regions of the American South. Five domains (economic, service delivery, spatial–temporal, social, and personal) and related dimensions of ...

Freedman, Darcy A.; Blake, Christine E.; Liese, Angela D.

2013-01-01

177

Trichinella diagnostics and control: Mandatory and best practices for ensuring food safety  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Because of its role in human disease, there are increasing global requirements for reliable diagnostic and control methods for Trichinella in food animals to ensure meat safety and to facilitate trade. Consequently, there is a need for standardization of methods, programs, and best practices used in the control of Trichinella and trichinellosis. This review article describes the biology and epidemiology of Trichinella, and describes recommended test methods as well as modified and optimized procedures that are used in meat inspection programs. The use of ELISA for monitoring animals for infection in various porcine and equine pre- and post-slaughter programs, including farm or herd certification programs is also discussed. A brief review of the effectiveness of meat processing methods, such as freezing, cooking and preserving is provided. The importance of proper quality assurance and its application in all aspects of a Trichinella diagnostic system is emphasized. It includes the use of international quality standards, test validation and standardization, critical control points, laboratory accreditation, certification of analysts and proficiency testing. Also described, are the roles and locations of international and regional reference laboratories for trichinellosis where expert advice and support on research and diagnostics are available. Crown

Gajadhar, A. A.; Pozio, E.

2009-01-01

178

Limited Evidence That Competitive Food and Beverage Practices Affect Adolescent Consumption Behaviors  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity is emerging as a considerable public health problem with no clear antidote. The school food environment is a potential intervention point for policy makers, with competitive food and beverage regulation as a possible policy lever. This research examines the link between competitive food and beverage availability in school and…

Vericker, Tracy C.

2013-01-01

179

Current situation of food irradiation practice in U.S.A  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is essential that private food companies adopt the process and retail stores sell irradiated food products in order to popularize food irradiation among consumers. FOOD TECHnology Inc. (former Vindicator Inc.), which is founded in Florida 1992 for the purpose of decontamination of fruit flies infected in Oranges using 60Co gamma-irradiation, and Carrot Top, which has been selling irradiated foods since 1992, are well known to be actively involved in PA activity of irradiated foods. Carrot Top is now strongly interested in selling tropical fruits from Hawaii, which has been prohibited to ship from Hawaii to the mainland without decontamination treatment by US government because of fruit fly infestation. They got a temporal permit for the shipment of those fruits with irradiation at Chicago. FOOD TECHnology Inc. irradiates chicken, tomatoes, strawberries and mushrooms. Foods for hospitalized patients and astronauts are also irradiated at FOOD TECHnology Inc.. All food supply for the 'Space Shuttle' program has been provided. Recently they began to irradiate frozen shrimps and salmons. Carrot Top says that irradiated food items gain popularity among their customers although they changed the information transfer method from news letter to news paper advertisement as well as minimizing the description in the store. They noted that the goods sold well whether or not they are irradiated if they are fresh, good-looking and reasonable in price. FOOD TECHnology alnd reasonable in price. FOOD TECHnology also commented that food industries has become more friendly towards food irradiation and they petitioned FDA for clearance of beef irradiation to decontaminate E. coli 0157:H7, but the private companies still hesitated to pick up this process therefore we need more efforts of PR. (J.P.N.)

180

Current situation of food irradiation practice in U.S.A  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is essential that private food companies adopt the process and retail stores sell irradiated food products in order to popularize food irradiation among consumers. FOOD TECHnology Inc. (former Vindicator Inc.), which is founded in Florida 1992 for the purpose of decontamination of fruit flies infected in Oranges using {sup 60}Co gamma-irradiation, and Carrot Top, which has been selling irradiated foods since 1992, are well known to be actively involved in PA activity of irradiated foods. Carrot Top is now strongly interested in selling tropical fruits from Hawaii, which has been prohibited to ship from Hawaii to the mainland without decontamination treatment by US government because of fruit fly infestation. They got a temporal permit for the shipment of those fruits with irradiation at Chicago. FOOD TECHnology Inc. irradiates chicken, tomatoes, strawberries and mushrooms. Foods for hospitalized patients and astronauts are also irradiated at FOOD TECHnology Inc.. All food supply for the `Space Shuttle` program has been provided. Recently they began to irradiate frozen shrimps and salmons. Carrot Top says that irradiated food items gain popularity among their customers although they changed the information transfer method from news letter to news paper advertisement as well as minimizing the description in the store. They noted that the goods sold well whether or not they are irradiated if they are fresh, good-looking and reasonable in price. FOOD TECHnology also commented that food industries has become more friendly towards food irradiation and they petitioned FDA for clearance of beef irradiation to decontaminate E. coli 0157:H7, but the private companies still hesitated to pick up this process therefore we need more efforts of PR. (J.P.N.)

Furuta, Masakazu [Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology

1996-12-31

181

Position of the American Dietetic Association: food and nutrition professionals can implement practices to conserve natural resources and support ecological sustainability.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association to encourage environmentally responsible practices that conserve natural resources, minimize the quantity of waste generated, and support the ecological sustainability of the food system-the process of food production, transformation, distribution, access, and consumption. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, play various roles in the food system and work in settings where efforts to conserve can have significant effects. Natural resources that provide the foundation for the food system include biodiversity, soil, land, energy, water, and air. A food system that degrades or depletes its resource base is not sustainable. Making wise food purchases and food management decisions entails understanding the external costs of food production and foodservice and how these external costs affect food system sustainability. This position paper provides information, specific action-oriented strategies, and resources to guide registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, in food decision making and professional practice. Food and nutrition professionals also can participate in policy making at the local, state, and national levels, and can support policies that encourage the development of local sustainable food systems. Our actions today have global consequences. Conserving and protecting resources will contribute to the sustainability of the global food system now and in the future. PMID:17571455

Harmon, Alison H; Gerald, Bonnie L

2007-06-01

182

Food irradiation and habitual consumption of food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last years, an increasing amount of people is consuming more fruits, vegetables, seeds and sprouts, with the health effects of food in mind. Otherwise, the accepted shelf food safety found in some countries led to a growing trust in the product's hygienic quality, that leads to behaviors like opening a package and immediately consume the contents. Besides the well disseminated knowledge of good cooking practices, the lack of time, found mainly in big cities, may take to the dinning tables food with an increasing potential of pathogenic organisms contamination. For instance, the alfalfa, beam, clover and radish sprouts caused many reported Salmonella and E. coli outbreaks in countries like the USA, United Kingdom, Japan, Sweden, Finland, Canada and Denmark. Many of the likely source of contaminations were the contamination of the seeds before sprouting. To control these contaminations, the irradiation doses over 1 kGy is effective and the association of irradiation and chemical treatments is being studied. The bacteriological control performance of the irradiation becomes this technique one of the most applied to dry herbs and spices witch, without adequate treatment, could be important sources of foodborne outbreaks. Good production, handling, packing and distribution practices may, with the use of ionizing radiation to reach the desired bacteriological inactivation or decontamination level, significantly contribute to the necessary food safety, allowing it to the necessary food safety, allowing it to be safely ready to eat. (author)

183

Traditional and alternative community food security interventions in montréal, Québec: different practices, different people.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food insecurity is steadily increasing in developed countries. Traditional interventions adopted to tackle food insecurity, like food banks, address the urgent need for food. By contrast, alternative interventions, such as community gardens and kitchens, are oriented towards social integration and the development of mutual aid networks. The objective of this paper is to examine whether the populations served by traditional and alternative interventions in food security differ according to measures of vulnerability. We studied newly registered participants to food security interventions. Participants were selected from a random sample of food security community organizations in a two-stage cluster sampling frame. The categorizing variable was participation in a community organization providing either traditional interventions or alternative interventions. Seven measures of vulnerability were used: food security; perceived health; civic participation; perceived social support of the primary network, social isolation, income and education. Regression multilevel models were used to assess associations. 711 participants in traditional interventions and 113 in alternative interventions were enrolled in the study. Between group differences were found with respect to food insecurity, health status perception, civic participation, education and income, but not with respect to social isolation or perceived social support from primary social network. Traditional and alternative food security interventions seem to reach different populations. Participants in traditional interventions were found to have less access to resources, compared to those in alternative interventions. Thus, new participants in traditional interventions may have higher levers of vulnerability than those in alternative interventions. PMID:25012098

Roncarolo, Federico; Adam, Caroline; Bisset, Sherri; Potvin, Louise

2015-04-01

184

Pesticide safety risk, food chain organization, and the adoption of sustainable farming practices: The case of Moroccan early tomatoes  

OpenAIRE

Fresh produce pesticide safety risk has grown into a major concern of North European consumers and governments for the last twenty years. Our study expands on safety control issues and gives insights into how fresh vegetable chains organize to comply with retail private safety standards and thus get access to export and modern domestic markets. Most studies on the adoption of good agricultural practice certifications and integrated pest management overlook the influence of food chain organiza...

Aubert, M.; Bouhsina, Z.; Codron, J. M.; Rousset, S.

2013-01-01

185

Practice, Behavior, Knowledge and Awareness of Food Safety among Secondary & Tertiary Level Students in Trinidad, West Indies  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to assess the level of food safety practice, knowledge, behavior and awareness among n = 205 Trinidadian students (mean age 18±) enrolled within the education system in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies and to explore the association between these variables and the demographic and educational characteristics. To address these concerns, participants enrolled within the secondary (high school) and tertiary (university) institution...

Susan Turnbull-Fortune; Neela Badrie

2014-01-01

186

Total Quality Management (TQM) Practices Toward Product Quality Performance: Case at Food and Beverage Industry in Makassar, Indonesia  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this research was to test and analyze the effect of TQM practices impelementation which consists of leadership, strategic planning, customer focus, information and analysis, people management, and process management to product quality performance. The population were 108 food and beverage companies in Makassar, Indonesia. Respondents are production managers or operation managers. Sample technique which used is population sampling. Method of analysis which use both descriptive s...

Munizu, Musran

2008-01-01

187

Handling Sports Pressure and Competition  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Sports > Handling Sports Pressure and Competition Print A A A Text Size What's in this ... reviewed: September 2013 Back 1 ? 2 ? 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC ...

188

Handling Sports Pressure and Competition  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Sports > Handling Sports Pressure and Competition Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? How ... Eating for Sports Are Steroids Worth the Risk? Contact Us Print Additional resources Send to a friend ...

189

21 CFR 58.107 - Test and control article handling.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false Test and control article handling. 58.107 Section 58.107 Food...NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Test and Control Articles § 58.107 Test and control article handling. Procedures shall be...

2010-04-01

190

An in-home video study and questionnaire survey of food preparation, kitchen sanitation, and hand washing practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Foodborne illnesses pose a problem to all individuals but are especially significant for infants, the elderly, and individuals with compromised immune systems. Personal hygiene is recognized as the number-one way people can lower their risk. The majority of meals in the U.S. are eaten at home. Little is known, however, about the actual application of personal hygiene and sanitation behaviors in the home. The study discussed in this article assessed knowledge of hygiene practices compared to observed behaviors and determined whether knowledge equated to practice. It was a descriptive study involving a convenience sample of 30 households. Subjects were recruited from the Boston area and a researcher and/or a research assistant traveled to the homes of study participants to videotape a standard food preparation procedure preceded by floor mopping. The results highlight the differences between individuals' reported beliefs and actual practice. This information can aid food safety and other health professionals in targeting food safety education so that consumers understand their own critical role in decreasing their risk for foodborne illness. PMID:20556938

Scott, Elizabeth; Herbold, Nancie

2010-06-01

191

Local French Food Initiatives in Practice: The Emergence of a Social Movement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyses the development of local food systems from a social movement perspective. It examines the case study of a farm market located in France and considers whether and how local initiatives in food distribution can be viewed as a social movement, using social theory as the conceptual framework.

Angela Giovanangeli

2013-07-01

192

Menu Planning, Food Consumption, and Sanitation Practices in Day Care Facilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 102 day care centers, data were collected on nutritional content of menus, compliance with guidelines, children's food consumption, and safety/sanitation. Although menus exceeded recommended daily allowances, quantities of food were below recommendations. No menu components were consumed by more than 65% of children. Sanitation problems were…

Kuratko, Connye N.; Martin, Ruth E.; Lan, William Y.; Chappell, James A.; Ahmad, Mahassen

2000-01-01

193

A Practical Guide for Estimating Dietary Fat and Fiber Using Limited Food Frequency Data.  

Science.gov (United States)

A methodology is presented for estimating daily intake of dietary fat and fiber based on limited food frequency data. The procedure, which relies on National Food Consumption Survey data and daily consumption rates, can provide baseline estimates of dietary patterns for health promotion policymakers. (SLD)

Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

1992-01-01

194

76 FR 51308 - Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule  

Science.gov (United States)

...things, the economic impact of, and the continuing...products at retail food stores; and the...businesses? (4) What impact has the Rule had...concerning the degree of industry compliance with the...Rule, concerning price advertising of products by retail food stores are...

2011-08-18

195

Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant women with high-risk pregnancies in Canada: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundImmigrant women may be regarded as a vulnerable population with respect to access and navigation of maternity care services. They may encounter difficulties when accessing culturally safe and appropriate maternity care, which may be further exacerbated by language difficulties and discriminatory practices or attitudes. The project aimed to understand ethnocultural food and health practices and how these intersect in a particular social context of cultural adaptation and adjustment in order to improve the care-giving capacities of health practitioners working in multicultural perinatal clinics.MethodsThis four-phase study employed a case study design allowing for multiple means of data collection and different units of analysis. Phase one consists of a scoping review of the literature. Phases two and three incorporate pictorial representations of food choices with semi-structured photo-elicited interviews. This study was undertaken at a Prenatal and Obstetric Clinic, in an urban Canadian city. In phase four, the research team will inform the development of culturally appropriate visual tools for health promotion.ResultsFive themes were identified: (a) Perceptions of Health, (b) Social Support (c) Antenatal Foods (d) Postnatal Foods and (e) Role of Health Education. These themes provide practitioners with an understanding of the cultural differences that affect women¿s dietary choices during pregnancy. The project identified building collaborations between practitioners and families of pregnant immigrant women to be of utmost importance in supporting healthy pregnancies, along with facilitating social support for pregnant and breastfeeding mothers.ConclusionIn a multicultural society that contemporary Canada is, it is challenging for health practitioners to understand various ethnocultural dietary norms and practices. Practitioners need to be aware of customary practices of the ethnocultural groups that they work with, while simultaneously recognizing the variation within¿not everyone follows customary practices, individuals may pick and choose which customary guidelines they follow. What women choose to eat is also influenced by their own experiences, access to particular foods, socioeconomic status, family context, and so on.The pilot study demonstrated the efficacy of the employed research strategies and we subsequently acquired funding for a national study. PMID:25467067

Higginbottom, Gina; Vallianatos, Helen; Forgeron, Joan; Gibbons, Donna; Mamede, Fabiana; Barolia, Rubina

2014-12-01

196

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gives details of sources used for food irradiation, brief description of the process, safety of food irradiation process, practical applications and the amount of doses used for spices, condiments, mangoes etc., limitations of food irradiation, international status of clearance of irradiated foods, versatility of the process

197

THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE IODINE FORTIFICATION OF THE FOOD PRODUCTS  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of this study was the investigation of the principles of food fortification with iodine. It was researched the opportunity of molecular iodine incorporation in vegetable oil, physical and chemical properties of iodized vegetable oil and other food products fortified with iodized oil. By physical and chemical methods it was established the presence of iodine-triglyceride compounds in iodized oil, formed by fixing the molecular iodine at the double bound of the unsaturated ...

Rodica Sturza

2010-01-01

198

Minerals in plant food: effect of agricultural practices and role in human health. A review  

OpenAIRE

Interest in nutrient absorption and accumulation is derived from the need to increase crop productivity by better nutrition and also to improve the nutritional quality of plants as foods and feeds. This review focuses on contrasting data on the importance for human health of food mineral nutrients (Ca, Mg, K, Na and P) and also the trace elements considered essential or beneficial for human health (Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn). In addition, environmental stresses such as salinity, d...

Marti?nez-ballesta, M. C.; Dominguez-perles, R.; Moreno, D. A.; Muries, B.; Alcaraz-lo?pez, C.; Basti?as, E.; Garci?a-viguera, C.; Carvajal, M.

2010-01-01

199

O fazer educação alimentar e nutricional: algumas contribuições para reflexão / Practical food and nutrition education: some points for reflection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O presente artigo reflete sobre as práticas de educação alimentar e nutricional vigentes no contexto atual. São discutidas no âmbito das políticas públicas de alimentação e nutrição partindo de uma análise sobre as ações governamentais empreendidas e de suas ações no âmbito local, particularmente na [...] nutrição clínica ambulatorial e/ou na atenção a grupos específicos, buscando identificar as tendências teóricas e metodológicas que norteiam as práticas educativas. Considera-se que a educação alimentar e nutricional tem sido alvo de debates na busca de concebê-la como uma ação governamental. Entretanto, em que pese seus avanços, se reconhece a existência de um hiato entre as formulações das políticas e as ações desenvolvidas no âmbito local. Permanece também um hiato entre discursos e as práticas em seu torno das ações educativas. Conclui-se que a educação alimentar e nutricional é menos um instrumento do que um dispositivo de ações conjugadas que devem envolver diferentes setores e disciplinas, entretanto, demanda investimentos na formação profissional e na produção de conhecimento no campo. Abstract in english This article reflects on the practices of existing food and nutrition education in the current context. Practices in public policy in food and nutrition are discussed starting from an analysis of government actions undertaken and their actions at the local level, particularly in outpatient clinical [...] nutrition and/or attention to specific groups, seeking to identify theoretical and methodological trends guiding educational practices. It is considered that the food and nutrition education has been the subject of debate in seeking to construe it as government action. However, despite their achievements, one perceives the existence of a gap between the formulation of policies and actions developed at the local level. There is also a gap between rhetoric and practice in terms of educational activities. The conclusion reached is that food and nutrition education is less an instrument than a measure for joint actions that must involve different sectors and disciplines, however, it calls for investment in vocational training and production of knowledge in the field.

Ligia Amparo da Silva, Santos.

2012-02-01

200

Modeling Food Web Interactions in Benthic Deep-Sea Ecosystems: A Practical Guide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deep-sea benthic systems are notoriously difficult to sample. Even more than for other benthic systems, many flows among biological groups cannot be directly measured, and data sets remain incomplete and uncertain. In such cases, mathematical models are often used to quantify unmeasured biological interactions. Here, we show how to use so-called linear inverse models (LIMs to reconstruct material and energy flows through food webs in which the number of measurements is a fraction of the total number of flows. These models add mass balance, physiological and behavioral constraints, and diet information to the scarce measurements. We explain how these information sources can be included in LIMs, and how the resulting models can be subsequently solved. This method is demonstrated by two examples—a very simple three-compartment food web model, and a simplified benthic carbon food web for Porcupine Abyssal Plain. We conclude by elaborating on recent developments and prospects.

Karline Soetaert

2009-03-01

201

Practice to introduce complementary foods to infants in Taiwan--changes from 1997 to 2008.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to understand present infant complementary foods eating and compare trends over the past 10 years in Taiwan. We investigated the methods used to introduce infants to complementary foods, difficulties encountered, sources of information and the principle caregiver's knowledge about infant feeding. This study focused on findings from the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) and compared with those from the 1997-1999 Child NAHSIT. Interviews in both surveys were carried out by trained interviewers. In 2005-2008 survey, 50% of infants aged 7-12 months had started eating baby cereals or juice at age 4-6 months as recommended. The proportions of infants aged 10-12 months who were introduced to particular complementary foods at recommended periods varied from biscuits (51.1%) to tofu (1.1%). The proportions were higher in 2005-2008 than in 1997-1999 for only 3 items. In both survey, more than 80% of mothers were the one who made the decision to introduce their children to complementary foods. More than 75% of caregivers fed baby cereals to their babies from milk bottles. In 2005-2008, the most commonly encountered problem was that the child wouldn't eat. Nutrition knowledge of the caregivers have improved since 1999, but still needs fostering. The timing to introduce complementary foods become later than ten years ago. Whether the delay will affect the normal dietary intakes of children after one year of age needs attention. The government should not only promote breastfeeding, but also reevaluate current evidence-based recommendation on complementary food introduction time. PMID:21669603

Lin, Jia-Rong; Tzeng, Min-Su; Kao, Mei-Ding; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Pan, Wen-Harn

2011-01-01

202

'I don't think I ever had food poisoning'. A practice-based approach to understanding foodborne disease that originates in the home.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food stored, prepared, cooked and eaten at home contributes to foodborne disease which, globally, presents a significant public health burden. The aim of the study reported here was to investigate, analyse and interpret domestic kitchen practices in order to provide fresh insight about how the domestic setting might influence food safety. Using current theories of practice meant the research, which drew on qualitative and ethnographic methods, could investigate people and material things in the domestic kitchen setting whilst taking account of people's actions, values, experiences and beliefs. Data from 20 UK households revealed the extent to which kitchens are used for a range of non-food related activities and the ways that foodwork extends beyond the boundaries of the kitchen. The youngest children, the oldest adults and the family pets all had agency in the kitchen, which has implications for preventing foodborne disease. What was observed, filmed and photographed was not a single practice but a series of entangled encounters and actions embedded and repeated, often inconsistently, by the individuals involved. Households derived logics and principles about foodwork that represented rules of thumb about 'how things are done' that included using the senses and experiential knowledge when judging whether food is safe to eat. Overall, food safety was subsumed within the practice of 'being' a household and living everyday life in the kitchen. Current theories of practice are an effective way of understanding foodborne disease and offer a novel approach to exploring food safety in the home. PMID:25464023

Wills, Wendy J; Meah, Angela; Dickinson, Angela M; Short, Frances

2015-02-01

203

Practical implications of developments in legislation on food irradiation in the European Union  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food irradiation legislation is very different in most member-states of the EU. For many years there was the desire by many interested groups to harmonise this legislation. As the member-states had a different view on irradiated foods, often based on their existing regulation, it took many years and revised drafts to come to a harmonised regulation acceptable to the majority. The background on the development of this EU-legislation and the final draft is discussed. Some information is also given on the possible influence of WTO (SPS- and TBT-agreements) and Codex Alimentarius on this EU-legislation. (author)

204

Modifications of agricultural and zoo-technical practices to reduce food chain contamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many methods for decreasing radioactive transfers all along the food chains may be used for post-accidental situations. In some contaminated CIS countries (Ukraine, Belarus), real size applications have quantified these methods for vegetables transfers (liming, fertilizers, zeolite...), for animals transfers (iodine, clay, cyanoferrates...), and for soil rehabilitation (striping, deep ploughing...). (A.B.). 27 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

205

77 FR 49448 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...Plaza Lord Baltimore Hotel, 20 West Baltimore St...SoCRA to receive the hotel room rate of $129...SoCRA), 530 West Butler Ave., Suite 109, Chalfont...Department of Health and Human Services' and FDA's...

2012-08-16

206

Aproximación práctica al diagnóstico de la alergia alimentaria / Practical approach to the diagnosis of food allergy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La alergia alimentaria representa la primera expresión clínica de atopia durante la vida, ya sea con manifestaciones gastrointestinales o cutáneas, seguidas de asma y rinitis. A este continuo desarrollo de enfermedades se ha denominado "marcha atópica". Es un problema importante de salud, no sólo pa [...] ra los pacientes sino también incluye al grupo familiar y social. Se define como una respuesta inmunológica anormal ante la ingesta de proteínas alimenticias que ocasionan una reacción clínica adversa. La mayoría de las personas desarrolla tolerancia a los antígenos alimentarios, los cuales constantemente acceden al organismo. Sin embargo, cuando la tolerancia falla, el sistema inmune responde con reacciones de hipersensibilidad. El diagnóstico de la alergia alimentaria todavía es un ejercicio clínico que depende de una historia cuidadosa, de la determinación específica de IgE, pruebas de parche, una apropiada dieta de exclusión y la realización de reto cegado. Abstract in english Food allergy has become the first clinical expression of atopy, beginning with dermal o gastric manifestations to continue with asthma an rhinitis ("the atopic march"), a very severe health problem not only for many children and parents, but also for the entire medical and paramedical community. Foo [...] d allergy is defined as an abnormal immunological reaction to food proteins, which causes an adverse clinical reaction. Most of the people become tolerant to many foods; however, these tolerances sometimes fail and become an immunological reaction. The evaluation of a child with suspected food allergy includes detailed medical history, physical examination, screening tests and response to elimination diet and to oral food challenge. None of the screening tests -alone or in combination- can definitely diagnose or exclude it.

Marco Antonio, Góngora-Meléndez; Juan José Luis, Sienra-Monge; Blanca Estela, Del Río-Navarro; Lourdes, Ávila Castañón.

2010-10-01

207

Normalizing ideological food choice and eating practices: identity work in online discussions on veganism  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we use discursive psychology to explore the relation between ideologically based food choice and identity in an online forum on veganism. The discursive psychological perspective underlines the notion of identities being part of social actions performed in talk, and thus designed and deployed for different interactional purposes. It is demonstrated that participants draw on specific discursive devices to (1) define vegan meals as ordinary and easy to prepare and (2) construct me...

