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1

Assessing food safety and associated food handling practices in street food vending.  

Science.gov (United States)

Street vendors in the city of Bloemfontein were investigated in order to assess the microbiological quality of the food being sold as well as the level of hygiene conditions under which these food stalls operate. The food samples which were collected included beef, chicken and gravy, while surface samples were taken from the food preparation tables and the hands of the vendors. A structured questionnaire and checklist were used in interviews to determine the status of the vending sites and associated food handling practices. The overall microbiological quality of the foods served by the street vendors was found to be within acceptable safety limits, although the presence of specific microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and yeasts is indicative of a degree of ignorance on the part of the food handlers towards proper hygienic practices. PMID:16990173

Lues, Jan F R; Rasephei, Mpeli R; Venter, Pierre; Theron, Maria M

2006-10-01

2

Application of the WHO Keys of Safer Food to Improve Food Handling Practices of Food Vendors in a Poor Resource Community in Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data was collected from food vendors in a poor resource community in Ghana, which showed that the vendors constituted an important source of oro-faecal transmission. Following this, the WHO five keys of safer food were utilized in an evidence based training programme for the vendors to improve their food handling practices. Impact assessment of the food safety training showed that 67.6% of the vendors had acquired some knowledge from the workshop and were putting it into practice. Lack of food safety equipment was a major hinderance to behavioral change among the vendors as far food handling practices are concerned.

Eric S. Donkor

2009-11-01

3

Safe Food Handling: Knowledge, Perceptions, and Self-Reported Practices of Turkish Consumers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines Turkish consumers’ perceptions and knowledge of safe food handling practices. Theirattitudes, opinions, and self-reported practices in the purchase, transportation, storage, preparation, andconsumption of food were studied. Data was collected from a total of 440 consumers living in Istanbul, Turkeythrough the use of a self-administered, structured, and undisguised questionnaire. A combination of stratified andsystematic random sampling was used based on the incidence of having or not having experienced food-relatedillness within the past year. Significant differences were found to exist in the perceptions, opinions, knowledge,and self-reported practices of those who had experienced food-borne illness in the past twelve months versusthose who had not. Significant differences were also found with respect to various demographic variables,especially, with respect to age and education levels. Implications of the study for various parties, namely,consumers, producers, retailers, and the state together with further research are also presented in the paper. Theseimplications may be applicable in different countries as well, since food-borne diseases experienced due to badfood-handling practices still present a major challenge to peoples’ health, in both the developed and thedeveloping world.

Gul F. Aygen

2012-11-01

4

The effect of perceived transformational leadership and organizational climate on the employees' attitude and intention to follow safe food handling practices: A conceptual model and empirical evidence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objectives of this study are to develop a conceptual model to investigate employees' motivational influences on food safety performance and to examine the causal relationships among transformational leadership, organizational climate, employees' attitude and intention to follow safe food handling practices in foodservice establishments utilizing leadership theory, organizational climate, and the theory of planned behavior. Questionnaires were distributed to restaurants in the U.S. Descrip...

2010-01-01

5

Safe Handling Tips for Pet Foods and Treats  

Science.gov (United States)

... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Safe Handling Tips for Pet Foods and Treats Search the Consumer Updates Section Printer- ... foodborne illness, including Salmonella-related illness, when handling pet foods and treats. These products, like many other types ...

6

Restaurant food cooling practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study. PMID:23212014

Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

2012-12-01

7

Produce handling and processing practices.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the past decade, outbreaks of human illness associated with the consumption of raw vegetables and fruits (or unpasteurized products produced from them) have increased in the United States. Changes in agronomic, harvesting, distribution, processing, and consumption patterns and practices have undoubtedly contributed to this increase. Pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, and Bacillus cereus are naturally present in some soil, and their presence on fresh produce is...

Beuchat, L. R.; Ryu, J. H.

1997-01-01

8

Assessing and Addressing Safe Food Handling Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of College Undergraduates  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors determined the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of undergraduates (n = 1122) on an urban college campus using a previously piloted survey tool. Data obtained found that while students reported high levels of confidence in their ability to engage in safe food handling practices, their knowledge and self-reported behaviors…

Stein, Susan E.; Dirks, Brian P.; Quinlan, Jennifer J.

2010-01-01

9

Safe Handling of Take-Out Foods  

Science.gov (United States)

... and some are cold when purchased. Foods from fast food restaurants are most often consumed immediately. Take-out ... spoil or become unsafe to eat. Do not taste. Freezer Storage at 0 °F or Below Cooked ...

10

Problems of food handling and trade in ASEAN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand) with a population of some 280 million population is a major producer of several food commodities and also a large, and growing, market for many food items. The handling of food products in ASEAN is undertaken under many constraints, related mainly to small and traditional production structures with less than efficient distribution and marketing systems. Activities of the ASEAN Food Handling Project in promoting more efficient food handling methods and technologies in ASEAN are discussed in relation to the existing post harvest losses (50% in fish, 30% in grains and 20-40% in fruits and vegetables) and attempts to reduce these. Activities in this project include training courses and the establishment of laboratories as training and research centres pilot packing houses for fruit and vegetable handling, improvement of transportation systems for fish and livestock, and improvement of post harvest grain handling technologies. The extent of food trade in ASEAN is assessed and problems of food handling and trade are discussed, with special focus on problems of standardization of quality, and tariff and non-tariff barriers for external trade. (author)

1986-10-01

11

Handling Food Safely on the Road  

Science.gov (United States)

... live on boats; relax in beach or mountain vacation homes; and camp. No matter where we go ... common-sense food safety rules can save a vacation from disaster. Following this advice could make the ...

12

Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some food types and the consequent restrictions for others. Such information improves our understanding of the trophic interrelations between different fish species living together in one community.- Cy...

Sibbing, F. A.

1984-01-01

13

Handling practices of fresh leafy greens in restaurants: receiving and training.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple foodborne illness outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh produce. Investigations have indicated that microbial contamination throughout the farm-to-fork continuum often contributed to these outbreaks. Researchers have hypothesized that handling practices for leafy greens in restaurants may support contamination by and proliferation and amplification of pathogens that cause foodborne illness outbreaks. However, limited data are available on how workers handle leafy greens in restaurants. The purpose of this study was to collect descriptive data on handling practices of leafy greens in restaurants, including restaurant characteristics, types of leafy greens used, produce receipt, and food safety training and certification. As a federal collaborative partner with the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended that EHS-Net participants survey handling practices for leafy greens in restaurants. The recommendations in the FDA's Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards of Leafy Greens are significant to this study for comparison of the results. The survey revealed that appropriate handling procedures assist in the mitigation of other unsafe handling practices for leafy greens. These results are significant because the FDA guidance for the safe handling of leafy greens was not available until 2009, after the survey had been completed. The information provided from this study can be used to promote additional efforts that will assist in developing interventions to prevent future foodborne illness outbreaks associated with leafy greens. PMID:24290691

Coleman, Erik; Delea, Kristin; Everstine, Karen; Reimann, David; Ripley, Danny

2013-12-01

14

Survey of tritiated oil sources and handling practices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tritium interactions with oil sources (primarily associated with pumps) in tritium-handling facilities can lead to the incorporation of tritium in the oil and the production of tritiated hydrocarbons. This results in a source of radiological hazard and the need for special handling considerations during maintenance, decontamination, decommissioning and waste packaging and storage. The results of a general survey of tritiated-oil sources and their associated characteristics, handling practices, analysis techniques and waste treatment/storage methods are summarized here. Information was obtained from various tritium-handling laboratories, fusion devices, and CANDU plants. 38 refs., 1 fig

1994-01-01

15

Ground beef handling and cooking practices in restaurants in eight States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eating in table-service restaurants has been implicated as a risk factor for Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. To explore this association and learn about the prevalence of risky ground beef preparation practices in restaurants, the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) assessed ground beef handling policies and practices in restaurants in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. Eligible restaurants prepared and served hamburgers. EHS-Net specialists interviewed a restaurant employee with authority over the kitchen (defined as the manager) using a standard questionnaire about food safety policies, hamburger preparation policies, and use of irradiated ground beef. Interviews were followed by observations of ground beef preparation. Data from 385 restaurants were analyzed: 67% of the restaurants were independently owned and 33% were chain restaurants; 75% of the restaurants were sit down, 19% were quick service or fast food, and 6% were cafeteria or buffet restaurants. Eighty-one percent of restaurants reported determining doneness of hamburgers by one or more subjective measures, and 49% reported that they never measure the final cook temperatures of hamburgers. At least two risky ground beef handling practices were observed in 53% of restaurants. Only 1% of restaurants reported purchasing irradiated ground beef, and 29% were unfamiliar with irradiated ground beef. Differences in risky ground beef handling policies and practices were noted for type of restaurant ownership (independently owned versus chain) and type of food service style (sit down versus quick service or fast food). This study revealed the pervasiveness of risky ground beef handling policies and practices in restaurants and the need for educational campaigns targeting food workers and managers. These results highlight the importance of continued efforts to reduce the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef. PMID:24290692

Bogard, April K; Fuller, Candace C; Radke, Vincent; Selman, Carol A; Smith, Kirk E

2013-12-01

16

Observational trial of safe food handling behavior during food preparation using the example of Campylobacter spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Campylobacter infections are one of the most prominent worldwide food-related diseases. The primary cause of these infections is reported to be improper food handling, in particular cross-contamination during domestic preparation of raw chicken products. In the present study, food handling behaviors in Austria were surveyed and monitored, with special emphasis on Campylobacter cross-contamination. Forty participants (25 mothers or fathers with at least one child ?10 years of age and 15 elderly persons ?60 years of age) were observed during the preparation of a chicken salad (chicken slices plus lettuce, tomato, and cucumber) using a direct structured observational scoring system. The raw chicken carcasses and the vegetable part of the salad were analyzed for Campylobacter. A questionnaire concerning knowledge, attitudes, and interests related to food safety issues was filled out by the participants. Only 57% of formerly identified important hygiene measures were used by the participants. Deficits were found in effective hand washing after contact with raw chicken meat, but proper changing and cleaning of the cutting board was noted. Campylobacter was present in 80% of raw chicken carcasses, albeit the contamination rate was generally lower than the limit of quantification (10 CFU/g). In the vegetable part of the prepared product, no Campylobacter was found. This finding could be due to the rather low Campylobacter contamination rate in the raw materials and the participants' use of some important food handling behaviors to prevent cross-contamination. However, if the initial contamination had been higher, the monitored deficits in safe food handling could lead to quantifiable risks, as indicated in other published studies. The results of the observational trial and the questionnaire indicated knowledge gaps in the food safety sector, suggesting that further education of the population is needed to prevent the onset of foodborne diseases. PMID:23462086

Hoelzl, C; Mayerhofer, U; Steininger, M; Brüller, W; Hofstädter, D; Aldrian, U

2013-03-01

17

Food Safety and Hyienic Practices of Street Food Vendors in Owerri, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper examines the food safety and hygienic practices of street food vendors in Owerri, Nigeria. It argues that although street foods play an important role in meeting the food demands of urban dwellers, there are several health hazards associated with them. The study found that women made up 66.67% of the vendors while males made up 33.33%. The average age group was 31-40 years. 23.81% of the vendors prepared food in unhygienic conditions. 42.86% did not use aprons; 47.62% handled food with bare hands and 52.38% wore no hair covering while 61.90% handled money while serving food. 19.05% wore jewelry while serving food and 28.57% blew air into polythene bag before use. 9.52% of the vendors stored food for serving openly in the stalls while 23.81% stored them in the wheelbarrows. 42.86% had leftovers for serving the next day with poor storage facilities. 47.62% of the vendors washed their utensils with dirty water which is recycled and used severally in 28.57% despite the fact that only 9.52% of them complained of water shortages. Thr paper recommends that there is need for health education of these vendors in order to ensure food safety for the consumers. Keywords: food safety; hygienic; street food; vendors; Owerri Nigeria

Comfort O. Chukuezi

2010-06-01

18

Novel Additive Manufacturing Pneumatic Actuators and Mechanisms for Food Handling Grippers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conventional pneumatic grippers are widely used in industrial pick and place robot processes for rigid objects. They are simple, robust and fast, but their design, motion and features are limited, and they do not fulfil the final purpose. Food products have a wide variety of shapes and textures and are susceptible to damaged. Robot grippers for food handling should adapt to this wide range of dimensions and must be fast, cheap, reasonably reliable, and with cheap and reasonable maintenance costs. They should not damage the product and must meet hygienic conditions. The additive manufacturing (AM process is able to manufacture parts without significant restrictions, and is Polyamide approved as food contact material by FDA. This paper presents that, taking the best of plastic flexibility, AM allows the implementation of novel actuators, original compliant mechanisms and practical grippers that are cheap, light, fast, small and easily adaptable to specific food products. However, if they are not carefully designed, the results can present problems, such as permanent deformations, low deformation limits, and low operation speed. We present possible solutions for the use of AM to design proper robot grippers for food handling. Some successful results, such as AM actuators based on deformable air chambers, AM compliant mechanisms, and grippers developed in a single part will be introduced and discussed.

Carlos Blanes

2014-07-01

19

The Special Health Education Course Effects on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Preparation, Distribution and Sale Centers Food Staff in Kermanshah  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:The food handling employee education program improves food safety. Determining knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) level of workers who prepare, distribute and sale the food products make easy to control food safety. This study aimed to evaluate effects of intensive food safety education course on KAP of food handlers. in Kermanshah."nMaterials andMethods: Knowledge, attitude and practice of 370workers of variety of food handling fields we...

2010-01-01

20

Review: Lyn Richards (2005). Handling Qualitative Data: A Practical Guide  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Handling Qualitative Data: A Practical Guide ist ein Einführungsbuch, das sich mit dem gesamten Forschungsprozess von der anfänglichen Konzeptualisierung eines Projekts über die Datenerhebung und die Datenauswertung bis hin zur Veröffentlichung der Ergebnisse befasst. Die Autorin, Lyn RICHARDS, hat selbst zwei wichtige qualitative Softwareprogramme entwickelt, NUD*IST und NVivo, wobei ihr Buch bei der Verwendung unterschiedlichster qualitativer Software hilfreich sein kann. Die Autorin ko...

Miller, Robert L.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Liberalisation of municipal waste handling : compatible with sustainable practices?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Liberalisation of municipal waste handling: How are sustainable practices pursued? In the process of liberalization of public services in Europe contracting out the collection of municipal waste has surged. Research in Denmark has shown that municipalities in general have pursued a narrow policy of price reductions in stead of quality demands in both environmental and working environmental terms. A recent study showed major deficits in the capacities of the municipalities to administer qualit...

Busck, Ole Gunni

2006-01-01

22

An exploratory study of food safety and food handling: Examining ready-to-eat foods in independent delicatessen operations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2009 reports that each year 76 million cases of foodborne illness occur with over 300,000 people hospitalized and 5000 deaths. This study, phase I of a continuing study, identifies key areas for food safety improvement. This study is designed as an exploratory evaluation of independently owned and operated delicatessen operations, using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as indicators to assess food handling and the public’s risk for pathogenic contamination from commonly served ready-to-eat/take-away foods. The analysis consisted of a comprehensive strategy of laboratory testing of samples for pathogenic contamination, informal field observation of food handling procedures, and the examination of the most recent health inspection reports for each of the 18 operations visited. The deli turkey, cream cheese and lettuce were tested using bacteria indicator plates. The results showed widespread levels of contamination. Of the 54 samples tested for Escherichia coli, 26 showed positive results which are ~45% for E. coli contamination. Of the 54 samples tested for Staphy-lococcus aureus, 31 showed positive results which are ~57% for S. aureus contamination. One issue discovered while conducting the study was the lack of consistent uniform international standards of contamination tolerance levels. The informal field observations and health report analyses revealed widespread temperature violations and numerous instances of poor food handling. The study offers independent practitioners a strategy designed to improve their health inspections scores, food handling, and mitigation of operator liability. Independent operators traditionally do not enjoy the resources of centralized supervision and expert on-staff training; yet in aggregate they account for significant volume in both dollars and the quantity of product served. This study adds needed scrutiny to this important food niche.

Casey Schuckers

2013-03-01

23

Food for talk: discursive identities, food choice and eating practices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis focuses on the construction and use of identities in food interaction. Insights from discursive psychology and conversation analysis are drawn upon to examine the interactional functions of identities in online food talk.Discursive psychology (DP) explores how psychological themes, such as identity, are handled and managed in discourse, by participants themselves. The main principle of this approach is that talk is action-oriented. Rather than assuming a cognitive basis for...

Sneijder, P. W. J.

2006-01-01

24

Food safety at home: knowledge and practices of consumers.  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM: To define food safety and risk perception of foodborne diseases in the private home setting and identify specific behaviours during food purchase, storage and preparation in a large survey study. SUBJECT AND METHODS: A large sample of individuals (n?=?1,000) living in the area of Cassino, Italy, volunteered to participate in the study. All participants were randomly recruited and underwent a questionnaire-based interview at their home regarding food-safety measures. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for correlations between demographic characteristics and knowledge/behaviours of food diseases. Risks of hazardous practices in the home were calculated according to educational, physical, occupational and marital status. All analyses were performed using the EPIINFO 3.5 statistical program. RESULTS: Our data showed that there was an insufficient amount of knowledge regarding foodborne diseases and pathogens. In most families, we found that there was a lack of correct adherence to food hygiene, mainly due to errors during both food preparation and storage. There was a higher risk for food safety errors in families with children, older persons and pregnant women. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that the home environment represents an important site for the spread of pathogens responsible for foodborne diseases. In order to adopt good hygiene practices in the home setting, consumers need to be informed about safety procedures of domestic food handling, storage and preparation. PMID:22347771

Langiano, Elisa; Ferrara, Maria; Lanni, Liana; Viscardi, Viviana; Abbatecola, Angela Marie; De Vito, Elisabetta

2012-02-01

25

Food discard practices of householders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food discard patterns and reasons were determined for a sample of 243 households in Oregon. Personal interviews were conducted, and 7-day records of discards were collected. Discards over a 3-day period also were collected from a subsample of 50. The householder's estimate of amount, converted from measures to grams using food composition tables, was found to be 97% of the actual grams of food, as weighed in the laboratory. Households discarded an average of 1,587 gm ($2.88) food in a 7-day period on the basis of the 79% completed usable records. Major reasons were poor quality for fruits and vegetables; storage time for meat, fish, and poultry; non-use of leftovers for combination dishes; and plate waste for cereals and dairy products. Twenty-nine percent of the discarded food (by cost) was considered to be unsafe to eat by the householder. Aesthetic factors dominated decisions by the 18- to 25-year age group, but experiences related to food storage were the basis for decisions by half of the respondents more than 65 years old. Discards increased with number of members in the household and were influenced by age of children. Household income was not linearly related to amount of discard. As household refrigerator temperatures increased from 1.7 degrees C to 20 degrees C, the amount of discards also increased. Consumers generally lacked criteria for evaluating the safety of foods. PMID:3819252

Van Garde, S J; Woodburn, M J

1987-03-01

26

Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety  

Science.gov (United States)

Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic-nozzle sprays.

Lyons, Shawn M.; Harrison, Mark A.; Law, S. Edward

2011-06-01

27

Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic-nozzle sprays.

Lyons, Shawn M; Harrison, Mark A [Food Science and Technology Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-2610 (United States); Law, S Edward, E-mail: edlaw@engr.uga.edu [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Applied Electrostatics Laboratory www.ael.engr.uga.edu, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-4435 (United States)

2011-06-23

28

Air-handling energy efficiency and design practices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With good design practices and life-cycle cost optimization, specific fan power for individual fans will be between 0.5 and 1kW/m{sup 3}/s. Data from nearly 1000 audited fans in Sweden show that the average measured SFPI weighted by drawn motor power is 1.5 kW/m{sup 3}/s and the situation appears to be similar in other countries. Contract forms used by Swedish builders, and consultants` design practices are analyzed here to search for an explanation to the low performance of installed systems. Identified as two major barriers to efficient system design are the lack of performance specifications when procuring systems and the incentive structure in the building sector. As a consequence, duct design methods, rules of thumb, and vendor recommendations are not leading to system optimization. The broad minima in life cycle costs over a range of air-handling unit sizes show that potential economic welfare losses from efficiency standards are likely to be smaller than the losses that result from today`s design practices. 73 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

Nilsson, Lars J.

1993-12-31

29

Liberalisation of municipal waste handling : compatible with sustainable practices?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Liberalisation of municipal waste handling: How are sustainable practices pursued? In the process of liberalization of public services in Europe contracting out the collection of municipal waste has surged. Research in Denmark has shown that municipalities in general have pursued a narrow policy of price reductions in stead of quality demands in both environmental and working environmental terms. A recent study showed major deficits in the capacities of the municipalities to administer qualitative requirements in the tender process and to manage the contracts as an integral part of a scheme for improved performance of municipal waste management. The study stresses the need for training and guidance of municipal administrators. Highlighting â??best practiceâ?? examples the study shows, however, that it is perfectly possible to end up with quality service on contract. It takes a mixture of careful design of requirement specifications in the tender material and deployment of resources to follow up on the contract and cooperate with the contractor in problem-solving. The study finds the municipalities in a key position to break the â??vicious circleâ?? of renouncement of responsibility, untamed market forces and low quality performance. By assuming responsibility, setting and following up on high quality standards the tender instrument presents an additional instrument to legislation and market based means to institutionalize more sustainable practices in waste management

Busck, Ole Gunni

2006-01-01

30

78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources...for irradiation of animal feed and pet food to provide for the safe use of electron...and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food (21 CFR part 579) to provide...

2013-05-10

31

The impact of food manufacturing practices on food borne diseases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Doenças veiculadas por alimentos são um dos maiores problemas de Saúde Pública no mundo, sendo responsáveis por reduções no crescimento econômico global. A contaminação de alimentos com patógenos e sua persistência, crescimento, multiplicação e/ou produção de toxinas é de interesse da Saúde Pública. [...] Estes problemas podem ser controlados com esforços e treinamento constante de manipuladores de alimentos. Em contraste com perigos químicos e físicos, a concentração de patógenos em alimentos é modificada durante etapas de processamento, acondicionamento e preparação, tornando difícil estimar e quantificar o número de microrganismos ou a concentração de suas toxinas no momento da ingestão do alimento. Esta revisão comenta sobre os principais microrganismos bacterianos relacionados à práticas de manipulação como Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp. ressaltando o consumo de alimentos em ruas, o desenvolvimento de doenças veiculadas por alimentos e enfatizando o impacto de boas práticas de manipulação na segurança e qualidade de alimentos. Abstract in english Food-borne illness is a major international problem and an important cause of reduced economic growth. The contamination of the food supply with the pathogens and its persistence, growth, multiplication and/or toxin production has emerged as an important public health concern. Most of these problems [...] could be controlled with the efforts on the part of the food handlers, whether in a processing plant, a restaurant, and others. In contrast with most chemical hazardous compounds, the concentration of food pathogens changes during the processing, storage, and meal preparation, making it difficult to estimate the number of the microorganisms or the concentration of their toxins at the time of ingestion by the consumer. This review shows main microorganisms related to the manipulation practices such as Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. and describes the factors regarding the food-borne illness highlighting the impact of good manipulation practices on the food safety and food quality.

Sousa, Cristina Paiva de.

32

Critical control points of complementary food preparation and handling in eastern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate microbial contamination and critical control points (CCPs in the preparation and handling of complementary foods in 120 households in Imo state, Nigeria. METHODS: The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP approach was used to investigate processes and procedures that contributed to microbial contamination, growth and survival, and to identify points where controls could be applied to prevent or eliminate these microbiological hazards or reduce them to acceptable levels. Food samples were collected and tested microbiologically at different stages of preparation and handling. FINDINGS: During cooking, all foods attained temperatures capable of destroying vegetative forms of food-borne pathogens. However, the risk of contamination increased by storage of food at ambient temperature, by using insufficiently high temperatures to reheat the food, and by adding contaminated ingredients such as dried ground crayfish and soybean powder at stages where no further heat treatment was applied. The purchasing of contaminated raw foodstuffs and ingredients, particularly raw akamu, from vendors in open markets is also a CCP. CONCLUSION: Although an unsafe environment poses many hazards for children?s food, the hygienic quality of prepared food can be assured if basic food safety principles are observed. When many factors contribute to food contamination, identification of CCPs becomes particularly important and can facilitate appropriate targeting of resources and prevention efforts.

Ehiri John E.

2001-01-01

33

Food labeling: safe handling statements: labeling of shell eggs. Final rule.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its food labeling regulations to permit the egg industry to place the safe handling statement for shell eggs on the inside lid of egg cartons if the statement "Keep Refrigerated" appears on the principal display panel (PDP) or information panel. This final rule will provide the industry greater flexibility in the placement of safe handling instructions on egg cartons, while continuing to provide consumers with this important information. This action is in response to numerous requests from the egg industry. PMID:17847579

2007-08-20

34

Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good handling practices. Revision 7.  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is issuing this new edition to assure that the document includes the most recent information on UF6 handling procedures and reflects the policies of the USEC. This manual updates the material contained in ea...

1995-01-01

35

Influence of Handling Practices on Material Recovery from Residential Solid Waste  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Material recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) is becoming widely adopted in several developing countries. Residential solid waste is one of the most important components of MSW and the handling practices of the MSW by the generators have a major impact on the quality and quantity of the materials for recovery. This article analyzes the generation and composition of residential solid waste and the handling practices by users in three municipalities in Colombia that have a solid waste mana...

Marmolejo, Luis F.; Diaz, Luis F.; Patricia Torres; Mariela García; Burbano, Mary H.; Carolina Blanco; Katherine Erazo; Pereira, Jairo F.

2010-01-01

36

The disgruntled patient: how family practice residency programs handle requests for a physician change.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the alternatives available in family practice residency programs for handling patients who expressed dissatisfaction with their physician. Letters were sent to 150 family practice residency programs asking how they handled this problem. Of those who replied, it was determined that this problem is generally handled in one of three ways: (1) patient automatically transferred to another physician, (2) patient referred to original physician for discussion, or (3) patient referred to a designated authority. The rationale and implications of each method are discussed. PMID:7411052

Steinweg, K K

1980-08-01

37

Practical application of food irradiation in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Turkey is the world's leading producer and exporter of dried fruits (dried figs, raisins,and dried apricots etc.) and nuts (hazelnuts, wall nuts, pistachios, peanuts etc.) all of which have to be fumigated by methyl bromide a few times prior to export. Last fumigation is obligatory before shipment according to current quarantine treatment. Methyl Bromide (MeBr) fumigation is the most commonly used insect quarantine treatment for dried fruits and nuts in Turkey to protect from potential infestations. In accordance with the Montreal Protocol, Turkey as an Article 5(1) country will take actions to regulate and take measures to phase-out MeBr use. So, Turkey has to total phase-out in 2015 but according to Turkey MeBr Phase-out Action Plan prepared and published by The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural affairs in 2001, using MeBr should be reduced for stored commodities by 50 % by 2002 and phased-out totally by 2004. Irradiation technology is ready as an alternative to MeBr fumigation under the Action Plan of Turkey. Intensive research studies on food irradiation in Turkey have started in early 1970's and have still been continued. After careful and intensive works of all related authorities and specialists for a long period and with the help of ICGFI, the food irradiation regulation of Turkey was published in Official Newspaper on November 6, 1999. Having the Food Irradiation Regulation has supported to initiate commercialization study in Turkey in Co-operation with IAEA (TUR 5022). Feasibility study of a commercial food irradiation facility for the potential application of food irradiation in Turkey was prepared by IAEA experts Dr.M.Ahmed and Ir. J.P.Lacroix and together with TUR 5022 Research Team in April 2001 in Izmir, Turkey. Gamma-Pak Irradiation Facility in Cerkeskoy-Tekirdag got the commercial food irradiation licence and registration certificate in Feb. 2002. Practical application of food irradiation is getting more attraction in Turkey in parallel with other countries

2002-01-01

38

78 FR 34565 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources...for irradiation of animal feed and pet food that appeared in the Federal Register...for irradiation of animal feed and pet food that appeared in the Federal...

2013-06-10

39

Handling generating plant accidents: theory is secondary to good practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear Electric (NE) plc is one of the successor companies to the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) following privatization of the UK electricity supply industry. NE has inherited all the nuclear assets of the CEGB, including 13 nuclear power stations (27 reactors) at ten sites within England and Wales. The earliest (gas-cooled) reactors commenced operation in 1962 and two are now being decommissioned. The latest station (Sizewell B) is under construction and is a pressurised water reactor. This article describes the emergency planning for these stations with particular reference to the interfaces with the Fire Service and the on-site aspects of the emergency arrangements. NE's areas of responsibility are defined and the emergency objectives listed. It is concluded that in the end emergency planning is not about theory, but about practice. (author)

1991-01-01

40

Sanitation Practices among Food Handlers in a Military Food Service Institution, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted over a period of two months to assess the food hygiene practices among food handlers in a military food service institution that have been trained with food safety practices and knowledge. Since limited data was published for the services rendered to governmental agencies such as the military, this study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and motivation of food handlers under this institution that was responsible for the provision of food to the armed forces in Malaysia. Findings from this study offered an insight for food sanitation practices and influence of the authority towards food service institutions under the policy of voluntary HACCP practices.

Hai Yen Lee

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
41

PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This screening addresses the critical characteristics for food industry type cans and containers used for handling and storage of special nuclear materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). HNF-5460, Revision 0 specified a minimum tin plate of 0.50 Ib./base box. Since the food pack cans currently used and that have been tested have a listed tin plate of 0.20 lbs. per base box, Revision 1 reduced the tin plate to {ge} 0.20 Ib./base box (i.e., No. 20 tinned commercial steel or heavier). This revision lists Critical Characteristics for two (2) large filtered containers, and associated shielding over-packs. These new containers are called ''Nuclear Material Containers'' (NMCs). They are supplied in various sizes, which can be nested, one inside another. The PFP will use NMCs with volumes up to 8-quarts as needed to over-pack largely bulged containers.

BONADIE, E.P.

2000-08-22

42

Effect of cooking or handling conditions on the furan levels of processed foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of cooking or handling conditions on the concentration of furan in processed foods. The analytical method used to analyse furan levels in foods was optimized based on solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). In baby soups, the concentration of furan decreased by up to 22% after opening a lid for 10 min. In the baby food in retort packaging, the level of furan was reduced by 15-33% after heating the foods at 50 degrees C without a lid. Furan in rice seasonings was evaporated completely after heating the foods at 60 degrees C. Regarding powered milk, the levels of furan were too low to be compared under various conditions. The levels of furan decreased to 58% in beverage products for babies, after storing them at 4 degrees C for 1 day without a lid. The levels of furan in canned foods such as cereal and vegetable were reduced by zero to 52% when they were stored without stirring in a refrigerator at 4 degrees C for 1 day. When we boiled canned fish, the furan present was almost completely evaporated. It is recommended that canned meats be heated up to 50-70 degrees C for the reduction (26-46%) of furan levels. The levels of furan in instant and brewed coffee samples were significantly reduced after storing for 11 to 20 min at room temperature without a lid (p < 0.05). PMID:19680949

Kim, T-K; Lee, Y-K; Park, Y S; Lee, K-G

2009-06-01

43

An analysis of the influences on the moving and handling practice of diploma student nurses within a medical environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anecdotal evidence indicates that in clinical practice diploma student nurses encounter M&H practices that do not always reflect those taught in training and that these influence their own practice. There is little available research evidence that identifies the factors that influence students moving and handling. The aim of the study was to explore the factors influencing the moving and handling practice of student nurses in the practice setting. 24 diploma in nursing students from one c...

Abbott, Michael John

2002-01-01

44

Designing for sustainable food practices in the home:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Activities around food have implications for the environment, personal nutrition, identity, and social relationships. As a way of understanding how daily routines evolve, practice theory (a theory of social action from sociology) provides a framework through which the complexities around consumer food habits can be understood and reveal avenues for design interventions. The theory considers practices themselves as the basic unit of enquiry, where “practices” are routine activities made up...

Borja, J.; Kuijer, S. C.; Aprile, W. A.

2010-01-01

45

Enteric virus contamination of foods through industrial practices: a primer on intervention strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatitis A and E viruses, rotaviruses, Norwalk-like caliciviruses, and astroviruses are among the enteric viruses known to cause food- and waterborne illness. These viruses are spread by the fecal-oral route and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Foods may be contaminated at any time pre- or post-harvest; however, many outbreaks are associated with foods handled by infected restaurant workers. Produce may be contaminated by improper irrigation or fertilization practices, by the hands of infected pickers or processors, or as the result of adulteration during any stage of handling. Outbreaks have been commonly associated with foods which are served raw or only lightly cooked, such as molluscan shellfish, fruits and vegetables, and salads or products contaminated after cooking like frosted bakery products. The farming, shellfish, processing, transportation, and restaurant industries must maintain vigilance to reduce outbreaks of enteric virus illness. Intervention strategies to enhance product safety include increased industry and consumer education; changes in industrial practices, product management, and processing technologies; worker immunizations; and the development of improved monitoring tools for the detection of enteric viruses in foods. PMID:11641770

Richards, G P

2001-08-01

46

Practical application of food irradiation in Asia and the Pacific  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first regional seminar on food irradiation in Asia was held in Tokyo in 1981. In view of several significant international developments on food irradiation it was considered timely to convene the second seminar in this field to assess practical application of food irradiation in the Asian and Pacific region. Over 70 papers were submitted for the Seminar. Eight technical sessions covering practical aspects of food irradiation (e.g. technology transfer, legislation and control, food irradiation facilities and their economics, transportation trials, market testing and consumer acceptance, commercial development of food irradiation, etc.) were included in the Seminar programme. A Working Group to assess the present situation and future application of food irradiation in the region was convened during the Seminar. The report of the Working Group is included in the Proceedings. Refs, figs and tabs

1986-04-07

47

Evaluation of Food Hygiene Knowledge Attitudes and Practices of Food Handlers in Food Businesses in Accra, Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food handlers have a prime role to play in food businesses, and that is to guarantee that meals served are hygienic for consumption. Conscious or inadvertent contamination of such food places consumers at risk of suffering from food- borne illnesses. For this reason the study was carried out to document the food hygiene knowledge, attitudes and practices of some food handlers, in food businesses in Accra, Ghana and also to determine the microbiological load of the foods sold by the food businesses. The study targeted food handlers in the hotel industry. The study involved a field survey, followed by a laboratory assessment of microbiological status of food samples obtained from the sampled hotels. Cross tabulations and chi – squared tests (5% significance level as well as frequency distributions were used to analyze the data obtained from the field survey. Data obtained from the laboratory assessment were also compared to standard values of microbiological counts. Majority of respondents were between the ages of 30 - 40 years (42.9% with tertiary or post secondary education. Food hygiene knowledge and attitudes were satisfactory, however its practice was challenging. Gender, age and educational level of respondents did not influence their food hygiene practices. Microbial counts of all food samples was generally high ranging from 1.2 × 105 CFU/g to 1.1 × 108 CFU /g. The total coliform counts of foods ranged from 1.0 × 104 CFU/g to 5.0 × 106 CFU/g, and these were obtained from three out of the five hotel kitchens sampled. The study concluded that, the food hygiene knowledge and attitudes of the food handlers did not result in efficient food hygiene practices.

George Amponsah Annor

2011-10-01

48

Factors affecting practical application of food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

FAO and IAEA convened an Advisory Group Meeting on Commercial Use of Food Irradiation in order to discuss problems of the industry's acceptance of food irradiation and their remedies. Senior executives from major food industries, trade and consumer organizations were invited to discuss these problems and to prepare a report which would serve as the basis for future plan of action by sponsoring Organizations in the field of food irradiation. This publication contains the report of the meeting, papers presented by the participants and their recommendations to the sponsoring Organizations. Refs and tabs

1988-07-01

49

Standard Practice for Sampling Airborne Particulate Contamination in Cleanrooms for Handling Aerospace Fluids  

CERN Multimedia

1.1 This practice covers a procedure for sampling airborne particulate matter larger than 5 m in size. The method is designed to be used in specific areas, commonly called cleanrooms in the aerospace industry, where aerospace fluids are handled. Note 1 Practice F 50 is an alternative procedure. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2006-01-01

50

Handling practice changes before and later slaughter to reduce the presence of DFD meat in beef  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the production chain, animals are exposed to a series of factors and commercial practices that result in stress. These factors are mainly climatic variations, transport, handling, pre-slaughter waiting, stunning and slaughter. Any negative effect is in function of the type, duration and intensity of the stressing factors before slaughter and the individual susceptibility of animals. These pre-slaughter adverse effects have impact not only on animal welfare, but they also have clear repercussion in meat quality and economic profit of livestock producers. The presence of DFD meat is an issue that affects the quality and economic aspects and this can be minimized through giving major importance to animal welfare, implying changes in animal handling before slaughter. Personal involved in animal handling must be capacitated besides preventive maintenance to equipment in order to improve production.

Cristina Pérez-Linares

2011-12-01

51

Pesticide-handling practices of smallholder coffee farmers in Eastern Jamaica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pesticide use among smallholder coffee producers in Jamaica has been associated with significant occupational health effects. Research on pesticide handling practices, however, has been scarce, especially in eastern Jamaica. This explorative study aims at filling this gap and provides a first basis to develop effective interventions to promote a safer pesticide use. A random sample of 81 coffee farmers was surveyed. The majority of farmers reported to suffer from at least one health symptom a...

Henry, Dwayne; Feola, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

52

E-waste in Gaborone, Botswana – assessing the generation, handling practices, and strategies for improvement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

E-waste includes components with economic and environmental importance, thus the need for their sound end-of-life management. This study provides fundamentals regarding the amounts, flows, and handling practices of e-waste in Gaborone, Botswana. A number of relevant stakeholder organisations were interviewed and an in situ waste composition study was conducted. The concentration of e-waste arriving at the municipal landfill is less than 1 weight per cent, corresponding to about 1.9 kg/capita/...

Taye, Mesfin; Kanda, Wisdom; Krook, Joakim; Mattias, Lindahl

2013-01-01

53

Teaching problem handling in general practice: a computer assisted learning software package for medical students.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A computer assisted learning software package for medical students, EnMesh, designed to increase understanding of the problem-handling skills needed in general practice has been developed at the University of Liverpool. Users access the system anonymously and respond in sequence to problems in the form of clinical vignettes. Responses to each problem, in the form of up to six two-line text statements, are generated by the user with a simple word processing facility. Users compare their respon...

Stanley, I.; Stephens, C.

