WorldWideScience

Sample records for food handling practices

  1. Sanitary Conditions of Food Vending Sites and Food Handling Practices of Street Food Vendors in Benin City, Nigeria: Implication for Food Hygiene and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Okojie, P. W.; Isah, E C

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the sanitary conditions of vending sites as well as food handling practices of street food vendors in Benin City, Nigeria. Methodology. A descriptive cross-sectional study was done using an observational checklist and researcher-administered questionnaire. 286 randomly selected vending units were surveyed, and their operators interviewed on their food handling practices. Results. A higher proportion, 259 (90.5%), of the observed vending sites appeared clean. The follow...

  2. Safe Food Handling: Knowledge, Perceptions, and Self-Reported Practices of Turkish Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Aygen, Gul F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines Turkish consumers’ perceptions and knowledge of safe food handling practices. Theirattitudes, opinions, and self-reported practices in the purchase, transportation, storage, preparation, andconsumption of food were studied. Data was collected from a total of 440 consumers living in Istanbul, Turkeythrough the use of a self-administered, structured, and undisguised questionnaire. A combination of stratified andsystematic random sampling was used based on the incidence of ...

  3. Application of the WHO Keys of Safer Food to Improve Food Handling Practices of Food Vendors in a Poor Resource Community in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Donkor, Eric S.; Kayang, Boniface B.; Jonathan Quaye; Akyeh, Moses L.

    2009-01-01

    Data was collected from food vendors in a poor resource community in Ghana, which showed that the vendors constituted an important source of oro-faecal transmission. Following this, the WHO five keys of safer food were utilized in an evidence based training programme for the vendors to improve their food handling practices. Impact assessment of the food safety training showed that 67.6% of the vendors had acquired some knowledge from the workshop and were putting it into practice. Lack of foo...

  4. Varying influences of motivation factors on employees' likelihood to perform safe food handling practices because of demographic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jason D; Arendt, Susan W; Strohbehn, Catherine H; Meyer, Janell; Paez, Paola

    2010-11-01

    Food safety training has been the primary avenue for ensuring food workers are performing proper food handling practices and thus, serving safe food. Yet, knowledge of safe food handling practices does not necessarily result in actual performance of these practices. This research identified participating food service employees' level of agreement with four factors of motivation (internal motivations, communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and determined if respondents with different demographic characteristics reported different motivating factors. Data were collected from 311 food service employees who did not have any supervisory responsibilities. Intrinsic motivation agreement scores were consistently the highest of all four motivational factors evaluated and did not differ across any of the demographic characteristics considered. In contrast, motivation agreement scores for communication, reward-punishment, and resources did differ based on respondents' gender, age, place of employment, job status, food service experience, completion of food handler course, or possession of a food safety certification. In general, respondents agreed that these motivation factors influenced their likelihood to perform various safe food handling procedures. This research begins to illustrate how employees' demographic characteristics influence their responses to various motivators, helping to clarify the complex situation of ensuring safe food in retail establishments. Future research into why employee willingness to perform varies more for extrinsic motivation than for intrinsic motivation could assist food service managers in structuring employee development programs and the work environment, in a manner that aids in improving external motivation (communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and capitalizing on internal motivation. PMID:21219719

  5. Toward Improving Food Safety in the Domestic Environment: A Multi-Item Rasch Scale for the Measurement of the Safety Efficacy of Domestic Food-Handling Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, A. R. H.; Frewer, L. J.; Nauta, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    To reduce consumer health risks from foodborne diseases that result from improper domestic food handling, consumers need to know how to safely handle food. To realize improvements in public health, it is necessary to develop interventions that match the needs of individual consumers. Successful intervention strategies are therefore contingent on identifying not only the practices that are important for consumer protection, but also barriers that prevent consumers from responding to these inte...

  6. SAFE HANDLING OF FOODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial food-borne illnesses pose a significant health problem in Japan. In 1996 the world's largest outbreak of Escherichia coli food illness occurred in Japan. Since then, new regulatory measures were established, including strict hygiene practices in meat and food processi...

  7. Prevalence of high-risk food consumption and food-handling practices among adults: a multistate survey, 1996 to 1997. The Foodnet Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, B; Yang, S; Cieslak, P; Vugia, D; Marcus, R; Koehler, J; Deneen, V; Angulo, F

    2000-11-01

    Risk factors for foodborne diseases include consumption of high-risk foods and unsanitary food-handling practices; however, little is known about the prevalence of these risk factors in the general population. A survey was done in five FoodNet sites (California, Connecticut, Georgia, Minnesota, Oregon) to determine the prevalence of these risk factors in the population. A total of 7,493 adults were interviewed by telephone between 1 July 1996 and 30 June 1997. Results showed that 1.5% drank raw milk, 1.9% ate raw shellfish, 18% ate runny egg, 30% preferred pink hamburger, 93% said they almost always washed their cutting board after cutting raw chicken, and 93% said they almost always washed their hands after handling raw meat or poultry, during 5 days before interview. The results differed by state and demographic group. Consumption of raw shellfish (3.2%) and undercooked hamburger (43%) were more common in Connecticut than other states. Raw milk consumption was more common among people who lived on a farm (8.6%) compared with people who lived in a city or urban area (1.1%). Preference for undercooked hamburger was more common among men (35%), young adults (18 to 25 years, 33%), people with college education (38%), and among people with household income of more than $100,000/year (49%). African-Americans were less likely to prefer undercooked hamburger compared to other racial groups (10% versus 30%). Young adults compared to older adults were less likely to wash their hands after handling raw chicken (88% versus 95%), and men washed their hands less often than women (89% versus 97%). Although there were statistical differences between demographic groups, they are insufficient to warrant targeted educational programs. PMID:11079697

  8. Safe Handling of Take-Out Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Safe Handling of Take-Out Foods TAKE-OUT AND DELIVERED FOODS Holiday Meals, Picnics, ... Perishable foods can cause illness when mishandled. Proper handling of the food and the leftovers is essential to ensure the ...

  9. Handling Food Safely on the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clean it before using. Make sure the refrigerator, food preparation areas, and utensils in the vacation home or in the recreational vehicle are thoroughly cleaned with hot soapy water. Handling Food Safely on the Road Last Modified Jun 15, ...

  10. 21 CFR 1250.32 - Food-handling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food-handling operations. 1250.32 Section 1250...Conveyances, and Vessels § 1250.32 Food-handling operations. (a) All food-handling operations shall be accomplished so...

  11. Basics for Handling Food Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Revised September 2006 FSIS encourages the reprint and distribution of this publication for food safety education purposes. However, USDA symbols or logos may not be used separately to imply endorsement of a commercial product or service. Call the USDA Meat & Poultry Hotline If you ...

  12. 7 CFR 800.61 - Prohibited grain handling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...false Prohibited grain handling practices. 800.61 Section 800.61...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Grain Handling Practices § 800.61 Prohibited grain handling practices. (a) Definitions....

  13. Reconceptualising manual handling: Foundations for practice change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Kay

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare involves complex manual handling tasks that are unique to the industry. Despite research intended to improve carer safety, substantial rates of manual handling injuries persist within the nursing profession. This paper reviews manual handling issues arising from patient care activities and the strategies deployed in healthcare facilities to reduce musculoskeletal injuries. Discussion: Conventional programs aimed at reducing nurses’ work-related manual handling injuries include assumptions regarding evidence, transferability to the clinical setting and efficacy. Additionally, intervention success is commonly measured by administrative data comprising incident reports and injury rates. However official statistics are contrasted with self-reported injury rates in several studies. The complex nature of the injury mechanism and the obscured visibility of musculoskeletal disorders hinder detection of manual handling injuries and attribution of causality. In turn, this hampers the development of successful injury prevention strategies. Training programs reliant on specific techniques and assistive devices have had limited success. This paper questions the appropriateness of training and compliance strategies to manage manual handling risks in nursing practice and expounds a re-examination of the premises upon which manual handling programs are based. Conclusion: It is argued that the current conceptualisation of manual handling has limited the development of effective injury prevention programs for healthcare. It emphasises the enforcement of guidelines rather than a critique of other influences on practice. Approaching manual handling from a different perspective, inclusive of nurses’ knowledge, is a way forward into the complex environment of manual handling in healthcare contexts. Voicing and validation of nurses’ manual handling knowledge offers critical knowledge necessary to improve manual handling safety for nurses by foregrounding contextual influences that have previously been undervalued.

  14. Produce handling and processing practices.

    OpenAIRE

    Beuchat, L. R.; Ryu, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    In the past decade, outbreaks of human illness associated with the consumption of raw vegetables and fruits (or unpasteurized products produced from them) have increased in the United States. Changes in agronomic, harvesting, distribution, processing, and consumption patterns and practices have undoubtedly contributed to this increase. Pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, and Bacillus cereus are naturally present in some soil, and their presence on fresh produce is...

  15. 77 FR 71312 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ...Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food AGENCY: Food and...Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food (21 CFR part 179...IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD 0 1. The...

  16. Assessing and Addressing Safe Food Handling Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of College Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Susan E.; Dirks, Brian P.; Quinlan, Jennifer J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors determined the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of undergraduates (n = 1122) on an urban college campus using a previously piloted survey tool. Data obtained found that while students reported high levels of confidence in their ability to engage in safe food handling practices, their knowledge and self-reported behaviors…

  17. Staphylococcus aureus Contamination during Food Preparation, Processing and Handling

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Bahry S. N.; Mahmoud I. Y.; Al-Musharafi S. K.; Sivakumar. N

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the world, food processing and handling is a major problem leading to food poisoning and infection. A total of 480 samples was analyzed for Staphylococcus aureus contamination which resulted from food processing. Most of the isolates were taken from food-handlers using nasal swabs. The most contaminated food was chicken pastries, followed by egg sandwiches and spring rolls. Isolates from all samples produced virulence factors hemolysin, coagulase, DNase and enterotoxins. Five diffe...

  18. 21 CFR 1250.45 - Food handling facilities on railroad conveyances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Food handling facilities on railroad conveyances...Conveyances § 1250.45 Food handling facilities on railroad conveyances...be provided for washing and handling cracked ice used in food or drink and shall be...

  19. 21 CFR 1250.38 - Toilet and lavatory facilities for use of food-handling employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...lavatory facilities for use of food-handling employees. 1250.38 Section...lavatory facilities for use of food-handling employees. (a) Toilet...shall be provided for use of food-handling employees. Railroad dining...

  20. Problems of food handling and trade in ASEAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand) with a population of some 280 million population is a major producer of several food commodities and also a large, and growing, market for many food items. The handling of food products in ASEAN is undertaken under many constraints, related mainly to small and traditional production structures with less than efficient distribution and marketing systems. Activities of the ASEAN Food Handling Project in promoting more efficient food handling methods and technologies in ASEAN are discussed in relation to the existing post harvest losses (50% in fish, 30% in grains and 20-40% in fruits and vegetables) and attempts to reduce these. Activities in this project include training courses and the establishment of laboratories as training and research centres pilot packing houses for fruit and vegetable handling, improvement of transportation systems for fish and livestock, and improvement of post harvest grain handling technologies. The extent of food trade in ASEAN is assessed and problems of food handling and trade are discussed, with special focus on problems of standardization of quality, and tariff and non-tariff barriers for external trade. (author)

  1. Irradiated food: too hot to handle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses current arguments for and against the irradiation of food for human consumption. The technique, which involves bombarding batches of food with gamma rays, x rays or accelerated electrons, is claimed to halt spoilage, kill bacteria and thus extend the shelf-life of various foodstuffs. Irradiated foods are at present indistinguishable from non-irradiated food and this problem may not be solved before the government's bill legalizes the process. Opponents claim the technique may not be safe and that the food industry may use it to fool consumers into buying rotten foods. Proponents say that even though many foods, such as poultry, seafood, fruits, vegetables and spices may be treated, it is unlikely that more than a small proportion will be. They reject safety worries as alarmist exaggeration. (UK)

  2. Trends in U.S. consumers' safe handling and consumption of food and their risk perceptions, 1988 through 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, Sara B; Lando, Amy M; Levy, Alan S; Teisl, Mario F; Noblet, Caroline

    2011-09-01

    Although survey results measuring the safety of consumers' food handling and risky food consumption practices have been published for over 20 years, evaluation of trends is impossible because the designs of published studies are not comparable. The Food Safety Surveys used comparable methods to interview U.S. adults by telephone in 1988, 1993, 2001, 2006, and 2010 about food handling (i.e., cross-contamination prevention) and risky consumption practices (eating raw or undercooked foods from animals) and perceived risk from foodborne illness. Sample sizes ranged from 1,620 to 4,547. Responses were analyzed descriptively, and four indices measuring meat, chicken, and egg cross-contamination, fish cross-contamination, risky consumption, and risk perceptions were analyzed using generalized linear models. The extent of media coverage of food safety issues was also examined. We found a substantial improvement in food handling and consumption practices and an increase in perceived risk from foodborne illness between 1993 and 1998. All indices were stable or declined between 1998 and 2006. Between 2006 and 2010, the two safe food handling practice indices increased significantly, but risk perceptions did not change, and safe consumption declined. Women had safer food handling and consumption practices than men. The oldest and youngest respondents and those with the highest education had the least safe food handling behaviors. Changes in safety of practices over the survey years are consistent with the change in the number of media stories about food safety in the periods between surveys. This finding suggests that increased media attention to food safety issues may raise awareness of food safety hazards and increase vigilance in food handling by consumers. PMID:21902921

  3. 76 FR 20509 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ...Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food AGENCY: Food and Drug...University of Rhode Island, Food Science and Nutrition...Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food (21 CFR part...

  4. 77 FR 27586 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food AGENCY: Food and Drug...179 Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food (21 CFR part 179)...

  5. 77 FR 71316 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ...Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food AGENCY: Food...Growth and Toxin Production by Clostidium...Journal of Food Protection, 47...IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD 0 1. The...

  6. 77 FR 34212 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ...Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food AGENCY: Food and Drug...to the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, 21 CFR part...IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD 1. The authority...

  7. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sibbing, F. A.

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some food types and the consequent restrictions for others. Such information improves our understanding of the trophic interrelations between different fish species living together in one community.- Cy...

  8. Food Preparation, Practices, and Safety In The Hmong Community

    OpenAIRE

    Pe?rez, Miguel A.; Long Julah Moua; Helda Pinzon-Perez

    2007-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses are syndromes that are acquired as a result of eating foods that contain sufficient quantities of poisonous substances or pathogens. Cultural practices place the Hmongat an increased risk for food borne illnesses resulting from improper food handling, preparation, and storage. The risk for illness is further complicated by the fact that the Hmong have verylimited knowledge about food-borne disease and they find themselves in a situation in which they cannot control the spa...

  9. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A

    1990-01-01

    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  10. TO STUDY ON AWARENESS OF THE KITCHEN HOLDERS AND HOME MAKERS REGARDING SAFETY AND SANITARY HANDLING OF FOOD PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Verma; Sunita Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Background: The chances of food contamination largely depend on the health status of food handlers & their hygiene behaviors and practices. The present study was conducted to assess health status of food handlers and kitchen holders, working in kitchen. Objective. : To assess the awareness of the kitchen holders and home makers regarding safety and sanitary handling of food product. Methodology: The study was carried out using the following tools for the analyze the awarenes...

  11. Survey of tritiated oil sources and handling practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium interactions with oil sources (primarily associated with pumps) in tritium-handling facilities can lead to the incorporation of tritium in the oil and the production of tritiated hydrocarbons. This results in a source of radiological hazard and the need for special handling considerations during maintenance, decontamination, decommissioning and waste packaging and storage. The results of a general survey of tritiated-oil sources and their associated characteristics, handling practices, analysis techniques and waste treatment/storage methods are summarized here. Information was obtained from various tritium-handling laboratories, fusion devices, and CANDU plants. 38 refs., 1 fig

  12. Microbiological surveillance of food handling at NASA-MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerle, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    A microbiological surveillance program of cafeterias and snack bars was conducted to supplement the inspections by NASA Medical Center personnel and to gather information for cafeteria management to pinpoint areas of possible contamination. The work conducted under the program from its inception in January, 1972, to its termination on September 15, 1972 is summarized. Ten food handling facilities were included in the surveillance at NASA-MSFC.

  13. 9 CFR 314.11 - Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Handling of certain condemned...other than human food. 314.11 Section...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...AND CERTIFICATION HANDLING AND DISPOSAL OF...ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.11 Handling of certain condemned...other than human food....

  14. Food hygiene practices in different food establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Djeki, I.; Smigic, N.; Kalogianni, E.P.; Rocha, Ada; Zamioudi, L.; Pacheco, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate three dimensions of food hygiene in three European cities -Belgrade, Thessaloniki and Porto. The first dimension of the survey was to evaluate the level of hygiene indifferent food establishments supplying food direct to consumers. A total of 91 food businesses wereincluded in the survey with 30 food businesses from Belgrade and Porto, and 31 from Thessaloniki. Inparallel with scoring the premises, the second dimension of the study was to examine the o...

  15. Development of sample handling procedures for foods under USDA’s National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program

    OpenAIRE

    Trainer, D.; Pehrsson, P. R.; Haytowitz, D. B.; Holden, J. M.; Phillips, K. M.; Rasor, A. S.; Conley, N. A.

    2010-01-01

    The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) was implemented in 1997 to update and improve the quality of food composition data maintained by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). NFNAP was designed to sample and analyze frequently consumed foods in the U.S. food supply using statistically rigorous sampling plans, established sample handling procedures, and qualified analytical laboratories. Methods for careful handling of food samples from acquisition to analysis wer...

  16. Control of food irradiation facilities and good irradiation practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expansion of irradiation facilities employing commercial scale processes is evident in several countries. The list compiled by the Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, Vienna (April 1988) showed that 34 counties have approved the use of irradiation process for more than 40 food commodities. In Asia and the Pacific Region, the main commercial application of irradiation process is still the sterilization of medical devices but applications to food processing are on the rise. To ensure the safety of irradiated foods, laws and regulations have to be promulgated to govern the facilities, the operations and the products. In most cases, there may be more than one governmental agency involved in regulatory control. The control activities include licensing/registration of a food irradiation premises as a food processing plant, registration of irradiated food in accordance with prescribed standards and regulating labelling practice as well as regularly conducting a comprehensive inspection of the facilities. The quality control programme must cover all aspects of treatment, handling, and distribution. It is emphasized that, as with all food technologies, effective quality control systems needs to be installed and adequately monitored at critical control points at the irradiation facility. Foods should be handled, stored, and transported according to GMP before, during, and after irradiation. Only foods meeting microbiological criteria and other quality stanbiological criteria and other quality standards should be accepted for irradiation. Besides, good irradiation practice (GIP) is also a fundamental principle of practice required specifically for food irradiation. With this recognition, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) has elaborated a set of eight codes of GIP. The quality control system would also include proper packaging suitable for the product. Additional use of a logo to identify irradiated food should be permitted and may even become recognized as a symbol of quality. (author)

  17. Practices of Handling : On embodied methodology in professional fashion design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ræbild, Ulla

    Abstract While few will dispute the idea that fashion designers relate to the notion of the body in their work practice, the actual embodied engagement of the designer, and the role that the personal bodies of the designers play in processes of fashion design, is an underexposed although nascent area within fashion research. This paper proposes an understanding of the work process of fashion designers as practices of handling comprising a number of embodied methodologies tied to both spatial and temporal dimensions. The term handling encompasses four meanings. As a verb it is literally to touch, pick up, carry, or feel with the hands. Figuratively it is to manage, deal with, direct, train, or control. Additionally, as a noun, a handle is something by which we grasp or open up something. Lastly, handle also has a Nordic root, here meaning to trade, bargain or deal. Together all four meanings seem to merge in the fashion design process, thus opening up for an embodied engagement with matter that entails direction giving, organizational management and negotiation. By seeing processes of handling as a key fashion methodological practice, it is possible to divert the discourse away from a dichotomized idea of design as combined, alternating or parallel processes of thinking and doing. In other words, the notion of handling is not about reflection in or on action, as brought to the fore by Scho?n (1984), but about reflection as action. Below the methodological macro level of handling, the paper introduces four ways whereby fashion designers apply their own bodies as tools for design; a) re-activating past garment-design experiences, b) testing present garment-design experiences c) probing for new garment-design experiences and d) design of future garment experiences by body proxy. The paper is based on the Ph.D. thesis Addressing the Body – methodological practises in professional fashion design finalised October 2014 (Ræbild, in press)

  18. Observational trial of safe food handling behavior during food preparation using the example of Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzl, C; Mayerhofer, U; Steininger, M; Brüller, W; Hofstädter, D; Aldrian, U

    2013-03-01

    Campylobacter infections are one of the most prominent worldwide food-related diseases. The primary cause of these infections is reported to be improper food handling, in particular cross-contamination during domestic preparation of raw chicken products. In the present study, food handling behaviors in Austria were surveyed and monitored, with special emphasis on Campylobacter cross-contamination. Forty participants (25 mothers or fathers with at least one child ?10 years of age and 15 elderly persons ?60 years of age) were observed during the preparation of a chicken salad (chicken slices plus lettuce, tomato, and cucumber) using a direct structured observational scoring system. The raw chicken carcasses and the vegetable part of the salad were analyzed for Campylobacter. A questionnaire concerning knowledge, attitudes, and interests related to food safety issues was filled out by the participants. Only 57% of formerly identified important hygiene measures were used by the participants. Deficits were found in effective hand washing after contact with raw chicken meat, but proper changing and cleaning of the cutting board was noted. Campylobacter was present in 80% of raw chicken carcasses, albeit the contamination rate was generally lower than the limit of quantification (10 CFU/g). In the vegetable part of the prepared product, no Campylobacter was found. This finding could be due to the rather low Campylobacter contamination rate in the raw materials and the participants' use of some important food handling behaviors to prevent cross-contamination. However, if the initial contamination had been higher, the monitored deficits in safe food handling could lead to quantifiable risks, as indicated in other published studies. The results of the observational trial and the questionnaire indicated knowledge gaps in the food safety sector, suggesting that further education of the population is needed to prevent the onset of foodborne diseases. PMID:23462086

  19. Theoretical Insights for Practical Handling of Pressurized Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Alfonso; Rodriguez, Maria del Prado

    2006-01-01

    The practical scenarios discussed in a chemistry or chemical engineering course that use solid or liquid reactants are presented. Important ideas to be considered when handling pressurized fluids are provided and three typical examples are described to enable students develop secondary skills such as the selective search of data, identification of…

  20. Novel Additive Manufacturing Pneumatic Actuators and Mechanisms for Food Handling Grippers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Blanes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional pneumatic grippers are widely used in industrial pick and place robot processes for rigid objects. They are simple, robust and fast, but their design, motion and features are limited, and they do not fulfil the final purpose. Food products have a wide variety of shapes and textures and are susceptible to damaged. Robot grippers for food handling should adapt to this wide range of dimensions and must be fast, cheap, reasonably reliable, and with cheap and reasonable maintenance costs. They should not damage the product and must meet hygienic conditions. The additive manufacturing (AM process is able to manufacture parts without significant restrictions, and is Polyamide approved as food contact material by FDA. This paper presents that, taking the best of plastic flexibility, AM allows the implementation of novel actuators, original compliant mechanisms and practical grippers that are cheap, light, fast, small and easily adaptable to specific food products. However, if they are not carefully designed, the results can present problems, such as permanent deformations, low deformation limits, and low operation speed. We present possible solutions for the use of AM to design proper robot grippers for food handling. Some successful results, such as AM actuators based on deformable air chambers, AM compliant mechanisms, and grippers developed in a single part will be introduced and discussed.

  1. An exploratory study of food safety and food handling: Examining ready-to-eat foods in independent delicatessen operations

    OpenAIRE

    Casey Schuckers; Charles Feldman; Lee Lee; Douglas Murray

    2013-01-01

    The US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2009) reports that each year 76 million cases of foodborne illness occur with over 300,000 people hospitalized and 5000 deaths. This study, phase I of a continuing study, identifies key areas for food safety improvement. This study is designed as an exploratory evaluation of independently owned and operated delicatessen operations, using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as indicators to assess food handling and the public’s r...

  2. Food hygiene practices of food vendors in secondary schools in Ilorin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, O I; Akande, T M

    2003-09-01

    This descriptive study was carried out to determine food safety practices among food Vendors in secondary schools in Ilorin. Pre-tested questionnaire and observational checklist were administered to 185 respondents recruited using inclusion and exclusion criteria. One hundred and eighty-two (98.4%) of the subjects were females and only 6(3%) were teenagers. One hundred and two (56.8%) had no formal education while 72(39% had received training on food hygiene. Pre-employment medical examination practice was high 141(76%) but periodic medical examination was low 30(16%). Sixty-one (33%) and seventy-two(39%) respondents prepared food well in advance and reheat food before sale respectively. Vendors who prepared food well in advance (over 4 hours) were found to practise food re-heating more than those who prepared food within 4 hours before sale, and this is statistically significant. The major unhygienic practices observed among the food vendors were poor care of used utensils 100(54%), use of previously used water for washing and cleaning, lack of covering apron among the vendors 128(69%) and lack of wash hand basin for immediate cleaning 61(33%). Only 85(46%) of the respondents used soap and water to clean their utensils while the rest 100(54%) used unhygienic methods to clean their utensils. It was observed that respondents who used soap and water for cleaning, vended food at locations that were relatively closer to water source, compared to other vendors who used other methods to clean their utensils. This is also statistically significant. Unkempt fingernails, skin lesions and poor food protection from flies were some of the food contaminating risk factors observed in the study. The need exists for food vendors and other food handlers to be trained on basic principles of safe food handling. PMID:14692065

  3. Food for talk: discursive identities, food choice and eating practices

    OpenAIRE

    Sneijder, P. W. J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the construction and use of identities in food interaction. Insights from discursive psychology and conversation analysis are drawn upon to examine the interactional functions of identities in online food talk.Discursive psychology (DP) explores how psychological themes, such as identity, are handled and managed in discourse, by participants themselves. The main principle of this approach is that talk is action-oriented. Rather than assuming a cognitive basis for identi...

  4. Food safety knowledge and practices of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Eric J; Knechtges, Paul L

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study described in this article was to ascertain the food safety knowledge and practices of undergraduate students attending a major American university. The study participants were undergraduate college students (mean age 18.9 +/- 1.14 SD) enrolled in a required health course. The students were invited to take a validated food safety knowledge questionnaire as part of a health risk behavior online survey. The 786 respondents indicated their food is most often prepared at on-campus dining facilities and the majority of the students (72%) felt they were "unlikely or "very unlikely" at risk of foodborne disease. The mean food safety knowledge score of the participants was 10.23 (43%) +/- 4.13 SD (25%-60%), indicating the study population overall has poor knowledge of safe food practices. As a result, food safety educational initiatives and awareness campaigns should be developed to better inform young adults about safe food handling practices and habits. PMID:26058218

  5. Food Preparation, Practices, and Safety In The Hmong Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Pérez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illnesses are syndromes that are acquired as a result of eating foods that contain sufficient quantities of poisonous substances or pathogens. Cultural practices place the Hmongat an increased risk for food borne illnesses resulting from improper food handling, preparation, and storage. The risk for illness is further complicated by the fact that the Hmong have verylimited knowledge about food-borne disease and they find themselves in a situation in which they cannot control the space in the house available for food preparation. Data for this qualitative study were collected from 25 Hmong individuals aged 18 and over residing in Fresno, California. Participants in this study did not appear to understand the direct relationship between bacteria and food borne illnesses. Similarly, study participants were more likely to reportreliance on traditional medicine to address foodborne illnesses. Results from this study indicate a need to reach the Hmong community with culturally appropriate messages relating to food preparation and practice. Messages must acknowledge the role of food in cultural celebrations, while seeking to decrease the risk for foodborne illnesses.

  6. Practical considerations on food safety objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Zwietering, M. H.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of food safety objectives (FSO) is very strong in that it may make food safety transparent and quantifiable. This brings a major advantage in that one can ensure food safety at the process where it is the most effective in meeting the overall integrated objective. A practical overview is given how to derive FSOs from population health goals, through product group health objectives. Then these FSOs can be used to assign the responsibilities over the various parts of the food chain,...

  7. Safety and animal handling practices among women dairy operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioniemi, M K; Raussi, S M; Rautiainen, R H; Kymäläinen, H R

    2011-01-01

    This article presents suggestions toward safer animal handling utilizing the results of a qualitative study of women dairy farmers in Finland. A major proportion of injuries (43%) occur in livestock-related work in Finnish agriculture. An even greater proportion of women's farm injuries (77%) is related to animals. We investigated the working conditions often women dairy farmers. Data were collected by observing farm work and performing semi-structured interviews. The study farms represented different milk production technologies with an average farm size of 106 ha (262 acres) of cultivated land, 51 ha (126 acres) of forest, and 45 dairy cows. Farm-related injuries were frequent; eight respondents out often had suffered one or several injuries during the previous two years. The women considered farm animals as the greatest hazard, and unexpected animal behavior was viewed as the most significant work-related injury risk. Dangerous situations often resulted from stress in cows caused by unpleasant circumstances or making animals fearful of people. Experiences from some farms suggested that dairy farm work can be relatively safe and that improving the trust between the cows and their handlers plays a key role in safety. We synthesized our findings into four animal handling strategies that can potentially reduce the risk of injury among stockpersons. We developed practical guidelines on how to gradually build a good cow-handler relationship based on our findings and the literature on cattle handling strategies and animal welfare science. PMID:21452758

  8. Food discard practices of householders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Garde, S J; Woodburn, M J

    1987-03-01

    Food discard patterns and reasons were determined for a sample of 243 households in Oregon. Personal interviews were conducted, and 7-day records of discards were collected. Discards over a 3-day period also were collected from a subsample of 50. The householder's estimate of amount, converted from measures to grams using food composition tables, was found to be 97% of the actual grams of food, as weighed in the laboratory. Households discarded an average of 1,587 gm ($2.88) food in a 7-day period on the basis of the 79% completed usable records. Major reasons were poor quality for fruits and vegetables; storage time for meat, fish, and poultry; non-use of leftovers for combination dishes; and plate waste for cereals and dairy products. Twenty-nine percent of the discarded food (by cost) was considered to be unsafe to eat by the householder. Aesthetic factors dominated decisions by the 18- to 25-year age group, but experiences related to food storage were the basis for decisions by half of the respondents more than 65 years old. Discards increased with number of members in the household and were influenced by age of children. Household income was not linearly related to amount of discard. As household refrigerator temperatures increased from 1.7 degrees C to 20 degrees C, the amount of discards also increased. Consumers generally lacked criteria for evaluating the safety of foods. PMID:3819252

  9. 21 CFR 1250.35 - Health of persons handling food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Food Service Sanitation on Land and Air Conveyances, and Vessels § 1250.35 Health of persons...

  10. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, Shawn M; Harrison, Mark A [Food Science and Technology Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-2610 (United States); Law, S Edward, E-mail: edlaw@engr.uga.edu [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Applied Electrostatics Laboratory www.ael.engr.uga.edu, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-4435 (United States)

    2011-06-23

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic-nozzle sprays.

  11. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Shawn M.; Harrison, Mark A.; Law, S. Edward

    2011-06-01

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic-nozzle sprays.

  12. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic-nozzle sprays.

  13. Liberalisation of municipal waste handling : compatible with sustainable practices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of municipal waste handling: How are sustainable practices pursued? In the process of liberalization of public services in Europe contracting out the collection of municipal waste has surged. Research in Denmark has shown that municipalities in general have pursued a narrow policy of price reductions in stead of quality demands in both environmental and working environmental terms. A recent study showed major deficits in the capacities of the municipalities to administer qualitative requirements in the tender process and to manage the contracts as an integral part of a scheme for improved performance of municipal waste management. The study stresses the need for training and guidance of municipal administrators. Highlighting ‘best practice’ examples the study shows, however, that it is perfectly possible to end up with quality service on contract. It takes a mixture of careful design of requirement specifications in the tender material and deployment of resources to follow up on the contract and cooperate with the contractor in problem-solving. The study finds the municipalities in a key position to break the ‘vicious circle’ of renouncement of responsibility, untamed market forces and low quality performance. By assuming responsibility, setting and following up on high quality standards the tender instrument presents an additional instrument to legislation and market based means to institutionalize more sustainable practices in waste management

  14. A practical guide to handling laser diode beams

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Haiyin

    2015-01-01

    This book offers the reader a practical guide to the control and characterization of laser diode beams.  Laser diodes are the most widely used lasers, accounting for 50% of the global laser market.  Correct handling of laser diode beams is the key to the successful use of laser diodes, and this requires an in-depth understanding of their unique properties. Following a short introduction to the working principles of laser diodes, the book describes the basics of laser diode beams and beam propagation, including Zemax modeling of a Gaussian beam propagating through a lens.  The core of the book is concerned with laser diode beam manipulations: collimating and focusing, circularization and astigmatism correction, coupling into a single mode optical fiber, diffractive optics and beam shaping, and manipulation of multi transverse mode beams.  The final chapter of the book covers beam characterization methods, describing the measurement of spatial and spectral properties, including wavelength and linewidth meas...

  15. Food Irradiation Regulations And Code Of Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Official attitude towards irradiated food is determined by factors such as: level of scientific knowledge, consumer habits, food shortages, agricultural production and technological know-how. To date, 39 countries have accepted the process for one or more food items while 27 nations carry out the process on a commercial basis. Regulations and codes of practice is essential for consumer confidence while uniformity of regulations, at the international level, will enhance international trade in irradiated food items. The internationally accepted Codex Standard on irradiated food and Codes of Practice for the operation of irradiation facilities, adopted in 1983, forms the basis for International regulations and a template for nations in the development of regulations. This paper discusses the basic legal requirements for licensing the process, procedures, facility and the operator and suggests a framework for a national regulation based on experiences of Hungary, Brazil and Israel

  16. Online complaint handling practices: Company strategies and their effects upon post-complaint satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Schwab, Pierre-nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine (1) the nature of firms’ complaint-handling practices in an online double-deviation context, and (2) the relationship between complaint-handling practices on the one hand and customer post-complaint satisfaction on the other. Predictions were derived from justice theory and existing research and practice concerning the attributes of effective organizational complaint-handling. 523 naturally occurring exchanges between complainants and 179 firms were coded ...

  17. Safe Handling Tips for Pet Foods and Treats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in its original bag inside a clean, dedicated plastic container with a lid, keeping the top of the bag folded closed. Keep pets away from food storage and preparation areas. Keep pets away from garbage and household trash. Raw Food Diets FDA does ...

  18. 76 FR 50740 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Procedures for Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ...Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0514] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Procedures for Handling...an overview of section 522 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), procedural information on how to...

  19. 78 FR 34565 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and X-Ray...IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD 0 1. The authority...

  20. The impact of food manufacturing practices on food borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Paiva de Sousa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne illness is a major international problem and an important cause of reduced economic growth. The contamination of the food supply with the pathogens and its persistence, growth, multiplication and/or toxin production has emerged as an important public health concern. Most of these problems could be controlled with the efforts on the part of the food handlers, whether in a processing plant, a restaurant, and others. In contrast with most chemical hazardous compounds, the concentration of food pathogens changes during the processing, storage, and meal preparation, making it difficult to estimate the number of the microorganisms or the concentration of their toxins at the time of ingestion by the consumer. This review shows main microorganisms related to the manipulation practices such as Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. and describes the factors regarding the food-borne illness highlighting the impact of good manipulation practices on the food safety and food quality.Doenças veiculadas por alimentos são um dos maiores problemas de Saúde Pública no mundo, sendo responsáveis por reduções no crescimento econômico global. A contaminação de alimentos com patógenos e sua persistência, crescimento, multiplicação e/ou produção de toxinas é de interesse da Saúde Pública. Estes problemas podem ser controlados com esforços e treinamento constante de manipuladores de alimentos. Em contraste com perigos químicos e físicos, a concentração de patógenos em alimentos é modificada durante etapas de processamento, acondicionamento e preparação, tornando difícil estimar e quantificar o número de microrganismos ou a concentração de suas toxinas no momento da ingestão do alimento. Esta revisão comenta sobre os principais microrganismos bacterianos relacionados à práticas de manipulação como Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp. ressaltando o consumo de alimentos em ruas, o desenvolvimento de doenças veiculadas por alimentos e enfatizando o impacto de boas práticas de manipulação na segurança e qualidade de alimentos.