Sneijder, P. W. J.; Molder, H. F. M.

2009-01-01

208

Modeling Food Web Interactions in Benthic Deep-Sea Ecosystems: A Practical Guide  

OpenAIRE

Deep-sea benthic systems are notoriously difficult to sample. Even more than for other benthic systems, many flows among biological groups cannot be directly measured, and data sets remain incomplete and uncertain. In such cases, mathematical models are often used to quantify unmeasured biological interactions. Here, we show how to use so-called linear inverse models (LIMs) to reconstruct material and energy flows through food webs in which the number of measurements is a fraction of the tota...

Karline Soetaert; Dick van Oevelen

2009-01-01

209

Farming practices change food web structures in cereal aphid–parasitoid–hyperparasitoid communities  

OpenAIRE

Agricultural intensification has been shown to result in a decline in biodiversity across many taxa, but the changes in community structure and species interactions remain little understood. We have analysed and compared the structure of feeding interactions for cereal aphids and their primary and secondary parasitoids in organically and conventionally managed winter wheat fields using quantitative food web metrics (interaction evenness, generality, vulnerability, link density). Despite littl...

Lohaus, Katharina; Vidal, Stefan; Thies, Carsten

2012-01-01

210

Materials handling centre: making business more efficient  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the Materials Handling Forum at RSM is to narrow the gap between research and practice by promoting and disseminating academic knowledge, sharing innovative ideas, generating research questions, and co-developing new research themes with industry partners.

Bollen, B.

2012-01-01

211

The Impact of Green Supply Chain Management Practices on Organizational Performance: A Study of Jordanian Food Industries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to test The Impact of Green Supply Chain Management Practices on Organizational Performance: A study On Jordanian Nutrition Industries. The Data was collected through a questionnaire; the consistency percentage was 85%; Cranach's alpha for all the domains and the whole tool is (0.89. Means, standard deviation, and simple and multiple linear regressions analysis were used to test the study hypothesis and the relationships between the dependent and independent variabeles. The researcher built the model and hypothesis based on the dimensions of green supply chain management practices. The researchers chose (6 firms specialized in industrial food sector and which the firms that applied the concept of green manufacturing. The results of the study showed that there was an impact of green supply chain management practices and its elements on organizational performance. The implications of this study are; academic implications, and managerial implications. The researchers include all the green supply chain management elements, on organizational performance which are; environmental performance, financial performance, and Operational Performanc. As a recomendation for this study, it may play an important role for managers and firms through understanding the green supply chain management and increasing the sales and benefits.

Salah M. Diab

2015-02-01

212

The role of family communication and parents' feeding practices in children's food preferences.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study used Family Communication Patterns Theory (FCPT) to explore how family-dinner-related communication takes place and how parents' feeding practices may be associated with children's preferences for dinner meals. The sample consisted of 12 dyads with seven- and eight-year-old Norwegian children and their parents. In-depth photo interviews were used for collecting data. Interview transcripts and photographs were examined through content analysis. Results indicated that most families were conversation oriented, and communication tended to shift from consensual during weekdays to pluralistic at weekends. On weekdays, the dinner menu was often a compromise between children's preferences and parents' intentions to provide quick, healthy dinner options for the family. To a greater extent at weekends, children were allowed to choose dinner alternatives for the entire family. Restriction of unhealthy dinner alternatives was the practice most used to control children's diets and, in fact, might explain children's high preferences for unhealthy dinner alternatives. Results underline the importance of giving children control of what they eat and being responsive to children's preferences while guiding them towards healthy dinner alternatives rather than using force and restriction. From a more theoretical perspective, this study explored how FCPT could be combined with theories about parents' feeding practices to understand meal preferences and choices among young children and their families, and how time and situation (context) influence families' communication patterns and feeding practices in their homes. PMID:25666300

Alm, Siril; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Honkanen, Pirjo

2015-06-01

213

The NOURISH randomised control trial: Positive feeding practices and food preferences in early childhood - a primary prevention program for childhood obesity  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Primary prevention of childhood overweight is an international priority. In Australia 20-25% of 2-8 year olds are already overweight. These children are at substantially increased the risk of becoming overweight adults, with attendant increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Early feeding practices determine infant exposure to food (type, amount, frequency) and include responses (eg coercion) to infant feeding behaviour (eg. food refusal). There is correlational evidence...

Farrell Ann; Nicholson Jan M; Battistutta Diana; Magarey Anthea; Daniels Lynne A; Davidson Geoffrey; Cleghorn Geoffrey

2009-01-01

214

Case Studies for Practical Food Effect Assessments across BCS/BDDCS Class Compounds using In Silico, In Vitro, and Preclinical In Vivo Data  

OpenAIRE

Practical food effect predictions and assessments were described using in silico, in vitro, and/or in vivo preclinical data to anticipate food effects and Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS)/Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) class across drug development stages depending on available data: (1) limited in silico and in vitro data in early discovery; (2) preclinical in vivo pharmacokinetic, absorption, and metabolism data at candidate selection; and (3) ph...

Heimbach, Tycho; Xia, Binfeng; Lin, Tsu-han; He, Handan

2012-01-01

215

THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE IODINE FORTIFICATION OF THE FOOD PRODUCTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this study was the investigation of the principles of food fortification with iodine. It was researched the opportunity of molecular iodine incorporation in vegetable oil, physical and chemical properties of iodized vegetable oil and other food products fortified with iodized oil. By physical and chemical methods it was established the presence of iodine-triglyceride compounds in iodized oil, formed by fixing the molecular iodine at the double bound of the unsaturated fatty acids. The results of the investigations of the physical-chemical, microbiological and organoleptic properties, the oxidation stability of iodine fortified products compared to the control samples, indicate the absence of sensitive difference during the maturation and storage processes. The iodine bioavailability in fortified lipid products has been investigated in vitro and in vivo conditions. It was established, that the recovery percent of iodine represents 57-92?0(in vitro. In vivo researches have proved that iodized lipid products are influencing the metabolic processes by accumulation of iodine in animal’s body, as a result of an efficient digestion and a high iodine bioavailability from the present complexes.

Rodica Sturza

2010-04-01

216

Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study

217

Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

218

Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran and others

2006-01-15

219

78 FR 28228 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Best Practices for Conducting and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...FDA-2011-D-0057] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration...SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration...availability of a guidance for industry and FDA staff...

2013-05-14

220

An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999, cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992, and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878. The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri.

Craig W. Hedberg

2013-08-01

221

Food irradiation: Public opinion surveys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Canadian government are discussing the legislation, regulations and practical protocol necessary for the commercialization of food irradiation. Food industry marketing, public relations and media expertise will be needed to successfully introduce this new processing choice to retailers and consumers. Consumer research to date including consumer opinion studies and market trials conducted in the Netherlands, United States, South Africa and Canada will be explored for signposts to successful approaches to the introduction of irradiated foods to retailers and consumers. Research has indicated that the terms used to describe irradiation and information designed to reduce consumer fears will be important marketing tools. Marketers will be challenged to promote old foods, which look the same to consumers, in a new light. Simple like or dislike or intention to buy surveys will not be effective tools. Consumer fears must be identified and effectively handled to support a receptive climate for irradiated food products. A cooperative government, industry, health professional, consumer association and retailer effort will be necessary for the successful introduction of irradiated foods into the marketplace. Grocery Products Manufacturers of Canada is a national trade association of more than 150 major companies engaged in the manufacture of food, non-alcoholic beverages and array of other national-brand consumer items sold through retail outletstail outlets

222

Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 7. Barriers to reduce contamination of food by workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contamination of food and individuals by food workers has been identified as an important contributing factor during foodborne illness investigations. Physical and chemical barriers to prevent microbial contamination of food are hurdles that block or reduce the transfer of pathogens to the food surface from the hands of a food worker, from other foods, or from the environment. In food service operations, direct contact of food by hands should be prevented by the use of barriers, especially when gloves are not worn. Although these barriers have been used for decades in food processing and food service operations, their effectiveness is sometimes questioned or their use may be ignored. Physical barriers include properly engineered building walls and doors to minimize the flow of outside particles and pests to food storage and food preparation areas; food shields to prevent aerosol contamination of displayed food by customers and workers; work clothing designated strictly for work (clothing worn outdoors can carry undesirable microorganisms, including pathogens from infected family members, into the work environment); and utensils such as spoons, tongs, and deli papers to prevent direct contact between hands and the food being prepared or served. Money and ready-to-eat foods should be handled as two separate operations, preferably by two workers. Chemical barriers include sanitizing solutions used to remove microorganisms (including pathogens) from objects or materials used during food production and preparation and to launder uniforms, work clothes, and soiled linens. However, laundering as normally practiced may not effectively eliminate viral pathogens. PMID:20819372

Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Greig, Judy D; Smith, Debra; Holah, John; Bartleson, Charles A

2010-08-01

223

Food hygiene training in the UK: time for a radical re-think?  

Science.gov (United States)

Training food handlers in the hospitality industry has been recommended by various organisations as a means of improving food handling practices and thus the safety of food for consumers. It is nearly 20 years since the first examinations for basic level food hygiene certificates were made available to food handlers in the UK. Since then little has changed in the syllabuses and in the way the questions are worded. However, the range of languages spoken by food handlers working in the UK has increased substantially since more employers are recruiting those who speak English as a second language. Training can be an unwelcome expense for managers where there is a high turnover of employees, especially amongst those for whom English is not a first language. To improve practical implementation of food hygiene theory it is time to develop a radical strategy concerning the way training is targeted and delivered in the UK, and perhaps Europe. PMID:11811090

MacAuslan, E

2001-12-01

224

Diagnosis of food allergy in children: toward a standardization of food challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adverse reactions to food represent a common complaint in childhood; however, only a small proportion of children have proven clinically relevant food allergy. The foods most commonly involved in food allergy are cow's milk, hen's eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, seeds, soy, wheat, fish, and crustaceans. The diagnostic workup of suspected food allergy includes the patient's history, skin prick testing, the measurement of food-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies, and, more recently, the atopy patch test. Because none of these parameters can accurately predict tolerance, the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy is still the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Although numerous efforts have been made to standardize the procedure, there is a need for improvement. This review presents the current status of the indication and performance of controlled oral food challenges in children with suspected food-related symptoms. It covers aspects of indications and contraindications, blinding, diet before the challenge, the practical performance, the handling of medication, the interpretation of test results, suitable locations for testing, safety considerations, and the procedure after a period of avoidance. Efforts to standardize oral food challenges to achieve the best possible decision on a diet are important to avoid an unnecessary diet that may be harmful to the child. PMID:18030203

Niggemann, Bodo; Beyer, Kirsten

2007-10-01

225

Breastfeeding status and marketing practices of baby food manufactured in nursing homes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In January 1993 in Kanpur, India, a survey of 7 private nursing homes revealed that infant formula was given to most newborns (52.4%). The most common brands included Lactogen-I, Milk Care, Raptakos, Dexolac Special Care, and Lactodex. Staff at 5 nursing homes gave prelacteal feeds (water, glucose water, and infant formula) to newborns when they were separated from their mothers. Staff at only 2 nursing homes gave the newborn to the mother immediately after delivery. The longest period between delivery and giving the newborn to the mother was 24 hours. All but one of the nursing homes did not know about the government policy and the recent bill that bars free or low-cost infant formula supplies to hospitals. The administration of the nursing homes did not inform the procurement department, in writing, of the government policy. 4 nursing homes bought low-cost supplies of infant formula from the companies. The companies sold the infant formula to the nursing homes at a price 48.3% to 86.7% lower than the market price. Medical stores inside or outside the nursing homes sold the infant formula to parents at the other 3 homes. The nursing homes used, on average, 2-50 kg/month. Nestle (Lactogen-I) and Dalmia Industries (Milk Care) had a monopoly in infant formula in 4 and 3 nursing homes, respectively. Infant formula was in stock in 5 nursing homes. None of the nursing homes gave mothers free or low-cost infant formula at discharge. Lower than market price and increased number of calls to the hospitals and physicians by company personnel were marketing techniques used by the manufacturers to maintain market share. These results show that, despite government policy and the bill, hospitals continue to use infant formula. The government should use the mass media to increase awareness about its policy on infant foods and the concept of the Baby Friendly Hospital. PMID:8039859

Mathur, G P; Pandey, P K; Mathur, S; Mishra, V K; Singh, K; Bhatt, O P; Loomba, R K; Luthra, C; Taneja, S; Kapoor, R

1993-11-01

226

Control of good irradiation practices and the role of the ICGFI guidelines and codes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Considerable guidance is available to managers of an irradiator plant on ways and means to produce safe, wholesome, quality irradiated foods. The foundation for good manufacturing practices (GMPs), which apply to all food processes, is the Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene. These principles provide good common sense procedures in the handling of food for human consumption in order to ensure safe, wholesome quality products. The GMPs cover the growing, harvesting, preparation, processing, packaging, storage, transport, distribution and sale of food. They provide good check lists for safety and quality. More detailed guidelines specifically aimed at food irradiation are found in the Codex Code of Practice for the Operation of Irradiation Facilities and in the Codes of Good Irradiation Practice (GIPs) developed by the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation. GIPs are available for eight commodity groups. They provide guidance on pre-irradiation handling (including microbiological guidelines), packaging, pre-irradiation storage and transport, irradiation facilities and absorbed doses, post-irradiation storage and handling, final product specifications, labelling, re-irradiation and the quality of irradiated products. In order to apply GIPs effectively, it recommended that the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point concept (HACCP) be implemented. The HACCP concept emphasizes prevention of, rather than detection of defects. The HACCP concept has been adoof defects. The HACCP concept has been adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and is being applied to Codex Codes of Practice. (author). 7 refs

227

Remote control handling arm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention concerns a remote control arm, of the type comprising an articulated assembly connecting a handling component to a support. This articulated assembly is made up from standard and separate components interconnected by an articulation allowing for the transmission of an independent movement to produce a pre-determined movement of this handling component with respect to the said support. Such handling arms are fully described in French patent No. 1459250, in which, incidentally, one of the inventors mentioned is the same person as in this application. One of the most important uses of such handling arms is in the fitting of power remote handling devices for hot nuclear laboratories

228

Revision of the recommended international general standard for irradiated foods and of the recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of the findings and statements of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food, convened in Geneva from 27 October to 3 November 1980, a Consultation Group, convened in Geneva from 1 to 3 July 1981 suggested the revision of the Recommended International General Standard for Irradiated Foods and of the Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities. The proposed changes are given and justified and the revised wording of the documents presented

229

The NOURISH randomised control trial: Positive feeding practices and food preferences in early childhood - a primary prevention program for childhood obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary prevention of childhood overweight is an international priority. In Australia 20-25% of 2-8 year olds are already overweight. These children are at substantially increased the risk of becoming overweight adults, with attendant increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Early feeding practices determine infant exposure to food (type, amount, frequency and include responses (eg coercion to infant feeding behaviour (eg. food refusal. There is correlational evidence linking parenting style and early feeding practices to child eating behaviour and weight status. A focus on early feeding is consistent with the national focus on early childhood as the foundation for life-long health and well being. The NOURISH trial aims to implement and evaluate a community-based intervention to promote early feeding practices that will foster healthy food preferences and intake and preserve the innate capacity to self-regulate food intake in young children. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial (RCT aims to recruit 820 first-time mothers and their healthy term infants. A consecutive sample of eligible mothers will be approached postnatally at major maternity hospitals in Brisbane and Adelaide. Initial consent will be for re-contact for full enrolment when the infants are 4-7 months old. Individual mother- infant dyads will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will provide anticipatory guidance via two modules of six fortnightly parent education and peer support group sessions, each followed by six months of regular maintenance contact. The modules will commence when the infants are aged 4-7 and 13-16 months to coincide with establishment of solid feeding, and autonomy and independence, respectively. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, with follow up at nine and 18 months. These will include infant intake (type and amount of foods, food preferences, feeding behaviour and growth and self-reported maternal feeding practices and parenting practices and efficacy. Covariates will include sociodemographics, infant feeding mode and temperament, maternal weight status and weight concern and child care exposure. Discussion Despite the strong rationale to focus on parents' early feeding practices as a key determinant of child food preferences, intake and self-regulatory capacity, prospective longitudinal and intervention studies are rare. This trial will be amongst to provide Level II evidence regarding the impact of an intervention (commencing prior to age 12 months on children's eating patterns and behaviours. Trial Registration ACTRN12608000056392

Farrell Ann

2009-10-01

230

Remote handling for an ISIS target change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1987 two ISIS targets were changed. This document describes the main features of the remote handling aspects of the work. All the work has to be carried out using remote handling techniques. The radiation level measured on the surface of the reflector when the second target had been removed was about 800 mGy/h demonstrating that hands on operations on any part of the target reflector moderator assembly is not practical. The target changes were the first large scale operations in the Target Station Remote Handling Cell and a great deal was learned about both equipment and working practices. Some general principles emerged which are applicable to other active handling tasks on facilities like ISIS and these are discussed below. 8 figs

231

Exploring the concepts of food sovereignty and social capital in relation to The organic principles, practices and policies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Food sovereignty is a concept based on an idea of food security (a varied diet with diversified, nutritious and culturally appropriate food) for everybody including the right of people, communities and nations to define their own food and agriculture, to protect and regulate domestic agricultural production and trade in order to achieve sustainable development objectives. Food sovereignty is increasingly discussed and debated, e.g. in relation to power over seed, water, land and food, which become privatized and do not belong the people, communities and countries, where farming and food processing take place. Social capital refers to social networking and mobilisation of resources, forming communities and societies taking collective action and exchanging of e.g. knowledge and experience. Strengthening social capital in local societies empower peasants, processors and societies, which are in risk of losing power over land, food, other agricultural products and trade. The food sovereignty concept can be argued to be strongly related to the organic principles. This paper explores the concept of food sovereignty and the potential role of active social capital building to develop organic farming built on agro-ecological methods. Social and learning networks for farmers, processors and small businesses for collective action and common learning can be important pathways to organic farming and food systems with food sovereignty.

Vaarst, Mette

232

Safe Handling of Radioisotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

233

Perfil socioeconômico e profissional de manipuladores de alimentos e o impacto positivo de um curso de capacitação em Boas Práticas de Fabricação / Socioeconomic and professional profile of food handlers and the positive impact of a training course on Good Manufacturing Practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Doenças transmitidas por alimentos constituem um problema de saúde pública em nível mundial e estão frequentemente associadas a falhas na manipulação dos alimentos. Conhecer o perfil socioeconômico e profissional, bem como o nível de conhecimento dos manipuladores de alimentos, é requisito essencial [...] para o planejamento de políticas públicas e programas de capacitação visando a segurança e qualidade dos alimentos. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o perfil socioeconômico e profissional de manipuladores de alimentos, e o impacto de um curso de capacitação em Boas Práticas de Fabricação (BPF) realizado na cidade de Araraquara-SP, Brasil. Um total de 192 manipuladores respondeu a dois questionários: o primeiro, para avaliar o nível de conhecimento dos manipuladores sobre BPF antes (avaliação diagnóstica) e depois (avaliação final) de participar do curso; o segundo, para realizar um levantamento do perfil socioeconômico e profissional dos manipuladores. Os resultados mostraram que o curso de capacitação repercutiu de forma positiva no nível de conhecimento dos manipuladores, sendo que todos os temas sobre BPF avaliados apresentaram um percentual de respostas corretas significativamente maior na avaliação final em relação à avaliação diagnóstica. Isso indica a necessidade de aperfeiçoamento constante, para garantir a qualificação profissional dos manipuladores e, consequentemente, a qualidade dos alimentos e a segurança alimentar dos consumidores. Abstract in english Foodborne diseases are a worldwide public health problem frequently associated with failures during food handling. Knowledge of the socioeconomic and professional profile of food handlers and their knowledge about the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) are required in order to plan public policies a [...] nd training programs aimed at food safety and quality. This study aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic and professional profile of food handlers and the impact of giving a training course on Good Manufacturing Practices in the city of Araraquara, São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 192 food handlers answered the following two questionnaires: the first to assess their level of knowledge on GMP, which was applied before (initial evaluation) and after (final evaluation) the training course, and the second to assess the food handlers' socioeconomic and professional profiles. The results showed that the training course had a positive impact on the food handlers' level of knowledge, since all topics on GMP showed a higher percentage of correct answers in the final evaluation than in the initial evaluation. These data indicate the need for continuous training courses to improve the qualification of food handlers, and hence of the food quality and food safety for consumers.

Gabriela Gianini Guilherme, Devides; Daniele Fernanda, Maffei; Maria da Penha Longo Mortatti, Catanozi.

2014-06-01

234

Safe handling: implementing hazardous drug precautions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Occupational exposure to chemotherapy is a significant and ubiquitous danger to oncology nurses. The Oncology Clinical Nurse III/IV leadership group at the University of North Carolina Hospitals embarked on the challenge of a comprehensive standards review regarding personal protective equipment necessary when handling waste after hazardous drug administration. This review led to practice improvements in education, the use of chemotherapy-rated gloves when handling hazardous waste, and changes in the disposal options available to staff. A discharge teaching pamphlet on safe handling for the caregivers of patients receiving hazardous drugs was created and piloted. PMID:22641316

Walton, Ann Marie L; Mason, Susan; Busshart, Michele; Spruill, Angela D; Cheek, Summer; Lane, Ashley; Sabo, Kathy; Taylor, Amanda

2012-06-01

235

Nuclear fuel handling apparatus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fuel handling machine for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor in which a retractable handling tube and gripper are lowered into the reactor to withdraw a spent fuel assembly into the handling tube. The handling tube containing the fuel assembly immersed in liquid sodium is then withdrawn completely from the reactor into the outer barrel of the handling machine. The machine is then used to transport the spent fuel assembly directly to a remotely located decay tank. The fuel handling machine includes a decay heat removal system which continuously removes heat from the interior of the handling tube and which is capable of operating at its full cooling capacity at all times. The handling tube is supported in the machine from an articulated joint which enables it to readily align itself with the correct position in the core. An emergency sodium supply is carried directly by the machine to provide make up in the event of a loss of sodium from the handling tube during transport to the decay tank. 5 claims, 32 drawing figures

236

Towards Architecture-Level Middleware-Enabled Exception Handling of Component-based Systems  

OpenAIRE

Exception handling is a practical and important way to improve the availability and reliability of a component-based system. The classical code-level exception handling approach is usually applied to the inside of a component, while some exceptions can only or properly be handled outside of the components. In this paper, we propose a middleware-enabled approach for exception handling at architecture level. Developers specify what exceptions should be handled and how to handle them with the su...

Gang Huang; Yihan Wu

2011-01-01

237

Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

Farkas, J. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary)); Zukal, E. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary))

1992-01-01

238

Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

239

Level of Knowledge and Compliance of Mexican Food Code among Hospital Foodservice Employees in Guadalajara, México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contamination of food may occur at any point during the food distribution channel. However, mishandling of food at the last segment of food distribution where food is prepared for consumption often causes outbreaks. Keeping food safe in hospitals is particularly imperative because of the population they serve and the potentially hazardous environment. This article presents the results of a pencil and paper self-reported survey on the knowledge of Mexican food code, NOM-093-SSA1-1994, and field observation of the compliance of the code among the hospital foodservice employees in Guadalajara, México. One hundred twenty-seven employees from six public and private hospitals participated in the study. Of the respondents, 81.5% were aware of the importance of personal hygiene in food safety. Professional attire including hair restraints and mouth cover were always used. These participants, however seldom used thermometers, and only 37% of respondents knew the correct temperatures for refrigeration. In most hospitals correct procedures for sanitizing food contact surfaces that were prescribed by the sanitizing chemical manufacturers were practiced. Only 25% of the participants knew that their work was defined by the food code. Strategies for dissemination of the food code, and food safety training of the employees are urgently needed. Commitment and support of the hospital are needed in order to improve safe food handling practices in these hospitals.

Elsa Ramírez

2011-11-01

240

Remote handling technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economical operation of a fusion reactor requires intensive maintenance. For this purpose and due to the special conditions with regard to the components of a fusion reactor, remote handling instruments and machinery have to be developed. The state-of-the-art of such remote handling technique, in particular of multi-purpose and special devices (master-slave-manipulators), is described. (DG)

241

Introduction to the Microbiological Spoilage of Foods and Beverages  

Science.gov (United States)

Though direct evidence of ancient food-handling practices is difficult to obtain and examine, it seems safe to assume that over the span of several million years, prehistoric humans struggled to maintain an adequate food supply. Their daily food needed to be hunted or harvested and consumed before it spoiled and became unfit to eat. Freshly killed animals, for example, could not have been kept for very long periods of time. Moreover, many early humans were nomadic, continually searching for food. We can imagine that, with an unreliable food supply, their lives must have often been literally "feast or famine." Yet, our ancestors gradually learned by accident, or by trial and error, simple techniques that could extend the storage time of their food (Block, 1991). Their brain capacity was similar to that of modern humans; therefore, some of them were likely early scientists and technologists. They would have learned that primitive cereal grains, nuts and berries, etc. could be stored in covered vessels to keep them dry and safer from mold spoilage. Animal products could be kept in cool places or dried and smoked over a fire, as the controlled use of fire by humans is thought to have begun about 400,000 years ago. Quite likely, naturally desiccated or fermented foods were also noticed and produced routinely to provide a more stable supply of edible food. Along with the development of agricultural practices for crop and animal production, the "simple" food-handling practices developed during the relatively countless millennia of prehistory paved the way for human civilizations.