1991-01-01

54

Gender Difference in Safe and Unsafe Practice of Pesticide Handling in Tobacco Farmers of Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To identify gender difference in safe and unsafe practice of pesticide handling in tobacco farmers of Malaysia, we conducted a 20-item questionnaire interview on storage of pesticide (4 questions), mixing of pesticide (3 questions), use of personal protective equipment and clothing while spraying pesticide (7 questions), activities during and after spraying of pesticide (5 questions), and maintenance of pesticide sprayer (1 question) in 496 tobacco farmers (395 males and 101 females) in Bacho...

Bin Nordin, Rusli; Araki, Shunichi; Sato, Hajime; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Bin Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan; Win Kyi, Daw

2001-01-01

55

The Special Health Education Course Effects on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Preparation, Distribution and Sale Centers Food Staff in Kermanshah  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:The food handling employee education program improves food safety. Determining knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP level of workers who prepare, distribute and sale the food products make easy to control food safety. This study aimed to evaluate effects of intensive food safety education course on KAP of food handlers. in Kermanshah."nMaterials andMethods: Knowledge, attitude and practice of 370workers of variety of food handling fields were studied before and after educational intervention course.Avalidated questionnaire about knowledge, attitude based on instruction from Ministry of Health and Medical Sciences for food handling was used for data collection. Paired t-test and ?2 were applied for statistical analysis."nResults: The results showed positive effects of education program on KAP of food handlers. There was significant increase in knowledge marks before and after intervention, 20.5+ 4.03 vs. 23.73 + 3.75 (p<0.001.Attitude and practice of participants were increased significantly before 107.2+14.6; 43.93+7.6 compared to after 112.23+14.5; 46.11+8 intervention respectively (p<0.001. The most increased mark of KAP was belonged to 21-30 years age group."nConclusion: Our findings confirm that educational intervention improved KAP of food handlers. To increase food safety, running periodical educational courses for the same filed workers with final exam and providing certificate highly recommended.

M Rezaee

2010-10-01

56

Pesticide-handling practices of smallholder coffee farmers in Eastern Jamaica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticide use among smallholder coffee producers in Jamaica has been associated with significant occupational health effects. Research on pesticide handling practices, however, has been scarce, especially in eastern Jamaica. This explorative study aims at filling this gap and provides a first basis to develop effective interventions to promote a safer pesticide use. A random sample of 81 coffee farmers was surveyed. The majority of farmers reported to suffer from at least one health symptom associated with pesticide handling, but safety practices were scarcely adopted. There was also the risk that other household members and the wider local community are exposed to pesticides. The lack of training on pesticide management, the role of health services and the cost for protective equipment seemed to be the most significant factors that influence current pesticide handling practices in eastern Jamaica. Further research is recommended to develop a systemic understanding of farmer’s behaviour to provide a more solid basis for the development of future intervention programmes.

Giuseppe Feola

2013-08-01

57

Influence of Handling Practices on Material Recovery from Residential Solid Waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Material recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW is becoming widely adopted in several developing countries. Residential solid waste is one of the most important components of MSW and the handling practices of the MSW by the generators have a major impact on the quality and quantity of the materials for recovery. This article analyzes the generation and composition of residential solid waste and the handling practices by users in three municipalities in Colombia that have a solid waste management plant (SWMP. The findings show that, although there are significant amounts of useful materials, their handling of the materials as “garbage”, the low recognition of recovery work, and the inadequate storage and source management practices, affect material recovery and the operation of SWMPs. These results may be taken as a reference for this type of municipality, because the solid waste management system and the type of operation of the SWMPs analyzed is similar to all of the SWMPs in the country as well as in other countries in the region.

Jairo F. Pereira

2010-07-01

58

Fiscal Food Policy : Equity and Practice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

When it comes to buying food, price is influential, but is a â??fat taxâ?? the answer to curb obesity? Dr Stuart G Nicholls from Lancaster University, Assistant Professor Dr Wencke Gwozdz and Professor, Dr Lucia A Reisch from Copenhagen Business School and Dr Kristin Voigt from Lancaster University look at whether a fiscal policy would work.

G. Nicholls, Stuart; Gwozdz, Wencke

2011-01-01

59

Chemotherapy-Knowledge and Handling Practice of Nurses Working in a Medical University of Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Many antineoplastic agents are known to be teratogenic and mutagenic to humans. Nurses are the main groups that are exposed to these drugs in hospital setting. Generally, the occupational activities that pose to greatest risk of exposure are the preparation and administration of antineoplastic agents, cleaning of chemotherapy spills, and handling of patient excreta. Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of nurse regarding the way of exposure of Cytotoxic Drugs (CDs and to determine the current patterns of use of personal protective equipments while handling antineoplastic chemotherapeutic agents. Methods: An analytic cross sectional study was carried out at BPKIHS Dharan. The study was carried out on 125 nurses. The random sampling technique was used to select the study subjects using structured and semi-structured questionnaire. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Result: More than 92% of participants reported usually wearing gloves during chemotherapy handling; 6% reported using laboratory coats as protective garments. Usual use of face and respiratory protection was less than 5%. Chemotherapy was reported to be prepared in nursing station where there are no laminar airflow hoods in 100% of work settings. None of the subjects have reportedly provided any type of medical monitoring. Conclusion: Use and availability of gloves have increased but personal protective equipment like protective garments, face and respiratory protective, when handling chemotherapy have decreased and medical monitoring of exposed employees still is neither widely practiced nor consistent with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA guidelines.

Ramanand Chaudhary

2012-02-01

60

76 FR 51308 - Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 424 Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule AGENCY...FTC's rule for ``Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices'' (``Unavailability...16 CFR Part 424-- Retail Food Store Advertising Rule, Project No. P104203'' on...

2011-08-18

 
 
 
 
61

Knowledge and Practices on Food Safety among Secondary School Students in Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The issue of food safety is an issue that is discussed widely, but cases of food poisoning in particular, are still continuing. This may be associated with their own level of knowledge and practices on food safety. This study was aimed to examine the level of food safety knowledge and practices from two secondary school students, to investigate the association between food safety knowledge and practices with gender, to identify the correlation between food safety knowledge levels with practic...

Norazmir, M. N.; Noor Hasyimah, M. A.; Siti Shafurah, A.; Siti Sabariah, B.; Ajau, D.; Norazlanshah, H.

2012-01-01

62

GNS - Transport system and handling practices for the transport of low and intermediate level wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the past years GNS has developed and installed several new transport systems for the transport of low and intermediate level wastes. There are: 1. ''Open-all'' containers for transportation of drums, containers and Type B (U) casks; 2. 20' container qualified as IP II, for the transport of scrap and miscellaneous waste; 3. Tank containers for the transport of liquids. These containers are already being used internationally and have proven functionability. This transport system and the handling practices are described in detail in the report. (author)

1995-06-01

63

Safety of vendor-prepared foods: evaluation of 10 processing mobile food vendors in Manhattan.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: Unsanitary food handling is a major public health hazard. There are over 4,100 mobile food vendors operating in New York City, and of these, approximately forty percent are processing vendors--mobile food units on which potentially hazardous food products are handled, prepared, or processed. This pilot study assesses the food handling practices of 10 processing mobile food vendors operating in a 38-block area of midtown Manhattan (New York City) from 43rd Street to 62nd Street bet...

2003-01-01

64

Toward practical definitions of quality for food science.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new practical approach to developing workable definitions of quality is presented to overcome the numerous semantic and conceptual difficulties that are common with the use of the word quality in food science. This approach links the concept of quality, through a general definition, by adding the missing link of specific definitions related to measurable attributes and properties determined by standard methods to provide values that can be used to evaluate foods or to set specifications. It is compatible with control, assurance, HACCP, regulatory, TQM, and other normal uses of the both the word quality, and the concept quality, in food science and technology. PMID:10674202

Bremner, H A

2000-01-01

65

21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...intended for dietery (food) supplementation...Use this product as a food supplement only. Do...manufacture of other foods and not for distribution...leading cause of fatal poisoning in children under 6. Keep this...

2010-04-01

66

Practice of handling radioactive wastes outside the nuclear fuel cycle in Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the handling of radioactive wastes, which are not produced in facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. The actual amounts of radioactive waste are given showing also the fractions coming from institutions under consideration with respect to the total amount. For different areas as institutions producing radioactive waste, plants conditioning the waste, storing facilities or for the planned final repository the practice of handling, conditioning or storing is described; different methods are discussed. As far as possible and reasonable hints or recommendations are worked out. In some areas problems could be identified, e.g. some nuclides as tritium or radium, are not easily conditioned for a final repository, the lack of final prescriptions how to process the waste for the final repository, differing conditions for the waste to be transferred to the intermediate storage facilities, lack of guidelines how to analyse the waste contaminated with short-lifed nuclides after the decay-time before it is deposited, and the lack of harmonized and perhaps centralized facilities to process the waste before it will be stored in the final repository. Facilities should be capable to cope with non-radioactive aspects as chemical or toxic aspects during processing. It may be summarized, that the handling of radioactive waste produced in non-fuel cycle facilities in general has been regulated and planned for the complete line from the beginning to the repository. Though there are still some aspects as those summarized above that may and should be improved

1990-01-01

67

Semantic Provisioning of Children's Food: Commerce, Care and Maternal Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing upon in-depth interviews with mothers in the US about feeding their young children, this article examines how consumer culture--broadly construed--constitutes part of the indispensable context of mothering practices. The argument put forward is that mothers not only provide food and sustenance for their children, but necessarily encounter,…

Cook, Daniel Thomas

2009-01-01

68

Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, from practice to theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an allergic disease, probably non-IgE-mediated, with expression predominantly in the GI tract. The most characteristic symptom is repeated, debilitating vomiting. It occurs 2-6 h after ingestion of culprit food and is usually accompanied by pallor and lethargy. There may be diarrhea, and in 10-20% of cases, severe hypotension. These symptoms resolve completely within a few hours. The food most frequently involved is cow's milk, followed by rice, but many other foods may be involved. The prognosis is generally good in a few years. In this review the authors try to cope, with the help of some case histories, with the practical clinical aspects of FPIES. The authors also try to provide a management approach based on current knowledge, and finally, to point out the aspects of FPIES that are still controversial. PMID:23971749

Miceli Sopo, Stefano; Greco, Monica; Monaco, Serena; Tripodi, Salvatore; Calvani, Mauro

2013-08-01

69

Validation of a Pre- and Post-Evaluation Process: A Tool for Adult Training in Food Handling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Education in food safety is a well-recognized health intervention, which allows the prevention of a wide range of diseases. Among the strategies of control and prevention of foodborne diseases, it is indicated that food safety education has the double advantage of having low costs and high potential effectiveness, as long as it is carried out with the active participation of food handling workers. In many countries, the Food Code has made compulsory the sanitary training of food workers. However, like in many other disciplines, food science educators receive minimal training on instructional techniques before becoming teachers. One of the important questions of the problem here presented is the issue related to the methodologies of pre-evaluation and final evaluation. We describe two indices to validate the training in food safety, which could be used for the quantification of educational intervention. The results show that a better learning process involves the active participation of both the students and the educators. We concluded that the evaluation process is more complex than the single instance of accreditation though a final evaluation.

Guido Mastrantonio

2013-12-01

70

21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...be set off in a box by use of hairlines. (f) Foods containing psyllium husk. (1) Foods containing dry or incompletely hydrated psyllium husk, also known as psyllium seed husk, and bearing a health claim on the association between...

2010-04-01

71

Food safety in hospital: knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing staff of two hospitals in Sicily, Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Food hygiene in hospital poses peculiar problems, particularly given the presence of patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. Moreover, in nosocomial outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, the mortality risk has been proved to be significantly higher than the community outbreaks and highest for foodborne outbreaks. On the other hand, the common involvement in the role of food handlers of nurses or domestic staff, not specifically trained about food hygiene and HACCP, may represent a further cause of concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning food safety of the nursing staff of two hospitals in Palermo, Italy. Association with some demographic and work-related determinants was also investigated. Methods The survey was conducted, by using a semi-structured questionnaire, in March-November 2005 in an acute general hospital and a paediatric hospital, where nursing staff is routinely involved in food service functions. Results Overall, 401 nurses (279, 37.1%, of the General Hospital and 122, 53.5%, of the Paediatric Hospital, respectively answered. Among the respondents there was a generalized lack of knowledge about etiologic agents and food vehicles associated to foodborne diseases and proper temperatures of storage of hot and cold ready to eat foods. A general positive attitude towards temperature control and using clothing and gloves, when handling food, was shared by the respondents nurses, but questions about cross-contamination, refreezing and handling unwrapped food with cuts or abrasions on hands were frequently answered incorrectly. The practice section performed better, though sharing of utensils for raw and uncooked foods and thawing of frozen foods at room temperatures proved to be widely frequent among the respondents. Age, gender, educational level and length of service were inconsistently associated with the answer pattern. More than 80% of the respondent nurses did not attend any educational course on food hygiene. Those who attended at least one training course fared significantly better about some knowledge issues, but no difference was detected in both the attitude and practice sections. Conclusion Results strongly emphasize the need for a safer management of catering in the hospitals, where non professional food handlers, like nursing or domestic staff, are involved in food service functions.

La Guardia Maurizio

2007-04-01

72

The handling of urinary incontinence in Danish general practices after distribution of guidelines and voiding diary reimbursement: an observational study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Though urinary incontinence (UI) is a bothersome condition for the individual patient, the patients tend not to inform their physician about UI and the physician tend not to ask the patient. Recently different initiatives have been established in Danish general practices to improve the management of UI. The aim of this study was to identify the handling of urinary incontinence (UI) in Danish general practices after distribution of clinical guidelines and r...

Viktrup Lars; Møller Lars

2004-01-01

73

77 FR 71312 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food  

Science.gov (United States)

...Eggum, ``The Effect of Ionizing Radiation on the Nutritional Value of Fish (Cod) Protein,'' Lebensmittel Wissenschaft Technologie, 6:90-93, 1973. 17. Diehl, J. F., ``Nutritional Adequacy of Irradiated Foods,'' pp. 241-282, in...

2012-11-30

74

Knowledge and Practices on Food Safety among Secondary School Students in Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issue of food safety is an issue that is discussed widely, but cases of food poisoning in particular, are still continuing. This may be associated with their own level of knowledge and practices on food safety. This study was aimed to examine the level of food safety knowledge and practices from two secondary school students, to investigate the association between food safety knowledge and practices with gender, to identify the correlation between food safety knowledge levels with practices and to compare the difference of knowledge and practices level between both of the school. Information concerning demographic, food safety knowledge and practices were collected using self-administered questionnaire. 339 students comprising 202 male and 197 female from two schools were randomly selected to answer the questionnaire provided. Analyzed data obtained stated that knowledge on food safety was good for both school and their also practiced on food safety by 79.1% included in good practice range. Results also showed that a high level of food safety knowledge and practices was possessed by both groups, male and female students in quite similar value of means. Correlation between food safety knowledge and practices on food safety indicated, there was a small positive correlation with [r = 0.148, n = 221, p<0.05] for Sekolah Tinggi Arab Maahad and [r = 0.053, n = 178, p<0.5] for Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Gelang Patah.

D. Ajau

2012-01-01

75

Hygienic Practices among Food Vendors in Educational Institutions in Ghana: The Case of Konongo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the booming street food industry in the developing world there is an urgent need to ensure food vendors adhere to hygienic practices to protect public health. This study assessed the adherence to food hygiene practices by food vendors in educational institutions in Konongo, Ghana. Structured questionnaires, extensive observation and interviews were used for the study involving 60 food vendors from 20 basic schools. Attributable to the influence of school authorities and the level of in-t...

Isaac Monney; Dominic Agyei; Wellington Owusu

2013-01-01

76

The significance of post-harvest maize handling to food sufficiency in subsistence farm households in Aframso; Ejura-Sekyeredumansi District, Ghana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study concentrated on the role postharvest maize handling in subsistence farm household’s food sufficiency in Aframso, Ejura-Sekyeredumansi District, located in the middle belt Ghana. Maize remains an integral crop for subsistence farm households and plays a vital role in safe guarding food security in the country as a whole. It is the most widely consumed staple food in the district and Ghana in general, it happens to be the most important cereal grain in the country. Subsistence farme...

Omane, Kwabena Sarpong

2014-01-01

77

Food Hygiene Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of the Food Handlers in the Military Hospitals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Improper practices and lack of knowledge by food handlers are contributing factors for the spread of foodborne outbreaks. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitude and practice of food handlers in military hospitals in Jordan. A Self completed questionnaire was answered by 200 employees; 150 military employees and 50 civilian employees in 7 Jordanian military hospitals selected randomly one from the capital Amman and two from the three provinces. The results showed that the means of the percentage scores for the knowledge, attitude, practice, were 84.82, 88.88, 89.43, respectively and the overall knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP mean percentage score was 87.88. A significant difference (P 0.05 in these values was observed between the military and civilian employee. The mean percentage scores for knowledge, attitude and practice were 88.5, 93.2, and 91.4, respectively for military employee compared to those for civilian employee of 73.7, 75.8, and 83.5, respectively. A significant difference for the overall (KAP mean percentage score was also observed between gender, education and specific occupation of the food handler. Female KAP percentage mean score was 90.0 and that for males was 86.6; The college or university educations employee had a mean score of 91.6 while the elementary school education employee had a mean score of 79.7; The nutritionists and cooks had statistically similar means of 91.6 but these occupations significantly differ from the waiters 84.4 and cleaners 80.2.

Labib Sharif

2013-03-01

78

Food irradiation in the control of storage and handling losses in the Philippine onions and garlic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information will be provided on the nature and magnitude of the control of postharvest losses in onions and garlic from the application of irradiation. Control of losses is measured in storage and during post storage marketing of the commodities. Information will also be presented on market tests and survey of consumer reaction to irradiated onions. The benefits of irradiation will be discussed in relation to the need to reduce postharvest losses in the food supply and to address consumer concerns over the safety of food due to the use of chemicals. (author)

1996-12-10

79

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of University Students Regarding the Use of Nutritional Information and Food Labels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The food nutrition label provides the nutrition information that helps consumers on food choices and used to give us information so that customer can choose between foods. This study was aimed to determine the association between knowledge, attitude and practices on food label use and to determine the factors that influence the use of food labels during making food purchasing decision among university students. A cross-sectional study of undergraduate students at UiTM Puncak Alam in the Kuala...

Nurliyana, G.; Norazmir, M. N.; Khairil Anuar, M. I.

2011-01-01

80

76 FR 15841 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food; Confirmation of Effective Date  

Science.gov (United States)

...Citizen and the Center for Food Safety (PC/CFS). The preamble to the final rule advised...submissions is a letter sent jointly by PC/CFS containing 10 numbered objections to the...identical to certain of those raised in the PC/CFS submission. Both PC/ CFS and Dr....

2011-03-22

 
 
 
 
81

PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for PFP's Vault Operations system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to perform its safety function. The changes in these specifications have no detrimental effect on the descriptions and parameters related to handling plutonium solids in the authorization basis. Because no parameters or sequences exceed the limits described in the authorization bases, no accident or abnormal conditions are affected. The specifications prescribed in this critical characteristics document do not represent an unreviewed safety question.

BONADIE, E.P.

1999-12-07

82

PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for PFP's Vault Operations system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to perform its safety function. The changes in these specifications have no detrimental effect on the descriptions and parameters related to handling plutonium solids in the authorization basis. Because no parameters or sequences exceed the limits described in the authorization bases, no accident or abnormal conditions are affected. The specifications prescribed in this critical characteristics document do not represent an unreviewed safety question

1999-01-01

83

Hygienic Practices among Food Vendors in Educational Institutions in Ghana: The Case of Konongo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the booming street food industry in the developing world there is an urgent need to ensure food vendors adhere to hygienic practices to protect public health. This study assessed the adherence to food hygiene practices by food vendors in educational institutions in Konongo, Ghana. Structured questionnaires, extensive observation and interviews were used for the study involving 60 food vendors from 20 basic schools. Attributable to the influence of school authorities and the level of in-training of food vendors, the study points out that food vendors in educational institutions generally adhered to good food hygiene practices, namely, regular medical examination (93%, protection of food from flies and dust (55%; proper serving of food (100%; good hand hygiene (63%; and the use of personal protective clothing (52%. The training of food vendors on food hygiene, instead of the level of education had a significant association (p < 0.05 with crucial food hygiene practices such as medical examination, hand hygiene and protection of food from flies and dust. Further, regulatory bodies legally mandated to efficiently monitor the activities of food vendors lacked the adequate capacity to do so. The study proposes that efforts should be geared towards developing training programmes for food vendors as well as capacity building of the stakeholders.

Isaac Monney

2013-07-01

84

Food Safety Knowledge and Beliefs of Middle School Children: Implications for Food Safety Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

To create effective educational interventions that address the food safety informational needs of youth, a greater understanding of their knowledge and skills is needed. The purposes of this study were to explore, via focus groups, the food-handling responsibilities of middle school youth and obstacles they face in practicing safe food handling

Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Abbot, Jaclyn Maurer; Quick, Virginia

2010-01-01

85

A practical approach to the assesment of manual handling equipment for cargo: multinational abrasives in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Manual Handling of Loads is an activity present in virtually all production system, when developed without ergonomic principles of design and sizing can generate several instances of discomfort and musculoskeletal disorders. This work was carried out to measure, set limits and risks and guide specifications for the cargo handling carts in a specific company, tracing the anthropometric profile of the productive population and performing a quantitative evaluation of forces and design models of cars used in the company. PMID:22317569

Barbosa Neto, João; Centeio, Eduardo Aparecido; de Sampaio Siqueira, Fernando; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

2012-01-01

86

Food Insecurity, Food Based Coping Strategies and Suboptimal Dietary Practices of Adolescents in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the high prevalence of adolescent food insecurity in Ethiopia, there is no study which documented its association with suboptimal dietary practices. The objective of this study is to determine the association between adolescent food insecurity and dietary practices. We used data on 2084 adolescents in the age group of 13–17 years involved in the first round survey of the five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. Adolescents were selected using residence stratified random sampling methods. Food insecurity was measured using scales validated in developing countries. Dietary practices were measured using dietary diversity score, food variety score and frequency of consuming animal source food. Multivariable regression models were used to compare dietary behaviors by food security status after controlling for socio-demographic and economic covariates. Food insecure adolescents had low dietary diversity score (P<0.001), low mean food variety score (P<0.001) and low frequency of consuming animal source foods (P<0.001). After adjusting for other variables in a multivariable logistic regression model, adolescent food insecurity (P<0.001) and rural residence (P<0.001) were negatively associated with the likelihood of having a diversified diet (P<0.001) and frequency of consuming animal source foods, while a high household income tertile was positively associated. Similarly, multivariable linear regression model showed that adolescent food insecurity was negatively associated with food variety score, while residence in semi-urban areas (P<0.001), in urban areas (P<0.001) and high household income tertile (P?=?0.013) were positively associated. Girls were less likely to have diversified diet (P?=?0.001) compared with boys. Our findings suggest that food insecurity has negative consequence on optimal dietary intake of adolescents. Food security interventions should look into ways of targeting adolescents to mitigate these dietary consequences and provide alternative strategies to improve dietary quality of adolescents in Southwest Ethiopia.

Belachew, Tefera; Lindstrom, David; Gebremariam, Abebe; Hogan, Dennis; Lachat, Carl; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick

2013-01-01

87

Code of practice for the control and safe handling of radioactive sources used for therapeutic purposes (1988)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Code is intended as a guide to safe practices in the use of sealed and unsealed radioactive sources and in the management of patients being treated with them. It covers the procedures for the handling, preparation and use of radioactive sources, precautions to be taken for patients undergoing treatment, storage and transport of radioactive sources within a hospital or clinic, and routine testing of sealed sources

1988-01-01

88

Food allergic consumers' preferences for labelling practices: a qualitative study in a real shopping environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Food allergy is a chronic disease that can only be managed through avoidance of problematic proteins in the diet. Inappropriate communication about food allergens can cause stress and insecurity, which may have a negative impact on quality of life. The aim was to investigate whether information provided through current labelling practices meets the need of food allergic consumers. A total of 40 participants (20 adult food allergy suffers and 20 parents of food allergic children) were recruite...

Voordouw, J.; Cornelisse-vermaat, J. R.; Yiakoumaki, V.; Theodoridis, G.; Chryssochoidis, G.; Frewer, L. J.

2009-01-01

89

Cleaning and handling implements as potential reservoirs for bacterial contamination of some ready-to-eat foods in retail delicatessen environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed the association of bacteria with cleaning tools, such as floor mops (n = 25) and cleaning cloths (n = 39), and handling devices, such as disposable plastic gloves (n = 20), used during filled baguette and assorted salad preparation in four selected retail delicatessens in Johannesburg, South Africa. Samples of each cleaning or handling tool were prepared for aerobic (APC), coliform (CC), Escherichia coli (EC), Bacillus cereus (BCC), and Staphylococcus aureus (SAC) counts, as well as tested for the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) and Salmonella (SALM) by standard plating methods. Bacterial populations attached to the cleaning and handling tools were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ten selected gram-positive isolates were further analyzed by 16S rRNA sequence analysis and compared with isolates from filled baguettes and assorted salads. The floor mops consistently yielded the highest APCs, CCs, and ECs (5.7, 4.1, and 3.0 log CFU/g, respectively), while gloves had the lowest corresponding counts (3.6, 2.0, and 1.0 log CFU/g, respectively). Low BCCs and SACs were recorded in this study (ca. 1.2 log CFU/g), while SALM and LM were each detected in five cleaning tool samples. SEM showed rods and cocci attached to handling and cleaning tools. Furthermore, results of 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that several gram-positive isolates were identified as S. aureus, Staphylococcus pasteuri, Staphylococcus sciuri, and Enterococcus faecalis. Genetically similar strains (100% similarity) were isolated from cleaning and handling tools and associated ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. Cleaning and handling tools may act as reservoirs of contamination for RTE foods during preparation in retail delicatessens in South Africa. The transfer of potential pathogens, such as S. aureus, to foods from cleaning and handling tools may hold food safety implications. PMID:18095448

Christison, C A; Lindsay, D; von Holy, A

2007-12-01

90

Food Insecurity, Food Based Coping Strategies and Suboptimal Dietary Practices of Adolescents in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite the high prevalence of adolescent food insecurity in Ethiopia, there is no study which documented its association with suboptimal dietary practices. The objective of this study is to determine the association between adolescent food insecurity and dietary practices. We used data on 2084 adolescents in the age group of 13–17 years involved in the first round survey of the five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. Adolescents were selected using residence stratified r...

2013-01-01

91

Food insecurity, food based coping strategies and suboptimal dietary practices of adolescents in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite the high prevalence of adolescent food insecurity in Ethiopia, there is no study which documented its association with suboptimal dietary practices. The objective of this study is to determine the association between adolescent food insecurity and dietary practices. We used data on 2084 adolescents in the age group of 13–17 years involved in the first round survey of the five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. Adolescents were selected using residence stratified r...

2013-01-01

92

Sexuality and the Schools: Handling the Critical Issues. the Practicing Administrator's Leadership Series. Roadmaps to Success.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book provides suggestions for handling important and emotionally charged issues of sexuality in the schools. Six chapters offer information on teenage pregnancy, HIV and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), sexual orientation, sexual harassment, and sex education. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Searching for Intimacy"…

Curcio, Joan L.; And Others

93

Practical handling skills during road transport of fattening pigs from farm to slaughterhouse: A brief review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The transport of fattening pigs is characterized by a strong human-animal interaction. Consequent handling is important because of animal welfare, meat quality and matching economic consequences. During road transport, human impact can be divided in different steps: 1 driving pigs from the pens via an alley to the trailer, 2 loading, 3 actual transport, 4 unloading to the lairage, and 5 the final phase driving pigs to the stunning. An inadequate design and a poor condition of the facilities will negatively affect the ease of handling pigs. Because of the consequences, acute stress during transport and slaughter should be minimized by acting on the education of people, on equipment and on preparation of animals for the journey. Education programs have to be repeated regularly so that knowledge can be refreshed.

Bert Driessen

2013-12-01

94

Chemotherapy-Knowledge and Handling Practice of Nurses Working in a Medical University of Nepal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Many antineoplastic agents are known to be teratogenic and mutagenic to humans. Nurses are the main groups that are exposed to these drugs in hospital setting. Generally, the occupational activities that pose to greatest risk of exposure are the preparation and administration of antineoplastic agents, cleaning of chemotherapy spills, and handling of patient excreta. Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of nurse regarding the way of exposure of Cyt...

Ramanand Chaudhary; Basant Kumar Karn

2012-01-01

95

Consumer perceptions of the effectiveness of food risk management practices: A cross-cultural study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Consumer perceptions of food hazards and how the associated risks are managed are likely to be an important determinant of consumer confidence in food safety. While there is a body of research that examines public perceptions of various types of food hazards, less attention has been directed to understanding how the public perceives food risk management practices. Utilizing elements of the repertory grid approach in focus group discussions, this research explored public attitudes regarding th...

Houghton, J. R.; Kleef, E.; Rowe, G.; Frewer, L. J.

2006-01-01

96

Wild Food Summit: Anishinaabe Relearning Traditional Gathering Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild Food Summits is a program initiated by Steve Dahlberg, the White Earth Tribal & Community College Extension director. Dahlberg began Wild Food Summits to teach people about identifying and gathering wild greens, mushrooms, and other edible plant life. The whole community comes together to cook and eat the foods. The tribal college has…

Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

2011-01-01

97

Effect of collection and handling practices on concentrations of volatile organic compounds detected in soil subsamples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The losses of trichloroethylene from soil samples transferred to and from a storage bottle were evaluated by comparing values obtained using standard techniques with values obtained using a method that limits sample disruption, exposure, and volatilization losses from a subsample after a single transfer step. Results strongly suggest that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are readily lost from contaminated soils when care is not taken to limit surface area exposure and ensure subsample isolation. For this site investigation and others using similar sample-handling protocols, VOC losses are most abundant during field collection and storage.

Hewitt, A.D. [Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab., Hanover, NH (United States)

1996-12-31

98

Clarifying concepts of food parenting practices. A Delphi study with an application to snacking behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inconsistencies in measurements of food parenting practices continue to exist. Fundamental to this problem is the lack of clarity about what is understood by different concepts of food parenting practices. The purpose of this study was to clarify food parenting practice concepts related to snacking. A three round Delphi study among an international group of experts (n = 63) was conducted. In the first round, an open-ended survey was used to collect food parenting practice descriptions and concept labels associated with those practices. In the second round, participants were asked to match up descriptions with the appropriate concept labels. The third and final round allowed participants to reconsider how descriptions and concept labels were matched, taking into account the opinions expressed in round two. Round one produced 408 descriptions of food parenting practices and 110 different concept names. Round two started with 116 descriptions of food parenting practices and 20 concept names. On 40 descriptions, consensus regarding the underlying concept name was reached in round two. Of the remaining 76 descriptions, consensus on 47 descriptions regarding the underlying concept name was reached in round three. The present study supports the essential process of consensus development with respect to food parenting practices concepts. PMID:24732407

Gevers, D W M; Kremers, S P J; de Vries, N K; van Assema, P

2014-08-01

99

Performance factors as a basis of practical fault detection and diagnostic methods for air-handling units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technical term performance is defined as how well a system fulfills its intended purpose in different operational circumstances. This paper describes the process of establishing the performance factors of air-handling units (AHUs), defining the performance requirements, and connecting them to fault detection and diagnosis methods. The most important performance requirements of AHUs are related to heating and cooling energy, the supply airflow rate and purity, energy efficiency, and control quality. Many solutions made during different life-cycle phases affect the final system performance. These solutions are discussed in this paper. Diagnostic tools and methods can be developed for monitoring the defined performance criteria. Practical FDD methods have been developed for the system considered here. The methods are simple and easy to apply in practice. Methods for monitoring the heat recovery unit and the AHU energy use are presented. Examples of utilizing characteristic curves and fault-symptom trees are also described.

Kaerki, S.H.; Karjalainen, S.J.

1999-07-01

100

Principles of the Codex general standard for irradiated foods and associated code of practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Codex Alimentarius Commission, which is the Executive Organ of the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, adopted in 1983 a General Standard for Irradiated Foods and a Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods. The Standard takes into account the conclusions of Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committees, convened to evaluate all available data concerning the effects of irradiation treatment on food, including extensive wholesomeness data and animal tests. The Standard represents a set of principles and requirements for the process and for the irradiated product. It does not go into details concerning the application of food irradiation to individual food products on groups of food products in accordance with good irradiation practice. Such details are covered in a special Codes of Good Irradiation Practice elaborated by the FAO/IAEA/WHO International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation. The lecture will describe the various provisions of the Codex Standard for Irradiated Foods and the Code and provide explanation of the intent of these provisions, drawing attention to the actual practices followed by Governments in regulating food irradiation. (author). 12 refs

1993-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

An Agent-based Model of Food Safety Practices Adoption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Food processors and governments have an interest to motivate suppliers of animal products to implement food safety measures. This paper proposes an agentbased simulation model to compare possible consequences of alternative communication programs and incentive systems. The agent model combines economic incentive models with social-psychological survey results in an approach based on the theory of planned behavior. Food safety actions follow from producers’ attitudes, social network influenc...

Verwaart, T.; Valeeva, N. I.

2011-01-01

102

MEMS product engineering handling the diversity of an emerging technology best practices for cooperative development  

CERN Multimedia

This book provides the methodological background to directing cooperative product engineering projects in a micro and nanotechnology setting. The methodology is based on well-established methods like PRINCE2 and StageGate, which are supplemented by best practices that can be individually tailored to the actual nature and size of the project at hand. This book is intended for everyone who takes an active role in either practical product engineering or in teaching it. This includes project and product management staff and program management offices in companies working on innovation projects, those active in innovation, as well as professors and students in engineering and management.

Ortloff, Dirk; Hahn, Kai; Bieniek, Tomasz; Janczyk, Grzegorz; Bruck, Rainer

2014-01-01

103

Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: initiatives, practices, and consequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discarded electronic goods contain a range of toxic materials requiring special handling. Developed countries have conventions, directives, and laws to regulate their disposal, most based on extended producer responsibility. Manufacturers take back items collected by retailers and local governments for safe destruction or recovery of materials. Compliance, however, is difficult to assure, and frequently runs against economic incentives. The expense of proper disposal leads to the shipment of large amounts of e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other developing countries. Shipment is often through middlemen, and under tariff classifications that make quantities difficult to assess. There, despite the intents of national regulations and hazardous waste laws, most e-waste is treated as general refuse, or crudely processed, often by burning or acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released, harm to the environment, workers, and area residents is inevitable. The faster growth of e-waste generated in the developing than in the developed world presages continued expansion of a pervasive and inexpensive informal processing sector, efficient in its own way, but inherently hazard-ridden. PMID:22858354

Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Wong, Ming Hung

2013-10-01

104

Practical handling of AIO admixtures – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 10  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

All-in-one admixtures (AIO-admixtures) provide safe, effective and low-risk PN (parenteral nutrition) for practically all indications and applications. Water, energy (carbohydrates and lipids), amino acids, vitamins and trace elements are infused together with PN either as industrially-manufactured AIO admixtures provided as two- or three-chamber bags (shelf life usually more than 12 months) completed with electrolytes and micronutrients where appropriate or as individually compounded ready-t...

Mu?hlebach, S.; Franken, C.; Stanga, Z.

2009-01-01

105

Balancing food values: Making sustainable choices within cooking practices:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Within user-centred design and topics such as persuasive design, pleasurable products, and design for sustainable behaviour, there is a danger of over-determining, pacifying or reducing people’s diversity. Taking the case of sustainable food, we have looked into the social aspects of cooking at home, in specific related to the type of food that is purchased. This paper describes what it means for people to make more sustainable choices in food shopping and how that can be mediated while tak...

Jong, A.; Kuijer, S. C.; Rydell, T.

2013-01-01

106

Food-Safety Practices in the Domestic Kitchen: Demographic, Personality, and Experiential Determinants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impact of consumer behavior in determining the safety of foods prepared at home has focused so far on the role of isolated consumer practices. In addition, demographic factors have been applied primarily to explain differences between individuals. In this paper, the use of psychological factors to predict scores on the integrated food-safety score is advocated. In order to assess the relevance of psychological constructs to food-safety behaviors, several relations are tested at the same t...

Fischer, A. R. H.; Frewer, L. J.

2008-01-01

107

What do Andy Warhol, pecorino and wasabi have in common? Food practices in Ljubljana and Maribor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors present an analysis of food practices based on the research project »Media consumption, class and cultural stratification«. A cluster analysis of data obtained from a random sample of the adult population in Ljubljana and Maribor, the two biggest cities in Slovenia, revealed four food cultures: Aspiring traditionalists (27% of the sample, Struggling traditionalists (32%, Health conscious and socially responsible hedonists (29% and Traditionalists, adapted to urban trends (12%. The findings support previous research which recognises significant associations between food practices, socio-demographic factors (particularly education, values and cultural consumption. The data show that food practices in Ljubljana and Maribor are still primarily traditionalistic, as are several other practices of everyday life.

Tanja Kamin

2012-12-01

108

Practical radioprotection data for the handling of radionuclides. The case of tritium and tritiated compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document assembles the latest facts available on tritium and its compounds. Practical values are given on questions to which experimentalists and users must normally reply to insure their safety. The medical aspect of supervision is also broached. This kind of data presentation complements the information on technical radioprotection sheets sent out under the double stamp of the S.C.P.R.I. and the INRS. They deserve to be examined seriously as a model on which to base equivalent documents concerning commonly used radionuclides

1979-09-21

109

Fermented foods, microbiota, and mental health: ancient practice meets nutritional psychiatry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purposeful application of fermentation in food and beverage preparation, as a means to provide palatability, nutritional value, preservative, and medicinal properties, is an ancient practice. Fermented foods and beverages continue to make a significant contribution to the overall patterns of traditional dietary practices. As our knowledge of the human microbiome increases, including its connection to mental health (for example, anxiety and depression), it is becoming increasingly clear th...

Selhub, Eva M.; Logan, Alan C.; Bested, Alison C.

2014-01-01

110

Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment and Excess Sludge Handling Practices in the Federated States of Micronesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of wastewater treatment facilities in the Federated States of Micronesia revealed a lack of fully functional treatment systems and conditions that potentially could lead to adverse environmental impacts and public health concerns. Due to inadequate facilities, the amount and composition of wastewater entering the plants as well as the degree of treatment being achieved is largely unknown. In some cases raw sewage is being discharged directly into the ocean and waste sludge is regularly taken by local residents for agricultural purposes without adequate treatment. In addition, the need to establish best management practices for placement and maintenance of septic tanks is urgent. Furthermore, development of eco-friendly solutions is needed to more effectively treat wastewater from industrial and agricultural sources in an effort to abate current pollution problems. Comparisons of treatment methods being used and problems encountered at different locations in the islands would provide valuable information to aid in the development of sustainable treatment practices throughout Micronesia.