  1. The impact of food manufacturing practices on food borne diseases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristina Paiva de, Sousa.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Doenças veiculadas por alimentos são um dos maiores problemas de Saúde Pública no mundo, sendo responsáveis por reduções no crescimento econômico global. A contaminação de alimentos com patógenos e sua persistência, crescimento, multiplicação e/ou produção de toxinas é de interesse da Saúde Pública. [...] Estes problemas podem ser controlados com esforços e treinamento constante de manipuladores de alimentos. Em contraste com perigos químicos e físicos, a concentração de patógenos em alimentos é modificada durante etapas de processamento, acondicionamento e preparação, tornando difícil estimar e quantificar o número de microrganismos ou a concentração de suas toxinas no momento da ingestão do alimento. Esta revisão comenta sobre os principais microrganismos bacterianos relacionados à práticas de manipulação como Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp. ressaltando o consumo de alimentos em ruas, o desenvolvimento de doenças veiculadas por alimentos e enfatizando o impacto de boas práticas de manipulação na segurança e qualidade de alimentos. Abstract in english Food-borne illness is a major international problem and an important cause of reduced economic growth. The contamination of the food supply with the pathogens and its persistence, growth, multiplication and/or toxin production has emerged as an important public health concern. Most of these problems [...] could be controlled with the efforts on the part of the food handlers, whether in a processing plant, a restaurant, and others. In contrast with most chemical hazardous compounds, the concentration of food pathogens changes during the processing, storage, and meal preparation, making it difficult to estimate the number of the microorganisms or the concentration of their toxins at the time of ingestion by the consumer. This review shows main microorganisms related to the manipulation practices such as Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. and describes the factors regarding the food-borne illness highlighting the impact of good manipulation practices on the food safety and food quality.

  2. Biofilms on produce and food handling/processing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rise in the number of produce-related outbreaks, coupled with the lack of an effective intervention, has given rise to an intense research effort into the ecology of human pathogens in the field and food preparation environment. Human pathogen cells have been found to be capable of attaching to...

  3. Critical control points of complementary food preparation and handling in eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehiri John E.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate microbial contamination and critical control points (CCPs in the preparation and handling of complementary foods in 120 households in Imo state, Nigeria. METHODS: The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP approach was used to investigate processes and procedures that contributed to microbial contamination, growth and survival, and to identify points where controls could be applied to prevent or eliminate these microbiological hazards or reduce them to acceptable levels. Food samples were collected and tested microbiologically at different stages of preparation and handling. FINDINGS: During cooking, all foods attained temperatures capable of destroying vegetative forms of food-borne pathogens. However, the risk of contamination increased by storage of food at ambient temperature, by using insufficiently high temperatures to reheat the food, and by adding contaminated ingredients such as dried ground crayfish and soybean powder at stages where no further heat treatment was applied. The purchasing of contaminated raw foodstuffs and ingredients, particularly raw akamu, from vendors in open markets is also a CCP. CONCLUSION: Although an unsafe environment poses many hazards for children?s food, the hygienic quality of prepared food can be assured if basic food safety principles are observed. When many factors contribute to food contamination, identification of CCPs becomes particularly important and can facilitate appropriate targeting of resources and prevention efforts.

  4. Food Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Hospital Food Handlers in Davao City

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Jason O.

    2012-01-01

    The study determined the relationships between food safety knowledge and practices of hospital food handlers in Davao City and also between their attitudes and practices regarding food safety. Questionnaire patterned after the Key Food Safety Guidelines of Pacific Northwest Publications was administered to 51 food handlers to generate the data. It was found that hospital food handlers in Davao City are highly knowledgeable and have favorable attitudes in food safety. The extent of food sa...

  5. Food storage and disposal: consumer practices and knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Terpstra, P. M. J.; Steenbekkers, L. P. A.; Maertelaere, N. C. M.; Nijhuis, S.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - Consumer food handling behaviour is important in preventing food borne disease and this paper proposes examining consumer behaviour and knowledge concerning food storage and disposal. Design/methodology/approach - Interviews and observations were used to investigate the storage methods and the storage durations of various categories of food products as well as the consumers' motives when they decide to throw away food products. The temperature of their refrigerators was also measure...

  6. Radiation protection and practical aspect of radionuclide handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides are now widely used in industry but outside nuclear centers radiation protection is sometimes difficult to handle. Radiation risks are appreciated and summed up in tables for installation classification, radiation monitoring, shielding, ventilation, storage and waste disposal

  7. Novel Additive Manufacturing Pneumatic Actuators and Mechanisms for Food Handling Grippers

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Blanes; Martín Mellado; Pablo Beltran

    2014-01-01

    Conventional pneumatic grippers are widely used in industrial pick and place robot processes for rigid objects. They are simple, robust and fast, but their design, motion and features are limited, and they do not fulfil the final purpose. Food products have a wide variety of shapes and textures and are susceptible to damaged. Robot grippers for food handling should adapt to this wide range of dimensions and must be fast, cheap, reasonably reliable, and with cheap and reasonable maintenance co...

  8. Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good handling practices. Revision 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is continuing the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies in sharing with the nuclear industry their experience in the area of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) shipping containers and handling procedures. The USEC has reviewed Revision 6 or ORO-651 and is issuing this new edition to assure that the document includes the most recent information on UF6 handling procedures and reflects the policies of the USEC. This manual updates the material contained in earlier issues. It covers the essential aspects of UF6 handling, cylinder filling and emptying, general principles of weighing and sampling, shipping, and the use of protective overpacks. The physical and chemical properties of UF6 are also described. The procedures and systems described for safe handling of UF6 presented in this document have been developed and evaluated during more than 40 years of handling vast quantities of UF6. With proper consideration for its nuclear properties, UF6 may be safely handled in essentially the same manner as any other corrosive and/or toxic chemical

  9. Handling of maximum acceptable levels of radionuclide contamination of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the Federal Government has kept the Land Governments informed and has passed on scientifically based recommendations relating to adequate behaviour and food consumption of the population. The Federal Government and the Commission for Radiation Protection (SSK) proceeded according to the so-called 'minimizing principle'. That's why the limiting value for iodine 131 in milk has been so determined as to make sure that an infant who drinks one litre of milk a day for one week, is exposed to not more than 3 rem. The limiting value for iodine 131 in fresh milk has been set at 500 Bq/l. This results in the above-mentioned radiation exposure of the maximum rate of 3 rem. The limiting value for green-leaf vegetables, e.g. spinach, is set at 250 Bq/kg. Thus, a further safety margin is provided for. (orig./HSCH)

  10. Evaluation of Food Hygiene Knowledge Attitudes and Practices of Food Handlers in Food Businesses in Accra, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    George Amponsah Annor; Ekua Anamoaba Baiden

    2011-01-01

    Food handlers have a prime role to play in food businesses, and that is to guarantee that meals served are hygienic for consumption. Conscious or inadvertent contamination of such food places consumers at risk of suffering from food- borne illnesses. For this reason the study was carried out to document the food hygiene knowledge, attitudes and practices of some food handlers, in food businesses in Accra, Ghana and also to determine the microbiological load of the foods sold by the food busin...

  11. Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good handling practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have shared with the nuclear industry their experience in the area of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) shipping containers and handling procedures. The information contained in this manual updates information contained in earlier issues. It covers the essential aspects of UF6 handling, cylinder filling and emptying, general principles of weighing and sampling, shipping, and the use of protective overpacks. The physical and chemical properties of UF6 are also described and tabulated. The nuclear industry is responsible for furnishing its own shipping cylinders and suitable protective overpacks. A substantial effort has been made by the industry to standardize UF6 cylinders, samples, and overpacks. The quality of feed materials is important to the safe and efficient operation of the enriching facilities, and the UF6 product purity from the enriching facilities is equally important to the fuel fabricator, the utilities, the operators of research reactors, and other users. The requirements have been the impetus for an aggressive effort by DOE and its contractors to develop accurate techniques for sampling and for chemical and isotopic analysis. A quality control program is maintained within the DOE enriching facilities to ensure that the proper degree of accuracy and precision are obtained for all the required measurements. The procedures and systems described for safe handling of UF6 presented in this document have been developed and evaluated in DOE facilities during more than 40 years of handling vast quantities of UF6. With proper consideration for its nuclear properties, UF6 may be safely handled in essentially the same manner as any other corrosive and/or toxic chemical

  12. Sanitation Practices among Food Handlers in a Military Food Service Institution, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hai Yen Lee; Wan Nadirah Wan Chik; Fatimah Abu Bakar; Nazamid Saari; Nor Ainy Mahyudin

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted over a period of two months to assess the food hygiene practices among food handlers in a military food service institution that have been trained with food safety practices and knowledge. Since limited data was published for the services rendered to governmental agencies such as the military, this study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and motivation of food handlers under this institution that was responsible for the provision of food to t...

  13. Validation of a Pre- and Post-Evaluation Process: A Tool for Adult Training in Food Handling

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Mastrantonio; Mariana Dulout; María Lourdes González; Pedro Zeinsteger

    2013-01-01

    Education in food safety is a well-recognized health intervention, which allows the prevention of a wide range of diseases. Among the strategies of control and prevention of foodborne diseases, it is indicated that food safety education has the double advantage of having low costs and high potential effectiveness, as long as it is carried out with the active participation of food handling workers. In many countries, the Food Code has made compulsory the sanitary training of food workers. Howe...

  14. Prey size, prey nutrition, and food handling by shrews of different body sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Rychlik, Leszek; Jancewicz, El?bieta

    2002-01-01

    Some predictions relating metabolic constraints of foraging behavior and prey selection were tested by comparison of food handling and utilization in four sympatric shrew species: Sorex minutus (mean body mass=3.0 g), S. araneus (8.0 g), Neomys anomalus (10.0 g), and N. fodiens (14.4 g). Live fly larvae, mealworm larvae and aquatic arthropods were offered to shrews as small prey (body mass 0.3 g). The larvae were the highly nutritious food (>8 kJ/g) and the other prey were the low nutritious ...

  15. Practical application of food irradiation in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey is the world's leading producer and exporter of dried fruits (dried figs, raisins,and dried apricots etc.) and nuts (hazelnuts, wall nuts, pistachios, peanuts etc.) all of which have to be fumigated by methyl bromide a few times prior to export. Last fumigation is obligatory before shipment according to current quarantine treatment. Methyl Bromide (MeBr) fumigation is the most commonly used insect quarantine treatment for dried fruits and nuts in Turkey to protect from potential infestations. In accordance with the Montreal Protocol, Turkey as an Article 5(1) country will take actions to regulate and take measures to phase-out MeBr use. So, Turkey has to total phase-out in 2015 but according to Turkey MeBr Phase-out Action Plan prepared and published by The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural affairs in 2001, using MeBr should be reduced for stored commodities by 50 % by 2002 and phased-out totally by 2004. Irradiation technology is ready as an alternative to MeBr fumigation under the Action Plan of Turkey. Intensive research studies on food irradiation in Turkey have started in early 1970's and have still been continued. After careful and intensive works of all related authorities and specialists for a long period and with the help of ICGFI, the food irradiation regulation of Turkey was published in Official Newspaper on November 6, 1999. Having the Food Irradiation Regulation has supported to initiate commercialization study in Turkey in Co-operation with IAEA study in Turkey in Co-operation with IAEA (TUR 5022). Feasibility study of a commercial food irradiation facility for the potential application of food irradiation in Turkey was prepared by IAEA experts Dr.M.Ahmed and Ir. J.P.Lacroix and together with TUR 5022 Research Team in April 2001 in Izmir, Turkey. Gamma-Pak Irradiation Facility in Cerkeskoy-Tekirdag got the commercial food irradiation licence and registration certificate in Feb. 2002. Practical application of food irradiation is getting more attraction in Turkey in parallel with other countries

  16. Critical control points of complementary food preparation and handling in eastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ehiri John E.; Azubuike Marcel C.; Ubbaonu Collins N.; Anyanwu Ebere C.; Ibe Kasimir M.; Ogbonna Michael O.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate microbial contamination and critical control points (CCPs) in the preparation and handling of complementary foods in 120 households in Imo state, Nigeria. METHODS: The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach was used to investigate processes and procedures that contributed to microbial contamination, growth and survival, and to identify points where controls could be applied to prevent or eliminate these microbiological hazards or reduce them to accep...

  17. Food allergy: a practice parameter update-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Hugh A; Aceves, Seema; Bock, S Allan; James, John; Jones, Stacie; Lang, David; Nadeau, Kari; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Oppenheimer, John; Perry, Tamara T; Randolph, Christopher; Sicherer, Scott H; Simon, Ronald A; Vickery, Brian P; Wood, Robert; Bernstein, David; Blessing-Moore, Joann; Khan, David; Lang, David; Nicklas, Richard; Oppenheimer, John; Portnoy, Jay; Randolph, Christopher; Schuller, Diane; Spector, Sheldon; Tilles, Stephen A; Wallace, Dana; Sampson, Hugh A; Aceves, Seema; Bock, S Allan; James, John; Jones, Stacie; Lang, David; Nadeau, Kari; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Oppenheimer, John; Perry, Tamara T; Randolph, Christopher; Sicherer, Scott H; Simon, Ronald A; Vickery, Brian P; Wood, Robert

    2014-11-01

    This parameter was developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI); the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI); and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (JCAAI). The AAAAI and the ACAAI have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing "Food Allergy: A practice parameter update-2014." This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical environment is a changing one, and not all recommendations will be appropriate for all patients. Because this document incorporated the efforts of many participants, no single individual, including those who served on the Joint Task Force, is authorized to provide an official AAAAI or ACAAI interpretation of these practice parameters. Any request for information about or an interpretation of these practice parameters by the AAAAI or ACAAI should be directed to the Executive Offices of the AAAAI, ACAAI, and JCAAI. These parameters are not designed for use by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotion. PMID:25174862

  18. Different ways to handle topography in practical geoid determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, O.C.; Forsberg, René

    1999-01-01

    In this paper two different methods of how to handle topography in geoid determination is investigated. First method employs the Residual Terrain Model (RTM) remove-restore technique and yields the quasigeoid, whereas the second method is the classical Helmert condensation method, yielding the geoid. Both methods were used with the Earth Gravity Model (1996) (EGM96) geopotential model as reference, and results are compared to precise Global Positioning System (GPS) levelling networks in Scandinavia, especially an accurate GPS data set from the very rugged Sognefjord region, where the topography was represented by either a detailed (100 m) or a coarse (1000 m) digital terrain model. The inclusion of bathymetry in the terrain model was also investigated. Even if two different methods were used, they produced almost identical results at the 5 cm level in the mountains, but small systematic differences exist. Results show the importance of comparing the right types of geoid (classical geoid or quasigeoid), since differences in residuals are significant.

  19. Evidence-Based Practices for Safe Patient Handling and Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson, A., Baptiste, A

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to reduce injuries associated with patient handling are often based on tradition and personal experience rather than scientific evidence. The purpose of this article is to summarize current evidence for interventions designed to reduce caregiver injuries, a significant problem for decades. Despite strong evidence, published over three decades, the most commonly used strategies have strong evidence that demonstrate they are ineffective. There is a growing body of evidence to support newer interventions that are effective or show promise in reducing musculoskeletal pain and injuries in care providers. The authors have organized potential solutions into three established ergonomic solution types: engineering based, administrative, and behavioral. For each intervention, the level of evidence to support its use is provided.

  20. Microbiological standards and handling codes for chilled and frozen foods. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELLIOTT, R P; MICHENER, H D

    1961-09-01

    The usefulness of microbiological standards for frozen foods is now a controversy in the trade and scientific literature. Most reviewers have given arguments both for and against, and have concluded that they should be applied with great caution. Such standards have the advantage of putting questions of safety on a convenient numerical basis. Canadian workers have reported that promulgation of standards has invariably raised the hygienic level of the products controlled. Bacteriological standards have often been associated with the question of safety to the consumer. Everyone recognizes that food poisoning bacteria are a potential danger in any food. But many have argued that the history of food poisoning outbreaks from frozen foods is excellent and that there is no need for standards; on the other hand, proponents of standards have pointed to the incomplete investigation and reporting of outbreaks, and have argued that there may be more outbreaks than we realize. They have pointed to laboratory studies that have shown grossly mishandled precooked frozen foods to be truly dangerous. Some have proposed that pathogens should be absent from foods; but others have questioned that a microbiological standard can accomplish this end. Some pathogens, such as Salmonella or Staphylococcus have been shown to be so ubiquitous that their presence in some commercial foods is unavoidable. Also, sampling and analytical methods have been described as inadequate to guarantee that pathogens present will be detected. Some have argued that control at the source is a better way-through inspections of the plant operation, by enforcement of handling codes, or by processing procedures such as pasteurization, which would be more certain to result in a pathogen-free food.A most important part of any of the proposed standards is a "total count" of viable aerobic bacteria. English workers have found that foods causing poisoning outbreaks usually had total viable counts above 10 million per gram. On the other hand, these same workers found Salmonella on meats with very low total viable count. The assumption by many that low total count indicates safety has been shown to be not always true. Furthermore, high counts of nonpathogenic organisms, such as psychrophilic saprophytes would have no public health significance. The relation between bacterial level and quality is open to less controversy. Some authorities have pointed to bacterial level as a measure of sanitation, adequacy of refrigeration, or speed of handling. Others have indicated that to determine which of these factors caused a high count would be impossible with only a total count on the product as a guide. Some investigators have said a high count affects flavor adversely before actual spoilage is evident, and this may be a factor in competition on today's market. It is well established that initial bacterial level will affect the shelf-life of a chilled product. Methods of analysis are more nearly adequate for counts than for pathogens, but they need improvement, and should be clearly specified as part of any bacteriological standard. Foods with high count could sometimes be brought into compliance merely by storing them for a sufficient period frozen, or by heating them slightly. This has been cited by some authors as a disadvantage of bacteriological standards. The enterococci and the coliform group (except Escherichia coli) have been shown to be ubiquitous and therefore should not be used alone to indicate fecal contamination. Although E. coli has greater significance, its source should be determined each time it is found. Various reviewers have expressed the need for caution in the application of standards. The principal precautionary arguments we have found are as follows:1) A single set of microbiological standards should not be applied to foods as a miscellaneous group, such as "frozen foods" or "precooked foods."2) Microbiological standards should be applied first to the more hazardous types of foods on an individual basis, after sufficient data are a

  1. Sanitation Practices among Food Handlers in a Military Food Service Institution, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Yen Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted over a period of two months to assess the food hygiene practices among food handlers in a military food service institution that have been trained with food safety practices and knowledge. Since limited data was published for the services rendered to governmental agencies such as the military, this study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and motivation of food handlers under this institution that was responsible for the provision of food to the armed forces in Malaysia. Findings from this study offered an insight for food sanitation practices and influence of the authority towards food service institutions under the policy of voluntary HACCP practices.

  2. A mixed methods study of food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs in Hispanic families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Kristen M; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K; Perry, Christina; Albrecht, Julie A

    2014-12-01

    Children are at a higher risk for foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to explore food safety knowledge, beliefs and practices among Hispanic families with young children (?10 years of age) living within a Midwestern state. A convergent mixed methods design collected qualitative and quantitative data in parallel. Food safety knowledge surveys were administered (n?=?90) prior to exploration of beliefs and practices among six focus groups (n?=?52) conducted by bilingual interpreters in community sites in five cities/towns. Descriptive statistics determined knowledge scores and thematic coding unveiled beliefs and practices. Data sets were merged to assess concordance. Participants were female (96%), 35.7 (±7.6) years of age, from Mexico (69%), with the majority having a low education level. Food safety knowledge was low (56%?±?11). Focus group themes were: Ethnic dishes popular, Relating food to illness, Fresh food in home country, Food safety practices, and Face to face learning. Mixed method analysis revealed high self confidence in preparing food safely with low safe food handling knowledge and the presence of some cultural beliefs. On-site Spanish classes and materials were preferred venues for food safety education. Bilingual food safety messaging targeting common ethnic foods and cultural beliefs and practices is indicated to lower the risk of foodborne illness in Hispanic families with young children. PMID:25178898

  3. Norovirus Transmission between Hands, Gloves, Utensils, and Fresh Produce during Simulated Food Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, E.; Mikkelä, A.; Ranta, J.; Tuominen, P.; Rättö, M.; Maunula, L.

    2014-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs), a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, are easily transferred via ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, often prepared by infected food handlers. In this study, the transmission of HuNoV and murine norovirus (MuNoV) from virus-contaminated hands to latex gloves during gloving, as well as from virus-contaminated donor surfaces to recipient surfaces after simulated preparation of cucumber sandwiches, was inspected. Virus transfer was investigated by swabbing with polyester swabs, followed by nucleic acid extraction from the swabs with a commercial kit and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. During gloving, transfer of MuNoV dried on the hand was observed 10/12 times. HuNoV, dried on latex gloves, was disseminated to clean pairs of gloves 10/12 times, whereas HuNoV without drying was disseminated 11/12 times. In the sandwich-preparing simulation, both viruses were transferred repeatedly to the first recipient surface (left hand, cucumber, and knife) during the preparation. Both MuNoV and HuNoV were transferred more efficiently from latex gloves to cucumbers (1.2% ± 0.6% and 1.5% ± 1.9%) than vice versa (0.7% ± 0.5% and 0.5% ± 0.4%). We estimated that transfer of at least one infective HuNoV from contaminated hands to the sandwich prepared was likely to occur if the hands of the food handler contained 3 log10 or more HuNoVs before gloving. Virus-contaminated gloves were estimated to transfer HuNoV to the food servings more efficiently than a single contaminated cucumber during handling. Our results indicate that virus-free food ingredients and good hand hygiene are needed to prevent HuNoV contamination of RTE foods. PMID:24951789

  4. Norovirus transmission between hands, gloves, utensils, and fresh produce during simulated food handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnqvist, M; Aho, E; Mikkelä, A; Ranta, J; Tuominen, P; Rättö, M; Maunula, L

    2014-09-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs), a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, are easily transferred via ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, often prepared by infected food handlers. In this study, the transmission of HuNoV and murine norovirus (MuNoV) from virus-contaminated hands to latex gloves during gloving, as well as from virus-contaminated donor surfaces to recipient surfaces after simulated preparation of cucumber sandwiches, was inspected. Virus transfer was investigated by swabbing with polyester swabs, followed by nucleic acid extraction from the swabs with a commercial kit and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. During gloving, transfer of MuNoV dried on the hand was observed 10/12 times. HuNoV, dried on latex gloves, was disseminated to clean pairs of gloves 10/12 times, whereas HuNoV without drying was disseminated 11/12 times. In the sandwich-preparing simulation, both viruses were transferred repeatedly to the first recipient surface (left hand, cucumber, and knife) during the preparation. Both MuNoV and HuNoV were transferred more efficiently from latex gloves to cucumbers (1.2% ± 0.6% and 1.5% ± 1.9%) than vice versa (0.7% ± 0.5% and 0.5% ± 0.4%). We estimated that transfer of at least one infective HuNoV from contaminated hands to the sandwich prepared was likely to occur if the hands of the food handler contained 3 log10 or more HuNoVs before gloving. Virus-contaminated gloves were estimated to transfer HuNoV to the food servings more efficiently than a single contaminated cucumber during handling. Our results indicate that virus-free food ingredients and good hand hygiene are needed to prevent HuNoV contamination of RTE foods. PMID:24951789

  5. An analysis of the influences on the moving and handling practice of diploma student nurses within a medical environment

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, Michael John

    2002-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence indicates that in clinical practice diploma student nurses encounter M&H practices that do not always reflect those taught in training and that these influence their own practice. There is little available research evidence that identifies the factors that influence students moving and handling. The aim of the study was to explore the factors influencing the moving and handling practice of student nurses in the practice setting. 24 diploma in nursing students from one c...

  6. Curriculum in Food Handling and Distribution; a Guide for Experimentation in High School and Post High School Vocational Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Philip G.; And Others

    The project developed an experimental curriculum guide for training persons at the high school and post-high school levels in food handling and distribution. Data were gathered through interviews with over 200 food industries in Connecticut. Courses and curriculums were obtained from six secondary schools and seven post-secondary schools. Some of…

  7. PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BONADIE, E.P.

    2000-08-22

    This screening addresses the critical characteristics for food industry type cans and containers used for handling and storage of special nuclear materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). HNF-5460, Revision 0 specified a minimum tin plate of 0.50 Ib./base box. Since the food pack cans currently used and that have been tested have a listed tin plate of 0.20 lbs. per base box, Revision 1 reduced the tin plate to {ge} 0.20 Ib./base box (i.e., No. 20 tinned commercial steel or heavier). This revision lists Critical Characteristics for two (2) large filtered containers, and associated shielding over-packs. These new containers are called ''Nuclear Material Containers'' (NMCs). They are supplied in various sizes, which can be nested, one inside another. The PFP will use NMCs with volumes up to 8-quarts as needed to over-pack largely bulged containers.

  8. Sheep pre-slaughter handling practices and their effect on meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gerardo Ríos-Rincón

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspects related to ovine production systems in Mexico were revisited, as well as the relationship between the transport and the ante-mortem handling with ovine welfare and pre slaughter operations. Animals stress evaluation is fundamental importance for this process, where the observation of animal behavior is basic to determinate and understands the scope of this biological phenomenon. Finally, we make reference to two of the main meat quality attributes that can be affected as consequence of non-appropriated handling practice and operations that implies the un-knowledge of animal conduct. The conclusion is that the handling practices previous to slaughter of ovine specie had a considerable influence on carcass quality. In Mexico is important to focus the cattle research on the productive systems improvement in consideration to animal welfare in the different productive process steps.

  9. The impact of food manufacturing practices on food borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Paiva Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Food-borne illness is a major international problem and an important cause of reduced economic growth. The contamination of the food supply with the pathogens and its persistence, growth, multiplication and/or toxin production has emerged as an important public health concern. Most of these problems could be controlled with the efforts on the part of the food handlers, whether in a processing plant, a restaurant, and others. In contrast with most chemical hazardous compounds, the concentratio...

  10. The neutropenic diet reviewed: moving toward a safe food handling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Nicole; Freifeld, Alison G

    2012-06-01

    For decades, the concept of a neutropenic diet has implied a strict limitation of foods allowed for consumption, as a presumptive means of reducing the risk of infection in cancer patients. The rationale was to limit the introduction of potentially harmful bacteria into the gastrointestinal tract by the restriction of certain foods that might harbor those organisms. However, this concept has not been substantiated with direct proof, and no universal definition of the neutropenic diet exists. Exactly which foods are restricted varies greatly by institution, but most notable is the restriction of fresh fruits and vegetables. Research evaluating potential benefits of a neutropenic diet is very limited, but the diet is still prescribed in many institutions with the hope that it will prevent foodborne infection and/or bacteremia in neutropenic patients. Review of the pathophysiology of foodborne illness and pertinent studies about the neutropenic diet lead to the conclusion that there is no clear benefit from the longstanding dietary restrictions that may be imposed during neutropenia. Instead, we propose adoption of standard safe food handling methods to allow for a more liberalized diet in the neutropenic patient. PMID:22870542

  11. Enteric virus contamination of foods through industrial practices: a primer on intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, G P

    2001-08-01

    Hepatitis A and E viruses, rotaviruses, Norwalk-like caliciviruses, and astroviruses are among the enteric viruses known to cause food- and waterborne illness. These viruses are spread by the fecal-oral route and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Foods may be contaminated at any time pre- or post-harvest; however, many outbreaks are associated with foods handled by infected restaurant workers. Produce may be contaminated by improper irrigation or fertilization practices, by the hands of infected pickers or processors, or as the result of adulteration during any stage of handling. Outbreaks have been commonly associated with foods which are served raw or only lightly cooked, such as molluscan shellfish, fruits and vegetables, and salads or products contaminated after cooking like frosted bakery products. The farming, shellfish, processing, transportation, and restaurant industries must maintain vigilance to reduce outbreaks of enteric virus illness. Intervention strategies to enhance product safety include increased industry and consumer education; changes in industrial practices, product management, and processing technologies; worker immunizations; and the development of improved monitoring tools for the detection of enteric viruses in foods. PMID:11641770

  12. Designing for sustainable food practices in the home:

    OpenAIRE

    Borja, J.; Kuijer, S. C.; Aprile, W. A.

    2010-01-01

    Activities around food have implications for the environment, personal nutrition, identity, and social relationships. As a way of understanding how daily routines evolve, practice theory (a theory of social action from sociology) provides a framework through which the complexities around consumer food habits can be understood and reveal avenues for design interventions. The theory considers practices themselves as the basic unit of enquiry, where “practices” are routine activities made up...

  13. Practical application of food irradiation in Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first regional seminar on food irradiation in Asia was held in Tokyo in 1981. In view of several significant international developments on food irradiation it was considered timely to convene the second seminar in this field to assess practical application of food irradiation in the Asian and Pacific region. Over 70 papers were submitted for the Seminar. Eight technical sessions covering practical aspects of food irradiation (e.g. technology transfer, legislation and control, food irradiation facilities and their economics, transportation trials, market testing and consumer acceptance, commercial development of food irradiation, etc.) were included in the Seminar programme. A Working Group to assess the present situation and future application of food irradiation in the region was convened during the Seminar. The report of the Working Group is included in the Proceedings. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Assessing the cross contamination and transfer rates of Salmonella enterica from chicken to lettuce under different food-handling scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, Sadhana; Zhu, Libin; Jaroni, Divya

    2010-09-01

    Cross contamination of foodborne pathogens from raw meats to ready-to-eat foods has caused a number of foodborne outbreaks. The cross contamination and transfer rates of Salmonella enterica from chicken to lettuce under various food-handling scenarios were determined. The following scenarios were tested: in scenario 1, cutting board and knife used to cut chicken (10(6) CFU/g) were also used for cutting lettuce, without washing; in scenario 2, cutting board and knife were washed with water separately after cutting chicken, and subsequently used for cutting lettuce; and in scenario 3, cutting board and knife were thoroughly washed with soap and hot water after cutting chicken, and before cutting lettuce. In each scenario, cutting board, knife, chicken and lettuce were sampled for population of S. enterica. For scenario 1, both before and after cutting lettuce, the cutting board and knife each had about 2 logs CFU/cm(2) of S. enterica, respectively. The cut lettuce had about 3 logs CFU/g of S. enterica. In scenario 2, fewer organisms (0.5-2.4 logs CFU/g or cm(2)) were transferred. The transfer rates in both scenarios ranged from 0.02 to 75%. However, in scenario 3, cutting board or knife, after washing and cutting lettuce. This shows that the FDA recommended practice for cleaning cutting boards is effective in removing S. enterica and preventing cross contamination. PMID:20630321

  15. Evaluation of Food Hygiene Knowledge Attitudes and Practices of Food Handlers in Food Businesses in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Amponsah Annor

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Food handlers have a prime role to play in food businesses, and that is to guarantee that meals served are hygienic for consumption. Conscious or inadvertent contamination of such food places consumers at risk of suffering from food- borne illnesses. For this reason the study was carried out to document the food hygiene knowledge, attitudes and practices of some food handlers, in food businesses in Accra, Ghana and also to determine the microbiological load of the foods sold by the food businesses. The study targeted food handlers in the hotel industry. The study involved a field survey, followed by a laboratory assessment of microbiological status of food samples obtained from the sampled hotels. Cross tabulations and chi – squared tests (5% significance level as well as frequency distributions were used to analyze the data obtained from the field survey. Data obtained from the laboratory assessment were also compared to standard values of microbiological counts. Majority of respondents were between the ages of 30 - 40 years (42.9% with tertiary or post secondary education. Food hygiene knowledge and attitudes were satisfactory, however its practice was challenging. Gender, age and educational level of respondents did not influence their food hygiene practices. Microbial counts of all food samples was generally high ranging from 1.2 × 105 CFU/g to 1.1 × 108 CFU /g. The total coliform counts of foods ranged from 1.0 × 104 CFU/g to 5.0 × 106 CFU/g, and these were obtained from three out of the five hotel kitchens sampled. The study concluded that, the food hygiene knowledge and attitudes of the food handlers did not result in efficient food hygiene practices.

  16. Creating healthy food environments through global benchmarking of government nutrition policies and food industry practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy processed food products are increasingly dominating over healthy foods, making food and nutrition environments unhealthier. Development and implementation of strong government healthy food policies is currently being circumvented in many countries by powerful food industry lobbying. In order to increase accountability of both governments and the private sector for their actions, and improve the healthiness of food environments, INFORMAS (the International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support) has recently been founded to systematically and comprehensively monitor food environments and policies in countries of varying size and income. This will enable INFORMAS to rank both governments and private sector companies globally according to their actions on food environments. Identification of those countries which have the healthiest food and nutrition policies and using them as international benchmarks against which national progress towards best practice can be assessed, should support reductions in global obesity and diet-related NCDs. PMID:24594359

  17. Factors affecting practical application of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FAO and IAEA convened an Advisory Group Meeting on Commercial Use of Food Irradiation in order to discuss problems of the industry's acceptance of food irradiation and their remedies. Senior executives from major food industries, trade and consumer organizations were invited to discuss these problems and to prepare a report which would serve as the basis for future plan of action by sponsoring Organizations in the field of food irradiation. This publication contains the report of the meeting, papers presented by the participants and their recommendations to the sponsoring Organizations. Refs and tabs

  18. Regulation and practice of workers' protection from chemical exposures during container handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NØrgaard FlØe Pedersen, Randi; Jepsen, JØrgen Riis

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fumigation of freight containers to prevent spread of pests and off-gassing of freight are sources of volatile chemicals that may constitute significant health risks when released. The aim of the study was to investigate the regulation and practice of container handling in Denmark with focus on preventive measures to reduce risk of chemical exposure. Methods: A comprehensive systematic search of scientific literature, legislation and recommendations related to safe work with transport containers from international and Danish regulatory bodies was performed. The practice of handling containers was investigated in a qualitative study based on a series of semi-structured interviews with key informants, including managers and health and safety representatives of organizations that handle containers. Results: Although several international and national regulations and local safety instructions relate to container handling, the provided information is not sufficiently detailed to conduct safe practicein many aspects. In accordance with the scientific literature, the interviewees estimate that there is a high frequency (5 to 50%) of containers with hazardous chemical exposure that are regarded as potentially damaging to health, although recognisable health effects are rare. There is limited knowledge about the types of chemicals, which mostly cannot be measured by available devices at the worksite. Aeration and use of personal protective equipment are typical preventive measures in practice, but their use is not consistent and does not necessarily ensure adequate protection. Conclusions: Managers, workers, even occupational health professionals have limited knowledge about the hazardous chemicals that can be released from containers. Detailed risk assessment and specific instructions on risk management are needed for safe handling of transport containers.

  19. E-waste in Gaborone, Botswana – assessing the generation, handling practices, and strategies for improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Taye, Mesfin; Kanda, Wisdom; Krook, Joakim; Mattias, Lindahl

    2013-01-01

    E-waste includes components with economic and environmental importance, thus the need for their sound end-of-life management. This study provides fundamentals regarding the amounts, flows, and handling practices of e-waste in Gaborone, Botswana. A number of relevant stakeholder organisations were interviewed and an in situ waste composition study was conducted. The concentration of e-waste arriving at the municipal landfill is less than 1 weight per cent, corresponding to about 1.9 kg/capita/...

  20. Pesticide-handling practices of smallholder coffee farmers in Eastern Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Feola; Dwayne Henry

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide use among smallholder coffee producers in Jamaica has been associated with significant occupational health effects. Research on pesticide handling practices, however, has been scarce, especially in eastern Jamaica. This explorative study aims at filling this gap and provides a first basis to develop effective interventions to promote a safer pesticide use. A random sample of 81 coffee farmers was surveyed. The majority of farmers reported to suffer from at least one health symptom a...

  1. Gender Difference in Safe and Unsafe Practice of Pesticide Handling in Tobacco Farmers of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Nordin, Rusli; Araki, Shunichi; Sato, Hajime; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Bin Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan; Win Kyi, Daw

    2001-01-01

    To identify gender difference in safe and unsafe practice of pesticide handling in tobacco farmers of Malaysia, we conducted a 20-item questionnaire interview on storage of pesticide (4 questions), mixing of pesticide (3 questions), use of personal protective equipment and clothing while spraying pesticide (7 questions), activities during and after spraying of pesticide (5 questions), and maintenance of pesticide sprayer (1 question) in 496 tobacco farmers (395 males and 101 females) in Bacho...

  2. Influence of Handling Practices on Material Recovery from Residential Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo F. Pereira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Material recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW is becoming widely adopted in several developing countries. Residential solid waste is one of the most important components of MSW and the handling practices of the MSW by the generators have a major impact on the quality and quantity of the materials for recovery. This article analyzes the generation and composition of residential solid waste and the handling practices by users in three municipalities in Colombia that have a solid waste management plant (SWMP. The findings show that, although there are significant amounts of useful materials, their handling of the materials as “garbage”, the low recognition of recovery work, and the inadequate storage and source management practices, affect material recovery and the operation of SWMPs. These results may be taken as a reference for this type of municipality, because the solid waste management system and the type of operation of the SWMPs analyzed is similar to all of the SWMPs in the country as well as in other countries in the region.

  3. Practice and Reflection on Developing Food Banks in XI CHANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghua Liu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Food bank is a kind of savings service for the grain enterprises involving the unused grain in the business turnover to control the grain resources after the revolution of purchase and sale food market. This paper talks about the necessity and feasibility of promoting the food bank in XI CHANG from perspectives of increasing farmers’ income, declining food consumption and facilitating people’s life and from perspectives of the background of food bank development, the successful experience domestically, the success of the pilot and the support of national policies and regulations respectively, and analyzes the problems the food bank brings and at last puts forward strategies to accelerate the promotion of the food bank combining the practical situation of XI CHANG.