Sperber, William H.

242

Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on the role and techniques of effective ("distributed") practice that leads to full and fluent mastery of mental mathematics as well as conceptual growth around properties of arithmetic. It lists the essential mental math skills needed for fluent computation at grades 1, 2, and 3. The article describes a number of strategies for developing mental skills and links to pages with more details on others (some not yet complete). While this article refers to the Think Math! curriculum published by EDC, the methods generalize to any program. The Fact of the Day technique and a related video are cataloged separately.

Paul Goldenberg

2011-10-25

243

Omnidirectional Actuator Handle  

Science.gov (United States)

Proposed actuator handle comprises two normally concentric rings, cables, and pulleys arranged such that relative displacement of rings from concentricity results in pulling of cable and consequent actuation of associated mechanism. Unlike conventional actuator handles like levers on farm implements, actuated from one or two directions only, proposed handle reached from almost any direction and actuated by pulling or pushing inner ring in any direction with respect to outer ring. Flanges installed on inner ring to cover gap between inner ring and housing to prevent clothing from being caught.

Moetteli, John B.

1995-01-01

244

CHR -- Character Handling Routines  

Science.gov (United States)

This document describes the Character Handling Routine library, CHR, and its use. The CHR library augments the limited character handling facilities provided by the Fortran 77 standard. It offers a range of character handling facilities: from formatting Fortran data types into text strings and the reverse, to higher level functions such as wild card matching, string sorting, paragraph reformatting and justification. The library may be used simply for building text strings for interactive applications or as a basis for more complex text processing applications.

Charles, A. C.; Rees, P. C. T.; Chipperfield, A. J.; Jenness, T.

245

Is food poisoning a clinical or a laboratory diagnosis? A survey of local authority practices in the south Thames region.  

Science.gov (United States)

An audit of South Thames infectious disease surveillance systems in 1995 revealed large inconsistencies between the numbers of food poisoning records held on local databases and the numbers of food poisoning notifications reported to the Office for National Statistics (ONS), then called the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys. In March 1996 a questionnaire sent to each local authority in South Thames asked what action was usually taken when a laboratory report of cryptosporidium, campylobacter, salmonella, or giardia was received unsupported by a notification of food poisoning. All 51 local authorities responded to the questionnaire. Forty-eight reported salmonella to ONS, 38 reported cryptosporidium, 38 campylobacter, and 37 giardia. Some local authorities considered whether a food or water source was evident or suspected before reporting. Patterns of notification varied between geographical areas. Differences between local authorities' interpretations of the requirement to report to ONS the isolations of food poisoning organisms from patients make it difficult to analyse food poisoning statistics. We would recommend the adoption of a simple approach, in which laboratory reports and notifications are reconciled locally. A case should be reported to ONS only if the doctor who notified or arranged for an examination of stool suspected food or waterborne transmission initially. PMID:9782629

Atkinson, P; Maguire, H

1998-09-01

246

Handling Pyrophoric Reagents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pyrophoric reagents are extremely hazardous. Special handling techniques are required to prevent contact with air and the resulting fire. This document provides several methods for working with pyrophoric reagents outside of an inert atmosphere.

Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Haynie, Todd O.

2009-08-14

247

Future of remote handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The field of remote handling started with the invention of mechanical master-slave and electromechanical manipulators in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Those developments and that of shielding windows applied in hot cells and bays remain the dominant application of remote handling. The development of electric master-slave manipulators in the 1950s under the direction of Ray Goertz, and further development and applications in accelerator and nuclear fuel reprocessing, has made advanced remote handling a viable scheme for many applications. In very recent times, the application of robotics to analytical chemistry, fuel pellet fabrication, and explosives handling is a precursor to an expanded application of that technology. This paper will review the state-of-the-art in three areas and offer the authors view of the future over approximately the next ten years

248

Research status of food irradiation in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research on food preservation by gamma irradiation in Malaysia encompasses various food items such as paddy, milled rice, pepper, fruits, tomatoes, groundnuts and frozen prawns. Studies were mainly aimed to determine disinfestation efficacy against insects and microorganisms and the storability in terms of effects on organoleptic properties of these postharvest raw agricultural produce. Researches in important commodities such as rice and pepper include intergrating irradiation treatments with improved handling (packaging materials) and in rice, comparison with conventional treatments was also evaluated. Generally, irradiation method is effective in suppressing insects, moulds and bacterial load in all commodities associated with the problems. In the case of stored rice, irradiation provided better protection than insecticides, phosphine gas (fumigant) and insect repellant, though reinfestation prevailed over extended storage period as in other methods. Storage life of perishable items were variably extended due to irradiation-induced biochemical changes. Practical application of irradiation is possible, foreseeably as complimentary treatment, considering the inadequacy of present preservation methods its applicability to a wide range of food commodities, and the possible cost-benefit under existing postharvest system. Actual utilization of irradiation can be economically justified if sited at the port of entry for preservations of various food and non-food items thatns of various food and non-food items that enter/leave the country. (author)

249

[The practice of using biologically active food supplements in foreign countries (for example of the United States of America)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The traffic analysis of biologically active food supplements on market in the United States of America is given. Existing law of the United States of America governing traffic of these supplements is indicated. PMID:21574470

Petrenko, A S; Sukhanov, B P

2011-01-01

250

SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION (SRI) Economic and Ecological Benefits of Improved production practice for Food Security and Resource Conservation  

OpenAIRE

Being the important ingredient of food basket of the common people, the declining productivity of rice and its per capita availability is a policy concern, which has a global connotation. System of rice intensification (SRI) is a relevant innovation, which increases production, reduces yield gap and ensures the household food security for the vulnerable section of small and marginal farmers. It has also tremendous potential for resource conservation; and important aspect for sustainability. T...

Barah, B. C.

2010-01-01

251

Food safety in hospital: knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing staff of two hospitals in Sicily, Italy  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Food hygiene in hospital poses peculiar problems, particularly given the presence of patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. Moreover, in nosocomial outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, the mortality risk has been proved to be significantly higher than the community outbreaks and highest for foodborne outbreaks. On the other hand, the common involvement in the role of food handlers of nurses or domestic s...

La Guardia Maurizio; Giammanco Marco; Giammanco Santo; Casuccio Alessandra; Buccheri Cecilia; Mammina Caterina

2007-01-01

252

Irradiation pilot plants and experimental facilities available for food preservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the ever-increasing world food crisis mankind has to face today, the prevention of spoilage of perishable food is gaining in momentum. The World Food Conference (Rome, November 1974) of the United Nations clearly recognized the importance of food preservation and urged action in this field. Irradiation is one of the recently discovered methods to preserve food. Its practical introduction largely depends on three main factors: (a) proof of the safety for human consumption of the irradiated product, (b) technological feasibility and (c) economic competitiveness of the process. As data on safety for consumption ('wholesomeness') continue to become available, the number of countries authorizing the irradiation of certain food items is growing (present total: 17 countries), and the same is true for the number of licensed irradiated commodities (total: 23). Under these conditions, testing of the technological and economic feasibility of food irradiation is a matter of increasing importance. Economic feasibility of any industrial operation can only be studied in larger-scale experiments. Thus, they can only be performed with radiation sources larger than those found in laboratories, i.e. in pilot irradiators, capable of handling from a few hundred to a few thousand kilograms of material within a short period of time. The Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has attempted to collect data on the availability, foed to collect data on the availability, for food preservation, of suitable irradiators in Member States

253

The TTC Approach in Practice and its Impact on Risk Assessment and Risk Management in Food Safety. A Regulatory Toxicologist's Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many substances in food and drinking water from different contamination sources for which only insufficient or no toxicity data exist. In order to prioritize and preliminarily assess the human health risks, the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) approach was developed between 1996 and 2004. This concept has since been applied increasingly by regulatory food safety authorities. In parallel, the safety of this approach has been discussed by stakeholders, primarily on a conceptual basis. However, real examples showing the practical benefits of this approach have not been discussed. In this paper, the technical feasibility, applicability, safety, and further benefits of the TTC approach are illustrated and discussed based on four real cases: 1) halogenated contaminants of unknown origin in the drinking water (polychlorinated butadienes), 2) an unwanted by-product from epoxy resin coatings in canned fish (Cyclo-di-BADGE), 3) two cyclic compounds occurring in polyamide food packaging materials and kitchen utensils, and 4) mycotoxins (from Alternaria). These examples from different fields of application clearly demonstrate that the results of the TTC approach are an extremely useful starting point for adequate decisions and actions (if necessary) by risk assessment and risk management in food safety. PMID:25437163

Brüschweiler, Beat J

2014-10-01

254

Food Chain & Food Web  

Science.gov (United States)

What are the differences and similarities between food chain and food web? Print (2) Garden Gate Print (1) Venn Diagram Garden Gate Venn Diagram Let's learn about the food chain and food web.Read the notes.Food Chain 4 Also, view more notes on food chain and food web. Go to the 7th title Food Chain which is before the Habitats and food chain title of the webpage.Food Chain Power Point Presentation Record what you learn ...

Ms. B

2011-10-27

255

Getting to grips with remote handling and robotics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report on the Canadian Nuclear Society Conference on robotics and remote handling in the nuclear industry, September 1984. Remote handling in reactor operations, particularly in the Candu reactors is discussed, and the costs and benefits of use of remote handling equipment are considered. Steam generator inspection and repair is an area in which practical application of robotic technology has made a major advance. (U.K.)

256

15 years of existence of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ICGFI essentially contributed to international dissemination of unbiased information about the advantages and risks of food irradiation. The body has issued ICGFI publications containing codes of good practice for a variety of purposes, as eg. for operation of irradiation facilities for the treatment of food (GIP), or guidelines for due handling of irradiated food (GMP). Training courses have been offered to scientists, especially from developing countries, as well as for inspectors of national supervisory authorities. The activities of the advisory group as well as the conditions governing future activities are discussed. (orig./CB)

257

Economics of Food Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To-day very reliable irradiation equipment is available, and for an industrialist it is largely an economic consideration whether he should go in for an otherwise acceptable irradiation processing. In Denmark an industrial concern has now found it economically justifiable to establish a multi-purpose industrial plant, equipped with an American linac, and this facility will be able to process food.l To date, few plants in the world have recorded actual cost experiences for industrial food processing, but cost figures from other fields may serve as a guide. In practical calculations it is convenient to divide the work into certain typical groups, e.g. facilities for ''bulk'', ''medium'', ''thin'', and ''multi-purpose'', but food products may come under any of these headings. Costs of irradiation depend on product properties, type of plant, annual and monthly quantities, doses, control standards, special requirements for re-packing or other additional handling, etc. Definite figures for a particular case must be based on an exact calculation, but for a preliminary judgement many general price-range indications are available to the industrialist, and for a variety of purposes it is already evident that irradiation processing is economically sound. Apart from plant economy it is advisable for the industrialist to study some general commercial problems also, such as consumer preference and marketing structure, for the commodity in question. This can often best be done by mauestion. This can often best be done by marketing a pilot production of some quantity, before final decisions are taken regarding major investments in highly-specialized equipment. For some products market testing has already been done with good results by existing research or production facilities, and indeed actual commercial marketing has been reported. In conclusion, many food irradiation processes seem to be promising from an economic point of view. (author)

258

A high intensity beam handling system at the KEK-PS new experimental hall  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We would like to summarize newly developed technology for handling high-intensity beams. This was practically employed in the beam-handling system of primary protons at the KEK-PS new experimental hall. (author)

259

Food irradiation seminar: Asia and the Pacific  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report covers the Seminar for Asia and the Pacific on the practical application of food irradiation. The seminar assessed the practical application of food irradiation processes, commercial utilisation and international trade of irradiated food

260

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

261

TRANSPORT/HANDLING REQUESTS  

CERN Multimedia

A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

Groupe ST/HM

2002-01-01

262

Remote handling at LAMPF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental area A at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) encompasses a large area. Presently there are four experimental target cells along the main proton beam line that have become highly radioactive, thus dictating that all maintenance be performed remotely. The Monitor remote handling system was developed to perform in situ maintenance at any location within area A. Due to the complexity of experimental systems and confined space, conventional remote handling methods based upon hot cell and/or hot bay concepts are not workable. Contrary to conventional remote handling which require special tooling for each specifically planned operation, the Monitor concept is aimed at providing a totally flexible system capable of remotely performing general mechanical and electrical maintenance operations using standard tools. The Monitor system is described

263

Remote handling machines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In nuclear power facilities, the management of radioactive wastes is made with its technology plus the automatic techniques. Under the radiation field, the maintenance or aid of such systems is important. To cope with this situation, MF-2 system, MF-3 system and a manipulator system as remote handling machines are described. MF-2 system consists of an MF-2 carrier truck, a control unit and a command trailer. It is capable of handling heavy-weight objects. The system is not by hydraulic but by electrical means. MF-3 system consists of a four-crawler truck and a manipulator. The truck is versatile in its posture by means of the four independent crawlers. The manipulator system is bilateral in operation, so that the delicate handling is made possible. (Mori, K.)

264

As principais evoluções dos comportamentos alimentares: o caso da França / Main evolutions in human food practices: French example  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Durante a segunda metade do século XX, o desenvolvimento econômico e as evoluções dos modos de vida ocasionaram modificações importantes nos comportamentos alimentares. Tais evoluções foram particularmente analisadas para o caso da França. Confrontadas a um contexto de abundância, as populações adot [...] aram uma conduta alimentar mais energética. Tal conduta resume-se, sobretudo, em um alto consumo de produtos de origem animal. Porém, entre grupos de indivíduos ricos e após um período de saturação, a atração pelo consumo desmedido tal produto, tornou-se menos intensiva. Novas preocupações orientadas à saúde e às formas de mantê-la em bom estado foram despertadas. O aumento do número de mulheres salariadas e o desenvolvimento das atividades de lazer alteraram a gestão do tempo empregado à alimentação. Na busca pelo ganho de tempo, os consumidores passaram a procurar por alimentos prontos para serem consumidos e a realizarem suas refeições fora do domicílio. As culturas alimentares não evoluem tão rapidamente como as transformações ocorridas em todo o sistema de oferta alimentar, com isso afirma-se que a industrialização, a internacionalização e as inovações de toda a cadeia agroalimentar geram ansiedades no consumidor. Todas essas transformações e tendências, que são observadas em países ricos, podem ser percebidas quando os comportamentos alimentares de populações ricas de países em desenvolvimento são analisados. Abstract in english Important modifications in consumer food habits were caused by both economic development and evolutions in life style during the second part of the XX century. These evolutions were analyzed, in particular, in the case of France. Easy accessibility to food (abundance context) led the populations to [...] adopt high caloric food intakes, such conduct resulting, above all, in an elevated consumption of products of animal origin. However, after a period of saturation, the unlimited attraction to the consumption of such products became less intense amongst the richer, more privileged social groups. New, health oriented concerns, and ways to maintain good health became important. The rise in the number of women earning salaries and the development of leisure activities altered the management of time with respect to feeding. Aiming at gaining time, the consumers concentrated more on ready-to-eat foods and eating out of the home. However the food cultures failed to evolve as quickly as the transformations occurring in the food marketing system, and thus it can be affirmed that industrialization, internationalization and innovations throughout the whole agro-food chain led to consumer anxiety. All such transformations and tendencies observed in the rich countries can also be perceived in the food habits of rich populations in developing countries.

Jean Louis, Lambert; Mário Otávio, Batalha; Renato Luiz, Sproesser; Andréa Lago da, Silva; Thelma, Lucchese.

2005-10-01

265

Oficinas de boas práticas de fabricação: construindo estratégias para garantir a segurança alimentar / Workshops for good manufacturing practices: building strategies for ensuring food security  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A comercialização de alimentos tradicionais resgata a história e a cultura presentes nos alimentos. Os pescadores artesanais são os principais responsáveis pelo abastecimento do mercado nacional. Considerando-se a importância da adoção de procedimentos de Boas Práticas de Fabricação em toda cadeia p [...] rodutiva, o presente trabalho visa a socializar uma experiência construtiva de uma oficina de Boas Práticas de Fabricação para pescadoras. Diante disso, realizou-se um levantamento de conceitos e atitudes voltadas para produção segura de alimentos, utilizando-se como instrumento entrevistas, além da observação de seus hábitos e atitudes. Os resultados evidenciam que estas pescadoras percebem as Boas Práticas de Fabricação como sinônimo de higiene e de poder comercializar o pescado sem reclamações; porém, as mesmas não têm noção dos procedimentos de Boas Práticas de Fabricação na sua atividade. O processo formativo se constitui como uma das estratégias de base para consolidação dos grupos, sendo as oficinas alternativas eficientes, de fácil execução e baixo custo. Abstract in english The marketing of traditional foods recalls the history and culture in feeding. The fishermen are primarily responsible for supplying the domestic market. Considering the importance of adopting procedures for Good Manufacturing Practices throughout the production chain, this paper aims to socialize a [...] constructive experience of a Good Manufacturing Practices workshop for fishers. Therefore, we carried out a survey of concepts and attitudes towards safe food production, using interviews as an instrument, and are observed their habits and attitudes. The results show that these Good Manufacturing Practices perceive as synonymous with health and able to market the fish without complaint, but they are not aware of the procedures for Good Manufacturing Practices activities. The training process is constituted as one of the basic strategies for strengthening these groups, workshops efficient alternatives, easy implementation and low cost.

Tarcisio da Silva, Costa; Gabrielly Sobral, Neiva; Valéria Macedo Almeida, Camilo; Fernanda de, Freitas; Isabella de Matos Mendes da, Silva.

2012-05-01

266

Breaking Child Nutrition Barriers: Innovative Practices in Massachusetts School Breakfast, Summer Food, and After-School Snack Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the importance of breakfast, summer, and after-school child nutrition programs, coverage in these programs in Massachusetts is low. This report describes the barriers facing the states School Breakfast, Summer Food Service, and After-School Snack Programs and suggests many innovative solutions and resources that program sponsors can use to…

Hall, Bryan

267

Conservation practices for climate change mitigation and adaptation will be needed for food security in the 21st century  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been documented across the peer-reviewed scientific literature that the challenges that we will have during the XXI century such as climate change, depletion of water resources needed for agricultural production, and higher demand for food and fiber due to a larger global population, will pla...

268

Salt handling and hypertension  

OpenAIRE

The kidney plays a central role in our ability to maintain appropriate sodium balance, which is critical to determination of blood pressure. In this review we outline current knowledge of renal salt handling at the molecular level, and, given that Westernized societies consume more salt than is required for normal physiology, we examine evidence that the lowering of salt intake can combat hypertension.

O’shaughnessy, Kevin M.; Karet, Fiona E.

2004-01-01

269

Targeted interventions of ultra-poor women in rural Rangpur, Bangladesh: do they make a difference to appropriate cooking practices, food habits and sanitation?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to assess whether teaching good cooking practices, food habits and sanitation to ultra-poor rural women in four rural communities of Rangpur district, Bangladesh, with a high density of extremely poor households, would improve the overall health of the community. The sample size was 200 respondents combined from the target and control areas. In the target area, twelve in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were undertaken for knowledge dissemination. Descriptive and mixed-model analyses were performed. The results show that washing hands with soap was 1.35 times more likely in the target than the control group (p<0.01). Further, after intervention, there was a significant improvement in hand-washing behaviour: before cutting vegetables, preparing food, feeding a child and eating, and after defecating and cleaning a baby (p<0.05). Also, the target group was more likely to moderately and briefly boil their vegetables and were 19% less likely to use maximum heat when cooking vegetables than the control group (p<0.01). Improved knowledge and skills training of ultra-poor women reduces the loss of nutrients during food preparation and increases their hygiene through hand-washing in every-day life. PMID:24355498

Yeasmin, Lubna; Akter, Shamima; Shahidul Islam, A M; Mizanur Rahman, Md; Akashi, Hidechika; Jesmin, Subrina

2014-07-01

270

9 CFR 3.38 - Food and water requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling...animals shall have access to food and water or a type of food, which...adequate supply of food or type of food, which provides...adequate supply of food or type of food, which...

2010-01-01

271

9 CFR 3.63 - Food and water requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling...hours, they shall have access to food and water or a type of food, which...adequate supply of food or type of food, which provides...adequate supply of food or type of food, which...

2010-01-01

272

Alergia alimentar: atualização prática do ponto de vista gastroenterológico Food allergy: a practical update from the gastroenterological viewpoint  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Apresentar uma revisão atualizada e crítica sobre alergias alimentares, focando principalmente em tratamento e prevenção. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão da literatura publicada obtida através do banco de dados MEDLINE, sendo selecionados os mais atuais e representativos do tema (2000-2006. A pesquisa incluiu os sites da European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN e American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A prevalência de doenças alérgicas tem aumentado nas últimas décadas e alergia alimentar parece fazer parte desse aumento. Alergia alimentar é muito mais comum em pediatria e apresenta impacto médico, financeiro e social significativos em crianças menores e suas famílias. Tratamento e prevenção da alergia alimentar são desafios maiores do ponto de vista da saúde pública e para as comunidades médica e científica. Há muita informação incorreta e condutas médicas discutíveis nessa área. Apresentamos e discutimos as recomendações publicadas pelos Comitês de Nutrição da ESPGHAN juntamente com a Sociedade Européia Pediátrica de Alergologia e Imunologia Clínica (ESPACI e AAP. CONCLUSÃO: Excesso de diagnósticos de alergia alimentar é bastante prevalente. Há necessidade de uniformização de definições e procedimentos diagnósticos. O objetivo primário do manejo deve ser o de instituir medidas efetivas de prevenção das alergias alimentares. Há necessidade de métodos precisos para confirmar ou excluir o diagnóstico. Os pacientes necessitam tratamento apropriado através da eliminação de alimentos que causam sintomas, ao mesmo tempo evitando os efeitos adversos nutricionais e o custo de dietas inadequadas.OBJECTIVE: To present an up-to-date and critical review regarding food allergies, focusing mainly on treatment and prevention. SOURCES: Review of published literature searched on MEDLINE database; those data which were the most up-to-date and representative were selected (2000-2006. The search included the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased over the last decades, and food allergy seems to be part of this increase. Food allergy is much more common in pediatrics and has a significant medical, financial and social impact on young children and their families. Treatment and prevention of food allergy is a major challenge for public health, scientific and medical communities. There is a lot of misinformation and the medical management of this condition is still discussable. We present and discuss the guidelines regarding criteria for the prevention of food allergy and atopic diseases published by the Nutrition Committees of ESPGHAN jointly with the European Society for Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (ESPACI and AAP. CONCLUSION: The overdiagnosis of food allergy is quite prevalent. There is a need for standardization of definitions and diagnostic procedures. The primary goal of therapy should be to first establish effective means of preventing food allergies. There is a need for accurate diagnostic methods to confirm or rule out the diagnosis. Patients need appropriate treatment by eliminating foods that cause symptoms, while avoiding the nutritional side effects and the cost of inappropriate diets.

Cristina Targa Ferreira

2007-02-01

273

Alergia alimentar: atualização prática do ponto de vista gastroenterológico / Food allergy: a practical update from the gastroenterological viewpoint  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Apresentar uma revisão atualizada e crítica sobre alergias alimentares, focando principalmente em tratamento e prevenção. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão da literatura publicada obtida através do banco de dados MEDLINE, sendo selecionados os mais atuais e representativos do tema (2000-2006). A [...] pesquisa incluiu os sites da European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) e American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A prevalência de doenças alérgicas tem aumentado nas últimas décadas e alergia alimentar parece fazer parte desse aumento. Alergia alimentar é muito mais comum em pediatria e apresenta impacto médico, financeiro e social significativos em crianças menores e suas famílias. Tratamento e prevenção da alergia alimentar são desafios maiores do ponto de vista da saúde pública e para as comunidades médica e científica. Há muita informação incorreta e condutas médicas discutíveis nessa área. Apresentamos e discutimos as recomendações publicadas pelos Comitês de Nutrição da ESPGHAN juntamente com a Sociedade Européia Pediátrica de Alergologia e Imunologia Clínica (ESPACI) e AAP. CONCLUSÃO: Excesso de diagnósticos de alergia alimentar é bastante prevalente. Há necessidade de uniformização de definições e procedimentos diagnósticos. O objetivo primário do manejo deve ser o de instituir medidas efetivas de prevenção das alergias alimentares. Há necessidade de métodos precisos para confirmar ou excluir o diagnóstico. Os pacientes necessitam tratamento apropriado através da eliminação de alimentos que causam sintomas, ao mesmo tempo evitando os efeitos adversos nutricionais e o custo de dietas inadequadas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To present an up-to-date and critical review regarding food allergies, focusing mainly on treatment and prevention. SOURCES: Review of published literature searched on MEDLINE database; those data which were the most up-to-date and representative were selected (2000-2006). The search incl [...] uded the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased over the last decades, and food allergy seems to be part of this increase. Food allergy is much more common in pediatrics and has a significant medical, financial and social impact on young children and their families. Treatment and prevention of food allergy is a major challenge for public health, scientific and medical communities. There is a lot of misinformation and the medical management of this condition is still discussable. We present and discuss the guidelines regarding criteria for the prevention of food allergy and atopic diseases published by the Nutrition Committees of ESPGHAN jointly with the European Society for Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (ESPACI) and AAP. CONCLUSION: The overdiagnosis of food allergy is quite prevalent. There is a need for standardization of definitions and diagnostic procedures. The primary goal of therapy should be to first establish effective means of preventing food allergies. There is a need for accurate diagnostic methods to confirm or rule out the diagnosis. Patients need appropriate treatment by eliminating foods that cause symptoms, while avoiding the nutritional side effects and the cost of inappropriate diets.