Joseph D. Rouse

2013-09-01

111

Street-Vended Foods Improvement: Contamination Mechanisms and Application of Food Safety Objective Strategy : Critical Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Data collected from street-vended food enterprises and on vendors in west African countries revealed that, they provide a variety of ready-to-eat foods to a high proportion of the populations. Nevertheless, their handling and trading practices are not permit to obtain safe food. While, street-vended foods are easily contaminated by food borne pathogen and others chemicals compounds. The street-vended foods contamination mechanisms were identified and improvement pathways were suggested. Indee...

2007-01-01

112

Practical Experience with Remediation of a Former Active Handling Building Site in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the year 2000, Nuvia has been contracted to carry out the decommissioning of a former Active Handling Building A59 on the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) site at Winfrith in Dorset. This is in support of UKAEA's mission, which is to carry out environmental restoration of its nuclear sites and to put them to alternative uses wherever possible. Latterly, a new body, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), has become responsible for managing the UK decommissioning legacy and since 2004 UKAEA has been contracted to the NDA to deliver decommissioning work at Winfrith and other UK sites. The earlier operations concentrated mainly upon the clearance and decontamination of two heavily shielded suites of caves, originally used to carry out remote examination of irradiated nuclear fuel elements, together with a range of within-building support facilities. In 2006 the main containment building structure was demolished as well as the two suites of caves, leaving the base slab for final removal. The demolition contract with UKAEA required removal of the base slab and recovery for disposal of a quantity of encast, internally contaminated items such as secondary active drain pipes, active ventilation ducting and more than 100 steel mortuary tubes set up to 6.6 m deep into the slab. The scope of the work also required the underlying soil to be carefully monitored for the presence of radioactive contamination and, if detected, its remediation to an end state suitable for un-restricted use without planning or nuclear regulatory controls. These latter operations form the basis of this paper, which reviews some of the significant tasks undertaken during the process and also sets out the development of a robust waste monitoring strategy for the recovered concrete debris ahead of its disposal. This has enabled more than four thousand tons of debris to be classified as SOLA (Substance of Low Activity), allowing disposal to landfill. This will include details of the development of a system, including a bag monitoring procedure, used to support the classification of some concrete debris as SOLA material. Currently, the base slab has been completely demolished and all encast items recovered for disposal, including the deep mortuary tubes. This was only achievable by the installation of a dewatering system which enabled safe excavation. These latter operations were challenging owing to the significant depth of some of the items to be removed and the unconsolidated sediments underlying the site. The paper will discuss the main issues involved with the remediation of features within the concrete slab and the underlying soils. These will include comments on the ground conditions, soil structures, groundwater levels and problems associated with provision of waste storage areas and their various impacts upon project progress. Several challenging areas of the slab such as the original decontamination bay and pressurised suit area sump have been removed and the paper will describe how the underlying soils were monitored using a GroundhogTM based system ahead of final remediation and waste sentencing. One area of particular significance to the remediation process has been the use of office-based contaminated land assessment tools including ReCLAIM, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet based tool used to assess current and future impacts of radiological contamination at nuclear licensed sites. Finally, during these operations, evidence of ground contamination has been detected by routine monitoring and the methods taken to remove and remediate the underlying soils will be described together with details of the surveillance systems utilised. Some examples of the problems encountered during the remediation will be described, potentially of value to others working in a similar field. (authors)

2009-03-01

113

Practical handling of AIO admixtures – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 10  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available All-in-one admixtures (AIO-admixtures provide safe, effective and low-risk PN (parenteral nutrition for practically all indications and applications. Water, energy (carbohydrates and lipids, amino acids, vitamins and trace elements are infused together with PN either as industrially-manufactured AIO admixtures provided as two- or three-chamber bags (shelf life usually more than 12 months completed with electrolytes and micronutrients where appropriate or as individually compounded ready-to-use AIO admixtures (compounding, usually prepared by a pharmacy on either a daily or weekly basis and stored at 2–8°C. Physico-chemical and microbial stability of an AIO admixture is essential for the safety and effectiveness of patient-specific PN, and its assurance requires specialist pharmaceutical knowledge. The stability should be documented for an application period of 24 (–48 hours. It is advisable to offer a limited selection of different PN regimes in each hospital. For reasons of drug and medication safety, PN admixtures prepared for individual patients must be correctly labelled and specifications for storage conditions must also be followed during transport. Monitoring is required where applicable. Micronutrients are usually administered separately to AIO admixtures. In case compatibility and stability have been well documented trace elements and/or combination preparations including water-soluble or water-soluble/fat soluble vitamin supplements can be added to PN admixtures under strict aseptic conditions. AIO admixtures are usually not used as vehicles for drugs (incompatibilities.

Stanga, Z.

2009-11-01

114

Identifying Key Risk Behaviors Regarding Personal Hygiene and Food Safety Practices of Food Handlers Working in Eating Establishments Located Within a Hospital Campus in Kolkata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Hospital canteens cater to a large population group and personal hygiene and food safety practices of food handlers assume immense importance to prevent food borne disease outbreaks. Objectives: To assess the self-reported behaviour of food handlers on personal hygiene and food safety practices and to find out their morbidity profile. Methods: An observational study was conducted by interviewing 67 consenting food handlers working in different eateries inside a hospital campus, using a pretested, predesigned schedule. Results: Majority (46.3% of food handlers were educated upto primary level. Only 14.9% foodhandlers received preplacement training and 10.5%, preplacement medical checkup. Though practices of hand washing after going to toilet (95.5% and before preparing food (79.1% was reported to be quite high but for most other practices, hygiene was found to be low. Cuts/injuries on hands was reported as the most common morbidity in 44.8% but 11.9% continued work without any treatment. Conclusion: Preplacement training and in-service education on personal / food hygiene should be provided to all food handlers. Periodic medical checkups and routine sanitary inspection can improve their adherence to personal hygiene and food safety practices and prevent outbreak of food borne illnesses

Prianka Mukhopadhyay*, Gautam Kr. Joardar, Kanad Bag, Amrita Samanta, Sonali Sain and Sesadri Koley

2012-01-01

115

Food allergy diagnosis and management practices among pediatricians.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our goals were to (1) estimate the rates of parent-reported versus physician-diagnosed food allergy, (2) determine pediatrician adherence to national guidelines, and (3) obtain pediatricians' perspectives on guideline nonadherence. A mixed method approach was used, including survey, chart review, and qualitative methods. Overall, 10.9% of parents reported having a child with food allergy and two thirds of these cases were detected by the pediatrician. Chart reviews revealed high rates of guideline adherence with respect to allergist referral (67.3%), but less consistent adherence regarding documentation of reaction history (38.8%), appropriate use of diagnostic tests (34.7%), prescription of epinephrine autoinjectors (44.9%), and counseling families in food allergy management (24.5%). Pediatricians suggested that poor adherence was due to lack of documentation, familiarity with guidelines, and clarity regarding the pediatrician's role in managing food allergy. Findings emphasize the need to better establish the role of the pediatrician and to improve awareness and adherence to guidelines. PMID:24419266

Gupta, Ruchi S; Lau, Claudia H; Dyer, Ashley A; Sohn, Min-Woong; Altshuler, Barry A; Kaye, Bennett A; Necheles, Jonathan

2014-06-01

116

Best practice in sustainable public-sector food procurement  

Mar 7, 2005 ... England, which aims to deliver a world-class sustainable farming and food .... \\including milk, coffee (also fairly traded goods), apple juice, .... cases, the only \\route to the public sector is to be a downstream supplier through the.

117

Impact of Food Allergies on School Nursing Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Food allergies affect 11 million Americans, including 6-8% of children. The rate of peanut allergies in children doubled from 1997 to 2002. There is no cure; therefore, strict avoidance of the allergen is the only way to avoid a reaction. Fatalities are associated with delays in or lack of epinephrine administration. Severe reactions, called…

Weiss, Christopher; Munoz-Furlong, Anne; Furlong, Terence J.; Arbit, Julie

2004-01-01

118

Impact Analysis of Knowledge Practice for Food Safety in Urban Area of Varanasi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was planned with main objective of identifying buying practices of homemakers and their awareness in food practices in Varanasi (urban area. For this objective, questionnaire was prepared and distributed among selected people depends on their age group, sex and educational background. Statistical test were carried out on the basis of frequency of male and female respondents obtained in total respondents (n = 300. Chi square test were carried out and the calculated value were compared with value of t test (0.05 and on this basis, conclusion were drawn. Correlation between different variables was determined for their impact. Study revealed that educated people of both sexes follow slightly good buying practices while homemakers are not following food practices and also they differ significantly in following the practices in term of use of quality water which affects the family health. Study also revealed that age and awareness are not interlinked while education is interlinked with good practices.

S.M. Bhatt

2010-01-01

119

Animal Safety Handling  

Science.gov (United States)

What are at least three things to remember when handling all animals? Use Graphic Organizer Take notes on handling all different types of livestock. Read about Livestock Handling Safety and Good Relationships Be sure to record facts in your organizer. Read and explore Recommended Basic Livestock Handling. Dr. Grandin s guidelines Be sure to click on each link and take notes in organizer. Watch Sheep and Cattle Handling Guidelines Video Observe sheep and cattle handling practices. Read the first five sections of Know your livestock and be safe ...

Hammond, Mr.

2012-04-11

120

Health claims in the labelling and marketing of food products:: the Swedish food sector's Code of Practice in a European perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since 1990 certain health claims in the labelling and marketing of food products have been allowed in Sweden within the food sector's Code of Practice. The rules were developed in close dialogue with the authorities. The legal basis was a decision by the authorities not to apply the medicinal products’ legislation to “foods normally found on the dinner table” provided the rules defined in the Code were followed. The Code of Practice lists nine well-established diet–health relationship...

Asp, Nils-georg; Bryngelsson, Susanne

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Design and Practices for Use of Automated Drilling and Sample Handling in MARTE While Minimizing Terrestrial and Cross Contamination  

Science.gov (United States)

Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) investigators used an automated drill and sample processing hardware to detect and categorize life-forms found in subsurface rock at Río Tinto, Spain. For the science to be successful, it was necessary for the biomass from other sources -- whether from previously processed samples (cross contamination) or the terrestrial environment (forward contamination) -- to be insignificant. The hardware and practices used in MARTE were designed around this problem. Here, we describe some of the design issues that were faced and classify them into problems that are unique to terrestrial tests versus problems that would also exist for a system that was flown to Mars. Assessment of the biomass at various stages in the sample handling process revealed mixed results; the instrument design seemed to minimize cross contamination, but contamination from the surrounding environment sometimes made its way onto the surface of samples. Techniques used during the MARTE Río Tinto project, such as facing the sample, appear to remove this environmental contamination without introducing significant cross contamination from previous samples.

Miller, David P.; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Davis, Kiel

2008-10-01

122

Food safety knowledge and practice among elderly people living at home  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the food storage knowledge and practice of elderly people living at home. METHODS: Three phase survey data collection: face to face interviews; dietary diaries with a food frequency questionnaire; and follow up interviews. SETTING: Urban Nottingham. PARTICIPANTS: 809 elderly people (aged 65+) randomly selected from general practitioner lists. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Respondent's refrigerator temperature; knowledge of freezer star rating; understanding of "use by" and...

Johnson, A. E.; Donkin, A. J.; Morgan, K.; Lilley, J. M.; Neale, R. J.; Page, R. M.; Silburn, R.

1998-01-01

123

Anthropology as an inspiration to food studies: building theory and practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the role of anthropological inquiry in the development of a new, interdisciplinary approach to food in culture - namely: food studies. Early anthropologists, for example, Bronislaw Malinowski and Edward Evans-Pritchard, stressed the social meaning of food while analyzing the outcome of their fieldwork. When the functional approach had been replaced by structuralism, the symbolic meaning of food was given priority. Therefore, Claude Lévi-Strauss constructed his famous culinary triangle to show the connection between culture and nature in human thought; however, the triangle was not based on his own fieldwork, but rather many examples from other works were used to support this theoretical approach. This paper shows that without the theoretical and practical contribution of these three anthropologists, the flourishing of food studies as a new discipline would have been seriously delayed.

Agnieszka Siewicz

2011-12-01

124

Impact of Media and Education on Food Practices in Urban Area of Varanasi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Currently food malpractices are increasing in various metro cities of India and all the measures taken by agencies are failed to detect rapidly and many times it becomes late when the adulteration is detected. Worst scenario is the adulteration of some branded items of the children’s and in the women’s use such as milk cheese, ghee and oils. Therefore, Study for food practices and safety measures was done in selected area of Varanasi which was also validated by the wetlab methods. Methods: For this objective, questionnaire was prepared and distributed among selected people depending on their age group, sex and educational background. Statistical test were carried out on the basis of frequency of male and female respondents obtained in total respondents (n = 300. Chi square test were done and the calculated value were compared with value of t test (0.05 and on this basis, conclusion were drawn. Results: Result shows that regardless of the age income and religion, all of the groups are well aware the food adulteration and educated people are less prone to the effect. In terms of adulteration any how all the stores contains adulterated food however branded items contains less %age of adulteration than local item. This may be caused due to inactive agencies or longer process of legal system Conclusions: Study show that there is lag in following the food practices by all the ages in spite of having good media awareness program and knowledge of food practices.

Bhatt Shuchi R, Bhatt Sheeendra M, Singh Anita

2012-01-01

125

Food safety knowledge and practice by the stages of change model in school children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, 342 grade 4-6 elementary school students in Gyeonggi-do were recruited to determine their readiness to change food safety behavior and to compare their food safety knowledge and practices by the stages of change. The subjects were divided into three stages of change; the percentage of stage 1 (precontemplation) was 10.1%, the percentage of stage 2 (contemplation and preparation) was 62.4%, and that of stage 3 (action and maintenance) was 27.5%. Food safety knowledge scores in s...

Kang, Nam-e; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Young Soon; Ha, Ae Wha

2010-01-01

126

The Relationship Between State Policies for Competitive Foods and School Nutrition Practices in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Most students in grades kindergarten through 12 have access to foods and beverages during the school day outside the federal school meal programs, which are called competitive foods. At the time of this study, competitive foods were subject to minimal federal nutrition standards, but states could implement additional standards. Our analysis examined the association between school nutrition practices and alignment of state policies with Institute of Medicine recommendations (IOM Standards). Methods For this analysis we used data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) report, Competitive Foods and Beverages in US Schools: A State Policy Analysis and CDC’s 2010 School Health Profiles (Profiles) survey to examine descriptive associations between state policies for competitive foods and school nutrition practices. Results Access to chocolate candy, soda pop, sports drinks, and caffeinated foods or beverages was lower in schools in states with policies more closely aligned with IOM Standards. No association was found for access to fruits or nonfried vegetables. Conclusion Schools in states with policies more closely aligned with the IOM Standards reported reduced access to less healthful competitive foods. Encouraging more schools to follow these standards will help create healthier school environments and may help promote healthy eating among US children.

Olsen, Emily O'Malley; Galic, Mara; Brener, Nancy D.

2014-01-01

127

A survey of current ostrich handling and transport practices in North America with reference to ostrich welfare and transportation guidelines set up in other countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Appropriate management of an ostrich's exposure to stressors during preslaughter handling and transport practices can improve its well-being and product quality. Because of the lack of information about ostrich farming and transportation in North America and lack of developed Codes of Practice for ratite transport in Canada and the United States, the first objective of our research was to identify current preslaughter handling and transport practices of the ostrich industry in Canada and the United States, and to identify potential welfare issues based on the current practices. The second objective of this research was to review ostrich transport welfare standards and guidelines from Australia, European Union, New Zealand, and South Africa to investigate if those guidelines are applicable to Canadian and American ostrich production systems. Preliminary producer interviews, on-farm visits, and literature review information sources were used to design a producer questionnaire that was used to survey producers by Internet and mail surveying methods to identify existing ostrich transport norms in Canada and the United States. Based on the results of our producer survey and review of the transport standards and guidelines, we conclude that following factors are potential ostrich handling and transport welfare issues in Canada and the United States: lack of scientific information about welfare of ostriches during handling and transport; unfamiliarity of handlers and birds with handling and transport practices; not considering birds' social bounds, sex, behavior, and physical state in mixing them during handling and transport process; lack of an established specific maximum water and feed withdrawal duration for ostrich transport in Canada and the United States; lack of a specific vehicle designed for ratite transportation in Canada and the United States considering different physical body characteristics of ostriches compared with other species; exposure of birds to natural light during transport inside the trailer; overcrowding; and long transportation in Canada and the United States. Results of this research will contribute toward developing Codes of Practice for preslaughter handling, transportation, and slaughter of ostriches in Canada and the United States. PMID:24570450

Bejaei, M; Cheng, K M

2014-02-01

128

Food Safety Practices on Dairy Farms in Turkey: A Case Study of Izmir Province  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to determine the food safety and quality practices on dairy farms that are located in Izmir province. By means of a survey in which dairy farmers responded to a special questionnaire, data were collected from 103 dairy farmers. Chi-square (Test of Independence), Variance (one-way ANOVA) and Kruskall Wallis Test were used to analyze the data. The 5-point Likert scale was used in measuring problems raised in dairy farming about food safety and quality practices and pro...

Nevin Demirbas; Duygu Tosun; Figen Cukur; Ozlem Yildiz

2012-01-01

129

Radionuclides and radiation protection. Practical guide for radioactive substance handling in laboratories of low and intermediate level radioactivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is a practical guide, intended for radionuclide users, working in Industry, Research and Nuclear Medicine, in low and intermediate laboratories. About a hundred data cards about the main radionuclides used in these laboratories are presented (nuclear characteristics, radiotoxicity, external and internal exposure, external contamination of skin, protections from beta, gamma and X radiations, detection and contamination limits and maximum handling activity): TRITIUM, CARBON 11, CARBON 14, FLUORINE 18, SODIUM 22, SODIUM 24, PHOSPHORUS 32, PHOSPHORUS 33, SULFUR 35, CHLORINE 36, POTASSIUM 40, POTASSIUM 42, POTASSIUM 43, CALCIUM 45, SCANDIUM 47, CALCIUM 47, SCANDIUM 46, CHROMIUM 51, MANGANESE 52, MANGANESE 54, MANGANESE 56, IRON 52, IRON 55, IRON 59, COBALT 56, COBALT 57, COBALT 58, COBALT 60, NICKEL 63, NICKEL 65, COPPER 64, COPPER 67, ZINC 65, GALLIUM 66, GALLIUM 67, GALLIUM 68, ARSENIC 76, SELENIUM 75, BROMINE 77, BROMINE 82, KRYPTON 85, RUBIDIUM 86, STRONTIUM 85, STRONTIUM 89, STRONTIUM 90, YTTRIUM 90, ZIRCONIUM 95, MOLYBDENUM 99, TECHNETIUM 99, RUTHENIUM 103, RUTHENIUM 106, RHODIUM 103, RHODIUM 106, SILVER 110, SILVER 111, CADMIUM 109, INDIUM 111, INDIUM 115, TIN 125, ANTIMONY 122, ANTIMONY 124, ANTIMONY 126, TELLURIUM 123, TELLURIUM 132, IODINE 123, IODINE 12,; IODINE 131, CESIUM 131, CESIUM 134, XENON 133, BARIUM 137, BARIUM 140, CESIUM 137, LANTHANUM 140, CERIUM 139, CERIUM 141, CERIUM 143, PRASEODYMIUM 144, PRASEODYMIUM 143, PROMETHIUM 147, SAMARIUM 153, EUROPIUM 152, EUROPIUM 154, EUROPIUM 156, ERBIUM 169, YTTERBIUM 169, RHENIUM 186, RHENIUM 188, IRIDIUM 192, GOLD 198, MERCURY 197, MERCURY 203, THALLIUM 201, THALLIUM 204, LEAD 210, RADIUM 226, URANIUM 235, URANIUM 238, PLUTONIUM 239, AMERICIUM 241, CURIUM 244, CALIFORNIUM 252

1993-01-01

130

Fermented foods, microbiota, and mental health: ancient practice meets nutritional psychiatry  

Science.gov (United States)

The purposeful application of fermentation in food and beverage preparation, as a means to provide palatability, nutritional value, preservative, and medicinal properties, is an ancient practice. Fermented foods and beverages continue to make a significant contribution to the overall patterns of traditional dietary practices. As our knowledge of the human microbiome increases, including its connection to mental health (for example, anxiety and depression), it is becoming increasingly clear that there are untold connections between our resident microbes and many aspects of physiology. Of relevance to this research are new findings concerning the ways in which fermentation alters dietary items pre-consumption, and in turn, the ways in which fermentation-enriched chemicals (for example, lactoferrin, bioactive peptides) and newly formed phytochemicals (for example, unique flavonoids) may act upon our own intestinal microbiota profile. Here, we argue that the consumption of fermented foods may be particularly relevant to the emerging research linking traditional dietary practices and positive mental health. The extent to which traditional dietary items may mitigate inflammation and oxidative stress may be controlled, at least to some degree, by microbiota. It is our contention that properly controlled fermentation may often amplify the specific nutrient and phytochemical content of foods, the ultimate value of which may associated with mental health; furthermore, we also argue that the microbes (for example, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria species) associated with fermented foods may also influence brain health via direct and indirect pathways.

2014-01-01

131

Identifying and Clarifying Values and Reason Statements that Promote Effective Food Parenting Practices, Using Intensive Interviews  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Generate and test parents' understanding of values and associated reason statements to encourage effective food parenting practices. Methods: This study was cross-sectional. Sixteen parents from different ethnic groups (African American, white, and Hispanic) living with their 3- to 5-year-old child were recruited. Interested parents…

Beltran, Alicia; Hingle, Melanie D.; Knesek, Jessica; O'Connor, Teresia; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom

2011-01-01

132

Food parenting practices and child dietary behavior. Prospective relations and the moderating role of general parenting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on parenting practices has focused on individual behaviors while largely failing to consider the context of their use, i.e., general parenting. We examined the extent to which food parenting practices predict children's dietary behavior (classified as unhealthy: snacking, sugar-sweetened beverage; and healthy: water and fruit intake). Furthermore, we tested the moderating role of general parenting on this relationship. Within the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, in the Netherlands, questionnaire data were collected at 6 and 8 years (N = 1654). Correlations were computed to assess the association between food parenting practices and general parenting (i.e., nurturance, behavioral control, structure, coercive control, and overprotection). Linear regression models were fitted to assess whether food parenting practices predict dietary behavior. Instrumental and emotional feeding, and pressure to eat were found to have associations with undesirable child dietary behavior (increased unhealthy intake/decreased healthy intake), whereas associations were in the desirable direction for covert control, encouragement and restriction. Moderation analyses were performed by evaluating interactions with general parenting. The associations of encouragement and covert control with desirable child dietary behaviors were found to be stronger for children who were reared in a positive parenting context. Future research should assess the influence of contextual parenting factors moderating the relationships between food parenting and child dietary behavior as the basis for the development of more effective family-based interventions. PMID:24727101

Sleddens, Ester F C; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; Dagnelie, Pieter C; De Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel

2014-08-01

133

Best Practices for Serving Students with Special Food and/or Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research project was to identify goals and establish best practices for school nutrition (SN) programs that serve students with special food and/or nutrition needs based on the four practice categories identified in previous National Food Service Management Institute, Applied Research Division (NFSMI, ARD)…

Castillo, Alexandra; Carr, Deborah; Nettles, Mary Frances

2010-01-01

134

Codex general standard for irradiated foods and recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods. Codex alimentarius volume XV.  

Science.gov (United States)

The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission was established to implement the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. The purpose of this programme is to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. At its 15th session, hel...

1990-01-01

135

Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially. PMID:21192997

Hjelmar, Ulf

2011-04-01

136

Emotional and instrumental feeding practices of Dutch mothers regarding foods eaten between main meals  

Science.gov (United States)

Background To assess how much of a public health problem emotional and instrumental feeding practices are, we explored the use of these feeding practices in a sample of Dutch mothers regarding their child’s food intake between main meals. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 359 mothers of primary school children aged 4–12 years. The questionnaires were completed online at home. Results Of the mothers, 29.5% reported using foods to reward, 18.1% to punish and 18.9% to comfort their child. Mothers most frequently offered energy-dense and nutrient-poor products such as candy in the context of emotional and instrumental feeding practices. The use of these practices was associated with a lower age of both mother and child and a higher educational level of the mother. Mothers living in neighborhoods with intermediate socioeconomic position used the practices less often than mothers from low and high socioeconomic position neighborhoods. Conclusions Our results show that mothers in our sample mainly used unhealthy products in the context of instrumental and emotional feeding practices. Research into the association between these practices and children’s dietary intake is warranted, since the use of unhealthy products in the context of these practices may not necessarily lead to an increased consumption of these products. Findings regarding the frequency of use of these practices among specific subgroups can be used to carefully determine the target population for interventions and tailor the content of interventions to specific target group characteristics. Besides examining associations between personal and family characteristics and the use of emotional and instrumental feeding practices, attempts should be made to understand parents’ reasons for using them.

2014-01-01

137

Popularising right food and feeding practices in Spain (1847-1950). The handbooks of domestic economy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to analyze a sample of domestic economy handbooks in order to assess the popularization of correct food and feeding practices in Spain between 1847 and 1950. With this contribution, we wish to evaluate another factor that would influence the Spanish food transition. We are aware that this is a very indirect source, given the high levels of illiteracy among women in Spain during the last third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. A further factor ...

Enrique Perdiguero-Gil

2010-01-01

138

Foods  

... Foods Foods, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal. Foods Submit to Foods Login Register MDPI Journals A-Z For Authors For Editors ...Diagnostics Diseases Diversity Econometrics Economies Education Sciences Electronics Energies Entropy Environments Fibers Foods Forests Future Internet Galaxies Games Genes Geosciences Healthcare Humanities Informatics Information ...Project Report Reply Retraction Review Short Note Technical Note Special Issue Page Foods Foods Home About this journal Indexing & Abstracting Instructions for ... 1 (2012) Foods — Editors Journal Contact Foods Editorial Office MDPI AG, Klybeckstrasse 64, 4057 Basel, Switzerland E-Mail: foods@mdpi.com ...

139

Codex general standard for irradiated foods and recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission was established to implement the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. The purpose of this programme is to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. At its 15th session, held in July 1983, the Commission adopted a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and a Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods. This Standard takes into account the recommendations and conclusions of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committees convened to evaluate all available data concerning the various aspects of food irradiation. This Standard refers only to those aspects which relate to the processing of foods by ionising energy. The Standard recognizes that the process of food irradiation has been established as safe for general application to an overall average level of absorbed dose of 10 KGy. The latter value shold not be regarded as a toxicological upper limit above which irradiated foods become unsafe; it is simply the level at or below which safety has been established. The Standard provides certain mandatory provisions concerning the facilities used and for the control of the process in the irradiation plants. The present Standard requires that shipping documents accompanying irradiated foods moving in trade should indicate the fact of irradiation. The labelling of prepackaged irradiated foods intended for direct sale to the consumer is not covered in this Standard

1990-01-01

140

Codex general standard for irradiated foods and recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission was established to implement the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. The purpose of this programme is to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. At its 15th session, held in July 1983, the Commission adopted a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and a Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods. This Standard takes into account the recommendations and conclusions of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committees convened to evaluate all available data concerning the various aspects of food irradiation. This Standard refers only to those aspects which relate to the processing of foods by ionising energy. The Standard recognizes that the process of food irradiation has been established as safe for general application to an overall average level of absorbed dose of 10 kGy. The latter value should not be regarded as a toxicological upper limit above which irradiated foods become unsafe; it is simply the level at or below which safety has been established. The Standard provides certain mandatory provisions concerning the facilities used and for the control of the process in the irradiation plants. The present Standard requires that shipping documents accompanying irradiated foods moving in trade should indicate the fact of irradiation. The labelling of prepackaged irradiated foods intended for direct sale to the consumer is not covered in this Standard

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

The ontogeny of handling hard-to-process food in wild brown capuchins (Cebus apella apella): evidence from foraging on the fruit of Maximiliana maripa.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined age-related differences in wild brown capuchins' foraging efficiency and the food-processing behaviors directed toward maripa palm fruit (Maximiliana maripa). A detailed comparison of the different foraging techniques showed that plucking the fruit from the infructescence constituted the main difficulty of this task. Foraging efficiency tended to increase with age, with a threshold at which sufficient strength allowed immatures by the age of three to reach adult-level efficiency. Youngsters spent more time than older individuals browsing the infructescence and pulling the fruit in an attempt to harvest it. Infants tried to compensate for their inability to pluck fruit by adopting alternative strategies but with low payback, such as gnawing unplucked fruit and opportunistically scrounging others' partially processed food. Although around 2 years of age, young capuchins exhibited all of the behaviors used by adults, they did not reach adult-level proficiency at feeding on maripa until about 3 years (older juveniles). We compared this developmental pattern with that of extractive foraging on beetle larvae (Myelobia sp.) hidden in bamboo stalks, a more difficult food for these monkeys [Gunst N, Boinski S, Fragaszy DM. Behaviour 145:195-229, 2008]. For maripa, the challenge was mainly physical (plucking the fruit) once a tree was encountered, whereas for larvae, the challenge was primarily perceptual (locating the hidden larvae). For both foods, capuchins practice for years before achieving adult-level foraging competence, and the timeline is extended for larvae foraging (until 6 years) compared with maripa (3 years). The differing combinations of opportunities and challenges for learning to forage on these different foods illustrate how young generalist foragers (i.e. exploiting a large number of animal and plant species) may compensate for their low efficiency in extractive foraging tasks by showing earlier competence in processing less difficult but nutritious foods, such as maripa fruit. PMID:20575045

Gunst, Noëlle; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Boinski, Sue; Fragaszy, Dorothy

2010-11-01

142

Electron accelerators for food preservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interest in radiation processing of agricultural and food products is emerging world over for reasons related to: a) Persistently high food losses due to infestation, contamination and spoilage, b) Mounting concern over food borne diseases and, c) Growing international trade in food products that must meet stiff import standards of quality and quarantine. The radiation processing has demonstrated practical benefits, in all above areas, when integrated within an established system for safe handling and distribution of the agricultural and food products in a country

2004-01-01

143

The Social Determinants of Food Purchasing Practices: Who Chooses Price-before-Health, Taste-before-Price or Organic Foods in Australia?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of the extent to which cost, taste and health considerations impact food purchasing practices in Australia was conducted. Data were gathered from a national computer assisted telephone survey of 1109 randomly sampled house- holders and analysed using multiple logistic regression analysis. 88% of respondents considered the taste of food before its price, with females and people on higher incomes more likely to do so. 52% of respondents said that they considered the price of food before its health and nutritional benefits, with males, younger people and people with lower educa- tional qualifications more likely to do so. 49% said that they purchase organic food, with people with 1 child, full-time employed and people never married more likely to do so. Overall, gender, income, education, work status, age and family size are all important predictors of food purchasing practices in Australia.

John Coveney

2012-04-01

144

Food safety and risk communication: cases history and best practice (in avian flu)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper discusses the role of institutional communication in the case of health risks and emergencies. The article is divided in three sections. The first section examines the most recent theories on risk and on its communicational aspect; the second analyses a recent state of emergency crisis, specifically the panic which stemmed from the perceived danger of an avian flu pandemic in Italy; and finally an example of best practice in the form of a food safety handbook designed and edited by ...

2007-01-01

145

Household Food Security Is Associated with Infant Feeding Practices in Rural Bangladesh1,2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although household food security (HHFS) has been shown to affect diet, nutrition, and health of adults and also learning in children, no study has examined associations with infant feeding practices (IFP). We studied 1343 infants born between May 2002 and December 2003 in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention in Matlab study to investigate the effect of HHFS on IFP in rural Bangladesh. We measured HHFS using a previously developed 11-item scale. Cumulative and current infant feeding ...

2008-01-01

146

Handling Stress  

Science.gov (United States)

... Breastfeeding This information in Spanish ( en español ) Handling stress Did you know? Breastfeeding can help mothers relax ... stress. Return to top More information on Handling stress Explore other publications and websites Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep — ...

147

Isolation and identification of some unknown substances in disposable nitrile-butadiene rubber gloves used for food handling.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Japan, disposable gloves made from nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) are frequently used in contact with foods. In a previous paper, we investigated substances migrating from various gloves made of polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, natural rubber and NBR. Zinc di-n-butyldithiocarbamate (ZDBC), diethyldithiocarbamate (ZDEC) used as vulcanization accelerators, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) used as a plasticizer and many unknown compounds that migrated from NBR gloves into n-heptane were detected by GC/MS. In this paper, six unknown compounds were obtained from one kind of NBR glove by n-hexane extraction and each was isolated by silica gel chromatography. From the results of NMR and mass spectral analysis of the six unknown compounds, their structures are proposed as 1,4-dione-2,5-bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl)cyclohexadiene (1), 2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetra methylbutyl)phenol (2), 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (3), 2,4-bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (4), 2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)4,6-bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (5) and 2,4,6-tris(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (6). Compound 1 was observed in five of the seven kinds of NBR gloves, and compounds 2-4 and 6, which are not listed in Chemical Abstract (CA), were present in four kinds of gloves. PMID:12456282

Mutsuga, M; Wakui, C; Kawamura, Y; Maitani, T

2002-11-01

148

Intervention effects on kindergarten and first-grade teachers' classroom food practices and food-related beliefs in American Indian reservation schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prevalence of obesity among American Indian children is higher than the general US population. The school environment and teachers play important roles in helping students develop healthy eating habits. The aim of this prospective study was to examine teachers' classroom and school food practices and beliefs and the effect of teacher training on these practices and beliefs. Data were used from the Bright Start study, a group-randomized, school-based trial that took place on the Pine Ridge American Indian reservation (fall 2005 to spring 2008). Kindergarten and first-grade teachers (n=75) from 14 schools completed a survey at the beginning and end of the school year. Thirty-seven survey items were evaluated using mixed-model analysis of variance to examine the intervention effect for each teacher-practice and belief item (adjusting for teacher type and school as random effect). At baseline, some teachers reported classroom and school food practices and beliefs that supported health and some that did not. The intervention was significantly associated with lower classroom use of candy as a treat (P=0.0005) and fast-food rewards (P=0.008); more intervention teachers disagreed that fast food should be offered as school lunch alternatives (P=0.019), that it would be acceptable to sell unhealthy foods as part of school fundraising (P=0.006), and that it would not make sense to limit students' food choices in school (P=0.035). School-based interventions involving teacher training can result in positive changes in teachers' classroom food practices and beliefs about the influence of the school food environment in schools serving American Indian children on reservations. PMID:23885704

Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J; Himes, John H; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

2013-08-01

149

Food consumption by young children: a function of parental feeding goals and practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Staggering health implications are associated with poor child diet. Given the importance of parents in impacting children's eating outcomes, the current study examined a theoretical framework in which both parental feeding goals and practices impact specific healthy and unhealthy child eating behaviors. Participants were 171 mothers of 3-6year old children who were diverse both socioeconomically and with regard to BMI. Mothers completed questionnaires via Mechanical Turk, an online workforce through Amazon.com. Structural Equation Modeling showed an adequate model fit in which Negative Feeding Practices (e.g., using food as a reward) mediated the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals (i.e., feeding children with health-oriented goals in mind) and Negative Eating Behaviors (e.g., consumption of candy and snacks). However, Negative Feeding Practices did not mediate the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals and Positive Eating Behaviors (i.e., fruits and vegetables). These findings suggest the important role of habitual food parenting practices in children's eating and have implications for parental health education programs. PMID:24275668

Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison E; Hoffmann, Debra A; Meers, Molly R; Koball, Afton M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

2014-03-01

150

Food  

...Food sustainable environment behaviour change waste climate change climate analysis research brook lyndhurst well-being food sustainable environment behaviour change waste climate change climate analysis ...research brook lyndhurst well-being food Home Projects Food Projects | Food Brook Lyndhurst - The Food Issue The Food Issue is ...for England Started: September 2012 Due for completion: December 2013 Defra Defra has commissioned Brook Lyndhurst to carry out an independent evaluation of the AHWBE, ...decreasing discards by thinking inside the box Started: January 2012 Ended: August 2013 Defra Brook Lyndhurst has been contracted, alongside SeaWeb - an international NGO ...

151

Household food security is associated with infant feeding practices in rural Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although household food security (HHFS) has been shown to affect diet, nutrition, and health of adults and also learning in children, no study has examined associations with infant feeding practices (IFP). We studied 1343 infants born between May 2002 and December 2003 in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention in Matlab study to investigate the effect of HHFS on IFP in rural Bangladesh. We measured HHFS using a previously developed 11-item scale. Cumulative and current infant feeding scales were created from monthly infant feeding data for the age groups of 1-3, 1-6, 1-9, and 1-12 mo based on comparison to infant feeding recommendations. We used lagged, dynamic, and difference longitudinal regression models adjusting for various infant and maternal variables to examine the association between HHFS and changes in IFP, and Cox proportional hazards models to examine the influence of HHFS on the duration of breast-feeding and the time of introduction of complementary foods. Better HHFS status was associated with poor IFP during 3-6 mo but was associated with better IFP during 6-9 and 9-12 mo of age. Although better HHFS was not associated with the time of introduction of complementary foods, it was associated with the type of complementary foods given to the infants. Intervention programs to support proper IFP should target mothers in food-secure households when their babies are 3-6 mo old and also mothers in food-insecure households during the 2nd half of infancy. Our results provide strong evidence that HHFS influences IFP in rural Bangladesh. PMID:18567765

Saha, Kuntal K; Frongillo, Edward A; Alam, Dewan S; Arifeen, Shams E; Persson, Lars Ake; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

2008-07-01

152

Household Food Security Is Associated with Infant Feeding Practices in Rural Bangladesh1,2  

Science.gov (United States)

Although household food security (HHFS) has been shown to affect diet, nutrition, and health of adults and also learning in children, no study has examined associations with infant feeding practices (IFP). We studied 1343 infants born between May 2002 and December 2003 in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention in Matlab study to investigate the effect of HHFS on IFP in rural Bangladesh. We measured HHFS using a previously developed 11-item scale. Cumulative and current infant feeding scales were created from monthly infant feeding data for the age groups of 1–3, 1–6, 1–9, and 1–12 mo based on comparison to infant feeding recommendations. We used lagged, dynamic, and difference longitudinal regression models adjusting for various infant and maternal variables to examine the association between HHFS and changes in IFP, and Cox proportional hazards models to examine the influence of HHFS on the duration of breast-feeding and the time of introduction of complementary foods. Better HHFS status was associated with poor IFP during 3–6 mo but was associated with better IFP during 6–9 and 9–12 mo of age. Although better HHFS was not associated with the time of introduction of complementary foods, it was associated with the type of complementary foods given to the infants. Intervention programs to support proper IFP should target mothers in food-secure households when their babies are 3–6 mo old and also mothers in food-insecure households during the 2nd half of infancy. Our results provide strong evidence that HHFS influences IFP in rural Bangladesh.