  4. Food Tampering: An Extra Ounce of Caution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also extend to the foods we purchase. The deliberate tampering of food to cause major disease outbreaks ... consumers' refrigerators are no cold enough. Everyone can practice safe food handling by following these four simple ...

  5. 21 CFR 108.25 - Acidified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...effectiveness of recalls; for notifying the Food and Drug Administration of any recalls...Commissioner for giving instruction in food-handling techniques, food protection principles, personal hygiene, plant sanitation practices, pH...

  6. Safety of vendor-prepared foods: evaluation of 10 processing mobile food vendors in Manhattan.

    OpenAIRE

    Burt, Bryan M.; Volel, Caroline; Finkel, Madelon

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Unsanitary food handling is a major public health hazard. There are over 4,100 mobile food vendors operating in New York City, and of these, approximately forty percent are processing vendors--mobile food units on which potentially hazardous food products are handled, prepared, or processed. This pilot study assesses the food handling practices of 10 processing mobile food vendors operating in a 38-block area of midtown Manhattan (New York City) from 43rd Street to 62nd Street bet...

  7. Practice of handling radioactive wastes outside the nuclear fuel cycle in Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the handling of radioactive wastes, which are not produced in facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. The actual amounts of radioactive waste are given showing also the fractions coming from institutions under consideration with respect to the total amount. For different areas as institutions producing radioactive waste, plants conditioning the waste, storing facilities or for the planned final repository the practice of handling, conditioning or storing is described; different methods are discussed. As far as possible and reasonable hints or recommendations are worked out. In some areas problems could be identified, e.g. some nuclides as tritium or radium, are not easily conditioned for a final repository, the lack of final prescriptions how to process the waste for the final repository, differing conditions for the waste to be transferred to the intermediate storage facilities, lack of guidelines how to analyse the waste contaminated with short-lifed nuclides after the decay-time before it is deposited, and the lack of harmonized and perhaps centralized facilities to process the waste before it will be stored in the final repository. Facilities should be capable to cope with non-radioactive aspects as chemical or toxic aspects during processing. It may be summarized, that the handling of radioactive waste produced in non-fuel cycle facilities in general has been regulated and planned for the complete line from the beginning to the repository. Though there are still some aspects as those summarized above that may and should be improved

  8. Toward practical definitions of quality for food science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremner, Allan

    2000-01-01

    A new practical approach to developing workable definitions of quality is presented to overcome the numerous semantic and conceptual difficulties that an common with the use of the word quality in food science. This approach links the concept of quality, through a general definition, by adding the missing link of specific definitions related to measurable attributes and properties determined by standard methods to provide values that can be used to evaluate foods or to set specifications. It is compatible with control, assurance, HACCP, regulatory, TQM, and other normal uses of the both the word quality, and the concept quality, in food science and technology.

  9. Pooling raw shell eggs: Salmonella contamination and high risk practices in the United Kingdom food service sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, F J; Little, C L; Murphy, N; de Pinna, E; McLauchlin, J

    2010-03-01

    Salmonella contamination of pooled raw shelled egg mix (RSEM) used as an ingredient in lightly cooked or uncooked foods and high-risk kitchen hygiene practices in United Kingdom food service establishments using RSEM were investigated. Samples were collected from 934 premises. Salmonella was found in 1 (0.13%) of 764 RSEM samples, 2 (0.3%) of 726 samples from surfaces where ready-to-eat foods were prepared, and 7 (1.3%) of 550 cleaning cloths. Poor RSEM storage and handling practices were highlighted. Workers in 40% of the premises sampled failed to use designated utensils when RSEM was added to other ingredients, workers in 17% of the premises did not clean surfaces and utensils thoroughly after use with RSEM and before preparing other foods, only 42% of workers washed and dried their hands after handling eggs or RSEM, workers in 41% of the premises did not store RSEM at refrigeration temperature before use, and workers in 8% of the premises added RSEM to cooked rice at the end of cooking when preparing egg fried rice. Take-away premises, especially those serving Chinese cuisine, were least likely to have a documented food safety management system and awareness of the key food safety points concerning the use of RSEM compared with other food service premises (P Food service businesses using RSEM must be aware of the continuing hazard from Salmonella, must adopt appropriate control measures, and must follow advice provided by national food agencies to reduce the risk of Salmonella infection. PMID:20202348

  10. Food safety in hospital: knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing staff of two hospitals in Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Guardia Maurizio

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food hygiene in hospital poses peculiar problems, particularly given the presence of patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. Moreover, in nosocomial outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, the mortality risk has been proved to be significantly higher than the community outbreaks and highest for foodborne outbreaks. On the other hand, the common involvement in the role of food handlers of nurses or domestic staff, not specifically trained about food hygiene and HACCP, may represent a further cause of concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning food safety of the nursing staff of two hospitals in Palermo, Italy. Association with some demographic and work-related determinants was also investigated. Methods The survey was conducted, by using a semi-structured questionnaire, in March-November 2005 in an acute general hospital and a paediatric hospital, where nursing staff is routinely involved in food service functions. Results Overall, 401 nurses (279, 37.1%, of the General Hospital and 122, 53.5%, of the Paediatric Hospital, respectively answered. Among the respondents there was a generalized lack of knowledge about etiologic agents and food vehicles associated to foodborne diseases and proper temperatures of storage of hot and cold ready to eat foods. A general positive attitude towards temperature control and using clothing and gloves, when handling food, was shared by the respondents nurses, but questions about cross-contamination, refreezing and handling unwrapped food with cuts or abrasions on hands were frequently answered incorrectly. The practice section performed better, though sharing of utensils for raw and uncooked foods and thawing of frozen foods at room temperatures proved to be widely frequent among the respondents. Age, gender, educational level and length of service were inconsistently associated with the answer pattern. More than 80% of the respondent nurses did not attend any educational course on food hygiene. Those who attended at least one training course fared significantly better about some knowledge issues, but no difference was detected in both the attitude and practice sections. Conclusion Results strongly emphasize the need for a safer management of catering in the hospitals, where non professional food handlers, like nursing or domestic staff, are involved in food service functions.

  11. Patterns of Food Parenting Practices and Children’s Intake of Energy-Dense Snack Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorus W. M. Gevers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most previous studies of parental influences on children’s diets included just a single or a few types of food parenting practices, while parents actually employ multiple types of practices. Our objective was to investigate the clustering of parents regarding food parenting practices and to characterize the clusters in terms of background characteristics and children’s intake of energy-dense snack foods. A sample of Dutch parents of children aged 4–12 was recruited by a research agency to fill out an online questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis (n = 888 was performed, followed by k-means clustering. ANOVAs, ANCOVAs and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations between cluster membership, parental and child background characteristics, as well as children’s intake of energy-dense snack foods. Four distinct patterns were discovered: “high covert control and rewarding”, “low covert control and non-rewarding”, “high involvement and supportive” and “low involvement and indulgent”. The “high involvement and supportive” cluster was found to be most favorable in terms of children’s intake. Several background factors characterized cluster membership. This study expands the current knowledge about parental influences on children’s diets. Interventions should focus on increasing parental involvement in food parenting.

  12. Patterns of Food Parenting Practices and Children's Intake of Energy-Dense Snack Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus W M; Kremers, Stef P J; de Vries, Nanne K; van Assema, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Most previous studies of parental influences on children's diets included just a single or a few types of food parenting practices, while parents actually employ multiple types of practices. Our objective was to investigate the clustering of parents regarding food parenting practices and to characterize the clusters in terms of background characteristics and children's intake of energy-dense snack foods. A sample of Dutch parents of children aged 4-12 was recruited by a research agency to fill out an online questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis (n = 888) was performed, followed by k-means clustering. ANOVAs, ANCOVAs and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations between cluster membership, parental and child background characteristics, as well as children's intake of energy-dense snack foods. Four distinct patterns were discovered: "high covert control and rewarding", "low covert control and non-rewarding", "high involvement and supportive" and "low involvement and indulgent". The "high involvement and supportive" cluster was found to be most favorable in terms of children's intake. Several background factors characterized cluster membership. This study expands the current knowledge about parental influences on children's diets. Interventions should focus on increasing parental involvement in food parenting. PMID:26024296

  13. Patterns of Food Parenting Practices and Children’s Intake of Energy-Dense Snack Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus W. M.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; de Vries, Nanne K.; van Assema, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Most previous studies of parental influences on children’s diets included just a single or a few types of food parenting practices, while parents actually employ multiple types of practices. Our objective was to investigate the clustering of parents regarding food parenting practices and to characterize the clusters in terms of background characteristics and children’s intake of energy-dense snack foods. A sample of Dutch parents of children aged 4–12 was recruited by a research agency to fill out an online questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis (n = 888) was performed, followed by k-means clustering. ANOVAs, ANCOVAs and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations between cluster membership, parental and child background characteristics, as well as children’s intake of energy-dense snack foods. Four distinct patterns were discovered: “high covert control and rewarding”, “low covert control and non-rewarding”, “high involvement and supportive” and “low involvement and indulgent”. The “high involvement and supportive” cluster was found to be most favorable in terms of children’s intake. Several background factors characterized cluster membership. This study expands the current knowledge about parental influences on children’s diets. Interventions should focus on increasing parental involvement in food parenting. PMID:26024296

  14. Keeping Kids Safe: A Guide for Safe Food Handling & Sanitation for Child Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Because children under age 5 are susceptible to food-borne illnesses and children in diapers present special sanitation and health problems, food safety and sanitation are emerging as important issues for child care providers. This booklet is designed to give providers and parents a quick and easy reference for food safety and sanitation. The…

  15. 76 FR 51308 - Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ...Store Advertising and Marketing Practices: Statement...Rule Concerning Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices, 54 FR 35456...products at retail food stores; and the burdens...concerning the degree of industry compliance with...

  16. Belgian and Spanish consumption data and consumer handling practices for fresh fruits and vegetables useful for further microbiological and chemical exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, L; Ibañez, I Castro; Gómez-López, V M; Fernandes, J Araujo; Allende, A; Uyttendaele, M; Huybrechts, I

    2015-04-01

    A consumer survey was organized in Spain and Belgium to obtain consumption data and to gain insight into consumer handling practices for fresh vegetables consumed raw or minimally processed (i.e., heads of leafy greens, bell peppers, tomatoes, fresh herbs, and precut and packed leafy greens) and fruits to be consumed without peeling (i.e., apples, grapes, strawberries, raspberries, other berries, fresh juices, and precut mixed fruit). This information can be used for microbiological and/or chemical food safety research. After extensive cleanup of rough databases for missing and extreme values and age correction, information from 583 respondents from Spain and 1,605 respondents from Belgium (18 to 65 years of age) was retained. Daily intake (grams per day) was calculated taking into account frequency and seasonality of consumption, and distributions were obtained that can be used in quantitative risk assessment for chemical hazards with chronic effects on human health. Data also were recalculated to obtain discrete distributions of consumption per portion and the corresponding frequency of consumption, which can be used in acute microbiological risk assessment or outbreak investigations. The ranked median daily consumption of fruits and vegetables was similar in Spain and Belgium: apple > strawberry > grapes > strawberries and raspberries; and tomatoes > leafy greens > bell peppers > fresh herbs. However, vegetable consumption was higher (in terms of both portion and frequency of consumption) in Spain than in Belgium, whereas the opposite was found for fruit consumption. Regarding consumer handling practices related to storage time and method, Belgian consumers less frequently stored their fresh produce in a refrigerator and did so for shorter times compared with Spanish consumers. Washing practices for lettuce heads and packed leafy greens also were different. The survey revealed differences between these two countries in consumption and consumer handling practices, which can have an impact on outcomes of future microbiological or chemical risk assessment studies. PMID:25836406

  17. Nuclear Technology. Course 31: Quality Assurance Practices. Module 31-4, Identification, Storage and Handling of Components, Parts and Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasil, Ed; Espy, John

    This fourth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Quality Assurance Practices describes the activities of identification, storage, and handling of components, parts, and materials. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to…

  18. Food handling behaviors of special importance for pregnant women, infants and young children, the elderly, and immune-compromised people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Patricia; Medeiros, Lydia C; Hillers, Virginia; Chen, Gang; DiMascola, Steve

    2003-12-01

    This study used a Web-based Delphi process with a group of nationally recognized food safety experts to identify food-handling behaviors of special importance in reducing the risk of foodborne illness among pregnant women, infants and young children, elderly people, and people with compromised immune systems because of disease or pharmacologic therapy. Behaviors were related to 13 pathogens. Top-rated behaviors for pregnant women were associated with Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii, and Salmonella species. Top-rated behaviors for infants and young children, elderly people, and immune-compromised people were associated with a number of different pathogens. The results should help dietetics professionals and community health educators focus their efforts on those behaviors of special importance to the population being targeted. PMID:14647094

  19. Food Defense Best Practices Reported by Public School Food Authorities in Seven Northern U.S. States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzke, Carol J.; Strohbehn, Catherine H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study reported food defense planning, training and best practices implemented in public schools in Montana, Wyoming, South Dakota, North Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Methods: An internet-administered survey was sent to 1,501 school food authorities or food service directors (FSDs) in public schools. Survey items…

  20. Food safety knowledge and practices of abattoir and butchery shops and the microbial profile of meat in Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haileselassie, Mekonnen; Taddele, Habtamu; Adhana, Kelali; Kalayou, Shewit

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the food safety knowledge and practices in meat handling, and to determine microbial load and pathogenic organisms in meat at Mekelle city. Methods A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practiced in the abattoir and butcher shops. Workers from the abattoir and butcher shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to assess their food safety knowledge. Bacterial load was assessed by serial dilution method and the major bacterial pathogens were isolated by using standard procedures. Results 15.4% of the abattoir workers had no health certificate and there was no hot water, sterilizer and cooling facility in the abattoir. 11.3% of the butchers didn't use protective clothes. There was a food safety knowledge gap within the abattoir and butcher shop workers. The mean values of bacterial load of abattoir meat, butcher shops and street meat sale was found to be 1.1×105, 5.6×105 and 4.3×106 cfu/g, respectively. The major bacterial pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Conclusions The study revealed that there is a reasonable gap on food safety knowledge by abattoir and butcher shop workers. The microbial profile was also higher compared to standards set by World Health Organization. Due attention should be given by the government to improve the food safety knowledge and the quality standard of meat sold in the city. PMID:23646306

  1. Hygienic Practices among Food Vendors in Educational Institutions in Ghana: The Case of Konongo

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac Monney; Dominic Agyei; Wellington Owusu

    2013-01-01

    With the booming street food industry in the developing world there is an urgent need to ensure food vendors adhere to hygienic practices to protect public health. This study assessed the adherence to food hygiene practices by food vendors in educational institutions in Konongo, Ghana. Structured questionnaires, extensive observation and interviews were used for the study involving 60 food vendors from 20 basic schools. Attributable to the influence of school authorities and the level of in-t...

  2. The significance of post-harvest maize handling to food sufficiency in subsistence farm households in Aframso; Ejura-Sekyeredumansi District, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Omane, Kwabena Sarpong

    2014-01-01

    The study concentrated on the role postharvest maize handling in subsistence farm household’s food sufficiency in Aframso, Ejura-Sekyeredumansi District, located in the middle belt Ghana. Maize remains an integral crop for subsistence farm households and plays a vital role in safe guarding food security in the country as a whole. It is the most widely consumed staple food in the district and Ghana in general, it happens to be the most important cereal grain in the country. Subsistence farme...

  3. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among food handlers on food borne diseases: A hospital based study in tertiary care hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavilla Anuradha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Title: Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among food handlers on food borne diseases: A hospital based study in tertiary care hospital.Running title: KAP study among food handlers in a Hospital at Perambalur.Background: Food handlers play an important role in ensuring food safety throughout the chain of production, processing, storage and preparation.Staphylococcus aureus infections used to respond to ß-lactam and related group of antibiotics but the emergence of Methicillin-resistant S. Aureus (MRSA has posed a serious therapeutic challenge.Objectives: To assess the food hygiene Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP among the food handlers.Method and material: In this hospital based cross sectional study, subjects were all 60 food handlers working in three canteens. This study was performed for the period of four months in June to September 2013. The data was obtained by the predesigned proforma. The swabs form nose, both axilla and both hands were taken. Also stool samples from all cases were obtained with the consent of the study subjects.Results:The study was conducted in 60 food handlers of which were 22 males and 38 females. Wearing the gloves and other protective cover usage was very rare among them. But majority of them know about the usage of the protective covers but not practicing this hygiene.Conclusion:The hygiene and the cleanliness practiced by the food handlers were satisfactory. However there is need to increase the hygiene level of food handlers and environmental premises.

  4. Food Safety Knowledge and Beliefs of Middle School Children: Implications for Food Safety Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Abbot, Jaclyn Maurer; Quick, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    To create effective educational interventions that address the food safety informational needs of youth, a greater understanding of their knowledge and skills is needed. The purposes of this study were to explore, via focus groups, the food-handling responsibilities of middle school youth and obstacles they face in practicing safe food handling

  5. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of University Students Regarding the Use of Nutritional Information and Food Labels

    OpenAIRE

    M.I. Khairil Anuar; M.N. Norazmir; G. Nurliyana

    2011-01-01

    The food nutrition label provides the nutrition information that helps consumers on food choices and used to give us information so that customer can choose between foods. This study was aimed to determine the association between knowledge, attitude and practices on food label use and to determine the factors that influence the use of food labels during making food purchasing decision among university students. A cross-sectional study of undergraduate students at UiTM Puncak Alam in the Kuala...

  6. Food irradiation in the control of storage and handling losses in the Philippine onions and garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information will be provided on the nature and magnitude of the control of postharvest losses in onions and garlic from the application of irradiation. Control of losses is measured in storage and during post storage marketing of the commodities. Information will also be presented on market tests and survey of consumer reaction to irradiated onions. The benefits of irradiation will be discussed in relation to the need to reduce postharvest losses in the food supply and to address consumer concerns over the safety of food due to the use of chemicals. (author)

  7. Hygienic Practices among Food Vendors in Educational Institutions in Ghana: The Case of Konongo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Monney

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the booming street food industry in the developing world there is an urgent need to ensure food vendors adhere to hygienic practices to protect public health. This study assessed the adherence to food hygiene practices by food vendors in educational institutions in Konongo, Ghana. Structured questionnaires, extensive observation and interviews were used for the study involving 60 food vendors from 20 basic schools. Attributable to the influence of school authorities and the level of in-training of food vendors, the study points out that food vendors in educational institutions generally adhered to good food hygiene practices, namely, regular medical examination (93%, protection of food from flies and dust (55%; proper serving of food (100%; good hand hygiene (63%; and the use of personal protective clothing (52%. The training of food vendors on food hygiene, instead of the level of education had a significant association (p < 0.05 with crucial food hygiene practices such as medical examination, hand hygiene and protection of food from flies and dust. Further, regulatory bodies legally mandated to efficiently monitor the activities of food vendors lacked the adequate capacity to do so. The study proposes that efforts should be geared towards developing training programmes for food vendors as well as capacity building of the stakeholders.

  8. 75 FR 22713 - Implementation of Sanitary Food Transportation Act of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ...literature review pertaining to food handling practices in the food transportation industry. The ERG report also presents...physical safety hazards to food during transportation and...manufacturing facilities then serve distribution facilities, which...

  9. PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for PFP's Vault Operations system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to perform its safety function. The changes in these specifications have no detrimental effect on the descriptions and parameters related to handling plutonium solids in the authorization basis. Because no parameters or sequences exceed the limits described in the authorization bases, no accident or abnormal conditions are affected. The specifications prescribed in this critical characteristics document do not represent an unreviewed safety question

  10. PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BONADIE, E.P.

    1999-12-07

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for PFP's Vault Operations system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to perform its safety function. The changes in these specifications have no detrimental effect on the descriptions and parameters related to handling plutonium solids in the authorization basis. Because no parameters or sequences exceed the limits described in the authorization bases, no accident or abnormal conditions are affected. The specifications prescribed in this critical characteristics document do not represent an unreviewed safety question.

  11. 76 FR 15841 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food; Confirmation of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ...addition of benzene from radiation sterilized beef would...trivial increment to the normal body burden and is unlikely...The Influence of Gamma Radiation Upon Shellstock Oysters...Unsaturated Standards,'' Radiation Physics and Chemistry...Safety Assessment of Direct Food Additives and...

  12. Code of practice for the control and safe handling of radioactive sources used for therapeutic purposes (1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Code is intended as a guide to safe practices in the use of sealed and unsealed radioactive sources and in the management of patients being treated with them. It covers the procedures for the handling, preparation and use of radioactive sources, precautions to be taken for patients undergoing treatment, storage and transport of radioactive sources within a hospital or clinic, and routine testing of sealed sources

  13. Contextualizing food practices and change among Mexican migrants in West Queens, New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Macari, Marisa Mm; Ulijaszek, Stanley J.; Berg, Mette Louise

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is about food practices and change among Mexican migrants living in West Queens, New York City. Public health research suggests that Mexican migration to the US has a negative impact on food practices, with diets being less nutritious over a migrant’s stay in the United States and obesity being more common among longer-term than more recently-arrived individuals. Through ethnography, I explore how migration shapes food practices and examine the nuanced process of nutritional ch...

  14. Food allergic consumers' preferences for labelling practices: a qualitative study in a real shopping environment

    OpenAIRE

    Voordouw, J.; Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.R.; Yiakoumaki, V.; Theodoridis, G.; Chryssochoidis, G.; Frewer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food allergy is a chronic disease that can only be managed through avoidance of problematic proteins in the diet. Inappropriate communication about food allergens can cause stress and insecurity, which may have a negative impact on quality of life. The aim was to investigate whether information provided through current labelling practices meets the need of food allergic consumers. A total of 40 participants (20 adult food allergy suffers and 20 parents of food allergic children) were recruite...

  15. Using the FoodEx-LTC to assess institutional food service practices through nursing home residents' perspectives on nutrition care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bronwynne C; Crogan, Neva L

    2005-01-01

    Background. Undernutrition occurs in approximately 2 of every 5 nursing home residents, negatively influencing their health and quality of life. The purposes of this study were to collect data about institutional meal preparation and food service practices that promote or retard adequate nutritional intake and to evaluate residents' food and food service satisfaction. Methods. The FoodEx-LTC, a simple, 44-item, 5-subscale questionnaire that measures food and food service satisfaction, was administered to 61 residents. Serum albumin and body mass index gauged the nutritional status of each resident. SPSS for Windows, version 10, was used for analyses. Results. Overall, 89% of residents were satisfied or somewhat satisfied with the food service. Of those who ate in the dining room, 44% had to wait to go back to their rooms, presenting a quality of life issue. Fifty-two percent received food they hated, 56% often received the same food, and 59% received food always cooked the same way. Most residents (75%) felt comfortable refusing food they did not like, but 65% did not complain. Most (79%) wanted to choose what to eat, but only 54% believed that choosing when to eat was important. Conclusions. The FoodEx-LTC, used to monitor nutrition care in nursing homes, incorporates residents' views into service delivery and responds to the Health Care Finance Administration's Nutritional and Hydration Awareness Campaign, part of the federal Nursing Home Initiative. Using the FoodEx-LTC to identify residents' perspectives may promote resident satisfaction and dietary intake through adaptation of nursing home food and food service practices. PMID:15741295

  16. Food Insecurity, Food Based Coping Strategies and Suboptimal Dietary Practices of Adolescents in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Belachew, Tefera; Lindstrom, David; Gebremariam, Abebe; Hogan, Dennis; Lachat, Carl; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of adolescent food insecurity in Ethiopia, there is no study which documented its association with suboptimal dietary practices. The objective of this study is to determine the association between adolescent food insecurity and dietary practices. We used data on 2084 adolescents in the age group of 13–17 years involved in the first round survey of the five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. Adolescents were selected using residence stratified r...

  17. Identifying Key Risk Behaviors Regarding Personal Hygiene and Food Safety Practices of Food Handlers Working in Eating Establishments Located Within a Hospital Campus in Kolkata

    OpenAIRE

    Prianka Mukhopadhyay*, Gautam Kr. Joardar, Kanad Bag, Amrita Samanta, Sonali Sain and Sesadri Koley

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hospital canteens cater to a large population group and personal hygiene and food safety practices of food handlers assume immense importance to prevent food borne disease outbreaks. Objectives: To assess the self-reported behaviour of food handlers on personal hygiene and food safety practices and to find out their morbidity profile. Methods: An observational study was conducted by interviewing 67 consenting food handlers working in different eateries inside a hospital campus, us...

  18. Creating healthy food environments through global benchmarking of government nutrition policies and food industry practices

    OpenAIRE

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy processed food products are increasingly dominating over healthy foods, making food and nutrition environments unhealthier. Development and implementation of strong government healthy food policies is currently being circumvented in many countries by powerful food industry lobbying. In order to increase accountability of both governments and the private sector for their actions, and improve the healthiness of food environments, INFORMAS (the International Network for Food and Obesit...

  19. Sample handling in surface sensitive chemical and biological sensing: a practical review of basic fluidics and analyte transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgovan, Norbert; Patko, Daniel; Hos, Csaba; Kurunczi, Sándor; Szabó, Bálint; Ramsden, Jeremy J; Horvath, Robert

    2014-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of the advantages and associated caveats of the most common sample handling methods in surface-sensitive chemical and biological sensing. We summarize the basic theoretical and practical considerations one faces when designing and assembling the fluidic part of the sensor devices. The influence of analyte size, the use of closed and flow-through cuvettes, the importance of flow rate, tubing length and diameter, bubble traps, pressure-driven pumping, cuvette dead volumes, and sample injection systems are all discussed. Typical application areas of particular arrangements are also highlighted, such as the monitoring of cellular adhesion, biomolecule adsorption-desorption and ligand-receptor affinity binding. Our work is a practical review in the sense that for every sample handling arrangement considered we present our own experimental data and critically review our experience with the given arrangement. In the experimental part we focus on sample handling in optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) measurements, but the present study is equally applicable for other biosensing technologies in which an analyte in solution is captured at a surface and its presence is monitored. Explicit attention is given to features that are expected to play an increasingly decisive role in determining the reliability of (bio)chemical sensing measurements, such as analyte transport to the sensor surface; the distorting influence of dead volumes in the fluidic system; and the appropriate sample handling of cell suspensions (e.g. their quasi-simultaneous deposition). At the appropriate places, biological aspects closely related to fluidics (e.g. cellular mechanotransduction, competitive adsorption, blood flow in veins) are also discussed, particularly with regard to their models used in biosensing. PMID:24846752

  20. Facts about food irradiation: Microbiological safety of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fact sheet considers the microbiological safety of irradiated food, with especial reference to Clostridium botulinum. Irradiated food, as food treated by any ''sub-sterilizing'' process, must be handled, packaged and stored following good manufacturing practices to prevent growth and toxin production of C. botulinum. Food irradiation does not lead to increased microbiological hazards, nor can it be used to save already spoiled foods. 4 refs

  1. Chemotherapy-Knowledge and Handling Practice of Nurses Working in a Medical University of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanand Chaudhary; Basant Kumar Karn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many antineoplastic agents are known to be teratogenic and mutagenic to humans. Nurses are the main groups that are exposed to these drugs in hospital setting. Generally, the occupational activities that pose to greatest risk of exposure are the preparation and administration of antineoplastic agents, cleaning of chemotherapy spills, and handling of patient excreta. Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of nurse regarding the way of exposure of Cyt...

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is a promising technology in which food products are exposed to a controlled amount of radiant energy to eliminate disease-causing bacteria. The process can also control parasites and insects, reduce spoilage and inhibit ripening and sprouting. Food irradiation is endorsed by the most important health organisations (WHO, CDC, USDA, FDA, EFSA, etc.) and allowed in nearly 40 Countries. It is to remember that irradiation is not a substitute either for comprehensive food safety programs or for good food-handling practices. Irradiated foods must be labelled with either the statement treated with radiation or treated by irradiation and the international symbol for irradiation, the radura. Some consumer associations suppose negative aspects of irradiation, such as increase of the number of free radicals in food and decrease of antioxidant vitamins that neutralize them

  3. Using Cross-practice Collaboration to Meet the Evolving Legal Needs of Local Food Entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Broad Leib, Emily Michele; Kool, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article begins by highlighting several of the legal barriers commonly faced by local food businesses. The article then demonstrates that policy lawyers and transactional lawyers can effectively collaborate to improve the food system by providing synergistic feedback that informs each other’s practices, thereby improving service for food-related clients and enhancing the legal environment for future local food entrepreneurs. The article describes the methods that two clinics at Harva...

  4. International practices code recommended for the food processing by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present code bears on the specifications of the irradiation process in a facility. It examines other aspects of the process, such primary production, harvest, treatment after harvest, storage, expedition, packaging and handling after irradiation, and training. (N.C.)

  5. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions. PMID:25681294

  6. Food Safety Education Using an Interactive Multimedia Kiosk in a WIC Setting: Correlates of Client Satisfaction and Practical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Newman, Frederick L.; Huffman, Fatma G.; Dixon, Zisca

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess acceptability of food safety education delivered by interactive multimedia (IMM) in a Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children Program (WIC) clinic. Methods: Female clients or caregivers (n = 176) completed the food-handling survey; then an IMM food safety education program on a computer kiosk.…

  7. Principles of the Codex general standard for irradiated foods and associated code of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Codex Alimentarius Commission, which is the Executive Organ of the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, adopted in 1983 a General Standard for Irradiated Foods and a Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods. The Standard takes into account the conclusions of Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committees, convened to evaluate all available data concerning the effects of irradiation treatment on food, including extensive wholesomeness data and animal tests. The Standard represents a set of principles and requirements for the process and for the irradiated product. It does not go into details concerning the application of food irradiation to individual food products on groups of food products in accordance with good irradiation practice. Such details are covered in a special Codes of Good Irradiation Practice elaborated by the FAO/IAEA/WHO International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation. The lecture will describe the various provisions of the Codex Standard for Irradiated Foods and the Code and provide explanation of the intent of these provisions, drawing attention to the actual practices followed by Governments in regulating food irradiation. (author). 12 refs

  8. Survey of Food-hygiene Practices at Home and Childhood Diarrhoea in Hanoi, Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Takanashi, Kumiko; Chonan, Yuko; Quyen, Dao To; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Poudel, Krishna C; Jimba, Masamine

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the potential factors of food-hygiene practices of mothers on the prevalence of diarrhoea among their children. Mothers who had children aged 6 months–5 years were recruited in a hamlet in Viet Nam. The food-hygiene practices included hand-washing, method of washing utensils, separation of utensils for raw and cooked food, and the location where foods were prepared for cooking. A face-to-face interview was conducted, and data on 206 mothe...

  9. An Agent-based Model of Food Safety Practices Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Verwaart, T.; Valeeva, N.I.

    2011-01-01

    Food processors and governments have an interest to motivate suppliers of animal products to implement food safety measures. This paper proposes an agentbased simulation model to compare possible consequences of alternative communication programs and incentive systems. The agent model combines economic incentive models with social-psychological survey results in an approach based on the theory of planned behavior. Food safety actions follow from producers’ attitudes, social network influenc...

  10. Handling uncertainty : policy and organizational practices in Tanzania's small-scale gold mining sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØnsson, Jesper Bosse; Fold, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Small-scale mining supports the livelihoods of several hundred thousand rural households in Africa. Nonetheless, the understanding of the organizational dynamics of small-scale miners' activities is modest. The paper outlines the small-scale mining codes in Tanzania and contrasts them to prevalent organizational practices in two Tanzanian small-scale mining settlements. It is argued that there is a need to adjust the regulatory mechanisms to well-consolidated practices: If basic practices differ substantially from official prescriptions of the mining codes over an extended period of time, certain elements of the regulatory framework need reconsideration. The paper examines three pertinent operational components that vary in form and managing practices between the two study sites: dealing with licence acquisition, accessing working capital, and sharing output. These components are considered vital for the proper manoeuvring of local small-scale mining operators and the reasons for the variations are essential to understand for policymakers and development practitioners. By incorporating prevalent practices and context-dependent variations in some of the crucial organizational components, it is possible to design a robust and resilient regulatory framework for small-scale mining. A number of policy adjustments are consequently proposed.

  11. 'Going green' in food services: Can health care adopt environmentally friendly practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Elisa D; Garcia, Alicia C

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability and the environment are issues influencing individual and organizational choices on purchasing, waste management, and energy-saving practices. The food service industry and related stakeholders have reported active pursuit of initiatives to reduce environmental impacts. We examine reported environmentally friendly practices being implemented in the food service industry and consider ways in which health care or hospital food services can adopt some of these programs. Building and equipment, waste management, food, and non-food supplies and procurement are considered. Suggestions are made for small changes to start the green initiative in each of these areas. A health care food service department is a large consumer of resources, and therefore food service workers, managers, dietitians, and administrators can make a significant difference by supporting and adopting environmentally friendly practices. Further studies are needed to determine which practices are currently being implemented in health care facilities in Canada, as well as perceived facilitators and barriers to these practices in the food service area. PMID:21382231

  12. MEMS product engineering handling the diversity of an emerging technology best practices for cooperative development

    CERN Document Server

    Ortloff, Dirk; Hahn, Kai; Bieniek, Tomasz; Janczyk, Grzegorz; Bruck, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the methodological background to directing cooperative product engineering projects in a micro and nanotechnology setting. The methodology is based on well-established methods like PRINCE2 and StageGate, which are supplemented by best practices that can be individually tailored to the actual nature and size of the project at hand. This book is intended for everyone who takes an active role in either practical product engineering or in teaching it. This includes project and product management staff and program management offices in companies working on innovation projects, those active in innovation, as well as professors and students in engineering and management.

  13. 9 CFR 381.125 - Special handling label requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...false Special handling label requirements...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...part of the safe handling instructions...poultry. Some food products may...part of the safe handling instructions, “Some food products may...

  14. Microbial Quality, Nutritional Knowledge and Food Hygienic Practices among Street Food Vendors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowri, B.; Vasantha Devi, K. P.; Sivakumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Since all categories of people from different socio-economic sectors purchase street foods; the street foods should not only be cheap but also hygienic and rich in nutrition. The investigators with their nutrition knowledge had an urge to study the nutrition knowledge of the vendors, whether the foods prepared are nutritionally sound or not?, are…

  15. Street-Vended Foods Improvement: Contamination Mechanisms and Application of Food Safety Objective Strategy : Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Barro Nicolas; Bello Abdoul Razack; Itsiembou Yollande; Savadogo Aly; Ouattara Cheik Amadou Tidiane; de Souza Comlan A.; Traore Alfred Sababenedjo; Nikiema Augustin Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Data collected from street-vended food enterprises and on vendors in west African countries revealed that, they provide a variety of ready-to-eat foods to a high proportion of the populations. Nevertheless, their handling and trading practices are not permit to obtain safe food. While, street-vended foods are easily contaminated by food borne pathogen and others chemicals compounds. The street-vended foods contamination mechanisms were identified and improvement pathways were suggested. Indee...

  16. What do Andy Warhol, pecorino and wasabi have in common? Food practices in Ljubljana and Maribor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kamin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present an analysis of food practices based on the research project »Media consumption, class and cultural stratification«. A cluster analysis of data obtained from a random sample of the adult population in Ljubljana and Maribor, the two biggest cities in Slovenia, revealed four food cultures: Aspiring traditionalists (27% of the sample, Struggling traditionalists (32%, Health conscious and socially responsible hedonists (29% and Traditionalists, adapted to urban trends (12%. The findings support previous research which recognises significant associations between food practices, socio-demographic factors (particularly education, values and cultural consumption. The data show that food practices in Ljubljana and Maribor are still primarily traditionalistic, as are several other practices of everyday life.

  17. Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: Initiatives, practices, and consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sthiannopkao, Suthipong, E-mail: suthisuthi@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Dong-A University, 37 Nakdong-Daero 550 beon-gil Saha-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Wong, Ming Hung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    Discarded electronic goods contain a range of toxic materials requiring special handling. Developed countries have conventions, directives, and laws to regulate their disposal, most based on extended producer responsibility. Manufacturers take back items collected by retailers and local governments for safe destruction or recovery of materials. Compliance, however, is difficult to assure, and frequently runs against economic incentives. The expense of proper disposal leads to the shipment of large amounts of e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other developing countries. Shipment is often through middlemen, and under tariff classifications that make quantities difficult to assess. There, despite the intents of national regulations and hazardous waste laws, most e-waste is treated as general refuse, or crudely processed, often by burning or acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released, harm to the environment, workers, and area residents is inevitable. The faster growth of e-waste generated in the developing than in the developed world presages continued expansion of a pervasive and inexpensive informal processing sector, efficient in its own way, but inherently hazard-ridden. - Highlights: ? Much e-waste, expensive to process safely, illegally goes to developing countries. ? E-waste processing in developing countries pollutes with heavy metals and dioxins. ? Well-conceived developing world waste regulations lack enforceability. ? Crude e-waste processing cannot recover several rare materials. ? The amount of e-waste unsafely processed will continue to grow.