Cristina Targa, Ferreira; Ernest, Seidman.

2007-02-01

274

Traditional Fish Handling and Preservation in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The time elapsing between lifting of the nets and delivery to the shore can vary with the distance that has to be covered. It can at times be a period of several hours. The fish, when brought aboard is usually more or less alive. It is stored simply on the bottom of the canoe, lying there in a pool of warm, dirty water. The fish is never gutted and freely exposed to the sun. Needless to say the product thus handled has an extremely short keeping period that could be improved by more hygienic handling and by keeping the fish in shade. The ultimate aim at least for the fish to be entered into the fresh fish trade should of course be to have the fish iced. The same applies to the handling after landing. No precautions are taken to prevent the fish from being covered with sand, leaves, sticks, etc. Better handling practices would be a prerequisite to the development of a fresh fish export trade towards the larger towns in the north and south. It is a well known fact that fishes' rigor mortis period lasts longest with fish kept at a low temperature and is also favourably influenced by killing the fish as soon as possible after catching; in other words by shortening its death struggle and avoiding chemical and enzymic deterioration after passing the rigor mortis period at the lowest possible level. It is recommended that future research tries to establish whether the relationship between killing the fish right after landing on board and a consequent extension of the rigor mortis period is of sufficient significance to be taken up in a programme of improvement of fish handling. Fish handling, filleting, fish preservation, chilling, super chilling, freezing, drying, smoking, salting and fermentation are reviewed in this article to provide information for improvement of culture fisheries management and practices in Nigeria.

C.C. Tawari

2011-11-01

275

Critical control points of complementary food preparation and handling in eastern Nigeria / Points de contrôle critiques dans la préparation et la manipulation des aliments de complément dans l’est du Nigéria / Puntos críticos de control en la preparación y manipulación de alimentos complementarios en el este de Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar la contaminación microbiana y los puntos críticos de control (PCC) en la preparación y manipulación de alimentos complementarios en 120 hogares del Estado de Imo (Nigeria). MÉTODOS: Se empleó el sistema de análisis de peligros en puntos críticos de control (HACCP) para investiga [...] r los procesos y procedimientos que favorecían la contaminación microbiana y el crecimiento y la supervivencia de los microbios, así como para identificar los puntos donde podían aplicarse controles a fin de prevenir, eliminar o reducir esos riesgos microbiológicos hasta niveles admisibles. Se sometieron a análisis microbiológico muestras de alimentos recogidas en diferentes etapas de la preparación y manipulación. RESULTADOS: Durante la cocción todos los alimentos alcanzaron temperaturas capaces de destruir las formas vegetativas de los patógenos de transmisión alimentaria. Sin embargo, el riesgo de contaminación aumentó al almacenar los alimentos a temperatura ambiente, cuando se usaron temperaturas insuficientemente altas para recalentar el alimento, y al añadir ingredientes - por ejemplo cangrejo seco molido o soja en polvo - contaminados en etapas tras las cuales no se aplicaba ningún tratamiento térmico. La compra en mercados de alimentos e ingredientes crudos, especialmente de akamu, contaminados también constituye un PCC. CONCLUSIÓN: Aunque un entorno insalubre acarrea muchos peligros para la alimentación de los niños, si se observan los principios básicos de inocuidad de los alimentos es posible asegurar la calidad higiénica de los alimentos preparados. Cuando la contaminación es el resultado de muchos factores, la identificación de los PCC resulta especialmente importante y puede facilitar la adecuada focalización de los recursos y de las actividades de prevención. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate microbial contamination and critical control points (CCPs) in the preparation and handling of complementary foods in 120 households in Imo state, Nigeria. METHODS: The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach was used to investigate processes and procedures t [...] hat contributed to microbial contamination, growth and survival, and to identify points where controls could be applied to prevent or eliminate these microbiological hazards or reduce them to acceptable levels. Food samples were collected and tested microbiologically at different stages of preparation and handling. FINDINGS: During cooking, all foods attained temperatures capable of destroying vegetative forms of food-borne pathogens. However, the risk of contamination increased by storage of food at ambient temperature, by using insufficiently high temperatures to reheat the food, and by adding contaminated ingredients such as dried ground crayfish and soybean powder at stages where no further heat treatment was applied. The purchasing of contaminated raw foodstuffs and ingredients, particularly raw akamu, from vendors in open markets is also a CCP. CONCLUSION: Although an unsafe environment poses many hazards for children’s food, the hygienic quality of prepared food can be assured if basic food safety principles are observed. When many factors contribute to food contamination, identification of CCPs becomes particularly important and can facilitate appropriate targeting of resources and prevention efforts.

John E., Ehiri; Marcel C., Azubuike; Collins N., Ubbaonu; Ebere C., Anyanwu; Kasimir M., Ibe; Michael O., Ogbonna.

276

Experimental remote handling systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental mobile work system and a manipulator support system have been constructed to study various problems in remote handling systems such as control, communication, viewing, man-machine interface, etc. The mobile work system consists of the mobile work station which includes an electrical manipulator, a TV camera, a sub-computer, a servo-control unit, batteries, etc. which are mounted on a crawler-type vehicle and the master control station which includes a control panel, a main computer, a master arm, a TV monitor, etc. The manipulator support system is aimed at supporting a manipulator in a reactor vessel and is a tripedal mechanism which has three independently extensible legs for horizontal support. Other experimental remote handling systems are also being constructed or planned

277

The Vermicelli and Capellini Handling Tests: Simple quantitative measures of dexterous forepaw function in rats and mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous characterizations of rodent eating behavior have revealed that they use coordinated forepaw movements to manipulate food pieces. We have extended upon this work to develop a simple quantitative measure of forepaw dexterity that is sensitive to lateralized impairments and age-dependent changes. Rodents learn skillful forepaw and digit movements to manage thin pasta pieces, which they eagerly consume. We have previously described methods for quantifying vermicelli handling in rats and showed that the measures are very sensitive to forelimb impairments resulting from unilateral ischemic lesions, middle cerebral artery occlusions and unilateral striatal dopamine depletion [Allred, R.P., Adkins, D.L., Woodlee, M.T., Husbands, L.C., Maldonado M.A., Kane, J.R., Schallert, T. & Jones, T.A. The Vermicelli Handling Test: a simple quantitative measure of dexterous forepaw function in rats. J. Neurosci. Methods 170, 229-244 (2008)]. Here we present a more detailed protocol for this test in rats and compare it with a newly developed version for mice, the Capellini Handling Test. Rats and mice are videotaped while handling short lengths of uncooked vermicelli or capellini pasta, respectively, with a camera positioned to optimize the view of paw movements. Slow motion video playback allows for the identification of forepaw adjustments, defined as any distinct removal and replacement of the paw, or of any number of digits, on the pasta piece after eating commences. Forepaw adjustments per piece are averaged over trials per each testing session. Repeated testing permits sensitive quantitative analysis of changes in forepaw dexterity over time. Protocols for pre-testing habituation and handling practice, as well as procedures for characterizing atypical handling patterns, are described. Because rats and mice perform the pasta handling tests slightly differently, species-specific differences in administration and scoring of these tests are highlighted. All animal use was in accordance with protocols approved by the University of Texas at Austin Animal Care and Use Committee. PMID:20689506

Tennant, Kelly A.; Asay, Aaron L.; Allred, Rachel P.; Ozburn, Angela R.; Kleim, Jeffrey A.; Jones, Theresa A.

2010-01-01

278

Solid waste handling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

Parazin, R.J.

1995-05-31

279

Handling Algebraic Effects  

OpenAIRE

Algebraic effects are computational effects that can be represented by an equational theory whose operations produce the effects at hand. The free model of this theory induces the expected computational monad for the corresponding effect. Algebraic effects include exceptions, state, nondeterminism, interactive input/output, and time, and their combinations. Exception handling, however, has so far received no algebraic treatment. We present such a treatment, in which each han...

Plotkin, Gordon D.; Pretnar, Matija

2013-01-01

280

Food Service Worker. Supplemental Individualized Student Modules.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developed to supplement the food service worker modules published in 1977, this handbook provides fourteen additional individualized student modules. The topics included are as follow: (1) personal grooming; (2) safe handling of food and eating utensils; (3) setting up tables; (4) handling customers; (5) menus; (6) taking and placing the order;…

Hasty, Liswa E.; Bridwell, Terry B.

281

Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

1991-12-31

282

Uranium hexafluoride handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF6 from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride

283

Puck Handling Glovebox  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This project will disposition excess weapons grade plutonium in a solid ceramic form. The plutonium, in oxide powder form, will be mixed with uranium oxide powder, ceramic precursors and binders. The combined powder mixture will be milled and possibly granulated; this processed powder will then be dispensed to a (dual action) cold press where it will be formed into green (unsintered) compacts. The compact will have the shape of a puck measuring approximately 3 1/2'' in diameter and 1 3/8'' thick. The green puck, once ejected from the press die, will be picked up by a robot and transferred into the Puck Handling Glovebox. Here the green puck will be inspected and then palletized onto furnace trays. The loaded furnace trays will be stacked/assembled and transported to the furnace where sintering operations will be performed. Finally the sintered pucks will be off loaded, inspected and transferred onto Transfer Trays which will carry the pucks from the Puck Handling Glovebox downstream to subsequent Bagless Transfer Can (BTC) operations. Due to contamination potential and high radiation rates, all Puck Handling Glovebox operations will be performed remotely using robots and specialized automation

284

Torus sector handling system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A remote handling system is proposed for moving a torus sector of the accelerator from under the cryostat to a point where it can be handled by a crane and for the reverse process for a new sector. Equipment recommendations are presented, as well as possible alignment schemes. Some general comments about future remote-handling methods and the present capabilities of existing systems will also be included. The specific task to be addressed is the removal and replacement of a 425 to 450 ton torus sector. This requires a horizontal movement of approx. 10 m from a normal operating position to a point where its further transport can be accomplished by more conventional means (crane or floor transporter). The same horizontal movement is required for reinstallation, but a positional tolerance of 2 cm is required to allow reasonable fit-up for the vacuum seal from the radial frames to the torus sector. Since the sectors are not only heavy but rather tall and narrow, the transport system must provide a safe, stable, and repeatable method fo sector movement. This limited study indicates that the LAMPF-based method of transporting torus sectors offers a proven method of moving heavy items. In addition, the present state of the art in remote equipment is adequate for FED maintenance

285

Hygiene and Manufacturing Practices, Interagency Collaboration, and a Proposal for Improvement: A Case Study of Community Food Enterprise in Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports the current hygiene and manufacturing practices adopted in a women’s community enterprise (WCE for processing an herbal seasoning product in Sakon Nakhon Province, Thailand. A multidisciplinary team comprised researchers and inspectors from government agencies was formed to conduct interviews and evaluations by using a good manufacturing practice (GMP checklist. The results showed that the WCE did not pass the GMP standard. We formed an action plan to identify the requirements for GMP implementation. Non-compliance factors were delegated to each stakeholder for action and implementation. To achieve an action plan, the participation of every stakeholder is crucial.

Sudarin Rodmanee

2013-05-01

286

Operational semantics for signal handling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Signals are a lightweight form of interprocess communication in Unix. When a process receives a signal, the control flow is interrupted and a previously installed signal handler is run. Signal handling is reminiscent both of exception handling and concurrent interleaving of processes. In this paper, we investigate different approaches to formalizing signal handling in operational semantics, and compare them in a series of examples. We find the big-step style of operational semantics to be well suited to modelling signal handling. We integrate exception handling with our big-step semantics of signal handling, by adopting the exception convention as defined in the Definition of Standard ML. The semantics needs to capture the complex interactions between signal handling and exception handling.

Maxim Strygin

2012-08-01

287

CLINICAL WASTE HANDLING AND OBSTACLES IN MALAYSIA  

OpenAIRE

As in many other developing countries, the generation of clinical waste in Malaysia has increased significantly over the last few decades. Even though the serious impact of the clinical waste on human beings and the environment is significant, only minor attention is directed to its proper handling and legal aspects. This study seeks to examine the management of clinical waste in Selangor’s government hospitals as well as problems that arise from the current practice of clinical waste manag...

Shaidatul Shida Razali; Mohd Bakri Ishak

2010-01-01

288

Alimentos funcionales: análisis de la recomendación en la práctica diaria Functional foods: analysis of the recommendation in the daily practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción:La investigación científica, la innovación tecnológica y la tendencia hacia lo saludable revolucionaron la industria alimenticia con el nuevo concepto de "alimentos funcionales". Surgen en Japón en los años 80 y actualmente el mercado internacional se encuentra en pleno auge. Los Licenciados en Nutrición, como nexo entre ciencia, industria y consumidor, constituyen una pieza clave y cumplen un rol fundamental en educación y asesoramiento.El objetivodel estudio fue establecer el nivel de conocimiento que poseen los Licenciados en Nutrición en éste área sobre el concepto de "alimento funcional", fuentes de información y capacitación utilizadas, recomendación y uso adecuado. Material y métodos:se realizó un estudio cualitativo, descriptivo y transversal. Se entrevistaron 57 Licenciados de Ciudad de Buenos Aires y Conurbano Bonaerense. Resultados:La mitad de los entrevistados tenía información previa sobre los alimentos funcionales y, aunque el 63% desconocía su definición, los identificaban correctamente. Los más nombrados fueron los diseñados. Las fuentes bibliográficas y medios de información más nombrados fueron: "Internet", "libros", "congresos". El 91% consideró importante conocerlos y/o usarlos por el beneficio a la salud y utilidad. El resto no los consideró importantes por ausencia de necesidad, falta de información y desconfianza. El 72% recomendaría alimentos funcionales entre los que destacan lácteos (con probióticos, fitoesteroles y omega 3, cereales, frutas y hortalizas (semillas de lino, chía, salvado de avena. Entre las causas de no recomendación destacan precio y rótulos poco claros. Existe un marcado interés sobre capacitación y uso adecuado. Conclusiones:Los conocimientos que poseen los expertos en nutrición sobre alimentos funcionales son claves ya que deben interpretar y "traducir" la información científica y de la industria a la comunidad en general, como fuentes confiables e idóneas. Asegurar información adecuada a la población permitiría facilitar elecciones saludables y mejorar la calidad de vida.Introduction: Scientific research, technological innovation and the ongoing trend towards healthy things revolutionized the food industry with the new concept of "functional foods". They emerged in Japan in the 80´s and nowadays, the international market is booming. Dietitians, as the link between science, industry and consumer, are a key piece and fulfill a fundamental role in education and advising. Theaimof this study was to establish the level of knowledge Dietitians have on the functional food concept, sources of information and training, recommendation and suitable use. Methods: A qualitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out. 57 Dietitians were interviewed in Buenos Aires City and Buenos Aires suburbs. Results:Half of the interviewed people had previous information on functional foods; although 63% did not know their definition, they identifed them correctly. The most named were the designed ones. The bibliography and means of information most named were: "Internet", "books", "congresses". 91% considered important to know them and/or use them due to health benefts and utility. The rest did not consider them important because of absence of necessity, lack of information and distrust. 72% would recommend functional dairies (with Probiotics, Phytosterol and Omega 3 and cereals, fruits and vegetables (fax seed, chia, oat bran. Among the causes of non-recommendation, Dietitians emphasize price and unclear labels. There is a strong interest in training and proper use. Conclusion: The knowledge of experts in nutrition on functional foods is key because they must interpret and "translate" the scientific and industrial information to the community as reliable and appropriate sources. The right information enables people to make healthy choices to improve their quality of life.

MV Millone

2011-03-01

289

Alimentos funcionales: análisis de la recomendación en la práctica diaria / Functional foods: analysis of the recommendation in the daily practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción:La investigación científica, la innovación tecnológica y la tendencia hacia lo saludable revolucionaron la industria alimenticia con el nuevo concepto de "alimentos funcionales". Surgen en Japón en los años 80 y actualmente el mercado internacional se encuentra en pleno auge. Los Licenc [...] iados en Nutrición, como nexo entre ciencia, industria y consumidor, constituyen una pieza clave y cumplen un rol fundamental en educación y asesoramiento.El objetivodel estudio fue establecer el nivel de conocimiento que poseen los Licenciados en Nutrición en éste área sobre el concepto de "alimento funcional", fuentes de información y capacitación utilizadas, recomendación y uso adecuado. Material y métodos:se realizó un estudio cualitativo, descriptivo y transversal. Se entrevistaron 57 Licenciados de Ciudad de Buenos Aires y Conurbano Bonaerense. Resultados:La mitad de los entrevistados tenía información previa sobre los alimentos funcionales y, aunque el 63% desconocía su definición, los identificaban correctamente. Los más nombrados fueron los diseñados. Las fuentes bibliográficas y medios de información más nombrados fueron: "Internet", "libros", "congresos". El 91% consideró importante conocerlos y/o usarlos por el beneficio a la salud y utilidad. El resto no los consideró importantes por ausencia de necesidad, falta de información y desconfianza. El 72% recomendaría alimentos funcionales entre los que destacan lácteos (con probióticos, fitoesteroles y omega 3), cereales, frutas y hortalizas (semillas de lino, chía, salvado de avena). Entre las causas de no recomendación destacan precio y rótulos poco claros. Existe un marcado interés sobre capacitación y uso adecuado. Conclusiones:Los conocimientos que poseen los expertos en nutrición sobre alimentos funcionales son claves ya que deben interpretar y "traducir" la información científica y de la industria a la comunidad en general, como fuentes confiables e idóneas. Asegurar información adecuada a la población permitiría facilitar elecciones saludables y mejorar la calidad de vida. Abstract in english Introduction: Scientific research, technological innovation and the ongoing trend towards healthy things revolutionized the food industry with the new concept of "functional foods". They emerged in Japan in the 80´s and nowadays, the international market is booming. Dietitians, as the link between s [...] cience, industry and consumer, are a key piece and fulfill a fundamental role in education and advising. Theaimof this study was to establish the level of knowledge Dietitians have on the functional food concept, sources of information and training, recommendation and suitable use. Methods: A qualitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out. 57 Dietitians were interviewed in Buenos Aires City and Buenos Aires suburbs. Results:Half of the interviewed people had previous information on functional foods; although 63% did not know their definition, they identifed them correctly. The most named were the designed ones. The bibliography and means of information most named were: "Internet", "books", "congresses". 91% considered important to know them and/or use them due to health benefts and utility. The rest did not consider them important because of absence of necessity, lack of information and distrust. 72% would recommend functional dairies (with Probiotics, Phytosterol and Omega 3) and cereals, fruits and vegetables (fax seed, chia, oat bran). Among the causes of non-recommendation, Dietitians emphasize price and unclear labels. There is a strong interest in training and proper use. Conclusion: The knowledge of experts in nutrition on functional foods is key because they must interpret and "translate" the scientific and industrial information to the community as reliable and appropriate sources. The right information enables people to make healthy choices to improve their quality of life.

MV, Millone; GF, Olagnero; EC, Santana.

2011-03-01

290

Using vignettes to tap into moral reasoning in public health policy: practical advice and design principles from a study on food advertising to children.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we describe a process for designing and applying vignettes in public health policy research and practice. We developed this methodology for a study on moral reasoning underpinning policy debate on food advertising to children. Using vignettes prompted policy actors who were relatively entrenched in particular ways of speaking professionally about a controversial and ethically challenging issue to converse in a more authentic and reflective way. Vignettes hold benefits and complexities. They can focus attention on moral conflicts, draw out different types of evidence to support moral reasoning, and enable simultaneous consideration of real and ideal worlds. We suggest a process and recommendations on design features for crafting vignettes for public health policy. PMID:25121818

Mah, Catherine L; Taylor, Emily; Hoang, Sylvia; Cook, Brian

2014-10-01

291

Food for Thought: A Critical Overview of Current Practical and Conceptual Challenges in Trace Element Analysis in Natural Waters  

OpenAIRE

The practical and conceptual challenges faced by the analysis of trace elements present in natural waters are not merely, as is often thought, an endless race towards lower detection limits or to the development of techniques allowing the determination of any possible chemical species formed by all chemical elements. Rather, as discussed in this paper, they include the development of (i) robust, cheap, and reliable methods that could also be used by laypeople (the experience gained in the dev...

Montserrat Filella

2013-01-01

292

Safe handling of radiopharmaceuticals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There has been tremendous growth in the number of industrial and medical institutions using radioisotopes produced in nuclear reactors. This is associated with potential hazards and dangers if appropriate precautions are not taken in handling these. Hence, an effective and meaningful control programme is a must to regulate situations involving potential exposure to radiation such as the production, uses, transport, storage and disposal of radioisotopes. Such regulatory control is generally aimed at protecting the workers and the public from dangers or risks related to ionizing radiation taking into account the net benefit derived. (author)

293

Cultural Eating Practices among Jordanians  

OpenAIRE

Culture has an enormous impact on individuals’ food choices and practices. This research aimed to screen cultural eating practices among Jordanians. Jordanian adults (N = 4750) completed a survey with regard to common eating practices in Jordan. Practices were classified into 4 themes, namely regular eating practices (7 practices), seasonal eating practices (4 practices), eating practices in social occasions (6 practices), and eating practices in religious occasions (10 practices). Interest...

Fwzieh Hammad; Omar Ershidat; Hala Bawadi; Zaid Al-Hamdan; Hiba Bawadi; Lana Agraib

2012-01-01

294

Percepción de la imagen corporal y prácticas alimentarias entre indígenas Mayas de Yucatán, México / Body image perception and food practices of Mayan indigenous of Yucatan, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue conocer la percepción de la imagen corporal y las prácticas alimentarias de indígenas mayas de dos zonas rurales de Yucatán, México. Se seleccionaron 10 familias por conveniencia hasta que se obtuvo el punto de saturación teórica, con un total de 8 mujeres y 2 hombres de [...] la comunidad de Xanláh (zona maicera), y 8 mujeres y 3 hombres de la localidad de Mucuyché (zona henequenera); se les pesó y midió para identificar el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC), dieta habitual y entrevistas en profundidad (cuya guía fue validada en un estudio previo) para conocer la percepción de la imagen. Las respuestas mostraron similitudes en ambas comunidades, el estar 'gordito' o 'gordita' forma parte de su contexto cultural y de la "normalidad" y, seleccionan los alimentos no por su valor nutritivo, sino por el estatus, reconocimiento y prestigio que dichos alimentos representan. Es indispensable que las políticas se orienten con estrategias pertinentes a los contextos sociales y culturales del país. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to assess body image perception and feeding practices of indigenous Mayan of two different rural areas of Yucatan. Eight men and 2 women from 10 families of the community of Xanlah (corn forming area) and 8 women and 3 men from another community called Mucuyche (Heneq [...] uen plantation) were selected; height and weight were measured to determine body mass index (BMI). Usual dietary practices and in-depth interviews were done to know their self-image perception. The answers showed similarities in both communities, being "chubby" is part of their cultural context and considered "normal" and food selection was not based on nutritional value, but on the status, recognition and prestige which these foods represent. It's essential that the nutrition policies are implemented with strategies that are pertinent to the social and cultural context of the country.

Odette, Pérez I; Damaris, Estrella.

2014-12-01

295

Food problems and food irradiation, recent trend  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food irradiation is to contribute to the stable security of foodstuffs which is the fundamental condition of human survival by improving the preservation of foodstuffs and food sanitation utilizing the biological effect due to irradiation. The research and development have been carried out internationally since 1950s, but after the safety declaration of irradiated foods in 1980 by the international organ concerned, the permission and practical use for foods in various foreign countries, the technology transfer to developing countries and so on have been advanced. At present, food irradiation is permitted in 38 countries, and the practical irradiation is carried out in 24 countries. In Japan, the irradiation of potatoes to prevent germination was permitted in 1972, and the practical irradiation on potatoes of yearly 15,000 t is carried out. In the near future, irradiated foods will appear in international foodstuff market, and Japan which imports foodstuffs must cope with them. Foodstuffs and the safety, food irradiation, the soundness of irradiated foods, food irradiation in various foreign countries and Japan, the trend of international organs and the criticism of food irradiation are reported. (K.I.)

296

Food irradiation makes progress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past fifteen years, food irradiation processing policies and programmes have been developed both by a number of individual countries, and through projects supported by FAO, IAEA and WHO. These aim at achieving general acceptance and practical implementation of food irradiation through rigorous investigations of its wholesomeness, technological and economic feasibility, and efforts to achieve the unimpeded movement of irradiated foods in international trade. Food irradiation processing has many uses

297

Vermicomposting of food waste  

OpenAIRE

The use of food waste recycling concept can be an interesting option to reduce the use of landfill. This strategy is more environmental friendly, cheap and fast if proper management to treat the food waste is applied. Nowadays, the concept of recycling is not well practice among the community. In this study, vermicomposting is introduced as an alternative of the food waste recycling. Vermicomposting consists of the use of earthworms to break down the food waste. In this vermicomposting treat...