Saha, Kuntal K.; Frongillo, Edward A.; Alam, Dewan S.; Arifeen, Shams E.; Persson, Lars Ake; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.

2008-01-01

153

Radiation processing of food and allied products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

2009-11-25

154

Handling Sports Pressure and Competition  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Teens > Food & Fitness > Sports > Handling Sports Pressure and Competition Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Do to Ease Pressure? When the stress of competition starts to get to you, try these techniques ...

155

Handling Sports Pressure and Competition  

Science.gov (United States)

... Teens > Food & Fitness > Sports > Handling Sports Pressure and Competition Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Do to Ease Pressure? When the stress of competition starts to get to you, try these techniques ...

156

Practice effect of volunteers in repeated psychometric testing. How to handle this intervening variable in clinical pharmacology studies?  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance in psychometric tests may show a practice effect with repeated testing. Ideally, a plateau of efficiency should be reached prior to first drug intake. In order to assess the period of familiarization in a multiple choice reaction task (MCRT) 17 healthy subjects practiced the test up to 36 times in the drug free run-in period of 2 trials. A tentative "inclusion criterion" was used in 7 subjects to decide whether their learning phase could be regarded as being finished. Seven to 20 training sessions were required for a first rapid learning phase. There were remarkable differences in the absolute performance of the subjects and in the time course of their practice effect. However, the time course of the learning phase was not dependent on the absolute performance level. By means of the tentative "inclusion criterion" it was possible to reject a subject with a low but highly variable performance. However, it was not stringent enough to indicate the final plateau of efficiency. More "drug free" data concerning the practice effect should be published to enable the users of psychometric tests to make a reasonable selection according to their needs and to help them design their trials properly. PMID:3236939

Schulz, R; Reimann, I W

1988-10-01

157

Basics for Handling Food Safely  

Science.gov (United States)

... 145 °F. · All cuts of pork, 160 °F. · Ground beef, veal and lamb to 160 °F. · All poultry ... SAUSAGE Bacon Sausage, raw — from chicken, turkey, pork, beef Smoked breakfast links, patties Hard sausage — pepperoni, jerky sticks 7 days 1 ...

158

Do We Care about What We Buy or Eat? A Practical Study of the Healthy Foods Eaten by Jordanian Youth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scholars and practitioners have taken a deep interest in the food choice of young Jordanians and found that it hasbeen influenced by a variety of determinants that affect consumers of what they buy and eat. Such determinantshave not tested practically from scholars within the Jordanian market context. By reviewing large numbers of foodchoice studies, four factors are found essential and chosen to be investigated practically which are: food products’availability, cost, benefit and sensory appeal. Quantitative analysis approach has been used in this study to collectthe suitable data. Convenience sampling and regression analysis was employed to test the hypotheses. Additionalexplanations can be found of how the hypotheses have been developed and tested.Results indicated that the main healthy food products choice and purchase determinants are food availability, foodcost, benefits and sensory appeal. Additional explanation of data collection methods, analysis and findings can befound in more details.

Muhammad Turki Alshurideh

2014-03-01

159

Fuel handling benchmarking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On-power fuelling is unique to the CANDU type of reactor. The systems and equipment used to handle the fuel from the time it enters the station to the time it is transferred to the spent fuel bay are designed, operated and maintained exclusively for the CANDU stations. Over the last ten years it was perceived by several CANDU utility executives and outside organizations that CANDU fuel handling (FH) performance was degrading. FH organizations were seen as insular from the rest of the station and did not appear to be working to the same standards of excellence as the rest of the industry. The concerns raised were common to the industry. In 2005, COG was requested by one of its members to undertake an industry wide fuel handling Benchmarking (FHB) exercise of CANDU fuel handling organizations. The COG members decided to 'Take the cape off fuel handling' allowing all CANDU stations to see: actual performance of FH organizations; i.e. based on performance not perception, FH best practices, and identification of stations with best practices available for widespread use. All COG members joined COG project JP 4207. Taken together, the FH Benchmarking Final Report and the station Reports provide a good picture of current CANDU FH best practices and performance. (author)

2010-06-01

160

A practical approach to handling the uncertainty analysis in gamma spectroscopy with the software's Gamma Vision and Genie  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The national Swedish network of laboratories in emergency response and preparedness should provide with fast and reliable measurements. That is why these results should be given with a measure of its quality, which is the measurement uncertainty, as has been stated in several international standards. Many gamma spectroscopy software packages contain advance algorithms for calculation of the activity and its measurement uncertainty. They even include elements of quality assurance and quality control. Despite of that, not all sources of uncertainty are always taken into account. The two most used analysis software packages in the Swedish network of laboratories in emergency response are Gamma Vision from Ortec and Genie (with and without APEX) from Canberra. The purpose of this paper is to present two groups of practical evaluations of uncertainty components for the same kind of gamma-spectroscopy analysis, one that would suit Gamma Vision users and other for Genie users, including the Labsocs tool. The main idea is to profit as much as possible of the software capabilities and semi-manually add the contribution of uncertainty sources that are not been taken into account. The reports from both the software packages are modified so as to reflect the contribution of all sources of uncertainty into the reported relative combined uncertainty. The examples of gamma spectroscopy analysis are for samples of the same matrix and the different geometries foreseen in the context of emergency response by the Swedish emergency network. Together with the evaluation of the uncertainty components a review on the uncertainty propagation and the assumptions taken in each of the software packages is presented. (author)

2008-10-19

 
 
 
 
161

Reflexões metodológicas para o estudo das práticas alimentares / Methodological approaches on the studies of food practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A alimentação humana, envolvendo aspectos psicológicos, fisiológicos e socioculturais, é um fenômeno de grande complexidade e, em assim sendo, o estudo das práticas alimentares tem suscitado o desenvolvimento de instrumentos e métodos no interior de várias disciplinas. Neste artigo, que apresenta a [...] alimentação humana sob abordagem da Sociologia e da Antropologia, definem-se as diferentes dimensões do espaço social alimentar, desde o registro do consumo alimentar até os processos de diferenciação social envolvendo as formas de cozinhar, as formas de consumir e a temporalidade. Analisam-se os diferentes tipos de dados que podem ser utilizados, tomando-se o cuidado de distinguir os dados comportamentais (que podem ser obtidos tanto pela observação quanto pela declaração) dos dados de representação. Apresentam-se, em seguida, os diferentes instrumentos de coleta e as vias de entrada no fenômeno alimentar. Esses instrumentos metodológicos, construídos no interior de um quadro teórico-sociológico, são propostos aos pesquisadores da área, objetivando a construção de uma possível visão comum, que proporcione uma abordagem pluridisciplinar do fato alimentar. Abstract in english Human nutrition is a very complex phenomenon as it invites at the same time the physiology, the psychology and the socio-cultural. That's also why food practice measures have caused the development of tools and methodologies within several disciplines. This article presents the approach of sociology [...] and anthropology. It defines first of all the different dimensions of the social food space; from the eatable order to the process of social differentiation via the culinary, the consumption forms and the temporality. It analyses in detail the data types which can be used taking care in distinguishing the behavioural data that can be obtained either by observation or by declaration from the representation data. It presents the different collect tools and the ways of entry in the food phenomenon. These methodological tools built within a sociological theoretical framing are proposed to the researchers engaged in the study of the food facts so as to walk towards a pooling likely to result on a multi-field approach.

Poulain, Jean-Pierre; Proença, Rossana Pacheco da Costa.

162

Quality Early Education--Quality Food and Nutrition Practices? Some Initial Results from a Pilot Research Project into Food and Nutrition Practices in Early Years Settings in Kent, UK  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper draws upon work conducted as part of a research project into food and nutrition in the early years, and looks very specifically at the way in which practitioners in the field are both aware of current debates around such issues and how they put good policy into their practice. In drawing out such debates with practitioners, it also…

Alderton, Tony; Campbell-Barr, Verity

2005-01-01

163

Translating knowledge into dietetic practice: a Functional Foods for Healthy Aging Toolkit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The advance of functional foods has evolved because of research linking functional foods to health, a regulatory environment that allows health claims on foods, and consumer demand for health-promoting food products. Among consumers, the rapidly growing older adult segment is poised to benefit from functional foods because of age-related health issues that are linked to food and health. Registered Dietitians (RDs) are recognized as food and nutrition experts and are well positioned to communicate the benefits of functional foods. The Functional Foods for Healthy Aging Toolkit was developed to provide guidance and resource materials to assist RDs in communicating with older adults about functional foods. The toolkit provides background on functional foods, including definitions, regulations, and case studies of functional food product labels. The role of functional foods in Canada's aging demographic is examined and the relevance to disease risk is discussed. The toolkit is appended with educational resource sheets on common functional food bioactives, including antioxidants, dietary fibre, omega-3 fatty acids, plant sterols, prebiotics, and probiotics. This publicly available toolkit can help RDs and other healthcare professionals in their interactions with older adults to maximize the value and health benefits that dietary inclusion of functional foods can offer. PMID:24766248

Duncan, Alison M; Dunn, Hilary A; Stratton, Laura M; Vella, Meagan N

2014-05-01

164

Association between Travel Times and Food Procurement Practices among Female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants in Eastern North Carolina  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To examine associations between self-reported vehicular travel behaviors, perceived stress, food procurement practices, and body mass index among female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Analysis: The authors used correlation and regression analyses to examine cross-sectional associations between travel time…

Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Moore, Justin B.; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D.; Liu, Haiyong; Saelens, Brian E.

2011-01-01

165

The Domestic Foodscapes of Young Low-Income Women in Montreal: Cooking Practices in the Context of an Increasingly Processed Food Supply  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the course of the past century, the quantity of prepackaged, pre-prepared foods available in the North American context has increased dramatically. This study examines the shifts in food practices that are taking place through an exploration of the day-to-day cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal and considers…

Engler-Stringer, Rachel

2010-01-01

166

Radiation technology for value addition to food and agro commodities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

2012-08-17

167

handling Simulator  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aiming at the disadvantage of hardware of large-scale ship handling simulator at home and abroad which has closed equipment, bad expandability, high price and so on, we design the console’s frequently-used hardware equipments of the large-scale ship handling simulator based on the research strength of our college. Besides, the overall architecture of the hardware system and the hardware and software design of some equipments are also provided in detailed. The simulator follows the standards on the use of simulators of A-1/12 section of Manila amendments to the STCW Convention and meets the prescribed performance standards of China Maritime Safety Administration about “the notice of related matters on doing preparatory work for meeting Manila amendments to the STCW Convention (Sea Crew [2011] No.923” and has broad market prospects. Now, the simulator has been applied to many domestic navigation colleges or institutions and has achieved good results.

Shen-Hua Yang

2013-01-01

168

Time-temperature and Relative Humidity Profiles of Chilled and Frozen Foods in Retail Outlets Nationwide, and Evaluation of Related Practices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Temperature abuse combined with poor operational practices are the dominant factors in the mishandling of food products which can result in outbreaks of food borne disease. The objective of this work was to determine efficacy of temperature and relative humidity control using recorded data and to assess the food safety management systems in operation in retail outlets in the Republic of Ireland. This study also aims to examine food safety risk to consumers as a result of inadequate temperatur...

2007-01-01

169

Trichinella diagnostics and control: Mandatory and best practices for ensuring food safety  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Because of its role in human disease, there are increasing global requirements for reliable diagnostic and control methods for Trichinella in food animals to ensure meat safety and to facilitate trade. Consequently, there is a need for standardization of methods, programs, and best practices used in the control of Trichinella and trichinellosis. This review article describes the biology and epidemiology of Trichinella, and describes recommended test methods as well as modified and optimized procedures that are used in meat inspection programs. The use of ELISA for monitoring animals for infection in various porcine and equine pre- and post-slaughter programs, including farm or herd certification programs is also discussed. A brief review of the effectiveness of meat processing methods, such as freezing, cooking and preserving is provided. The importance of proper quality assurance and its application in all aspects of a Trichinella diagnostic system is emphasized. It includes the use of international quality standards, test validation and standardization, critical control points, laboratory accreditation, certification of analysts and proficiency testing. Also described, are the roles and locations of international and regional reference laboratories for trichinellosis where expert advice and support on research and diagnostics are available. Crown

Gajadhar, A. A.; Pozio, E.

2009-01-01

170

Food Preparation at Home an Example of New Practical Strategies in the Swedish Municipal Food Service - A Qualitative Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to describe how one of 290 Swedish municipalities improved its FS service by terminating their earlier service of food distribution (FD which was the delivery of ready cooked meals produced at a central kitchen in the community and introducing food preparation at the client’s home. The revised system is referred to as the new FS. This study was performed using an action research approach. The data was collected by individual- and group interviews and through participatory observations. The transcribed interview material was analysed using qualitative content analysis. The (n=30 subjects were recruited The findings of this study revealed that the new FS was experienced as being a good service, that the new municipal FS met individual needs in a better way and that the elderly recipients could participate more actively in planning and preparing their meals. In conclusion, it was found that having their food prepared at home was considered by many of the recipients to be synonymous with individually adjusted help. The results of the study could have implications for nursing, public administration and gerontology.

Zada Pajalic

2013-09-01

171

Safe handling of tritium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance and recommendations on operational radiation protection aspects related to the safe handling of tritium in laboratories, industrial-scale nuclear facilities such as heavy-water reactors, tritium removal plants and fission fuel reprocessing plants, and facilities for manufacturing commercial tritium-containing devices and radiochemicals. The requirements of nuclear fusion reactors are not addressed specifically, since there is as yet no tritium handling experience with them. However, much of the material covered is expected to be relevant to them as well. Annex III briefly addresses problems in the comparatively small-scale use of tritium at universities, medical research centres and similar establishments. However, the main subject of this publication is the handling of larger quantities of tritium. Operational aspects include designing for tritium safety, safe handling practice, the selection of tritium-compatible materials and equipment, exposure assessment, monitoring, contamination control and the design and use of personal protective equipment. This publication does not address the technologies involved in tritium control and cleanup of effluents, tritium removal, or immobilization and disposal of tritium wastes, nor does it address the environmental behaviour of tritium. Refs, figs and tabs

1991-01-01

172

Current situation of food irradiation practice in U.S.A  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is essential that private food companies adopt the process and retail stores sell irradiated food products in order to popularize food irradiation among consumers. FOOD TECHnology Inc. (former Vindicator Inc.), which is founded in Florida 1992 for the purpose of decontamination of fruit flies infected in Oranges using 60Co gamma-irradiation, and Carrot Top, which has been selling irradiated foods since 1992, are well known to be actively involved in PA activity of irradiated foods. Carrot Top is now strongly interested in selling tropical fruits from Hawaii, which has been prohibited to ship from Hawaii to the mainland without decontamination treatment by US government because of fruit fly infestation. They got a temporal permit for the shipment of those fruits with irradiation at Chicago. FOOD TECHnology Inc. irradiates chicken, tomatoes, strawberries and mushrooms. Foods for hospitalized patients and astronauts are also irradiated at FOOD TECHnology Inc.. All food supply for the 'Space Shuttle' program has been provided. Recently they began to irradiate frozen shrimps and salmons. Carrot Top says that irradiated food items gain popularity among their customers although they changed the information transfer method from news letter to news paper advertisement as well as minimizing the description in the store. They noted that the goods sold well whether or not they are irradiated if they are fresh, good-looking and reasonable in price. FOOD TECHnology also commented that food industries has become more friendly towards food irradiation and they petitioned FDA for clearance of beef irradiation to decontaminate E. coli 0157:H7, but the private companies still hesitated to pick up this process therefore we need more efforts of PR. (J.P.N.)

1996-12-17

173

Current situation of food irradiation practice in U.S.A  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is essential that private food companies adopt the process and retail stores sell irradiated food products in order to popularize food irradiation among consumers. FOOD TECHnology Inc. (former Vindicator Inc.), which is founded in Florida 1992 for the purpose of decontamination of fruit flies infected in Oranges using {sup 60}Co gamma-irradiation, and Carrot Top, which has been selling irradiated foods since 1992, are well known to be actively involved in PA activity of irradiated foods. Carrot Top is now strongly interested in selling tropical fruits from Hawaii, which has been prohibited to ship from Hawaii to the mainland without decontamination treatment by US government because of fruit fly infestation. They got a temporal permit for the shipment of those fruits with irradiation at Chicago. FOOD TECHnology Inc. irradiates chicken, tomatoes, strawberries and mushrooms. Foods for hospitalized patients and astronauts are also irradiated at FOOD TECHnology Inc.. All food supply for the `Space Shuttle` program has been provided. Recently they began to irradiate frozen shrimps and salmons. Carrot Top says that irradiated food items gain popularity among their customers although they changed the information transfer method from news letter to news paper advertisement as well as minimizing the description in the store. They noted that the goods sold well whether or not they are irradiated if they are fresh, good-looking and reasonable in price. FOOD TECHnology also commented that food industries has become more friendly towards food irradiation and they petitioned FDA for clearance of beef irradiation to decontaminate E. coli 0157:H7, but the private companies still hesitated to pick up this process therefore we need more efforts of PR. (J.P.N.)

Furuta, Masakazu [Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology

1996-12-31

174

Safe food manufacturing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food safety is a growing preoccupation of the health authorities and the major food companies in any European country. All the aspects of food manufacturing, from the raw materials until the product is consumed have to insure they are innoxious to human health, eliminate any harmful effects related either to food handling or consumption in domestic or common eating places, as well as protect, as much as possible, our environment. Thus, the food manufacturer has to examine step-by-step the security of the agro-cultures, their composition, but also the possible residues of pollutants and contaminants, or chemicals used to protect them against various pests and determine the possible loss or retention of these substances during technological processes. Animal raw materials should not contain veterinary drug residues or an abnormal amount of some components that result from inadequate feeding. Care should be taken to ensure the security of foods manufactured by biotechnology processes. The organisms and the whole processes used in food biotechnologies should eliminate any impurities. Any minor food ingredients, such as food additives, are under a permanent revision from the point of view of their safety. The industry reacts immediately if any justification requires that a particular food additive should not be used. In other words all the raw materials must conform to their specifications. Technological processes must create a food with an adequate microbiological quality, e.g. free of pathogens and their toxic metabolites. Any danger of microbiological contamination or accidental pollution, such as mechanical particles, chemical substances, etc. should be eliminated. The particular role of food packaging is crucial, since this is a barrier to protect the food against further parasites or microbial contamination and preserve the food from alterations due to enzymatic reactions that require particular oxygen and water activity conditions. The packaging should also protect against possible criminal damage. In addition, the material of packaging should not allow micro-migration to the food. It should be inert against its food content. Another aspect of food packaging that has to be taken into account is its recovery and recyclability. Finally, the food manufacturer has to ensure that the nutritional value of the product does not diminish through its shelf-life. The consumer should be advised about the effects of culinary practices since some of them, such as deep frying or grilling under certain circumstances, may create undesirable substances potentially harmful to human health. The food manufacturing in the context of the environment protection requires a separate issue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8202696

Shapiro, A; Mercier, C

1994-03-31

175

Consumer perceptions of best practice in food risk communication and management: implications for risk analysis policy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As a consequence of recent food safety incidents, consumer trust in European food safety management has diminished. A risk governance framework that formally institutes stakeholder (including consumer) consultation and dialogue through a transparent and accountable process has been proposed, with due emphasis on risk communication. This paper delivers actionable policy recommendations based on consumer preferences for different approaches to food risk management. These results suggest that ri...

Cope, S. F.; Frewer, L. J.; Houghton, J. R.; Rowe, G.; Fischer, A. R. H.; Jonge, J.

2010-01-01

176

Botulism among Alaska Natives. The role of changing food preparation and consumption practices.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alaska Natives have one of the highest rates of food-borne botulism worldwide. All outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of native foods, but in recent years outbreaks have occurred in previously unaffected areas and have involved new food items. Five botulism outbreaks occurred between 1975 and 1985 in an area of southwestern Alaska without previous confirmed outbreaks and among one ethnic group, the Yupik Eskimo. Of the 5 outbreaks, 3 were associated with fermented beaver tail...

1990-01-01

177

Practical discrimination of good and bad cooked food using metal oxide semiconductor odour sensor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An increasing concentration of ammonia in cooked food is in direct proportion to the extent of decay. This fact is used to design an electronic nose (e-nose based on metal oxide semiconductor odour sensor circuit capable of discriminating good and bad cooked food. On the basis of the data produced by the e-nose circuit, a feedforward multilayer neural network is designed and trained to recognize varying concentrations of ammonia in the food. Test results of the prototype e-nose system show that it is capable of classifying cooked food as being good or bad with over 92% average success rate.

Essiet Ima O.

2013-01-01

178

I can never be normal : A conversation about race, daily life practices, food and power  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article focuses on the doing and undoing of race in daily life practices in Denmark. It takes the form of a dialogue between two women, a heterosexual Muslim woman of color and a lesbian white woman, who discuss and analyze how their daily life, e.g. interactions with their childrenâ??s schools and daycare institutions, shape their racial and gendered experiences. Drawing upon black feminist theory, postcolonial theory, critical race and whiteness studies, the two women illustrate inclusions and exclusions in their society based on gender, race, class and sexuality â?? and especially pinpoint to how these categories intersect in processes of inclusion and exclusion. The article argues that the lack of a Nordic vocabulary for the term â??raceâ?? â?? as â??raceâ?? is associated with biological racism which dominated in the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century, and hence is viewed as a historical phenomenon left behind â?? prevents contemporary people from addressing existing patterns of racial discrimination, inclusion and exclusion in their daily lives, as well as from connecting their contemporary struggles to historical struggles and inequalities. Furthermore, they illustrate how food, class and race intersect with an analysis of the so-called New Nordic Kitchen, exemplified by the world famous Copenhagen restaurant NOMA. The article interprets the New Nordic Kitchen, which has become very popular in the Nordic countries in recent years, as a culinary project performing whiteness, and connects the New Nordic Kitchenâ??s obsession with â??the authentic Nordicâ?? with historical race science in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century.

Andreassen, Rikke; Ahmed Andresen, Uzma

2014-01-01

179

Potential Risk Handling Alternatives for Supply Chain Disruptions in Liquid Food Production – the case of V&S Vin & Sprit AB, the Sundsvall site  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

V&S Sundsvall (a part of V&S Vin & Sprit AB) is a Swedish company producing different alcoholic beverages, mainly for the Swedish market. The company has lately paid increasing attention to supply chain disruption risk issues. In another study, one of the authors (Paulsson 2007) developed a model, called the DRISC (Disruption Risks In Supply Chains) model, for the structuring, evaluation and handling of risks related to disruptions in the product flow in the supply chain. The DRI...

Paulsson, Ulf; Nilsson, Carl-henric

2008-01-01

180

Total Quality Management (TQM) Practices Toward Product Quality Performance: Case at Food and Beverage Industry in Makassar, Indonesia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this research was to test and analyze the effect of TQM practices impelementation which consists of leadership, strategic planning, customer focus, information and analysis, people management, and process management to product quality performance. The population were 108 food and beverage companies in Makassar, Indonesia. Respondents are production managers or operation managers. Sample technique which used is population sampling. Method of analysis which use both descriptive s...

Munizu, Musran

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Pesticide safety risk, food chain organization, and the adoption of sustainable farming practices. The case of Moroccan early tomatoes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fresh produce pesticide safety risk has grown into a major concern of North European consumers and governments for the last twenty years. Our study expands on safety control issues and gives insights into how fresh vegetable chains organize to comply with retail private safety standards and thus get access to export and modern domestic markets. Most studies on the adoption of good agricultural practice certifications and integrated pest management overlook the influence of food chain organiza...

Aubert, M.; Bouhsina, Z.; Codron, J. M.; Rousset, S.

2013-01-01

182

Pesticide safety risk, food chain organization, and the adoption of sustainable farming practices: The case of Moroccan early tomatoes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fresh produce pesticide safety risk has grown into a major concern of North European consumers and governments for the last twenty years. Our study expands on safety control issues and gives insights into how fresh vegetable chains organize to comply with retail private safety standards and thus get access to export and modern domestic markets. Most studies on the adoption of good agricultural practice certifications and integrated pest management overlook the influence of food chain organiza...

Aubert, M.; Bouhsina, Z.; Codron, J. M.; Rousset, S.

2013-01-01

183

Handling Sports Pressure and Competition  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Sports > Handling Sports Pressure and Competition Print A A A Text Size What's in this ... reviewed: September 2013 Back 1 ? 2 ? 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC ...

184

Farming health and safety: Livestock handling  

Jul 1, 2006 ... Defra - Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. ... There is no legal \\age limit for cattle handling, but children under 13 years old and adults ... The \\bull's temperament should be such that the handler can approach ...

185

Food Projects in London: Lessons for Policy and Practice--A Hidden Sector and the Need for "More Unhealthy Puddings ... Sometimes"  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Objective: Successive governments have promoted local action to address food components of public health. This article presents findings from research commissioned by the (then) London NHS Office, scoping the range of food projects in the London area, and the potential challenges to public health practice. Methods: Research followed…

Caraher, Martin; Dowler, Elizabeth

2007-01-01

186

Food irradiation and habitual consumption of food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last years, an increasing amount of people is consuming more fruits, vegetables, seeds and sprouts, with the health effects of food in mind. Otherwise, the accepted shelf food safety found in some countries led to a growing trust in the product's hygienic quality, that leads to behaviors like opening a package and immediately consume the contents. Besides the well disseminated knowledge of good cooking practices, the lack of time, found mainly in big cities, may take to the dinning tables food with an increasing potential of pathogenic organisms contamination. For instance, the alfalfa, beam, clover and radish sprouts caused many reported Salmonella and E. coli outbreaks in countries like the USA, United Kingdom, Japan, Sweden, Finland, Canada and Denmark. Many of the likely source of contaminations were the contamination of the seeds before sprouting. To control these contaminations, the irradiation doses over 1 kGy is effective and the association of irradiation and chemical treatments is being studied. The bacteriological control performance of the irradiation becomes this technique one of the most applied to dry herbs and spices witch, without adequate treatment, could be important sources of foodborne outbreaks. Good production, handling, packing and distribution practices may, with the use of ionizing radiation to reach the desired bacteriological inactivation or decontamination level, significantly contribute to the necessary food safety, allowing it to be safely ready to eat. (author)

2005-09-02

187

[Street food in the national agenda of food and nutrition security: an essay for sanitary qualification in Brazil].  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2014, the World Cup will be staged in Brazil. Is Brazil able to ensure safe street food is on offer? This paper seeks to elicit reflection on some problems relating to the sale of street food, thereby contributing to highlight this theme in the food security agenda in Brazil. The scope of this study is exclusively street food. Care is taken not to reduce the broader concepts of food security and the importance of sanitary and hygienic handling is stressed as one of the core components of food and nutrition security. In this context the following aspects are discussed: the credibility of the official data on insanitary outbreaks related to street food; street food security compared to that in other eating environments; and the training of people to modify inadequate food handling practices. Thus, in the discussion about problems in the street food market it is essential to improve the quantity and quality of the training of food handlers in order to implement food and nutrition security as promoting the human right to adequate food and ensure that the topic is urgently included on the national calendar of public health debates. PMID:24897213

Bezerra, Aída Couto Dinucci; Mancuso, Ana Maria Cervato; Heitz, Sarah Jeanne Jorge

2014-05-01

188

Practical implications of developments in legislation on food irradiation in the European Union  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Food irradiation legislation is very different in most member-states of the EU. For many years there was the desire by many interested groups to harmonise this legislation. As the member-states had a different view on irradiated foods, often based on their existing regulation, it took many years and revised drafts to come to a harmonised regulation acceptable to the majority. The background on the development of this EU-legislation and the final draft is discussed. Some information is also given on the possible influence of WTO (SPS- and TBT-agreements) and Codex Alimentarius on this EU-legislation. (author)

Neyssen, Peter J.G. E-mail: info@gammaster.fr

2000-03-01

189

Handling of Solid Residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

1999-12-01

190

An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contam...

Onyeneho, Sylvester N.; Hedberg, Craig W.

2013-01-01

191

Aproximación práctica al diagnóstico de la alergia alimentaria / Practical approach to the diagnosis of food allergy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La alergia alimentaria representa la primera expresión clínica de atopia durante la vida, ya sea con manifestaciones gastrointestinales o cutáneas, seguidas de asma y rinitis. A este continuo desarrollo de enfermedades se ha denominado "marcha atópica". Es un problema importante de salud, no sólo pa [...] ra los pacientes sino también incluye al grupo familiar y social. Se define como una respuesta inmunológica anormal ante la ingesta de proteínas alimenticias que ocasionan una reacción clínica adversa. La mayoría de las personas desarrolla tolerancia a los antígenos alimentarios, los cuales constantemente acceden al organismo. Sin embargo, cuando la tolerancia falla, el sistema inmune responde con reacciones de hipersensibilidad. El diagnóstico de la alergia alimentaria todavía es un ejercicio clínico que depende de una historia cuidadosa, de la determinación específica de IgE, pruebas de parche, una apropiada dieta de exclusión y la realización de reto cegado. Abstract in english Food allergy has become the first clinical expression of atopy, beginning with dermal o gastric manifestations to continue with asthma an rhinitis ("the atopic march"), a very severe health problem not only for many children and parents, but also for the entire medical and paramedical community. Foo [...] d allergy is defined as an abnormal immunological reaction to food proteins, which causes an adverse clinical reaction. Most of the people become tolerant to many foods; however, these tolerances sometimes fail and become an immunological reaction. The evaluation of a child with suspected food allergy includes detailed medical history, physical examination, screening tests and response to elimination diet and to oral food challenge. None of the screening tests -alone or in combination- can definitely diagnose or exclude it.

Góngora-Meléndez, Marco Antonio; Sienra-Monge, Juan José Luis; Del Río-Navarro, Blanca Estela; Ávila Castañón, Lourdes.

192

Farming practices change food web structures in cereal aphid–parasitoid–hyperparasitoid communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agricultural intensification has been shown to result in a decline in biodiversity across many taxa, but the changes in community structure and species interactions remain little understood. We have analysed and compared the structure of feeding interactions for cereal aphids and their primary and secondary parasitoids in organically and conventionally managed winter wheat fields using quantitative food web metrics (interaction evenness, generality, vulnerability, link density). Despite littl...

Lohaus, Katharina; Vidal, Stefan; Thies, Carsten

2012-01-01

193

Farming practices change food web structures in cereal aphid–parasitoid–hyperparasitoid communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agricultural intensification has been shown to result in a decline in biodiversity across many taxa, but the changes in community structure and species interactions remain little understood. We have analysed and compared the structure of feeding interactions for cereal aphids and their primary and secondary parasitoids in organically and conventionally managed winter wheat fields using quantitative food web metrics (interaction evenness, generality, vulnerability, link density). Despite littl...

Lohaus, Katharina; Vidal, Stefan; Thies, Carsten

2013-01-01

194

A practice theoretical perspective on everyday dealings with environmental challenges of food consumption Une perspective théorique des pratiques alimentaires quotidiennes liées à la durabilité de la consommation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Expectations concerning the contribution of ordinary consumers to solving a broad array of societal problems have risen. This is particularly prevalent in issues such as environmental sustainability and food consumption, where ordinary food routines are being challenged through mediatised discourses on the environmental responsibilities of food consumers. In this article, in order to discuss the potential of ordinary food consumers in contributing to sustainability, we start from a theoretical stance and discuss how two different understandings of food consumption lead to different possibilities of "environmentalising" food consumption. Discussion is based on three Danish empirical qualitative research projects about food practices. We argue that it is difficult to judge which position offers more openings for sustainability: to consider environmentalised food consumption as part of broader food practices, or rather as a part of practices themselves? This is related to the interdependency of social actors and the dynamics of food.Les attentes portant sur la contribution des consommateurs ordinaires pour résoudre un vaste éventail de problèmes de société ne cessent de croître. Cela se constate particulièrement en matière de développement durable et de consommation alimentaire, car les habitudes ordinaires se trouvent bousculées par les discours médiatisés concernant les responsabilités des mangeurs en matière d’environnement. Dans cet article, nous partons d’une position théorique et discutons la manière dont deux modes de consommation alimentaire mènent à différentes manières d’ « environnementaliser » la consommation alimentaire. La discussion se fonde sur trois recherches empiriques qualitatives danoises. Nous avançons qu’il est difficile de juger quelle posture permet davantage de durabilité: doit-on considérer la notion de consommation alimentaire « respectueuse de l’environnement » comme un élément de pratiques plus larges, ou plutôt comme une partie indissociable de ces pratiques ? On peut relier cela à l’interdépendance des acteurs sociaux et aux dynamiques des pratiques alimentaires.

Bente Halkier

2009-09-01

195

ALTERNATE METHODS OF MANURE HANDLING  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this research project were to (a) construct an inexpensive storage facility for solid dairy cow manure, (b) evaluate its performance and the extent of pollutants in runoff from storage facilities, and (c) determine current manure handling practices in Vermont an...

196

The NOURISH randomised control trial: Positive feeding practices and food preferences in early childhood - a primary prevention program for childhood obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Primary prevention of childhood overweight is an international priority. In Australia 20-25% of 2-8 year olds are already overweight. These children are at substantially increased the risk of becoming overweight adults, with attendant increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Early feeding practices determine infant exposure to food (type, amount, frequency) and include responses (eg coercion) to infant feeding behaviour (eg. food refusal). There is corre...

Daniels Lynne A; Magarey Anthea; Battistutta Diana; Nicholson Jan M; Farrell Ann; Davidson Geoffrey; Cleghorn Geoffrey

2009-01-01

197

Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran and others

2006-01-15

198

Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study

2006-01-01

199

Food, farm and environment development and sustainability: from theory to practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available International cooperation for development has always been looked at with scepticism since it exists. In fact, the different assistance projects which are carried out to help developing countries bring benefits more to the donor countries than to the receiving ones, triggering a process of economic development in the former. The “investments” of the various projects come back multiplied. FAO themselves, instead of using their resources on real projects helping to reduce world famine, waste away billion dollars to pay salaries, benefits, transfers and general expenses.While in underdeveloped countries million people die for famine, in the rich countries tons of food are destroyed because they aren’t considered marketable anymore. This is a huge waste of resources besides being a serious damage to the environment and an unsustainable system on the long term.

Andrea Segrè

2008-04-01

200

Food, farm and environment development and sustainability: from theory to practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available International cooperation for development has always been looked at with scepticism since it exists. In fact, the different assistance projects which are carried out to help developing countries bring benefits more to the donor countries than to the receiving ones, triggering a process of economic development in the former. The “investments” of the various projects come back multiplied. FAO themselves, instead of using their resources on real projects helping to reduce world famine, waste away billion dollars to pay salaries, benefits, transfers and general expenses.While in underdeveloped countries million people die for famine, in the rich countries tons of food are destroyed because they aren’t considered marketable anymore. This is a huge waste of resources besides being a serious damage to the environment and an unsustainable system on the long term.

Andrea Segrè

2011-02-01

 
 
 
 
201

MIVAR: Transition from Productions to Bipartite Graphs MIVAR Nets and Practical Realization of Automated Constructor of Algorithms Handling More than Three Million Production Rules  

CERN Multimedia

The theoretical transition from the graphs of production systems to the bipartite graphs of the MIVAR nets is shown. Examples of the implementation of the MIVAR nets in the formalisms of matrixes and graphs are given. The linear computational complexity of algorithms for automated building of objects and rules of the MIVAR nets is theoretically proved. On the basis of the MIVAR nets the UDAV software complex is developed, handling more than 1.17 million objects and more than 3.5 million rules on ordinary computers. The results of experiments that confirm a linear computational complexity of the MIVAR method of information processing are given. Keywords: MIVAR, MIVAR net, logical inference, computational complexity, artificial intelligence, intelligent systems, expert systems, General Problem Solver.

Varlamov, Oleg O

2011-01-01

202

Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 7. Barriers to reduce contamination of food by workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contamination of food and individuals by food workers has been identified as an important contributing factor during foodborne illness investigations. Physical and chemical barriers to prevent microbial contamination of food are hurdles that block or reduce the transfer of pathogens to the food surface from the hands of a food worker, from other foods, or from the environment. In food service operations, direct contact of food by hands should be prevented by the use of barriers, especially when gloves are not worn. Although these barriers have been used for decades in food processing and food service operations, their effectiveness is sometimes questioned or their use may be ignored. Physical barriers include properly engineered building walls and doors to minimize the flow of outside particles and pests to food storage and food preparation areas; food shields to prevent aerosol contamination of displayed food by customers and workers; work clothing designated strictly for work (clothing worn outdoors can carry undesirable microorganisms, including pathogens from infected family members, into the work environment); and utensils such as spoons, tongs, and deli papers to prevent direct contact between hands and the food being prepared or served. Money and ready-to-eat foods should be handled as two separate operations, preferably by two workers. Chemical barriers include sanitizing solutions used to remove microorganisms (including pathogens) from objects or materials used during food production and preparation and to launder uniforms, work clothes, and soiled linens. However, laundering as normally practiced may not effectively eliminate viral pathogens. PMID:20819372

Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Greig, Judy D; Smith, Debra; Holah, John; Bartleson, Charles A

2010-08-01

203

Storage and handling of petroleum liquids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This handbook on storing and handling petroleum liquids addresses all relevant basic technical aspects, practical applications, and regulatory standards. This edition reflects current national and international controls, guidelines, and recommendations.

Hughes, J.R.

1988-01-01

204

Food irradiation: Public opinion surveys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Canadian government are discussing the legislation, regulations and practical protocol necessary for the commercialization of food irradiation. Food industry marketing, public relations and media expertise will be needed to successfully introduce this new processing choice to retailers and consumers. Consumer research to date including consumer opinion studies and market trials conducted in the Netherlands, United States, South Africa and Canada will be explored for signposts to successful approaches to the introduction of irradiated foods to retailers and consumers. Research has indicated that the terms used to describe irradiation and information designed to reduce consumer fears will be important marketing tools. Marketers will be challenged to promote old foods, which look the same to consumers, in a new light. Simple like or dislike or intention to buy surveys will not be effective tools. Consumer fears must be identified and effectively handled to support a receptive climate for irradiated food products. A cooperative government, industry, health professional, consumer association and retailer effort will be necessary for the successful introduction of irradiated foods into the marketplace. Grocery Products Manufacturers of Canada is a national trade association of more than 150 major companies engaged in the manufacture of food, non-alcoholic beverages and array of other national-brand consumer items sold through retail outlets

1987-08-16

205

Food irradiation: Public opinion surveys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Canadian government are discussing the legislation, regulations and practical protocol necessary for the commercialization of food irradiation. Food industry marketing, public relations and media expertise will be needed to successfully introduce this new processing choice to retailers and consumers. Consumer research to date including consumer opinion studies and market trials conducted in the Netherlands, United States, South Africa and Canada will be explored for signposts to successful approaches to the introduction of irradiated foods to retailers and consumers. Research has indicated that the terms used to describe irradiation and information designed to reduce consumer fears will be important marketing tools. Marketers will be challenged to promote old foods, which look the same to consumers, in a new light. Simple like or dislike or intention to buy surveys will not be effective tools. Consumer fears must be identified and effectively handled to support a receptive climate for irradiated food products. A cooperative government, industry, health professional, consumer association and retailer effort will be necessary for the successful introduction of irradiated foods into the marketplace. Grocery Products Manufacturers of Canada is a national trade association of more than 150 major companies engaged in the manufacture of food, non-alcoholic beverages and array of other national-brand consumer items sold through retail outlets.