  18. Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: Initiatives, practices, and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discarded electronic goods contain a range of toxic materials requiring special handling. Developed countries have conventions, directives, and laws to regulate their disposal, most based on extended producer responsibility. Manufacturers take back items collected by retailers and local governments for safe destruction or recovery of materials. Compliance, however, is difficult to assure, and frequently runs against economic incentives. The expense of proper disposal leads to the shipment of large amounts of e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other developing countries. Shipment is often through middlemen, and under tariff classifications that make quantities difficult to assess. There, despite the intents of national regulations and hazardous waste laws, most e-waste is treated as general refuse, or crudely processed, often by burning or acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released, harm to the environment, workers, and area residents is inevitable. The faster growth of e-waste generated in the developing than in the developed world presages continued expansion of a pervasive and inexpensive informal processing sector, efficient in its own way, but inherently hazard-ridden. - Highlights: ? Much e-waste, expensive to process safely, illegally goes to developing countries. ? E-waste processing in developing countries pollutes with heavy metals and dioxins. ? Well-conceived developing world waste regulations lack enforceability. ? Crude e-waste processing cannot recover several rare materials. ? The amount of e-waste unsafely processed will continue to grow

  19. Practical issues in handling data input and uncertainty in a budget impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuijten, M J C; Mittendorf, T; Persson, U

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this paper was to address the importance of dealing systematically and comprehensively with uncertainty in a budget impact analysis (BIA) in more detail. The handling of uncertainty in health economics was used as a point of reference for addressing the uncertainty in a BIA. This overview shows that standard methods of sensitivity analysis, which are used for standard data set in a health economic model (clinical probabilities, treatment patterns, resource utilisation and prices/tariffs), cannot always be used for the input data for the BIA model beyond the health economic data set for various reasons. Whereas in a health economic model, only limited data may come from a Delphi panel, a BIA model often relies on a majority of data taken from a Delphi panel. In addition, the dataset in a BIA model also includes forecasts (e.g. annual growth, uptakes curves, substitution effects, changes in prescription restrictions and guidelines, future distribution of the available treatment modalities, off-label use). As a consequence, the use of standard sensitivity analyses for BIA data set might be limited because of the lack of appropriate distributions as data sources are limited, or because of the need for forecasting. Therefore, scenario analyses might be more appropriate to capture the uncertainty in the BIA data set in the overall BIA model. PMID:20364289

  20. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice between Medical and Non-Medical Sciences Students about Food Labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Aida Malek Mahdavi; Paria Abdolahi; Reza Mahdavi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Considering the significant role of consumers’ awareness about food labels in making healthy food choices, this study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and prac-tice of university students about food labeling.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 332 students aged 18-25 yr in five different academic ma-jors (including Nutrition, Public Health, Health Services Administration, Paramedical and En-gineering) were asked to complete an approved questionnaire contained f...

  1. Balancing food values: Making sustainable choices within cooking practices:

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, A.; Kuijer, S.C.; Rydell, T.

    2013-01-01

    Within user-centred design and topics such as persuasive design, pleasurable products, and design for sustainable behaviour, there is a danger of over-determining, pacifying or reducing people’s diversity. Taking the case of sustainable food, we have looked into the social aspects of cooking at home, in specific related to the type of food that is purchased. This paper describes what it means for people to make more sustainable choices in food shopping and how that can be mediated while ...

  2. An unsustainable state: Contrasting food practices and state policies in the Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jehli?ka, Petr; Smith, J.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 42, ?. 3 (2011), s. 362-372. ISSN 0016-7185 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP404/10/0521 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : food policies * household consumption * food practices Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.927, year: 2011

  3. Food and Nutrition Practices and Education Needs in Florida's Adult Family Care Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J.; Ford, Amanda L.; Gal, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    A statewide survey was carried out to determine food and nutrition practices and education needs of Florida's adult family care homes (AFCHs). The 30-item survey included questions on food and nutrition education, supplement use, and menu planning. Infrequent use of menus and nutrition supplements was reported. A strong need was indicated for…

  4. Air-Guiding Photonic Bandgap Fibers: Spectral Properties, Macrobending Loss, and Practical Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Theis Peter; Broeng, Jes

    2004-01-01

    For development of hollow-core transmission fibers, the realizable fibers lengths, bandwidth, characterization, and compatibility with standard technology are important issues. We report record-length air-guiding fiber, spectral properties, splicing, and optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) measurements. Furthermore, spectral macrobending loss measurements for two different designs of air-core photonic bandgap fibers are presented. While bending loss is observed, it does not limit operation for all practical bending diameters (>tex/tex

  5. Measuring parent food practices: a systematic review of existing measures and examination of instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughn, Amber E; Tabak, Rachel G.; Bryant, Maria J; Ward, Dianne S.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in development of instruments to measure parent food practices. Because these instruments often measure different constructs, or define common constructs differently, an evaluation of these instruments is needed. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify existing measures of parent food practices and to assess the quality of their development. The initial search used terms capturing home environment, parenting behav...

  6. Analysis of School Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin; Sneed, Jeannie; Kwon, Junehee; Olds, David; Cole, Kerri; Shanklin, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine how school districts have implemented food safety programs based on HACCP principles. Specific objectives included: (1) Evaluate how schools are implementing components of food safety programs; and (2) Determine foodservice employees food-handling practices related to food safety.…

  7. Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment and Excess Sludge Handling Practices in the Federated States of Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D. Rouse

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of wastewater treatment facilities in the Federated States of Micronesia revealed a lack of fully functional treatment systems and conditions that potentially could lead to adverse environmental impacts and public health concerns. Due to inadequate facilities, the amount and composition of wastewater entering the plants as well as the degree of treatment being achieved is largely unknown. In some cases raw sewage is being discharged directly into the ocean and waste sludge is regularly taken by local residents for agricultural purposes without adequate treatment. In addition, the need to establish best management practices for placement and maintenance of septic tanks is urgent. Furthermore, development of eco-friendly solutions is needed to more effectively treat wastewater from industrial and agricultural sources in an effort to abate current pollution problems. Comparisons of treatment methods being used and problems encountered at different locations in the islands would provide valuable information to aid in the development of sustainable treatment practices throughout Micronesia.

  8. Assessing the Level of Hygienic Practices among Street Food Vendors in Sunyani Township

    OpenAIRE

    Noble Amoako Sarkodie; Emmanuel Kofi Bempong; Olivia Naa Tetteh; Asana Constance Saaka; Golly Kwaku Moses

    2014-01-01

    In recent time, there has been an increased in the springing up of street food vendors across the country and there is therefore an urgent need to ensure that street food vendors adhere to hygienic practices to protect public health. The main aim of the study is to assess the level of hygienic practices of street Food vendors in Sunyani Township. The study adopted descriptive approach and survey was used to gather primary data from 140 respondents. Questionnaires were used to gather data from...

  9. Food safety knowledge and practice by the stages of change model in school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam-E; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Young Soon

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 342 grade 4-6 elementary school students in Gyeonggi-do were recruited to determine their readiness to change food safety behavior and to compare their food safety knowledge and practices by the stages of change. The subjects were divided into three stages of change; the percentage of stage 1 (precontemplation) was 10.1%, the percentage of stage 2 (contemplation and preparation) was 62.4%, and that of stage 3 (action and maintenance) was 27.5%. Food safety knowledge scores in stage 3 (4.55) or stage 2 (4.50) children were significantly higher than those in stage 1 children (4.17) (P < 0.05). The two food safety behavior items "hand washing practice" and "avoidance of harmful food" were significantly different among the three groups (P < 0.05). Stages of change were significantly and positively correlated with food safety knowledge and practice. Age was significantly and negatively correlated with the total food safety behavior score (r = -0.142, P < 0.05). The most influential factor on the stage of change was a mother's instruction about food safety (P < 0.01). PMID:21286413

  10. 78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and...Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam...Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and...Animal Feed and Pet Food (21 CFR part 579...IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND...ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD 0 1. The...

  11. Identifying Key Risk Behaviors Regarding Personal Hygiene and Food Safety Practices of Food Handlers Working in Eating Establishments Located Within a Hospital Campus in Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prianka Mukhopadhyay*, Gautam Kr. Joardar, Kanad Bag, Amrita Samanta, Sonali Sain and Sesadri Koley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital canteens cater to a large population group and personal hygiene and food safety practices of food handlers assume immense importance to prevent food borne disease outbreaks. Objectives: To assess the self-reported behaviour of food handlers on personal hygiene and food safety practices and to find out their morbidity profile. Methods: An observational study was conducted by interviewing 67 consenting food handlers working in different eateries inside a hospital campus, using a pretested, predesigned schedule. Results: Majority (46.3% of food handlers were educated upto primary level. Only 14.9% foodhandlers received preplacement training and 10.5%, preplacement medical checkup. Though practices of hand washing after going to toilet (95.5% and before preparing food (79.1% was reported to be quite high but for most other practices, hygiene was found to be low. Cuts/injuries on hands was reported as the most common morbidity in 44.8% but 11.9% continued work without any treatment. Conclusion: Preplacement training and in-service education on personal / food hygiene should be provided to all food handlers. Periodic medical checkups and routine sanitary inspection can improve their adherence to personal hygiene and food safety practices and prevent outbreak of food borne illnesses

  12. Practical Experience with Remediation of a Former Active Handling Building Site in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the year 2000, Nuvia has been contracted to carry out the decommissioning of a former Active Handling Building A59 on the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) site at Winfrith in Dorset. This is in support of UKAEA's mission, which is to carry out environmental restoration of its nuclear sites and to put them to alternative uses wherever possible. Latterly, a new body, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), has become responsible for managing the UK decommissioning legacy and since 2004 UKAEA has been contracted to the NDA to deliver decommissioning work at Winfrith and other UK sites. The earlier operations concentrated mainly upon the clearance and decontamination of two heavily shielded suites of caves, originally used to carry out remote examination of irradiated nuclear fuel elements, together with a range of within-building support facilities. In 2006 the main containment building structure was demolished as well as the two suites of caves, leaving the base slab for final removal. The demolition contract with UKAEA required removal of the base slab and recovery for disposal of a quantity of encast, internally contaminated items such as secondary active drain pipes, active ventilation ducting and more than 100 steel mortuary tubes set up to 6.6 m deep into the slab. The scope of the work also required the underlying soil to be carefully monitored for the presence of radioactive contamination and, if detected, its remediation to an end state detected, its remediation to an end state suitable for un-restricted use without planning or nuclear regulatory controls. These latter operations form the basis of this paper, which reviews some of the significant tasks undertaken during the process and also sets out the development of a robust waste monitoring strategy for the recovered concrete debris ahead of its disposal. This has enabled more than four thousand tons of debris to be classified as SOLA (Substance of Low Activity), allowing disposal to landfill. This will include details of the development of a system, including a bag monitoring procedure, used to support the classification of some concrete debris as SOLA material. Currently, the base slab has been completely demolished and all encast items recovered for disposal, including the deep mortuary tubes. This was only achievable by the installation of a dewatering system which enabled safe excavation. These latter operations were challenging owing to the significant depth of some of the items to be removed and the unconsolidated sediments underlying the site. The paper will discuss the main issues involved with the remediation of features within the concrete slab and the underlying soils. These will include comments on the ground conditions, soil structures, groundwater levels and problems associated with provision of waste storage areas and their various impacts upon project progress. Several challenging areas of the slab such as the original decontamination bay and pressurised suit area sump have been removed and the paper will describe how the underlying soils were monitored using a GroundhogTM based system ahead of final remediation and waste sentencing. One area of particular significance to the remediation process has been the use of office-based contaminated land assessment tools including ReCLAIM, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet based tool used to assess current and future impacts of radiological contamination at nuclear licensed sites. Finally, during these operations, evidence of ground contamination has been detected by routine monitoring and the methods taken to remove and remediate the underlying soils will be described together with details of the surveillance systems utilised. Some examples of the problems encountered during the remediation will be described, potentially of value to others working in a similar field. (authors)

  13. An empirical study about food choice and food handling in relation to health : Astudy among elderly people in the central parts of Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Wiström, Anna; Thelin, Erika

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between and among questions from a survey in three different areas, namely food and food related health, food safety and hygiene, and information gathering concerning food, with the main focus on the first two areas, are investigated. Data from older people have been analyzed. The questions are both about knowledge and behavior in relation to the areas mentioned above. Earlier studies have shown that people in general do not know about or act according to dietary advises abo...

  14. Practical handling of AIO admixtures – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanga, Z.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available All-in-one admixtures (AIO-admixtures provide safe, effective and low-risk PN (parenteral nutrition for practically all indications and applications. Water, energy (carbohydrates and lipids, amino acids, vitamins and trace elements are infused together with PN either as industrially-manufactured AIO admixtures provided as two- or three-chamber bags (shelf life usually more than 12 months completed with electrolytes and micronutrients where appropriate or as individually compounded ready-to-use AIO admixtures (compounding, usually prepared by a pharmacy on either a daily or weekly basis and stored at 2–8°C. Physico-chemical and microbial stability of an AIO admixture is essential for the safety and effectiveness of patient-specific PN, and its assurance requires specialist pharmaceutical knowledge. The stability should be documented for an application period of 24 (–48 hours. It is advisable to offer a limited selection of different PN regimes in each hospital. For reasons of drug and medication safety, PN admixtures prepared for individual patients must be correctly labelled and specifications for storage conditions must also be followed during transport. Monitoring is required where applicable. Micronutrients are usually administered separately to AIO admixtures. In case compatibility and stability have been well documented trace elements and/or combination preparations including water-soluble or water-soluble/fat soluble vitamin supplements can be added to PN admixtures under strict aseptic conditions. AIO admixtures are usually not used as vehicles for drugs (incompatibilities.

  15. Food hygiene and hazard analysis critical control point in the United Kingdom food industry: practices, perceptions, and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortlock, M P; Peters, A C; Griffith, C J

    1999-07-01

    A mail survey was designed and distributed to 1,650 managers of food businesses across the manufacturing, retail, and catering sectors of the United Kingdom food industry. Respondents were asked about the food hygiene practices of their business, their use of systems such as hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP), and their attitudes toward a range of food hygiene-related issues. Complete responses were received from 254 businesses, a response rate of 15.3%. The results showed that 69% of manufacturers were using HACCP systems, significantly more than the 13% and 15% in the retail and catering sectors, respectively (P HACCP, specific training in the system was significantly related to the likelihood that businesses had adopted all seven of the HACCP principles (P HACCP in both the manufacturing and retail sectors. Higher levels of food hygiene qualifications among business managers, business status, and higher perceptions among managers of the risk to food safety of the business were also significantly related to HACCP use in all sectors (P HACCP, particularly within the UK retail and catering sectors. Risk communication and training are highlighted as areas of concern for marketing HACCP within these industry sectors. PMID:10419273

  16. 21 CFR 1250.28 - Source and handling of ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...false Source and handling of ice. 1250.28 Section 1250.28 Food and Drugs FOOD...CONVEYANCE SANITATION Food Service Sanitation...28 Source and handling of ice. Ice coming in contact with food or drink and...

  17. Practice for dosimetry in electron and bremsstrahlung irradiation facilities for food processing. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This practice describes dosimetric procedures to be followed in facility characterization, process qualification, and routine processing for electron beam and bremsstrahlung irradiation facilities for food processing to ensure that product receives an acceptable range of absorbed doses. Other procedures related to facility characterization, process qualification, and routine product processing that may influence and be used to monitor absorbed dose in the product are also discussed. Information about effective or regulatory dose limits for food products is not within the scope of this practice (see ASTM Guides F 1355 and F 1356). The electron energy range covered in this practice is from 0.3 MeV to 10 MeV. Such electrons can be generated in continuous or pulse modes. The maximum electron energy of bremsstrahlung facilities covered in this practice is 10 MeV. A photon beam can be generated by inserting a bremsstrahlung converter in the electron beam path (See ISO/ASTM Practice 51608

  18. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice between Medical and Non-Medical Sciences Students about Food Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Malek Mahdavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the significant role of consumers’ awareness about food labels in making healthy food choices, this study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and prac-tice of university students about food labeling.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 332 students aged 18-25 yr in five different academic ma-jors (including Nutrition, Public Health, Health Services Administration, Paramedical and En-gineering were asked to complete an approved questionnaire contained fifteen questions. The chi-square test was applied to examine the differences across various major groups.Results: 89.2% of the students believed that food labels had effect on nutritional awareness. 77.4% were agreed with the usefulness of the food labels and 79.2% did not feel that nutrition claims on food label were truthful. For 84% of students, the expiry date and storage conditions information were the most important informational cues to appear on the food labels. From 47.6% of students who reported the use of nutrition facts label in their often or always shopping; only 32.3% used the information on labels to fit the food into their daily diet. Surprisingly, fatty acids were the least noteworthy items (1.9% on nutrition facts labels. Regarding students’ major, there was significant difference in their knowledge, attitude and practice about truth of the nutri-tion claims, using food labels and importance of health claims (P<0.05.Conclusion: Food labels were more useful tools for students and had an effect on their nutri-tional awareness. Designing and implementation of the educational programs in order to increase the level of knowledge about food labels is suggested.

  19. Design and Practices for Use of Automated Drilling and Sample Handling in MARTE While Minimizing Terrestrial and Cross Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David P.; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Davis, Kiel

    2008-10-01

    Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) investigators used an automated drill and sample processing hardware to detect and categorize life-forms found in subsurface rock at Río Tinto, Spain. For the science to be successful, it was necessary for the biomass from other sources -- whether from previously processed samples (cross contamination) or the terrestrial environment (forward contamination) -- to be insignificant. The hardware and practices used in MARTE were designed around this problem. Here, we describe some of the design issues that were faced and classify them into problems that are unique to terrestrial tests versus problems that would also exist for a system that was flown to Mars. Assessment of the biomass at various stages in the sample handling process revealed mixed results; the instrument design seemed to minimize cross contamination, but contamination from the surrounding environment sometimes made its way onto the surface of samples. Techniques used during the MARTE Río Tinto project, such as facing the sample, appear to remove this environmental contamination without introducing significant cross contamination from previous samples.

  20. Design and practices for use of automated drilling and sample handling in MARTE while minimizing terrestrial and cross contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David P; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Davis, Kiel

    2008-10-01

    Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) investigators used an automated drill and sample processing hardware to detect and categorize life-forms found in subsurface rock at Río Tinto, Spain. For the science to be successful, it was necessary for the biomass from other sources--whether from previously processed samples (cross contamination) or the terrestrial environment (forward contamination)-to be insignificant. The hardware and practices used in MARTE were designed around this problem. Here, we describe some of the design issues that were faced and classify them into problems that are unique to terrestrial tests versus problems that would also exist for a system that was flown to Mars. Assessment of the biomass at various stages in the sample handling process revealed mixed results; the instrument design seemed to minimize cross contamination, but contamination from the surrounding environment sometimes made its way onto the surface of samples. Techniques used during the MARTE Río Tinto project, such as facing the sample, appear to remove this environmental contamination without introducing significant cross contamination from previous samples. PMID:19105753

  1. Practical Guidance on How to Handle Levodopa/Carbidopa Intestinal Gel Therapy of Advanced PD in a Movement Disorder Clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stephen WØrlich; Clausen, Jesper BØje

    2012-01-01

    Continuous dopaminergic delivery is recognized for the capacity to ameliorate symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). In advanced PD the short comings of orally administered Levodopa/Carbidopa include fluctuations resulting in unstable effect and dyskinesia. Levodopa/Carbidopa intestinal gel, LCIG, (Duodopa®, Abbott Laboratories) is delivered continuously through a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with the inner tube placed in the duodenum by means of a device (CADD legacy Duodopa pump (CE 0473)). The therapy implies continuous dopaminergic delivery directly to the duodenum and is therefore unaffected by gastric emptying and represents a major adjuvant in the treatment of advanced PD with significant improvement in motor and non-motor symptoms. The aim of this paper is to suggest the prerequisites for a LCIG clinic and propose a feasible set-up and lean organization of a movement disorder clinic. Secondly, the paper proposes practical handling of patients in LCIG treatment for advanced PD based on experienceand initiation of LCIG treatment and follow-up in forty patients.

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  3. Food webs: a ladder for picking strawberries or a practical tool for practical problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmott, Jane

    2009-06-27

    While food webs have provided a rich vein of research material over the last 50 years, they have largely been the subject matter of the pure ecologist working in natural habitats. While there are some notable exceptions to this trend, there are, as I explain in this paper, many applied questions that could be answered using a food web approach. The paper is divided into two halves. The first half provides a brief review of six areas where food webs have begun to be used as an applied tool: restoration ecology, alien species, biological control, conservation ecology, habitat management and global warming. The second half outlines five areas in which a food web approach could prove very rewarding: urban ecology, agroecology, habitat fragmentation, cross-habitat food webs and ecosystem services. PMID:19451120

  4. Impact of Media and Education on Food Practices in Urban Area of Varanasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Shuchi R, Bhatt Sheeendra M, Singh Anita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently food malpractices are increasing in various metro cities of India and all the measures taken by agencies are failed to detect rapidly and many times it becomes late when the adulteration is detected. Worst scenario is the adulteration of some branded items of the children’s and in the women’s use such as milk cheese, ghee and oils. Therefore, Study for food practices and safety measures was done in selected area of Varanasi which was also validated by the wetlab methods. Methods: For this objective, questionnaire was prepared and distributed among selected people depending on their age group, sex and educational background. Statistical test were carried out on the basis of frequency of male and female respondents obtained in total respondents (n = 300. Chi square test were done and the calculated value were compared with value of t test (0.05 and on this basis, conclusion were drawn. Results: Result shows that regardless of the age income and religion, all of the groups are well aware the food adulteration and educated people are less prone to the effect. In terms of adulteration any how all the stores contains adulterated food however branded items contains less %age of adulteration than local item. This may be caused due to inactive agencies or longer process of legal system Conclusions: Study show that there is lag in following the food practices by all the ages in spite of having good media awareness program and knowledge of food practices.

  5. "Our" food versus "my" food. Investigating the relation between childhood shared food practices and adult prosocial behavior in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Fisher, Maryanne L; Poels, Karolien; Ponnet, Koen

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the connection between prosocial behavior, defined as acting in ways that benefit others, and shared meals, defined as meals that consist of food(s) shared with others. In contrast to individual meals, where consumers eat their own food and perhaps take a sample of someone else's dish as a taste, shared meals are essentially about sharing all the food with all individuals. Consequently, these meals create situations where consumers are confronted with issues of fairness and respect. One should not be greedy and consume most of a dish; instead, rules of polite food sharing need to be obeyed. It is therefore proposed that those who have often engaged in shared meals during childhood will have a more prosocial personality, as compared to those who less often took part in shared meals during childhood. To test this hypothesis, data about frequency of shared meals during childhood and altruistic personality in early adulthood were collected using a cross-sectional survey in Belgium (n?=?487). Results confirm that higher levels of shared meal consumption correspond to higher scores on the self-report altruism scale among students. PMID:25265154

  6. Food safety knowledge and practice by the stages of change model in school children

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Nam-e; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Young Soon; Ha, Ae Wha

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 342 grade 4-6 elementary school students in Gyeonggi-do were recruited to determine their readiness to change food safety behavior and to compare their food safety knowledge and practices by the stages of change. The subjects were divided into three stages of change; the percentage of stage 1 (precontemplation) was 10.1%, the percentage of stage 2 (contemplation and preparation) was 62.4%, and that of stage 3 (action and maintenance) was 27.5%. Food safety knowledge scores in s...

  7. Food Safety Practices on Dairy Farms in Turkey: A Case Study of Izmir Province

    OpenAIRE

    Figen Cukur; Duygu Tosun; Nevin Demirbas; Ozlem Yildiz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the food safety and quality practices on dairy farms that are located in Izmir province. By means of a survey in which dairy farmers responded to a special questionnaire, data were collected from 103 dairy farmers. Chi-square (Test of Independence), Variance (one-way ANOVA) and Kruskall Wallis Test were used to analyze the data. The 5-point Likert scale was used in measuring problems raised in dairy farming about food safety and quality practices and pro...

  8. Practical implications of lactate and pyruvate metabolism by lactic acid bacteria in food and beverage fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S-Q

    2003-06-15

    This article reviews the metabolism of pyruvate and lactate by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) involved in food and beverage fermentations with an emphasis on practical implications. First, the formation of pyruvate and lactate from a range of substrates, including carbohydrates, organic acids and amino acids, is briefly described. The catabolism of pyruvate and lactate by LAB is then reviewed. This is followed by a discussion of lactate degradation and racemisation by LAB from specific fermented foods and beverages. Finally, the impact of environmental factors and metabolic engineering on pyruvate and lactate metabolism by LAB is evaluated with regard to practical significance. PMID:12706034

  9. Food Safety Practices on Dairy Farms in Turkey: A Case Study of Izmir Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Cukur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the food safety and quality practices on dairy farms that are located in Izmir province. By means of a survey in which dairy farmers responded to a special questionnaire, data were collected from 103 dairy farmers. Chi-square (Test of Independence, Variance (one-way ANOVA and Kruskall Wallis Test were used to analyze the data. The 5-point Likert scale was used in measuring problems raised in dairy farming about food safety and quality practices and proposed solutions for problems from farmers.

  10. Food webs: a ladder for picking strawberries or a practical tool for practical problems?

    OpenAIRE

    Memmott, Jane

    2009-01-01

    While food webs have provided a rich vein of research material over the last 50 years, they have largely been the subject matter of the pure ecologist working in natural habitats. While there are some notable exceptions to this trend, there are, as I explain in this paper, many applied questions that could be answered using a food web approach. The paper is divided into two halves. The first half provides a brief review of six areas where food webs have begun to be used as an applied tool: re...

  11. A Study of impact of Education on Awareness, Personal Hygiene and Practices of food handlers of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kashmir, India

    OpenAIRE

    Hina; Wani MA; Rehana K; Jan Farooq; Pandita K.K

    2013-01-01

    Background Each year 9.4 million people suffer from food borne diseases throughout the world; everyday cases related to food borne diseases are recorded in all countries from the most to the least developed ones. A major risk of food contamination lies with the food handlers.Several food borne disease outbreaks have been reported to have been associated with poor personal hygiene of people handling food stuffs. Method A questionnaire was structured for the purpose of data collection to find ...

  12. INDIGENOUS FOOD GRAIN STORAGE PRACTICES FOLLOWED BY TRIBAL FARMERS OF NANDURBAR DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Bhaskar Karabhari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out during 2013-2014 to assess the current status of various traditional food grain storage practices followed by farmers in different villages of Nandurbar district of Maharashtra state. The storage practices were found to vary depending upon the climatic conditions and rainfall. In traditional method of storage, farmers are depending on local resources and practices. Observations revealed that a large number of farmers still practice the traditional storage system such as use of natural products like dry neem leaves, wood or cow dung ,ash, smearing of neem oil, turmeric, lime powder and camphor for effective storage. These eco-friendly methods of storage food grains in use since a very long period have withstood the test of time.

  13. Social transmission of food handling in the context of triadic interactions between adults and young canaries (Serinus canaria)

    OpenAIRE

    Cadieu, Nicole; Winterton, P.; Cadieu, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the factors that enhance food recognition and consumption in young canaries when confronted with adults. In contrast to previous studies on canaries in which social transmission of food habits was studied in the context of dyadic interactions (one juvenile – one adult), we proposed a more realistic framework in which young canaries were studied in the context of triadic interactions, free or not, with adults of both sexes. We found that during free interactions, the young bird on...

  14. Impact Analysis of Knowledge Practice for Food Safety in Urban Area of Varanasi

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Bhatt; Shuchi Rai Bhatt; Anita Singh

    2010-01-01

    The present study was planned with main objective of identifying buying practices of homemakers and their awareness in food practices in Varanasi (urban area). For this objective, questionnaire was prepared and distributed among selected people depends on their age group, sex and educational background. Statistical test were carried out on the basis of frequency of male and female respondents obtained in total respondents (n = 300). Chi square test were carried out and the calculated value we...

  15. Food Sanitation and Safety Self-Assessment Instrument for School Nutrition Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Like food-service establishments, child nutrition programs are responsible for preserving the quality and wholesomeness of food. Proper food-handling practices prevent contamination and job-related accidents. Application of the evaluation instrument presented in this document to individual programs helps to define proper practices, assess the…

  16. The social context of childcare practices and child malnutrition in Niger's recent food crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Katherine; Casiday, Rachel; Kilpatrick, Kate; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2009-03-01

    In 2004-05, Niger suffered a food crisis during which global attention focused on high levels of acute malnutrition among children. In response, decentralised emergency nutrition programmes were introduced into much of southern Niger. Child malnutrition, however, is a chronic problem and its links with food production and household food security are complex. This qualitative, anthropological study investigates pathways by which children are rendered vulnerable in the context of a nutritional 'emergency'. It focuses on household-level decisions that determine resource allocation and childcare practices in order to explain why practices apparently detrimental to children's health persist. Risk aversion, the need to maintain self-identity and status, and constrained decision making result in a failure to invest extra necessary resources ingrowth-faltering children. Understanding and responding to the social context of child malnutrition will help humanitarian workers to integrate their efforts more effectively with longer-term development programmes aimed at improving livelihood security. PMID:18513311

  17. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  18. Kitchen safety in hospitals: practices and knowledge of food handlers in istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Aydan; Kiziltan, Gul

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to identify the practices and knowledge of food handlers about workplace safety in hospital kitchens (four on-premises and eight off-premises) in Istanbul. A kitchen safety knowledge questionnaire was administered and a kitchen safety checklist was completed by dietitians. The mean total scores of the on-premise and off-premise hospital kitchens were 32.7 ± 8.73 and 37.0 ± 9.87, respectively. The mean scores for the items about machinery tools, electricity, gas, and fire were lower in off-premise than on-premise hospital kitchen workers. The kitchen safety knowledge questionnaire had five subsections; 43.7% of the food handlers achieved a perfect score. Significant differences were found in the knowledge of food handlers working in both settings about preventing slips and falls (p kitchen safety knowledge of the food handlers (p < .05). [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(10):415-420.]. PMID:25207588

  19. Best Practices for Serving Students with Special Food and/or Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Alexandra; Carr, Deborah; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research project was to identify goals and establish best practices for school nutrition (SN) programs that serve students with special food and/or nutrition needs based on the four practice categories identified in previous National Food Service Management Institute, Applied Research Division (NFSMI, ARD)…

  20. Investigation of Food Acceptability and Feeding Practices for Lipid Nutrient Supplements and Blended Flours Used to Treat Moderate Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Richard J.; Trehan, Indi; LaGrone, Lacey N.; Weisz, Ariana J.; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M.; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Manary, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine acceptability and feeding practices associated with different supplementary food items and identify practices associated with weight gain. Methods: Caregivers (n = 409) whose children had been enrolled in a trial comparing a fortified corn-soy blended flour (CSB++), soy ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF), and soy/whey…

  1. Focus Group Studies on Food Safety Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practices of School-Going Adolescent Girls in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaravarapu, Subba Rao M.; Vemula, Sudershan R.; Rao, Pratima; Mendu, Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Polasa, Kalpagam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices of adolescent girls. Design: Focus group discussions (FGDs) with 32 groups selected using stratified random sampling. Setting: Four South Indian states. Participants: Adolescent girls (10-19 years). Phenomena of Interest: Food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices.…

  2. Practice for dosimetry in gamma irradiation facilities for food processing. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This practice outlines the installation qualification program for an irradiator and the dosimetric procedures to be followed during operational qualification, performance qualification, and routine processing in facilities that process food with ionizing radiation from radionuclide gamma sources to ensure that product has been treated within a predetermined range of absorbed dose. Other procedures related to operational qualification, performance qualification, and routine processing that may influence absorbed dose in the product are also discussed. Information about effective or regulatory dose limits for food products is not within the scope of this practice (see ASTM Guides F 1355, F 1356, F 1736, and F 1885). This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use

  3. Codex general standard for irradiated foods and recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission was established to implement the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. The purpose of this programme is to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. At its 15th session, held in July 1983, the Commission adopted a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and a Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods. This Standard takes into account the recommendations and conclusions of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committees convened to evaluate all available data concerning the various aspects of food irradiation. This Standard refers only to those aspects which relate to the processing of foods by ionising energy. The Standard recognizes that the process of food irradiation has been established as safe for general application to an overall average level of absorbed dose of 10 kGy. The latter value should not be regarded as a toxicological upper limit above which irradiated foods become unsafe; it is simply the level at or below which safety has been established. The Standard provides certain mandatory provisions concerning the facilities used and for the control of the process in the irradiation plants. The present Standard requires that shipping documents accompanying irradiated foods moving in trade should indicate the fact of irradiation. The labelling of prepackaged irradiated foods intended for direct sale to the cod foods intended for direct sale to the consumer is not covered in this Standard

  4. Ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental food practices among families of low-ncome Hispanic and African American preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Skala, Katherine; Chuang, Ru-jye; Evans, Alexandra; Hedberg, Ann-marie; Dave, Jayna; Sharma, Shreela

    2012-01-01

    The family and home environment are important in shaping the dietary patterns of children, yet research among low-income, minority groups is limited. We examined ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental practices among 706 low-income, African-American and Hispanic families of preschoolers. Questionnaires measured the access and availability of various foods in the home, parental practices, and meal consumption behaviors. Mixed model logistic regression and ANCOVA were used...

  5. Electron accelerators for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest in radiation processing of agricultural and food products is emerging world over for reasons related to: a) Persistently high food losses due to infestation, contamination and spoilage, b) Mounting concern over food borne diseases and, c) Growing international trade in food products that must meet stiff import standards of quality and quarantine. The radiation processing has demonstrated practical benefits, in all above areas, when integrated within an established system for safe handling and distribution of the agricultural and food products in a country

  6. Data Handling and Validation in Automated Detection of Food Toxicants Using Full Scan GC-MS and LC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, H.; Lommen, A.; Zomer, P.; Kamp, H.; Lee, M.; Gerssen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Generic methods based on chromatography with full scan MS detection are maturing. Progress has been made in the development of software for automated detection or identification of the analytes, but this still is the bottleneck inhibiting implementation for routine analysis. Validation of qualitative wide-scope screening is another hurdle to be taken before application. An overview of current chromatography-based food toxicant screening is presented.

  7. Impact of Media and Education on Food Practices in Urban Area of Varanasi

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt Shuchi R, Bhatt Sheeendra M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Currently food malpractices are increasing in various metro cities of India and all the measures taken by agencies are failed to detect rapidly and many times it becomes late when the adulteration is detected. Worst scenario is the adulteration of some branded items of the children’s and in the women’s use such as milk cheese, ghee and oils. Therefore, Study for food practices and safety measures was done in selected area of Varanasi which was also validated by the wetlab meth...

  8. Concepts, tools/methods, and practices of water-energy-food NEXUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, A.; Tsurita, I.; Orencio, P. M.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The needs to consider the NEXUS on food and water were emphasized in international dialogues and publications around the end of the 20th century. In fact, in 1983, the United Nations University already launched a Food-Energy Nexus Programme to fill the gaps between the issues of food and energy. The term "NEXUS" to link water, food, and trade was also used in the World Bank during 1990s. The idea of NEXUS is likely to have further developed under the discussion of "virtual water" and "water footprints". With experiencing several international discussions such as Kyoto World Water Forum 2003, scholars and practitioners around the globe acknowledged the need to include energy for the pillars of NEXUS. Finally, the importance of three NEXUS pillars, "water, energy, and food" was officially announced in the BONN 2011 NEXUS Conference, which is a turning point of NEXUS idea in the international community , in order to contribute to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in 2012 that highlighted the concept of "green economy". The concept of NEXUS is becoming a requisite to achieve sustainable development due to the global concerns embedded in society, economy, and environment. The concept stresses to promote the cooperation with the sectors such as water, energy, food, and climate change since these complex global issues are dependent and inter-connected, which can no longer be solved by the sectorial approaches. The NEXUS practices are currently shared among different stakeholders through various modes including literatures, conferences, workshops, and research projects. However, since the NEXUS practices are not led by a particular organization, its concept, theory, policy, tools, methods, and applications are diverse and incoherent. In terms of tools/methods, the potential of integrated modeling approach is introduced to avoid pressures and to promote interactions among water, energy and food. This paper explores the concepts, tools/methods, and practices of water-energy-food NEXUS to evaluate human environmental security under the RIHN project on "Human-Environmental Security in the Asia-Pacific Ring of Fire: Water-Energy-Food Nexus".

  9. The Social Determinants of Food Purchasing Practices: Who Chooses Price-before-Health, Taste-before-Price or Organic Foods in Australia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Coveney

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the extent to which cost, taste and health considerations impact food purchasing practices in Australia was conducted. Data were gathered from a national computer assisted telephone survey of 1109 randomly sampled house- holders and analysed using multiple logistic regression analysis. 88% of respondents considered the taste of food before its price, with females and people on higher incomes more likely to do so. 52% of respondents said that they considered the price of food before its health and nutritional benefits, with males, younger people and people with lower educa- tional qualifications more likely to do so. 49% said that they purchase organic food, with people with 1 child, full-time employed and people never married more likely to do so. Overall, gender, income, education, work status, age and family size are all important predictors of food purchasing practices in Australia.