Norzila Othman

2012-01-01

298

Prácticas alimentarias y significados de alimentos light de familias de un sector urbano de Bogotá / Feeding Practices and meanings of light foods in families of a bogota urban sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar las prácticas alimentarias y significados de alimentos light de familias de un sector urbano de Bogotá. Para ello se realizó un estudio descriptivo con la participación de 110 personas pertenecientes a 40 familias. Se elaboró una encuesta con [...] preguntas abiertas y cerradas que indagaba por aspectos demográficos, procesos de socialización alimentaria, prácticas alimentarias y consumo de alimentos light. Los principales resultados muestran que la alimentación es un espacio para compartir en familia donde la mamá es el eje central de la socialización del consumo alimentario y de inicio a la comensalidad. El alimento light lo definen las familias simbólicamente como nutriente y lo relacionan con lo dietético y lo ligero, con el placer de no contraer deuda de gordura. El significado funcional como medicina por su asociación con una mejor digestión, el aumento de las defensas naturales del cuerpo humano y un mejor estado de salud que orientan y fomentan prácticas de alimentación saludable. Abstract in english Abstract This research aimed to identify dietary practices and the meanings of light foods in urban families in Bogota. This descriptive study was conducted with the participation of 110 persons belonging to 40 families. A survey was developed with open-ended questions which asked for demographic, s [...] ocialization processes regarding food, food practices and light food consumption. The main results show that food is a space to share with family where mom is the backbone of the socialization of home food consumption and commensality. Light foods are defined by families symbolically as a nutrient, and they relate with diets and keeping a light weight, thereby with the pleasure of not becoming fat. Light foods also have a functional significance as medicines, due to their association with better digestion, increasing the body's natural defenses and better health status to guide and encourage healthy eating practices.

Carolina, Garzón Medina; Idaly, Barreto.

2013-01-01

299

Food hygienics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

300

CLINICAL WASTE HANDLING AND OBSTACLES IN MALAYSIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As in many other developing countries, the generation of clinical waste in Malaysia has increased significantly over the last few decades. Even though the serious impact of the clinical waste on human beings and the environment is significant, only minor attention is directed to its proper handling and legal aspects. This study seeks to examine the management of clinical waste in Selangor’s government hospitals as well as problems that arise from the current practice of clinical waste management. A depth interview with the responsible concession who handles the clinical waste management in those hospitals also has been taken. In general, it was found that the consortium’s administration was reasonably aware of the importance of clinical waste management. However, significant voids were presented that need to be addressed in future including efficient segregation, better handling and transfer means, as well as the need for training and awareness programs for the personnel. Other obstacles faced by consortiums were to handle the clinical waste including the operational costs. Waste minimizing and recycling, as well as the alternative treatment methods for incineration are regarded to be major challenges in the future.

Shaidatul Shida Razali

2010-12-01

301

Relationship between consumer food safety knowledge and reported behavior among students from health sciences in one region of Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was conducted to investigate the relationship between knowledge about food safety and actual food handling practices among Spanish university students (mainly from the health sciences disciplines) who usually prepare meals at home. Based on level of education in food safety topics, students were divided in three groups: high, which included students from Food Science and Nutrition; medium, which included students from other health sciences; and low, which included students from non-health-related studies. More than two thirds of the 562 people selected had an accurate knowledge of the eight foodborne pathogens included in the survey, but only 5.2% were able to identify Staphylococcus aureus as a foodborne pathogen. Significant differences in responses were found depending on educational level concerning the food safety topic. For food handling, up to 60% of the responses reflected accurate knowledge of proper storage of prepared meals and washing of hands and materials to avoid cross-contamination. However, with the exception of questions related to storage temperature, there was considerable difference between knowledge and reported behavior. Although 98.6% of the participants recognized the importance of hand washing before and during food preparation, only one quarter (24.4%) affirmed that they washed their hands with soap and water. On questions concerning food practices, more accurate answers were given by the older students. Women answered questions regarding cross-contamination more accurately, whereas men were more accurate in response to questions concerning temperature and food preservation. In general, students with more knowledge of food hygiene had better reported practices, but even these students reported some high-risk behaviors. These results confirm the need to improve educational programs, ensuring that the acquired knowledge actually modifies consumer behavior. PMID:16355835

Garayoa, Roncesvalles; Córdoba, María; García-Jalón, Isabel; Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Vitas, Ana Isabel

2005-12-01

302

Impact of traditional practices on food safety: a case of acute toxoplasmosis related to the consumption of contaminated raw pork sausage in Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of acute toxoplasmosis in an adolescent girl, almost certainly related to the consumption of raw sausage, is described. The girl suffered of fever and weakness and presented a swollen lymph node in the submandibular region. Serology analysis was positive for Toxoplasma gondii and excluded other infections. Further analysis, with avidity test and immunoblot, confirmed the acute toxoplasmosis. She reported that about a month before the appearance of the symptoms, she had eaten a piece of raw sausage while it was being prepared by her father. We analyzed sausage samples prepared from this same batch that had been frozen for later consumption, and they demonstrated evidence of T. gondii DNA when using a specific nested PCR assay. The sausage was prepared from the meat of a pig that had been backyard raised and slaughtered at home, a traditional practice in rural communities in many countries. The tasting of fresh prepared raw sausage is a common practice throughout Italy, and it could be a major cause for toxoplasmosis as suggested by the results of a questionnaire administered in the province of Palermo, Sicily. Contact with cats and, to a lesser extent, raw salad consumption were also referred to as presumptive causes for the symptomatic cases. Two additional cases of acute toxoplasmosis reported during questionnaire administration were alleged to have been caused by the consumption of fresh sausage made with the meat of a pig raised in the yard. Traditional practices in animal farming, and the processing of meat from animals raised in the backyard or meat from wild game animals, might have a big impact on food safety. PMID:24680078

Vitale, Maria; Tumino, Giovanni; Partanna, Samanta; La Chiusa, Stella; Mancuso, Giorgio; Giglia, Maria La; Presti, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo

2014-04-01

303

Implementation of a programme to market a complementary food supplement (Ying Yang Bao) and impacts on anaemia and feeding practices in Shanxi, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

In China, a full fat soy powder mixed with multiple micronutrient powders (Ying Yang Bao (YYB)) was developed, and the efficacy of YYB was shown in controlling anaemia and improving child growth and development. However, prior to 2008, there was no sustainable way to provide YYB to vulnerable populations, except through free distribution by the government. This study was to test the concept of public-private partnership (PPP) to deliver YYB and to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing YYB through PPP. Programme activities included development of a complementary food supplement (CFS) national standard, product concept test, product development and marketing, behavior change communication, monitoring and evaluation. Baseline and end-line surveys were used to evaluate product awareness, purchasing and the impacts of the project on anaemia and feeding practices. A Chinese CFS standard was approved. Caregivers and their 6- to-24-month-old children participated in the baseline (n=226) and the end-line survey (n=221). A concept test at the baseline survey showed that 78% of caregivers were willing to buy YYB at 0.1 USD. After developing the product and implementing the intervention for 8 months, 59.6% of surveyed caregivers purchased YYB. While not significant, the prevalence of anaemia was marginally lower at the end line (28.8%) than at the baseline (36.2%). For those purchasing YYB, the risk of anaemia was significantly reduced by 87% of odds (P<0.009). The end-line survey found that feeding practices had improved significantly following the intervention. An enabling policy and regulatory environment in which CFSs are defined and parameters for appropriate marketing are identified as a prerequisite for marketing YYB or other nutritious CFS. Public and private advocacy and marketing could successfully increase awareness of YYB and access and use through market channels. The YYB project may be effective for reducing anaemia and improving feeding practices. PMID:21929638

Sun, Jing; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Shuaiming; Huang, Jian; Yang, Zhenyu; Huo, Junsheng; Chen, Chunming

2011-10-01

304

Handling and Transport Problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I. The handling and transport of radioactive waste involves the risk of irradiation and contamination. It is necessary to draw up special regulations governing the removal and transport of waste within the centres or from one centre to another, and to entrust transport to a group in charge of specialized teams. The organization, equipment and efficiency of such teams is then considered. II. Certain types of transport operation are particularly dangerous and require special transport units and fixed installations. This applies, in particular, to the disposal of highly radioactive liquids. A description is given of a composite transport unit, consisting of a towing vehicle, semi-trailer and tank holding 500 l of liquid with an activity of up to 1,000 c/l. The drawing-off of the liquid waste, routing of the transport unit and precautions to be taken are discussed. (author)

305

KUR spent fuel handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spent fuel elements of HEU (253 as of July 1997 and 389 as of April 2004) will be sent back to US by March 2006. In July 1997, the contract (No. DE-AC09-97SR18907) was completed between DOE and Kyoto University. One or two casks will be made in 1998 and the shipment will start in 1999. So many paper works and negotiations with the Government of Japan and the local governments have been aggressively executed by committee members of Spent Fuel Countermeasure. One of the highlights is to find a port of shipment. Technical and political problems including public acceptance are to be solved. In this paper, mainly technical matters related to spent fuel handling are described. (author)

306

Handle with care  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A film dealing with transport of radioactive materials by everyday means - rail, road, sea and air transport - has been made for IAEA. It illustrates in broad terms some of the simple precautions which should be followed by persons dealing with such materials during shipment. Throughout, the picture stresses the transport regulations drawn up and recommended by the Agency, and in particular the need to carry out carefully the instructions based on these regulations in order to ensure that there is no hazard to the public nor to those who handle radioactive materials in transit and storage. In straightforward language, the film addresses the porter of a goods wagon, an airline cargo clerk, a dockside crane operator, a truck driver and others who load and ship freight. It shows the various types of package used to contain different categories of radioactive substances according to the intensity of the radiation emitted. It also illustrates their robustness by a series of tests involving drops, fires, impact, crushing, etc. Clear instructions are conveyed on what to do in the event of an unlikely accident with any type of package. The film is entitled, 'The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials', and is No. 3 in the series entitled, 'Handle with Care'. It was made for IAEA through the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority by the Film Producers' Guild in the United Kingdom. It is in 16 mm colour, optical sound, with a running time of 20 minutes. It is availaa running time of 20 minutes. It is available for order at $50 either direct from IAEA or through any of its Member Governments. Prints can be supplied in English, French, Russian or Spanish. Copies are also available for adaptation for commentaries in other languages. (author)

307

Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. FINDINGS: Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined as the passage of > or = 3 stools per day by 110 vendors (94.0%, but none associated diarrhoea with bloody stools; only 21 (17.9% associated diarrhoea with germs. The surroundings of the vending sites were clean, but four sites (3.4% were classified as very dirty. The cooking of food well in advance of consumption, exposure of food to flies, and working with food at ground level and by hand were likely risk factors for contamination. Examinations were made of 511 menu items, classified as breakfast/snack foods, main dishes, soups and sauces, and cold dishes. Mesophilic bacteria were detected in 356 foods (69.7%: 28 contained Bacillus cereus (5.5%, 163 contained Staphylococcus aureus (31.9% and 172 contained Enterobacteriaceae (33.7%. The microbial quality of most of the foods was within the acceptable limits but samples of salads, macaroni, fufu, omo tuo and red pepper had unacceptable levels of contamination. Shigella sonnei and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were isolated from macaroni, rice, and tomato stew, and Salmonella arizonae from light soup. CONCLUSION: Street foods can be sources of enteropathogens. Vendors should therefore receive education in food hygiene. Special attention should be given to the causes of diarrhoea, the transmission of diarrhoeal pathogens, the handling of equipment and cooked food, hand-washing practices and environmental hygiene.

Mensah Patience

2002-01-01

308

Handling S/MAR vectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonviral episomal vectors represent attractive alternatives to currently used virus-based expression systems. In the late 1990s, it was shown that a plasmid containing an expression cassette linked to a scaffold/matrix attached region (S/MAR) replicates as a low copy number episome in all cell lines tested, as well as primary cells, and can be used for the genetic modification of higher animals. Once established in the cell, the S/MAR vector replicates early during S-phase and, in the absence of selection, is stably retained in the cells for an unlimited period of time. This vector can therefore be regarded as a minimal model system for studying the epigenetic regulation of replication and functional nuclear architecture. In theory, this construct represents an almost "ideal" expression system for gene therapy. In practice, S/MAR-based vectors stably modify mammalian cells with efficiencies far below those of virus-based constructs. Consequently, they have not yet found application in gene therapy trials. Furthermore, S/MAR vector systems are not trivial to handle and several critical technical issues have to be considered when modifying these vectors for various applications. PMID:22661441

Hagedorn, Claudia; Baiker, Armin; Postberg, Jan; Ehrhardt, Anja; Lipps, Hans J

2012-06-01

309

Food Poisoning  

Science.gov (United States)

... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have ...

310

Evaluation of the food safety training for food handlers in restaurant operations  

OpenAIRE

This study examined the extent of improvement of food safety knowledge and practices of employee through food safety training. Employee knowledge and practice for food safety were evaluated before and after the food safety training program. The training program and questionnaires for evaluating employee knowledge and practices concerning food safety, and a checklist for determining food safety performance of restaurants were developed. Data were analyzed using the SPSS program. Twelve restaur...

Park, Sung-hee; Kwak, Tong-kyung; Chang, Hye-ja

2010-01-01

311

Evaluative Practices in the Culinary Field : A Case of Restaurant Rankings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper is concerned with evaluative practices within the culinary field. The focus is on the evaluative practices performed by two restaurant ranking systems, respectively the Michelin Red Guide system handled by the French tire manufacturer Michelin and the San Pellegrino ’World’s 50 Best Restaurant’ list organized by the English based Restaurant Magazine. Both ranking systems evaluate and rate restaurants (judging their food, service, physical setting and so forth) but in different ways through different practices and means, and with somewhat different results.

Christensen, Bo; Strandgaard, Jesper

2011-01-01

312

Safe Handling of Hazardous Drugs  

OpenAIRE

Recommendations for the safe handling of hazardous drugs have been available for more than twenty years. Evidence for continued risk of occupational exposure is abundant; however, nurses' use of the recommended precautions is not universal. This may be related to a lack of information or to a lack of serious concern for the potential hazards. This article includes a discussion of current issues related to handling hazardous drugs in the workplace and a review of the history of safe handling g...

Polovich, M.

2004-01-01

313

Food for Thought: A Critical Overview of Current Practical and Conceptual Challenges in Trace Element Analysis in Natural Waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The practical and conceptual challenges faced by the analysis of trace elements present in natural waters are not merely, as is often thought, an endless race towards lower detection limits or to the development of techniques allowing the determination of any possible chemical species formed by all chemical elements. Rather, as discussed in this paper, they include the development of (i robust, cheap, and reliable methods that could also be used by laypeople (the experience gained in the development of field kits for As is discussed as an example from which similar developments for other elements may be drawn; (ii more environmentally-friendly methods (the current guiding criteria probably being too simplistic; and (iii methods making it possible to follow diel concentration changes and sharp concentration variations caused by the probable increase of heavy rainfall events. This paper also claims that neither the measurement of total concentrations (reliable methods are lacking for many elements of the periodic table of trace elements, as illustrated through the cases of Bi, Te, and Sb, nor chemical speciation analysis, are as mature as often thought. In particular, chemical speciation studies demand the development of a better, comprehensive conceptual framework. A trial is carried out to lay the basis of such a framework.

Montserrat Filella

2013-07-01

314

Trends in Modern Exception Handling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Exception handling is nowadays a necessary component of error proof information systems. The paper presents overview of techniques and models of exception handling, problems connected with them and potential solutions. The aspects of implementation of propagation mechanisms and exception handling, their effect on semantics and general program efficiency are also taken into account. Presented mechanisms were adopted to modern programming languages. Considering design area, formal methods and formal verification of program properties we can notice exception handling mechanisms are weakly present what makes a field for future research.

Marcin Kuta

2003-01-01

315

9 CFR 354.120 - Manner of handling products in an official plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Manner of handling products in an official plant. 354.120 Section 354.120 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF...

2010-01-01

316

Unvented Drum Handling Plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This drum-handling plan proposes a method to deal with unvented transuranic drums encountered during retrieval of drums. Finding unvented drums during retrieval activities was expected, as identified in the Transuranic (TRU) Phase I Retrieval Plan (HNF-4781). However, significant numbers of unvented drums were not expected until excavation of buried drums began. This plan represents accelerated planning for management of unvented drums. A plan is proposed that manages unvented drums differently based on three categories. The first category of drums is any that visually appear to be pressurized. These will be vented immediately, using either the Hanford Fire Department Hazardous Materials (Haz. Mat.) team, if such are encountered before the facilities' capabilities are established, or using internal capabilities, once established. To date, no drums have been retrieved that showed signs of pressurization. The second category consists of drums that contain a minimal amount of Pu isotopes. This minimal amount is typically less than 1 gram of Pu, but may be waste-stream dependent. Drums in this category are assayed to determine if they are low-level waste (LLW). LLW drums are typically disposed of without venting. Any unvented drums that assay as TRU will be staged for a future venting campaign, using appropriate safety precautions in their handling. The third category of drums is those for which records show larger amounts of Pu isotopes (typically greater than or equal to 1 gram of Pu). These are assumed to be TRU and are not assayed at this point, but are staged for a future venting campaign. Any of these drums that do not have a visible venting device will be staged awaiting venting, and will be managed under appropriate controls, including covering the drums to protect from direct solar exposure, minimizing of container movement, and placement of a barrier to restrict vehicle access. There are a number of equipment options available to perform the venting. The preferred option is to use equipment provided by a commercial vendor during the first few years of retrieval and venting. This is based on a number of reasons. First, retrieval funding is uncertain. Using a commercial vendor will allow DOE-RL to avoid the investment and maintenance costs if retrieval is not funded. Second, when funding can be identified, retrieval will likely be performed with minimal initial throughput and intermittent operations. Again, costs can be saved by using contracted vendor services only as needed, rather than supporting Hanford equipment full time. When full-scale retrieval begins and the number of drums requiring venting increases significantly, then use of the Hanford container venting system (CVS) should be considered

317

Unvented Drum Handling Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This drum-handling plan proposes a method to deal with unvented transuranic drums encountered during retrieval of drums. Finding unvented drums during retrieval activities was expected, as identified in the Transuranic (TRU) Phase I Retrieval Plan (HNF-4781). However, significant numbers of unvented drums were not expected until excavation of buried drums began. This plan represents accelerated planning for management of unvented drums. A plan is proposed that manages unvented drums differently based on three categories. The first category of drums is any that visually appear to be pressurized. These will be vented immediately, using either the Hanford Fire Department Hazardous Materials (Haz. Mat.) team, if such are encountered before the facilities' capabilities are established, or using internal capabilities, once established. To date, no drums have been retrieved that showed signs of pressurization. The second category consists of drums that contain a minimal amount of Pu isotopes. This minimal amount is typically less than 1 gram of Pu, but may be waste-stream dependent. Drums in this category are assayed to determine if they are low-level waste (LLW). LLW drums are typically disposed of without venting. Any unvented drums that assay as TRU will be staged for a future venting campaign, using appropriate safety precautions in their handling. The third category of drums is those for which records show larger amounts of Pu isotopes (typically greater than or equal to 1 gram of Pu). These are assumed to be TRU and are not assayed at this point, but are staged for a future venting campaign. Any of these drums that do not have a visible venting device will be staged awaiting venting, and will be managed under appropriate controls, including covering the drums to protect from direct solar exposure, minimizing of container movement, and placement of a barrier to restrict vehicle access. There are a number of equipment options available to perform the venting. The preferred option is to use equipment provided by a commercial vendor during the first few years of retrieval and venting. This is based on a number of reasons. First, retrieval funding is uncertain. Using a commercial vendor will allow DOE-RL to avoid the investment and maintenance costs if retrieval is not funded. Second, when funding can be identified, retrieval will likely be performed with minimal initial throughput and intermittent operations. Again, costs can be saved by using contracted vendor services only as needed, rather than supporting Hanford equipment full time. When full-scale retrieval begins and the number of drums requiring venting increases significantly, then use of the Hanford container venting system (CVS) should be considered.

MCDONALD, K.M.

2000-08-01

318

Procedure of safe handling with cytostatic drugs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Working group for safe handling with cytostatic drugs has been formed by the Ministry of Health, and it consists of professionals from IORS, Federal Bureau of Weights and Measures, Industrial Medicine, Institute of Hematology, Military Medical Academy, and Crown Agents. The aim of this working group is to prepare procedures for safe handling with cytostatic drugs, as well as program for educational seminar for nurses, medical technicians, and pharmaceutical technicians. The procedures will serve as a guide of good practice of oncology health care, and will refer to all actions that health care professionals carry out from the moment of drugs arrival to the pharmacy to the moment of their application. In the first segment of this procedure, general rules are given for working with cytotoxic agents, control for risky exposures, safe system of work, control of working environment, monitoring of the employees' health condition adequate protection in the working environment, protective equipment of the employees (gloves, mask, cap, eyeglasses, shoe covers, coats and chambers for vertical laminary air stream. Storing of cytostatics, procedure in case of accident, and waste handling and removal are also described in this segment. Fifty-three standard operational procedures are described in detail in the second segment. Training scheme for preparation of chemotherapy is given in the third segment - education related to various fields and practical part, which would be carried out through workshops, and at the end of the course participants would pass a test and obtain certificate. After the procedures for safe handling with cytostatics are legally regulated employer will have to provide minimum of protective equipment, special rooms for the drugs dissolving, chambers with laminar airflow, 6 hours working time, rotation of the staff working with drugs dissolving in intervals of every five years, higher efficiency, better health control. In conclusion this specific field of work requires great psychological and physical efforts, and know-how. When taking care of ourselves, we are taking care of the others, as well.

Kodžo Dragan

2003-01-01

319

Handling random errors and biases in methods used for short-term dietary assessment  

OpenAIRE

Epidemiological studies have shown the effect of diet on the incidence of chronic diseases; however, proper planning, designing, and statistical modeling are necessary to obtain precise and accurate food consumption data. Evaluation methods used for short-term assessment of food consumption of a population, such as tracking of food intake over 24h or food diaries, can be affected by random errors or biases inherent to the method. Statistical modeling is used to handle random errors, whereas p...

Rossato, Sinara L.; Fuchs, Sandra C.

2014-01-01

320

Alimentación del paciente de cáncer en fase avanzada y terminal: consideraciones éticas y recomendaciones prácticas Ethical and practical recommendations: How to food terminal and advanced stage cancer patents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo fundamental del tratamiento al paciente de cáncer en fase avanzada y terminal es alcanzar la mejor calidad de vida posible. Para ello se requiere una atención integral cuya base científica, filosófica y ética preserve, en el final de la vida, la dimensión humana. La eficiencia y eficacia de la atención depende de cuanto se adapte a las peculiaridades y condiciones concretas de cada paciente. Entre los síntomas que inciden con mayor frecuencia en estos pacientes se encuentra la anorexia, la que tiene consecuencias no sólo físicas sino que afecta otras esferas de la vida personal del enfermo. Se exponen las posibles causas de la anorexia, se plantean algunas consideraciones éticas en torno a la alimentación de estos pacientes y se brindan recomendaciones prácticas encaminadas a lograr un manejo adecuado de la alimentación que contribuya a mantener una calidad de vida aceptable en esta etapa de la vida.The main objective of the treatment to the cancer patient in advanced and terminal phases is to reach to the possible best quality of life. For this an integral attention is required, which scientific, philosophical and ethics base preserves, in the end of life, the human dimension. The efficiency and effectiveness of attention depends on how much attention is adapted to each patient's peculiarities and concrete conditions. Among the symptoms that more frequently impact in this patients is the anorexia, that not only carries physical consequences, but rather it anorexia are exposed, some ethical considerations around the feeding of these patients and practical recommendations are offered, guided to achieve an appropriate handling of the feeding that contributes to maintain an acceptable quality of life in this stage

Ángela J Suárez Pérez

2006-08-01

321

Colonic potassium handling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Homeostatic control of plasma K+ is a necessary physiological function. The daily dietary K+ intake of approximately 100 mmol is excreted predominantly by the distal tubules of the kidney. About 10% of the ingested K+ is excreted via the intestine. K+ handling in both organs is specifically regulated by hormones and adapts readily to changes in dietary K+ intake, aldosterone and multiple local paracrine agonists. In chronic renal insufficiency, colonic K+ secretion is greatly enhanced and becomes an important accessory K+ excretory pathway. During severe diarrheal diseases of different causes, intestinal K+ losses caused by activated ion secretion may become life threatening. This topical review provides an update of the molecular mechanisms and the regulation of mammalian colonic K+ absorption and secretion. It is motivated by recent results, which have identified the K+ secretory ion channel in the apical membrane of distal colonic enterocytes. The directed focus therefore covers the role of the apical Ca2+and cAMP-activated BK channel (KCa1.1) as the apparently only secretory K+ channel in the distal colon.