Kerr, S.D.

1987-01-01

206

An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999, cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992, and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878. The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri.

Craig W. Hedberg

2013-08-01

207

Radionuclides in food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the representative sampling, appropriate methods of measurement and the traceable results. Finally it is possible to advise and to help the national responsible authorities to define a minimal universe of food to monitor to protect the consumers

2008-03-04

208

Food for Work Program and its Implications on Food Security: A Critical Review with a Practical Example from the Amhara Region, Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A systematic evaluation of food-for-work (FFW programs in Ethiopia is seriously lacking. Most of the few available reports indicate that these programs have reached very few achievements in terms of food security and reduction of poverty at large. As expressed by Holden et al. (2005, FFW programs are commonly aimed to produce or maintain potentially valuable public goods necessary to stimulate productivity and thus income growth. Natural resources management, like rural road construction, erosion control and afforestation of degraded lands can be mentioned as valuable measures which could stimulate productivity and agricultural growth. The poverty reduction and food security impact of food or cash for work activities are larger if they offer not only seasonal job opportunities to the rural community but also long term employment possibilities. This is more likely if the projects are regionally dispersed and combined with basic education. In the Ethiopian context, it was always questionable if the continuous boom in food aid (regardless of cash or food for work purposes was the solution for the long standing food insecurity and poverty crises in the country. The study discusses the efficiency of FFW programs that aimed to reduce rural poverty and ensure food security on the one hand, and the impact of the food aid on resource and time allocation of the participating households for own food production on the other. The study is based on a field research conducted at a FFW program project, in the Amhara region, Ethiopia run by the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ with the view of improving food security in the Amhara region, Ethiopia. A household theoretical model is used to analyze the sample data, whether FFW program may indeed reduce household food insecurity and/or has some crowding-out effects on labour allocation of participating households for own field production.

Ashenafi Gedamu

2006-10-01

209

COMPARE NITRATE REMOVAL METHODS: FOR SOME COMMUNITIES, ION EXCHANGE MAY BE THE MOST ECONOMICAL, PRACTICAL WAY OF HANDLING NITRATE-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrate is a ground water contaminant that results from fertilizers and septic tank wastes. Many treatment methods have been investigated for nitrate removal but only ion exchange, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis are considered to be practical. Of these three methods, ion exc...

210

Comparison of nutrition standards and other recommended procurement practices for improving institutional food offerings in Los Angeles County, 2010-2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

National, state, and local institutions that procure, distribute, sell, and/or serve food to employees, students, and the public are increasingly capitalizing on existing operational infrastructures to create healthier food environments. Integration of healthy nutrition standards and other recommended practices [e.g., energy (kilocalories) postings at point-of-purchase, portion size restrictions, product placement guidelines, and signage] into new or renewing food service and vending contracts codifies an institution's commitment to increasing the availability of healthful food options in their food service venues and vending machines. These procurement requirements, in turn, have the potential to positively influence consumers' food-purchasing behaviors. Although these strategies are becoming increasingly popular, much remains unknown about their context, the processes required to implement them effectively, and the factors that facilitate their sustainability, especially in such broad and diverse settings as schools, county government facilities, and cities. To contribute to this gap in information, we reviewed and compared nutrition standards and other best practices implemented recently in a large school district, in a large county government, and across 10 municipalities in Los Angeles County. We report lessons learned from these efforts. PMID:23493535

Robles, Brenda; Wood, Michelle; Kimmons, Joel; Kuo, Tony

2013-03-01

211

Comparison of Nutrition Standards and Other Recommended Procurement Practices for Improving Institutional Food Offerings in Los Angeles County, 2010-2012123  

Science.gov (United States)

National, state, and local institutions that procure, distribute, sell, and/or serve food to employees, students, and the public are increasingly capitalizing on existing operational infrastructures to create healthier food environments. Integration of healthy nutrition standards and other recommended practices [e.g., energy (kilocalories) postings at point-of-purchase, portion size restrictions, product placement guidelines, and signage] into new or renewing food service and vending contracts codifies an institution’s commitment to increasing the availability of healthful food options in their food service venues and vending machines. These procurement requirements, in turn, have the potential to positively influence consumers’ food-purchasing behaviors. Although these strategies are becoming increasingly popular, much remains unknown about their context, the processes required to implement them effectively, and the factors that facilitate their sustainability, especially in such broad and diverse settings as schools, county government facilities, and cities. To contribute to this gap in information, we reviewed and compared nutrition standards and other best practices implemented recently in a large school district, in a large county government, and across 10 municipalities in Los Angeles County. We report lessons learned from these efforts.

Robles, Brenda; Wood, Michelle; Kimmons, Joel; Kuo, Tony

2013-01-01

212

Food and Personal Hygiene Perceptions and Practices among Caregivers Whose Children Have Diarrhea: A Qualitative Study of Urban Mothers in Tangerang, Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To examine caregivers' perceptions and practices related to food and personal hygiene and its association with diarrhea in children 6 to 36 months of age who suffered recurrent diarrhea. Design: This qualitative study, conducted in March and April 2006, used both in-depth interviews and direct observation data. Setting: Urban Tangerang,…

Usfar, Avita A.; Iswarawanti, Dwi N.; Davelyna, Devy; Dillon, Drupadi

2010-01-01

213

Development of online learning activities to enhance student knowledge of animal behaviour prior to engaging in live animal handling practical sessions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Learning activities were developed to increase the awareness of animal behaviour among first year students enrolled in animal-associated degrees prior to students engaging in hands-on live animal practical sessions. Learning activities were developed in an easy to use collegial online environment and to encourage student engagement in learning activities. One hundred and one students were given a preliminary and post learning activity survey to assess their initial knowledge and experience of...

2011-01-01

214

Patient cares and handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contents of this chapter are follows - Patient cares and handling: responsibility, clinical responsibility, ethical responsibility, legal responsibility, patient care and handling: before examination, during examination, after examination, other consideration, children and infants, elderly patients

2004-01-01

215

Equipment for the handling of thorium materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) is the United States Department of Energy's storage facility for thorium. FMPC thorium handling and overpacking projects ensure the continued safe handling and storge of the thorium inventory until final dispositio n of the materials is determined and implemented. The handling and overpacking of the thorium materials requires the design of a system that utilizes remote handling and overpacking equipment not currently utilized at the FMPC in the handling of uranium materials. The use of remote equipment significantly reduces radiation exposure to pesonnel during the handling and overpacking efforts. The designed system combines existing technologies from the nuclear industry, the materials processing and handling industry and the mining industry. The designed system consists of modified fork lift truck for the transport of thorium containers, automated equipment for material identification and inventory control, and remote handling and overpacking equipemnt for repackaging of the thorium materials. The radiation exposure to operations personnel using the remote handling and overpacking equipment is expected to be reduced by 98% over conventional direct durm handling practices with no dose reduction controls. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

1988-03-03

216

Equipment for the handling of thorium materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) is the United States Department of Energy's storage facility for thorium. FMPC thorium handling and overpacking projects ensure the continued safe handling and storge of the thorium inventory until final dispositio n of the materials is determined and implemented. The handling and overpacking of the thorium materials requires the design of a system that utilizes remote handling and overpacking equipment not currently utilized at the FMPC in the handling of uranium materials. The use of remote equipment significantly reduces radiation exposure to pesonnel during the handling and overpacking efforts. The designed system combines existing technologies from the nuclear industry, the materials processing and handling industry and the mining industry. The designed system consists of modified fork lift truck for the transport of thorium containers, automated equipment for material identification and inventory control, and remote handling and overpacking equipemnt for repackaging of the thorium materials. The radiation exposure to operations personnel using the remote handling and overpacking equipment is expected to be reduced by 98% over conventional direct durm handling practices with no dose reduction controls. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Heisler, S.W. Jr.; Mihalovich, G.S.

1988-01-01

217

Revision of the recommended international general standard for irradiated foods and of the recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of the findings and statements of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food, convened in Geneva from 27 October to 3 November 1980, a Consultation Group, convened in Geneva from 1 to 3 July 1981 suggested the revision of the Recommended International General Standard for Irradiated Foods and of the Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities. The proposed changes are given and justified and the revised wording of the documents presented

1980-11-03

218

Materials Handling Buyers` Guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This, the fourteenth International Bulk Journal Buyer`s Guide, gives information on designers, manufacturers and constructors of dry bulk materials handling equipment in country order. Equipment includes: coal handling, belt conveyors, chain conveyors, marine terminal equipment, stacker/reclaimers, storage systems, and other materials handling equipment.

NONE

1996-06-01

219

Food, Globalization and Sustainability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of international trade and global food governance. Distance in time and space between food producers and consumers is increasing and new concerns are arising. These include the environmental impact of food pro...

Oosterveer, P. J. M.; Sonnenfeld, D. A.

2011-01-01

220

Control of good irradiation practices and the role of the ICGFI guidelines and codes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Considerable guidance is available to managers of an irradiator plant on ways and means to produce safe, wholesome, quality irradiated foods. The foundation for good manufacturing practices (GMPs), which apply to all food processes, is the Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene. These principles provide good common sense procedures in the handling of food for human consumption in order to ensure safe, wholesome quality products. The GMPs cover the growing, harvesting, preparation, processing, packaging, storage, transport, distribution and sale of food. They provide good check lists for safety and quality. More detailed guidelines specifically aimed at food irradiation are found in the Codex Code of Practice for the Operation of Irradiation Facilities and in the Codes of Good Irradiation Practice (GIPs) developed by the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation. GIPs are available for eight commodity groups. They provide guidance on pre-irradiation handling (including microbiological guidelines), packaging, pre-irradiation storage and transport, irradiation facilities and absorbed doses, post-irradiation storage and handling, final product specifications, labelling, re-irradiation and the quality of irradiated products. In order to apply GIPs effectively, it recommended that the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point concept (HACCP) be implemented. The HACCP concept emphasizes prevention of, rather than detection of defects. The HACCP concept has been adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and is being applied to Codex Codes of Practice. (author). 7 refs

1993-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

Safe Handling of Radioisotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

1958-12-01

222

Level of Knowledge and Compliance of Mexican Food Code among Hospital Foodservice Employees in Guadalajara, México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contamination of food may occur at any point during the food distribution channel. However, mishandling of food at the last segment of food distribution where food is prepared for consumption often causes outbreaks. Keeping food safe in hospitals is particularly imperative because of the population they serve and the potentially hazardous environment. This article presents the results of a pencil and paper self-reported survey on the knowledge of Mexican food code, NOM-093-SSA1-1994, and field observation of the compliance of the code among the hospital foodservice employees in Guadalajara, México. One hundred twenty-seven employees from six public and private hospitals participated in the study. Of the respondents, 81.5% were aware of the importance of personal hygiene in food safety. Professional attire including hair restraints and mouth cover were always used. These participants, however seldom used thermometers, and only 37% of respondents knew the correct temperatures for refrigeration. In most hospitals correct procedures for sanitizing food contact surfaces that were prescribed by the sanitizing chemical manufacturers were practiced. Only 25% of the participants knew that their work was defined by the food code. Strategies for dissemination of the food code, and food safety training of the employees are urgently needed. Commitment and support of the hospital are needed in order to improve safe food handling practices in these hospitals.

Elsa Ramírez

2011-11-01

223

Moving and Handling of Patients with Dementia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Moving and handling is an important aspect of caring for patients with dementia. This can be a serious risk to health care staff, and requires careful risk assessment and planning before execution to minimise any injury. This article explores some of the challenges nurses may face when moving and handling people with dementia. It offers guidance on how to deal with these challenges to promote safe practice and improve patient outcomes.

Dev Jootun

2012-10-01

224

Moving and Handling of Patients with Dementia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Moving and handling is an important aspect of caring for patients with dementia. This can be a serious risk to health care staff, and requires careful risk assessment and planning before execution to minimise any injury. This article explores some of the challenges nurses may face when moving and handling people with dementia. It offers guidance on how to deal with these challenges to promote safe practice and improve patient outcomes.

2012-01-01

225

Human factors issues in fuel handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The staff of the Atomic Energy Control Board wish to further their understanding of human factors issues of potential concern associated with fuel handling in CANDU nuclear power stations. This study contributes to that objective by analysing the role of human performance in the overall fuel handling process at Ontario Hydro's Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, and reporting findings in several areas. A number of issues are identified in the areas of design, operating and maintenance practices, and the organizational and management environment

1994-01-01

226

Public health nutritionists’ role in the promotion of healthy food practices Atuação do nutricionista em saúde pública na promoção da alimentação saudável  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article analyzes the insertion of nutritionists in the Public Health areas through studies which performed this diagnosis, and reflect about the development of competencies for promoting healthy food practices. The results of these studies are initially presented in order to quantify, describe and analyze the insertion of nutritionists in the Primary Health Network and in the Family Health Program or propose an orientation for their role in the Public Health field. The contribution of the...

Maria Cristina Faber Boog

2008-01-01

227

Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcal Food-Borne Disease: An Ongoing Challenge in Public Health  

Science.gov (United States)

Staphylococcal food-borne disease (SFD) is one of the most common food-borne diseases worldwide resulting from the contamination of food by preformed S. aureus enterotoxins. It is one of the most common causes of reported food-borne diseases in the United States. Although several Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) have been identified, SEA, a highly heat-stable SE, is the most common cause of SFD worldwide. Outbreak investigations have found that improper food handling practices in the retail industry account for the majority of SFD outbreaks. However, several studies have documented prevalence of S. aureus in many food products including raw retail meat indicating that consumers are at potential risk of S. aureus colonization and subsequent infection. Presence of pathogens in food products imposes potential hazard for consumers and causes grave economic loss and loss in human productivity via food-borne disease. Symptoms of SFD include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps with or without diarrhea. Preventive measures include safe food handling and processing practice, maintaining cold chain, adequate cleaning and disinfection of equipment, prevention of cross-contamination in home and kitchen, and prevention of contamination from farm to fork. This paper provides a brief overview of SFD, contributing factors, risk that it imposes to the consumers, current research gaps, and preventive measures.

Smith, Tara C.

2014-01-01

228

Science, practice, and human errors in controlling Clostridium botulinum in heat-preserved food in hermetic containers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of botulism in canned food in the last century is reviewed along with the background science; a few conclusions are reached based on analysis of published data. There are two primary aspects to botulism control: the design of an adequate process and the delivery of the adequate process to containers of food. The probability that the designed process will not be adequate to control Clostridium botulinum is very small, probably less than 1.0 x 10(-6), based on containers of food, whereas the failure of the operator of the processing equipment to deliver the specified process to containers of food may be of the order of 1 in 40, to 1 in 100, based on processing units (retort loads). In the commercial food canning industry, failure to deliver the process will probably be of the order of 1.0 x 10(-4) to 1.0 x 10(-6) when U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations are followed. Botulism incidents have occurred in food canning plants that have not followed the FDA regulations. It is possible but very rare to have botulism result from postprocessing contamination. It may thus be concluded that botulism incidents in canned food are primarily the result of human failure in the delivery of the designed or specified process to containers of food that, in turn, result in the survival, outgrowth, and toxin production of C. botulinum spores. Therefore, efforts in C. botulinum control should be concentrated on reducing human errors in the delivery of the specified process to containers of food. PMID:20501056

Pflug, Irving J

2010-05-01

229

Avaliação do consumo alimentar e da ingestão de nutrientes na prática clínica / Assessment of food consumption and nutrient intake in clinical practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A avaliação do consumo alimentar na prática clínica é realizada com a finalidade de fornecer subsídios para o desenvolvimento e a implantação de planos nutricionais. Fatores como condições do estado geral do indivíduo/paciente, evolução da condição clínica e os motivos pelos quais o indivíduo necess [...] ita de orientação nutricional direcionam a escolha do método de avaliação do consumo alimentar. O método escolhido deve fornecer informações que permitam ao profissional orientar uma alimentação que vise promover a saúde, prevenir outras intercorrências e adequar o estado nutricional do paciente. Apesar de a literatura nacional disponibilizar informações abrangentes sobre métodos e técnicas para estimativa do consumo alimentar, o ambiente de atuação profissional ainda está permeado de dúvidas a respeito dos métodos mais adequados para essa avaliação na prática diária. O presente artigo se propôs a apresentar uma análise crítica, no contexto da aplicabilidade clínica, dos métodos disponíveis de inquéritos alimentares e suas características. Abstract in english The assessment of food consumption in clinical practice is often carried out to develop and implement nutritional advice. Factors as the patient health conditions, the evolution of his/her clinical condition as well as the reasons that motivated the search for advice will guide the selection of the [...] best method of assessment of food consumption or nutrient intake to employ. The chosen method might drive the professional to offer a food plan that aims to promote health, to prevent illness, and to alter the nutritional state of the patient. Despite the easily available national literature on methods and techniques to estimate food consumption, it is not uncommon that professionals still have doubts about what methods are the most appropriated in daily practice. This study aimed to present a critical analysis, taking into account the clinical applicability, of the food assessment methods and its characteristics.

Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Colucci, Ana Carolina Almada.

230

Food Chain & Food Web  

Science.gov (United States)

What are the differences and similarities between food chain and food web? Print (2) Garden Gate Print (1) Venn Diagram Garden Gate Venn Diagram Let's learn about the food chain and food web.Read the notes.Food Chain 4 Also, view more notes on food chain and food web. Go to the 7th title Food Chain which is before the Habitats and food chain title of the webpage.Food Chain Power Point Presentation Record what you learn ...

B, Ms.

2011-10-27

231

Comparing coal handling system costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Good maintenance practices and proactive planning are essential to ensure coal handling equipment performance, but a look at the entire cost of handling coal has yielded some surprising conclusions. Optimizing a given system can be challenging and requires a close analysis of the total cost. This article addresses the cost analysis of the coal handling system at the Northern States Power Co. (NSP) Sherburne County Plant (Sherco); the largest coal-fired plant in Minnesota. Sherco consists of two Combustion Engineering 750-MW tangentially fired boilers and one 850-MW Babcock and Wilcox wall-fired unit. The two 750-MW units are fitted with wet limestone scrubbers to control both particulates and sulfur. The 850-MW unit, on the other hand, is connected to a Joy Niro dry scrubber and baghouse. All of the coal consumed by Sherco is sub-bituminous Powder River Basin Coal from Montana and Wyoming. The coal is purchased from half a dozen mines including Westmoreland, Colestrip, Black Thunder, Antelope and Rochelle. Although quite similar in heating value and moisture content, these coals differ markedly in ash content, sulfur content, dustiness and spontaneous heating characteristics.

Lehto, J.M. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1996-03-01

232

SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION (SRI) Economic and Ecological Benefits of Improved production practice for Food Security and Resource Conservation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Being the important ingredient of food basket of the common people, the declining productivity of rice and its per capita availability is a policy concern, which has a global connotation. System of rice intensification (SRI) is a relevant innovation, which increases production, reduces yield gap and ensures the household food security for the vulnerable section of small and marginal farmers. It has also tremendous potential for resource conservation; and important aspect for sustainability. T...

Barah, B. C.

2010-01-01

233

Handling Pyrophoric Reagents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pyrophoric reagents are extremely hazardous. Special handling techniques are required to prevent contact with air and the resulting fire. This document provides several methods for working with pyrophoric reagents outside of an inert atmosphere.

Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Haynie, Todd O.

2009-08-14

234

Toward remote handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current research being carried out at Harwell with the aim of increasing the reliability and performance of master-slave manipulators and other handling aids is considered. The development of teleoperators, which incorporate manipulation, communication and viewing systems on the same wheeled or tracked vehicle, is discussed. Recent work to improve conventional windows, to develop viewing aids using electro-optical equipment and to improve filters and filter handling equipment, all with reduced operator exposure, is examined. (U.K.)

1981-01-01

235

Naturally Occurring Food Toxins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting ...

Dolan, Laurie C.; Matulka, Ray A.; Burdock, George A.

2010-01-01

236

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

1976-01-01

237

Food irradiation seminar: Asia and the Pacific  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report covers the Seminar for Asia and the Pacific on the practical application of food irradiation. The seminar assessed the practical application of food irradiation processes, commercial utilisation and international trade of irradiated food

1986-01-01

238

15 years of existence of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ICGFI essentially contributed to international dissemination of unbiased information about the advantages and risks of food irradiation. The body has issued ICGFI publications containing codes of good practice for a variety of purposes, as eg. for operation of irradiation facilities for the treatment of food (GIP), or guidelines for due handling of irradiated food (GMP). Training courses have been offered to scientists, especially from developing countries, as well as for inspectors of national supervisory authorities. The activities of the advisory group as well as the conditions governing future activities are discussed. (orig./CB)

1998-11-11

239

As principais evoluções dos comportamentos alimentares: o caso da França / Main evolutions in human food practices: French example  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Durante a segunda metade do século XX, o desenvolvimento econômico e as evoluções dos modos de vida ocasionaram modificações importantes nos comportamentos alimentares. Tais evoluções foram particularmente analisadas para o caso da França. Confrontadas a um contexto de abundância, as populações adot [...] aram uma conduta alimentar mais energética. Tal conduta resume-se, sobretudo, em um alto consumo de produtos de origem animal. Porém, entre grupos de indivíduos ricos e após um período de saturação, a atração pelo consumo desmedido tal produto, tornou-se menos intensiva. Novas preocupações orientadas à saúde e às formas de mantê-la em bom estado foram despertadas. O aumento do número de mulheres salariadas e o desenvolvimento das atividades de lazer alteraram a gestão do tempo empregado à alimentação. Na busca pelo ganho de tempo, os consumidores passaram a procurar por alimentos prontos para serem consumidos e a realizarem suas refeições fora do domicílio. As culturas alimentares não evoluem tão rapidamente como as transformações ocorridas em todo o sistema de oferta alimentar, com isso afirma-se que a industrialização, a internacionalização e as inovações de toda a cadeia agroalimentar geram ansiedades no consumidor. Todas essas transformações e tendências, que são observadas em países ricos, podem ser percebidas quando os comportamentos alimentares de populações ricas de países em desenvolvimento são analisados. Abstract in english Important modifications in consumer food habits were caused by both economic development and evolutions in life style during the second part of the XX century. These evolutions were analyzed, in particular, in the case of France. Easy accessibility to food (abundance context) led the populations to [...] adopt high caloric food intakes, such conduct resulting, above all, in an elevated consumption of products of animal origin. However, after a period of saturation, the unlimited attraction to the consumption of such products became less intense amongst the richer, more privileged social groups. New, health oriented concerns, and ways to maintain good health became important. The rise in the number of women earning salaries and the development of leisure activities altered the management of time with respect to feeding. Aiming at gaining time, the consumers concentrated more on ready-to-eat foods and eating out of the home. However the food cultures failed to evolve as quickly as the transformations occurring in the food marketing system, and thus it can be affirmed that industrialization, internationalization and innovations throughout the whole agro-food chain led to consumer anxiety. All such transformations and tendencies observed in the rich countries can also be perceived in the food habits of rich populations in developing countries.

Jean Louis, Lambert; Mário Otávio, Batalha; Renato Luiz, Sproesser; Andréa Lago da, Silva; Thelma, Lucchese.

240

As principais evoluções dos comportamentos alimentares: o caso da França Main evolutions in human food practices: French example  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Durante a segunda metade do século XX, o desenvolvimento econômico e as evoluções dos modos de vida ocasionaram modificações importantes nos comportamentos alimentares. Tais evoluções foram particularmente analisadas para o caso da França. Confrontadas a um contexto de abundância, as populações adotaram uma conduta alimentar mais energética. Tal conduta resume-se, sobretudo, em um alto consumo de produtos de origem animal. Porém, entre grupos de indivíduos ricos e após um período de saturação, a atração pelo consumo desmedido tal produto, tornou-se menos intensiva. Novas preocupações orientadas à saúde e às formas de mantê-la em bom estado foram despertadas. O aumento do número de mulheres salariadas e o desenvolvimento das atividades de lazer alteraram a gestão do tempo empregado à alimentação. Na busca pelo ganho de tempo, os consumidores passaram a procurar por alimentos prontos para serem consumidos e a realizarem suas refeições fora do domicílio. As culturas alimentares não evoluem tão rapidamente como as transformações ocorridas em todo o sistema de oferta alimentar, com isso afirma-se que a industrialização, a internacionalização e as inovações de toda a cadeia agroalimentar geram ansiedades no consumidor. Todas essas transformações e tendências, que são observadas em países ricos, podem ser percebidas quando os comportamentos alimentares de populações ricas de países em desenvolvimento são analisados.Important modifications in consumer food habits were caused by both economic development and evolutions in life style during the second part of the XX century. These evolutions were analyzed, in particular, in the case of France. Easy accessibility to food (abundance context led the populations to adopt high caloric food intakes, such conduct resulting, above all, in an elevated consumption of products of animal origin. However, after a period of saturation, the unlimited attraction to the consumption of such products became less intense amongst the richer, more privileged social groups. New, health oriented concerns, and ways to maintain good health became important. The rise in the number of women earning salaries and the development of leisure activities altered the management of time with respect to feeding. Aiming at gaining time, the consumers concentrated more on ready-to-eat foods and eating out of the home. However the food cultures failed to evolve as quickly as the transformations occurring in the food marketing system, and thus it can be affirmed that industrialization, internationalization and innovations throughout the whole agro-food chain led to consumer anxiety. All such transformations and tendencies observed in the rich countries can also be perceived in the food habits of rich populations in developing countries.

Jean Louis Lambert

2005-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

Radionuclides and radiation protection. Practical guide for radioactive substance handling in laboratories of low and intermediate level radioactivity. Radionucleides et Radioprotection. Guide pratique pour la manipulation de substances radioactives dans les laboratoires de faible et moyenne activite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is a practical guide, intended for radionuclide users, working in Industry, Research and Nuclear Medicine, in low and intermediate laboratories. About a hundred data cards about the main radionuclides used in these laboratories are presented (nuclear characteristics, radiotoxicity, external and internal exposure, external contamination of skin, protections from beta, gamma and X radiations, detection and contamination limits and maximum handling activity): TRITIUM, CARBON 11, CARBON 14, FLUORINE 18, SODIUM 22, SODIUM 24, PHOSPHORUS 32, PHOSPHORUS 33, SULFUR 35, CHLORINE 36, POTASSIUM 40, POTASSIUM 42, POTASSIUM 43, CALCIUM 45, SCANDIUM 47, CALCIUM 47, SCANDIUM 46, CHROMIUM 51, MANGANESE 52, MANGANESE 54, MANGANESE 56, IRON 52, IRON 55, IRON 59, COBALT 56, COBALT 57, COBALT 58, COBALT 60, NICKEL 63, NICKEL 65, COPPER 64, COPPER 67, ZINC 65, GALLIUM 66, GALLIUM 67, GALLIUM 68, ARSENIC 76, SELENIUM 75, BROMINE 77, BROMINE 82, KRYPTON 85, RUBIDIUM 86, STRONTIUM 85, STRONTIUM 89, STRONTIUM 90, YTTRIUM 90, ZIRCONIUM 95, MOLYBDENUM 99, TECHNETIUM 99, RUTHENIUM 103, RUTHENIUM 106, RHODIUM 103, RHODIUM 106, SILVER 110, SILVER 111, CADMIUM 109, INDIUM 111, INDIUM 115, TIN 125, ANTIMONY 122, ANTIMONY 124, ANTIMONY 126, TELLURIUM 123, TELLURIUM 132, IODINE 123, IODINE 12,; IODINE 131, CESIUM 131, CESIUM 134, XENON 133, BARIUM 137, BARIUM 140, CESIUM 137, LANTHANUM 140, CERIUM 139, CERIUM 141, CERIUM 143, PRASEODYMIUM 144, PRASEODYMIUM 143, PROMETHIUM 147, SAMARIUM 153, EUROPIUM 152, EUROPIUM 154, EUROPIUM 156, ERBIUM 169, YTTERBIUM 169, RHENIUM 186, RHENIUM 188, IRIDIUM 192, GOLD 198, MERCURY 197, MERCURY 203, THALLIUM 201, THALLIUM 204, LEAD 210, RADIUM 226, URANIUM 235, URANIUM 238, PLUTONIUM 239, AMERICIUM 241, CURIUM 244, CALIFORNIUM 252.

1993-06-01

242

21 CFR 179.25 - General provisions for food irradiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

... true General provisions for food irradiation. 179.25 Section 179.25 Food...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING...179.25 General provisions for food irradiation. For the purposes of §...

2010-01-01

243

Food Safety in Home Kitchens: A Synthesis of the Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although foodborne illness is preventable, more than 56,000 people per year become ill in the U.S., creating high economic costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life for many. Experts agree that the home is the primary location where foodborne outbreaks occur; however, many consumers do not believe the home to be a risky place. Health care professionals need to be aware of consumers’ food safety attitudes and behaviors in the home and deliver tailored food safety interventions that are theory-based. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to synthesize/summarize the food safety literature by examining the following: consumers’ perceptions and attitudes towards food safety and their susceptibility to foodborne illness in the home, work, and school; common risky food safety practices and barriers to handling food safely; and the application of theory-based food safety interventions. Findings will help healthcare professionals become more aware of consumers’ food safety attitudes and behaviors and serve to inform future food safety interventions.

Virginia Quick

2013-09-01

244

TRANSPORT/HANDLING REQUESTS  

CERN Multimedia

A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

Groupe ST/HM

2002-01-01

245

Oficinas de boas práticas de fabricação: construindo estratégias para garantir a segurança alimentar Workshops for good manufacturing practices: building strategies for ensuring food security  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comercialização de alimentos tradicionais resgata a história e a cultura presentes nos alimentos. Os pescadores artesanais são os principais responsáveis pelo abastecimento do mercado nacional. Considerando-se a importância da adoção de procedimentos de Boas Práticas de Fabricação em toda cadeia produtiva, o presente trabalho visa a socializar uma experiência construtiva de uma oficina de Boas Práticas de Fabricação para pescadoras. Diante disso, realizou-se um levantamento de conceitos e atitudes voltadas para produção segura de alimentos, utilizando-se como instrumento entrevistas, além da observação de seus hábitos e atitudes. Os resultados evidenciam que estas pescadoras percebem as Boas Práticas de Fabricação como sinônimo de higiene e de poder comercializar o pescado sem reclamações; porém, as mesmas não têm noção dos procedimentos de Boas Práticas de Fabricação na sua atividade. O processo formativo se constitui como uma das estratégias de base para consolidação dos grupos, sendo as oficinas alternativas eficientes, de fácil execução e baixo custo.The marketing of traditional foods recalls the history and culture in feeding. The fishermen are primarily responsible for supplying the domestic market. Considering the importance of adopting procedures for Good Manufacturing Practices throughout the production chain, this paper aims to socialize a constructive experience of a Good Manufacturing Practices workshop for fishers. Therefore, we carried out a survey of concepts and attitudes towards safe food production, using interviews as an instrument, and are observed their habits and attitudes. The results show that these Good Manufacturing Practices perceive as synonymous with health and able to market the fish without complaint, but they are not aware of the procedures for Good Manufacturing Practices activities. The training process is constituted as one of the basic strategies for strengthening these groups, workshops efficient alternatives, easy implementation and low cost.

Tarcisio da Silva Costa

2012-05-01

246

Targeted interventions of ultra-poor women in rural rangpur, bangladesh: do they make a difference to appropriate cooking practices, food habits and sanitation?  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary This study aimed to assess whether teaching good cooking practices, food habits and sanitation to ultra-poor rural women in four rural communities of Rangpur district, Bangladesh, with a high density of extremely poor households, would improve the overall health of the community. The sample size was 200 respondents combined from the target and control areas. In the target area, twelve in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were undertaken for knowledge dissemination. Descriptive and mixed-model analyses were performed. The results show that washing hands with soap was 1.35 times more likely in the target than the control group (p<0.01). Further, after intervention, there was a significant improvement in hand-washing behaviour: before cutting vegetables, preparing food, feeding a child and eating, and after defecating and cleaning a baby (p<0.05). Also, the target group was more likely to moderately and briefly boil their vegetables and were 19% less likely to use maximum heat when cooking vegetables than the control group (p<0.01). Improved knowledge and skills training of ultra-poor women reduces the loss of nutrients during food preparation and increases their hygiene through hand-washing in every-day life. PMID:24355498

Yeasmin, Lubna; Akter, Shamima; Shahidul Islam, A M; Mizanur Rahman, Md; Akashi, Hidechika; Jesmin, Subrina

2014-07-01

247

Adaptation on a regional level. From national and supranational strategies to practical actions in the local and regional government and the economic life; Klimatilpassing paa regionalt nivaa. Fraa nasjonale og overnasjonale strategiar til praktisk handling i fylke, kommunar og naeringsliv  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presentation reviews various national strategies in the climate policies with emphasis on challenge approaches and greenhouse gas emissions. Measures in and implementations of the climatic handling and policies both regionally, nationally and supranationally are discussed (tk)

Flaete, Oddvar

2008-07-01

248

Keeping up appearances: perceptions of street food safety in urban Kumasi, Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

The growing street food sector in low-income countries offers easy access to inexpensive food as well as new job opportunities for urban residents. While this development is positive in many ways, it also presents new public health challenges for the urban population. Safe food hygiene is difficult to practice at street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been linked to street food. This study investigates local perceptions of food safety among street food vendors and their consumers in Kumasi, Ghana in order to identify the most important aspects to be included in future public health interventions concerning street food safety. This qualitative study includes data from a triangulation of various qualitative methods. Observations at several markets and street food vending sites in Kumasi were performed. Fourteen street food vendors were chosen for in-depth studies, and extensive participant observations and several interviews were carried out with case vendors. In addition, street interviews and Focus Group Discussions were carried out with street food customers. The study found that although vendors and consumers demonstrated basic knowledge of food safety, the criteria did not emphasize basic hygiene practices such as hand washing, cleaning of utensils, washing of raw vegetables, and quality of ingredients. Instead, four main food selection criteria could be identified and were related to (1) aesthetic appearance of food and food stand, (2) appearance of the food vendor, (3) interpersonal trust in the vendor, and (4) consumers often chose to prioritize price and accessibility of food--not putting much stress on food safety. Hence, consumers relied on risk avoidance strategies by assessing neatness, appearance, and trustworthiness of vendor. Vendors were also found to emphasize appearance while vending and to ignore core food safety practices while preparing food. These findings are discussed in this paper using social and anthropological theoretical concepts such as 'purity', 'contamination', 'hygiene puzzles', and 'impression behaviors' from Douglas, Van Der Geest, and Goffman. The findings indicate that educating vendors in safe food handling is evidently insufficient. Future public health interventions within the street food sector should give emphasis to the importance of appearance and neatness when designing communication strategies. Neglected aspects of food safety, such as good hand hygiene and cleanliness of kitchen facilities, should be emphasized. Local vendor networks can be an effective point of entry for future food hygiene promotion initiatives. PMID:18821020

Rheinländer, Thilde; Olsen, Mette; Bakang, John Abubakar; Takyi, Harriet; Konradsen, Flemming; Samuelsen, Helle

2008-11-01

249

Same island, different diet: Cultural evolution of food practice on Ã?land, Sweden, from the Mesolithic to the Roman Period  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Mesolithicâ??Neolithic transition in north-west Europe has been described as rapid and uniform, entailing a swift shift from the use of marine and other wild resources to domesticated terrestrial resources. Here, we approach the when, what and how of this transition on a regional level, using empirical data from Ã?land, an island in the Baltic Sea off the Swedish east coast, and also monitor changes that occurred after the shift. Radiocarbon dating and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of bones and teeth from 123 human individuals, along with faunal isotope data from 27 species, applying to nine sites on Ã?land and covering a time span from the Mesolithic to the Roman Period, demonstrate a great diversity in food practices, mainly governed by culture and independent of climatic changes. There was a marked dietary shift during the second half of the third millennium from a mixed marine diet to the use of exclusively terrestrial resources, interpreted as marking the large-scale introduction of farming. Contrary to previous claims, this took place at the end of the Neolithic and not at the onset. Our data also show that culturally induced dietary transitions occurred continuously throughout prehistory. The availability of high-resolution data on various levels, from intra-individual to inter-population, makes stable isotope analysis a powerful tool for studying the evolution of food practices.

Eriksson, Gunilla; Linderholm, Anna

2008-01-01

250

Remote Handling in ZEPHYR.  

Science.gov (United States)

A conceptual design of the ZEPHYR building is described. The listed radiation data show that remote handling devices will be necessary in most areas of the building. For difficult repair and maintenance works it is intended to transfer complete units from...