  10. Child and youth care workers: profile, nutrition knowledge and food safety and hygiene practices

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hendrina H., Grobbelaar; Carin E., Napier.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Facilities concerned with children 'in need of care' should not only be considered as a last resort for a child's care, but also as an intervention that requires more than addressing a child's basic physical needs. The nutritional needs of children are particularly important to consider [...] as they are a fundamental part of the care provided. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this descriptive quantitative study was to investigate the profile, nutrition knowledge, food safety and hygiene practices of child and youth care workers (CCWs) in residential care settings in order to guide the development of a food preparation and nutrition manual. METHOD: The residential care settings included in this study were three that were selected randomly in Durban. CCWs (N = 40) employed permanently or part-time were included. Convenience purposive sampling of the CCWs was undertaken. A structured self-administered questionnaire, developed and tested for this purpose, was used to gather information on the profile, nutrition knowledge, food safety and hygiene practices. The data were analysed for descriptive statistics (means and frequencies). RESULTS: The majority of CCWs were women aged 18-34 years. Very few had completed a relevant tertiary qualification. The results indicated that the respondents' knowledge was fair on general nutrition guidelines, but there were areas of concern. Specifically, knowledge on recommended fruit and vegetable intake, correct serving sizes and importance of a variety in the diet were lacking. Some knowledge about food safety and hygiene practices was demonstrated, but not in totality. CONCLUSION: The overall findings supported the development of a comprehensive food preparation and nutrition manual for child residential care facilities.

  11. Eat this, not that! Parental demographic correlates of food-related parenting practices

    OpenAIRE

    Loth, Katie A.; Maclehose, Richard F.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Crow, Scott; Neumark-sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    To understand how parents of adolescents attempt to regulate their children’s eating behaviors, the prevalence of specific food-related parenting practices (restriction, pressure-to-eat) by sociodemographic characteristics (parent gender, race/ethnicity, education level, employment status, and household income) were examined within a population-based sample of parents (n=3709) of adolescents. Linear regression models were fit to estimate the association between parent sociodemographic chara...

  12. Project CHOICE: #77. A Career Unit for Grades 5 and 6. Nutrition (Vitamin A) and Jobs Relating to the Handling and Care of Food. (Community and Personal Services Career Cluster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    This teaching unit, Nutrition (Vitamin A) and Jobs Relating to the Handling and Care of Food, is one in a series of curriculum guides developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking 5th and 6th grade elementary classroom experiences with the…

  13. Buying Practices and Prevalence of Adulteration in Selected Food items in a Rural Area of Wardha District: A Cross - Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mp, Khapre; Mudey A; Sonali Chaudhary; Wagh V; Ajay Dawale

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Food adulteration in India includes both willful adulteration and substandard food which do not confirm to prescribe food standard. There is striking paucity of reliable data with regard to extent of adulteration and documentation of food borne illnesses reflecting lack of attention and focus on this problem. Objectives: To find the prevalence of food adulteration, buying practices of selected food items and their awareness towards food adulteration act. Also assess relationship...

  14. Intervention effects on kindergarten and first-grade teachers' classroom food practices and food-related beliefs in American Indian reservation schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J; Himes, John H; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

    2013-08-01

    Prevalence of obesity among American Indian children is higher than the general US population. The school environment and teachers play important roles in helping students develop healthy eating habits. The aim of this prospective study was to examine teachers' classroom and school food practices and beliefs and the effect of teacher training on these practices and beliefs. Data were used from the Bright Start study, a group-randomized, school-based trial that took place on the Pine Ridge American Indian reservation (fall 2005 to spring 2008). Kindergarten and first-grade teachers (n=75) from 14 schools completed a survey at the beginning and end of the school year. Thirty-seven survey items were evaluated using mixed-model analysis of variance to examine the intervention effect for each teacher-practice and belief item (adjusting for teacher type and school as random effect). At baseline, some teachers reported classroom and school food practices and beliefs that supported health and some that did not. The intervention was significantly associated with lower classroom use of candy as a treat (P=0.0005) and fast-food rewards (P=0.008); more intervention teachers disagreed that fast food should be offered as school lunch alternatives (P=0.019), that it would be acceptable to sell unhealthy foods as part of school fundraising (P=0.006), and that it would not make sense to limit students' food choices in school (P=0.035). School-based interventions involving teacher training can result in positive changes in teachers' classroom food practices and beliefs about the influence of the school food environment in schools serving American Indian children on reservations. PMID:23885704

  15. Food consumption by young children: a function of parental feeding goals and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison E; Hoffmann, Debra A; Meers, Molly R; Koball, Afton M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2014-03-01

    Staggering health implications are associated with poor child diet. Given the importance of parents in impacting children's eating outcomes, the current study examined a theoretical framework in which both parental feeding goals and practices impact specific healthy and unhealthy child eating behaviors. Participants were 171 mothers of 3-6year old children who were diverse both socioeconomically and with regard to BMI. Mothers completed questionnaires via Mechanical Turk, an online workforce through Amazon.com. Structural Equation Modeling showed an adequate model fit in which Negative Feeding Practices (e.g., using food as a reward) mediated the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals (i.e., feeding children with health-oriented goals in mind) and Negative Eating Behaviors (e.g., consumption of candy and snacks). However, Negative Feeding Practices did not mediate the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals and Positive Eating Behaviors (i.e., fruits and vegetables). These findings suggest the important role of habitual food parenting practices in children's eating and have implications for parental health education programs. PMID:24275668

  16. Do We Care about What We Buy or Eat? A Practical Study of the Healthy Foods Eaten by Jordanian Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Turki Alshurideh

    2014-01-01

    Scholars and practitioners have taken a deep interest in the food choice of young Jordanians and found that it hasbeen influenced by a variety of determinants that affect consumers of what they buy and eat. Such determinantshave not tested practically from scholars within the Jordanian market context. By reviewing large numbers of foodchoice studies, four factors are found essential and chosen to be investigated practically which are: food products’availability, cost, benefit and sensory ap...

  17. Child feeding practices and household food insecurity among low-income mothers in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Ferarro, Mabel; Franchello, Alejandra; Barrera, Raul de La; Machado, Marcia Maria Tavares; Pfeiffer, Martha Erin; Peterson, Karen Eileen

    2012-03-01

    This qualitative study of low-income mothers in Buenos Aires, Argentina, examines the influence of socio-economic conditions, organizational structures, family relationships, and food insecurity on child feeding practices and weight status. Thirty-eight mothers of preschool children living in urban Buenos Aires participated in four focus group discussions. The results indicated that many mothers were aware that obesity may be detrimental to the child's health, but most of them are unclear about the specific consequences. Maternal employment, family pressures, food insecurity and financial worries seem to influence child feeding practices. These findings have important implications for developing strategies for nutritional assistance that could benefit the health of children and provide opportunities for educational programs that are directed to nutritional awareness in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The right to eat regularly and properly is an obligation of the State and must be implemented taking into account the notion of food sovereignty and respecting the importance of preserving the culture and eating habits of a country and its diverse population groups. PMID:22450407

  18. Radiation processing of food and allied products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  19. Farming practices change food web structures in cereal aphid-parasitoid-hyperparasitoid communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohaus, Katharina; Vidal, Stefan; Thies, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has been shown to result in a decline in biodiversity across many taxa, but the changes in community structure and species interactions remain little understood. We have analysed and compared the structure of feeding interactions for cereal aphids and their primary and secondary parasitoids in organically and conventionally managed winter wheat fields using quantitative food web metrics (interaction evenness, generality, vulnerability, link density). Despite little variation in the richness of each trophic group, food web structures between the two farming systems differed remarkably. In contrast to common expectations, aphids and primary parasitoids were characterized by (1) a higher evenness of interaction frequencies (interaction evenness) in conventional fields, which cascaded to interactions at the next trophic level, with (2) a higher interaction evenness, (3) a higher ratio of primary parasitoid taxa per secondary parasitoid (generality) and (4) a higher link density. Aphid communities in the organically managed fields almost exclusively consisted of a single ear-colonizing species, Sitobion avenae, while highly fertilized conventional fields were mainly infested by leaf-colonizing aphids that benefit from the nutritional status of winter wheat. In conclusion, agricultural intensification appears to foster the complexity of aphid-parasitoid food webs, thereby not supporting the general expectation on the importance of organic farming practices for species richness and food web complexity. PMID:22736196

  20. Identifying practical solutions to meet America's fiber needs: proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Amy R; Jones, Julie Miller; Rodriguez, Judith; Slavin, Joanne; Zelman, Kathleen M

    2014-07-01

    Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the "Food & Fiber Summit," which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber's role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap. PMID:25006857

  1. Identifying Practical Solutions to Meet America’s Fiber Needs: Proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy R. Mobley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the “Food & Fiber Summit,” which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber’s role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap.

  2. Evaluation of the safety of domestic food preparation in Malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Desmarchelier, P M; Apiwathnasorn, C; Vilainerun, D.; Watson, C.; Johari, M. R.; Ahmad, Z; Barnes, A

    1994-01-01

    Food-handling practices were studied in 119 and 158 households, respectively, in an urban and a rural community in Peninsular Malaysia. Hazard analyses, including microbiological analysis of foods, were carried out in two households in each community and in a house that prepared food for distribution in the urban area. Kitchen hygiene was generally acceptable, although rated "poor" in some instances in the rural area. Food prepared for lunch was usually sufficient for dinner also, the leftove...

  3. Handling Sports Pressure and Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens > Food & Fitness > Sports > Handling Sports Pressure and Competition Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Do to Ease Pressure? When the stress of competition starts to get to you, try these techniques ...

  4. Handling Sports Pressure and Competition

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Teens > Food & Fitness > Sports > Handling Sports Pressure and Competition Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Do to Ease Pressure? When the stress of competition starts to get to you, try these techniques ...

  5. Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant and Aboriginal women in Canada: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higginbottom Gina MA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to understand ethnocultural food and health practices of Aboriginal and immigrant women, and how these intersect with respect to the legacy of Aboriginal colonialism and to the social contexts of cultural adaptation and adjustment of immigrants. The findings will inform the development of visual tools for health promotion by practitioners. Methods/Design This four-phase study employs a case study design allowing for multiple means of data collection and different units of analysis. Phase 1 consists of a scoping review of the literature. Phases 2 and 3 incorporate pictorial representations of food choices (photovoice in Phase 2 with semi-structured photo-elicited interviews (in Phase 3. The findings from Phases 1-3 and consultations with key stakeholders will generate key understandings for Phase 4, the production of culturally appropriate visual tools. For the scoping review, an emerging methodological framework will be utilized in addition to systematic review guidelines. A research librarian will assist with the search strategy and retrieval of literature. For Phases 2 and 3, recruitment of 20-24 women will be facilitated by team member affiliations at perinatal clinics in one of the city's most diverse neighbourhoods. The interviews will reveal culturally normative practices surrounding maternal food choices and consumption, including how women negotiate these practices within their own worldview and experiences. A structured and comprehensive integrated knowledge translation plan has been formulated. Discussion The findings of this study will provide practitioners with an understanding of the cultural differences that affect women's dietary choices during maternity. We expect that the developed resources will be of immediate use within the women's units and will enhance counseling efforts. Wide dissemination of outputs may have a greater long term impact in the primary and secondary prevention of these high risk conditions.

  6. Collaborative research: Development of a manual on elasmobranch handling and release best practices in tropical tuna purse-seine fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Poisson, Francois; Seret, Bernard; Vernet, Anne-lise; Goujon, Michel; Dagorn, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The reduction of by-catch mortality is an objective of the ecosystem approach to fisheries and a request made by consumers. Elasmobranchs, an important component of the French tropical tuna purse seine fishery by-catch, are currently thrown back into the sea. Fishers interact with various types of elasmobranchs that range widely in size, weight and shape, and could pose various degrees of danger to the crew. A diversity of discarding practices within the fleet were reported, some practices we...

  7. 7 CFR 929.60 - Handling for special purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Reports and Records § 929.60 Handling for special purposes...or terminated to facilitate handling of excess cranberries for...61; (c) Any nonhuman food use; (d) Foreign...

  8. How practice contributes to trolley food waste. A qualitative study among staff involved in serving meals to hospital patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofei, K T; Holst, M; Rasmussen, H H; Mikkelsen, B E

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the generation of trolley food waste at the ward level in a hospital in order to provide recommendations for how practice could be changed to reduce food waste. Three separate focus group discussions were held with four nurses, four dietitians and four service assistants engaged in food service. Furthermore, single qualitative interviews were conducted with a nurse, a dietitian and two service assistants. Observations of procedures around trolley food serving were carried out during lunch and supper for a total of 10 weekdays in two different wards. All unserved food items discarded as waste were weighed after each service. Analysis of interview and observation data revealed five key themes. The findings indicate that trolley food waste generation is a practice embedded within the limitations related to the procedures of meal ordering. This includes portion size choices and delivery, communication, tools for menu information, portioning and monitoring of food waste, as well as the use of unserved food. Considering positive changes to these can be a way forward to develop strategies to reduce trolley food waste at the ward level. PMID:25108237

  9. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcal Food-Borne Disease: An Ongoing Challenge in Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Jhalka Kadariya; Smith, Tara C.; Dipendra Thapaliya

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcal food-borne disease (SFD) is one of the most common food-borne diseases worldwide resulting from the contamination of food by preformed S. aureus enterotoxins. It is one of the most common causes of reported food-borne diseases in the United States. Although several Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) have been identified, SEA, a highly heat-stable SE, is the most common cause of SFD worldwide. Outbreak investigations have found that improper food handling practices in the retail ...

  10. Nuclear Technology. Course 31: Quality Assurance Practices. Module 31-8, Document Handling, Storage and Retrieval for Quality Assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Jim; Espy, John

    This eighth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Quality Assurance Practices describes the records management program for the collection, storage, and maintenance of records. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to…

  11. Use of food practices by childcare staff and the association with dietary intake of children at childcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Gerards, Sanne M P L; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-04-01

    The study explored the associations between various childcare staff food practices and children's dietary intake at childcare. A total of 398 one- to four-year-old children and 24 childcare staff members from 24 Dutch childcare centers participated in the study. Children's dietary intake (fruit, vegetable, sweet snack, savory snack, water, and sweet drink intake) at childcare was registered on two weekdays, using observations by dieticians and childcare staff. Thirteen childcare staff practices were assessed using questionnaires administered by dieticians. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Children consumed relatively much fruit and many sweet snacks at childcare, and they mainly drank sweet drinks. Various staff practices were associated with children's dietary intake. When staff explained what they were doing to the children during food preparation, children ate significantly more fruit. Children ate less sweet snacks when they were allowed to help prepare the meals. When staff encouraged children to continue eating, they ate more vegetables. In conclusion, the study showed the importance of childcare staff food practices for children's food intake at childcare. More research is needed to examine the specific conditions under which food practices can have a positive impact on children's dietary intake. PMID:25825829

  12. Use of Food Practices by Childcare Staff and the Association with Dietary Intake of Children at Childcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S. Gubbels

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study explored the associations between various childcare staff food practices and children’s dietary intake at childcare. A total of 398 one- to four-year-old children and 24 childcare staff members from 24 Dutch childcare centers participated in the study. Children’s dietary intake (fruit, vegetable, sweet snack, savory snack, water, and sweet drink intake at childcare was registered on two weekdays, using observations by dieticians and childcare staff. Thirteen childcare staff practices were assessed using questionnaires administered by dieticians. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Children consumed relatively much fruit and many sweet snacks at childcare, and they mainly drank sweet drinks. Various staff practices were associated with children’s dietary intake. When staff explained what they were doing to the children during food preparation, children ate significantly more fruit. Children ate less sweet snacks when they were allowed to help prepare the meals. When staff encouraged children to continue eating, they ate more vegetables. In conclusion, the study showed the importance of childcare staff food practices for children’s food intake at childcare. More research is needed to examine the specific conditions under which food practices can have a positive impact on children’s dietary intake.

  13. Poor Nutrition Status and Associated Feeding Practices among HIV-Positive Children in a Food Secure Region in Tanzania: A Call for Tailored Nutrition Training

    OpenAIRE

    Sunguya, Bruno F.; Poudel, Krishna C; Mlunde, Linda B.; Urassa, David P.; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2014-01-01

    Undernutrition among HIV-positive children can be ameliorated if they are given adequate foods in the right frequency and diversity. Food insecurity is known to undermine such efforts, but even in food rich areas, people have undernutrition. As yet no study has examined feeding practices and their associations with nutrition status among as HIV-positive children in regions with high food production. We therefore examined the magnitude of undernutrition and its association with feeding practic...

  14. Tobacco advertising and sales practices in licensed retail outlets after the Food and Drug Administration regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Ryan G; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-10-01

    To assess retailer compliance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations on tobacco sales and advertising practices, including point-of-sale advertisements, in two distinct Columbus, Ohio neighborhood groups by income. Data were gathered from a random sample of 129 licensed tobacco retailers, which included data on both exterior and interior advertisements as well as sales practices. Descriptive analyses compared retail outlets by high and low income neighborhood locations. Compliance with FDA regulations was high in the random sample of urban tobacco retail outlets. None of the retail outlets sold loose cigarettes or offered free items with purchase. Less than 10% of the outlets surveyed offered self-service access to cigarettes or smokeless tobacco products. From all surveyed retail outlets 95% had cigarette, 57% had smokeless, and 57% had cigar advertisements at the point-of-sale. There were no significant differences in compliance by income, but the mean number of advertisements on the building and self-service access to cigars was significantly different by neighborhood income. There was a high degree of compliance with the new FDA regulation on tobacco marketing and sales practices in urban retail tobacco outlets in Columbus, Ohio. Tobacco advertising and marketing remain highly prevalent in retail outlets, with some significant differences between high and low income neighborhoods. PMID:22197961

  15. Travelling People, Travelling Plants: An Exploration into Food-Plant Practice among Bengali Women across Transnational and Generational Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, H. M.

    2014-01-01

    The flow of people between urban Britain and rural Bangladesh is longstanding and continuous. In addition to people; food, plants and seeds are transported between the countries. The exchanges are both practical and highly symbolic processes and while transnational in nature have a significant impact at a local level in both places. The PhD thesis explores the nature of food and plant exchange between Sylhet (Northeastern Bangladesh) and the UK among women at a household level, how these tran...

  16. Food Safety Practices Assessment Tool: An Innovative Way to Test Food Safety Skills among Individuals with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Elena T.; Scarpati, Stanley E.; Pivarnik, Lori F.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an innovative assessment tool designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a food safety skills curriculum for learners receiving special education services. As schools respond to the increased demand for training students with special needs about food safety, the need for effective curricula and tools is also increasing. A…

  17. Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association with Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for…

  18. Handling may cause increased shedding of Escherichia coli and total coliforms in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many common management practices such as transportation, weaning, handling, and the formation of new groups of animals are stressful to food animals. Stress affects the ability of the immune system to combat infectious disease; however, the effects of stress on the intestinal microbial ecosystem are...

  19. What does it mean to be a 'picky eater'? A qualitative study of food related identities and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Claire; Cummins, Steven; Brown, Tim; Kyle, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Picky eaters are defined as those who consume an inadequate variety of food through rejection of a substantial amount of food stuffs that are both familiar and unfamiliar. Picky eating is a relatively recent theoretical concept and while there is increasing concern within public health over the lack of diversity in some children's diets, adult picky eaters remain an under researched group. This paper reports on the findings of a qualitative study on the routine food choices and practices of 26 families in Sandwell, West Midlands, UK. Photo elicitation and go-along interview data collection methods were used to capture habitual food related behaviours and served to describe the practices of nine individuals who self identified or were described as picky eaters. A thematic analysis revealed that those with the food related identity of picky eater had very restricted diets and experienced strong emotional and physical reactions to certain foods. For some this could be a distressing and alienating experience that hindered their ability to engage in episodes of social eating. Further research is needed to illuminate the specific practices of adult picky eaters, how this impacts on their lives, and how possible interventions might seek to address the challenges they face. PMID:25450986

  20. Handling gripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The handling gripper has a plate with two locating pins, an angular positioning pin and four hooks that latch onto the end piece of a fuel assembly. An extra locating arm is associated with the angular positioning pin

  1. Surviving bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE): farm women's discussion of the effects of BSE on food provisioning practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Rondeau, Krista

    2009-01-01

    The economic vulnerability of beef and other farm families following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis in Canada poses a risk to their household food provisioning practices. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of BSE since 2003 on the food provisioning practices of beef and other farm families in three Canadian provinces. Semi-structured, face-to-face, in-depth interviews were conducted with 22 farm women (6 in Alberta, 6 in Ontario, and 10 in Nova Scotia) that focused on their food provisioning strategies. Women also provided basic sociodemographic information about their households. While the farm women interviewed revealed that BSE exerted a financial impact on their farm operation, it did not prevent them from eating foods that they valued as wholesome, safe, and healthy for their family. There was no hesitancy in consuming beef from Canadian sources; in fact, beef consumption often increased because of decisions to keep slaughtered cows for home consumption rather than accept low cull cow prices. Other food provisioning strategies reported included seeking out alternative markets, purchasing food on credit, and directing off-farm income to purchase food. PMID:19697243

  2. School Foodservice Employees' Perceptions of Practice: Differences by Generational Age and Hours Worked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Jun, Jinhyun; Arendt, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigated the influences of school foodservice employees' age and average number of hours worked per week on perceived safe food handling practices, barriers, and motivators. Methods: A bilingual survey (English and Spanish) was developed to assess reported food safety practices, barriers, and motivators to…

  3. Popularising right food and feeding practices in Spain (1847-1950): The handbooks of domestic economy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enrique, Perdiguero-Gil; Ramón, Castejón-Bolea.

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze a sample of domestic economy handbooks in order to assess the popularization of correct food and feeding practices in Spain between 1847 and 1950. With this contribution, we wish to evaluate another factor that would influence the Spanish food transition. We are a [...] ware that this is a very indirect source, given the high levels of illiteracy among women in Spain during the last third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. A further factor to be considered is the low proportion of girls attending school. We have analyzed the handbooks published in three periods. The first ranges from the last third of the 19th century to the first decade of the 20th. These handbooks are considered in order to provide background for a comparison with the works published from 1900 onwards. The second period focuses on the 1920s and the 1930s. The last period covers the handbooks published after the Civil War under the monopoly of the Sección Femenina (women's section of the Falange). Over the years under consideration, recommendations underwent a progressive modification from the very simple leaflets used in the 19th century to the introduction of scientific factors into the teaching of domestic economy. The work of Rosa Sensat represented the beginnings of this trend. A further modernizing factor was the appearance of vitamins in some of the handbooks. After the war, the number of handbooks decreased and they were, in general, very poor. If we consider the content on vitamins, there was a lack or shortage of information in comparison with some of the books published in the same period outside the monopoly of the Sección Femenina. In conclusion, we can state that the repetition of recommendations on good feeding habits and the increase in girls attending school would exert a positive influence on the food transition of the Spanish population.

  4. Designing educational messages to improve weaning food hygiene practices of families living in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, C M; Ashworth, A; Nations, M K; Lima, A A; Barreto, A; Huttly, S R

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes a methodology to design feasible interventions to improve weaning food hygiene practices of families living in extreme poverty. Educational messages to promote specific behavioural changes were defined and tested by utilizing a combination of ethnographic, survey and observational methods, and integrating viewpoints and suggestions of mothers and caretakers into the decision-making process. This new approach culminated in a household trial in which five groups, each of 15 non-practising mothers, were invited to adopt defined behaviours (handwashing before and after defined events, boiling water for reconstituting powdered milk, feeding gruel by spoon rather than bottlefeeding, not storing gruels and milks, and all four together). All initiated the advocated behaviours and most (53-80%) sustained the new behaviours and practised them every time during a one-month period. Of the four advocated behaviours, spoon-feeding was the most difficult to adopt wholly. The methodology was developed in response to the high priority given to reducing weaning food contamination for diarrhoeal disease control, and the lack of any existing methodology for defining appropriate educational interventions in resource-poor regions. This approach, with its combination of qualitative and quantitative methods and community focus, is recommended for future studies to design hygiene and other health education interventions in developing countries. PMID:9160436

  5. Quality Early Education--Quality Food and Nutrition Practices? Some Initial Results from a Pilot Research Project into Food and Nutrition Practices in Early Years Settings in Kent, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderton, Tony; Campbell-Barr, Verity

    2005-01-01

    This paper draws upon work conducted as part of a research project into food and nutrition in the early years, and looks very specifically at the way in which practitioners in the field are both aware of current debates around such issues and how they put good policy into their practice. In drawing out such debates with practitioners, it also…

  6. 21 CFR 58.47 - Facilities for handling test and control articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01... false Facilities for handling test and control articles...47 Section 58.47 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...58.47 Facilities for handling test and control...

  7. Survival or growth of inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on yellow onions (Allium cepa) under conditions simulating food service and consumer handling and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Vanessa M; Zhao, Irene Y; Schaffner, Donald W; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J

    2015-01-01

    Whole and diced yellow onions (Allium cepa) were inoculated with five-strain cocktails of rifampin-resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella and stored under conditions to simulate food service or consumer handling. The inoculum was grown in broth (for both whole and diced onion experiments) or on agar plates (for whole onion experiments). Marked circles (3.3 cm in diameter) on the outer papery skin of whole onions were spot inoculated (10 ?l in 10 drops) at 7 log CFU per circle, and onions were stored at 4°C, 30 to 50 % relative humidity, or at ambient conditions (23°C, 30 to 50 % relative humidity). Diced onions were inoculated at 3 log CFU/g and then stored in open or closed containers at 4°C or ambient conditions. Previously inoculated and ambient-stored diced onions were also mixed 1:9 (wt/wt) with refrigerated uninoculated freshly diced onions and stored in closed containers at ambient conditions. Inoculated pathogens were recovered in 0.1 % peptone and plated onto selective and nonselective media supplemented with 50 ?g/ml rifampin. Both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella populations declined more rapidly on onion skins when the inoculum was prepared in broth rather than on agar. Agar-prepared E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella declined by 0.4 and 0.3 log CFU per sample per day, respectively, at ambient conditions; at 4°C the rates of reduction were 0.08 and 0.06 log CFU per sample per day for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, respectively. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella did not change over 6 days of storage at 4°C in diced onions. Lag times of 6 to 9 h were observed with freshly inoculated onion at ambient conditions; no lag was observed when previously inoculated and uninoculated onions were mixed. Growth rates at ambient conditions were 0.2 to 0.3 log CFU/g/h for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in freshly inoculated onion and 0.2 log CFU/g/h in mixed product. Diced onions support pathogen growth and should be kept refrigerated. PMID:25581176

  8. Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association With Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision

    OpenAIRE

    Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose:?Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for nutrition and medical service provision to this population.?Design and Methods:?In-home interviews and oral examinations were conducted with 635 adul...

  9. Vegan Killjoys at the Table—Contesting Happiness and Negotiating Relationships with Food Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Twine

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reports upon research on vegan transition, which I bring into dialogue with Sara Ahmed’s figure of the killjoy. Ahmed’s work on affect and the feminist killjoy is found to be apt for considering contemporary vegans and their transgression of normative scripts of happiness and commensality in a dominant meat and dairy consuming culture. The decentring of joy and happiness is also found to be integral to the critical deconstructive work of the vegan killjoy. Ahmed’s ideas further complement the frame of practice theory that I draw upon to understand the process of transition especially in the sense of opposing the meanings of dominant practices. Although food and veganism are not commented upon by Ahmed, the vegan subject constitutes, I argue, a potent further example of what she terms an “affect alien” who must willfully struggle against a dominant affective order and community. Drawing upon interviews with 40 vegans based in the UK, I illustrate examples of contestation and negotiation by vegans and those close to them. The article finds in the figure of the killjoy not only a frame by which to partly understand the negotiation of relationships between vegans and non-vegans but also an opportunity for further intersectional labour between veganism and feminism.

  10. Radiation processing of food and agricultural commodities: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while eliminating post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy can play a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  11. Radiation technology for value addition to food and agro commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  12. Association between Travel Times and Food Procurement Practices among Female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants in Eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Moore, Justin B.; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D.; Liu, Haiyong; Saelens, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between self-reported vehicular travel behaviors, perceived stress, food procurement practices, and body mass index among female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Analysis: The authors used correlation and regression analyses to examine cross-sectional associations between travel time…

  13. Droplet Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Toru

    When quantitative analysis or quantitative chemical synthesis is performed using a micrototal analysis system (microTAS), the technologies for precise metering, transporting, and mixing of droplets are required. In this chapter, several technologies for the handling of droplets are described. For metering, dispensing and transporting of droplets, pneumatic and electrokinetic forces are used. Separation of cells and particles is also performed by electrical operation. Other handling technique, such as ultrasonic or centrifugal force applications, are also reviewed. Robotic synthesis devices or high throughput screening devices are promising applications for these technologies.

  14. What Bacteria Are Living in My Food?: An Open-Ended Practical Series Involving Identification of Unknown Foodborne Bacteria Using Molecular Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Prascilla; Turner, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    This open-ended practical series titled "Molecular Identification of Unknown Food Bacteria" which extended over a 6-week period was designed with the aims of giving students an opportunity to gain an understanding of naturally occurring food bacteria and skills in contemporary molecular methods using real food samples. The students first isolated…

  15. The personal and general hygiene practices of food handlers in the delicatessen sections of retail outlets in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tonder, Izanne; Lues, Jan F R; Theron, Maria M

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents data on personal- and general-hygiene knowledge and practices among food handlers in the delicatessens of a major retail group in the Western Cape in South Africa. Food handlers were interviewed by means of a structured questionnaire. Although the majority of food handlers adhered to basic hygiene principles, there is definitely a need for proper and continuous training in personal and general hygiene, not only for food handlers, but also for management. The study reported here is of importance particularly in view of new local regulations governing the application of the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system. Management is responsible for the implementation of this system, and where supervision is not adequate, the manager of the outlet should intervene to ensure that staff conform to the requirements. PMID:18044251

  16. Food Preparation at Home an Example of New Practical Strategies in the Swedish Municipal Food Service - A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zada Pajalic

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe how one of 290 Swedish municipalities improved its FS service by terminating their earlier service of food distribution (FD) which was the delivery of ready cooked meals produced at a central kitchen in the community and introducing food preparation at the client’s home. The revised system is referred to as the new FS. This study was performed using an action research approach. The data was collected by individual- and group interviews and th...

  17. Enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Food Handlers during Hajj Season in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Anas Serag Dablool; Saeed Saeed Al-Ghamdi

    2011-01-01

    Food poisoning during Hajj season is one of the main hazardous issues where most of the health services in Saudi Arabia are targeting to minimize every year during Hajj seasons. Ordinarily, food handlers are subjected to medical examination before assignment to work. However, they are mostly lacking proper training in food handling operations, mass feeding, and sanitary practices. This situation may encourage causing food poisoning especially with staphylococcus enterotoxins. 1516 clinical sp...

  18. Neofobias Alimentares: importância na prática clínica / Food neophobia: importance in clinical practice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Isabel, Silva; Andreia, Teles.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Revisão da evidência científica do tema Neofobias Alimentares (NA), focando os aspetos mais importantes da sua aplicação na prática clínica. Métodos de revisão: Pesquisa bibliográfica da literatura em Inglês e Português, de Janeiro de 2001 a Fevereiro de 2012 através da Medline/Pubmed, sít [...] ios de Medicina Baseada na Evidência e livros de texto de Fisiologia. Resultados: O termo NA define-se como uma relutância na aceitação de novos sabores. O gosto por certos alimentos é um processo complexo que se inicia no útero, continua com o aleitamento e permanece pela vida fora. Embora exista influência de fatores genéticos, estes podem ser influenciados por exposições precoces e repetidas aos diferentes sabores, o que irá modular o paladar e diminuir o risco de patologias futuras, nomeadamente obesidade infantil. A janela para habituação aos sabores é estreita e a rejeição de alimentos introduzidos após os quatro anos é maior. A aceitação de um novo sabor até aos cinco anos necessita frequentemente de 10 a 15 exposições repetidas. As emoções, aspetos sociais e processos digestivos, são fatores influenciadores da aquisição do gosto. Conclusões: As preferências gustativas são muito estáveis e podem durar toda a vida, pelo que devemos dar uma especial atenção às crianças e pais no processo de “educação do gosto”. Ao dar à criança alguns alimentos preferidos juntamente com os novos alimentos e ao manter a calma para as neofobias temporárias, talvez seja a chave para o desenvolvimento das preferências gustativas. Reforços negativos, nomeadamente pressões, devem ser evitados, devendo-se valorizar os reforços positivos. Abstract in english Objective: To review the scientific evidence of the theme Food Neophobias (FN), focus on the most important aspects of their application in clinical practice. Review methods: A systematic review was performed for papers published between January 2001 to February 2012, in Portuguese/English, in the m [...] edical databases Medline/Pubmed, Cochrane Library, National Guideline Clearinghouse, evidence-based medicine sites and Physiology text books. Results: The term FN is defined as a reluctant acceptance of new flavours. The taste for certain foods is a complex process that begins in utero, continues during breastfeeding and remains throughout life. Although there is an influence of genetic factors, these can be contradicted by early and repeated exposure to different flavours, which will modulate the taste and will reduce the risk of future diseases, including childhood obesity. As the window for habituation to new flavours is thin, the rejection of foods introduced after four years is higher. The acceptance of a new flavour up to five years often requires 10 to 15 repeated exposures. Emotions, social aspects and digestive processes, are factors that influence the acquisition of taste. Conclusions: The gustatory preferences are very stable and can follow up lifelong and we should pay particular attention to children and parents in the “taste education” process. By giving the child some favourite foods with new foods and to stay calm for temporary neophobias, may be the key to the development of taste preferences. The negative reinforcement, such pressures, should be avoided, and the positive reinforcement should be implemented.

  19. How to Organise Return Handling

    OpenAIRE

    Koster, M. B. M.; Vendel, M.; Brito, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    Already for a long time retailers take back products. In this paper we explore the factors contributing to the decision of combining vs. separating inbound and outbound flows during the return handling process. We do so through a comparative analysis of the operations in nine retailer warehouses, which can be divided in three groups: food retailers, department stores and mail order companies. We identify both aggravating factors and facilitating actions for return handling. Furthermore, we br...

  20. Developing a Multicomponent Model of Nutritious Food Access and Related Implications for Community and Policy Practice

    OpenAIRE

    FREEDMAN, DARCY A.; Blake, Christine E.; LIESE, ANGELA D.

    2013-01-01

    Access to nutritious foods is limited in disenfranchised communities in the United States. Policies are beginning to focus on improving nutritious food access in these contexts; yet, few theories are available to guide this work. We developed a conceptual model of nutritious food access based on the qualitative responses of food consumers in 2 different regions of the American South. Five domains (economic, service delivery, spatial–temporal, social, and personal) and related dimensions of ...

  1. Safe handling of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance and recommendations on operational radiation protection aspects related to the safe handling of tritium in laboratories, industrial-scale nuclear facilities such as heavy-water reactors, tritium removal plants and fission fuel reprocessing plants, and facilities for manufacturing commercial tritium-containing devices and radiochemicals. The requirements of nuclear fusion reactors are not addressed specifically, since there is as yet no tritium handling experience with them. However, much of the material covered is expected to be relevant to them as well. Annex III briefly addresses problems in the comparatively small-scale use of tritium at universities, medical research centres and similar establishments. However, the main subject of this publication is the handling of larger quantities of tritium. Operational aspects include designing for tritium safety, safe handling practice, the selection of tritium-compatible materials and equipment, exposure assessment, monitoring, contamination control and the design and use of personal protective equipment. This publication does not address the technologies involved in tritium control and cleanup of effluents, tritium removal, or immobilization and disposal of tritium wastes, nor does it address the environmental behaviour of tritium. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Food and physical activity environments: an energy balance approach for research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, Christina D; Hatfield, Daniel P; King, Abby C; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Ann Pentz, Mary

    2015-05-01

    Increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity are a function of chronic, population-level energy imbalance, whereby energy intakes exceed energy expenditures. Although sometimes viewed in isolation, energy intakes and expenditures in fact exist in a dynamic interplay: energy intakes may influence energy expenditures and vice versa. Obesogenic environments that promote positive energy balance play a central role in the obesity epidemic, and reducing obesity prevalence will require re-engineering environments to promote both healthy eating and physical activity. There may be untapped synergies in addressing both sides of the energy balance equation in environmentally focused obesity interventions, yet food/beverage and physical activity environments are often addressed separately. The field needs design, evaluation, and analytic methods that support this approach. This paper provides a rationale for an energy balance approach and reviews and describes research and practitioner work that has taken this approach to obesity prevention at the environmental and policy levels. Future directions in research, practice, and policy include moving obesity prevention toward a systems approach that brings both nutrition and physical activity into interdisciplinary training, funding mechanisms, and clinical and policy recommendations/guidelines. PMID:25891062

  3. Trichinella diagnostics and control: Mandatory and best practices for ensuring food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajadhar, A. A.; Pozio, E.