SØrensen, Mads Vaarby; Matos, Joana E.

2010-01-01

322

TFTR tritium handling concepts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, to be located on the Princeton Forrestal Campus, is expected to operate with 1 to 2.5 MA tritium--deuterium plasmas, with the pulses involving injection of 50 to 150 Ci (5 to 16 mg) of tritium. Attainment of fusion conditions is based on generation of an approximately 1 keV tritium plasma by ohmic heating and conversion to a moderately hot tritium--deuterium ion plasma by injection of a ''preheating'' deuterium neutral beam (40 to 80 keV), followed by injection of a ''reacting'' beam of high energy neutral deuterium (120 to 150 keV). Additionally, compressions accompany the beam injections. Environmental, safety and cost considerations led to the decision to limit the amount of tritium gas on-site to that required for an experiment, maintaining all other tritium in ''solidified'' form. The form of the tritium supply is as uranium tritide, while the spent tritium and other hydrogen isotopes are getter-trapped by zirconium--aluminum alloy. The issues treated include: (1) design concepts for the tritium generator and its purification, dispensing, replenishment, containment, and containment--cleanup systems; (2) features of the spent plasma trapping system, particularly the regenerable absorption cartridges, their integration into the vacuum system, and the handling of non-getterables; (3) tritium permeation through the equipment and the anticipated releases to the environment; (4) overview of the tritium related ventilation systems; and (5) design bases for the facility's tritium clean-up systems

323

Remote handling and accelerators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The high-current levels of contemporary and proposed accelerator facilities induce radiation levels into components, requiring consideration be given to maintenance techniques that reduce personnel exposure. Typical components involved include beamstops, targets, collimators, windows, and instrumentation that intercepts the direct beam. Also included are beam extraction, injection, splitting, and kicking regions, as well as purposeful spill areas where beam tails are trimmed and neutral particles are deposited. Scattered beam and secondary particles activate components all along a beamline such as vacuum pipes, magnets, and shielding. Maintenance techniques vary from ''hands-on'' to TV-viewed operation using state-of-the art servomanipulators. Bottom- or side-entry casks are used with thimble-type target and diagnostic assemblies. Long-handled tools are operated from behind shadow shields. Swinging shield doors, unstacking block, and horizontally rolling shield roofs are all used to provide access. Common to all techniques is the need to make operations simple and to provide a means of seeing and reaching the area

324

Remote handling and accelerators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The high-current levels of contemporary and proposed accelerator facilities induce radiation levels into components, requiring consideration be given to maintenance techniques that reduce personnel exposure. Typical components involved include beamstops, targets, collimators, windows, and instrumentation that intercepts the direct beam. Also included are beam extraction, injection, splitting, and kicking regions, as well as purposeful spill areas where beam tails are trimmed and neutral particles are deposited. Scattered beam and secondary particles activate components all along a beamline such as vacuum pipes, magnets, and shielding. Maintenance techniques vary from hands-on to TV-viewed operation using state-of-the-art servomanipulators. Bottom- or side-entry casks are used with thimble-type target and diagnostic assemblies. Long-handled tools are operated from behind shadow shields. Swinging shield doors, unstacking block, and horizontally rolling shield roofs are all used to provide access. Common to all techniques is the need to make operations simple and to provide a means of seeing and reaching the area

325

Autoconsumo e segurança alimentar: a agricultura familiar a partir dos saberes e práticas da alimentação Self-consumption and food security: family agriculture based on eating knowledge and practices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e analisar as classificações e representações da alimentação, bem como as práticas de produção e consumo de alimentos entre agricultores e agricultoras da região do Vale do Taquari (Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Os dados e as informações foram obtidos a partir de entrevistas e observação participante, orientadas por um esquema metodológico qualitativo. Participaram da pesquisa, realizada em 2004 e 2005, 48 famílias rurais, de três diferentes localidades. Os recursos teórico-analíticos utilizados foram os da antropologia da alimentação e da abordagem da reciprocidade. RESULTADOS: Entre as famílias estudadas é significativa a produção de alimentos para autoconsumo, sendo as mulheres as principais responsáveis por sua obtenção. As práticas alimentares, embora tenham sofrido modificações, em função da modernização da agricultura e da incorporação de produtos industrializados, guardam especificidades locais e estão relacionadas a diversas expressões de sociabilidade, como a circulação de alimentos e a realização de festas comunitárias, que, impregnadas por simbolismos, atualizam um modo de vida e têm garantido segurança alimentar. CONCLUSÃO: As práticas de produção para autoconsumo das famílias estudadas estão associadas à sua segurança alimentar e, desse modo, às suas estratégias de reprodução social. A circulação de alimentos e as escolhas alimentares expressam relações de sociabilidade e de identidade nas comunidades rurais estudadas. Aspectos socioculturais e distintos níveis de relações sociais apresentam-se em transformação, podendo colocar em risco a segurança alimentar das famílias. Tais processos inspiram a realização novos estudos.OBJECTIVE: To identify and to analyze eating classifications and representations as well the food production and consumption practices among farmers from Vale do Taquari (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: The data and information were collected from interviews and participatory observation, oriented by qualitative methods. The research involved 48 rural families from three different localities in 2004 and 2005. The theoretical and analytical resources were provided by food anthropology and reciprocity approach. RESULTS: The production of food for self-consumption among the studied families is significant and the main producers are women. Food practices have changed as a result of agricultural modernization and increased use of industrialized products, yet they maintain local specificity and are related to several expressions of sociability such as food exchanges and community parties. These are permeated by symbolisms that update the way of living and assure food security. CONCLUSION: The production practices for autoconsumption of the studied families are associated with food security and, in this way, to social reproduction strategies. Food exchanges and food choices express relationships of sociability and identity in the studied rural communities. Social and cultural aspects and different levels of social relationships are undergoing a transformation which may jeopardize the food security of the families. Such processes are inspiring new studies.

Renata Menasche

2008-08-01

326

7 CFR 1131.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.  

Science.gov (United States)

...true Commercial food processing establishment. 1131.19 Section 1131.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

2010-01-01

327

Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the ''Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study'' is to develop proposed design requirements for the repository Waste Handling System in sufficient detail to allow the surface facility design to proceed to the License Application effort if the proposed requirements are approved by DOE. Proposed requirements were developed to further refine waste handling facility performance characteristics and design constraints with an emphasis on supporting modular construction, minimizing fuel inventory, and optimizing facility maintainability and dry handling operations. To meet this objective, this study attempts to provide an alternative design to the Site Recommendation design that is flexible, simple, reliable, and can be constructed in phases. The design concept will be input to the ''Modular Design/Construction and Operation Options Report'', which will address the overall program objectives and direction, including options and issues associated with transportation, the subsurface facility, and Total System Life Cycle Cost. This study (herein) is limited to the Waste Handling System and associated fuel staging system

328

Exploring the association between household food insecurity, parental self-efficacy, and fruit and vegetable parenting practices among parents of 5- to 8-year-old overweight children  

Science.gov (United States)

Food insecurity may negatively impact children’s nutritional status by affecting parenting quality. Because parents have a strong influence on their children’s eating and food choices, examining the effects of food insecurity on parenting may provide important insights into obesity prevention effort...

329

A plan for the handling of externally contaminated livestock.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclear accidents and access to radiological weapons for terrorist organizations and countries with hostile intentions towards the United States are realistic scenarios in the current global landscape. A dispersion of radionuclides can result from a nuclear weapon detonation or from a nuclear accident occurring in facilities handling or using radioactive material, such as nuclear power reactors. Any target of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or an attack with a nuclear weapon and the surrounding area of a reactor accident could be subject to a significant amount of fallout and radioactive contamination. Therefore, a nuclear event in close proximity to agricultural areas will cause significant concern regarding the contamination of food products. In order to respond quickly and effectively to a large amount of contaminated agricultural products, such as livestock, a prepared and effective plan for handling and processing of these products is necessary. A protocol outlining the evaluation of and procedures for handling and processing radioactively contaminated livestock is proposed, to ensure safe animal food production and economic stability in the livestock industry in the wake of such a nuclear or radiological event. An evaluation of the salvageability of the contaminated livestock is performed based on the degree of exposure, the cost of decontamination, expected demand for food products, and economic impact to the owner/producer. Important factors that impact the salvageability of affected livestock are listed and analyzed to support the decision process for handling contaminated animals. PMID:21968824

McMillan, Dayton; Johnson, Thomas; Guo, Yuanqing; Brandl, Alexander

2011-11-01

330

Trends in Bone Morphogenetic Protein Usage since the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Advisory in 2008: What Happens to Physician Practices When the Food and Drug Administration Issues an Advisory?  

Science.gov (United States)

Study Design?Retrospective cross-sectional study of spinal procedures from 2002 to 2010 using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. Objective?To determine the patterns of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) usage in fusion surgery before and after the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2008 advisory for the anterior cervical spine to understand how advisories affect U.S. physician practices. Methods?Procedures were identified through International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision procedure codes and were plotted over time based on fusion procedure type, site, and area of fusion. U.S. national trends were approximated by polynomial regression analysis. Results?The majority of the data trends of BMP usage reflect a second-order polynomial model. BMP usage in anterior cervical spine fusion procedures plateaued during the fourth quarter of 2007. The most apparent change in trend was noted in BMP usage pre- and postadvisory in the analysis of anterior cervical spine fusions. BMP percentage of use decreased in this area by 5% from the time of the FDA advisory to the fourth quarter of 2010. Conclusions?The decrease in BMP usage in anterior cervical spinal fusion procedures coincided with the timing of the FDA advisory. The fact that BMP continued to be used in cervical spine fusion procedures, even at lower rates, despite the advisory, may reflect the availability of new clinical information that could lessen complications (i.e., lower BMP dose, perioperative steroids, BMP containment). Furthermore, factors like the natural ceiling effect of use or demand for new technology, complications, prohibitive institutional costs, access to information, and insurance compensation may have all contributed to the BMP usage trends observed. PMID:25072000

Mckie, Janay; Qureshi, Sheeraz; Iatridis, James; Egorova, Natalia; Cho, Samuel; Hecht, Andrew

2014-06-01

331

Who regulates food? Australians' perceptions of responsibility for food safety.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food scares have diminished trust in public institutions to guarantee food safety. Food governance after the food scare era is concerned with institutional independence and transparency leading to a hybrid of public and private sector management and to mechanisms for consumer involvement in food governance. This paper explores Australian consumers' perceptions of who is, and should be responsible for food safety. Forty-seven participants were interviewed as part of a larger study on trust in the food system. Participants associate food governance with government, industry, and the individual. While few participants can name the national food regulator, there is a strong belief that the government is responsible for regulating the quality and safety of food. Participants are wary of the role of the food industry in food safety, believing that profit motives will undermine effective food regulation. Personal responsibility for food safety practices was also identified. While there are fewer mechanisms for consumer involvement and transparency built into the food governance system, Australian consumers display considerable trust in government to protect food safety. There is little evidence of the politicisation of food, reflecting a level of trust in the Australian food governance system that may arise from a lack of exposure to major food scares. PMID:21138703

Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul

2010-01-01

332

Remote handling devices in MLF  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The experimental facilities at J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) include the Materials and Life science Facility (MLF) with a JSNS (Japan Spallation Neutron Source). The main components of the JSNS need to be exchanged because of material damage due to proton and neutron irradiation. The irradiated components must be remotely maintained. Several kinds of areas, such as a hot-cell, are provided for remote handling operations. Several remote handling devices, such as a power manipulator (PM), master-slave manipulators (MSMs), a target exchange truck, a cutting device, a moderator exchange device, etc. have been installed. The commissioning tests for the remote handling devices are almost complete.

Kinoshita, Hidetaka [Neutron source section, Material and life science division, J-PARC center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)], E-mail: kinoshita.hidetaka@jaea.go.jp; Teshigawara, Makoto; Ito, Manabu; Takagiwa, Katsunori; Meigo, Shinichiro; Maekawa, Fujio; Kaminaga, Masanori; Futakawa, Masatoshi [Neutron source section, Material and life science division, J-PARC center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

2009-02-21

333

Factors affecting compliance with moving and handling policy: Student nurses' views and experiences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The limited literature available suggests that there continues to be poor compliance by nurses with moving and handling regulations [Swain, J., Pufahl, E., Williamson, G., 2003. Do they practise what we teach? A survey of manual handling practice amongst student nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing 12(2), 297-306; Jootun, D., MacInnes, A., 2005. Examining how well students use correct handling procedures. Nursing Times 101(4), 38-40; Smallwood, J., 2006. Patient handling: student nurses' views. Learning in Health and Social Care 5(4), 208-219; Cornish, J., Jones, A., 2007. Evaluation of moving and handling training for pre-registration nurses and its application to practice. Nurse Education in Practice 7(3), 128-134]. This paper presents the final phase of a study in which student nurses' reports of their experience in practice are drawn upon to identify possible reasons for a lack of compliance with moving and handling policy. Focus groups were conducted using a topic guide comprising themes generated from the previous two phases of this study; a questionnaire survey and unstructured interviews [Cornish, J., Jones, A., 2007. Evaluation of moving and handling training for pre-registration nurses and its application to practice. Nurse Education in Practice 7(3), 128-134]. Seventeen pre-registration students participated, representing adult, child and mental health branches from both Degree and Diploma programmes Examples of poor practice set the context for the students' experiences. Factors affecting both compliance with poor practice or compliance with moving and handling regulations leading to good practice, are identified. Methods for the management of difficult moving and handling situations are also revealed. The study informs future developments in training and support mechanisms for students in practice. PMID:19447074

Cornish, Jocelyn; Jones, Anne

2010-03-01

334

Fuel handling options for commercial fast breeder reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic requirements of a fast reactor fuel handling system are noted as well as some of the basic principles and how some of those principles are achieved in practice. Several fuel handling options are outlined and certain advantages and disadvantages illustrated, the most attractive systems for commercial exploitation are noted. Note is made of features and processes that could be developed in the future to assist in the further advancement of fast reactor fuel handling systems. It is concluded that with the increased commitment, particularly in Europe, to the development of large fast reactor systems, fuel handling and fuel cycle costs can be reduced and thereby make a contribution to the further exploitation of the fast reactor principle. (author)

335

Safety considerations when handling metal powders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Metal powder compaction offers unique advantages in the manufacture of net-shape components using techniques such as laser sintering, conventional press and sintering, metal injection moulding, direct rolling, direct forging, and hot isostatic pressing. If the output from the primary metal productio [...] n process is in powder form, then considerable cost and energy savings can be realized by direct conversion to semi-finished or final shapes. This possibility exists for titanium and possibly also for Ta, Zr, Hf, and Nb metals. However, these attractive benefits are associated with some significant risks. The high surface-to-volume ratio of powder particles coupled with the reactive nature of these metals means that special care must be taken when handling them. Powder explosions are unfortunately still a regular occurrence internationally and these often result in serious injury and loss of life. Even seemingly 'safe' compounds such as sugar, flour, and grain can be extremely hazardous when handled or milled and dust clouds are produced. In addition, exposure to airborne particles can have adverse effects on the human body, especially when particles are inhaled on a regular basis. Furthermore, the medical consequences of these are not fully understood, especially in the case of nanoparticles. The impact is often not observed immediately and debilitating illnesses may emerge only years or decades later. As far as is known, there are no South African guidelines for handling of metal powders. This paper attempts to provide an awareness of the risks associated with metal powders (including those produced indirectly by other metalworking/finishing operations) as well as some guidelines for their safe handling, based on international best practices.

J.M., Benson.

336

Food safety information and food demand  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze how news about food-related health risks affects consumers’ demands for safe food products. Design/methodology/approach – By identifying structural breaks in an econometrically estimated demand model, news with permanent impact on demand is distinguished from news with temporary impact. The Danish demand for pasteurized versus shell eggs is used as an illustrative case. Findings – Negative safety news about one product variety can provide significant stimulation to the demand for safe varieties. Severe negative news about the safety of shell eggs induces a permanent increase in the demand for pasteurized eggs, while more moderate negative news influences demand temporarily and to a lesser extent. There is, however, considerable variation in the response to food safety news across socio-demographic groups of consumers. Research limitations/implications – The study has focused on the demand for raw eggs. Responses to food safety news may differ across foods. Furthermore, the study abstracts from possible cross-effects of safety news concerning other foods. Practical implications – The findings may be utilized for optimization of the timing and targeting of food safety information campaigns. Originality/value – The paper combines information, food safety and econometric methods to analyze the cross-impacts between negative food safety news and the demand for safe foods.

Smed, Sinne; Jensen, JØrgen Dejgård

2005-01-01

337

The impact of food regulation on the food supply chain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, 'a hazard' is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that mark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer

338

The impact of food regulation on the food supply chain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, "a hazard" is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer. PMID:16483706

Aruoma, Okezie I

2006-04-01

339

Process gas handling and cleaning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book contains the proceedings of the International Symposium in Process Gas Handling and Cleaning. It is organized under the following headings: Research and development; System and equipment design; Equipment experience; Plant experience

340

Burning Issue: Handling Household Burns  

Science.gov (United States)

... exit disclaimer . Subscribe A Burning Issue Handling Household Burns Accidental burns can happen just about anywhere in your home, ... not always caused by fire. You might get burned by spilling coffee in your lap, touching a ...

341

Safe handling of radiation sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter discussed the subjects related to the safe handling of radiation sources: type of radiation sources, method of use: transport within premises, transport outside premises; Disposal of Gamma Sources

342

Order Handling in Convergent Environments  

CERN Document Server

The rapid development of IT&T technology had big impact on the traditional telecommunications market, transforming it from monopolistic market to highly competitive high-tech market where new services are required to be created frequently. This paper aims to describe a design approach that puts order management process (as part of enterprise application integration) in function of rapid service creation. In the text we will present a framework for collaborative order handling supporting convergent services. The design splits the order handling processes in convergent environments in three business process groups: order capture, order management and order fulfillment. The paper establishes abstract framework for order handling and provides design guidelines for transaction handling implementation based on the checkpoint and inverse command strategy. The proposed design approach is based in a convergent telecommunication environment. Same principles are applicable in solving problems of collaboration in fun...

Vrtanoski, Jordan

2012-01-01

343

Tritium handling in vacuum systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

Gill, J.T. [Monsanto Research Corp., Miamisburg, OH (United States). Mound Facility; Coffin, D.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1986-10-01

344

Safe handling of cytotoxics: guideline recommendations  

Science.gov (United States)

Background This evidence-based practice guideline was developed to update and address new issues in the handling of cytotoxics, including the use of oral cytotoxics; the selection and use of personal protective equipment; and treatment in diverse settings, including the home setting. Methods The guideline was developed primarily from an adaptation and endorsement of an existing guideline and from three systematic reviews. Before publication, the guideline underwent a series of peer and external reviews to gather feedback. All comments were addressed, and the guideline was amended when required. The guideline applies to health care workers who could come into contact with cytotoxic drugs at any point in the medication circuit. The intended users are hospital administrators, educators, and managers; occupational health and safety services; and pharmacy and health care workers. Results The recommendations represent a reasonable and practical set of procedures that the intended users of this guideline should implement to minimize opportunities for accidental exposure. They are not limited to just the point of care; they cover the entire chain of cytotoxics handling from the time such agents enter the institution until they leave in the patient or as waste. Conclusions Reducing the likelihood of accidental exposure to cytotoxic agents within the medication circuit is the main objective of this evidenced-based guideline. The recommendations differ slightly from earlier guidelines because of the availability of new evidence. PMID:25684994

Easty, A.C.; Coakley, N.; Cheng, R.; Cividino, M.; Savage, P.; Tozer, R.; White, R.E.

2015-01-01

345

Decontamination manual of RI handling laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on experiences in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the essential and practical knowledge of radioactive contamination and its decontamination, and the method and procedure of floor decontamination are described for researcher and managing person in charge of handling radioisotopes (RI) in RI handling laboratories. Essential knowledge concerns the uniqueness of solid surface contamination derived from RI half lives and quantities, surface contamination density limit, and mode/mechanism of contamination. The principle of decontamination is a single conduct with recognition of chemical form of the RI under use. As the practical knowledge, there are physical and chemical methods of solid surface decontamination. The latter involves use of inorganic acids, chelaters and surfactants. Removal and replacement of contaminated solid like floor material are often effective. Distribution mapping of surface contamination can be done by measuring the radioactivity in possibly contaminated areas, and is useful for planning of effective decontamination. Floor surface decontamination is for the partial and spread areas of the floor. It is essential to conduct the decontamination with reagent from the highly to less contaminated areas. Skin decontamination with either neutral detergent or titanium oxide is also described. (N.I.)

346

Food Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

... Learn more about food safety Resources for Nutrition & Health Food Groups & Related Topics Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods Dairy Oils Empty Calories Audiences Preschoolers Kids College Students ...

347

Evaluation of microbial loads and the effects of antimicrobial sprays in postharvest handling of California walnuts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in aerobic plate count (APC) and Escherichia coli/coliform count (ECC) of inshell walnuts and walnut kernels were evaluated during commercial harvest and postharvest handling. APC and ECC for inshell walnuts collected from the tree were 6 and 4 log CFU/nut, respectively; counts increased by 1 log during harvest and hulling and decreased by 1 log during drying. Application of up to 200 ppm peracetic acid after hulling with or without a subsequent 2% lauric arginate spray reduced APC and ECC by less than 1 log CFU/nut; counts were not significantly different from the water control. A decrease in shell integrity was evident after drying: visible shell damage increased from 4 to 47% of walnuts after drying. Counts on kernels extracted from visibly intact walnuts from the tree were near the limit of detection (1.7 log CFU/nut). These counts increased by at least 1.4 log CFU/nut after hulling for both thin- and hard-shell cultivars. Microbial populations were 1.6-2.2 log CFU/nut higher for kernels from walnuts with broken shells than for kernels from walnuts with visibly intact shells before, but not after, drying. A better understanding of how microbial populations are affected by postharvest handling practices is important in the development of walnut-specific food safety programs. PMID:25791001

Frelka, John C; Harris, Linda J

2015-06-01

348

Remote handling systems for nuclear engineering applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To protect the personnel handling radioactive substances in nuclear installations, especially shielding and suitable equipment, machines or systems for remote handling are used nowadays. The state of the art reached in remote handling in the Federal Republic of Germany is described on the basis of remote handling machines for nuclear power plants, remote handling systems in waste management plants and nuclear fusion installations, and of universal remote handling equipment. (orig.)

349

Naturally Occurring Food Toxins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States.

George A. Burdock

2010-09-01

350

Food irradiation experience in a large medical-products irradiator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent international and U.S. interest in irradiation as an alternative to chemical disinfestation has set the stage for pilot-plant food irradiation programs. Lessons learned in designing and operating large medical-product irradiators have significant value in designing plants for food irradiation. International Nutronics is utilizing its medic-products irradiation facility in Irvine, California, to gather data for extrapolation to full-scale agricultural product irradiator designs. Data generated to date show that excellent dose distribution and source utilization can achieved for product containers of a practical size. Extrapolation of these date to a field-located plant of 400 tons-day capacity has resulted in a cost-effective preliminary design capable of handling disinfestation at less than one cent per pound of product

351

Asthma, guides for diagnostic and handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper defines the asthma, includes topics as diagnostic, handling of the asthma, special situations as asthma and pregnancy, handling of the asthmatic patient's perioperatory and occupational asthma

352

A revolution in food preservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief consumer guide to food irradiation is presented. Aspects covered include some of the advantages of food irradiation compared to other methods of food preservation, the type of radiation used, the mechanism of action, some practical applications, safety and future benefits. (UK)

353

Specific requirements for public exposure in medical practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cause of radiation sources, by exposure to the public, has excluded all those medical and occupational exposures and exposure to natural background radiation normal, in the area. The main sources of public exposure that have found are: practices, discharges or spills, food or merchandise contaminated, chronic exposure scenarios (radon, NORM), waste management (predisposal management, storage, disposal). Public exposure can occur in two forms. One has been by procedure: transport, storage, handling of sources, radioactive waste, radioactive patient. The second has been per incident: transportation accidents, loss of sources, spread of contamination, unchecked pollution. (author)

354

Making Healthy Food Choices  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Students will see that food advertisements may not be the best information to use when deciding what to eat. They will investigate several resources for good information about foods and nutrition. Allow several weeks to complete this unit. UEN Core CurriculumStandard 1 Students will develop a sense of self. Objective 1 Describe and practice responsible behaviors for health and safety. a. Practice appropriate personal hygiene (e.g., bathe, wash hands, clean clothes). b. Describe the benefits of eating a variety of nutritious foods. c. Describe the benefits of physical activity. d. Describe substances that are helpful and harmful to the body. e. Practice basic safety and identify hazards. Making Healthy Food Choices #1 Task Definition - ...

Miss Fox

2011-12-15

355

Food additives  

Science.gov (United States)

Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

356

Cultural Eating Practices among Jordanians  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Culture has an enormous impact on individuals’ food choices and practices. This research aimed to screen cultural eating practices among Jordanians. Jordanian adults (N = 4750 completed a survey with regard to common eating practices in Jordan. Practices were classified into 4 themes, namely regular eating practices (7 practices, seasonal eating practices (4 practices, eating practices in social occasions (6 practices, and eating practices in religious occasions (10 practices. Interestingly, most nutritional practices during Ramadan and Eids (religious occasions were agreed upon from 100% of the participating sample. In conclusion, culture in Jordan has a huge influences eating practices and food choice. Negative culture’s influence over eating practices may exist, thus increasing awareness about unhealthy eating practices related to culture is necessary.