C. Andelfinger E. Lackner M. Ulrich G. Weber H. B. Schilling

1982-01-01

251

[ReFood video transcript.doc  

…Simpson, Commercial Director, PDM Group ReFood collects unused and unsold food and organic waste from a variety of institutions within a 50 mile radius of the site here in Doncaster. We recycle the food waste into renewable energy and organic fertilisers. The plant handles about 45,000 tonnes of food

252

A high intensity beam handling system at the KEK-PS new experimental hall  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We would like to summarize newly developed technology for handling high-intensity beams. This was practically employed in the beam-handling system of primary protons at the KEK-PS new experimental hall. (author)

1991-03-01

253

Critical control points of complementary food preparation and handling in eastern Nigeria / Points de contrôle critiques dans la préparation et la manipulation des aliments de complément dans l’est du Nigéria / Puntos críticos de control en la preparación y manipulación de alimentos complementarios en el este de Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Investigar la contaminación microbiana y los puntos críticos de control (PCC) en la preparación y manipulación de alimentos complementarios en 120 hogares del Estado de Imo (Nigeria). MÉTODOS: Se empleó el sistema de análisis de peligros en puntos críticos de control (HACCP) para investiga [...] r los procesos y procedimientos que favorecían la contaminación microbiana y el crecimiento y la supervivencia de los microbios, así como para identificar los puntos donde podían aplicarse controles a fin de prevenir, eliminar o reducir esos riesgos microbiológicos hasta niveles admisibles. Se sometieron a análisis microbiológico muestras de alimentos recogidas en diferentes etapas de la preparación y manipulación. RESULTADOS: Durante la cocción todos los alimentos alcanzaron temperaturas capaces de destruir las formas vegetativas de los patógenos de transmisión alimentaria. Sin embargo, el riesgo de contaminación aumentó al almacenar los alimentos a temperatura ambiente, cuando se usaron temperaturas insuficientemente altas para recalentar el alimento, y al añadir ingredientes - por ejemplo cangrejo seco molido o soja en polvo - contaminados en etapas tras las cuales no se aplicaba ningún tratamiento térmico. La compra en mercados de alimentos e ingredientes crudos, especialmente de akamu, contaminados también constituye un PCC. CONCLUSIÓN: Aunque un entorno insalubre acarrea muchos peligros para la alimentación de los niños, si se observan los principios básicos de inocuidad de los alimentos es posible asegurar la calidad higiénica de los alimentos preparados. Cuando la contaminación es el resultado de muchos factores, la identificación de los PCC resulta especialmente importante y puede facilitar la adecuada focalización de los recursos y de las actividades de prevención. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate microbial contamination and critical control points (CCPs) in the preparation and handling of complementary foods in 120 households in Imo state, Nigeria. METHODS: The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach was used to investigate processes and procedures t [...] hat contributed to microbial contamination, growth and survival, and to identify points where controls could be applied to prevent or eliminate these microbiological hazards or reduce them to acceptable levels. Food samples were collected and tested microbiologically at different stages of preparation and handling. FINDINGS: During cooking, all foods attained temperatures capable of destroying vegetative forms of food-borne pathogens. However, the risk of contamination increased by storage of food at ambient temperature, by using insufficiently high temperatures to reheat the food, and by adding contaminated ingredients such as dried ground crayfish and soybean powder at stages where no further heat treatment was applied. The purchasing of contaminated raw foodstuffs and ingredients, particularly raw akamu, from vendors in open markets is also a CCP. CONCLUSION: Although an unsafe environment poses many hazards for children’s food, the hygienic quality of prepared food can be assured if basic food safety principles are observed. When many factors contribute to food contamination, identification of CCPs becomes particularly important and can facilitate appropriate targeting of resources and prevention efforts.

John E., Ehiri; Marcel C., Azubuike; Collins N., Ubbaonu; Ebere C., Anyanwu; Kasimir M., Ibe; Michael O., Ogbonna.

254

Hygiene and Manufacturing Practices, Interagency Collaboration, and a Proposal for Improvement: A Case Study of Community Food Enterprise in Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports the current hygiene and manufacturing practices adopted in a women’s community enterprise (WCE for processing an herbal seasoning product in Sakon Nakhon Province, Thailand. A multidisciplinary team comprised researchers and inspectors from government agencies was formed to conduct interviews and evaluations by using a good manufacturing practice (GMP checklist. The results showed that the WCE did not pass the GMP standard. We formed an action plan to identify the requirements for GMP implementation. Non-compliance factors were delegated to each stakeholder for action and implementation. To achieve an action plan, the participation of every stakeholder is crucial.

Sudarin Rodmanee

2013-05-01

255

Cooper-Harper Experience Report for Spacecraft Handling Qualities Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

A synopsis of experience from the fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft communities in handling qualities development and the use of the Cooper-Harper pilot rating scale is presented as background for spacecraft handling qualities research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E). In addition, handling qualities experiences and lessons-learned from previous United States (US) spacecraft developments are reviewed. This report is intended to provide a central location for references, best practices, and lessons-learned to guide current and future spacecraft handling qualities RDT&E.

Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.; Frost, Chad R.; Alderete, Thomas S.

2009-01-01

256

Experimental remote handling systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental mobile work system and a manipulator support system have been constructed to study various problems in remote handling systems such as control, communication, viewing, man-machine interface, etc. The mobile work system consists of the mobile work station which includes an electrical manipulator, a TV camera, a sub-computer, a servo-control unit, batteries, etc. which are mounted on a crawler-type vehicle and the master control station which includes a control panel, a main computer, a master arm, a TV monitor, etc. The manipulator support system is aimed at supporting a manipulator in a reactor vessel and is a tripedal mechanism which has three independently extensible legs for horizontal support. Other experimental remote handling systems are also being constructed or planned

1984-01-01

257

HAW data handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the handling of the data of the HAW project at ECN. The HAW project plans the testwise emplacement of 30 vitrified highly radioactive canisters at the 800 m level of the Asse salt mine in the FRG for a testing period of approximately five years. The major objective of this project is the pilot testing and demonstration of safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in geological salt formations. (author). 11 figs.; 3 tabs

1991-01-01

258

Solid waste handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.)

1995-01-01

259

Bulk materials handling review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper provides details of some of the most important coal handling projects and technologies worldwide. It describes development by Aubema Crushing Technology GmbH, Bedeschi, Cimbria Moduflex, DBT, Dynamic Air Conveying Systems, E & F Services, InBulk Technologies, Nord-Sen Metal Industries Ltd., Pebco Inc, Primasonics International Ltd., R.J.S. Silo Clean (International) Ltd., Takraf GmbH, and The ACT Group. 17 photos.

NONE

2007-02-15

260

Filter handling system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A movable shield with integral viewing ports, lighting, and remote handling tools operates on a portable track and is used for transferring contaminated filter cartridges from sub-floor filter cells to a transfer cask that is carried on the shield. The system is designed for use in commercial nuclear power plants to reduce operator exposure during filter changes in keeping with US Nuclear Regulatory Commission as-low-as-reasonably-achievable requirements

1978-11-17

 
 
 
 
261

Alimentos funcionales: análisis de la recomendación en la práctica diaria / Functional foods: analysis of the recommendation in the daily practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción:La investigación científica, la innovación tecnológica y la tendencia hacia lo saludable revolucionaron la industria alimenticia con el nuevo concepto de "alimentos funcionales". Surgen en Japón en los años 80 y actualmente el mercado internacional se encuentra en pleno auge. Los Licenc [...] iados en Nutrición, como nexo entre ciencia, industria y consumidor, constituyen una pieza clave y cumplen un rol fundamental en educación y asesoramiento.El objetivodel estudio fue establecer el nivel de conocimiento que poseen los Licenciados en Nutrición en éste área sobre el concepto de "alimento funcional", fuentes de información y capacitación utilizadas, recomendación y uso adecuado. Material y métodos:se realizó un estudio cualitativo, descriptivo y transversal. Se entrevistaron 57 Licenciados de Ciudad de Buenos Aires y Conurbano Bonaerense. Resultados:La mitad de los entrevistados tenía información previa sobre los alimentos funcionales y, aunque el 63% desconocía su definición, los identificaban correctamente. Los más nombrados fueron los diseñados. Las fuentes bibliográficas y medios de información más nombrados fueron: "Internet", "libros", "congresos". El 91% consideró importante conocerlos y/o usarlos por el beneficio a la salud y utilidad. El resto no los consideró importantes por ausencia de necesidad, falta de información y desconfianza. El 72% recomendaría alimentos funcionales entre los que destacan lácteos (con probióticos, fitoesteroles y omega 3), cereales, frutas y hortalizas (semillas de lino, chía, salvado de avena). Entre las causas de no recomendación destacan precio y rótulos poco claros. Existe un marcado interés sobre capacitación y uso adecuado. Conclusiones:Los conocimientos que poseen los expertos en nutrición sobre alimentos funcionales son claves ya que deben interpretar y "traducir" la información científica y de la industria a la comunidad en general, como fuentes confiables e idóneas. Asegurar información adecuada a la población permitiría facilitar elecciones saludables y mejorar la calidad de vida. Abstract in english Introduction: Scientific research, technological innovation and the ongoing trend towards healthy things revolutionized the food industry with the new concept of "functional foods". They emerged in Japan in the 80´s and nowadays, the international market is booming. Dietitians, as the link between s [...] cience, industry and consumer, are a key piece and fulfill a fundamental role in education and advising. Theaimof this study was to establish the level of knowledge Dietitians have on the functional food concept, sources of information and training, recommendation and suitable use. Methods: A qualitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out. 57 Dietitians were interviewed in Buenos Aires City and Buenos Aires suburbs. Results:Half of the interviewed people had previous information on functional foods; although 63% did not know their definition, they identifed them correctly. The most named were the designed ones. The bibliography and means of information most named were: "Internet", "books", "congresses". 91% considered important to know them and/or use them due to health benefts and utility. The rest did not consider them important because of absence of necessity, lack of information and distrust. 72% would recommend functional dairies (with Probiotics, Phytosterol and Omega 3) and cereals, fruits and vegetables (fax seed, chia, oat bran). Among the causes of non-recommendation, Dietitians emphasize price and unclear labels. There is a strong interest in training and proper use. Conclusion: The knowledge of experts in nutrition on functional foods is key because they must interpret and "translate" the scientific and industrial information to the community as reliable and appropriate sources. The right information enables people to make healthy choices to improve their quality of life.

MV, Millone; GF, Olagnero; EC, Santana.

262

Research status of food irradiation in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research on food preservation by gamma irradiation in Malaysia encompasses various food items such as paddy, milled rice, pepper, fruits, tomatoes, groundnuts and frozen prawns. Studies were mainly aimed to determine disinfestation efficacy against insects and microorganisms and the storability in terms of effects on organoleptic properties of these postharvest raw agricultural produce. Researches in important commodities such as rice and pepper include intergrating irradiation treatments with improved handling (packaging materials) and in rice, comparison with conventional treatments was also evaluated. Generally, irradiation method is effective in suppressing insects, moulds and bacterial load in all commodities associated with the problems. In the case of stored rice, irradiation provided better protection than insecticides, phosphine gas (fumigant) and insect repellant, though reinfestation prevailed over extended storage period as in other methods. Storage life of perishable items were variably extended due to irradiation-induced biochemical changes. Practical application of irradiation is possible, foreseeably as complimentary treatment, considering the inadequacy of present preservation methods its applicability to a wide range of food commodities, and the possible cost-benefit under existing postharvest system. Actual utilization of irradiation can be economically justified if sited at the port of entry for preservations of various food and non-food items that enter/leave the country. (author)

1985-04-01

263

76 FR 82311 - Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Food and Drug Administration Report on Good...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Food and Drug Administration Report on Good Guidance Practices: Improving Efficiency...Food and Drug Administration Report on Good Guidance Practices: Improving Efficiency...prepare a report identifying FDA's ``best practices'' and making...

2011-12-30

264

Preference Handling for Artificial Intelligence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article explains the benefits of preferences for AI systems and draws a picture of current AI research on preference handling. It thus provides an introduction to the topics covered by this special issue on preference handling.

Goldsmith, Judy University Of Kentucky; Junker, Ulrich Ilog

2009-01-01

265

The Neckarwestheim fuel handling procedure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the procedure applied in Nuclear Power Plant Neckarwestheim II to prevent fuel handling errors at the planning and the operation stage. In this procedure an interlock logic protected against malfunction is used for the loading machine hindering this machine from handling operations which are not laid down in a 'handling sequence plan' established by an authorized person and checked by an empowered person according to the quality assurance requirements. The 'handling sequence plan' is generated with the computer code ALFA which uses appropriate interlock logic schemes to prevent fuel handling errors already at the planning stage. Fuel handling operations cannot be executed until the 'handling sequence plan' is installed in the control unit of the fuel handling machine by an authorized person. (author)

2001-08-01

266

Crud handling circuit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process for handling the problems of crud formation during the solvent extraction of wet-process phosphoric acid, e.g. for uranium and rare earth removal, is described. It involves clarification of the crud-solvent mixture, settling, water washing the residue and treatment of the crud with a caustic wash to remove and regenerate the solvent. Applicable to synergistic mixtures of dialkylphosphoric acids and trialkylphosphine oxides dissolved in inert diluents and more preferably to the reductive stripping technique. (U.K.)

1981-01-01

267

Thermodynamics of handles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author considers spin 1/2 free fermions on hyperelliptic Riemann surfaces including the infinite genus ones to study the configuration of the surfaces. The grand partition function of this system on the universal moduli space is defined using the branch point operator method. By taking a Coulomb gas analogy he observes a Kosterlitz-Thouless type phase transition on the universal moduli space which can be interpreted as the fusion and the condensation of handles. As a result, the notion of genus is lost. This is completely an analogy of a thermodynamic effect beyond the mathematical structure of the theory. Some remarks on the implication on string theories are also made.

HoSeong La (Boston Univ., MA (United States))

1991-02-01

268

Handling manipulated evidence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bayesian Networks have been advocated as useful tools to describe the relations of dependence/independence among random variables and relevant hypotheses in a crime case. Moreover, they have been applied to help the investigator structure the problem and evaluate the impact of the observed evidence, typically with respect to the hypothesis of guilt of a suspect. In this paper we describe a model to handle the possibility that one or more pieces of evidence have been manipulated in order to mislead the investigations. This method is based on causal inference models, although it is developed in a different, specific framework. PMID:17029861

Baio, Gianluca; Corradi, Fabio

2007-07-01

269

Food Poisoning  

Science.gov (United States)

... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have ...

270

Prácticas alimentarias y significados de alimentos light de familias de un sector urbano de Bogotá / Feeding Practices and meanings of light foods in families of a bogota urban sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar las prácticas alimentarias y significados de alimentos light de familias de un sector urbano de Bogotá. Para ello se realizó un estudio descriptivo con la participación de 110 personas pertenecientes a 40 familias. Se elaboró una encuesta con [...] preguntas abiertas y cerradas que indagaba por aspectos demográficos, procesos de socialización alimentaria, prácticas alimentarias y consumo de alimentos light. Los principales resultados muestran que la alimentación es un espacio para compartir en familia donde la mamá es el eje central de la socialización del consumo alimentario y de inicio a la comensalidad. El alimento light lo definen las familias simbólicamente como nutriente y lo relacionan con lo dietético y lo ligero, con el placer de no contraer deuda de gordura. El significado funcional como medicina por su asociación con una mejor digestión, el aumento de las defensas naturales del cuerpo humano y un mejor estado de salud que orientan y fomentan prácticas de alimentación saludable. Abstract in english Abstract This research aimed to identify dietary practices and the meanings of light foods in urban families in Bogota. This descriptive study was conducted with the participation of 110 persons belonging to 40 families. A survey was developed with open-ended questions which asked for demographic, s [...] ocialization processes regarding food, food practices and light food consumption. The main results show that food is a space to share with family where mom is the backbone of the socialization of home food consumption and commensality. Light foods are defined by families symbolically as a nutrient, and they relate with diets and keeping a light weight, thereby with the pleasure of not becoming fat. Light foods also have a functional significance as medicines, due to their association with better digestion, increasing the body's natural defenses and better health status to guide and encourage healthy eating practices.

Carolina, Garzón Medina; Idaly, Barreto.

271

Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. FINDINGS: Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined as the passage of > or = 3 stools per day by 110 vendors (94.0%, but none associated diarrhoea with bloody stools; only 21 (17.9% associated diarrhoea with germs. The surroundings of the vending sites were clean, but four sites (3.4% were classified as very dirty. The cooking of food well in advance of consumption, exposure of food to flies, and working with food at ground level and by hand were likely risk factors for contamination. Examinations were made of 511 menu items, classified as breakfast/snack foods, main dishes, soups and sauces, and cold dishes. Mesophilic bacteria were detected in 356 foods (69.7%: 28 contained Bacillus cereus (5.5%, 163 contained Staphylococcus aureus (31.9% and 172 contained Enterobacteriaceae (33.7%. The microbial quality of most of the foods was within the acceptable limits but samples of salads, macaroni, fufu, omo tuo and red pepper had unacceptable levels of contamination. Shigella sonnei and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were isolated from macaroni, rice, and tomato stew, and Salmonella arizonae from light soup. CONCLUSION: Street foods can be sources of enteropathogens. Vendors should therefore receive education in food hygiene. Special attention should be given to the causes of diarrhoea, the transmission of diarrhoeal pathogens, the handling of equipment and cooked food, hand-washing practices and environmental hygiene.

Mensah Patience

2002-01-01

272

Impact of traditional practices on food safety: a case of acute toxoplasmosis related to the consumption of contaminated raw pork sausage in Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of acute toxoplasmosis in an adolescent girl, almost certainly related to the consumption of raw sausage, is described. The girl suffered of fever and weakness and presented a swollen lymph node in the submandibular region. Serology analysis was positive for Toxoplasma gondii and excluded other infections. Further analysis, with avidity test and immunoblot, confirmed the acute toxoplasmosis. She reported that about a month before the appearance of the symptoms, she had eaten a piece of raw sausage while it was being prepared by her father. We analyzed sausage samples prepared from this same batch that had been frozen for later consumption, and they demonstrated evidence of T. gondii DNA when using a specific nested PCR assay. The sausage was prepared from the meat of a pig that had been backyard raised and slaughtered at home, a traditional practice in rural communities in many countries. The tasting of fresh prepared raw sausage is a common practice throughout Italy, and it could be a major cause for toxoplasmosis as suggested by the results of a questionnaire administered in the province of Palermo, Sicily. Contact with cats and, to a lesser extent, raw salad consumption were also referred to as presumptive causes for the symptomatic cases. Two additional cases of acute toxoplasmosis reported during questionnaire administration were alleged to have been caused by the consumption of fresh sausage made with the meat of a pig raised in the yard. Traditional practices in animal farming, and the processing of meat from animals raised in the backyard or meat from wild game animals, might have a big impact on food safety. PMID:24680078

Vitale, Maria; Tumino, Giovanni; Partanna, Samanta; La Chiusa, Stella; Mancuso, Giorgio; Giglia, Maria La; Presti, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo

2014-04-01

273

Plutonium safe handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The abstract, prepared on the basis of materials of the IAEA new leadership on the plutonium safe handling and its storage (the publication no. 9 in the Safety Reports Series), aimed at presenting internationally acknowledged criteria on the radiation danger evaluation and summarizing the experience in the safe management of great quantities of plutonium, accumulated in the nuclear states, is presented. The data on the weapon-class and civil plutonium, the degree of its danger, the measures for provision of its safety, including the data on accident radiation consequences with the fission number 1018, are presented. The recommendations, making it possible to eliminate the super- criticality danger, as well as ignition and explosion, to maintain the tightness of the facility, aimed at excluding the radioactive contamination and the possibility of internal irradiation, to provide for the plutonium security, physical protection and to reduce irradiation are given

2000-04-01

274

Reprocessing, plutonium handling, recycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Working Group 4 was set up as one of the eight Working Groups appointed by the Organizing Conference of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) in Washington on 19-21 October 1977. The Group held a series of meetings between December 1977 and October 1979 to study reprocessing, plutonium handling and the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors. The Group agreed that its primary objectives were: (a) To evaluate the need for reprocessing of thermal reactor fuel on an industrial scale and for recycling it in thermal and fast reactors, taking account of economic, environmental, energy resource, technological and institutional aspects and of the work of the other relevant Working Groups; (b) To identify means of minimizing the risk of proliferation in relation to the reprocessing and recycle of nuclear fuels. This publication is a final report of INFCE Working Group 4

1979-10-00

275

Handling and Transport Problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I. The handling and transport of radioactive waste involves the risk of irradiation and contamination. It is necessary to draw up special regulations governing the removal and transport of waste within the centres or from one centre to another, and to entrust transport to a group in charge of specialized teams. The organization, equipment and efficiency of such teams is then considered. II. Certain types of transport operation are particularly dangerous and require special transport units and fixed installations. This applies, in particular, to the disposal of highly radioactive liquids. A description is given of a composite transport unit, consisting of a towing vehicle, semi-trailer and tank holding 500 l of liquid with an activity of up to 1,000 c/l. The drawing-off of the liquid waste, routing of the transport unit and precautions to be taken are discussed. (author)

1959-11-16

276

Remote handling in ZEPHYR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A conceptual design of the ZEPHYR building is described. The listed radiation data show that remote handling devices will be necessary in most areas of the building. For difficult repair and maintenance works it is intended to transfer complete units from the experimental hall to a hot cell which provides better working conditions. The necessary crane systems and other transport means are summarized as well as suitable commercially available manipulators and observation devices. The conept of automatic devices for cutting and welding and other operations inside the vacuum vessel and the belonging position control system is sketched. Guidelines for the design of passive components are set up in order to facilitate remote operation. (orig.)

1982-01-01

277

Food for Thought: A Critical Overview of Current Practical and Conceptual Challenges in Trace Element Analysis in Natural Waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The practical and conceptual challenges faced by the analysis of trace elements present in natural waters are not merely, as is often thought, an endless race towards lower detection limits or to the development of techniques allowing the determination of any possible chemical species formed by all chemical elements. Rather, as discussed in this paper, they include the development of (i robust, cheap, and reliable methods that could also be used by laypeople (the experience gained in the development of field kits for As is discussed as an example from which similar developments for other elements may be drawn; (ii more environmentally-friendly methods (the current guiding criteria probably being too simplistic; and (iii methods making it possible to follow diel concentration changes and sharp concentration variations caused by the probable increase of heavy rainfall events. This paper also claims that neither the measurement of total concentrations (reliable methods are lacking for many elements of the periodic table of trace elements, as illustrated through the cases of Bi, Te, and Sb, nor chemical speciation analysis, are as mature as often thought. In particular, chemical speciation studies demand the development of a better, comprehensive conceptual framework. A trial is carried out to lay the basis of such a framework.

Montserrat Filella

2013-07-01

278

Sonic ingredients in television food programmes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main focus of this article is the use, significance, and role of sound in food and food travel programmes, exemplified by cooking programmes broadcast on Danish television – public service and commercial channels. The aim is to demonstrate how sound and music in this kind of programme plays an important part mediating both the cooking and the kitchen as wellordered and well organized. The use of music represents flow, but refers also to locality, globality and identity, and is often linked to the notions of nostalgia, tradition and authenticity, and contributes to an aesthetization of food programmes as it forms part of the performance and presentation of meals. The early kitchen programmes emphasized on information, as a kind of living cooking books as the idea was to enlighten the housewives and their practices by challenging their common sense choices introducing a more French inspired kitchen. In relation to such kitchen programmes todays cooking programmes seem to appeal to a broader sensibility as they present us to the possibilities of modern life, and the chefs’ multisensuorious performances underlines this – often induced by the sound. It is through the sounds in food programmes that an authentic experience of taste and smell is mediated to the viewer: both through the lustful, approving sounds made by presenters and through the cooks’ handling of raw materials. What looks delicious, also smells and tastes delicious – mediated through sound.

Charlotte Rørdam Larsen

2013-12-01

279

Unvented Drum Handling Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This drum-handling plan proposes a method to deal with unvented transuranic drums encountered during retrieval of drums. Finding unvented drums during retrieval activities was expected, as identified in the Transuranic (TRU) Phase I Retrieval Plan (HNF-4781). However, significant numbers of unvented drums were not expected until excavation of buried drums began. This plan represents accelerated planning for management of unvented drums. A plan is proposed that manages unvented drums differently based on three categories. The first category of drums is any that visually appear to be pressurized. These will be vented immediately, using either the Hanford Fire Department Hazardous Materials (Haz. Mat.) team, if such are encountered before the facilities' capabilities are established, or using internal capabilities, once established. To date, no drums have been retrieved that showed signs of pressurization. The second category consists of drums that contain a minimal amount of Pu isotopes. This minimal amount is typically less than 1 gram of Pu, but may be waste-stream dependent. Drums in this category are assayed to determine if they are low-level waste (LLW). LLW drums are typically disposed of without venting. Any unvented drums that assay as TRU will be staged for a future venting campaign, using appropriate safety precautions in their handling. The third category of drums is those for which records show larger amounts of Pu isotopes (typically greater than or equal to 1 gram of Pu). These are assumed to be TRU and are not assayed at this point, but are staged for a future venting campaign. Any of these drums that do not have a visible venting device will be staged awaiting venting, and will be managed under appropriate controls, including covering the drums to protect from direct solar exposure, minimizing of container movement, and placement of a barrier to restrict vehicle access. There are a number of equipment options available to perform the venting. The preferred option is to use equipment provided by a commercial vendor during the first few years of retrieval and venting. This is based on a number of reasons. First, retrieval funding is uncertain. Using a commercial vendor will allow DOE-RL to avoid the investment and maintenance costs if retrieval is not funded. Second, when funding can be identified, retrieval will likely be performed with minimal initial throughput and intermittent operations. Again, costs can be saved by using contracted vendor services only as needed, rather than supporting Hanford equipment full time. When full-scale retrieval begins and the number of drums requiring venting increases significantly, then use of the Hanford container venting system (CVS) should be considered.

MCDONALD, K.M.

2000-08-01

280

21 CFR 179.26 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of food.  

Science.gov (United States)

...PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources...radiation for the treatment of food. Ionizing radiation for treatment of foods may be safely used under the...sealed units of the radionuclides cobalt-60 or cesium-137....

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
281

Experience in handling abnormal and emergency situations in PHWR fuel handling system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On-power Fuel Handling System of PHWR reactor consists of complicated mechanisms operating in multiple media like heavy water, light water and oil. This remote controlled system is the lifeline of PHWR reactor. The complexity of on-power fuel handling system and the need to continuously improve its performance presents challenges at every step. A large number of innovations, modifications and improvements in the system have been made by the stations, design group and R and D units to meet the challenges of higher refueling rate. Innovations in operating/maintenance practices and the methods to safely retrieve from abnormal/emergency situations in shortest possible time had to be specifically devised from the embryonic stage. A lot of efforts were required to be put in by various agencies to develop and formalise the operating procedures for handling various emergency conditions. The implementation of these procedures required the development of special tools/fixtures which had to be tested and tried out in mock-ups before their actual use. The retrieval from emergency situations like handling of damaged bundles in MAPS in early eighties, bundles dropped in shuttle station in NAPS in 1998 and failure of fuel string to move due to damaged bundles at Kaiga in 2003 are some of the most difficult situations handled over the years.This paper focuses on the challenges faced during handling of Safety-related Events in PHWR Fuel Handling System. It also discusses development of procedures and tooling to retrieve from abnormal situations and various innovations and design improvements to avoid the recurrence of the events. (author)

2006-11-13

282

TFTR tritium handling concepts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, to be located on the Princeton Forrestal Campus, is expected to operate with 1 to 2.5 MA tritium--deuterium plasmas, with the pulses involving injection of 50 to 150 Ci (5 to 16 mg) of tritium. Attainment of fusion conditions is based on generation of an approximately 1 keV tritium plasma by ohmic heating and conversion to a moderately hot tritium--deuterium ion plasma by injection of a ''preheating'' deuterium neutral beam (40 to 80 keV), followed by injection of a ''reacting'' beam of high energy neutral deuterium (120 to 150 keV). Additionally, compressions accompany the beam injections. Environmental, safety and cost considerations led to the decision to limit the amount of tritium gas on-site to that required for an experiment, maintaining all other tritium in ''solidified'' form. The form of the tritium supply is as uranium tritide, while the spent tritium and other hydrogen isotopes are getter-trapped by zirconium--aluminum alloy. The issues treated include: (1) design concepts for the tritium generator and its purification, dispensing, replenishment, containment, and containment--cleanup systems; (2) features of the spent plasma trapping system, particularly the regenerable absorption cartridges, their integration into the vacuum system, and the handling of non-getterables; (3) tritium permeation through the equipment and the anticipated releases to the environment; (4) overview of the tritium related ventilation systems; and (5) design bases for the facility's tritium clean-up systems

1976-03-01

283

Remote handling and accelerators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The high-current levels of contemporary and proposed accelerator facilities induce radiation levels into components, requiring consideration be given to maintenance techniques that reduce personnel exposure. Typical components involved include beamstops, targets, collimators, windows, and instrumentation that intercepts the direct beam. Also included are beam extraction, injection, splitting, and kicking regions, as well as purposeful spill areas where beam tails are trimmed and neutral particles are deposited. Scattered beam and secondary particles activate components all along a beamline such as vacuum pipes, magnets, and shielding. Maintenance techniques vary from hands-on to TV-viewed operation using state-of-the-art servomanipulators. Bottom- or side-entry casks are used with thimble-type target and diagnostic assemblies. Long-handled tools are operated from behind shadow shields. Swinging shield doors, unstacking block, and horizontally rolling shield roofs are all used to provide access. Common to all techniques is the need to make operations simple and to provide a means of seeing and reaching the area

1983-03-21

284

Evaluative Practices in the Culinary Field : A Case of Restaurant Rankings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper is concerned with evaluative practices within the culinary field. The focus is on the evaluative practices performed by two restaurant ranking systems, respectively the Michelin Red Guide system handled by the French tire manufacturer Michelin and the San Pellegrino â??Worldâ??s 50 Best Restaurantâ?? list organized by the English based Restaurant Magazine. Both ranking systems evaluate and rate restaurants (judging their food, service, physical setting and so forth) but in different ways through different practices and means, and with somewhat different results.

Christensen, Bo; Strandgaard, Jesper

2011-01-01

285

Composite insulator handling guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With a view to preventing failures this documents serves to describe how critical damage can occur in the field and the measures that should be taken to avoid such damage. Typical problems are illustrated to show the defects that can be introduced by inappropriate treatment and construction practices, to indicate the possible long term effects of such defects and to assist in their identification to facilitate the rigorous inspection of composite insulators prior to line commissioning. (author)

NONE

2001-07-01

286

Procedure of safe handling with cytostatic drugs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Working group for safe handling with cytostatic drugs has been formed by the Ministry of Health, and it consists of professionals from IORS, Federal Bureau of Weights and Measures, Industrial Medicine, Institute of Hematology, Military Medical Academy, and Crown Agents. The aim of this working group is to prepare procedures for safe handling with cytostatic drugs, as well as program for educational seminar for nurses, medical technicians, and pharmaceutical technicians. The procedures will serve as a guide of good practice of oncology health care, and will refer to all actions that health care professionals carry out from the moment of drugs arrival to the pharmacy to the moment of their application. In the first segment of this procedure, general rules are given for working with cytotoxic agents, control for risky exposures, safe system of work, control of working environment, monitoring of the employees' health condition adequate protection in the working environment, protective equipment of the employees (gloves, mask, cap, eyeglasses, shoe covers, coats and chambers for vertical laminary air stream. Storing of cytostatics, procedure in case of accident, and waste handling and removal are also described in this segment. Fifty-three standard operational procedures are described in detail in the second segment. Training scheme for preparation of chemotherapy is given in the third segment - education related to various fields and practical part, which would be carried out through workshops, and at the end of the course participants would pass a test and obtain certificate. After the procedures for safe handling with cytostatics are legally regulated employer will have to provide minimum of protective equipment, special rooms for the drugs dissolving, chambers with laminar airflow, 6 hours working time, rotation of the staff working with drugs dissolving in intervals of every five years, higher efficiency, better health control. In conclusion this specific field of work requires great psychological and physical efforts, and know-how. When taking care of ourselves, we are taking care of the others, as well.

Kodžo Dragan

2003-01-01

287

Using irradiation for preservation of foods and agricultural commodities in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Agricultural Policy was formulated to draw the guideline for the development of Malaysian agriculture until 2000. The most important aspect of the policy is to encourage the agricultural sector to increase productivity in order to attain self-sufficiency and to promote export. To increase agricultural and food production, it is necessary to upgrade the quality and to reduce postharvest loss. The food preservation during handling, processing and storage is important, and the current preservation methods emphasize the improvement in handling, drying, chilling, freezing and the use of chemicals. The technology of food irradiation was introduced only at the research level in Malaysia in 1974. Presently, UTN (Unit Tenaga Nuklear) has a semi-commercial Co-60 facility suitable for the research and development of food irradiation. The commercial use of irradiation and the marketing of treated agricultural and food products are still prohibited. The objective of this paper is to review briefly the possibility of the practical application of food irradiation in Malaysia. The irradiation of rice, black and white pepper, frozen shrimps, cocoa, fruits and vegetables is discussed. (K.I.)

1990-11-01

288

Vegan Food Guide  

Science.gov (United States)

... and practical — all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing, or any other ... is avoided. Vegans generally oppose the violence and cruelty involved in the meat, dairy, cosmetics, clothing, and ...

289

Contamination from handling cytotoxic agents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contamination of personnel who handle cytotoxics has been proven via traces in urine. Despite safety standards for handling cytotoxics, operators can still be exposed to them, mainly through skin contact. Identification of sources of contamination is recommended to improve working procedures.

Jean François Latour

2010-01-01

290

Safety measuring for sodium handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the report for the safety measures of sodium handling. These contents are prerequisites for the development of sodium technology and thus the workers participate in sodium handling and experiments have to know them perfectly. As an appendix, the relating parts of the laws are presented

2001-01-01

291

Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the ''Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study'' is to develop proposed design requirements for the repository Waste Handling System in sufficient detail to allow the surface facility design to proceed to the License Application effort if the proposed requirements are approved by DOE. Proposed requirements were developed to further refine waste handling facility performance characteristics and design constraints with an emphasis on supporting modular construction, minimizing fuel inventory, and optimizing facility maintainability and dry handling operations. To meet this objective, this study attempts to provide an alternative design to the Site Recommendation design that is flexible, simple, reliable, and can be constructed in phases. The design concept will be input to the ''Modular Design/Construction and Operation Options Report'', which will address the overall program objectives and direction, including options and issues associated with transportation, the subsurface facility, and Total System Life Cycle Cost. This study (herein) is limited to the Waste Handling System and associated fuel staging system

2000-01-01

292

The impact of food regulation on the food supply chain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, 'a hazard' is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer

2006-04-03

293

A working procedure for identifying emerging food safety issues at an early stage: Implications for European and international risk management practices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a need for early identification of emerging food safety issues in order to prevent them from developing into health risks. In this paper, various existing methods and procedures which can be used for early identification of safety issues are reviewed, including the monitoring of the occurrence of specific hazards within the food supply, or the incidences of food-borne diseases, as well as the combination of these data with other data or with expert opinions. Some methods, including h...

Marvin, H. J. P.; Kleter, G. A.; Frewer, L. J.; Cope, S. F.; Wentholt, M. T. A.; Rowe, G.

2009-01-01

294

Naturally Occurring Food Toxins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States.

George A. Burdock

2010-09-01

295

FOOD SAFETY AT HOME  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consumers nowadays play a critical role in the prevention of food poisoning. For this reason, the present research was planned to collect data on how aware about food safety consumers are. A questionnaire considering food labelling, hygiene, transport, storage, preparation and kitchen hygiene was designed and submitted to consumers (health district ASL TO5. After questionnaire analysis, a training course was prepared to address specific problems. Kitchens of consentient participants were visited and data on hygiene (check-lists, samples from equipment and fridge surfaces, and fridge temperatures were collected. Questionnaires showed a lack of knowledge on correct food storage, handling, and kitchen hygiene. Households visits showed fridge temperatures above 4°C, highly contaminated washing sponges, and the presence of Listeria spp. in a fridge of a high risk consumer. These results evidence the role of consumer training in reducing foodborne diseases incidence.

B. Griglio

2011-04-01

296

Sophisticated fuel handling system evolved  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The control systems at Sellafield fuel handling plant are described. The requirements called for built-in diagnostic features as well as the ability to handle a large sequencing application. Speed was also important; responses better than 50ms were required. The control systems are used to automate operations within each of the three main process caves - two Magnox fuel decanners and an advanced gas-cooled reactor fuel dismantler. The fuel route within the fuel handling plant is illustrated and described. ASPIC (Automated Sequence Package for Industrial Control) which was developed as a controller for the plant processes is described. (U.K.)

1988-01-01

297

Sophisticated fuel handling system evolved  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The control systems at Sellafield fuel handling plant are described. The requirements called for built-in diagnostic features as well as the ability to handle a large sequencing application. Speed was also important; responses better than 50ms were required. The control systems are used to automate operations within each of the three main process caves - two Magnox fuel decanners and an advanced gas-cooled reactor fuel dismantler. The fuel route within the fuel handling plant is illustrated and described. ASPIC (Automated Sequence Package for Industrial Control) which was developed as a controller for the plant processes is described. (U.K.).

Ross, D.A.

1988-03-01

298

Safe Handling of Hazardous Drugs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recommendations for the safe handling of hazardous drugs have been available for more than twenty years. Evidence for continued risk of occupational exposure is abundant; however, nurses' use of the recommended precautions is not universal. This may be related to a lack of information or to a lack of serious concern for the potential hazards. This article includes a discussion of current issues related to handling hazardous drugs in the workplace and a review of the history of safe handling guidelines, current recommendations, and barriers to implementing guidelines in health care settings.

Polovich, M

2004-09-01

299

Pet Food  

Science.gov (United States)

... Title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Pet Food The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates that ... 113 (21 CFR 113). FDA Regulation of Pet Food There is no requirement that pet food products ...

300

Food Groups  

Science.gov (United States)

Choose a Food Group MyPlate illustrates the five food groups that are the building blocks for a healthy diet using a ... half your grains whole. >> See Grains Group Protein Foods Go lean with protein. >> See Protein Foods Group ...

 
 
 
 
301

Child feeding practices and household food insecurity among low-income mothers in Buenos Aires, Argentina Práticas de alimentação infantil e insegurança alimentar doméstica entre mães de baixa renda em Buenos Aires, Argentina  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This qualitative study of low-income mothers in Buenos Aires, Argentina, examines the influence of socio-economic conditions, organizational structures, family relationships, and food insecurity on child feeding practices and weight status. Thirty-eight mothers of preschool children living in urban Buenos Aires participated in four focus group discussions. The results indicated that many mothers were aware that obesity may be detrimental to the child's health, but most of them are unclear abo...

Ana Cristina Lindsay; Mabel Ferarro; Alejandra Franchello; Raul de La Barrera; Marcia Maria Tavares Machado; Martha Erin Pfeiffer; Karen Eileen Peterson

2012-01-01

302

A revolution in food preservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief consumer guide to food irradiation is presented. Aspects covered include some of the advantages of food irradiation compared to other methods of food preservation, the type of radiation used, the mechanism of action, some practical applications, safety and future benefits. (UK)

1986-01-01

303

Safe handling of radiation sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter discussed the subjects related to the safe handling of radiation sources: type of radiation sources, method of use: transport within premises, transport outside premises; Disposal of Gamma Sources

2004-01-01

304

Handling device for stud tensioner  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The handling device for a stud tensioner machine used by example for fixing the reactor vessel head has an extension module, joining elements and means for displacement in vertical and horizontal axis

1988-09-27

305

Tritium handling in vacuum systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

Gill, J.T. [Monsanto Research Corp., Miamisburg, OH (United States). Mound Facility; Coffin, D.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1986-10-01

306

Electrical equipment for coal handling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After listing various items that have to be borne in mind when planning electrical equipment for coal handling systems, the authors discuss the following topics: the principal mechanical and electrical equipment used in coal handling; electrical facilities for the provision of power: the composition of coal conveying systems and the electrical equipment used for their control; the configuration of control devices; the configuration and basic specifications of process controllers; and systems control functions. The outlook for the future is also mentioned. 4 references.