    2009-01-01

    Because of its role in human disease, there are increasing global requirements for reliable diagnostic and control methods for Trichinella in food animals to ensure meat safety and to facilitate trade. Consequently, there is a need for standardization of methods, programs, and best practices used in the control of Trichinella and trichinellosis. This review article describes the biology and epidemiology of Trichinella, and describes recommended test methods as well as modified and optimized procedures that are used in meat inspection programs. The use of ELISA for monitoring animals for infection in various porcine and equine pre- and post-slaughter programs, including farm or herd certification programs is also discussed. A brief review of the effectiveness of meat processing methods, such as freezing, cooking and preserving is provided. The importance of proper quality assurance and its application in all aspects of a Trichinella diagnostic system is emphasized. It includes the use of international quality standards, test validation and standardization, critical control points, laboratory accreditation, certification of analysts and proficiency testing. Also described, are the roles and locations of international and regional reference laboratories for trichinellosis where expert advice and support on research and diagnostics are available. Crown

  4. Limited Evidence That Competitive Food and Beverage Practices Affect Adolescent Consumption Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericker, Tracy C.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is emerging as a considerable public health problem with no clear antidote. The school food environment is a potential intervention point for policy makers, with competitive food and beverage regulation as a possible policy lever. This research examines the link between competitive food and beverage availability in school and…

  5. handling Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Hua Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the disadvantage of hardware of large-scale ship handling simulator at home and abroad which has closed equipment, bad expandability, high price and so on, we design the console’s frequently-used hardware equipments of the large-scale ship handling simulator based on the research strength of our college. Besides, the overall architecture of the hardware system and the hardware and software design of some equipments are also provided in detailed. The simulator follows the standards on the use of simulators of A-1/12 section of Manila amendments to the STCW Convention and meets the prescribed performance standards of China Maritime Safety Administration about “the notice of related matters on doing preparatory work for meeting Manila amendments to the STCW Convention (Sea Crew [2011] No.923” and has broad market prospects. Now, the simulator has been applied to many domestic navigation colleges or institutions and has achieved good results.

  6. Looking beyond borders: integrating best practices in benefit-risk analysis into the field of food and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijhuis, M J; Pohjola, M V; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken-Schröder, G; Poto, M; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, O; White, B C; Holm, F; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    An integrated benefit-risk analysis aims to give guidance in decision situations where benefits do not clearly prevail over risks, and explicit weighing of benefits and risks is thus indicated. The BEPRARIBEAN project aims to advance benefit-risk analysis in the area of food and nutrition by learning from other fields. This paper constitutes the final stage of the project, in which commonalities and differences in benefit-risk analysis are identified between the Food and Nutrition field and other fields, namely Medicines, Food Microbiology, Environmental Health, Economics and Marketing-Finance, and Consumer Perception. From this, ways forward are characterized for benefit-risk analysis in Food and Nutrition. Integrated benefit-risk analysis in Food and Nutrition may advance in the following ways: Increased engagement and communication between assessors, managers, and stakeholders; more pragmatic problem-oriented framing of assessment; accepting some risk; pre- and post-market analysis; explicit communication of the assessment purpose, input and output; more human (dose-response) data and more efficient use of human data; segmenting populations based on physiology; explicit consideration of value judgments in assessment; integration of multiple benefits and risks from multiple domains; explicit recognition of the impact of consumer beliefs, opinions, views, perceptions, and attitudes on behaviour; and segmenting populations based on behaviour; the opportunities proposed here do not provide ultimate solutions; rather, they define a collection of issues to be taken account of in developing methods, tools, practices and policies, as well as refining the regulatory context, for benefit-risk analysis in Food and Nutrition and other fields. Thus, these opportunities will now need to be explored further and incorporated into benefit-risk practice and policy. If accepted, incorporation of these opportunities will also involve a paradigm shift in Food and Nutrition benefit-risk analysis towards conceiving the analysis as a process of creating shared knowledge among all stakeholders. PMID:22142687

  7. From food safety guidelines to quantified sustainability indicators: A transition to good practice schemes in food production in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Haverkort, A. J.; Jansen, D. M.; Ruijter, F. J.; Verhagen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade and a half various aspects of the sustainability of food production have been evaluated by different groups of stakeholders. National and federal legislators have looked at the types of chemicals allowed and the acceptable maximum residue levels permitted for particular crops and conditions. Commercial firms (in both the processing and retail sectors) have developed private company labels that distinguish them from competitors. Their suppliers have to comply under a 'lice...

  8. Food Preparation at Home an Example of New Practical Strategies in the Swedish Municipal Food Service - A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zada Pajalic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to describe how one of 290 Swedish municipalities improved its FS service by terminating their earlier service of food distribution (FD which was the delivery of ready cooked meals produced at a central kitchen in the community and introducing food preparation at the client’s home. The revised system is referred to as the new FS. This study was performed using an action research approach. The data was collected by individual- and group interviews and through participatory observations. The transcribed interview material was analysed using qualitative content analysis. The (n=30 subjects were recruited The findings of this study revealed that the new FS was experienced as being a good service, that the new municipal FS met individual needs in a better way and that the elderly recipients could participate more actively in planning and preparing their meals. In conclusion, it was found that having their food prepared at home was considered by many of the recipients to be synonymous with individually adjusted help. The results of the study could have implications for nursing, public administration and gerontology.

  9. Food irradiation and habitual consumption of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years, an increasing amount of people is consuming more fruits, vegetables, seeds and sprouts, with the health effects of food in mind. Otherwise, the accepted shelf food safety found in some countries led to a growing trust in the product's hygienic quality, that leads to behaviors like opening a package and immediately consume the contents. Besides the well disseminated knowledge of good cooking practices, the lack of time, found mainly in big cities, may take to the dinning tables food with an increasing potential of pathogenic organisms contamination. For instance, the alfalfa, beam, clover and radish sprouts caused many reported Salmonella and E. coli outbreaks in countries like the USA, United Kingdom, Japan, Sweden, Finland, Canada and Denmark. Many of the likely source of contaminations were the contamination of the seeds before sprouting. To control these contaminations, the irradiation doses over 1 kGy is effective and the association of irradiation and chemical treatments is being studied. The bacteriological control performance of the irradiation becomes this technique one of the most applied to dry herbs and spices witch, without adequate treatment, could be important sources of foodborne outbreaks. Good production, handling, packing and distribution practices may, with the use of ionizing radiation to reach the desired bacteriological inactivation or decontamination level, significantly contribute to the necessary food safety, allowing it to the necessary food safety, allowing it to be safely ready to eat. (author)

  10. Position of the American Dietetic Association: food and nutrition professionals can implement practices to conserve natural resources and support ecological sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Alison H; Gerald, Bonnie L

    2007-06-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association to encourage environmentally responsible practices that conserve natural resources, minimize the quantity of waste generated, and support the ecological sustainability of the food system-the process of food production, transformation, distribution, access, and consumption. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, play various roles in the food system and work in settings where efforts to conserve can have significant effects. Natural resources that provide the foundation for the food system include biodiversity, soil, land, energy, water, and air. A food system that degrades or depletes its resource base is not sustainable. Making wise food purchases and food management decisions entails understanding the external costs of food production and foodservice and how these external costs affect food system sustainability. This position paper provides information, specific action-oriented strategies, and resources to guide registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, in food decision making and professional practice. Food and nutrition professionals also can participate in policy making at the local, state, and national levels, and can support policies that encourage the development of local sustainable food systems. Our actions today have global consequences. Conserving and protecting resources will contribute to the sustainability of the global food system now and in the future. PMID:17571455

  11. Safe food manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A; Mercier, C

    1994-03-31

    Food safety is a growing preoccupation of the health authorities and the major food companies in any European country. All the aspects of food manufacturing, from the raw materials until the product is consumed have to insure they are innoxious to human health, eliminate any harmful effects related either to food handling or consumption in domestic or common eating places, as well as protect, as much as possible, our environment. Thus, the food manufacturer has to examine step-by-step the security of the agro-cultures, their composition, but also the possible residues of pollutants and contaminants, or chemicals used to protect them against various pests and determine the possible loss or retention of these substances during technological processes. Animal raw materials should not contain veterinary drug residues or an abnormal amount of some components that result from inadequate feeding. Care should be taken to ensure the security of foods manufactured by biotechnology processes. The organisms and the whole processes used in food biotechnologies should eliminate any impurities. Any minor food ingredients, such as food additives, are under a permanent revision from the point of view of their safety. The industry reacts immediately if any justification requires that a particular food additive should not be used. In other words all the raw materials must conform to their specifications. Technological processes must create a food with an adequate microbiological quality, e.g. free of pathogens and their toxic metabolites. Any danger of microbiological contamination or accidental pollution, such as mechanical particles, chemical substances, etc. should be eliminated. The particular role of food packaging is crucial, since this is a barrier to protect the food against further parasites or microbial contamination and preserve the food from alterations due to enzymatic reactions that require particular oxygen and water activity conditions. The packaging should also protect against possible criminal damage. In addition, the material of packaging should not allow micro-migration to the food. It should be inert against its food content. Another aspect of food packaging that has to be taken into account is its recovery and recyclability. Finally, the food manufacturer has to ensure that the nutritional value of the product does not diminish through its shelf-life. The consumer should be advised about the effects of culinary practices since some of them, such as deep frying or grilling under certain circumstances, may create undesirable substances potentially harmful to human health. The food manufacturing in the context of the environment protection requires a separate issue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8202696

  12. Traditional and alternative community food security interventions in Montréal, Québec: different practices, different people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncarolo, Federico; Adam, Caroline; Bisset, Sherri; Potvin, Louise

    2015-04-01

    Food insecurity is steadily increasing in developed countries. Traditional interventions adopted to tackle food insecurity, like food banks, address the urgent need for food. By contrast, alternative interventions, such as community gardens and kitchens, are oriented towards social integration and the development of mutual aid networks. The objective of this paper is to examine whether the populations served by traditional and alternative interventions in food security differ according to measures of vulnerability. We studied newly registered participants to food security interventions. Participants were selected from a random sample of food security community organizations in a two-stage cluster sampling frame. The categorizing variable was participation in a community organization providing either traditional interventions or alternative interventions. Seven measures of vulnerability were used: food security; perceived health; civic participation; perceived social support of the primary network, social isolation, income and education. Regression multilevel models were used to assess associations. 711 participants in traditional interventions and 113 in alternative interventions were enrolled in the study. Between group differences were found with respect to food insecurity, health status perception, civic participation, education and income, but not with respect to social isolation or perceived social support from primary social network. Traditional and alternative food security interventions seem to reach different populations. Participants in traditional interventions were found to have less access to resources, compared to those in alternative interventions. Thus, new participants in traditional interventions may have higher levers of vulnerability than those in alternative interventions. PMID:25012098

  13. Interrupt Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, Jonathan

    The Oâ??Reilly Online Catalog provides us with a look at Chapter 9 of the book Linux Device Drivers by Alessandro Rubini and Jonathon Corbet. The chapter is entitled Interrupt Handling and it covers the overall control of interrupts, preparing the parallel port, installing and interrupt handler, interrupt sharing, race conditions, and more. The website offers example functions and codes to assist in the installation, implementation, and comprehension processes. The easily navigable table of contents makes the amount of text on the website easy and stress-free and the ordering information is available if the entire book seems of interest to those computer science teachers and students.

  14. Total Quality Management (TQM) Practices Toward Product Quality Performance: Case at Food and Beverage Industry in Makassar, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Munizu, Musran

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to test and analyze the effect of TQM practices impelementation which consists of leadership, strategic planning, customer focus, information and analysis, people management, and process management to product quality performance. The population were 108 food and beverage companies in Makassar, Indonesia. Respondents are production managers or operation managers. Sample technique which used is population sampling. Method of analysis which use both descriptive s...

  15. Practice, Behavior, Knowledge and Awareness of Food Safety among Secondary & Tertiary Level Students in Trinidad, West Indies

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Turnbull-Fortune; Neela Badrie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the level of food safety practice, knowledge, behavior and awareness among n = 205 Trinidadian students (mean age 18±) enrolled within the education system in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies and to explore the association between these variables and the demographic and educational characteristics. To address these concerns, participants enrolled within the secondary (high school) and tertiary (university) institution...

  16. I can never be normal : A conversation about race, daily life practices, food and power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke; Ahmed Andresen, Uzma

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the doing and undoing of race in daily life practices in Denmark. It takes the form of a dialogue between two women, a heterosexual Muslim woman of color and a lesbian white woman, who discuss and analyze how their daily life, e.g. interactions with their children’s schools and daycare institutions, shape their racial and gendered experiences. Drawing upon black feminist theory, postcolonial theory, critical race and whiteness studies, the two women illustrate inclusions and exclusions in their society based on gender, race, class and sexuality – and especially pinpoint to how these categories intersect in processes of inclusion and exclusion. The article argues that the lack of a Nordic vocabulary for the term ‘race’ – as ‘race’ is associated with biological racism which dominated in the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century, and hence is viewed as a historical phenomenon left behind – prevents contemporary people from addressing existing patterns of racial discrimination, inclusion and exclusion in their daily lives, as well as from connecting their contemporary struggles to historical struggles and inequalities. Furthermore, they illustrate how food, class and race intersect with an analysis of the so-called New Nordic Kitchen, exemplified by the world famous Copenhagen restaurant NOMA. The article interprets the New Nordic Kitchen, which has become very popular in the Nordic countries in recent years, as a culinary project performing whiteness, and connects the New Nordic Kitchen’s obsession with ‘the authentic Nordic’ with historical race science in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century.

  17. Women Food Safety Practices from Shopping to Eating in Ankara, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Canan Talas; Asli Ucar; Ozfer Ozcelik

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the methods used for food storage and preparation in the Turkish household and to determine the domestic knowledge on food hygiene and food safety. A sample of 250 randomly selected, voluntary, married Turkish women participated in the survey. The research data were collected through a questionnaire and face-to-face interviews. The research findings revealed that the great majority of the women purchased meat at the end of shopping, thawed raw meat in the...

  18. Consumer Food Safety Knowledge, Practices and Differences in Behaviors in Thrace Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Emine

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the expectations of individuals living in urban and rural regions of Thrace Region of Turkey were investigated by considering the level of knowledge and behaviour of those individuals about parameters, consumptive habits and food safety while they are buying food products. This study has been conducted in Thrace Region by face to face survey with 770 individuals who have an effective say in the decision of food consumption within the family. The factors affecting the consumers ...

  19. Bio-cultural refugia : Safeguarding diversity of practices for food security and biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Barthel, Stephan; Crumley, Carole; Svedin, Uno

    2013-01-01

    Food security for a growing world population is high on the list of grand sustainability challenges, as is reducing the pace of biodiversity loss in landscapes of food production. Here we shed new insights on areas that harbor place specific social memories related to food security and stewardship of biodiversity. We call them bio-cultural refugia. Our goals are to illuminate how bio-cultural refugia store, revive and transmit memory of agricultural biodiversity and ecosystem services, and ho...

  20. 7 CFR 205.270 - Organic handling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS...Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205...specified ingredients or food group(s)),” pursuant...handler of an organic handling operation must not use in or...specified ingredients or food group(s)),”...

  1. 7 CFR 1599.8 - Entry and handling of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Entry and handling of commodities. 1599.8 Section...AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAM § 1599.8 Entry and handling of commodities. (a)...

  2. 7 CFR 1499.8 - Entry and handling of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry and handling of commodities. 1499.8 Section 1499...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.8 Entry and handling of commodities. (a) The...

  3. Potential Risk Handling Alternatives for Supply Chain Disruptions in Liquid Food Production – the case of V&S Vin & Sprit AB, the Sundsvall site

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsson, Ulf; Nilsson, Carl-Henric

    2008-01-01

    V&S Sundsvall (a part of V&S Vin & Sprit AB) is a Swedish company producing different alcoholic beverages, mainly for the Swedish market. The company has lately paid increasing attention to supply chain disruption risk issues. In another study, one of the authors (Paulsson 2007) developed a model, called the DRISC (Disruption Risks In Supply Chains) model, for the structuring, evaluation and handling of risks related to disruptions in the product flow in the supply chain. The DRI...

  4. Handling Sports Pressure and Competition

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Sports > Handling Sports Pressure and Competition Print A A A Text Size What's in this ... reviewed: September 2013 Back 1 ? 2 ? 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC ...

  5. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS... Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205...Removal of pest habitat, food sources, and breeding...Prevention of access to handling facilities; and...

  6. Menu Planning, Food Consumption, and Sanitation Practices in Day Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratko, Connye N.; Martin, Ruth E.; Lan, William Y.; Chappell, James A.; Ahmad, Mahassen

    2000-01-01

    In 102 day care centers, data were collected on nutritional content of menus, compliance with guidelines, children's food consumption, and safety/sanitation. Although menus exceeded recommended daily allowances, quantities of food were below recommendations. No menu components were consumed by more than 65% of children. Sanitation problems were…

  7. Local French Food Initiatives in Practice: The Emergence of a Social Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Giovanangeli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the development of local food systems from a social movement perspective. It examines the case study of a farm market located in France and considers whether and how local initiatives in food distribution can be viewed as a social movement, using social theory as the conceptual framework.

  8. Local French Food Initiatives in Practice: The Emergence of a Social Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Giovanangeli

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the development of local food systems from a social movement perspective. It examines the case study of a farm market located in France and considers whether and how local initiatives in food distribution can be viewed as a social movement, using social theory as the conceptual framework.

  9. Handling tongs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design is presented of remotely controlled handling tongs for placing fuel assemblies of a fast nuclear reactor in the desired positions in the reactor vessel. The tongs consist of a head and clamps pivoted an the head. The head machined at the end of an inner pull rod which is swing connected to the main pull rod guide bar. The connection is effected from the inner pull rod side. Grip pins are pivoted on the main pull rod guide bar. The side projections of the grip pins engage the inner wall of the channel while the grip pin bodies lean against the opening link. The link pull rod and its height is adjustable. Its inner cut-outs engage the upper tips of the clamps. A fixing ring which the grip pin bodies engage is attached to the opening link such that it can be deflected to both sides. (E.S.)

  10. 9 CFR 327.7 - Products for importation; movement prior to inspection; handling; bond; assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...movement prior to inspection; handling; bond; assistance. 327...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...movement prior to inspection; handling; bond; assistance...inspectors may require for the handling and marking of product...

  11. Ensuring Food Safety: The Cooperative Retail Food Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this federal building. “Whether the kitchens serve pizza, fast foods, or sit-down dinners for Congress—they are ... In this case, two infected employees at a fast food restaurant in Milan, Ill., handled food served to ...

  12. Comparison of Nutrition Standards and Other Recommended Procurement Practices for Improving Institutional Food Offerings in Los Angeles County, 2010–2012123

    OpenAIRE

    Robles, Brenda; Wood, Michelle; Kimmons, Joel; Kuo, Tony

    2013-01-01

    National, state, and local institutions that procure, distribute, sell, and/or serve food to employees, students, and the public are increasingly capitalizing on existing operational infrastructures to create healthier food environments. Integration of healthy nutrition standards and other recommended practices [e.g., energy (kilocalories) postings at point-of-purchase, portion size restrictions, product placement guidelines, and signage] into new or renewing food service and vending contract...

  13. 7 CFR 205.201 - Organic production and handling system plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL...producer or handler of a production or handling operation, except...specified ingredients or food group(s))” must develop an organic production or handling...

  14. Holiday Food Safety

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to help keep yourself and your loved ones healthy. Happy Holidays and remember to BE FOOD SAFE! Additional Information Consumer Update: Food Safety Tips for Healthy Holidays [ARCHIVED] Produce Safety: Safe Handling of Raw ...

  15. Promoting good nutrition: using the food guide pyramid in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keithley, J K; Keller, A; Vazquez, M G

    1996-12-01

    The Food Guide Pyramid graphically depicts how Americans can eat a balanced, healthy diet. Medical-surgical nurses can use the guideline and individually tailored strategies to get the message out about "eating right for life." PMID:9136392

  16. Reducing the risk of heart disease among Indian Australians: knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding food practices – a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritin Fernandez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Australia has a growing number of Asian Indian immigrants. Unfortunately, this population has an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD. Dietary adherence is an important strategy in reducing risk for CHD. This study aimed to gain greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs relating to food practices in Asian Indian Australians. Methods: Two focus groups with six participants in each were recruited using a convenience sampling technique. Verbatim transcriptions were made and thematic content analysis undertaken. Results: Four main themes that emerged from the data included: migration as a pervasive factor for diet and health; importance of food in maintaining the social fabric; knowledge and understanding of health and diet; and elements of effective interventions. Discussion: Diet is a complex constructed factor in how people express themselves individually, in families and communities. There are many interconnected factors influencing diet choice that goes beyond culture and religion to include migration and acculturation. Conclusions: Food and associated behaviors are an important aspect of the social fabric. Entrenched and inherent knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and traditions frame individuals’ point of reference around food and recommendations for an optimal diet.

  17. An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Hedberg, Craig W.; Onyeneho, Sylvester N.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contam...

  18. O fazer educação alimentar e nutricional: algumas contribuições para reflexão Practical food and nutrition education: some points for reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Amparo da Silva Santos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo reflete sobre as práticas de educação alimentar e nutricional vigentes no contexto atual. São discutidas no âmbito das políticas públicas de alimentação e nutrição partindo de uma análise sobre as ações governamentais empreendidas e de suas ações no âmbito local, particularmente na nutrição clínica ambulatorial e/ou na atenção a grupos específicos, buscando identificar as tendências teóricas e metodológicas que norteiam as práticas educativas. Considera-se que a educação alimentar e nutricional tem sido alvo de debates na busca de concebê-la como uma ação governamental. Entretanto, em que pese seus avanços, se reconhece a existência de um hiato entre as formulações das políticas e as ações desenvolvidas no âmbito local. Permanece também um hiato entre discursos e as práticas em seu torno das ações educativas. Conclui-se que a educação alimentar e nutricional é menos um instrumento do que um dispositivo de ações conjugadas que devem envolver diferentes setores e disciplinas, entretanto, demanda investimentos na formação profissional e na produção de conhecimento no campo.This article reflects on the practices of existing food and nutrition education in the current context. Practices in public policy in food and nutrition are discussed starting from an analysis of government actions undertaken and their actions at the local level, particularly in outpatient clinical nutrition and/or attention to specific groups, seeking to identify theoretical and methodological trends guiding educational practices. It is considered that the food and nutrition education has been the subject of debate in seeking to construe it as government action. However, despite their achievements, one perceives the existence of a gap between the formulation of policies and actions developed at the local level. There is also a gap between rhetoric and practice in terms of educational activities. The conclusion reached is that food and nutrition education is less an instrument than a measure for joint actions that must involve different sectors and disciplines, however, it calls for investment in vocational training and production of knowledge in the field.

  19. O fazer educação alimentar e nutricional: algumas contribuições para reflexão / Practical food and nutrition education: some points for reflection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ligia Amparo da Silva, Santos.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo reflete sobre as práticas de educação alimentar e nutricional vigentes no contexto atual. São discutidas no âmbito das políticas públicas de alimentação e nutrição partindo de uma análise sobre as ações governamentais empreendidas e de suas ações no âmbito local, particularmente na [...] nutrição clínica ambulatorial e/ou na atenção a grupos específicos, buscando identificar as tendências teóricas e metodológicas que norteiam as práticas educativas. Considera-se que a educação alimentar e nutricional tem sido alvo de debates na busca de concebê-la como uma ação governamental. Entretanto, em que pese seus avanços, se reconhece a existência de um hiato entre as formulações das políticas e as ações desenvolvidas no âmbito local. Permanece também um hiato entre discursos e as práticas em seu torno das ações educativas. Conclui-se que a educação alimentar e nutricional é menos um instrumento do que um dispositivo de ações conjugadas que devem envolver diferentes setores e disciplinas, entretanto, demanda investimentos na formação profissional e na produção de conhecimento no campo. Abstract in english This article reflects on the practices of existing food and nutrition education in the current context. Practices in public policy in food and nutrition are discussed starting from an analysis of government actions undertaken and their actions at the local level, particularly in outpatient clinical [...] nutrition and/or attention to specific groups, seeking to identify theoretical and methodological trends guiding educational practices. It is considered that the food and nutrition education has been the subject of debate in seeking to construe it as government action. However, despite their achievements, one perceives the existence of a gap between the formulation of policies and actions developed at the local level. There is also a gap between rhetoric and practice in terms of educational activities. The conclusion reached is that food and nutrition education is less an instrument than a measure for joint actions that must involve different sectors and disciplines, however, it calls for investment in vocational training and production of knowledge in the field.

  20. Modeling Food Web Interactions in Benthic Deep-Sea Ecosystems: A Practical Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karline Soetaert

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea benthic systems are notoriously difficult to sample. Even more than for other benthic systems, many flows among biological groups cannot be directly measured, and data sets remain incomplete and uncertain. In such cases, mathematical models are often used to quantify unmeasured biological interactions. Here, we show how to use so-called linear inverse models (LIMs to reconstruct material and energy flows through food webs in which the number of measurements is a fraction of the total number of flows. These models add mass balance, physiological and behavioral constraints, and diet information to the scarce measurements. We explain how these information sources can be included in LIMs, and how the resulting models can be subsequently solved. This method is demonstrated by two examples—a very simple three-compartment food web model, and a simplified benthic carbon food web for Porcupine Abyssal Plain. We conclude by elaborating on recent developments and prospects.

  1. Practical implications of developments in legislation on food irradiation in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation legislation is very different in most member-states of the EU. For many years there was the desire by many interested groups to harmonise this legislation. As the member-states had a different view on irradiated foods, often based on their existing regulation, it took many years and revised drafts to come to a harmonised regulation acceptable to the majority. The background on the development of this EU-legislation and the final draft is discussed. Some information is also given on the possible influence of WTO (SPS- and TBT-agreements) and Codex Alimentarius on this EU-legislation. (author)

  2. Practical implications of developments in legislation on food irradiation in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyssen, Peter J. G.

    2000-03-01

    Food irradiation legislation is very different in most member-states of the EU. For many years there was the desire by many interested groups to harmonise this legislation. As the member-states had a different view on irradiated foods, often based on their existing regulation, it took many years and revised drafts to come to a harmonised regulation acceptable to the majority. The background on the development of this EU-legislation and the final draft is discussed. Some information is also given on the possible influence of WTO (SPS- and TBT-agreements) and Codex Alimentarius on this EU-legislation.

  3. Bioenergy use and food preparation practices of two communities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paxie W., Chirwa; Cori, Ham; Stella, Maphiri; Marlett, Balmer.

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken in two communities that use firewood in the Keiskammahoek area of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa to understand their behaviour with regard to energy use during food preparation as well as the extent of practising efficient cooking habits. The results showed that des [...] pite the high level of electrification, firewood was used in most households (> 60%) for cooking while electricity was mostly used (> 90%) for lighting. Firewood is also preferred for cooking food that takes a long time to prepare, while more convenient sources of energy such as electricity is used for short periods of cooking and re-heating of food. Secondary sources of energy used for cooking included paraffin, dung, leaves and twigs. The study found that there was some deliberate use of energy saving techniques in both communities, although limited and not necessarily practiced with a view to saving energy. Less than half of the respondents soaked hard grains and beans before cooking; while all of them cut food into smaller pieces before cooking commenced. A third of respondents had utensils ready before cooking commenced in one village while two thirds placed utensils and food together before they commenced food preparations in the other village. Pots were covered with lids and water was added in small amounts as required. The heat from fire was not monitored, but fires were extinguished after use. The greatest potential for improvement exists around cooking appliances; where all households were found to be using three-legged pots on open fires when cooking with biomass energy. Open fires are highly inefficient and the use of efficient biomass cook stoves would increase efficiency. It is recommended that in order to reduce the use of biomass-derived energy consumption and expenditure in low-income households, the use of multiple energy sources and portable energy efficient firewood stoves should be promoted. In addition, there should be an aggressive dissemination of information on further processing of fuelwood into forms that can easily be stored and used; and various forms of pre-treatment of hard foods.

  4. Modifications of agricultural and zoo-technical practices to reduce food chain contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many methods for decreasing radioactive transfers all along the food chains may be used for post-accidental situations. In some contaminated CIS countries (Ukraine, Belarus), real size applications have quantified these methods for vegetables transfers (liming, fertilizers, zeolite...), for animals transfers (iodine, clay, cyanoferrates...), and for soil rehabilitation (striping, deep ploughing...). (A.B.). 27 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. Aproximación práctica al diagnóstico de la alergia alimentaria / Practical approach to the diagnosis of food allergy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco Antonio, Góngora-Meléndez; Juan José Luis, Sienra-Monge; Blanca Estela, Del Río-Navarro; Lourdes, Ávila Castañón.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La alergia alimentaria representa la primera expresión clínica de atopia durante la vida, ya sea con manifestaciones gastrointestinales o cutáneas, seguidas de asma y rinitis. A este continuo desarrollo de enfermedades se ha denominado "marcha atópica". Es un problema importante de salud, no sólo pa [...] ra los pacientes sino también incluye al grupo familiar y social. Se define como una respuesta inmunológica anormal ante la ingesta de proteínas alimenticias que ocasionan una reacción clínica adversa. La mayoría de las personas desarrolla tolerancia a los antígenos alimentarios, los cuales constantemente acceden al organismo. Sin embargo, cuando la tolerancia falla, el sistema inmune responde con reacciones de hipersensibilidad. El diagnóstico de la alergia alimentaria todavía es un ejercicio clínico que depende de una historia cuidadosa, de la determinación específica de IgE, pruebas de parche, una apropiada dieta de exclusión y la realización de reto cegado. Abstract in english Food allergy has become the first clinical expression of atopy, beginning with dermal o gastric manifestations to continue with asthma an rhinitis ("the atopic march"), a very severe health problem not only for many children and parents, but also for the entire medical and paramedical community. Foo [...] d allergy is defined as an abnormal immunological reaction to food proteins, which causes an adverse clinical reaction. Most of the people become tolerant to many foods; however, these tolerances sometimes fail and become an immunological reaction. The evaluation of a child with suspected food allergy includes detailed medical history, physical examination, screening tests and response to elimination diet and to oral food challenge. None of the screening tests -alone or in combination- can definitely diagnose or exclude it.

  6. ALTERNATE METHODS OF MANURE HANDLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this research project were to (a) construct an inexpensive storage facility for solid dairy cow manure, (b) evaluate its performance and the extent of pollutants in runoff from storage facilities, and (c) determine current manure handling practices in Vermont an...

  7. Sharing food, sharing taste? Consumption practices, gender relations and individuality in Czech families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haldis Haukanes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A la lumière des théories sociologiques et anthropologiques de la famille et de la parenté, cet article pose la question de la préparation et de la consommation de nourriture dans les familles tchèques de différentes générations, et ce, aussi bien en milieu rural qu’urbain. Sur la base d’une enquête qualitative (entretiens ainsi que de données d’observation, l’article interroge le rôle que joue réellement le partage alimentaire dans la vie quotidienne des familles étudiées, ainsi que dans la construction de liens entre les membres de la famille, en particulier concernant les relations entre hommes et femmes. Ensuite, l’article se focalise sur la famille en tant qu’«unité de consommation», ainsi que sur son développement dans le temps. Comment se construit le régime alimentaire familial et jusqu’où se développent, entre les membres de la famille, des préférences alimentaires partagées? Sur la base des modèles émergeants relatifs aux pratiques alimentaires, le débat est ouvert quant aux rôles entre hommes et femmes ainsi que sur les thèmes relatifs au traditionalisme et au pouvoir. L’argument principal est que la formation de relations au sein même de la famille dépend moins du partage de nourriture que du rôle joué par les femmes dans la préparation et la distribution des repas, compte tenu des désirs de chacun des membres de la famille.In the context of sociological and anthropological theories about family and kinship, this article discusses the preparation and consumption of food in Czech families of different generations, both urban and rural. Based on a qualitative interview study and participant observation, the article begins by investigating the role played by the sharing of food in everyday family life and in the shaping of relations, including gender relations, between family members. Next, the article focuses on the family as a consumption unit and on its development over time. What does the family diet consist of and to what extent do family members develop a taste for the same foods? The article discusses gender roles, traditionalism and power based on evolving patterns of food consumption. It is mainly argued that relationship building within families depends less on shared food consumption than on the role played by women in the cooking and distribution of food, bearing in mind the likes and dislikes of individual family members.

  8. Normalizing ideological food choice and eating practices: identity work in online discussions on veganism

    OpenAIRE

    Sneijder, P. W. J.; Molder, H. F. M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we use discursive psychology to explore the relation between ideologically based food choice and identity in an online forum on veganism. The discursive psychological perspective underlines the notion of identities being part of social actions performed in talk, and thus designed and deployed for different interactional purposes. It is demonstrated that participants draw on specific discursive devices to (1) define vegan meals as ordinary and easy to prepare and (2) construct me...

  9. Modeling Food Web Interactions in Benthic Deep-Sea Ecosystems: A Practical Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Karline Soetaert; Dick van Oevelen

    2009-01-01

    Deep-sea benthic systems are notoriously difficult to sample. Even more than for other benthic systems, many flows among biological groups cannot be directly measured, and data sets remain incomplete and uncertain. In such cases, mathematical models are often used to quantify unmeasured biological interactions. Here, we show how to use so-called linear inverse models (LIMs) to reconstruct material and energy flows through food webs in which the number of measurements is a fraction of the tota...

  10. Farming practices change food web structures in cereal aphid–parasitoid–hyperparasitoid communities

    OpenAIRE

    Lohaus, Katharina; Vidal, Stefan; Thies, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has been shown to result in a decline in biodiversity across many taxa, but the changes in community structure and species interactions remain little understood. We have analysed and compared the structure of feeding interactions for cereal aphids and their primary and secondary parasitoids in organically and conventionally managed winter wheat fields using quantitative food web metrics (interaction evenness, generality, vulnerability, link density). Despite littl...

  11. A microbiological study of various food premises with an assessment of cleaning and disinfection practices.

    OpenAIRE

    Tebbutt, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    A study of cleaning and disinfection methods in a variety of types of catering premises has been carried out. The level of bacterial contamination of the hands and of equipment was related to cleaning methods and to the type of catering establishment. Wiping cloths were frequently contaminated with Escherichia coli, and these may be important reservoirs of bacteria for contamination of the hands of catering staff. Regular and efficient cleaning of food surfaces and equipment was found to be m...

  12. The Impact of Green Supply Chain Management Practices on Organizational Performance: A Study of Jordanian Food Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah M. Diab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to test The Impact of Green Supply Chain Management Practices on Organizational Performance: A study On Jordanian Nutrition Industries. The Data was collected through a questionnaire; the consistency percentage was 85%; Cranach's alpha for all the domains and the whole tool is (0.89. Means, standard deviation, and simple and multiple linear regressions analysis were used to test the study hypothesis and the relationships between the dependent and independent variabeles. The researcher built the model and hypothesis based on the dimensions of green supply chain management practices. The researchers chose (6 firms specialized in industrial food sector and which the firms that applied the concept of green manufacturing. The results of the study showed that there was an impact of green supply chain management practices and its elements on organizational performance. The implications of this study are; academic implications, and managerial implications. The researchers include all the green supply chain management elements, on organizational performance which are; environmental performance, financial performance, and Operational Performanc. As a recomendation for this study, it may play an important role for managers and firms through understanding the green supply chain management and increasing the sales and benefits.

  13. The role of family communication and parents' feeding practices in children's food preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Siril; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Honkanen, Pirjo

    2015-06-01

    This study used Family Communication Patterns Theory (FCPT) to explore how family-dinner-related communication takes place and how parents' feeding practices may be associated with children's preferences for dinner meals. The sample consisted of 12 dyads with seven- and eight-year-old Norwegian children and their parents. In-depth photo interviews were used for collecting data. Interview transcripts and photographs were examined through content analysis. Results indicated that most families were conversation oriented, and communication tended to shift from consensual during weekdays to pluralistic at weekends. On weekdays, the dinner menu was often a compromise between children's preferences and parents' intentions to provide quick, healthy dinner options for the family. To a greater extent at weekends, children were allowed to choose dinner alternatives for the entire family. Restriction of unhealthy dinner alternatives was the practice most used to control children's diets and, in fact, might explain children's high preferences for unhealthy dinner alternatives. Results underline the importance of giving children control of what they eat and being responsive to children's preferences while guiding them towards healthy dinner alternatives rather than using force and restriction. From a more theoretical perspective, this study explored how FCPT could be combined with theories about parents' feeding practices to understand meal preferences and choices among young children and their families, and how time and situation (context) influence families' communication patterns and feeding practices in their homes. PMID:25666300

  14. An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig W. Hedberg

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999, cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992, and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878. The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri.