Fwzieh Hammad

2012-06-01

357

SRV-automatic handling device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Automatic handling device for the steam relief valves (SRV's) is developed in order to achieve a decrease in exposure of workers, increase in availability factor, improvement in reliability, improvement in safety of operation, and labor saving. A survey is made during a periodical inspection to examine the actual SVR handling operation. An SRV automatic handling device consists of four components: conveyor, armed conveyor, lifting machine, and control/monitoring system. The conveyor is so designed that the existing I-rail installed in the containment vessel can be used without any modification. This is employed for conveying an SRV along the rail. The armed conveyor, designed for a box rail, is used for an SRV installed away from the rail. By using the lifting machine, an SRV installed away from the I-rail is brought to a spot just below the rail so that the SRV can be transferred by the conveyor. The control/monitoring system consists of a control computer, operation panel, TV monitor and annunciator. The SRV handling device is operated by remote control from a control room. A trial equipment is constructed and performance/function testing is carried out using actual SRV's. As a result, is it shown that the SRV handling device requires only two operators to serve satisfactorily. The required time for removal and replacement of one SRV is about 10 minutes. (Nogami, K.)

358

Trade in irradiated foods: An approach to retailers and consumers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Government and industry in Canada are moving quickly to provide the legislation, regulations and practical protocol necessary for the commercialization of food irradiation. Marketing, public relations and media expertise will be needed to successfully introduce this new processing choice to retailers and consumers. Consumer research to date including studies conducted in the Netherlands, United States, South Africa and Canada will be explored for signposts to successful approaches to the introduction of irradiated foods to retailers and consumers. Research has indicated that the terms used to describe irradiation and information designed to reduce consumer fears will be important marketing tools. Marketers will be challenged to promote old foods which look the same to consumers, in a new light. Simple like or dislike or intention to buy surveys will not be effective tools. Consumer fears must be identified and effectively handled to support a receptive climate for irradiated food products. A cooperative government, industry, professional organization, consumer organization and retailer effort will be necessary for a successful introduction of irradiated foods into the marketplace. (author). 20 refs

359

Ambientalização e politização do consumo nas práticas de compra de orgânicos / Sensibilisation à l'environnement et politisation de la consommation pour l'achat des produits bios / Enviromentalization and politicization of consumption in organic food purchasing practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo é refletir sobre processos de ambientalização e politização do consumo e do cotidiano, enfatizando o multifacetado campo da alimentação. O artigo se volta para os diferentes usos das práticas de compra de alimentos orgânicos, entendendo os consumidores como atores sociais. A problemática [...] central encontra-se nas seguintes questões: as práticas de compra de alimentos orgânicos são percebidas como forma de ação política? De que forma os consumidores lidam com os discursos e cobranças de responsabilidades pela crise ambiental? Com uma etnografia das práticas de compra de alimentos orgânicos e entrevistas em profundidade, o artigo identifica um aumento da autonomia política individual no encontro das esferas pública e privada no campo do consumo. A compra de orgânicos é percebida como um repertório de ação política romântico-individualista, sendo que essas práticas alimentam pontes com a cidadania, abrindo possibilidades para novos engajamentos coletivos. Abstract in english This article's main objective is to reflect upon the processes of environmentalization and politicization of consumption in daily life, emphasizing the multisided field of alimentation. The text focuses on different forms of organic food purchasing practices, by considering the consumers as social a [...] ctors. The main research questions are the following: Are the organic food purchasing practices perceived as a form of political action? How do consumers deal with the environmental discourse and the demand of responsibility regarding the environmental crisis? Through an ethnographic study of the organic food purchasing practices, the article reveals an increasing individual autonomy concerning political choices in the field of consumption, when public and private spheres meet. Organic food purchasing is perceived as part of a repertoire of individualistic romantic political actions, building bridges to citizenship and creating possibilities for new collective actions.

Marcelo, Castañeda.

2012-04-01

360

Guidelines for safe handling, use and disposal of nanoparticles  

Science.gov (United States)

Health, safety and environmental (HSE) risks of a technology is an inseparable part of it which threatens all exposed employees. It has been proved for many years that exposure to particles, in an occupational setting, could be linked with the onset of lung diseases, such as pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and mesotelioma and lung cancer. Nanoparticles, due to their unique characteristics including; small size, shape, high surface area, charge, chemical properties, solubility, and degree of agglomeration can cross cell boundaries or pass directly from the lungs into the blood stream and ultimately reach to all of the organs in the body. This is the reason why they may pose higher risk than the same mass and material of larger particles. Moreover, biodegradation of nanoparticles by some kinds of fungi (like wood decay fungi) may result in metabolites which may be toxic to microorganisms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bacteria and living cells can take up nanoparticles, providing the basis for potential bioaccumulation in the food chain. Considering Iran's prominent position in nanotechnologies and fast-growing in research and industrial activities, controlling nanoparticles related HSE risks should be highly considered. In general, there are three main approaches to risk and exposure control: engineering techniques, administrative means and personal protective equipments. These complementary approaches especially engineering techniques should be considered starting with the design stage of an industrial process. Administrative means of control constitute an additional approach when the other methods have not achieved the expected control levels. Administrative means of control must never substitute for engineering techniques, which always be performed according to standard practices. In some situations, due to insufficiently advanced technology and prohibitive costs, engineering measerus can not be implemended. In these situations, performing administrative means of control constitute other ways of limiaiting the occupational exposure risks. Accordingly, to minimize the risks from know and unknown health, safety and invironment hazards in research and occupational setting of the country, guideline for safe handling, use and disposal of manopractical has provided.

Amoabediny, G. H.; Naderi, A.; Malakootikhah, J.; Koohi, M. K.; Mortazavi, S. A.; Naderi, M.; Rashedi, H.

2009-05-01

361

TNO reticle handling test platform  

Science.gov (United States)

Particle free handling of EUV reticles is a major concern in industry. For reaching economically feasible yield levels, it is reported that Particle-per-Reticle-Pass (PRP) levels should be better than 0.0001 for particles larger than 18 nm. Such cleanliness levels are yet to be reported for current reticle handling systems. A reticle handler was built based on a modular concept with three uniform linked base frames. In the first stage of the project a dual pod loading unit, two exchange units for opening inner pods and a reticle flip unit are installed on the base frames. In the near future improvements on cleanliness will be tested and particle detection equipment will be integrated. The system will act as a testing platform for clean handling technology for industry.

Crowcombe, W. E.; Hollemans, C. L.; Fritz, E. C.; van der Donck, J. C. J.; Koster, N. B.

2014-04-01

362

The handling of chemical data  

CERN Document Server

The Handling of Chemical Data deals with how measurements, such as those arrived at from chemical experimentation, are handled. The book discusses the different kinds of measurements and their specific dimensional characteristics by starting with the origin and presentation of chemical data. The text explains the units, fixed points, and relationships found between scales, the concept of dimensions, the presentation of quantitative data (whether in a tabular or graphical form), and some uses of empirical equations. The book also explains the relationship between two variables, and how equatio

Lark, P D; Bosworth, R C L

1968-01-01

363

Food irradiation now  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the start the Netherlands has made an important contribution to the irradiation of food through microbiological and toxicological research as well as through the setting-up of a pilot plant by the government and through the practical application of 'Gammaster' on a commercial basis. The proceedings of this tenth anniversary symposium of 'Gammaster' present all aspects of food irradiation and will undoubtedly help to remove the many misunderstandings. They offer information and indicate to the potential user a method that can make an important contribution to the prevention of decay and spoilage of foodstuffs and to the exclusion of food-borne infections and food poisoning in man. The book includes 8 contributions and 4 panel discussions in the field of microbiology; technology; legal aspects; and consumer aspects of food irradiation. As an appendix, the report 'Wholesomeness of irradiated food' of a joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee has been added. (orig./G.J.P.)

364

Better fuel handling system performance through improved elastomers and seals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the area of elastomers, tests have identified specific compounds that perform well in each class of CANDU service. They offer gains in service life, sometimes by factors of ten or more. Moreover, the aging characteristics of these specific compounds are being thoroughly investigated, whereas many elastomers used previously were either non-specific or their aging was unknown. In this paper the benefits of elastomer upgrading, as well as the deficiencies of current station elastomer practices, are discussed in the context of fuel handling equipment. Guidelines for procurement, storage, handling and condition monitoring of elastomer seals are outlined. (author). 3 figs

365

Science and Our Food Supply  

Science.gov (United States)

Each year millions of people in the United States are known to become ill due to food poisoning (food-borne illness) How ill can you become? Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cramps, and fever are just some of the symptoms that a person can have from food poisoning. Not very pleasant is it? Health authorities have a saying: "First you're afraid that you're going to die, then you're afraid your not going to die." In 1999 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that there were over 76 million cases of gastrointestinal disease including 325,000 hospitalizations and over 5,000 deaths that were directly attributable to food poisoning. The main concern in food-service sanitation is the prevention of illness caused by contaminated food. Bacteria, parasitic worms, and chemicals can all cause food-borne illness. Unfortunately, most food-borne illness is not recognized as such and is therefore seldom reported. By now you are probably wondering why someone would prepare or eat poisoned food? Doesn't poisoned food taste, look, or smell bad? No! If it did, people wouldn't eat it. Would you eat a piece of pie that smelled bad? Would you cook a piece of green chicken? Of course not! You may be asking yourself hows food to becomes poisoned. According to experts at the CDC, the leading factors causing food-borne illness are: ? Improper cooling, such as leaving cooked foods at room temperature. ? Lapse of a day or more between preparing and serving. ? Holding hot foods at the wrong temperature. ? Improper and inadequate refrigeration of foods. ? Infected persons touching and handling food. ? Improper reheating of previously cooked foods. ? Improper cleaning of kitchen equipment such as knives, pots, and cutting boards.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

366

Autoconsumo e segurança alimentar: a agricultura familiar a partir dos saberes e práticas da alimentação / Self-consumption and food security: family agriculture based on eating knowledge and practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e analisar as classificações e representações da alimentação, bem como as práticas de produção e consumo de alimentos entre agricultores e agricultoras da região do Vale do Taquari (Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil). MÉTODOS: Os dados e as informações foram obtidos a partir de entrevi [...] stas e observação participante, orientadas por um esquema metodológico qualitativo. Participaram da pesquisa, realizada em 2004 e 2005, 48 famílias rurais, de três diferentes localidades. Os recursos teórico-analíticos utilizados foram os da antropologia da alimentação e da abordagem da reciprocidade. RESULTADOS: Entre as famílias estudadas é significativa a produção de alimentos para autoconsumo, sendo as mulheres as principais responsáveis por sua obtenção. As práticas alimentares, embora tenham sofrido modificações, em função da modernização da agricultura e da incorporação de produtos industrializados, guardam especificidades locais e estão relacionadas a diversas expressões de sociabilidade, como a circulação de alimentos e a realização de festas comunitárias, que, impregnadas por simbolismos, atualizam um modo de vida e têm garantido segurança alimentar. CONCLUSÃO: As práticas de produção para autoconsumo das famílias estudadas estão associadas à sua segurança alimentar e, desse modo, às suas estratégias de reprodução social. A circulação de alimentos e as escolhas alimentares expressam relações de sociabilidade e de identidade nas comunidades rurais estudadas. Aspectos socioculturais e distintos níveis de relações sociais apresentam-se em transformação, podendo colocar em risco a segurança alimentar das famílias. Tais processos inspiram a realização novos estudos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify and to analyze eating classifications and representations as well the food production and consumption practices among farmers from Vale do Taquari (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). METHODS: The data and information were collected from interviews and participatory observation, orien [...] ted by qualitative methods. The research involved 48 rural families from three different localities in 2004 and 2005. The theoretical and analytical resources were provided by food anthropology and reciprocity approach. RESULTS: The production of food for self-consumption among the studied families is significant and the main producers are women. Food practices have changed as a result of agricultural modernization and increased use of industrialized products, yet they maintain local specificity and are related to several expressions of sociability such as food exchanges and community parties. These are permeated by symbolisms that update the way of living and assure food security. CONCLUSION: The production practices for autoconsumption of the studied families are associated with food security and, in this way, to social reproduction strategies. Food exchanges and food choices express relationships of sociability and identity in the studied rural communities. Social and cultural aspects and different levels of social relationships are undergoing a transformation which may jeopardize the food security of the families. Such processes are inspiring new studies.

Renata, Menasche; Flávia Charão, Marques; Cândida, Zanetti.

2008-08-01

367

Compressed Air System Renovation Project Improves Production at a Food Processing Facility: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the food processing facility project

368

9 CFR 381.208 - Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry...  

Science.gov (United States)

...handled and transported as domestic products, and shall be subject to the...to the provisions of the Poultry Products Inspection Act and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (b) Poultry products entered in accordance with...

2010-01-01

369

Open Network Handles Implemented in DNS  

CERN Document Server

An Open Network Handle System (ONHS) provides an intermediate level of service between IP numbers and domain names. A handle adheres permanently to an owner, who may assign and reassign it to different addresses at will. But a handle is a number, carrying no significance in natural language. Any user desiring a handle may generate one from a public key. This memo describes a simple implementation of an Open Network Handle System using the security extensions to the Domain Name System (DNSSEC).

O'Donnell, M J

2003-01-01

370

Open Network Handles Implemented in DNS  

OpenAIRE

An Open Network Handle System (ONHS) provides an intermediate level of service between IP numbers and domain names. A handle adheres permanently to an owner, who may assign and reassign it to different addresses at will. But a handle is a number, carrying no significance in natural language. Any user desiring a handle may generate one from a public key. This memo describes a simple implementation of an Open Network Handle System using the security extensions to the Domain Na...

O Donnell, Michael J.

2003-01-01

371

Non-contact handling device  

Science.gov (United States)

A pressurized fluid handling nozzle has a body with a first end and a second end, a fluid conduit and a recess at the second end. The first end is configured for connection to a pressurized fluid source. The fluid conduit has an inlet at the first end and an outlet at the recess. The nozzle uses the Bernoulli effect for lifting a part.

Reece, Mark (Albuquerque, NM); Knorovsky, Gerald A. (Albuquerque, NM); MacCallum, Danny O. (Edgewood, NM)

2007-05-15

372

Lost in Transition? Student Food Consumption  

Science.gov (United States)

Findings from transition studies as well as studies of student food show that the transition from living at home to independent living influences student food consumption and that food consumption might be problematic during this period. Furthermore, both students' enactment of being in transition and the food habits and practices they bring with…

Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Gram, Malene

2013-01-01

373

Food allergy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

Youngshin Han

2012-05-01

374

Introduction to the safe patient handling and movement series.  

Science.gov (United States)

Musculoskeletal injuries can occur when the physical work demanded by a job exceeds a worker's ability to respond safely. In perioperative nursing, and nursing in general, patient handling and movement demands commonly lead to injury and are considered high-risk activities. In 2005, the AORN Workplace Safety Task Force was charged with identifying high-risk tasks performed in the perioperative area and developing evidence-based solutions to help establish an ergonomically safe workplace. The work of the task force was incorporated into the "AORN guidance statement: Safe patient handling and movement in the perioperative setting," which includes seven ergonomic tools to help determine best practices for safe movement and handling of patients, supplies, and equipment in the OR. Members of the AORN Perioperative Environment of Care Task Force have collaborated to author seven articles that help explain the rationale behind and use of these ergonomic tools. The articles will appear in the Journal beginning in this issue. PMID:21353804

Ogg, Mary J

2011-03-01

375

Desenvolvimento e reprodutibilidade de questionário para avaliar práticas e conhecimentos em segurança alimentar de nutricionistas da área clínica / Development and reliability of a questionnaire to assess clinical dietitians' practices and knowledge of food safety  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os propósitos deste estudo foram desenvolver um questionário para avaliar práticas e conhecimentos em segurança sanitária alimentar, de nutricionistas da área clínica, e medir o nível de reprodutibilidade deste questionário. MÉTODOS: O questionário foi desenvolvido a partir de seis áreas t [...] emáticas: prevenção da contaminação cruzada; higiene pessoal/ambiental; controle de temperaturas e de alimentos de alto risco e segurança alimentar para indivíduos portadores do vírus da imunodeficiência humana/síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida. Para medir o nível de reprodutibilidade, utilizou-se o procedimento de teste e re-teste e a estatística kappa simples. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram os níveis de reprodutibilidade: >0,61 para 95,0%; entre 0,60-0,40 para 2,5% e 0,61), sugerindo que o mesmo representa uma boa opção para avaliar as práticas e os conhecimentos em segurança alimentar de nutricionistas da área clínica, visando ao planejamento de estratégias educativas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to develop a questionnaire to assess clinical dietitians´ practices and knowledge of food safety and determine the reliability of this instrument. METHODS: The questionnaire was developed around six areas: prevention of cross contamination, personal and env [...] ironmental hygiene; control of temperature and high-risk foods and food safety for individuals with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The reliability of the questionnaire was determined by the test-retest method and simple Kappa statistics. RESULTS: The results showed the reliability levels: >0.61 for 95.0%, from 0.60 to 0.40 for 2.5% and 0.61), suggesting that it is a good device to assess clinical dietitians´ practices and knowledge of food safety, which allows for the planning of educational strategies.

Luísa Helena Maia, Leite; William, Waissmann; Alessandra Bento, Veggi.

2007-08-01

376

Food use in middle and high school fundraising: Does policy support healthy practice? Results from a survey of Minnesota school principals  

OpenAIRE

This descriptive, cross-sectional study aimed to examine classroom, school-wide and club/sports teams fundraising policies and practices of middle and high schools; concordance between policy and practice; and associations between healthy policy/practice scores and selected school characteristics. In 2006, principals/designees of middle (n=45) and high (n=71) schools in the St. Paul/Minneapolis, Minnesota metropolitan area completed a self-administered mailed survey. Schools were attended by ...

Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Moe, Stacey; Samuelson, Anne

2009-01-01

377

Eggs and Poultry Purchase, Storage, and Preparation Practices of Consumers in Selected Asian Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to begin characterizing purchase, storage, handling, and preparation of poultry products and eggs by selected consumers in three Asian countries: India, Korea, and Thailand. Approximately 100 consumers in each location were recruited to participate in this study. The consumers were surveyed about eggs and poultry purchase behavior characteristics, such as temperatures and locations, storage behavior, such as storage locations in the refrigerator or freezer, preparation behavior, such as washing eggs and poultry before cooking, and handling behavior, such as using cutting boards during cooking. The results indicated differences in purchase and storage practices of raw eggs. Most Korean consumers purchased refrigerated eggs and stored the eggs in the refrigerator, while Indian and Thai consumers bought eggs that were stored at room temperature, but would refrigerate the eggs at home. Approximately half of the consumers in each country froze raw meat, poultry, or seafood. Food preparation practices showed potential for cross-contamination during cooking, such as using the same cutting board for different kinds of foods or not washing hands with soap and water. The results presented in this pilot study may lead to development of educational messages and raising consumer awareness of food safety practices in Asian countries.

Kadri Koppel

2014-01-01

378

Food ionizing treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment of food with ionizing radiation is increasingly being recognized as a means of reducing food-borne illnesses and associated medical and other costs. In addition, the process may contribute to food security by preventing post-harvest losses, thereby making more food available to more people, eventually at lower cost. An ever increasing number of countries has approved the irradiation of a long and growing list of different food items, groups of classes, ranging from spices to grains to fruit and vegetables to meats and poultry and seafood. However, perception by consumers has been controversial and concerns have been expressed, particularly related to the safety of irradiated food. Therefore, the toxicological aspects of irradiated food are addressed in this dossier. It should be recognized that food irradiation is perhaps the most thoroughly investigated food processing technology. According to the World Health Organization 'irradiated food produced in accordance with established Good Manufacturing Practice can be considered safe and nutritionally adequate'. A recent evaluation by a WHO/FAO/IAEA study group (Geneva, Sept. 1997) even came to the conclusion, 'that as long as sensory qualities of food are retained and harmful microorganisms are destroyed, the actual amount of ionizing radiation applied is of secondary consideration'. Thus, also treatment of food with doses greater than the currently recommended upper level of 10 kGy by the Codex Alimentarius Covel of 10 kGy by the Codex Alimentarius Commission will not lead to changes in the composition of the food that, from a toxicological point of view, would have an adverse effect on human health. (author)

379

Impact of Food Allergy on Asthma in Children  

Science.gov (United States)

... Clinical Immunology: In Practice studied the impact of food allergy on a cohort of urban, elementary school-aged ... detailed demographic data, comprehensive data on asthma severity, food allergy, and health care utilization. Food allergy was common, ...

380

Food Allergy  

Science.gov (United States)

Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the ... peanuts, tree nuts, soy, and wheat. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

381

Food Allergies  

Science.gov (United States)

Doctors are diagnosing more and more people with food allergies. People can be allergic to any food, but eight ... show if there are antibodies to a particular food in the person's blood — indicating an immune system reaction to that ...

382

Food Allergies  

Science.gov (United States)

... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies occur when your immune system ... had a serious reaction. Back Continue How Are Food Allergies Treated? There is no special medicine for ...

383

Incidence Handling and Response System  

CERN Document Server

A computer network can be attacked in a number of ways. The security-related threats have become not only numerous but also diverse and they may also come in the form of blended attacks. It becomes difficult for any security system to block all types of attacks. This gives rise to the need of an incidence handling capability which is necessary for rapidly detecting incidents, minimizing loss and destruction, mitigating the weaknesses that were exploited and restoring the computing services. Incidence response has always been an important aspect of information security but it is often overlooked by security administrators. in this paper, we propose an automated system which will handle the security threats and make the computer network capable enough to withstand any kind of attack. we also present the state-of-the-art technology in computer, network and software which is required to build such a system.

Kalbande, Prof Dhananjay R; Singh, Mr Manish

2009-01-01

384

Food Safety Attitude of Culinary Arts Based Students in Public and Private Higher Learning Institutions (IPT)  

OpenAIRE

Food safety issue is not new in Malaysia as problems such as unsafe food handling, doubtful food preparation, food poisoning outbreaks in schools and education institutions and spreading of infectious food borne illness has been discussed by the public more often than before. The purpose of this study is to examine the food safety knowledge and attitude of culinary based students from four (4) public and private higher learning institutions (IPT) with prior knowledge on food safety, hygiene...

Mohd Onn Rashdi Abd Patah; Zuraini Mat Issa; Khamis Mohammad Nor

2009-01-01

385

Remote handling equipment for SNS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives information on the areas of the SNS, facility which become highly radioactive preventing hands-on maintenance. Levels of activity are sufficiently high in the Target Station Area of the SNS, especially under fault conditions, to warrant reactor technology to be used in the design of the water, drainage and ventilation systems. These problems, together with the type of remote handling equipment required in the SNS, are discussed

386

Incidence Handling and Response System  

OpenAIRE

A computer network can be attacked in a number of ways. The security-related threats have become not only numerous but also diverse and they may also come in the form of blended attacks. It becomes difficult for any security system to block all types of attacks. This gives rise to the need of an incidence handling capability which is necessary for rapidly detecting incidents, minimizing loss and destruction, mitigating the weaknesses that were exploited and restoring the com...

Kalbande, Prof Dhananjay R.; Thampi, Dr G. T.; Singh, Manish

2009-01-01

387

Remote handling innovation from fusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper demonstrates a proactive approach to remote maintenance, involving the design of plant conducive to remote handling, design of retrofit systems, use of graphic computer simulation to look at maintenance options, and the integration of state-of-the-art technology as warranted. Work performed by SPAR ATSG on magnetic confinement fusion, and for the US Environmental Restoration Program, is used to illustrate the approach. 7 refs., 8 figs

388

Experience in handling concentrated tritium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The notes describe the experience in handling concentrated tritium in the hydrogen form accumulated in the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories Tritium Laboratory. The techniques of box operation, pumping systems, hydriding and dehydriding operations, and analysis of tritium are discussed. Information on the Chalk River Tritium Extraction Plant is included as a collection of reprints of papers presented at the Dayton Meeting on Tritium Technology, 1985 April 30 - May 2

389

Food allergy  

OpenAIRE

Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy) or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant all...

Youngshin Han; Jihyun Kim; Kangmo Ahn

2012-01-01

390

Food security  

OpenAIRE

The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks); redistribution of food availability within the country or out through internatio...

Dorina Ardelean

2007-01-01

391

Food Packaging  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn how food packages are designed and made, including the three main functions. The packaging design and materials must keep food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in food, and identify a food appealingly. Then, in the associated activity, students act as if they are packaging engineers by designing and creating their own food packages for particular food types.

Engineering K-PhD Program,

392

The Internationalization Process of the E-marketplace FoodIT A/S  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This case describes the early internationalization process and the considerations about a future international expansion of an e-marketplace. The case illustrates the complexity of internationalizing an internet-based SME. FoodIT is trying to identify the most suitable entry modes; i.e. entry modes that can handle a fast, broad and deep international expansion process with very limited resources. The case raises important questions as to the importance of physical presence for a dot.com firm selling digital products; products that in theory can be distributed digitally but in practice need to be organized by real people having real face-to-face dialog.