Fujiwara, M.; Mori, M.

1984-01-01

307

ZOOPLANKTON AS A FOOD SOURCE  

Science.gov (United States)

While thousands of zooplankton species could potentially serve as food for larval stages of cultured fish and crustaceans, the aquaculturists practical choice of a reproducible live food ratio is quite limited. In practice, rotifers and brine shrimp are the most commonly used zoo...

308

Reproductive handle of the herd of cattle of double purpose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of the environmental factors is analyzed, in the reproductive efficiency of herd cattle of double purpose. The reproductive behavior begins with the gestation of the heifers. Under the conditions of the Colombian tropic these they reach the weight required for the reproduction to an age but late that in the temperate areas. Once the first childbirth, the cow takes place it enters in exhaustion that makes that this animal is the but difficult to reproduce after the childbirth, that which demands special cares of handling and feeding. The interval among the childbirth to evaluate the reproductive efficiency. Environmental factors that influence significantly. The use of the practice simple of handling, health, selection and feeding produces significant increments in the fertility of the herd of cattle of double purpose. One practices of effective handling in the improvement of the reproductive behavior of the cows of double purpose it is the restricted nursing

1988-01-01

309

Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).  

Science.gov (United States)

Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

Pelletier, Jean-Francois

1980-01-01

310

Trade in irradiated foods: An approach to retailers and consumers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Government and industry in Canada are moving quickly to provide the legislation, regulations and practical protocol necessary for the commercialization of food irradiation. Marketing, public relations and media expertise will be needed to successfully introduce this new processing choice to retailers and consumers. Consumer research to date including studies conducted in the Netherlands, United States, South Africa and Canada will be explored for signposts to successful approaches to the introduction of irradiated foods to retailers and consumers. Research has indicated that the terms used to describe irradiation and information designed to reduce consumer fears will be important marketing tools. Marketers will be challenged to promote old foods which look the same to consumers, in a new light. Simple like or dislike or intention to buy surveys will not be effective tools. Consumer fears must be identified and effectively handled to support a receptive climate for irradiated food products. A cooperative government, industry, professional organization, consumer organization and retailer effort will be necessary for a successful introduction of irradiated foods into the marketplace. (author). 20 refs

1988-03-01

311

Remote handling systems for nuclear engineering applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To protect the personnel handling radioactive substances in nuclear installations, especially shielding and suitable equipment, machines or systems for remote handling are used nowadays. The state of the art reached in remote handling in the Federal Republic of Germany is described on the basis of remote handling machines for nuclear power plants, remote handling systems in waste management plants and nuclear fusion installations, and of universal remote handling equipment. (orig.)

1990-01-01

312

Science and Our Food Supply  

Science.gov (United States)

Each year millions of people in the United States are known to become ill due to food poisoning (food-borne illness) How ill can you become? Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cramps, and fever are just some of the symptoms that a person can have from food poisoning. Not very pleasant is it? Health authorities have a saying: "First you're afraid that you're going to die, then you're afraid your not going to die." In 1999 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that there were over 76 million cases of gastrointestinal disease including 325,000 hospitalizations and over 5,000 deaths that were directly attributable to food poisoning. The main concern in food-service sanitation is the prevention of illness caused by contaminated food. Bacteria, parasitic worms, and chemicals can all cause food-borne illness. Unfortunately, most food-borne illness is not recognized as such and is therefore seldom reported. By now you are probably wondering why someone would prepare or eat poisoned food? Doesn't poisoned food taste, look, or smell bad? No! If it did, people wouldn't eat it. Would you eat a piece of pie that smelled bad? Would you cook a piece of green chicken? Of course not! You may be asking yourself hows food to becomes poisoned. According to experts at the CDC, the leading factors causing food-borne illness are: � Improper cooling, such as leaving cooked foods at room temperature. � Lapse of a day or more between preparing and serving. � Holding hot foods at the wrong temperature. � Improper and inadequate refrigeration of foods. � Infected persons touching and handling food. � Improper reheating of previously cooked foods. � Improper cleaning of kitchen equipment such as knives, pots, and cutting boards.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

313

The handling of radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The symposium was attended by 204 participants from 39 countries and 5 international organizations. Forty-two papers were presented in 8 sessions. The purpose of the meeting was to foster an exchange of experiences gained in establishing and exercising plans for mitigating the effects of radiation accidents and in the handling of actual accident situations. Only a small number of accidents were reported at the symposium, and this reflects the very high standards of safety that has been achieved by the nuclear industry. No accidents of radiological significance were reported to have occurred at commercial nuclear power plants. Of the accidents reported, industrial radiography continues to be the area in which most of the radiation accidents occur. The experience gained in the reported accident situations served to confirm the crucial importance of the prompt availability of medical and radiological services, particularly in the case of uptake of radioactive material, and emphasized the importance of detailed investigation into the causes of the accident in order to improve preventative measures. One of the principal themes of the symposium involved emergency procedures related to nuclear power plant accidents, and several papers defining the scope, progression and consequences of design base accidents for both thermal and fast reactor systems were presented. These were complemented by papers defining the resultant protection requirements that should be satisfied in the establishment of plans designed to mitigate the effects of the postulated accident situations. Several papers were presented describing existing emergency organizational arrangements relating both to specific nuclear power plants and to comprehensive national schemes, and a particularly informative session was devoted to the topic of training of personnel in the practical conduct of emergency arrangements. The general feeling of the participants was one of studied confidence in the competence and capability of the nuclear power industry to cope adequately in the unlikely event of a serious radiation accident occurring at a nuclear power plant; however, the active interest shown in the continued refinement of emergency procedures demonstrated the absence of complacency. (author)

1977-06-01

314

Ambientalização e politização do consumo nas práticas de compra de orgânicos / Sensibilisation à l'environnement et politisation de la consommation pour l'achat des produits bios / Enviromentalization and politicization of consumption in organic food purchasing practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo é refletir sobre processos de ambientalização e politização do consumo e do cotidiano, enfatizando o multifacetado campo da alimentação. O artigo se volta para os diferentes usos das práticas de compra de alimentos orgânicos, entendendo os consumidores como atores sociais. A problemática [...] central encontra-se nas seguintes questões: as práticas de compra de alimentos orgânicos são percebidas como forma de ação política? De que forma os consumidores lidam com os discursos e cobranças de responsabilidades pela crise ambiental? Com uma etnografia das práticas de compra de alimentos orgânicos e entrevistas em profundidade, o artigo identifica um aumento da autonomia política individual no encontro das esferas pública e privada no campo do consumo. A compra de orgânicos é percebida como um repertório de ação política romântico-individualista, sendo que essas práticas alimentam pontes com a cidadania, abrindo possibilidades para novos engajamentos coletivos. Abstract in english This article's main objective is to reflect upon the processes of environmentalization and politicization of consumption in daily life, emphasizing the multisided field of alimentation. The text focuses on different forms of organic food purchasing practices, by considering the consumers as social a [...] ctors. The main research questions are the following: Are the organic food purchasing practices perceived as a form of political action? How do consumers deal with the environmental discourse and the demand of responsibility regarding the environmental crisis? Through an ethnographic study of the organic food purchasing practices, the article reveals an increasing individual autonomy concerning political choices in the field of consumption, when public and private spheres meet. Organic food purchasing is perceived as part of a repertoire of individualistic romantic political actions, building bridges to citizenship and creating possibilities for new collective actions.

Marcelo, Castañeda.

315

Tool handling robot system; Tool handling robot system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As an example of the delivery of industrial use automation equipment by Meidensha Corp., the paper introduced a tool handling robot system. The system is a tool handling robot of case processing use FMS (flexible manufacturing system). This is a system which exchanges tool automatically according to the From To order from the managing computer using the ceiling running robot between five horizontal type machining centers and more than 800 collective tool stockers. The structure of the system is as follows: tool handling robot (MHR-400), robot controller (meirocs-F), tool hand, robot running unit, tool stocker (for 844 tools), five life tool exchange trucks, tool truck lifting unit, system control panel. (NEDO)

NONE

1999-03-10

316

Asthma, guides for diagnostic and handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper defines the asthma, includes topics as diagnostic, handling of the asthma, special situations as asthma and pregnancy, handling of the asthmatic patient's perioperatory and occupational asthma

1999-11-01

317

Compressed Air System Renovation Project Improves Production at a Food Processing Facility: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the food processing facility project

2001-01-01

318

Food allergy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

Youngshin Han

2012-05-01

319

Specific requirements for public exposure in medical practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cause of radiation sources, by exposure to the public, has excluded all those medical and occupational exposures and exposure to natural background radiation normal, in the area. The main sources of public exposure that have found are: practices, discharges or spills, food or merchandise contaminated, chronic exposure scenarios (radon, NORM), waste management (predisposal management, storage, disposal). Public exposure can occur in two forms. One has been by procedure: transport, storage, handling of sources, radioactive waste, radioactive patient. The second has been per incident: transportation accidents, loss of sources, spread of contamination, unchecked pollution. (author)

2012-03-26

320

Autoconsumo e segurança alimentar: a agricultura familiar a partir dos saberes e práticas da alimentação / Self-consumption and food security: family agriculture based on eating knowledge and practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Identificar e analisar as classificações e representações da alimentação, bem como as práticas de produção e consumo de alimentos entre agricultores e agricultoras da região do Vale do Taquari (Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil). MÉTODOS: Os dados e as informações foram obtidos a partir de entrevi [...] stas e observação participante, orientadas por um esquema metodológico qualitativo. Participaram da pesquisa, realizada em 2004 e 2005, 48 famílias rurais, de três diferentes localidades. Os recursos teórico-analíticos utilizados foram os da antropologia da alimentação e da abordagem da reciprocidade. RESULTADOS: Entre as famílias estudadas é significativa a produção de alimentos para autoconsumo, sendo as mulheres as principais responsáveis por sua obtenção. As práticas alimentares, embora tenham sofrido modificações, em função da modernização da agricultura e da incorporação de produtos industrializados, guardam especificidades locais e estão relacionadas a diversas expressões de sociabilidade, como a circulação de alimentos e a realização de festas comunitárias, que, impregnadas por simbolismos, atualizam um modo de vida e têm garantido segurança alimentar. CONCLUSÃO: As práticas de produção para autoconsumo das famílias estudadas estão associadas à sua segurança alimentar e, desse modo, às suas estratégias de reprodução social. A circulação de alimentos e as escolhas alimentares expressam relações de sociabilidade e de identidade nas comunidades rurais estudadas. Aspectos socioculturais e distintos níveis de relações sociais apresentam-se em transformação, podendo colocar em risco a segurança alimentar das famílias. Tais processos inspiram a realização novos estudos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify and to analyze eating classifications and representations as well the food production and consumption practices among farmers from Vale do Taquari (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). METHODS: The data and information were collected from interviews and participatory observation, orien [...] ted by qualitative methods. The research involved 48 rural families from three different localities in 2004 and 2005. The theoretical and analytical resources were provided by food anthropology and reciprocity approach. RESULTS: The production of food for self-consumption among the studied families is significant and the main producers are women. Food practices have changed as a result of agricultural modernization and increased use of industrialized products, yet they maintain local specificity and are related to several expressions of sociability such as food exchanges and community parties. These are permeated by symbolisms that update the way of living and assure food security. CONCLUSION: The production practices for autoconsumption of the studied families are associated with food security and, in this way, to social reproduction strategies. Food exchanges and food choices express relationships of sociability and identity in the studied rural communities. Social and cultural aspects and different levels of social relationships are undergoing a transformation which may jeopardize the food security of the families. Such processes are inspiring new studies.

Renata, Menasche; Flávia Charão, Marques; Cândida, Zanetti.

 
 
 
 
321

Guidelines for safe handling, use and disposal of nanoparticles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Health, safety and environmental (HSE) risks of a technology is an inseparable part of it which threatens all exposed employees. It has been proved for many years that exposure to particles, in an occupational setting, could be linked with the onset of lung diseases, such as pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and mesotelioma and lung cancer. Nanoparticles, due to their unique characteristics including; small size, shape, high surface area, charge, chemical properties, solubility, and degree of agglomeration can cross cell boundaries or pass directly from the lungs into the blood stream and ultimately reach to all of the organs in the body. This is the reason why they may pose higher risk than the same mass and material of larger particles. Moreover, biodegradation of nanoparticles by some kinds of fungi (like wood decay fungi) may result in metabolites which may be toxic to microorganisms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bacteria and living cells can take up nanoparticles, providing the basis for potential bioaccumulation in the food chain. Considering Iran's prominent position in nanotechnologies and fast-growing in research and industrial activities, controlling nanoparticles related HSE risks should be highly considered. In general, there are three main approaches to risk and exposure control: engineering techniques, administrative means and personal protective equipments. These complementary approaches especially engineering techniques should be considered starting with the design stage of an industrial process. Administrative means of control constitute an additional approach when the other methods have not achieved the expected control levels. Administrative means of control must never substitute for engineering techniques, which always be performed according to standard practices. In some situations, due to insufficiently advanced technology and prohibitive costs, engineering measerus can not be implemended. In these situations, performing administrative means of control constitute other ways of limiaiting the occupational exposure risks. Accordingly, to minimize the risks from know and unknown health, safety and invironment hazards in research and occupational setting of the country, guideline for safe handling, use and disposal of manopractical has provided.

2009-05-01

322

Handling device, especially for handling nuclear power plant components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The handling device has a base moving on a horizontal track, a carriage moving on the base in a horizontal direction perpendicular to the track, a vertical hood on the carriage and a winch carried by the upper end of the hood. On the lower end of the hood different devices can be coupled

1987-05-11

323

Handle additions producing essential surfaces  

CERN Document Server

We construct a small, hyperbolic 3-manifold $M$ such that, for any integer $g\\geq 2$, there are infinitely many separating slopes $r$ in $\\partial M$ so that $M(r)$, the 3-manifold obtained by attaching a 2-handle to $M$ along $r$, is hyperbolic and contains an essential separating closed surface of genus $g$. The result contrasts sharply with those known finiteness results on Dehn filling, and it also contrasts sharply with the known finiteness result on handle addition for the cases $g=0,1$. Our 3-manifold $M$ is the complement of a hyperbolic, small knot in a handlebody of genus 3.

Qiu, R; Qiu, Ruifeng; Wang, Shicheng

2006-01-01

324

Blowout preventer and guideline handling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apparatus and method are provided for handling guidelines for an ocean drilling platform rig. A cart for guiding the lines rides on a track and can be moved away from a drill well when a blowout preventer is moved into place over the well on its own cart. When the load of the blowout preventer is transferred to a drilling string, the blowout preventer support cart is moved away from the drill well and the guideline handling cart is positioned over the well. The guidelines are then attached to a guideline frame on the blowout preventer.

Bolding, V.E.

1983-01-11

325

Hazard analysis and critical control point to irradiated food in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food borne diseases, in particular gastro-intestinal infections, represent a very large group of pathologies with a strong negative impact on the health of the population because of their widespread nature. Little consideration is given to such conditions due to the fact that their symptoms are often moderate and self-limiting. This has led to a general underestimation of their importance, and consequently to incorrect practices during the preparation and preservation of food, resulting in the frequent occurrence of outbreaks involving groups of varying numbers of consumers. Despite substantial efforts in the avoidance of contamination, an upward trend in the number of outbreaks of food borne illnesses caused by non-spore forming pathogenic bacteria are reported in many countries. Good hygienic practices can reduce the level of contamination but the most important pathogens cannot presently be eliminated from most farms, nor is it possible to eliminate them by primary processing, particularly from those foods which are sold raw. Several decontamination methods exist but the most versatile treatment among them is the ionizing radiation procedure. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product. For successful implementation of a HACCP plan, management must be strongly committed to the HACCP concept. A firm commitment to HACCP by top management provides company employees with a sense of the importance of producing safe food. At the same time, it has to be always emphasized that, like other intervention strategies, irradiation must be applied as part of a total sanitation program. The benefits of irradiation should never be considered as an excuse for poor quality or for poor handling and storage conditions, i.e.. as a substitute for good manufacturing practices. By adopting an HACCP based approach to food safety management, it can be clearly demonstrated that the application of a technology like food irradiation is essential for ensuring the safety of raw food stuffs. Such an intervention should be considered as a CCP (Critical Control Point) in the food chain. Therefore, the potential benefit of irradiation, which is endorsed by national and international bodies surely merits serious consideration by public health authorities, industry and consumer groups worldwide. For such, a system of HACCP and the irradiation is primordial so that the alimentary .safety is maintained processes if they are applied correctly. (author)

2004-01-01

326

Food ionizing treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment of food with ionizing radiation is increasingly being recognized as a means of reducing food-borne illnesses and associated medical and other costs. In addition, the process may contribute to food security by preventing post-harvest losses, thereby making more food available to more people, eventually at lower cost. An ever increasing number of countries has approved the irradiation of a long and growing list of different food items, groups of classes, ranging from spices to grains to fruit and vegetables to meats and poultry and seafood. However, perception by consumers has been controversial and concerns have been expressed, particularly related to the safety of irradiated food. Therefore, the toxicological aspects of irradiated food are addressed in this dossier. It should be recognized that food irradiation is perhaps the most thoroughly investigated food processing technology. According to the World Health Organization 'irradiated food produced in accordance with established Good Manufacturing Practice can be considered safe and nutritionally adequate'. A recent evaluation by a WHO/FAO/IAEA study group (Geneva, Sept. 1997) even came to the conclusion, 'that as long as sensory qualities of food are retained and harmful microorganisms are destroyed, the actual amount of ionizing radiation applied is of secondary consideration'. Thus, also treatment of food with doses greater than the currently recommended upper level of 10 kGy by the Codex Alimentarius Commission will not lead to changes in the composition of the food that, from a toxicological point of view, would have an adverse effect on human health. (author)

1997-01-01

327

Food Allergy  

Science.gov (United States)

... allergies to particular foods. Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES) , sometimes referred to as a delayed food allergy, is a severe condition causing vomiting and diarrhea. In some cases, symptoms can progress to dehydration and shock brought ...

328

Food additives  

Science.gov (United States)

... herbs or spices to foods Pickling foods in vinegar Using salt to preserve meats Indirect food additives ... this list are: guar gum, sugar, salt, and vinegar. The list is re-checked regularly. Some substances ...

329

Food Labels  

Science.gov (United States)

Food Allergy Fact EPINEPHRINE IS THE FIRST LINE TREATMENT FOR ANAPHYLAXIS Home About Us About FARE Leadership ... Giving Matching Gifts Donate Stock Donate Your Vehicle Food Labels The Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection ...

330

Food Allergies  

Science.gov (United States)

... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies occur when your immune system ... had a serious reaction. Back Continue How Are Food Allergies Treated? There is no special medicine for ...

331

Desenvolvimento e reprodutibilidade de questionário para avaliar práticas e conhecimentos em segurança alimentar de nutricionistas da área clínica / Development and reliability of a questionnaire to assess clinical dietitians' practices and knowledge of food safety  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Os propósitos deste estudo foram desenvolver um questionário para avaliar práticas e conhecimentos em segurança sanitária alimentar, de nutricionistas da área clínica, e medir o nível de reprodutibilidade deste questionário. MÉTODOS: O questionário foi desenvolvido a partir de seis áreas t [...] emáticas: prevenção da contaminação cruzada; higiene pessoal/ambiental; controle de temperaturas e de alimentos de alto risco e segurança alimentar para indivíduos portadores do vírus da imunodeficiência humana/síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida. Para medir o nível de reprodutibilidade, utilizou-se o procedimento de teste e re-teste e a estatística kappa simples. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram os níveis de reprodutibilidade: >0,61 para 95,0%; entre 0,60-0,40 para 2,5% e 0,61), sugerindo que o mesmo representa uma boa opção para avaliar as práticas e os conhecimentos em segurança alimentar de nutricionistas da área clínica, visando ao planejamento de estratégias educativas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to develop a questionnaire to assess clinical dietitians´ practices and knowledge of food safety and determine the reliability of this instrument. METHODS: The questionnaire was developed around six areas: prevention of cross contamination, personal and env [...] ironmental hygiene; control of temperature and high-risk foods and food safety for individuals with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The reliability of the questionnaire was determined by the test-retest method and simple Kappa statistics. RESULTS: The results showed the reliability levels: >0.61 for 95.0%, from 0.60 to 0.40 for 2.5% and 0.61), suggesting that it is a good device to assess clinical dietitians´ practices and knowledge of food safety, which allows for the planning of educational strategies.

Luísa Helena Maia, Leite; William, Waissmann; Alessandra Bento, Veggi.

332

Exception handling for sensor fusion  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a control scheme for handling sensing failures (sensor malfunctions, significant degradations in performance due to changes in the environment, and errant expectations) in sensor fusion for autonomous mobile robots. The advantages of the exception handling mechanism are that it emphasizes a fast response to sensing failures, is able to use only a partial causal model of sensing failure, and leads to a graceful degradation of sensing if the sensing failure cannot be compensated for. The exception handling mechanism consists of two modules: error classification and error recovery. The error classification module in the exception handler attempts to classify the type and source(s) of the error using a modified generate-and-test procedure. If the source of the error is isolated, the error recovery module examines its cache of recovery schemes, which either repair or replace the current sensing configuration. If the failure is due to an error in expectation or cannot be identified, the planner is alerted. Experiments using actual sensor data collected by the CSM Mobile Robotics/Machine Perception Laboratory's Denning mobile robot demonstrate the operation of the exception handling mechanism.

Chavez, G. T.; Murphy, Robin R.

1993-08-01

333

Remote handling experience at FFTF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper briefly describes the remote handling experience at the FFTF's Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, a vertical 55-ft shielded compex with an Ar atmosphere, within the FFTF containment, for remote disassembly and NDE of FFTF experiments and for remote maintenance of reactor components

1982-11-19

334

Cargo handling know-how  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper reviews recent bulk handling crane orders from Liebherr. These include mobile harbour cranes at the Port of Dunkirk, a four-rope grab crane at Phu My Port, Vietnam and CBG cranes at Balikpapan Coal Terminal, Indonesia. 4 figs.

Bachman, T.; Fischer, M. [Liebherr-Werk Nenzing GmbH (Austria)

2004-01-01

335

Non-contact handling device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pressurized fluid handling nozzle has a body with a first end and a second end, a fluid conduit and a recess at the second end. The first end is configured for connection to a pressurized fluid source. The fluid conduit has an inlet at the first end and an outlet at the recess. The nozzle uses the Bernoulli effect for lifting a part.

Reece, Mark (Albuquerque, NM); Knorovsky, Gerald A. (Albuquerque, NM); MacCallum, Danny O. (Edgewood, NM)

2007-05-15

336

Software for handling MFME1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report deals with SEMFIP, a computer code for determining magnetic field measurements. The program is written in FORTRAN and ASSEMBLER. The preparations for establishing SEMFIP, the actual measurements, data handling and the problems that were experienced are discussed. Details on the computer code are supplied in an appendix

1984-01-01

337

Better fuel handling system performance through improved elastomers and seals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the area of elastomers, tests have identified specific compounds that perform well in each class of CANDU service. They offer gains in service life, sometimes by factors of ten or more. Moreover, the aging characteristics of these specific compounds are being thoroughly investigated, whereas many elastomers used previously were either non-specific or their aging was unknown. In this paper the benefits of elastomer upgrading, as well as the deficiencies of current station elastomer practices, are discussed in the context of fuel handling equipment. Guidelines for procurement, storage, handling and condition monitoring of elastomer seals are outlined. (author). 3 figs

1996-05-13

338

Safety in handling helium and nitrogen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based upon the authors' industrial experience and practices, they have provided an overview of safety in storage, handling, and transfer of both laboratory and bulk quantities of gaseous and liquid forms of nitrogen and helium. They have addressed the properties and characteristics of both the gaseous and liquid fluids, typical storage and transport containers, transfer techniques, and the associated hazards which include low temperatures, high pressures, and asphyxiation. Methods and procedures to control and eliminate these hazards are described, as well as risk remediation through safety awareness training, personal protective equipment, area ventilation, and atmosphere monitoring. They have included as an example a recent process hazards analysis performed by Air Products on the asphyxiation hazard associated with the use of liquid helium in MRI magnet systems

1991-03-13

339

Protocols for Handling Messages Between Simulation Computers  

Science.gov (United States)

Practical Simulator Network (PSimNet) is a set of data-communication protocols designed especially for use in handling messages between computers that are engaging cooperatively in real-time or nearly-real-time training simulations. In a typical application, computers that provide individualized training at widely dispersed locations would communicate, by use of PSimNet, with a central host computer that would provide a common computational- simulation environment and common data. Originally intended for use in supporting interfaces between training computers and computers that simulate the responses of spacecraft scientific payloads, PSimNet could be especially well suited for a variety of other applications -- for example, group automobile-driver training in a classroom. Another potential application might lie in networking of automobile-diagnostic computers at repair facilities to a central computer that would compile the expertise of numerous technicians and engineers and act as an expert consulting technician.

Balcerowski, John P.; Dunnam, Milton

2006-01-01

340

Knowledge and attitudes towards food safety and reported use of good production practices among a sample of cattle producers in Santa Fe, Argentina Conocimiento y actitudes hacia seguridad alimentaria y buenas prácticas de producción adoptadas en productores ganaderos de Santa Fe, Argentina  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On-farm implementation of good production practices (GPP) and effective translation of food safety knowledge to food-animal producers are recommended to achieve a safer food supply. A pilot study was conducted during 2009-2010 to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards food safety and reported use of GPp among a sample of 930 cattle producers in Santa Fe, Argentina. A response percentage of 31.8% (n = 296) was obtained. Several respondents indicated that they rarely or never isolate sick c...

Young, I.; Raji, A.; Perez, E.; Sanchez, J.; Larriestra, A.; La, Perez; Drivet, O.; Monteverde, M.; Sa, Mcewen

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Justification by calculation of the safe post irradiation handling of the BN-600 reactor core components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article shows possibility of practical application of heating calculation results of the spent BN-600 reactor core components with various decay heat power values for planning and optimizing the conditions of the post irradiation handling of these components

2009-01-01

342

Inter-process handling automating system; Koteikan handling jidoka system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces automation of loading works in production site by using robots. Loading robots are required of complex movements, and are used for loading work in processing machines requiring six degrees of freedom and for relatively simple palletizing work that can be dealt with by four degrees of freedom. The `inter-machine handling system` is an automated system performed by a ceiling running robot in which different workpiece model determination and positional shift measurement are carried out by image processing. A robot uses the image information to exchange hands automatically as required, and clamp a workpiece; then runs to an M/C to replace the processed workpiece; and put the M/C processes workpiece onto a multi-axial dedicated machine. Five processing machines are operated in parallel with the cycle time matched with that of this handling process, and a processing machine finished of processing is given a handling work in preferential order. As a result, improvement in productivity and elimination of two workers were achieved simultaneously. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Nakamura, H. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1994-10-18

343

Do residents of food deserts express different food buying preferences compared to residents of food oases? A mixed-methods analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Many people lack access to food stores that provide healthful food. Neighborhoods with poor supermarket access have been characterized as “food deserts” (as contrast with “food oases”). This study explored factors influencing food buying practices among residents of food deserts versus food oases in the city of Boston, USA. Methods We used the mixed-methods approach of concept mapping, which allows participants to identify, list, and ...

Walker Renee E; Block Jason; Kawachi Ichiro

2012-01-01

344

Food irradiation in South Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article indicates the necessity for additional methods of food preservation and emphasises that food irradiation is developing into an important method of food preservation because it has been proved scientifically and practically that food irradiation can be applied effectively; also that there is absolute certainty that radiation-processed products are safe and nutritious and that such food is acceptable to the consumer and food trade, also with a view to costs. It discusses the joint food irradiation programme of the AEB and Department of Agriculture and Fisheries and points out that exemption for the irradiation of potatoes was already obtained in 1977 and later for mango's, paw-paws, chicken, onions, garlic and strawberries. Conditional exemption was obtained for avocado's and dried bananas. Other food-kinds on which research is being continued are grapes, melons, mushrooms, stone fruit and spices

1982-04-01

345

COMPLIANCE OF PROPOSED CODEX ALIMENTARIUS GUIDELINES FOR VIRUS MANAGEMENT WITH PRINCIPLES OF GOOD PRACTICE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public concerns relating to food safety remain high, with most attention focused on manufactured foods and those served in catering operations. The viral contamination of food can occur anywhere in the food supply chain from farm to fork, but most food-borne viral infections can be traced back to infected persons who handle food that is neither heated nor otherwise treated. Regard to the increasing incidence of food-borne viral infections, the Codex Alimentarius Committee on Food Hygiene issu...

Ambrozic, M.; Bozic, T.; Jevsnik, M.; Cook, N.; Raspor, P.

2011-01-01

346

Quantifying the Impact of Food Preparation Skills among College Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Food preparation practices have changed dramatically in the past fifty years. This study was designed to quantify food preparation knowledge and practices of college women, to assess the reasons why they do not prepare certain foods, and to determine the frequency of eating outside the home. Distinct food preparation ability emerged (high, medium,…

Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

2006-01-01

347

Food Packaging  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson focuses on how food packages are designed and made. Students will learn three of the main functions of a food package. They will learn what is necessary of the design and materials of a package to keep food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in a food, and identify a food appealingly. Then, in the associated activity, the students will have the opportunity to become packaging engineers by designing and building their own food package for a particular type of food.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

348

Experience in handling concentrated tritium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The notes describe the experience in handling concentrated tritium in the hydrogen form accumulated in the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories Tritium Laboratory. The techniques of box operation, pumping systems, hydriding and dehydriding operations, and analysis of tritium are discussed. Information on the Chalk River Tritium Extraction Plant is included as a collection of reprints of papers presented at the Dayton Meeting on Tritium Technology, 1985 April 30 - May 2

1985-06-18

349

International handling of fissionable material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The opinion of the ministry for foreign affairs on international handling of fissionable materials is given. As an introduction a survey is given of the possibilities to produce nuclear weapons from materials used in or produced by power reactors. Principles for international control of fissionable materials are given. International agreements against proliferation of nuclear weapons are surveyed and methods to improve them are proposed. (K.K.)

1975-01-01

350

Dosimetry for food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Manual of Food Irradiation Dosimetry was published in 1977 under the auspices of the IAEA as Technical Reports Series No. 178. It was the first monograph of its kind and served as a reference in the field of radiation processing and in the development of standards. While the essential information about radiation dosimetry in this publication has not become obsolete, other publications on radiation dosimetry have become available which have provided useful information for incorporation in this updated version. There is already a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and an associated Code of Practice for Operation of Irradiation Facilities used for Treatment of Food, issued in 1984 by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of the FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme. The Codex Standard contains provisions on irradiation facilities and process control which include, among other requirements, that control of the processes within facilities shall include the keeping of adequate records including quantitative dosimetry. Appendix A of the Standard provides an explanation of process control and dosimetric requirements in compliance with the Codex Standard. By 1999, over 40 countries had implemented national regulations or issued specific approval for certain irradiated food items/classes of food based on the principles of the Codex Standard and its Code of Practice. Food irradiation is thus expanding, as over 30 countries are now actually applying this process for the treatment of one or more food products for commercial purposes. Irradiated foods are being marketed at retail level in several countries. With the increasing recognition and application of irradiation as a sanitary and phytosanitary treatment of food based on the provisions of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization, international trade in irradiated food is expected to expand during the next decade. It is therefore essential that proper dosimetry systems are used to ensure the compliance of trade in irradiated food with national and international standards. In view of the foregoing, FAO and the IAEA, through their Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, considered it timely to revise the Manual of Food Irradiation Dosimetry. A Consultants' Meeting was convened in Vienna from 27 to 30 October 1998 to revise the Manual

2002-10-01

351

Food preservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of irradiation in food preservation is reviewed. After an introduction of the general effects of irradiation on food, examples of low, medium and high radiation dose applications of food irradiation are given. The legislation of food irradiation is discussed including wholesomeness aspects of approvals given to countries for various foods. The technical problems of irradiation, the economy of the process and consumer acceptance as aspects of a possible commercialization are also considered. (U.K.)

1984-01-01

352

Special Foods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Special foods include all foods that have been modified to meet either a real or perceived health need. They include enriched foods which are so readily available that they are generally no longer considered special foods. More recently, calorie-reduced, carbohydrate-reduced, low-fat, high fiber and other types of modified foods have been introduced to the market in response to several sets of dietary guidelines which recommend specific dietary changes for the general public. More specialized...

1984-01-01

353

The Internationalization Process of the E-marketplace FoodIT A/S  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This case describes the early internationalization process and the considerations about a future international expansion of an e-marketplace. The case illustrates the complexity of internationalizing an internet-based SME. FoodIT is trying to identify the most suitable entry modes; i.e. entry modes that can handle a fast, broad and deep international expansion process with very limited resources. The case raises important questions as to the importance of physical presence for a dot.com firm selling digital products; products that in theory can be distributed digitally but in practice need to be organized by real people having real face-to-face dialog.

Rask, Morten

2007-01-01

354

International status of food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation processing of foods has been studied for over 30 years. To a considerable extent this research was carried out in the framework of various international projects. After optimistic beginnings in the 1950s and long delays, caused by uncertainty about the health safety of foods so treated, food irradiation has now reached the stage of practical application in several countries. In order to prepare the way for world-wide accceptance of the new process, the Codex Alimentarius Commission has accepted an 'International General Standard for Irradiated Foods' and an 'International Code of Practice for the Operation of Irradiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Foods'. Psychological barriers to a process associated with the word 'radiation' are still formidable; it appears, however, that acceptance by authorities, food industry and consumers continues to grow

1983-10-05

355

Explosion venting: a practical approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dust explosions pose a hazard in facilities that handle dry bulk materials such as coal and other organic materials. In this paper, guidance is provided for the assessment of dust explosion hazards and for the practical application of explosion venting.

Bours, R. (Fike Europe NV (Belgium))

1992-07-01

356

Reprodutibilidade de um questionário para avaliação de conhecimentos, percepções e práticas em segurança sanitária alimentar de portadores de HIV/AIDS ambulatoriais / Reliability of a questionnaire to assess food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices among outpatients with human immunodeficiency virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Portadores de HIV/AIDS são vulneráveis a muitos tipos de infecções, incluindo aquelas veiculadas por água e alimentos. O alto risco às infecções gastrintestinais poderia ser minimizado através do aconselhamento dietético, no ambiente das unidades de saúde ambulatoriais, visando à adoção de práticas [...] de segurança sanitária alimentar. A pesquisa realizada teve como objetivo, dentre outros, avaliar os conhecimentos, as percepções e práticas em segurança alimentar de portadores de HIV/AIDS ambulatoriais. Para tal, elaborou-se questionário, a partir de cinco áreas temáticas (prevenção da contaminação cruzada; higiene pessoal e ambiental; controle de temperaturas; e consumo de alimentos de risco). O que se apresenta é o estudo de reprodutibilidade desse instrumento, para o qual foi utilizado o procedimento de teste e re-teste. Os resultados deste estudo mostraram que os valores kappa oscilaram de forte para 84,6% (33), moderado para 12,8% (5), a discreto para 2,5% (1) das questões testadas. Nossos resultados sugerem que o instrumento apresenta um bom nível de reprodutibilidade sendo uma boa opção para o levantamento de informações sobre segurança alimentar de pacientes portadores de HIV/AIDS. Abstract in english HIV-positive patients are at increased risk of acquiring infections, particularly those related to water and food. The risk could be reduced by educational interventions in the clinical setting related to food safety for the prevention of food-borne diseases. The current study aimed to analyze food [...] safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices among HIV-positive outpatients. A questionnaire was organized with five behavioral areas (cross contamination; personal hygiene; household hygiene; temperature control; and control of unsafe foods). The test-retest procedure demonstrated the questionnaire's reliability. Kappa values varied among the questions: high for 84.6% (33); moderate for 12.8% (5); and low for 2.5% (1). Based on the results, the instrument showed good reliability for most of the questions and can be used for surveys on food safety in HIV-positive outpatients.

Luísa Helena Maia, Leite; William, Waissmann; Alessandra Bento, Veggi.

357

Reprodutibilidade de um questionário para avaliação de conhecimentos, percepções e práticas em segurança sanitária alimentar de portadores de HIV/AIDS ambulatoriais / Reliability of a questionnaire to assess food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices among outpatients with human immunodeficiency virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Portadores de HIV/AIDS são vulneráveis a muitos tipos de infecções, incluindo aquelas veiculadas por água e alimentos. O alto risco às infecções gastrintestinais poderia ser minimizado através do aconselhamento dietético, no ambiente das unidades de saúde ambulatoriais, visando à adoção de práticas [...] de segurança sanitária alimentar. A pesquisa realizada teve como objetivo, dentre outros, avaliar os conhecimentos, as percepções e práticas em segurança alimentar de portadores de HIV/AIDS ambulatoriais. Para tal, elaborou-se questionário, a partir de cinco áreas temáticas (prevenção da contaminação cruzada; higiene pessoal e ambiental; controle de temperaturas; e consumo de alimentos de risco). O que se apresenta é o estudo de reprodutibilidade desse instrumento, para o qual foi utilizado o procedimento de teste e re-teste. Os resultados deste estudo mostraram que os valores kappa oscilaram de forte para 84,6% (33), moderado para 12,8% (5), a discreto para 2,5% (1) das questões testadas. Nossos resultados sugerem que o instrumento apresenta um bom nível de reprodutibilidade sendo uma boa opção para o levantamento de informações sobre segurança alimentar de pacientes portadores de HIV/AIDS. Abstract in english HIV-positive patients are at increased risk of acquiring infections, particularly those related to water and food. The risk could be reduced by educational interventions in the clinical setting related to food safety for the prevention of food-borne diseases. The current study aimed to analyze food [...] safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices among HIV-positive outpatients. A questionnaire was organized with five behavioral areas (cross contamination; personal hygiene; household hygiene; temperature control; and control of unsafe foods). The test-retest procedure demonstrated the questionnaire's reliability. Kappa values varied among the questions: high for 84.6% (33); moderate for 12.8% (5); and low for 2.5% (1). Based on the results, the instrument showed good reliability for most of the questions and can be used for surveys on food safety in HIV-positive outpatients.

Luísa Helena Maia, Leite; William, Waissmann; Alessandra Bento, Veggi.