  15. 9 CFR 313.50 - Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or compartments to prevent inhumane slaughter or handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...prevent inhumane slaughter or handling in connection with slaughter...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...prevent inhumane slaughter or handling in connection with slaughter...incident of inhumane slaughter or handling in connection with...

  16. Practical problems in the transfer of the food irradiation technology from the laboratory to the industry and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Not all applications of food irradiation developed in laboratories appear feasible at the commercial level. Without taking into account the social and economic factors, some of the obstacles regarding the commodities themselves and some practical aspects of a commercial irradiator are reviewed. The dose distribution found in most facilities make it almost impossible to irradiate products with a narrow dose range tolerance. Treatment of perishable commodities may turn to be difficult, especially in contract facilities, as it is not easy to plan. Similarly, combination of processes will not always be achievable. Applications to products for which the production is both seasonal and scattered do not appear feasible. Some progress is still needed in fields such as, packaging to avoid insect reinfestation after irradiation routine dosimetry and irradiators design

  17. Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

  18. Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran and others

    2006-01-15

    This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

  19. [Nutrition in the sport practice: adaptation of the food guide pyramid to the characteristics of athletes diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gross, M; Gutiérrez, A; Mesa, J L; Ruiz-Ruiz, J; Castillo, M J

    2001-12-01

    In spite of all the advances in sport nutrition and the importance of an adequate food intake in order to improve sport performance, both recreational and professional athletes forget frequently to include planning an optimum diet and fluid intake in their global strategy for performance. Physiological and metabolic adaptations produced as a consequence of physical exercise lead to the necessity of increasing caloric (in accordance to energy output) and protein (based on the trophic needs of the organism) intake. Likewise, paying major attention to vitamin and mineral intake, specifically B vitamins and zinc and chromium, is required, in order to optimize carbohydrate metabolism, the ultimate limiting factor for sport performance. During the training phase, 60% of calories should come from carbohydrates, protein intake should be 1.2-2 g/kg/day and athletes should follow the recommendations of the food guide pyramid. During the pre-, per- and post-competition phase the healthy aspect of the diet passes to a second level, in order to obtain good sport performance and to guarantee a fast and effective recovery. Again, carbohydrates with a high or medium glycaemic index and water are the nutrients which have to be calculated more thoroughly. In conclusion, athletes have to follow a diet that is adequate to their higher energy output and to their higher metabolic turnover. The food guide pyramid is a graphic expression which facilitates the comprehension and following of a healthy diet. In the present article, the authors introduce the pyramid adapted to the characteristics of sports nutrition, with easy-to-follow practical recommendations regarding the kind and amounts of foodstuffs that should be consumed in order to cover nutrient needs of people who exercise regularly. PMID:12012556

  20. Contact handle decompositions

    OpenAIRE

    Özba?c?, Burak

    2009-01-01

    We review Giroux's contact handles and contact handle attachments in dimension three and show that a bypass attachment consists of a pair of contact 1 and 2-handles. As an application we describe explicit contact handle decompositions of infinitely many pairwise non-isotopic overtwisted 3-spheres. We also give an alternative proof of the fact that every compact contact 3-manifold (closed or with convex boundary) admits a contact handle decomposition, which is a result origin...

  1. Food irradiation: Public opinion surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian government are discussing the legislation, regulations and practical protocol necessary for the commercialization of food irradiation. Food industry marketing, public relations and media expertise will be needed to successfully introduce this new processing choice to retailers and consumers. Consumer research to date including consumer opinion studies and market trials conducted in the Netherlands, United States, South Africa and Canada will be explored for signposts to successful approaches to the introduction of irradiated foods to retailers and consumers. Research has indicated that the terms used to describe irradiation and information designed to reduce consumer fears will be important marketing tools. Marketers will be challenged to promote old foods, which look the same to consumers, in a new light. Simple like or dislike or intention to buy surveys will not be effective tools. Consumer fears must be identified and effectively handled to support a receptive climate for irradiated food products. A cooperative government, industry, health professional, consumer association and retailer effort will be necessary for the successful introduction of irradiated foods into the marketplace. Grocery Products Manufacturers of Canada is a national trade association of more than 150 major companies engaged in the manufacture of food, non-alcoholic beverages and array of other national-brand consumer items sold through retail outletstail outlets

  2. 7 CFR 205.105 - Allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients in organic production and handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...ingredients in organic production and handling. 205...CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL...ingredients in organic production and handling. To be sold...specified ingredients or food...

  3. Effect of the food production chain from farm practices to vegetable processing on outbreak incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yangjin; Jang, Hyein; Matthews, Karl R

    2014-11-01

    The popularity in the consumption of fresh and fresh-cut vegetables continues to increase globally. Fresh vegetables are an integral part of a healthy diet, providing vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and other health-promoting compounds. The diversity of fresh vegetables and packaging formats (spring mix in clamshell container, bagged heads of lettuce) support increased consumption. Unfortunately, vegetable production and processing practices are not sufficient to ensure complete microbial safety. This review highlights a few specific areas that require greater attention and research. Selected outbreaks are presented to emphasize the need for science-based 'best practices'. Laboratory and field studies have focused on inactivation of pathogens associated with manure in liquid, slurry or solid forms. As production practices change, other forms and types of soil amendments are being used more prevalently. Information regarding the microbial safety of fish emulsion and pellet form of manure is limited. The topic of global climate change is controversial, but the potential effect on agriculture cannot be ignored. Changes in temperature, precipitation, humidity and wind can impact crops and the microorganisms that are associated with production environments. Climate change could potentially enhance the ability of pathogens to survive and persist in soil, water and crops, increasing human health risks. Limited research has focused on the prevalence and behaviour of viruses in pre and post-harvest environments and on vegetable commodities. Globally, viruses are a major cause of foodborne illnesses, but are seldom tested for in soil, soil amendments, manure and crops. Greater attention must also be given to the improvement in the microbial quality of seeds used in sprout production. Human pathogens associated with seeds can result in contamination of sprouts intended for human consumption, even when all appropriate 'best practices' are used by sprout growers. PMID:25251466

  4. Consumption of fresh fruit juice: how a healthy food practice caused a national outbreak of Salmonella Panama gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Harold; Hofhuis, Agnetha; De Jonge, Rob; Heuvelink, Annet E; De Jong, Aarieke; Heck, Max E O C; De Jager, Carolien; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2010-04-01

    In spring 2008, 15 Salmonella Panama laboratory-confirmed cases were reported within 2 weeks, twice the average annual number of reported cases of this infrequent serotype in The Netherlands. To identify the source responsible for this national outbreak, we carried out an epidemiological, microbiological, and trace-back investigation. In total, 33 cases were reported, and a matched case-control study (23 cases/24 controls) identified consumption of fresh (unpasteurized) fruit juice purchased from a large retailer (X) as the only significant risk factor for illness (matched odds ratio: 7.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.5-37.2). Though the bacterium could not be isolated from fruit juice, the minimal pH value for growth of the causative strain of the outbreak (3.4) was compatible with survival in fruit juice from X. The outbreak strain showed acid resistance and adaptive properties that may explain how it could have caused infection through fresh orange juice. To our knowledge, this is the first documented outbreak related to fresh fruit juice consumption in western Europe since 1922. A growing number of consumers who are seeking healthy food practices are exposed to the infectious risks related to unpasteurized fresh fruit juice. Labeling regulations should be adapted to properly indicate to the consumers that unpasteurized fresh fruit juices remain vulnerable to microbial contamination. Frequent microbiological screening and strict compliance with food safety procedures should reduce the infectious hazards of fresh fruit juices. PMID:19909088

  5. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence i the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the representative sampling, appropriate methods of measurement and the traceable results. Finally it is possible to advise and to help the national responsible authorities to define a minimal universe of food to monitor to protect the consumers

  6. Handling time and choice in pigeons

    OpenAIRE

    Shettleworth, Sara J.

    1985-01-01

    According to optimal foraging theory, animals should prefer food items with the highest ratios of energy intake to handling time. When single items have negligible handling times, one large item should be preferred to a collection of small ones of equivalent total weight. However, when pigeons were offered such a choice on equal concurrent variable-interval schedules in a shuttlebox, they preferred the side offering many small items per reinforcement to that offering one or a few relatively l...

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report 'Comments on proposed regulations on irradiation in the production, processing and handling of food' by K.M. Tucker and R. Alvarez is reviewed. The reviewer hopes that the inquiry into food irradiation being undertaken by the Australian government will reach conclusions similar to those in the report: that is, a comprehensive, independent environmental impact study or technology assessment, to evaluate fully the potential economic costs of this technology, be required before any further consideration be given to adopting food irradiation in Australia

  8. Normalizing ideological food choice and eating practices. Identity work in online discussions on veganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneijder, Petra; te Molder, Hedwig

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we use discursive psychology to explore the relation between ideologically based food choice and identity in an online forum on veganism. The discursive psychological perspective underlines the notion of identities being part of social actions performed in talk, and thus designed and deployed for different interactional purposes. It is demonstrated that participants draw on specific discursive devices to (1) define vegan meals as ordinary and easy to prepare and (2) construct methods of preventing vitamin deficiency, such as taking supplements, as routine procedures. In 'doing being ordinary', participants systematically resist the notion that being a vegan is complicated--in other words, that it is both difficult to compose a meal and to protect your health. In this way, 'ordinariness' helps to construct and protect veganism as an ideology. We point out similarities and differences with other studies on eating or healthy lifestyles and argue, more broadly, that identities and their category-bound features are part and parcel of participants' highly flexible negotiation package. PMID:19501759

  9. Food for Work Program and its Implications on Food Security: A Critical Review with a Practical Example from the Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashenafi Gedamu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A systematic evaluation of food-for-work (FFW programs in Ethiopia is seriously lacking. Most of the few available reports indicate that these programs have reached very few achievements in terms of food security and reduction of poverty at large. As expressed by Holden et al. (2005, FFW programs are commonly aimed to produce or maintain potentially valuable public goods necessary to stimulate productivity and thus income growth. Natural resources management, like rural road construction, erosion control and afforestation of degraded lands can be mentioned as valuable measures which could stimulate productivity and agricultural growth. The poverty reduction and food security impact of food or cash for work activities are larger if they offer not only seasonal job opportunities to the rural community but also long term employment possibilities. This is more likely if the projects are regionally dispersed and combined with basic education. In the Ethiopian context, it was always questionable if the continuous boom in food aid (regardless of cash or food for work purposes was the solution for the long standing food insecurity and poverty crises in the country. The study discusses the efficiency of FFW programs that aimed to reduce rural poverty and ensure food security on the one hand, and the impact of the food aid on resource and time allocation of the participating households for own food production on the other. The study is based on a field research conducted at a FFW program project, in the Amhara region, Ethiopia run by the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ with the view of improving food security in the Amhara region, Ethiopia. A household theoretical model is used to analyze the sample data, whether FFW program may indeed reduce household food insecurity and/or has some crowding-out effects on labour allocation of participating households for own field production.

  10. "Is It Okay to Eat a Dog in Korea...like China?" Assumptions of National Food-Eating Practices in Intercultural Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam; Jenks, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    There is a small body of research which shows how intercultural communication is constituted in and through talk-in-interaction, and can be made relevant or irrelevant by interactants on a moment-by-moment basis. Our paper builds on this literature by investigating how cultural assumptions of national food-eating practices are deployed, contested…

  11. Envisioning Agricultural Sustainability from Field to Plate: Comparing Producer and Consumer Attitudes and Practices toward "Environmentally Friendly" Food and Farming in Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfa, Theresa; Jussaume, Raymond A., Jr.; Winter, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A substantial body of sociological research has examined the relationship between farmers' environmental attitudes and their conservation behaviors, but little research has compared the attitudes of producers and consumers toward the environment with their behaviors or practices in support of sustainable agri-food systems. This paper addresses…

  12. Food and Personal Hygiene Perceptions and Practices among Caregivers Whose Children Have Diarrhea: A Qualitative Study of Urban Mothers in Tangerang, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usfar, Avita A.; Iswarawanti, Dwi N.; Davelyna, Devy; Dillon, Drupadi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine caregivers' perceptions and practices related to food and personal hygiene and its association with diarrhea in children 6 to 36 months of age who suffered recurrent diarrhea. Design: This qualitative study, conducted in March and April 2006, used both in-depth interviews and direct observation data. Setting: Urban Tangerang,…

  13. Control of good irradiation practices and the role of the ICGFI guidelines and codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable guidance is available to managers of an irradiator plant on ways and means to produce safe, wholesome, quality irradiated foods. The foundation for good manufacturing practices (GMPs), which apply to all food processes, is the Codex General Principles of Food Hygiene. These principles provide good common sense procedures in the handling of food for human consumption in order to ensure safe, wholesome quality products. The GMPs cover the growing, harvesting, preparation, processing, packaging, storage, transport, distribution and sale of food. They provide good check lists for safety and quality. More detailed guidelines specifically aimed at food irradiation are found in the Codex Code of Practice for the Operation of Irradiation Facilities and in the Codes of Good Irradiation Practice (GIPs) developed by the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation. GIPs are available for eight commodity groups. They provide guidance on pre-irradiation handling (including microbiological guidelines), packaging, pre-irradiation storage and transport, irradiation facilities and absorbed doses, post-irradiation storage and handling, final product specifications, labelling, re-irradiation and the quality of irradiated products. In order to apply GIPs effectively, it recommended that the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point concept (HACCP) be implemented. The HACCP concept emphasizes prevention of, rather than detection of defects. The HACCP concept has been adoof defects. The HACCP concept has been adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and is being applied to Codex Codes of Practice. (author). 7 refs

  14. Breastfeeding status and marketing practices of baby food manufactured in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, G P; Pandey, P K; Mathur, S; Mishra, V K; Singh, K; Bhatt, O P; Loomba, R K; Luthra, C; Taneja, S; Kapoor, R

    1993-11-01

    In January 1993 in Kanpur, India, a survey of 7 private nursing homes revealed that infant formula was given to most newborns (52.4%). The most common brands included Lactogen-I, Milk Care, Raptakos, Dexolac Special Care, and Lactodex. Staff at 5 nursing homes gave prelacteal feeds (water, glucose water, and infant formula) to newborns when they were separated from their mothers. Staff at only 2 nursing homes gave the newborn to the mother immediately after delivery. The longest period between delivery and giving the newborn to the mother was 24 hours. All but one of the nursing homes did not know about the government policy and the recent bill that bars free or low-cost infant formula supplies to hospitals. The administration of the nursing homes did not inform the procurement department, in writing, of the government policy. 4 nursing homes bought low-cost supplies of infant formula from the companies. The companies sold the infant formula to the nursing homes at a price 48.3% to 86.7% lower than the market price. Medical stores inside or outside the nursing homes sold the infant formula to parents at the other 3 homes. The nursing homes used, on average, 2-50 kg/month. Nestle (Lactogen-I) and Dalmia Industries (Milk Care) had a monopoly in infant formula in 4 and 3 nursing homes, respectively. Infant formula was in stock in 5 nursing homes. None of the nursing homes gave mothers free or low-cost infant formula at discharge. Lower than market price and increased number of calls to the hospitals and physicians by company personnel were marketing techniques used by the manufacturers to maintain market share. These results show that, despite government policy and the bill, hospitals continue to use infant formula. The government should use the mass media to increase awareness about its policy on infant foods and the concept of the Baby Friendly Hospital. PMID:8039859

  15. Establishment of microbiological safety criteria for foods in international trade. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Microbiological safety is achieved by applying good hygienic practices throughout the food chain, "from farm to fork". Governmental food control is traditionally based on inspection of the facilities where foods are handled, and on testing food samples. Testing is usually applied to imported foods, when no information concerning the safety of a consignment is available. The microbiological safety is judged by means of microbiological criteria. Such criteria should, in the context of the WTO/SPS measures, be scientifically justified, and established according to the principles described by the Codex Alimentarius. However, microbiological testing is not a very reliable tool for consumer protection; the emphasis is currently shifting to the application of food safety management tools such as the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP). PMID:9282394

  16. Food irradiation methodology : prospect and retrospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development work in food irradiation over the past several years has been essentially directed towads answering all possible questions in respect of the suitability of the process, quality of materials and safety for human use. A major effort was indeed, around the toxicological evaluation, till it was recognised internationally that irradiated items of food do not present any health hazards. This recognition along with the awareness of the hazards in the use of chemicals has resulted in a renewed interest in the use of radiations for preservation of food. Radiation preservation of food would reach the stage of practical application with additional information on design and functional aspects of radiation sources, appropriate for specific commodities. Each items has a particular dose requirement depending on the purpose of irradiation and the type of handling. 21 refs. (author)

  17. Monk Seals - Handling

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records for all handling and measurement of Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. Live seals are handled and measured during a variety of events...

  18. Revision of the recommended international general standard for irradiated foods and of the recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the findings and statements of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food, convened in Geneva from 27 October to 3 November 1980, a Consultation Group, convened in Geneva from 1 to 3 July 1981 suggested the revision of the Recommended International General Standard for Irradiated Foods and of the Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities. The proposed changes are given and justified and the revised wording of the documents presented

  19. Foodservice employees benefit from interventions targeting barriers to food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Shanklin, Carol W; Roberts, Kevin R; Howells, Amber D; Barrett, Elizabeth B

    2009-09-01

    The number of foodborne illnesses traced to improper food handling in restaurants indicates a need for research to improve food safety in these establishments. Therefore, this 2-year longitudinal study investigated the effectiveness of traditional ServSafe (National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation, Chicago, IL) food-safety training and a Theory of Planned Behavior intervention program targeting employees' perceived barriers and attitudes toward important food-safety behaviors. The effectiveness of the training and intervention was measured by knowledge scores and observed behavioral compliance rates related to food-safety practices. Employees were observed for handwashing, thermometer usage, and proper handling of work surfaces at baseline, after receiving ServSafe training, and again after exposure to the intervention targeting barriers and negative attitudes about food-safety practices. Repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated training improved handwashing knowledge, but the intervention was necessary to improve overall behavioral compliance and handwashing compliance. Results suggest that registered dietitians; dietetic technicians, registered; and foodservice managers should implement a combination of training and intervention to improve knowledge and compliance with food-safety behaviors, rather than relying on training alone. Challenges encountered while conducting this research are discussed, and recommendations are provided for researchers interested in conducting this type of research in the future. PMID:19699837

  20. The NOURISH randomised control trial: Positive feeding practices and food preferences in early childhood - a primary prevention program for childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrell Ann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary prevention of childhood overweight is an international priority. In Australia 20-25% of 2-8 year olds are already overweight. These children are at substantially increased the risk of becoming overweight adults, with attendant increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Early feeding practices determine infant exposure to food (type, amount, frequency and include responses (eg coercion to infant feeding behaviour (eg. food refusal. There is correlational evidence linking parenting style and early feeding practices to child eating behaviour and weight status. A focus on early feeding is consistent with the national focus on early childhood as the foundation for life-long health and well being. The NOURISH trial aims to implement and evaluate a community-based intervention to promote early feeding practices that will foster healthy food preferences and intake and preserve the innate capacity to self-regulate food intake in young children. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial (RCT aims to recruit 820 first-time mothers and their healthy term infants. A consecutive sample of eligible mothers will be approached postnatally at major maternity hospitals in Brisbane and Adelaide. Initial consent will be for re-contact for full enrolment when the infants are 4-7 months old. Individual mother- infant dyads will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will provide anticipatory guidance via two modules of six fortnightly parent education and peer support group sessions, each followed by six months of regular maintenance contact. The modules will commence when the infants are aged 4-7 and 13-16 months to coincide with establishment of solid feeding, and autonomy and independence, respectively. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, with follow up at nine and 18 months. These will include infant intake (type and amount of foods, food preferences, feeding behaviour and growth and self-reported maternal feeding practices and parenting practices and efficacy. Covariates will include sociodemographics, infant feeding mode and temperament, maternal weight status and weight concern and child care exposure. Discussion Despite the strong rationale to focus on parents' early feeding practices as a key determinant of child food preferences, intake and self-regulatory capacity, prospective longitudinal and intervention studies are rare. This trial will be amongst to provide Level II evidence regarding the impact of an intervention (commencing prior to age 12 months on children's eating patterns and behaviours. Trial Registration ACTRN12608000056392

  1. 21 CFR 179.25 - General provisions for food irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Section 179.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED...IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation...

  2. A Study on Consumer Awareness, Safety Perceptions & Practices about Food Preservatives and Flavouring Agents Used in Packed /Canned Foods from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Kumar H N, Anshu Kumar Jha, Khushboo K Taneja, Krishan Kabra, Hafeez M Sadiq

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Though there was awareness, the knowledge was inadequate. Unfavourable practices were observed. The gaps in the knowledge and unhealthy practices need to be addressed by public awareness campaign.

  3. Food, Globalization and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterveer, P. J. M.; Sonnenfeld, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of international trade and global food governance. Distance in time and space between food producers and consumers is increasing and new concerns are arising. These include the environmental impact of food pro...

  4. Sprag Handle Wrenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranishm, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Sprag handle wrenches have been proposed for general applications in which conventional pawl-and-ratchet wrenches and sprag and cam "clickless" wrenches are now used. Sprag handle wrenches are so named because they would include components that would function both as parts of handles and as sprags (roller locking/unlocking components). In comparison with all of the aforementioned conventional wrenches, properly designed sprag handle wrenches could operate with much less backlash; in comparison with the conventional clickless wrenches, sprag handle wrenches could be stronger and less expensive (because the sprags would be larger and more easily controllable than are conventional sprags and cams).

  5. Influence of family size, household food security status, and child care practices on the nutritional status of under-five children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajao, K O; Ojofeitimi, E O; Adebayo, A A; Fatusi, A O; Afolabi, O T

    2010-12-01

    Fertility pattern and reproductive behaviours affect infant death in Nigeria. Household food insecurity and poor care practices also place children at risk of morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of family size, household food security status, and child care practices on the nutritional status of under-five children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 423 mothers of under-five children and their children in the households selected through multistage sampling methods. Food-insecure households were five times more likely than secure households to have wasted children (crude OR = 5.707, 95 percent CI = 1.31-24.85). Children with less educated mothers were significantly more likely to be stunted. The prevalence of food insecurity among households in Ile-Ife was high. Households with food insecurity and less educated mothers were more likely to have malnourished children. PMID:21812205

  6. Development of online learning activities to enhance student knowledge of animal behaviour prior to engaging in live animal handling practical sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Old

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning activities were developed to increase the awareness of animal behaviour among first year students enrolled in animal-associated degrees prior to students engaging in hands-on live animal practical sessions. Learning activities were developed in an easy to use collegial online environment and to encourage student engagement in learning activities. One hundred and one students were given a preliminary and post learning activity survey to assess their initial knowledge and experience of animal behaviour, as well as to determine if the learning activities increased the students’ knowledge of animal behaviour after engaging in the learning activities. Of the students surveyed, most currently owned pets or have had pets (91.1%, some had animal-related qualifications (22.8% and currently worked in an animal-related position (24.8%. There was a significant difference (70.3% increase in student responses after engaging in the learning activities with the major change occurring in the students’ understanding of the term ‘ethology’, regardless of the level of qualifications or animal-related career experience. In addition, after engaging in the learning activities, most students believed that they could better articulate and interpret animal behaviors based on their observations. Overall, the inclusion of learning activities successfully increased the ability of students to understand behavioral traits of animals, which will increase safety in live animal practical sessions. The learning activities also encouraged a collegial learning environment that enhanced new knowledge construction amongst the students.

  7. Evaluation of the hygiene of ready-to-eat food preparation areas and practices in mobile food vendors in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Christine; Sagoo, Satnam

    2009-12-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the cleanliness of food preparation areas, cleaning methods used, and the microbiological quality of water used by 1258 mobile food vendors in the UK. Samples collected included potable water (1102), cleaning cloths (801) and environmental swabs from food preparation surfaces (2704). Cleaning cloths were more heavily contaminated with Aerobic Colony Counts, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus compared to surfaces sampled. Surfaces that were visually dirty, wet, and chopping boards that were plastic or damaged also had high levels of these bacteria. Fifty-four percent of potable water samples were of poor microbiological quality; i.e. contained coliforms, E. coli and/or enterococci. A documented food safety management system was only evident in 40.1% of vendors and cleaning schedules were only used by 43.6%. Deficiencies in the correct use of cleaning materials, such as dilution factors and the minimum contact time for disinfectants, were identified. PMID:20183200

  8. Exploring the concepts of food sovereignty and social capital in relation to The organic principles, practices and policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette

    Food sovereignty is a concept based on an idea of food security (a varied diet with diversified, nutritious and culturally appropriate food) for everybody including the right of people, communities and nations to define their own food and agriculture, to protect and regulate domestic agricultural production and trade in order to achieve sustainable development objectives. Food sovereignty is increasingly discussed and debated, e.g. in relation to power over seed, water, land and food, which become privatized and do not belong the people, communities and countries, where farming and food processing take place. Social capital refers to social networking and mobilisation of resources, forming communities and societies taking collective action and exchanging of e.g. knowledge and experience. Strengthening social capital in local societies empower peasants, processors and societies, which are in risk of losing power over land, food, other agricultural products and trade. The food sovereignty concept can be argued to be strongly related to the organic principles. This paper explores the concept of food sovereignty and the potential role of active social capital building to develop organic farming built on agro-ecological methods. Social and learning networks for farmers, processors and small businesses for collective action and common learning can be important pathways to organic farming and food systems with food sovereignty.

  9. Perfil socioeconômico e profissional de manipuladores de alimentos e o impacto positivo de um curso de capacitação em Boas Práticas de Fabricação / Socioeconomic and professional profile of food handlers and the positive impact of a training course on Good Manufacturing Practices

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela Gianini Guilherme, Devides; Daniele Fernanda, Maffei; Maria da Penha Longo Mortatti, Catanozi.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Doenças transmitidas por alimentos constituem um problema de saúde pública em nível mundial e estão frequentemente associadas a falhas na manipulação dos alimentos. Conhecer o perfil socioeconômico e profissional, bem como o nível de conhecimento dos manipuladores de alimentos, é requisito essencial [...] para o planejamento de políticas públicas e programas de capacitação visando a segurança e qualidade dos alimentos. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o perfil socioeconômico e profissional de manipuladores de alimentos, e o impacto de um curso de capacitação em Boas Práticas de Fabricação (BPF) realizado na cidade de Araraquara-SP, Brasil. Um total de 192 manipuladores respondeu a dois questionários: o primeiro, para avaliar o nível de conhecimento dos manipuladores sobre BPF antes (avaliação diagnóstica) e depois (avaliação final) de participar do curso; o segundo, para realizar um levantamento do perfil socioeconômico e profissional dos manipuladores. Os resultados mostraram que o curso de capacitação repercutiu de forma positiva no nível de conhecimento dos manipuladores, sendo que todos os temas sobre BPF avaliados apresentaram um percentual de respostas corretas significativamente maior na avaliação final em relação à avaliação diagnóstica. Isso indica a necessidade de aperfeiçoamento constante, para garantir a qualificação profissional dos manipuladores e, consequentemente, a qualidade dos alimentos e a segurança alimentar dos consumidores. Abstract in english Foodborne diseases are a worldwide public health problem frequently associated with failures during food handling. Knowledge of the socioeconomic and professional profile of food handlers and their knowledge about the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) are required in order to plan public policies a [...] nd training programs aimed at food safety and quality. This study aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic and professional profile of food handlers and the impact of giving a training course on Good Manufacturing Practices in the city of Araraquara, São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 192 food handlers answered the following two questionnaires: the first to assess their level of knowledge on GMP, which was applied before (initial evaluation) and after (final evaluation) the training course, and the second to assess the food handlers' socioeconomic and professional profiles. The results showed that the training course had a positive impact on the food handlers' level of knowledge, since all topics on GMP showed a higher percentage of correct answers in the final evaluation than in the initial evaluation. These data indicate the need for continuous training courses to improve the qualification of food handlers, and hence of the food quality and food safety for consumers.

  10. Level of Knowledge and Compliance of Mexican Food Code among Hospital Foodservice Employees in Guadalajara, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Ramírez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of food may occur at any point during the food distribution channel. However, mishandling of food at the last segment of food distribution where food is prepared for consumption often causes outbreaks. Keeping food safe in hospitals is particularly imperative because of the population they serve and the potentially hazardous environment. This article presents the results of a pencil and paper self-reported survey on the knowledge of Mexican food code, NOM-093-SSA1-1994, and field observation of the compliance of the code among the hospital foodservice employees in Guadalajara, México. One hundred twenty-seven employees from six public and private hospitals participated in the study. Of the respondents, 81.5% were aware of the importance of personal hygiene in food safety. Professional attire including hair restraints and mouth cover were always used. These participants, however seldom used thermometers, and only 37% of respondents knew the correct temperatures for refrigeration. In most hospitals correct procedures for sanitizing food contact surfaces that were prescribed by the sanitizing chemical manufacturers were practiced. Only 25% of the participants knew that their work was defined by the food code. Strategies for dissemination of the food code, and food safety training of the employees are urgently needed. Commitment and support of the hospital are needed in order to improve safe food handling practices in these hospitals.

  11. Application of hazard analysis and critical control point methodology and risk-based grading to consumer food safety surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Ueland, Øydis; Hagtvedt, Therese; Jacobsen, Eivind; Lavik, Randi; Langsrud, Solveig

    2012-09-01

    Traditionally, consumer food safety survey responses have been classified as either "right" or "wrong" and food handling practices that are associated with high risk of infection have been treated in the same way as practices with lower risks. In this study, a risk-based method for consumer food safety surveys has been developed, and HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point) methodology was used for selecting relevant questions. We conducted a nationally representative Web-based survey (n = 2,008), and to fit the self-reported answers we adjusted a risk-based grading system originally developed for observational studies. The results of the survey were analyzed both with the traditional "right" and "wrong" classification and with the risk-based grading system. The results using the two methods were very different. Only 5 of the 10 most frequent food handling violations were among the 10 practices associated with the highest risk. These 10 practices dealt with different aspects of heat treatment (lacking or insufficient), whereas the majority of the most frequent violations involved storing food at room temperature for too long. Use of the risk-based grading system for survey responses gave a more realistic picture of risks associated with domestic food handling practices. The method highlighted important violations and minor errors, which are performed by most people and are not associated with significant risk. Surveys built on a HACCP-based approach with risk-based grading will contribute to a better understanding of domestic food handling practices and will be of great value for targeted information and educational activities. PMID:22947476

  12. Human factors issues in fuel handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The staff of the Atomic Energy Control Board wish to further their understanding of human factors issues of potential concern associated with fuel handling in CANDU nuclear power stations. This study contributes to that objective by analysing the role of human performance in the overall fuel handling process at Ontario Hydro's Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, and reporting findings in several areas. A number of issues are identified in the areas of design, operating and maintenance practices, and the organizational and management environment

  13. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  14. Environmental and health impacts of household solid waste handling and disposal practices in third world cities: the case of the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi, Kwasi Owusu; Kuitunen, Markku

    2005-11-01

    Inadequate provision of solid waste management facilities in Third World cities results in indiscriminate disposal and unsanitary environments, which threatens the health of urban residents. The study reported here examined household-level waste management and disposal practices in the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana. The residents of Accra currently generate large amounts of solid waste, beyond the management capabilities of the existing waste management system. Because the solid waste infrastructure is inadequate, over 80 percent of the population do not have home collection services. Only 13.5 percent of respondents are served with door-to-door collection of solid waste, while the rest dispose of their waste at communal collection points, in open spaces, and in waterways. The majority of households store their waste in open containers and plastic bags in the home. Waste storage in the home is associated with the presence of houseflies in the kitchen (r = .17, p pollution, which creates breeding grounds for pathogenic organisms, and the spread of infectious diseases. Improving access to solid waste collection facilities and services will help achieve sound environmental health in Accra. PMID:16334095

  15. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

  16. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary)); Zukal, E. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary))

    1992-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

  17. Introduction to the Microbiological Spoilage of Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, William H.

    Though direct evidence of ancient food-handling practices is difficult to obtain and examine, it seems safe to assume that over the span of several million years, prehistoric humans struggled to maintain an adequate food supply. Their daily food needed to be hunted or harvested and consumed before it spoiled and became unfit to eat. Freshly killed animals, for example, could not have been kept for very long periods of time. Moreover, many early humans were nomadic, continually searching for food. We can imagine that, with an unreliable food supply, their lives must have often been literally "feast or famine." Yet, our ancestors gradually learned by accident, or by trial and error, simple techniques that could extend the storage time of their food (Block, 1991). Their brain capacity was similar to that of modern humans; therefore, some of them were likely early scientists and technologists. They would have learned that primitive cereal grains, nuts and berries, etc. could be stored in covered vessels to keep them dry and safer from mold spoilage. Animal products could be kept in cool places or dried and smoked over a fire, as the controlled use of fire by humans is thought to have begun about 400,000 years ago. Quite likely, naturally desiccated or fermented foods were also noticed and produced routinely to provide a more stable supply of edible food. Along with the development of agricultural practices for crop and animal production, the "simple" food-handling practices developed during the relatively countless millennia of prehistory paved the way for human civilizations.

  18. Nuclear fuel handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuel handling machine for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor in which a retractable handling tube and gripper are lowered into the reactor to withdraw a spent fuel assembly into the handling tube. The handling tube containing the fuel assembly immersed in liquid sodium is then withdrawn completely from the reactor into the outer barrel of the handling machine. The machine is then used to transport the spent fuel assembly directly to a remotely located decay tank. The fuel handling machine includes a decay heat removal system which continuously removes heat from the interior of the handling tube and which is capable of operating at its full cooling capacity at all times. The handling tube is supported in the machine from an articulated joint which enables it to readily align itself with the correct position in the core. An emergency sodium supply is carried directly by the machine to provide make up in the event of a loss of sodium from the handling tube during transport to the decay tank. 5 claims, 32 drawing figures

  19. Protein Energy Malnutrition and the Nervous System: the Impact of Socioeconomic Condition, Weaning Practice, Infection and Food Intake, an Experience in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    T.O. Odebode; S.O. Odebode

    2005-01-01

    Parental socio-economic condition, childhood infection, weaning practices, and childhood intake of food adequate in protein are known to influence the evolution of protein energy malnutrition (PEM) but this is only scantily documented for our setting. To evaluate the impact of these factors on the development of PEM and its neurological sequel in our setting, sixty-seven malnourished children attending our nutritional rehabilitation centre were analyzed for demographics, weaning age, w...

  20. African American Food Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to the early diagnosis of diabetes, disease management is important for control and subsequently prevention of complications arising from poorly controlled diabetes in all individuals. An important and effective aspect of treating diabetes is providing culturally relevant self-management...

  1. Bulk materials handling review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    World Coal's annual Bulk Materials Handling Review provides details of some of the most important coal handling projects and technologies worldwide. It describes developments by Bedeschi, BMH Marine, Bubenza Bremsen, DBT, Dome Technology, E-Crane, InBulk Technologies, Liebherr-Werk Nenzing, Pebco, Bedler, Roberts and Schaefer Co., Somdel Ingenierie, TAIM-TFG and TD Micron. 12 photos.

  2. Research status of food irradiation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on food preservation by gamma irradiation in Malaysia encompasses various food items such as paddy, milled rice, pepper, fruits, tomatoes, groundnuts and frozen prawns. Studies were mainly aimed to determine disinfestation efficacy against insects and microorganisms and the storability in terms of effects on organoleptic properties of these postharvest raw agricultural produce. Researches in important commodities such as rice and pepper include intergrating irradiation treatments with improved handling (packaging materials) and in rice, comparison with conventional treatments was also evaluated. Generally, irradiation method is effective in suppressing insects, moulds and bacterial load in all commodities associated with the problems. In the case of stored rice, irradiation provided better protection than insecticides, phosphine gas (fumigant) and insect repellant, though reinfestation prevailed over extended storage period as in other methods. Storage life of perishable items were variably extended due to irradiation-induced biochemical changes. Practical application of irradiation is possible, foreseeably as complimentary treatment, considering the inadequacy of present preservation methods its applicability to a wide range of food commodities, and the possible cost-benefit under existing postharvest system. Actual utilization of irradiation can be economically justified if sited at the port of entry for preservations of various food and non-food items thatns of various food and non-food items that enter/leave the country. (author)

  3. Irradiation pilot plants and experimental facilities available for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the ever-increasing world food crisis mankind has to face today, the prevention of spoilage of perishable food is gaining in momentum. The World Food Conference (Rome, November 1974) of the United Nations clearly recognized the importance of food preservation and urged action in this field. Irradiation is one of the recently discovered methods to preserve food. Its practical introduction largely depends on three main factors: (a) proof of the safety for human consumption of the irradiated product, (b) technological feasibility and (c) economic competitiveness of the process. As data on safety for consumption ('wholesomeness') continue to become available, the number of countries authorizing the irradiation of certain food items is growing (present total: 17 countries), and the same is true for the number of licensed irradiated commodities (total: 23). Under these conditions, testing of the technological and economic feasibility of food irradiation is a matter of increasing importance. Economic feasibility of any industrial operation can only be studied in larger-scale experiments. Thus, they can only be performed with radiation sources larger than those found in laboratories, i.e. in pilot irradiators, capable of handling from a few hundred to a few thousand kilograms of material within a short period of time. The Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has attempted to collect data on the availability, foed to collect data on the availability, for food preservation, of suitable irradiators in Member States

  4. 78 FR 28228 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Best Practices for Conducting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ...intended to describe best practices pertaining to...Division of Dockets Management (HFA 305...CONTACT: Regarding human drug products...staff entitled ``Best Practices for Conducting...particular type of data resource or...