Rask, Morten

2007-01-01

393

Development of Food Safety Psychosocial Questionnaires for Young Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among young adults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior…

Byrd-Bredbenner, C.; Wheatley, V.; Schaffner, D.; Bruhn, C.; Blalock, L.; Maurer, J.

2007-01-01

394

Veterinary school consortia as a means of promoting the food-supply veterinary medicine pipeline.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ideas about centers of emphasis and veterinary medical teaching consortia have resurfaced to attract students into food-supply veterinary medicine (FSVM). From 1988 to 2000 a multiple veterinary school consortium approach to food-animal production medicine (FAPM) teaching was conducted to handle regional differences in case load, faculty strengths, and student interests. Six universities developed a memorandum of understanding to provide a wide variety of in-depth, species-specific clinical experiences in FAPM to balance their individual strengths and weakness in addressing food-animal agriculture, to provide for student exchange and faculty development, and to conduct research in food safety. Changes in leadership, redirection of funds, failure to publicize the program to faculty and students, and a focus on research as opposed to teaching led to dissolution of the consortium. However, this approach could work to improve recruitment and retention of students in FSVM if it focused on student exchange, fostered a more integrated curriculum across schools, encouraged faculty involvement, garnered institutional support, and used modern technology in teaching. Private veterinary practices as well as public/corporate practices could be integrated into a broader food-animal curriculum directed at building competency among FSVM students by providing the in-depth training they require. Requirements for the success of this type of program will include funding, marketing, leadership, communication, coordination, integration, and dedicated people with the time to make it work. PMID:17220493

Moore, Dale A

2006-01-01

395

Environmental and social benefits of improved handling and disposal of black wastewater in Greenland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Wastewater collection and treatment is difficult in arctic climate due to, i.e. permafrost and cold climate. Currently all toilet wastewater (blackwater) in Greenland is discharged untreated, mainly to the sea. Water from bathing, washing and kitchen (greywater) is usually not collected and is discharged above ground, next to the dwelling, even in the cities. Due to the lack of piping systems bucket toilets for collection of excreta are common. The bucket toilets and the greywater handling can pose health threats to the people and improved systems are needed. The current wastewater handling in Greenland causes visual contamination of the coast near many towns and settlements. Furthermore the nutrients in the wastewater may cause local eutrophication where the water exchange is poor. Another and maybe more serious consequence of discharging untreated wastewater into the arctic waters are organic chemicals including medicine residues. Such compounds may accumulate in the food chain, can act as endocrine disruptors, and are shown to promote formation of bacteria resistant to antibiotics. In addition to the environmental and health issues the current practice of wastewater handling in Greenland can be harmful to the image of Greenland as being a clean country with an unspoiled nature that is important since tourism is a fast-growing industry. The nature in arctic areas is more vulnerable to environmental contaminants because of low temperatures, lack of nutrients and extreme seasonal variations in light. It is difficult and expensive to treat wastewater in Greenland by traditional methods due to natural conditions and settlement patterns. Alternative methods are therefore needed. One of the options is to treat the excreta separate from the greywater, and introduce modern composting toilets or low flush toilets with collection at the household level and improved greywater treatment. This will improve the indoor and outdoor hygiene and thus status for the families. The blackwater can be sanitized and converted to smallvolumes of soil amendment and fertilizer and used in e.g. greenhouses or agriculture in South Greenland. The potential for removal or breakdown of medicine residues or other organic chemicals is also larger in an intense thermophilic composting process than in traditional wastewater treatment. This paper focuses on the social and environmental consequences of the current wastewater handling in Greenland and the challenges, being of social, technical or economical character, connected to implementation of new solutions that can improve public health and living standard as well as protect the environment.

Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur; Jenssen, Petter Deinboll

2010-01-01

396

Microbiological quality of chicken- and pork-based street-vended foods from Taichung, Taiwan, and Laguna, Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The microbiological quality of chicken- and pork-based street-food samples from Taichung, Taiwan's night markets (50) and Laguna, Philippines' public places (69) was evaluated in comparison to a microbiological guideline for ready-to-eat foods. Different bacterial contamination patterns were observed between 'hot-grilled' and 'cold cooked/fried' food types from the two sampling locations with 'hot grilled' foods generally showing better microbiological quality. Several samples were found to be unsatisfactory due to high levels of aerobic plate count, coliform, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest counts obtained were 8.2 log cfu g?¹, 5.4 log cfu g?¹, 4.4 log cfu g?¹, and 3.9 log cfu g?¹, respectively, suggesting poor food hygiene practices and poor sanitation. Salmonella was found in 8% and 7% of Taichung and Laguna samples, respectively, which made the samples potentially hazardous. None of the samples was found to be positive for Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli O157, but Bacillus cereus was detected at the unsatisfactory level of 4 log cfu g?¹ in one Laguna sample. Antimicrobial resistance was observed for Salmonella, E. coli, and S. aureus isolates. Food preparation, cooking, and food handling practices were considered to be contributors to the unacceptable microbiological quality of the street foods. Hence, providing training on food hygiene for the street vendors should result in the improvement of the microbiological quality of street foods. The data obtained in this study can be used as input to microbial risk assessments and in identifying science-based interventions to control the hazards. PMID:23764220

Manguiat, Lydia S; Fang, Tony J

2013-10-01

397

Health physics considerations in UF{sub 6} handling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Uranium is a radioactive substance that emits alpha particles and very small amounts of gamma radiation. Its daughter products emit beta and gamma radiation. In uranium handling operations these are the radiations one must consider. This presentation will review the characteristics of the radiations, the isotopes from which they originate, the growth and decay of the uranium daughter products, and some specific health physics practices dictated by these factors.

Bailey, J.C. [Norway Assoicates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1991-12-31

398

Effects of Post-Slaughter Carcass Handling on Meat Quality  

OpenAIRE

The quality of meat from the processing plant or as found on the market will have an influence on its processing properties and eating qualities. The processing properties and eating qualities will also influence consumers’ acceptability and profits to be realized by producers, processors and retailers. A number of factors including the genetics of the animal, production practices, age of the animal at slaughter and how live animals are handle prior to and during slaughter contribute signif...

Huda, F. Adzitey§ And N.

2012-01-01

399

Safety Enhancements for TRU Waste Handling - 12258  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For years, proper Health Physics practices and 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' (ALARA) principles have fostered the use of glove boxes or other methods of handling (without direct contact) high activities of radioactive material. The physical limitations of using glove boxes on certain containers have resulted in high-activity wastes being held in storage awaiting a path forward. Highly contaminated glove boxes and other remote handling equipment no longer in use have also been added to the growing list of items held for storage with no efficient method of preparation for proper disposal without creating exposure risks to personnel. This is especially true for wastes containing alpha-emitting radionuclides such as Plutonium and Americium that pose significant health risks to personnel if these Transuranic (TRU) wastes are not controlled effectively. Like any good safety program or root cause investigation PFNW has found that the identification of the cause of a negative change, if stopped, can result in a near miss and lessons learned. If this is done in the world of safety, it is considered a success story and is to be shared with others to protect the workers. PFNW believes that the tools, equipment and resources have improved over the past number of years but that the use of them has not progressed at the same rate. If we use our tools to timely identify the effect on the work environment and immediately following or possibly even simultaneously identify the cause or some of the causal factors, we may have the ability to continue to work rather than succumb to the start and stop-work mentality trap that is not beneficial in waste minimization, production efficiency or ALARA. (authors)

400

Overview on Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds of gas and water molecules that are formed under certain thermodynamic conditions. Hydrate deposits occur naturally within ocean sediments just below the sea floor at temperatures and pressures existing below about 500 meters water depth. Gas hydrate is also stable in conjunction with the permafrost in the Arctic. Most marine gas hydrate is formed of microbially generated gas. It binds huge amounts of methane into the sediments. Worldwide, gas hydrate is estimated to hold about 1016 kg of organic carbon in the form of methane (Kvenvolden et al., 1993). Gas hydrate is one of the fossil fuel resources that is yet untapped, but may play a major role in meeting the energy challenge of this century. In June 2002, Westport Technology Center was requested by the Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a ''Best Practices Manual on Gas Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis'' under Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41327. The scope of the task was specifically targeted for coring sediments with hydrates in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and from the present Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drillship. The specific subjects under this scope were defined in 3 stages as follows: Stage 1: Collect information on coring sediments with hydrates, core handling, core preservation, sample transportation, analysis of the core, and long term preservation. Stage 2: Provide copies of the first draft to a list of experts and stakeholders designated by DOE. Stage 3: Produce a second draft of the manual with benefit of input from external review for delivery. The manual provides an overview of existing information available in the published literature and reports on coring, analysis, preservation and transport of gas hydrates for laboratory analysis as of June 2003. The manual was delivered as draft version 3 to the DOE Project Manager for distribution in July 2003. This Final Report is provided for records purposes.

Jon Burger; Deepak Gupta; Patrick Jacobs; John Shillinglaw

2003-06-30

401

Food Groups  

Science.gov (United States)

Welcome to the Five Food Groups MyPlate illustrates the five food groups that are the building blocks for a healthy diet using a familiar image – ... half your grains whole. >> See Grains Group Protein Foods Go lean with protein. >> See Protein Foods Group ...

402

7 CFR 800.61 - Prohibited grain handling practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

...or added to grain in commercial channels, except for vegetable oil which may be used as a dust suppressant in accordance...officially inspected or weighed. (6) Export loading facilities. Between May 1, 1987, and December 31,...

2010-01-01

403

Introduction to radiation protection practical knowledge for handling radioactive sources  

CERN Document Server

The book presents an accessible account of the sources of ionising radiation and the methods of radiation protection. The basics of nuclear physics which are directly related to radiation protection are briefly discussed. The book describes the units of radiation protection, the measurement techniques, biological effects of radiation, environmental radiation, and many applications of radiation. For each chapter there is a problem section with full solutions. A detailed glossary and many useful information in appendixes complete the book. The author has addressed the issue of internationality to make sure that the text and, in particular, the complicated regulations can be easily interpreted not only in Europe and the United States but also in other countries. The subject of radiation protection requires a certain amount of mathematics. For those who have forgotten the basic rules of calculus a short refresher course in the form of a mathematical appendix is added.

Grupen, Claus

2010-01-01

404

Introduction to radiation protection. Practical knowledge for handling radioactive sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book presents an accessible account of the sources of ionising radiation and the methods of radiation protection. The basics of nuclear physics which are directly related to radiation protection are briefly discussed. The book describes the units of radiation protection, the measurement techniques, biological effects of radiation, environmental radiation, and many applications of radiation. For each chapter there is a problem section with full solutions. A detailed glossary and many useful information in appendixes complete the book. The author has addressed the issue of internationality to make sure that the text and, in particular, the complicated regulations can be easily interpreted not only in Europe and the United States but also in other countries. The subject of radiation protection requires a certain amount of mathematics. For those who have forgotten the basic rules of calculus a short refresher course in the form of a mathematical appendix is added. (orig.)

405

Dosimetry for food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Manual of Food Irradiation Dosimetry was published in 1977 under the auspices of the IAEA as Technical Reports Series No. 178. It was the first monograph of its kind and served as a reference in the field of radiation processing and in the development of standards. While the essential information about radiation dosimetry in this publication has not become obsolete, other publications on radiation dosimetry have become available which have provided useful information for incorporation in this updated version. There is already a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and an associated Code of Practice for Operation of Irradiation Facilities used for Treatment of Food, issued in 1984 by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of the FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme. The Codex Standard contains provisions on irradiation facilities and process control which include, among other requirements, that control of the processes within facilities shall include the keeping of adequate records including quantitative dosimetry. Appendix A of the Standard provides an explanation of process control and dosimetric requirements in compliance with the Codex Standard. By 1999, over 40 countries had implemented national regulations or issued specific approval for certain irradiated food items/classes of food based on the principles of the Codex Standard and its Code of Practice. Food irradiation is thus expanding, as over 30 countries are now actually applying this process for the treatmenlly applying this process for the treatment of one or more food products for commercial purposes. Irradiated foods are being marketed at retail level in several countries. With the increasing recognition and application of irradiation as a sanitary and phytosanitary treatment of food based on the provisions of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization, international trade in irradiated food is expected to expand during the next decade. It is therefore essential that proper dosimetry systems are used to ensure the compliance of trade in irradiated food with national and international standards. In view of the foregoing, FAO and the IAEA, through their Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, considered it timely to revise the Manual of Food Irradiation Dosimetry. A Consultants' Meeting was convened in Vienna from 27 to 30 October 1998 to revise the Manual

406

Feedstock storage, handling and processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is a review of the technology and research covering components of a methane from biomass system between the field and the digester. It deals primarily with sorghum as a feedstock and focuses on research conducted by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. Subjects included in this paper are harvesting, hay storage, ansiling, materials handling, pumping and hydraulic characteristics, hydraulic conductivity, pressure/density relationship, and biological pretreatment. This paper is not a comprehensive design manual; however, design equations and coefficients for sorghum are presented, where available, along with references describing the development and application of design models. (author)

Egg, R.P.; Coble, C.G.; Engler, C.R. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Lewis, D.H. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology)

1993-01-01

407

Zero g manual cargo handling  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of studies were conducted utilizing a water-immersion simulator facility to better define the cargo that can realistically be handled by man. The initial phase of the program was a parametric study to define man's intravehicular (IV) cargo transfer capabilities, and its results are reported. Additional phases of the study, deal with: (1) man's ability to perform extravehicular (EV) cargo transfer, (2) the ability to transfer cargo through a 1.5 m (5-foot) diameter tunnel (IV), and (3) the utilization of electroadhesive/electromagnetic mobility aids for both IV and EV self-locomotion and cargo transfer.

Spady, A. A., Jr.; Beasley, G. P.

1972-01-01

408

The planning system and fast food outlets in London: lessons for health promotion practice / O sistema de planeamento dos “outlets” de “fast food” em Londres: lições para a prática da promoção da saúde  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este artigo aborda o modo como a promoção da saúde pode usar o planeamento como uma ferramenta para se comer de modo mais saudável. A pesquisa centra-se na disponibilidade e na concentração de “outlets” de “fast food” em Londres. A política pública de saúde limita o planeamento às estruturas locais, [...] dentro de um desenho teórico estreito que vai desde a psicologia social à economia liberal. A política está centrada na mudança do comportamento, nos acordos voluntários e na devolução da função saúde pública às autoridades locais. Tal estrutura apresenta barreiras a uma eficaz promoção da saúde baseada na equidade. Uma estratégia apoiada nos determinantes sociais seria consistente com um planeamento de apoio à infraestrutura reguladora nacional. Abstract in english This article considers how health promotion can use planning as a tool to enhance healthy eating choices. It draws on research in relation to the availability and concentration of fast food outlets in a London borough. Current public health policy is confining planning to local settings within a nar [...] row framework drawing on discourses from social psychology and libertarian economics. Policy is focusing on behaviour change, voluntary agreements and devolution of the public health function to local authorities. Such a framework presents barriers to effective equity-based health promotion. A social determinant-based health promotion strategy would be consistent with a national regulatory infrastructure supporting planning.

409

The Vermicelli Handling Test: A Simple Quantitative Measure of Dexterous Forepaw Function in Rats  

OpenAIRE

Loss of function in the hands occurs with many brain disorders, but there are few measures of skillful forepaw use in rats available to model these impairments that are both sensitive and simple to administer. Whishaw and Coles (1996) previously described the dexterous manner in which rats manipulate food items with their paws, including thin pieces of pasta. We set out to develop a measure of this food handling behavior that would be quantitative, easy to administer, sensitive to the effects...

Allred, Rachel P.; Adkins, Deanna L.; Woodlee, Martin T.; Husbands, Lincoln C.; Maldonado, Mo?nica A.; Kane, Jacqueline R.; Schallert, Timothy; Jones, Theresa A.

2008-01-01

410

Practical Algebraic Renormalization  

OpenAIRE

A practical approach is presented which allows the use of a non-invariant regularization scheme for the computation of quantum corrections in perturbative quantum field theory. The theoretical control of algebraic renormalization over non-invariant counterterms is translated into a practical computational method. We provide a detailed introduction into the handling of the Slavnov-Taylor and Ward-Takahashi identities in the Standard Model both in the conventional and the back...

Grassi, P. A.; Hurth, T.; Steinhauser, M.

1999-01-01

411

Importância das práticas alimentares no primeiro ano de vida na prevenção da deficiência de ferro / Importance of food practices during the first year of life to prevent iron deficiency  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A reconhecida relevância da anemia por deficiência de ferro, em termos de saúde pública, decorre não apenas da magnitude de sua ocorrência, mas, principalmente, dos efeitos deletérios que ocasiona à saúde da criança. Com o objetivo de investigar as práticas alimentares no primeiro ano de vida e sua [...] associação com a deficiência de ferro, realizou-se revisão da literatura científica nacional e internacional sobre a questão, selecionando os artigos mais relevantes. Crianças que nascem atermo e com peso adequado, ao receberem o leite materno de forma exclusiva suprem suas necessidades de ferro, sendo desnecessário qualquer complemento nos primeiros seis meses de vida. Próximo aos seis meses de idade ocorre gradualmente o esgotamento das reservas de ferro e a alimentação complementar passa a ter papel predominante no atendimento às necessidades desse nutriente. O papel do aleitamento materno na ocorrência da deficiência de ferro é ainda controverso e parece depender do país, região e tipo de leite utilizado em substituição ao leite materno. Na impossibilidade da continuidade do aleitamento materno, a substituição deste por leite de vaca aumenta o risco de a criança apresentar deficiência de ferro. Práticas complementares que comprovadamente contribuem com a prevenção da deficiência de ferro são: alimentação complementar com alta biodisponibilidade de ferro, alimentos fortificados e suplemento de ferro em doses profiláticas. Dieta com alta biodisponibilidade de ferro é aquela que contém os alimentos básicos da família, desde que saudáveis, com a presença de carne, vitamina A e vitamina C. A alimentação no primeiro ano de vida tem papel importante na prevenção da anemia por deficiência de ferro e, para sua adequada implementação, é necessário que suas diretrizes sejam adotadas como rotina nas unidades básicas de saúde. Abstract in english The well-known relevance of iron deficiency anemia for public health derives not only from its prevalence, but mainly from its harmful effects on child health. In order to investigate feeding practices in the first year of life and their association with iron deficiency, domestic and international s [...] cientific articles were reviewed and the most relevant articles were selected. Children born at term and with appropriate birth weight get all the iron they need from exclusive breastfeeding, with complementary foods of any kind being unnecessary in the first six months of life. At about six months of life, the iron reserves are gradually depleted and complementary foods take on a predominant role in meeting the iron requirement. The role of breastfeeding in the occurrence of iron deficiency is still debated, and appears to depend on the country, region and type of milk used to replace breast milk. The replacement of breast milk with cow's milk increases the risk of the child developing iron deficiency. Complementary practices that have been proven to contribute to the prevention of iron deficiency are complementary foods high in bioavailable iron, enriched foods and iron supplementation in prophylactic doses. A diet high in iron bioavailability is that which contains the staple foods of the family, as long as they are healthy, with the presence of meat, vitamin A and vitamin C. The foods consumed in the first year of life have an important role in the prevention of iron deficiency anemia, and their correct implementation depends on guidelines that should be adopted as standard practice by primary healthcare units.

GiSele Ane, Bortolini; Márcia Regina, Vitolo.

1051-10-01

412

Constraint Handling in Transmission Network Expansion Planning  

Science.gov (United States)

Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is a very important and complex problem in power system. Recently, the use of metaheuristic techniques to solve TNEP is gaining more importance due to their effectiveness in handling the inequality constraints and discrete values over the conventional gradient based methods. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) generally perform unconstrained search and require some additional mechanism to handle constraints. In EA literature, various constraint handling techniques have been proposed. However, to solve TNEP the penalty function approach is commonly used while the other constraint handling methods are untested. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of different constraint handling methods like Superiority of Feasible Solutions (SF), Self adaptive Penalty (SP),E-Constraint (EC), Stochastic Ranking (SR) and the ensemble of constraint handling techniques (ECHT) on TNEP. The potential of different constraint handling methods and their ensemble is evaluated using an IEEE 24 bus system with and without security constraints.

Mallipeddi, R.; Verma, Ashu; Suganthan, P. N.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Bijwe, P. R.

413

Safety of material handling for superconducting cyclotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

State of the art of material handling for superconducting cyclotron project has been ensured through advance safety analysis and safety planning for selection and procurement of proper material handling equipment at right time and right place to minimized time, cost over run and man-day loss. Mechanization of material handling is the most important aspect of safety. Typical problems of superconducting cyclotron material handling was solved by indigenous design, fabrication and utilization of a unique material handling equipment for 180 deg rotation of a 28 tons single weight complicated upper pole-cap assembly with safety and ease. Material handling is an art and has been implemented through the science of safe movement, handling during manufacturing and assembly and installation of SCC project. (author)

414

Handling Sports Pressure and Competition  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... or coping with a defeat, tell yourself: "I learn from my mistakes!" "I'm in control of ... sleep, especially before games where the pressure's on. Learn and practice relaxation techniques, like those described in ...

415

Handling Sports Pressure and Competition  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... it slowly. Repeat the exercise five times. Muscle relaxation: Contract (flex) a group of muscles tightly. Keep ... games where the pressure's on. Learn and practice relaxation techniques, like those described in the previous section. ...

416

Squeezing flow viscometry for nonelastic semiliquid foods--theory and applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

In most conventional rheometers, notably the coaxial cylinders and capillary viscometers, the food specimen is pressed into a narrow gap and its structure is altered by uncontrolled shear. Also, most semiliquid foods exhibit slip, and consequently the measurements do not always reflect their true rheological properties. A feasible solution to these two problems is squeezing flow viscometry where the specimen, practically intact and with or without suspended particles, is squeezed between parallel plates. The outward flow pattern mainly depends on the friction between the fluid and plates or its absence ("lubricated squeezing flow"). Among the possible test geometries, the one of constant area and changing volume is the most practical for foods. The test can be performed at a constant displacement rate using common Universal Testing Machines or under constant loads (creep array). The tests output is in the form of a force-height, force-time, or height-time relationship, from which several rheological parameters can be derived. With the current state of the art, the method can only be applied at small displacement rates. Despite the method's crudeness, its results are remarkably reproducible and sensitive to textural differences among semiliquid food products. The flow patterns observed in foods do not always follow the predictions of rheological models originally developed for polymer melts because of the foods' unique microstructures. The implications of these discrepancies and the role that artifacts may play are evaluated in light of theoretical and practical considerations. The use of squeezing flow viscometry to quantify rheological changes that occur during a product's handling and to determine whether they are perceived sensorily is suggested. PMID:12058982

Campanella, Osvaldo H; Peleg, Micha

2002-01-01

417

Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC--28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC--28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use of these components or their related manufacturer. A component produced by one manufacturer certainly varies dimensionally from a similar product produced by a different manufacturer. The internal envelope dimensions are dependent on the selection of the individual components. The external envelope dimensions, as well as, key interface dimensions are established within this calculation and are to be treated as bounding dimensions

418

Food allergies.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

O'Leary, Paula F G

2012-02-03

419

Vitamin food fortification today  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historically, food fortification has served as a tool to address population-wide nutrient deficiencies such as rickets by vitamin D fortified milk. This article discusses the different policy strategies to be used today. Mandatory or voluntary fortification and fortified foods, which the consumer needs, also have to comply with nutritional, regulatory, food safety and technical issues. The ‘worldwide map of vitamin fortification’ is analysed, including differences between develop and developing countries. The vitamins, folate and vitamin D, are taken as practical examples in the review of the beneficial effect of different strategies on public health. The importance of the risk–benefit aspect, as well as how to identify the risk groups, and the food vehicles for fortification is discussed.

Maria de Lourdes Samaniego-Vaesken

2012-04-01

420

Pre- and postharvest preventive measures and intervention strategies to control microbial food safety hazards of fresh leafy vegetables.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review includes an overview of the most important preventive measures along the farm to fork chain to prevent microbial contamination of leafy greens. It also includes the technological and managerial interventions related to primary production, postharvest handling, processing practices, distribution, and consumer handling to eliminate pathogens in leafy greens. When the microbiological risk is already present, preventive measures to limit actual contamination events or pathogen survival are considered intervention strategies. In codes of practice the focus is mainly put on explaining preventive measures. However, it is also important to establish more focused intervention strategies. This review is centered mainly on leafy vegetables as the commodity identified as the highest priority in terms of fresh produce microbial safety from a global perspective. There is no unique preventive measure or intervention strategy that could be applied at one point of the food chain. We should encourage growers of leafy greens to establish procedures based on the HACCP principles at the level of primary production. The traceability of leafy vegetables along the chain is an essential element in ensuring food safety. Thus, in dealing with the food safety issues associated with fresh produce it is clear that a multidisciplinary farm to fork strategy is required. PMID:24915374

Gil, Maria I; Selma, Maria V; Suslow, Trevor; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Allende, Ana

2015-01-01

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