358

The planning system and fast food outlets in London: lessons for health promotion practice / O sistema de planeamento dos “outlets” de “fast food” em Londres: lições para a prática da promoção da saúde  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este artigo aborda o modo como a promoção da saúde pode usar o planeamento como uma ferramenta para se comer de modo mais saudável. A pesquisa centra-se na disponibilidade e na concentração de “outlets” de “fast food” em Londres. A política pública de saúde limita o planeamento às estruturas locais, [...] dentro de um desenho teórico estreito que vai desde a psicologia social à economia liberal. A política está centrada na mudança do comportamento, nos acordos voluntários e na devolução da função saúde pública às autoridades locais. Tal estrutura apresenta barreiras a uma eficaz promoção da saúde baseada na equidade. Uma estratégia apoiada nos determinantes sociais seria consistente com um planeamento de apoio à infraestrutura reguladora nacional. Abstract in english This article considers how health promotion can use planning as a tool to enhance healthy eating choices. It draws on research in relation to the availability and concentration of fast food outlets in a London borough. Current public health policy is confining planning to local settings within a nar [...] row framework drawing on discourses from social psychology and libertarian economics. Policy is focusing on behaviour change, voluntary agreements and devolution of the public health function to local authorities. Such a framework presents barriers to effective equity-based health promotion. A social determinant-based health promotion strategy would be consistent with a national regulatory infrastructure supporting planning.

Martin, Caraher; Eileen, O' Keefe; Sue, Lloyd; Tim, Madelin.

359

Detection of Genetically Modified Foods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, Genetically Modified (GM) foods have become increasingly common on our supermarket shelves. Consumer concerns regarding their safety have prompted codes of practice and legislation requiring labelling of all GM-food-containing products. Labelling requires some means of verification. There is no simple means of detecting GM food and until recently, there were no tests available. The object of this study was to develop a simple, rapid and user-friendly method of detecting genet...

1999-01-01

360

ITER cryopump handling study preliminary report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The scope of this study was to develop a remote handling concept for the primary vacuum pumping system by performing the following tasks: review the cryopump duct configuration and remote handling requirements for cryopump replacement; initiate an ITER Cr...

T. Haines

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

A multigrid fluid pressure solver handling separating solid boundary conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a multigrid method for solving the linear complementarity problem (LCP) resulting from discretizing the Poisson equation subject to separating solid boundary conditions in an Eulerian liquid simulation’s pressure projection step. The method requires only a few small changes to a multigrid solver for linear systems. Our generalized solver is fast enough to handle 3D liquid simulations with separating boundary conditions in practical domain sizes. Previous methods could only handle relatively small 2D domains in reasonable time, because they used expensive quadratic programming (QP) solvers. We demonstrate our technique in several practical scenarios, including nonaxis-aligned containers and moving solids in which the omission of separating boundary conditions results in disturbing artifacts of liquid sticking to solids. Our measurements show, that the convergence rate of our LCP solver is close to that of a standard multigrid solver. PMID:22411885

Chentanez, Nuttapong; Müller-Fischer, Matthias

2012-08-01

362

Food allergies.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

O'Leary, Paula F G

2012-02-03

363

Modeling and Simulation of Anchor Handling Vessels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The topic of this thesis is modeling and simulation of anchor handling vessels. Computer simulations of anchor handling vessels can be used to evaluate the forces acting on them, and to gain valuable insight into their operational limitations. Introductorily, an overview containing important aspects of anchor handling operations is presented. The objective is to highlight important subjects that must be considered before a simulator is developed. A simulator of an anchor handling vesse...

Wennersberg, Lars Andreas Lien

2009-01-01

364

Health physics considerations in UF{sub 6} handling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Uranium is a radioactive substance that emits alpha particles and very small amounts of gamma radiation. Its daughter products emit beta and gamma radiation. In uranium handling operations these are the radiations one must consider. This presentation will review the characteristics of the radiations, the isotopes from which they originate, the growth and decay of the uranium daughter products, and some specific health physics practices dictated by these factors.

Bailey, J.C. [Norway Assoicates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1991-12-31

365

Guidelines for Storing and Handling of Solid Biofuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This best practice guideline gives recommendations for utilizing best available knowledge, experience, methods and technology in storage and handling to secure the quality of the solid biofuel and to minimize health and safety risks. It is intended for persons and organisations that manufacture, plan, sell, install or use machinery, equipment, tools and entire plants related to the production, purchase, sale and utilization of these fuels on a commercial and industrial level. The guideline is not addressed to single households and individual small producers

Nikolaisen, Lars; Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter; Zielke, Uwe (Danish Technological Inst. (Denmark)); Jirjis, Raida (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)); Blomqvist, Per (SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Boraas (Sweden)); Alakangas, Eija; Jaervinen, Timo (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Nitschske, Max (DONG Energy (Denmark)); Goeransson, Ulf (Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)); Haglund, Nina (NAH Consulting (Sweden)); Walsh, Sean (AaF-Process AB (Sweden)); Thoernquist, Thomas (Vaexjoe Univ., Vaexjoe (Sweden)); Poulsen, Torben (Statoil (Denmark)); Schultz, Gert (Energi Randers Supply A/S (Denmark)); Andersen, Paul (Skov- og Naturstyrelsen (Denmark)); Skov, Simon (Faculty of Life Sciences, KU (Denmark)); Madsen, Anne Mette (National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen (Denmark))

2008-10-15

366

Electrostatic method of pellet handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new type of Deutrium-Tritium pellet injection system has been proposed and partly developed by the authors to serve as a target injector for a laser plasma generator. This system may also be used for refuelling a TOKAMAK type fusion reactor as well as a laser fusion reactor. The system is based on a purely electrical means of particle handling consisting of several electrostatic and electrodynamic processing components, and is designed to inject the pellets with a very high accuracy so that the laser beam can successfully collide with them. This system can be operated in both 'single-shot mode' and 'continuous-shot mode'. 9 refs

1980-10-03

367

Overview of ITER remote handling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neutron production during D-D operation and, to a much larger extent, during D-T operation will lead to activation of component materials located inside the ITER biological shield. Hence, inspection and maintenance, including replacement, of these components will then only be possible by remote means. ITER components in the biological shield are therefore designed for remote maintainability and repairability. This paper presents an overview of the typical remote handling scenarios and equipment required for ITER maintenance such as in-vessel viewing/inspection, divertor, shield blanket and magnet system maintenance.

Shibanuma, K.; Burgess, T.; Haange, R. [ITER Joint Central Team, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Joint Work Site] [and others

1995-12-31

368

Overview of ITER remote handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron production during D-D operation and, to a much larger extent, during D-T operation will lead to activation of component materials located inside the ITER biological shield. Hence, inspection and maintenance, including replacement, of these components will then only be possible by remote means. ITER components in the biological shield are therefore designed for remote maintainability and repairability. This paper presents an overview of the typical remote handling scenarios and equipment required for ITER maintenance such as in-vessel viewing/inspection, divertor, shield blanket and magnet system maintenance

1995-10-01

369

Importância das práticas alimentares no primeiro ano de vida na prevenção da deficiência de ferro Importance of food practices during the first year of life to prevent iron deficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A reconhecida relevância da anemia por deficiência de ferro, em termos de saúde pública, decorre não apenas da magnitude de sua ocorrência, mas, principalmente, dos efeitos deletérios que ocasiona à saúde da criança. Com o objetivo de investigar as práticas alimentares no primeiro ano de vida e sua associação com a deficiência de ferro, realizou-se revisão da literatura científica nacional e internacional sobre a questão, selecionando os artigos mais relevantes. Crianças que nascem atermo e com peso adequado, ao receberem o leite materno de forma exclusiva suprem suas necessidades de ferro, sendo desnecessário qualquer complemento nos primeiros seis meses de vida. Próximo aos seis meses de idade ocorre gradualmente o esgotamento das reservas de ferro e a alimentação complementar passa a ter papel predominante no atendimento às necessidades desse nutriente. O papel do aleitamento materno na ocorrência da deficiência de ferro é ainda controverso e parece depender do país, região e tipo de leite utilizado em substituição ao leite materno. Na impossibilidade da continuidade do aleitamento materno, a substituição deste por leite de vaca aumenta o risco de a criança apresentar deficiência de ferro. Práticas complementares que comprovadamente contribuem com a prevenção da deficiência de ferro são: alimentação complementar com alta biodisponibilidade de ferro, alimentos fortificados e suplemento de ferro em doses profiláticas. Dieta com alta biodisponibilidade de ferro é aquela que contém os alimentos básicos da família, desde que saudáveis, com a presença de carne, vitamina A e vitamina C. A alimentação no primeiro ano de vida tem papel importante na prevenção da anemia por deficiência de ferro e, para sua adequada implementação, é necessário que suas diretrizes sejam adotadas como rotina nas unidades básicas de saúde.The well-known relevance of iron deficiency anemia for public health derives not only from its prevalence, but mainly from its harmful effects on child health. In order to investigate feeding practices in the first year of life and their association with iron deficiency, domestic and international scientific articles were reviewed and the most relevant articles were selected. Children born at term and with appropriate birth weight get all the iron they need from exclusive breastfeeding, with complementary foods of any kind being unnecessary in the first six months of life. At about six months of life, the iron reserves are gradually depleted and complementary foods take on a predominant role in meeting the iron requirement. The role of breastfeeding in the occurrence of iron deficiency is still debated, and appears to depend on the country, region and type of milk used to replace breast milk. The replacement of breast milk with cow's milk increases the risk of the child developing iron deficiency. Complementary practices that have been proven to contribute to the prevention of iron deficiency are complementary foods high in bioavailable iron, enriched foods and iron supplementation in prophylactic doses. A diet high in iron bioavailability is that which contains the staple foods of the family, as long as they are healthy, with the presence of meat, vitamin A and vitamin C. The foods consumed in the first year of life have an important role in the prevention of iron deficiency anemia, and their correct implementation depends on guidelines that should be adopted as standard practice by primary healthcare units.

GiSele Ane Bortolini

2010-12-01

370

FOOD SECURITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

Dorina Ardelean

2013-12-01

371

Overview on Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds of gas and water molecules that are formed under certain thermodynamic conditions. Hydrate deposits occur naturally within ocean sediments just below the sea floor at temperatures and pressures existing below about 500 meters water depth. Gas hydrate is also stable in conjunction with the permafrost in the Arctic. Most marine gas hydrate is formed of microbially generated gas. It binds huge amounts of methane into the sediments. Worldwide, gas hydrate is estimated to hold about 1016 kg of organic carbon in the form of methane (Kvenvolden et al., 1993). Gas hydrate is one of the fossil fuel resources that is yet untapped, but may play a major role in meeting the energy challenge of this century. In June 2002, Westport Technology Center was requested by the Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a ''Best Practices Manual on Gas Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis'' under Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41327. The scope of the task was specifically targeted for coring sediments with hydrates in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and from the present Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drillship. The specific subjects under this scope were defined in 3 stages as follows: Stage 1: Collect information on coring sediments with hydrates, core handling, core preservation, sample transportation, analysis of the core, and long term preservation. Stage 2: Provide copies of the first draft to a list of experts and stakeholders designated by DOE. Stage 3: Produce a second draft of the manual with benefit of input from external review for delivery. The manual provides an overview of existing information available in the published literature and reports on coring, analysis, preservation and transport of gas hydrates for laboratory analysis as of June 2003. The manual was delivered as draft version 3 to the DOE Project Manager for distribution in July 2003. This Final Report is provided for records purposes.

Jon Burger; Deepak Gupta; Patrick Jacobs; John Shillinglaw

2003-06-30

372

Práticas e mudanças no comportamento alimentar na população de Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil / Behavioral changes in food intake practices in the population of Brasília, Federal District, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: investigar as práticas e mudanças alimentares na população de Brasília, Distrito Federal, com as variáveis escolaridade, renda e sexo. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, com uma amostra probabilística de 500 domicílios, com entrevista a pessoas >15 anos. As entrevistas foram feitas no Plano Pil [...] oto, Cidades Satélites e Vila Estrutural do Distrito Federal, entre março de 2003 e março de 2004. O marco amostral foi definido com base nos setores censitários do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, referentes ao censo demográfico de 2000. Foram sorteados 20 setores censitários dentre os 2548 existentes no Distrito Federal. RESULTADOS: os alimentos consumidos diariamente foram: arroz, feijão, pão, frutas, legumes e verduras. Consumo semanal de frango (85,0%), carne bovina (76,0%), massas (69,6%) e ovos (62,0%). A maioria (71,0%) relatou preocupar-se com alimentação saudável. Apenas, 37% dos entrevistados relataram mudança alimentar nos últimos seis meses, e dentre eles 32,6% atribuíram à perda de peso, 25,4% à preocupação com a saúde e 20,0% à reeducação alimentar. A mudança foi mantida por 84,2% dos respondentes. CONCLUSÕES: os dados apontam a preocupação com a alimentação saudável e mudanças nas práticas alimentares. As razões alegadas para as mudanças estão relacionadas com a estética e preocupação com a saúde. Renda e escolaridade constituem preditores significativos das mudanças nas práticas alimentares. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: to investigate food habits changes in the population of Brasília, Federal District through variables such as schooling, income and sex. METHODS: A cross sectional study, with a probabilistic sample of 500 homes through interviews of people aged over 15. The interviews were held at the Pl [...] ano Piloto, Cidades Satélites and Vila Estrutural regions of the Federal District between March 2003 and March 2004. The sample landmark was defined based on Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística census sectors related to the 2000 demographic census. Twenty census sectors were randomly selected among the 2548 in the Federal District. RESULTS: daily food intake consisted of: rice, beans, bread, fruit and vegetables. Chicken weekly consumption (85.0%), beef (76.0 %), pasta (69.6%) and eggs (62.0%). The majority (71.0%) reported concern with healthy nourishment. Only 37% of the respondents reported food habits change in the last six months and among them 32.6% change was related to the wish of losing weight, 25.4% to health concerns and 20.0% to food reeducation. Change was maintained by 84.2% of the respondents. CONCLUSIONS: data indicate concern with healthy nourishment and change in food habits. Reasons reported for change are related to aesthetics and health concerns. Income and schooling are significant predictors of changes in food habits.

Maria Cristina Sebba, Marinho; Edgar Merchán, Hamann; Ana Carolina da Cunha Floresta, Lima.

373

Práticas e mudanças no comportamento alimentar na população de Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil Behavioral changes in food intake practices in the population of Brasília, Federal District, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: investigar as práticas e mudanças alimentares na população de Brasília, Distrito Federal, com as variáveis escolaridade, renda e sexo. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, com uma amostra probabilística de 500 domicílios, com entrevista a pessoas >15 anos. As entrevistas foram feitas no Plano Piloto, Cidades Satélites e Vila Estrutural do Distrito Federal, entre março de 2003 e março de 2004. O marco amostral foi definido com base nos setores censitários do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, referentes ao censo demográfico de 2000. Foram sorteados 20 setores censitários dentre os 2548 existentes no Distrito Federal. RESULTADOS: os alimentos consumidos diariamente foram: arroz, feijão, pão, frutas, legumes e verduras. Consumo semanal de frango (85,0%, carne bovina (76,0%, massas (69,6% e ovos (62,0%. A maioria (71,0% relatou preocupar-se com alimentação saudável. Apenas, 37% dos entrevistados relataram mudança alimentar nos últimos seis meses, e dentre eles 32,6% atribuíram à perda de peso, 25,4% à preocupação com a saúde e 20,0% à reeducação alimentar. A mudança foi mantida por 84,2% dos respondentes. CONCLUSÕES: os dados apontam a preocupação com a alimentação saudável e mudanças nas práticas alimentares. As razões alegadas para as mudanças estão relacionadas com a estética e preocupação com a saúde. Renda e escolaridade constituem preditores significativos das mudanças nas práticas alimentares.OBJECTIVES: to investigate food habits changes in the population of Brasília, Federal District through variables such as schooling, income and sex. METHODS: A cross sectional study, with a probabilistic sample of 500 homes through interviews of people aged over 15. The interviews were held at the Plano Piloto, Cidades Satélites and Vila Estrutural regions of the Federal District between March 2003 and March 2004. The sample landmark was defined based on Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística census sectors related to the 2000 demographic census. Twenty census sectors were randomly selected among the 2548 in the Federal District. RESULTS: daily food intake consisted of: rice, beans, bread, fruit and vegetables. Chicken weekly consumption (85.0%, beef (76.0 %, pasta (69.6% and eggs (62.0%. The majority (71.0% reported concern with healthy nourishment. Only 37% of the respondents reported food habits change in the last six months and among them 32.6% change was related to the wish of losing weight, 25.4% to health concerns and 20.0% to food reeducation. Change was maintained by 84.2% of the respondents. CONCLUSIONS: data indicate concern with healthy nourishment and change in food habits. Reasons reported for change are related to aesthetics and health concerns. Income and schooling are significant predictors of changes in food habits.

Maria Cristina Sebba Marinho

2007-09-01

374

â??Goodâ?? Outcomes : Handling Multiplicity in Government Communication  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

â??Goodâ?? Outcomes â?? Handling Multiplicity in Government Communication This thesis examines how five Danish government organizations produce and assess communicative solutions in practice, and argues that government communication may be understood as a case of multiplicity. In the practices of producing and assessing communicative solutions it is uncertain what constitutes a â??goodâ?? outcome of government communication. This uncertainty is grasped by drawing upon analytical resources from the field of multiplicity-oriented ANT analyses. Empirically, the thesis is based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted at the five government organizations. Combining empirical observations, theoretical insights, and political programmes, four â??modes of orderingâ?? are developed and these are utilized in exploring how the multiplicity of government communication unfurls and how it is handled in practice. The thesis shows how the ordering attempts described by the four modes of ordering coexist and interfere, and it suggests the notions of â??sequencingâ?? and â??singularizingâ?? for understanding how the multiplicity of government communication is handled in the production and assessment of communicative solutions. The study upon which the thesis reports has been carried out in connection with a larger Industrial PhD project, entitled Measurements you can learn from, that aimed at developing, testing, and implementing new and better communication measurements.

Krogh Petersen, Morten

2011-01-01

375

Food-Safety Hazards in the Pork Chain in Nagaland, North East India: Implications for Human Health  

Science.gov (United States)

Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system. We investigated samples from pigs and pork sourced at slaughter in urban and rural environments, and at retail, to assess a selection of food-borne hazards. In addition, consumer exposure was characterized using information about hygiene and practices related to handling and preparing pork. A qualitative hazard characterization, exposure assessment and hazard characterization for three representative hazards or hazard proxies, namely Enterobacteriaceae, T. solium cysticercosis and antibiotic residues, is presented. Several important potential food-borne pathogens are reported for the first time including Listeria spp. and Brucella suis. This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland. We also characterise possible interventions to be addressed by policy makers, and supply data to inform future risk assessments.

Fahrion, Anna Sophie; Jamir, Lanu; Richa, Kenivole; Begum, Sonuwara; Rutsa, Vilatuo; Ao, Simon; Padmakumar, Varijaksha P.; Deka, Ram Pratim; Grace, Delia

2013-01-01

376

Food-safety hazards in the pork chain in Nagaland, North East India: implications for human health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system. We investigated samples from pigs and pork sourced at slaughter in urban and rural environments, and at retail, to assess a selection of food-borne hazards. In addition, consumer exposure was characterized using information about hygiene and practices related to handling and preparing pork. A qualitative hazard characterization, exposure assessment and hazard characterization for three representative hazards or hazard proxies, namely Enterobacteriaceae, T. solium cysticercosis and antibiotic residues, is presented. Several important potential food-borne pathogens are reported for the first time including Listeria spp. and Brucella suis. This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland. We also characterise possible interventions to be addressed by policy makers, and supply data to inform future risk assessments. PMID:24368430

Fahrion, Anna Sophie; Jamir, Lanu; Richa, Kenivole; Begum, Sonuwara; Rutsa, Vilatuo; Ao, Simon; Padmakumar, Varijaksha P; Deka, Ram Pratim; Grace, Delia

2014-01-01

377

Food-Safety Hazards in the Pork Chain in Nagaland, North East India: Implications for Human Health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system. We investigated samples from pigs and pork sourced at slaughter in urban and rural environments, and at retail, to assess a selection of food-borne hazards. In addition, consumer exposure was characterized using information about hygiene and practices related to handling and preparing pork. A qualitative hazard characterization, exposure assessment and hazard characterization for three representative hazards or hazard proxies, namely Enterobacteriaceae, T. solium cysticercosis and antibiotic residues, is presented. Several important potential food-borne pathogens are reported for the first time including Listeria spp. and Brucella suis. This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland. We also characterise possible interventions to be addressed by policy makers, and supply data to inform future risk assessments.

Anna Sophie Fahrion

2013-12-01

378

Food Chain  

Science.gov (United States)

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K describes how energy moves through nature. You will learn about the food chain, and its members: producers, consumers, scavengers. It shows where humans fit into the food chain.

Ptv, Idaho

2011-09-04

379

Food Allergy  

Science.gov (United States)

... Food Allergy Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area NIAID is the ... immunology to clinical trials that are testing new strategies to treat and prevent food allergy. Understanding What ...

380

Food Allergies  

Science.gov (United States)

... Itchiness or tingling in the mouth A metallic taste in the mouth Coughing, trouble breathing or wheezing ... associated with food allergies are eczema and asthma. Food allergy can be ... to breathe. Fast treatment with a medicine called epinephrine (say: "epp- ...

 
 
 
 
381

NKS FOOD Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the workshop was to share national practice and experience on the use of different tools (handbooks, late phase models etc.) during a crisis with focus on operational implementation and use, interpretation and verification of results and production of decision basis. The main goal was to establish a common ground to better understand how these are used in the different countries, identify differences and exchange knowledge to increase competence. Second goal was to gather stakeholders and authorities with interest or responsibility for countermeasures against radioactive contamination of food products to share experience in different topics as: 1) Cooperation among stakeholders and organisations responsible for food safety in each country. 2) Adaptation of the Euranos handbook ''Countermeasures for the management of food production systems'' to national conditions and implementation of the handbook in each country. 3) Establishing a Nordic network for food authorities and radiation protection authorities responsible for food safety with respect to radioactivity. There were 23 participants representing all the Nordic countries. Some of the speakers present were Klas Rosen (SLU), Kasper Andersson (RISOE), representatives from the Nordic food authorities and Ministries, representatives from the radiation protection authorities and one speaker from the food industry. (Author)

Eikelmann, I.M.H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, OEsteraas (Norway))

2011-11-15

382

NKS FOOD Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the workshop was to share national practice and experience on the use of different tools (handbooks, late phase models etc.) during a crisis with focus on operational implementation and use, interpretation and verification of results and production of decision basis. The main goal was to establish a common ground to better understand how these are used in the different countries, identify differences and exchange knowledge to increase competence. Second goal was to gather stakeholders and authorities with interest or responsibility for countermeasures against radioactive contamination of food products to share experience in different topics as: 1) Cooperation among stakeholders and organisations responsible for food safety in each country. 2) Adaptation of the Euranos handbook ''Countermeasures for the management of food production systems'' to national conditions and implementation of the handbook in each country. 3) Establishing a Nordic network for food authorities and radiation protection authorities responsible for food safety with respect to radioactivity. There were 23 participants representing all the Nordic countries. Some of the speakers present were Klas Rosen (SLU), Kasper Andersson (RISOe), representatives from the Nordic food authorities and Ministries, representatives from the radiation protection authorities and one speaker from the food industry. (Author)

2010-04-14

383

Food Webs  

Science.gov (United States)

The representation depicts 4 different food webs: Antarctica, the African Grasslands, the Australia Grasslands and a Marine environment. A separate food web for scavengers and decomposers is present in the African Grasslands section. Viewers must first build the web by moving boxes with the organism's picture and name to the appropriate spot on a grid. Clues describing food requirements are given as the boxes are moved. When the boxes are correctly placed a complete food web (with arrows) is displayed.

384

Handling difficult materials: Fluorescent lamps  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluorescent and high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps, while energy-efficient lighting products, almost always contain small quantities of mercury, therefore, are considered a hazardous waste. As such, their disposal must be handled as a hazardous waste under provisions of the Toxicity Characteristic Rule issued under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Currently, however, EPA is seeking comments from industry and concerned parties on two disposal options for mercury-containing lamps, one of which would completely exempt the materials from regulation as a hazardous waste, provided they be disposed of in municipal solid waste landfills that meet Subtitle D requirements. The second option, in simple terms, would make mercury-containing lamps subject to the yet-to-be-approved '' universal waste rule,'' which would ease their Subtitle C transportation and handling requirements, but still require that the lamps be disposed of in hazardous waste landfills. Both options approve recycling of the materials as a viable disposal option. Some states are taking the lead and recycling the material. Although still a fledgling industry, the recycling of fluorescent lamps is a growing, and even competitive field.

White, K.M.

1994-11-01

385

Coal handling equipment and technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A series of short articles highlights developments in the coal handling sector. These include contracts awarded to Sanvik Mining and Construction to supply equipment to ports in Greater Vancouver, Canada, Bulgaria, the UK and Australia. At the Profen mine near Leipzig, Germany, hydraulic excavators and a fleet of 12 Volvo A35D articulated haulers were employed and operated as a 'mobile coal team' by MIBRAG to recover lignite that would otherwise have been lost. Two floating terminals have recently been set up by the E-Crane - one on Venezuela and the other in the Congo. Inspectorate International has increased its inspection activities in the coal sector in Europe and Asia. Westmar Consultants increased capacity at Westshore Terminals LP (WTLP) coal exporting terminal in Roberts Bank, BC, Canada. Scantech International Pty specialises a real time analysis of minerals and coal on conveyors. Big Lift Trucks supplies stackers and open belt feeders for the coal mining industry. Takraf has supplied coal handling equipment to the new Wanino export harbor on Russia's east coast. Other developments are mentioned by Horizon Conveyor Equipment Ltd., Phoenix Yale Ltd., Martin Engineering, SGS and Bedeschi. 15 photos.

Dodds-Ely, L.

2008-02-15

386

Alimento de rua na agenda nacional de segurança alimentar e nutricional: um ensaio para a qualificação sanitária no Brasil / Street food in the national agenda of food and nutrition security: an essay for sanitary qualification in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Brasil sediará a Copa do Mundo de 2014. Estamos preparados para oferecer alimentos seguros nas ruas? Este artigo tem como objetivo provocar a reflexão sobre alguns problemas que envolvem a comercialização da comida de rua, contribuindo, assim, para o fortalecimento do tema na agenda nacional de Se [...] gurança Alimentar e Nutricional. O objeto de estudo inclui somente o comércio ambulante. Tomando o cuidado de não reduzir seu amplo conceito, destaca-se a importância da segurança higiênico-sanitária como um dos componentes da Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional. Nesta perspectiva, discute-se a confiabilidade dos registros oficiais de surtos relacionados à comida de rua; a higiene dos alimentos de rua em comparação com outros locais de consumo; e a qualificação das pessoas para modificar práticas inadequadas de manipulação de alimentos. Assim, a reflexão envolveu problemas da comercialização, essencial para a melhoria da quantidade e da qualidade da formação das pessoas que manipulam estes alimentos e para a implementação da Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional como promoção do Direito Humano a Alimentação Adequada, tornando urgente a inclusão do tema no calendário nacional de debates da saúde coletiva. Abstract in english In 2014, the World Cup will be staged in Brazil. Is Brazil able to ensure safe street food is on offer? This paper seeks to elicit reflection on some problems relating to the sale of street food, thereby contributing to highlight this theme in the food security agenda in Brazil. The scope of this st [...] udy is exclusively street food. Care is taken not to reduce the broader concepts of food security and the importance of sanitary and hygienic handling is stressed as one of the core components of food and nutrition security. In this context the following aspects are discussed: the credibility of the official data on insanitary outbreaks related to street food; street food security compared to that in other eating environments; and the training of people to modify inadequate food handling practices. Thus, in the discussion about problems in the street food market it is essential to improve the quantity and quality of the training of food handlers in order to implement food and nutrition security as promoting the human right to adequate food and ensure that the topic is urgently included on the national calendar of public health debates.

Aída Couto Dinucci, Bezerra; Ana Maria Cervato, Mancuso; Sarah Jeanne Jorge, Heitz.

387

Alimento de rua na agenda nacional de segurança alimentar e nutricional: um ensaio para a qualificação sanitária no Brasil / Street food in the national agenda of food and nutrition security: an essay for sanitary qualification in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Brasil sediará a Copa do Mundo de 2014. Estamos preparados para oferecer alimentos seguros nas ruas? Este artigo tem como objetivo provocar a reflexão sobre alguns problemas que envolvem a comercialização da comida de rua, contribuindo, assim, para o fortalecimento do tema na agenda nacional de Se [...] gurança Alimentar e Nutricional. O objeto de estudo inclui somente o comércio ambulante. Tomando o cuidado de não reduzir seu amplo conceito, destaca-se a importância da segurança higiênico-sanitária como um dos componentes da Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional. Nesta perspectiva, discute-se a confiabilidade dos registros oficiais de surtos relacionados à comida de rua; a higiene dos alimentos de rua em comparação com outros locais de consumo; e a qualificação das pessoas para modificar práticas inadequadas de manipulação de alimentos. Assim, a reflexão envolveu problemas da comercialização, essencial para a melhoria da quantidade e da qualidade da formação das pessoas que manipulam estes alimentos e para a implementação da Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional como promoção do Direito Humano a Alimentação Adequada, tornando urgente a inclusão do tema no calendário nacional de debates da saúde coletiva. Abstract in english In 2014, the World Cup will be staged in Brazil. Is Brazil able to ensure safe street food is on offer? This paper seeks to elicit reflection on some problems relating to the sale of street food, thereby contributing to highlight this theme in the food security agenda in Brazil. The scope of this st [...] udy is exclusively street food. Care is taken not to reduce the broader concepts of food security and the importance of sanitary and hygienic handling is stressed as one of the core components of food and nutrition security. In this context the following aspects are discussed: the credibility of the official data on insanitary outbreaks related to street food; street food security compared to that in other eating environments; and the training of people to modify inadequate food handling practices. Thus, in the discussion about problems in the street food market it is essential to improve the quantity and quality of the training of food handlers in order to implement food and nutrition security as promoting the human right to adequate food and ensure that the topic is urgently included on the national calendar of public health debates.

Aída Couto Dinucci, Bezerra; Ana Maria Cervato, Mancuso; Sarah Jeanne Jorge, Heitz.

388

Food Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

... container with plastic wrap, try to keep the plastic wrap from touching the food. If a food comes packaged in a foam ... microwaving. The heat can make foam trays and plastic wrapping melt. And don't ... dinners or other foods. If you're using the microwave to defrost ...

389

Food jags  

Science.gov (United States)

Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... mealtimes positive. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

390

Fried foods  

Science.gov (United States)

Fried foods may taste good, but they can have terrible effects on your body if you eat too many of them. Someone who has bulimia would be likely to binge eat these fried foods. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted binge eats and then purges, or gets rid of, all of the food they just ate.

Sakurai Midori (None;)

2006-10-31

391

Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment.

Carvalho, Fernando P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt

2006-11-15

392

Observations of marketing on food packaging targeted to youth in retail food stores. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

There is growing evidence that exposure to food marketing influences dietary preferences among youth. Few studies exploring this association, however, have focused on the retail food store environment where families negotiate the influence of food and beverage marketing on purchasing practices.

393

Handling Sports Pressure and Competition  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... different. Back Continue How Can I Keep Stress in Check? If sports make you so nervous that ... Learn and practice relaxation techniques, like those described in the previous section. Get some type of physical ...

394

Guidelines for safe handling, use and disposal of nanoparticles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Health, safety and environmental (HSE) risks of a technology is an inseparable part of it which threatens all exposed employees. It has been proved for many years that exposure to particles, in an occupational setting, could be linked with the onset of lung diseases, such as pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and mesotelioma and lung cancer. Nanoparticles, due to their unique characteristics including; small size, shape, high surface area, charge, chemical properties, solubility, and degree of agglomeration can cross cell boundaries or pass directly from the lungs into the blood stream and ultimately reach to all of the organs in the body. This is the reason why they may pose higher risk than the same mass and material of larger particles. Moreover, biodegradation of nanoparticles by some kinds of fungi (like wood decay fungi) may result in metabolites which may be toxic to microorganisms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bacteria and living cells can take up nanoparticles, providing the basis for potential bioaccumulation in the food chain. Considering Iran's prominent position in nanotechnologies and fast-growing in research and industrial activities, controlling nanoparticles related HSE risks should be highly considered. In general, there are three main approaches to risk and exposure control: engineering techniques, administrative means and personal protective equipments. These complementary approaches especially engineering techniques should be considered starting with the design stage of an industrial process. Administrative means of control constitute an additional approach when the other methods have not achieved the expected control levels. Administrative means of control must never substitute for engineering techniques, which always be performed according to standard practices. In some situations, due to insufficiently advanced technology and prohibitive costs, engineering measerus can not be implemended. In these situations, performing administrative means of control constitute other ways of limiaiting the occupational exposure risks. Accordingly, to minimize the risks from know and unknown health, safety and invironment hazards in research and occupational setting of the country, guideline for safe handling, use and disposal of manopractical has provided.

Amoabediny, G H; Rashedi, H [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: amoabedini@ut.ac.ir; Naderi, A [Department of Occupational Health, Faculty of Medical Science, University of Tarbiat Modares (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Malakootikhah, J [Nanotechnology Standardisation Committee, Iran Nanotechnology Initiative, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Koohi, M K [Faculty of veterinary medicine, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mortazavi, S A [Department of Nanosafety, Research Centre for New Technology in life science Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naderi, M [University of Amirkabir (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2009-05-01

395

Food risk management quality: Consumer evaluations of past and emerging food safety incidents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In European countries, there has been growing consumer distrust regarding the motives of food safety regulators and other actors in the food chain, partly as a result of recent food safety incidents. If consumer confidence in food safety is to be improved, a systematic understanding of what consumers perceive to be best practice in risk management is crucial. Previous qualitative and quantitative research has revealed underlying factors determining consumer perceptions of food risk management...

Kleef, E.; Ueland, O.; Theodoridis, G.; Rowe, G.; Pfenning, U.; Houghton, J. R.; Dijk, H.; Chryssochoidis, G.; Frewer, L. J.

2009-01-01

396

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This popular-level article emphasizes that the ultimate health effects of irradiated food products are unknown. They may include vitamin loss, contamination of food by botulism bacteria, mutations in bacteria, increased production of aflatoxins, changes in food, carcinogenesis from unknown causes, presence of miscellaneous harmful chemicals, and the lack of a way of for a consumer to detect irradiated food. It is claimed that the nuclear industry is applying pressure on the Canadian government to relax labeling requirements on packages of irradiated food in order to find a market for its otherwise unnecessary products

1989-01-01

397

Food irradiation, profits and limitations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The utility of the irradiation to overcome diverse problems of lost nutritious, it has been demonstrated in multiple investigation works, that its have confirmed the value and the inoculation of the irradiated foods. The quantity of energy applied to each food, is in function of the wanted effect. In this document a guide with respect to the practical application and the utility of the irradiation process in different foods, as well as the suggested dose average is shown. Among the limitations of the use of this technology, its are the costs and not being able to apply it to some fresh foods. (Author)

1992-05-18

398

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food can be provided with extra beneficial properties by physical processing. These benefits include a reduced possibility of food poisoning, or an increased life of the food. We are familiar with pasteurisation of milk, drying of vegetables, and canning of fruit. These physical processes work because the food absorbs energy during treatment which brings about the changes needed. The energy absorbed in these examples is heat energy. Food irradiation is a less familiar process. It produces similar benefits to other processes and it can sometimes be applied with additional advantages over conventional processing. For example, because irradiation causes little heating, foods may look and taste more natural. Also, treatment can take place with the food in its final plastic wrappers, reducing the risk of re-contamination. (author). 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

1997-01-01

399

Pallet irradiators for food processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper looks at the various design concepts for the irradiation processing of food products, with particular emphasis on handling the products on pallets. Pallets appear to offer the most attractive method for handling foods from many considerations. Products are transported on pallets. Warehouse space is commonly designed for pallet storage and, if products are already palletized before and after irradiation, then labour could be saved by irradiating on pallets. This is also an advantage for equipment operation since a larger carrier volume means lower operation speeds. Different pallet irradiator design concepts are examined and their suitability for several applications are discussed. For example, low product holdup for fast turn around will be a consideration for those operating an irradiation 'service' business; others may require a very large source where efficiency is the primary requirement and this will not be consistent with low holdup. The radiation performance characteristics and processing costs of these machines are discussed. (author)

1985-01-01

400

Food Safety Attitude of Culinary Arts Based Students in Public and Private Higher Learning Institutions (IPT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Food safety issue is not new in Malaysia as problems such as unsafe food handling, doubtful food preparation, food poisoning outbreaks in schools and education institutions and spreading of infectious food borne illness has been discussed by the public more often than before. The purpose of this study is to examine the food safety knowledge and attitude of culinary based students from four (4 public and private higher learning institutions (IPT with prior knowledge on food safety, hygiene and sanitation. The study involved a total of 114 group administered questionnaires that were usable and coded comprising of 37- questions assessing their knowledge and attitude on food safety. A series of analysis were conducted to test the significant relationship between food safety knowledge and food safety attitude and seek any differences based on the students’ demographic profiles.  The research finds that higher learning institution’s students who have prior knowledge on food safety partly do not represent their attitude towards food safety although their correlations recorded moderate positive relationships especially on personal hygiene practice (p=0.07, r=0.42 and keeping food at safe temperature (p=0.17, r=0.36. On the other hand, their knowledge in avoiding cross contamination (p=0.00, r=0.50 and avoiding food from unsafe sources (p=0.02, r=0.36 were positive and significant in influencing their food safety attitude. The finding also revealed that there were no significant differences among food safety knowledge and attitude based on the students’ demographic profiles. The results urged for more improvement in both knowledge and practice of food safety among students in public and private higher learning institutions towards recommended food safety standards and positive attitude in food preparation process. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Keywords: food safety, knowledge, attitude, food borne illness, IPT students

Mohd Onn Rashdi Abd Patah

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
401

Obit: Radio Astronomy Data Handling  

Science.gov (United States)

Obit is a group of software packages for handling radio astronomy data, especially interferometric and single dish OTF imaging. Obit is primarily an environment in which new data processing algorithms can be developed and tested but which can also be used for production processing of a certain range of scientific problems. The package supports both prepackaged, compiled tasks and a python interface to the major class functionality to allow rapid prototyping using python scripts; it allows access to multiple disk--resident data formats, in particular access to either AIPS disk data or FITS files. Obit applications are interoperable with Classic AIPS and the ObitTalk python interface gives access to AIPS tasks as well as Obit libraries and tasks.

Cotton, Bill

2013-07-01