  5. 76 FR 9027 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Best Practices for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ...describe best practices pertaining...of Dockets Management (HFA-305...Regarding human drug products...Regarding human biological...entitled ``Best Practices for Conducting...type of data resource or methodology...of Dockets Management (see...

  6. Food Chain & Food Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ms. B

    2011-10-27

    What are the differences and similarities between food chain and food web? Print (2) Garden Gate Print (1) Venn Diagram Garden Gate Venn Diagram Let's learn about the food chain and food web.Read the notes.Food Chain 4 Also, view more notes on food chain and food web. Go to the 7th title Food Chain which is before the Habitats and food chain title of the webpage.Food Chain Power Point Presentation Record what you learn ...

  7. Naturally Occurring Food Toxins

    OpenAIRE

    Burdock, George A.; Matulka, Ray A.; Dolan, Laurie C.

    2010-01-01

    Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting ...

  8. 15 years of existence of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ICGFI essentially contributed to international dissemination of unbiased information about the advantages and risks of food irradiation. The body has issued ICGFI publications containing codes of good practice for a variety of purposes, as eg. for operation of irradiation facilities for the treatment of food (GIP), or guidelines for due handling of irradiated food (GMP). Training courses have been offered to scientists, especially from developing countries, as well as for inspectors of national supervisory authorities. The activities of the advisory group as well as the conditions governing future activities are discussed. (orig./CB)

  9. Food safety in hospital: knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing staff of two hospitals in Sicily, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    La Guardia Maurizio; Giammanco Marco; Giammanco Santo; Casuccio Alessandra; Buccheri Cecilia; Mammina Caterina

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Food hygiene in hospital poses peculiar problems, particularly given the presence of patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. Moreover, in nosocomial outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, the mortality risk has been proved to be significantly higher than the community outbreaks and highest for foodborne outbreaks. On the other hand, the common involvement in the role of food handlers of nurses or domestic s...

  10. SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION (SRI) Economic and Ecological Benefits of Improved production practice for Food Security and Resource Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Barah, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Being the important ingredient of food basket of the common people, the declining productivity of rice and its per capita availability is a policy concern, which has a global connotation. System of rice intensification (SRI) is a relevant innovation, which increases production, reduces yield gap and ensures the household food security for the vulnerable section of small and marginal farmers. It has also tremendous potential for resource conservation; and important aspect for sustainability. T...

  11. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of the use of irradiated meat among respondents to the FoodNet Population Survey in Connecticut and New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Dina; Malone, Shauna; Frenzen, Paul; Marcus, Ruthanne; Scallan, Elaine; Zansky, Shelley

    2006-10-01

    Irradiation of fresh meat to control microbial pathogens received approval from the federal government in February 2000. Food irradiation is a useful, albeit underutilized, process that can help protect the public from foodborne illnesses. The objective of this study was to determine consumer knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward irradiated meat products. Data were obtained from a single-stage random-digit dialing telephone survey of residents of the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) sites conducted in 2002 to 2003, which included supplemental questions about food safety and irradiated meat for residents of the Connecticut and New York sites. Thirty-seven percent of 3,104 respondents knew that irradiated fresh meat was available for purchase; however, only 2% found the product where they shopped. Knowledge of product availability was significantly influenced by whether a respondent lived in a county with one or more grocery stores operated by chain A, which had actively promoted the sale of irradiated fresh ground beef during the survey period. In a logistic regression model, after adjusting for other factors, respondents living in a county with chain A were more likely to know that irradiated products could be purchased than respondents living in other counties (odds ratio 2.0; 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 2.5). This finding suggests that public education efforts by an individual grocery store chain can have an important effect on knowledge of irradiated food. PMID:17066925

  12. The TTC Approach in Practice and its Impact on Risk Assessment and Risk Management in Food Safety. A Regulatory Toxicologist's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüschweiler, Beat J

    2014-10-01

    There are many substances in food and drinking water from different contamination sources for which only insufficient or no toxicity data exist. In order to prioritize and preliminarily assess the human health risks, the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) approach was developed between 1996 and 2004. This concept has since been applied increasingly by regulatory food safety authorities. In parallel, the safety of this approach has been discussed by stakeholders, primarily on a conceptual basis. However, real examples showing the practical benefits of this approach have not been discussed. In this paper, the technical feasibility, applicability, safety, and further benefits of the TTC approach are illustrated and discussed based on four real cases: 1) halogenated contaminants of unknown origin in the drinking water (polychlorinated butadienes), 2) an unwanted by-product from epoxy resin coatings in canned fish (Cyclo-di-BADGE), 3) two cyclic compounds occurring in polyamide food packaging materials and kitchen utensils, and 4) mycotoxins (from Alternaria). These examples from different fields of application clearly demonstrate that the results of the TTC approach are an extremely useful starting point for adequate decisions and actions (if necessary) by risk assessment and risk management in food safety. PMID:25437163

  13. Handling Pyrophoric Reagents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Haynie, Todd O.

    2009-08-14

    Pyrophoric reagents are extremely hazardous. Special handling techniques are required to prevent contact with air and the resulting fire. This document provides several methods for working with pyrophoric reagents outside of an inert atmosphere.

  14. Facts about food irradiation: Irradiation and food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fact sheet focusses on the question of whether irradiation can be used to make spoiled food good. No food processing procedures can substitute for good hygienic practices, and good manufacturing practices must be followed in the preparation of food whether or not the food is intended for further processing by irradiation or any other means. 3 refs

  15. Food irradiation seminar: Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report covers the Seminar for Asia and the Pacific on the practical application of food irradiation. The seminar assessed the practical application of food irradiation processes, commercial utilisation and international trade of irradiated food

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

  17. Targeted interventions of ultra-poor women in rural Rangpur, Bangladesh: do they make a difference to appropriate cooking practices, food habits and sanitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeasmin, Lubna; Akter, Shamima; Shahidul Islam, A M; Mizanur Rahman, Md; Akashi, Hidechika; Jesmin, Subrina

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to assess whether teaching good cooking practices, food habits and sanitation to ultra-poor rural women in four rural communities of Rangpur district, Bangladesh, with a high density of extremely poor households, would improve the overall health of the community. The sample size was 200 respondents combined from the target and control areas. In the target area, twelve in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were undertaken for knowledge dissemination. Descriptive and mixed-model analyses were performed. The results show that washing hands with soap was 1.35 times more likely in the target than the control group (phand-washing behaviour: before cutting vegetables, preparing food, feeding a child and eating, and after defecating and cleaning a baby (phand-washing in every-day life. PMID:24355498

  18. Supermarket and Grocery Store–Based Interventions to Promote Healthful Food Choices and Eating Practices: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinen, Amy M.; Nitzke, Susan A.; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Increasingly high rates of obesity have heightened interest among researchers and practitioners in identifying evidence-based interventions to increase access to healthful foods and beverages. Because most food purchasing decisions are made in food stores, such settings are optimal for interventions aimed at influencing these decisions. The objective of this review was to synthesize the evidence on supermarket and grocery store interventions to promote healthful food choices. Methods We searched PubMed through July 2012 to identify original research articles evaluating supermarket and grocery store interventions that promoted healthful food choices. We categorized each intervention by type of intervention strategy and extracted and summarized data on each intervention. We developed a scoring system for evaluating each intervention and assigned points for study design, effectiveness, reach, and availability of evidence. We averaged points for each intervention category and compared the strength of the evidence for each category. Results We identified 58 articles and characterized 33 interventions. We found 7 strategies used alone or in combination. The most frequently used strategy was the combination of point-of-purchase and promotion and advertising (15 interventions); evidence for this category was scored as sufficient. On average, of 3 points possible, the intervention categories scored 2.6 for study design, 1.1 for effectiveness, 0.3 for reach, and 2 for availability of evidence. Three categories showed sufficient evidence; 4 showed insufficient evidence; none showed strong evidence. Conclusion More rigorous testing of interventions aimed at improving food and beverage choices in food stores, including their effect on diet and health outcomes, is needed. PMID:23578398

  19. Conocimientos y prácticas de los trabajadores de un hospital sobre el manejo de residuos hospitalarios, Chocó, Colombia, 2012 / Knowledge and practices of workers of a Hospital about handling of hospital waste, Chocó Colombia, 2012

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yulenny, Quinto-Mosquera; Luz Marina, Jaramillo-Pérez; Jaiberth Antonio, Cardona-Arias.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los residuos hospitalarios y similares constituyen un grave problema de salud por el riesgo de contaminación biológica y química, y sus impactos negativos sobre la calidad de vida humana y el ambiente. Objetivo: describir los conocimientos y prácticas de los trabajadores de una Empresa [...] Social del Estado de Chocó-Colombia sobre el manejo de residuos hospitalarios y su asociación con sexo, edad, área de servicios y tiempo de labor en la Institución. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal, en 67 empleados de seis áreas de trabajo de un hospital de Colombia. Se aplicó una escala sobre conocimientos y prácticas relacionadas con el manejo de residuos hospitalarios. Los datos se almacenaron y analizaron en Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for Windows, software SPSS 20, con medidas de resumen, frecuencias, chi cuadrado y Anova. Resultados: en los conocimientos el 40% presentó un grado insatisfactorio, en las prácticas el 17,9% fue regular y solo 3% excelente. Los conocimientos no presentaron asociación estadística con el sexo, el área de servicios, la edad y el tiempo laborado en la Institución Prestadora de Servicios de Salud, excepto en el personal del laboratorio clínico, donde 89% presentaron un conocimiento entre bueno y excelente. Las prácticas no presentaron asociación estadística con el sexo, el área de servicio, la edad y el tiempo de servicio. Conclusión: se observó una elevada proporción de conocimientos y prácticas inadecuadas o insatisfactorias frente al manejo de residuos, independiente del sexo, la edad, el área de trabajo y el tiempo de servicio; esto implica que el problema es generalizado en la Institución y evidencia la necesidad de mejorar los programas de educación y capacitación. (MÉD.UIS. 2013;26(1)9:20) Abstract in english Introduction: hospital waste and similar are relevant health problem for the biological and chemicals risk, and negative impacts on the human quality of life and the environment. Objective: to describe the knowledge and practices of the workers of a Empresa Social del Estado from Chocó, Colombia abo [...] ut the handle of the hospital waste. Materials and methods: cross sectional study in 67 workers of six work areas of a hospital from Colombia. A scale about knowledge and practices about hospital waste was applied. The data is stored and analyzed in SPSS 20, with summary measures, frequencies, chi2 and Anova. Results: in knowledge 40% presented an unsatisfactory grade, in practice 17.9% was regular and only 3.0% excellent. The knowledge do not presented statistical association with sex, area of service, age and the time worked in the IPS, except in clinical laboratory staff, where 89% had a good knowledge. Practices showed no statistical association with sex, area of service, age and length of service. Conclusion: there was a high proportion of practices and knowledge unsatisfactory related with waste management, independent of gender, age, work area and service time, this implies that the problem is widespread in the institution and highlights the need to improve education programs and training. (MÉD.UIS. 2013;26(1)9:20).

  20. 9 CFR 310.22 - Specified risk materials from cattle and their handling and disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...cattle and their handling and disposition...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...cattle and their handling and disposition...for use as human food does in the United...is removed by a procedure that removes at...their HACCP plans or Sanitation SOPs or other...

  1. Food Safety in Home Kitchens: A Synthesis of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Berning, Jacqueline; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Quick, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Although foodborne illness is preventable, more than 56,000 people per year become ill in the U.S., creating high economic costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life for many. Experts agree that the home is the primary location where foodborne outbreaks occur; however, many consumers do not believe the home to be a risky place. Health care professionals need to be aware of consumers’ food safety attitudes and behaviors in the home and deliver tailored food safety interventions that are theory-based. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to synthesize/summarize the food safety literature by examining the following: consumers’ perceptions and attitudes towards food safety and their susceptibility to foodborne illness in the home, work, and school; common risky food safety practices and barriers to handling food safely; and the application of theory-based food safety interventions. Findings will help healthcare professionals become more aware of consumers’ food safety attitudes and behaviors and serve to inform future food safety interventions. PMID:24002725

  2. Food Safety in Home Kitchens: A Synthesis of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Quick

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although foodborne illness is preventable, more than 56,000 people per year become ill in the U.S., creating high economic costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life for many. Experts agree that the home is the primary location where foodborne outbreaks occur; however, many consumers do not believe the home to be a risky place. Health care professionals need to be aware of consumers’ food safety attitudes and behaviors in the home and deliver tailored food safety interventions that are theory-based. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to synthesize/summarize the food safety literature by examining the following: consumers’ perceptions and attitudes towards food safety and their susceptibility to foodborne illness in the home, work, and school; common risky food safety practices and barriers to handling food safely; and the application of theory-based food safety interventions. Findings will help healthcare professionals become more aware of consumers’ food safety attitudes and behaviors and serve to inform future food safety interventions.

  3. Food safety in home kitchens: a synthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Berning, Jacqueline; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Quick, Virginia

    2013-09-01

    Although foodborne illness is preventable, more than 56,000 people per year become ill in the U.S., creating high economic costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life for many. Experts agree that the home is the primary location where foodborne outbreaks occur; however, many consumers do not believe the home to be a risky place. Health care professionals need to be aware of consumers' food safety attitudes and behaviors in the home and deliver tailored food safety interventions that are theory-based. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to synthesize/summarize the food safety literature by examining the following: consumers' perceptions and attitudes towards food safety and their susceptibility to foodborne illness in the home, work, and school; common risky food safety practices and barriers to handling food safely; and the application of theory-based food safety interventions. Findings will help healthcare professionals become more aware of consumers' food safety attitudes and behaviors and serve to inform future food safety interventions. PMID:24002725

  4. As principais evoluções dos comportamentos alimentares: o caso da França / Main evolutions in human food practices: French example

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jean Louis, Lambert; Mário Otávio, Batalha; Renato Luiz, Sproesser; Andréa Lago da, Silva; Thelma, Lucchese.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Durante a segunda metade do século XX, o desenvolvimento econômico e as evoluções dos modos de vida ocasionaram modificações importantes nos comportamentos alimentares. Tais evoluções foram particularmente analisadas para o caso da França. Confrontadas a um contexto de abundância, as populações adot [...] aram uma conduta alimentar mais energética. Tal conduta resume-se, sobretudo, em um alto consumo de produtos de origem animal. Porém, entre grupos de indivíduos ricos e após um período de saturação, a atração pelo consumo desmedido tal produto, tornou-se menos intensiva. Novas preocupações orientadas à saúde e às formas de mantê-la em bom estado foram despertadas. O aumento do número de mulheres salariadas e o desenvolvimento das atividades de lazer alteraram a gestão do tempo empregado à alimentação. Na busca pelo ganho de tempo, os consumidores passaram a procurar por alimentos prontos para serem consumidos e a realizarem suas refeições fora do domicílio. As culturas alimentares não evoluem tão rapidamente como as transformações ocorridas em todo o sistema de oferta alimentar, com isso afirma-se que a industrialização, a internacionalização e as inovações de toda a cadeia agroalimentar geram ansiedades no consumidor. Todas essas transformações e tendências, que são observadas em países ricos, podem ser percebidas quando os comportamentos alimentares de populações ricas de países em desenvolvimento são analisados. Abstract in english Important modifications in consumer food habits were caused by both economic development and evolutions in life style during the second part of the XX century. These evolutions were analyzed, in particular, in the case of France. Easy accessibility to food (abundance context) led the populations to [...] adopt high caloric food intakes, such conduct resulting, above all, in an elevated consumption of products of animal origin. However, after a period of saturation, the unlimited attraction to the consumption of such products became less intense amongst the richer, more privileged social groups. New, health oriented concerns, and ways to maintain good health became important. The rise in the number of women earning salaries and the development of leisure activities altered the management of time with respect to feeding. Aiming at gaining time, the consumers concentrated more on ready-to-eat foods and eating out of the home. However the food cultures failed to evolve as quickly as the transformations occurring in the food marketing system, and thus it can be affirmed that industrialization, internationalization and innovations throughout the whole agro-food chain led to consumer anxiety. All such transformations and tendencies observed in the rich countries can also be perceived in the food habits of rich populations in developing countries.

  5. As principais evoluções dos comportamentos alimentares: o caso da França Main evolutions in human food practices: French example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Louis Lambert

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Durante a segunda metade do século XX, o desenvolvimento econômico e as evoluções dos modos de vida ocasionaram modificações importantes nos comportamentos alimentares. Tais evoluções foram particularmente analisadas para o caso da França. Confrontadas a um contexto de abundância, as populações adotaram uma conduta alimentar mais energética. Tal conduta resume-se, sobretudo, em um alto consumo de produtos de origem animal. Porém, entre grupos de indivíduos ricos e após um período de saturação, a atração pelo consumo desmedido tal produto, tornou-se menos intensiva. Novas preocupações orientadas à saúde e às formas de mantê-la em bom estado foram despertadas. O aumento do número de mulheres salariadas e o desenvolvimento das atividades de lazer alteraram a gestão do tempo empregado à alimentação. Na busca pelo ganho de tempo, os consumidores passaram a procurar por alimentos prontos para serem consumidos e a realizarem suas refeições fora do domicílio. As culturas alimentares não evoluem tão rapidamente como as transformações ocorridas em todo o sistema de oferta alimentar, com isso afirma-se que a industrialização, a internacionalização e as inovações de toda a cadeia agroalimentar geram ansiedades no consumidor. Todas essas transformações e tendências, que são observadas em países ricos, podem ser percebidas quando os comportamentos alimentares de populações ricas de países em desenvolvimento são analisados.Important modifications in consumer food habits were caused by both economic development and evolutions in life style during the second part of the XX century. These evolutions were analyzed, in particular, in the case of France. Easy accessibility to food (abundance context led the populations to adopt high caloric food intakes, such conduct resulting, above all, in an elevated consumption of products of animal origin. However, after a period of saturation, the unlimited attraction to the consumption of such products became less intense amongst the richer, more privileged social groups. New, health oriented concerns, and ways to maintain good health became important. The rise in the number of women earning salaries and the development of leisure activities altered the management of time with respect to feeding. Aiming at gaining time, the consumers concentrated more on ready-to-eat foods and eating out of the home. However the food cultures failed to evolve as quickly as the transformations occurring in the food marketing system, and thus it can be affirmed that industrialization, internationalization and innovations throughout the whole agro-food chain led to consumer anxiety. All such transformations and tendencies observed in the rich countries can also be perceived in the food habits of rich populations in developing countries.

  6. 21 CFR 179.41 - Pulsed light for the treatment of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Section 179.41 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED...IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation...

  7. Oficinas de boas práticas de fabricação: construindo estratégias para garantir a segurança alimentar Workshops for good manufacturing practices: building strategies for ensuring food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisio da Silva Costa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A comercialização de alimentos tradicionais resgata a história e a cultura presentes nos alimentos. Os pescadores artesanais são os principais responsáveis pelo abastecimento do mercado nacional. Considerando-se a importância da adoção de procedimentos de Boas Práticas de Fabricação em toda cadeia produtiva, o presente trabalho visa a socializar uma experiência construtiva de uma oficina de Boas Práticas de Fabricação para pescadoras. Diante disso, realizou-se um levantamento de conceitos e atitudes voltadas para produção segura de alimentos, utilizando-se como instrumento entrevistas, além da observação de seus hábitos e atitudes. Os resultados evidenciam que estas pescadoras percebem as Boas Práticas de Fabricação como sinônimo de higiene e de poder comercializar o pescado sem reclamações; porém, as mesmas não têm noção dos procedimentos de Boas Práticas de Fabricação na sua atividade. O processo formativo se constitui como uma das estratégias de base para consolidação dos grupos, sendo as oficinas alternativas eficientes, de fácil execução e baixo custo.The marketing of traditional foods recalls the history and culture in feeding. The fishermen are primarily responsible for supplying the domestic market. Considering the importance of adopting procedures for Good Manufacturing Practices throughout the production chain, this paper aims to socialize a constructive experience of a Good Manufacturing Practices workshop for fishers. Therefore, we carried out a survey of concepts and attitudes towards safe food production, using interviews as an instrument, and are observed their habits and attitudes. The results show that these Good Manufacturing Practices perceive as synonymous with health and able to market the fish without complaint, but they are not aware of the procedures for Good Manufacturing Practices activities. The training process is constituted as one of the basic strategies for strengthening these groups, workshops efficient alternatives, easy implementation and low cost.

  8. Oficinas de boas práticas de fabricação: construindo estratégias para garantir a segurança alimentar / Workshops for good manufacturing practices: building strategies for ensuring food security

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tarcisio da Silva, Costa; Gabrielly Sobral, Neiva; Valéria Macedo Almeida, Camilo; Fernanda de, Freitas; Isabella de Matos Mendes da, Silva.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A comercialização de alimentos tradicionais resgata a história e a cultura presentes nos alimentos. Os pescadores artesanais são os principais responsáveis pelo abastecimento do mercado nacional. Considerando-se a importância da adoção de procedimentos de Boas Práticas de Fabricação em toda cadeia p [...] rodutiva, o presente trabalho visa a socializar uma experiência construtiva de uma oficina de Boas Práticas de Fabricação para pescadoras. Diante disso, realizou-se um levantamento de conceitos e atitudes voltadas para produção segura de alimentos, utilizando-se como instrumento entrevistas, além da observação de seus hábitos e atitudes. Os resultados evidenciam que estas pescadoras percebem as Boas Práticas de Fabricação como sinônimo de higiene e de poder comercializar o pescado sem reclamações; porém, as mesmas não têm noção dos procedimentos de Boas Práticas de Fabricação na sua atividade. O processo formativo se constitui como uma das estratégias de base para consolidação dos grupos, sendo as oficinas alternativas eficientes, de fácil execução e baixo custo. Abstract in english The marketing of traditional foods recalls the history and culture in feeding. The fishermen are primarily responsible for supplying the domestic market. Considering the importance of adopting procedures for Good Manufacturing Practices throughout the production chain, this paper aims to socialize a [...] constructive experience of a Good Manufacturing Practices workshop for fishers. Therefore, we carried out a survey of concepts and attitudes towards safe food production, using interviews as an instrument, and are observed their habits and attitudes. The results show that these Good Manufacturing Practices perceive as synonymous with health and able to market the fish without complaint, but they are not aware of the procedures for Good Manufacturing Practices activities. The training process is constituted as one of the basic strategies for strengthening these groups, workshops efficient alternatives, easy implementation and low cost.

  9. Keeping up appearances: perceptions of street food safety in urban Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Olsen, Mette; Bakang, John Abubakar; Takyi, Harriet; Konradsen, Flemming; Samuelsen, Helle

    2008-11-01

    The growing street food sector in low-income countries offers easy access to inexpensive food as well as new job opportunities for urban residents. While this development is positive in many ways, it also presents new public health challenges for the urban population. Safe food hygiene is difficult to practice at street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been linked to street food. This study investigates local perceptions of food safety among street food vendors and their consumers in Kumasi, Ghana in order to identify the most important aspects to be included in future public health interventions concerning street food safety. This qualitative study includes data from a triangulation of various qualitative methods. Observations at several markets and street food vending sites in Kumasi were performed. Fourteen street food vendors were chosen for in-depth studies, and extensive participant observations and several interviews were carried out with case vendors. In addition, street interviews and Focus Group Discussions were carried out with street food customers. The study found that although vendors and consumers demonstrated basic knowledge of food safety, the criteria did not emphasize basic hygiene practices such as hand washing, cleaning of utensils, washing of raw vegetables, and quality of ingredients. Instead, four main food selection criteria could be identified and were related to (1) aesthetic appearance of food and food stand, (2) appearance of the food vendor, (3) interpersonal trust in the vendor, and (4) consumers often chose to prioritize price and accessibility of food--not putting much stress on food safety. Hence, consumers relied on risk avoidance strategies by assessing neatness, appearance, and trustworthiness of vendor. Vendors were also found to emphasize appearance while vending and to ignore core food safety practices while preparing food. These findings are discussed in this paper using social and anthropological theoretical concepts such as 'purity', 'contamination', 'hygiene puzzles', and 'impression behaviors' from Douglas, Van Der Geest, and Goffman. The findings indicate that educating vendors in safe food handling is evidently insufficient. Future public health interventions within the street food sector should give emphasis to the importance of appearance and neatness when designing communication strategies. Neglected aspects of food safety, such as good hand hygiene and cleanliness of kitchen facilities, should be emphasized. Local vendor networks can be an effective point of entry for future food hygiene promotion initiatives. PMID:18821020

  10. TRANSPORT/HANDLING REQUESTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST/HM

    2002-01-01

    A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

  11. Cooper-Harper Experience Report for Spacecraft Handling Qualities Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.; Frost, Chad R.; Alderete, Thomas S.

    2009-01-01

    A synopsis of experience from the fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft communities in handling qualities development and the use of the Cooper-Harper pilot rating scale is presented as background for spacecraft handling qualities research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E). In addition, handling qualities experiences and lessons-learned from previous United States (US) spacecraft developments are reviewed. This report is intended to provide a central location for references, best practices, and lessons-learned to guide current and future spacecraft handling qualities RDT&E.

  12. Alergia alimentar: atualização prática do ponto de vista gastroenterológico Food allergy: a practical update from the gastroenterological viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Targa Ferreira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Apresentar uma revisão atualizada e crítica sobre alergias alimentares, focando principalmente em tratamento e prevenção. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão da literatura publicada obtida através do banco de dados MEDLINE, sendo selecionados os mais atuais e representativos do tema (2000-2006. A pesquisa incluiu os sites da European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN e American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A prevalência de doenças alérgicas tem aumentado nas últimas décadas e alergia alimentar parece fazer parte desse aumento. Alergia alimentar é muito mais comum em pediatria e apresenta impacto médico, financeiro e social significativos em crianças menores e suas famílias. Tratamento e prevenção da alergia alimentar são desafios maiores do ponto de vista da saúde pública e para as comunidades médica e científica. Há muita informação incorreta e condutas médicas discutíveis nessa área. Apresentamos e discutimos as recomendações publicadas pelos Comitês de Nutrição da ESPGHAN juntamente com a Sociedade Européia Pediátrica de Alergologia e Imunologia Clínica (ESPACI e AAP. CONCLUSÃO: Excesso de diagnósticos de alergia alimentar é bastante prevalente. Há necessidade de uniformização de definições e procedimentos diagnósticos. O objetivo primário do manejo deve ser o de instituir medidas efetivas de prevenção das alergias alimentares. Há necessidade de métodos precisos para confirmar ou excluir o diagnóstico. Os pacientes necessitam tratamento apropriado através da eliminação de alimentos que causam sintomas, ao mesmo tempo evitando os efeitos adversos nutricionais e o custo de dietas inadequadas.OBJECTIVE: To present an up-to-date and critical review regarding food allergies, focusing mainly on treatment and prevention. SOURCES: Review of published literature searched on MEDLINE database; those data which were the most up-to-date and representative were selected (2000-2006. The search included the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased over the last decades, and food allergy seems to be part of this increase. Food allergy is much more common in pediatrics and has a significant medical, financial and social impact on young children and their families. Treatment and prevention of food allergy is a major challenge for public health, scientific and medical communities. There is a lot of misinformation and the medical management of this condition is still discussable. We present and discuss the guidelines regarding criteria for the prevention of food allergy and atopic diseases published by the Nutrition Committees of ESPGHAN jointly with the European Society for Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (ESPACI and AAP. CONCLUSION: The overdiagnosis of food allergy is quite prevalent. There is a need for standardization of definitions and diagnostic procedures. The primary goal of therapy should be to first establish effective means of preventing food allergies. There is a need for accurate diagnostic methods to confirm or rule out the diagnosis. Patients need appropriate treatment by eliminating foods that cause symptoms, while avoiding the nutritional side effects and the cost of inappropriate diets.

  13. Alergia alimentar: atualização prática do ponto de vista gastroenterológico / Food allergy: a practical update from the gastroenterological viewpoint

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristina Targa, Ferreira; Ernest, Seidman.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Apresentar uma revisão atualizada e crítica sobre alergias alimentares, focando principalmente em tratamento e prevenção. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão da literatura publicada obtida através do banco de dados MEDLINE, sendo selecionados os mais atuais e representativos do tema (2000-2006). A [...] pesquisa incluiu os sites da European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) e American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A prevalência de doenças alérgicas tem aumentado nas últimas décadas e alergia alimentar parece fazer parte desse aumento. Alergia alimentar é muito mais comum em pediatria e apresenta impacto médico, financeiro e social significativos em crianças menores e suas famílias. Tratamento e prevenção da alergia alimentar são desafios maiores do ponto de vista da saúde pública e para as comunidades médica e científica. Há muita informação incorreta e condutas médicas discutíveis nessa área. Apresentamos e discutimos as recomendações publicadas pelos Comitês de Nutrição da ESPGHAN juntamente com a Sociedade Européia Pediátrica de Alergologia e Imunologia Clínica (ESPACI) e AAP. CONCLUSÃO: Excesso de diagnósticos de alergia alimentar é bastante prevalente. Há necessidade de uniformização de definições e procedimentos diagnósticos. O objetivo primário do manejo deve ser o de instituir medidas efetivas de prevenção das alergias alimentares. Há necessidade de métodos precisos para confirmar ou excluir o diagnóstico. Os pacientes necessitam tratamento apropriado através da eliminação de alimentos que causam sintomas, ao mesmo tempo evitando os efeitos adversos nutricionais e o custo de dietas inadequadas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To present an up-to-date and critical review regarding food allergies, focusing mainly on treatment and prevention. SOURCES: Review of published literature searched on MEDLINE database; those data which were the most up-to-date and representative were selected (2000-2006). The search incl [...] uded the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased over the last decades, and food allergy seems to be part of this increase. Food allergy is much more common in pediatrics and has a significant medical, financial and social impact on young children and their families. Treatment and prevention of food allergy is a major challenge for public health, scientific and medical communities. There is a lot of misinformation and the medical management of this condition is still discussable. We present and discuss the guidelines regarding criteria for the prevention of food allergy and atopic diseases published by the Nutrition Committees of ESPGHAN jointly with the European Society for Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (ESPACI) and AAP. CONCLUSION: The overdiagnosis of food allergy is quite prevalent. There is a need for standardization of definitions and diagnostic procedures. The primary goal of therapy should be to first establish effective means of preventing food allergies. There is a need for accurate diagnostic methods to confirm or rule out the diagnosis. Patients need appropriate treatment by eliminating foods that cause symptoms, while avoiding the nutritional side effects and the cost of inappropriate diets.

  14. Salt handling and hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    O’Shaughnessy, Kevin M.; Karet, Fiona E.

    2004-01-01

    The kidney plays a central role in our ability to maintain appropriate sodium balance, which is critical to determination of blood pressure. In this review we outline current knowledge of renal salt handling at the molecular level, and, given that Westernized societies consume more salt than is required for normal physiology, we examine evidence that the lowering of salt intake can combat hypertension.

  15. Traditional food-processing and preparation practices to enhance the bioavailability of micronutrients in plant-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, Christine; Gibson, Rosalind S

    2007-04-01

    Dietary quality is an important limiting factor to adequate nutrition in many resource-poor settings. One aspect of dietary quality with respect to adequacy of micronutrient intakes is bioavailability. Several traditional household food-processing and preparation methods can be used to enhance the bioavailability of micronutrients in plant-based diets. These include thermal processing, mechanical processing, soaking, fermentation, and germination/malting. These strategies aim to increase the physicochemical accessibility of micronutrients, decrease the content of antinutrients, such as phytate, or increase the content of compounds that improve bioavailability. A combination of strategies is probably required to ensure a positive and significant effect on micronutrient adequacy. A long-term participatory intervention in Malawi that used a range of these strategies plus promotion of the intake of other micronutrient-rich foods, including animal-source foods, resulted in improvements in both hemoglobin and lean body mass and a lower incidence of common infections among intervention compared with control children. The suitability of these strategies and their impact on nutritional status and functional health outcomes need to be more broadly assessed. PMID:17374686

  16. Critical control points of complementary food preparation and handling in eastern Nigeria / Points de contrôle critiques dans la préparation et la manipulation des aliments de complément dans l’est du Nigéria / Puntos críticos de control en la preparación y manipulación de alimentos complementarios en el este de Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    John E., Ehiri; Marcel C., Azubuike; Collins N., Ubbaonu; Ebere C., Anyanwu; Kasimir M., Ibe; Michael O., Ogbonna.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar la contaminación microbiana y los puntos críticos de control (PCC) en la preparación y manipulación de alimentos complementarios en 120 hogares del Estado de Imo (Nigeria). MÉTODOS: Se empleó el sistema de análisis de peligros en puntos críticos de control (HACCP) para investiga [...] r los procesos y procedimientos que favorecían la contaminación microbiana y el crecimiento y la supervivencia de los microbios, así como para identificar los puntos donde podían aplicarse controles a fin de prevenir, eliminar o reducir esos riesgos microbiológicos hasta niveles admisibles. Se sometieron a análisis microbiológico muestras de alimentos recogidas en diferentes etapas de la preparación y manipulación. RESULTADOS: Durante la cocción todos los alimentos alcanzaron temperaturas capaces de destruir las formas vegetativas de los patógenos de transmisión alimentaria. Sin embargo, el riesgo de contaminación aumentó al almacenar los alimentos a temperatura ambiente, cuando se usaron temperaturas insuficientemente altas para recalentar el alimento, y al añadir ingredientes - por ejemplo cangrejo seco molido o soja en polvo - contaminados en etapas tras las cuales no se aplicaba ningún tratamiento térmico. La compra en mercados de alimentos e ingredientes crudos, especialmente de akamu, contaminados también constituye un PCC. CONCLUSIÓN: Aunque un entorno insalubre acarrea muchos peligros para la alimentación de los niños, si se observan los principios básicos de inocuidad de los alimentos es posible asegurar la calidad higiénica de los alimentos preparados. Cuando la contaminación es el resultado de muchos factores, la identificación de los PCC resulta especialmente importante y puede facilitar la adecuada focalización de los recursos y de las actividades de prevención. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate microbial contamination and critical control points (CCPs) in the preparation and handling of complementary foods in 120 households in Imo state, Nigeria. METHODS: The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach was used to investigate processes and procedures t [...] hat contributed to microbial contamination, growth and survival, and to identify points where controls could be applied to prevent or eliminate these microbiological hazards or reduce them to acceptable levels. Food samples were collected and tested microbiologically at different stages of preparation and handling. FINDINGS: During cooking, all foods attained temperatures capable of destroying vegetative forms of food-borne pathogens. However, the risk of contamination increased by storage of food at ambient temperature, by using insufficiently high temperatures to reheat the food, and by adding contaminated ingredients such as dried ground crayfish and soybean powder at stages where no further heat treatment was applied. The purchasing of contaminated raw foodstuffs and ingredients, particularly raw akamu, from vendors in open markets is also a CCP. CONCLUSION: Although an unsafe environment poses many hazards for children’s food, the hygienic quality of prepared food can be assured if basic food safety principles are observed. When many factors contribute to food contamination, identification of CCPs becomes particularly important and can facilitate appropriate targeting of resources and prevention efforts.

  17. Traditional Fish Handling and Preservation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Tawari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The time elapsing between lifting of the nets and delivery to the shore can vary with the distance that has to be covered. It can at times be a period of several hours. The fish, when brought aboard is usually more or less alive. It is stored simply on the bottom of the canoe, lying there in a pool of warm, dirty water. The fish is never gutted and freely exposed to the sun. Needless to say the product thus handled has an extremely short keeping period that could be improved by more hygienic handling and by keeping the fish in shade. The ultimate aim at least for the fish to be entered into the fresh fish trade should of course be to have the fish iced. The same applies to the handling after landing. No precautions are taken to prevent the fish from being covered with sand, leaves, sticks, etc. Better handling practices would be a prerequisite to the development of a fresh fish export trade towards the larger towns in the north and south. It is a well known fact that fishes' rigor mortis period lasts longest with fish kept at a low temperature and is also favourably influenced by killing the fish as soon as possible after catching; in other words by shortening its death struggle and avoiding chemical and enzymic deterioration after passing the rigor mortis period at the lowest possible level. It is recommended that future research tries to establish whether the relationship between killing the fish right after landing on board and a consequent extension of the rigor mortis period is of sufficient significance to be taken up in a programme of improvement of fish handling. Fish handling, filleting, fish preservation, chilling, super chilling, freezing, drying, smoking, salting and fermentation are reviewed in this article to provide information for improvement of culture fisheries management and practices in Nigeria.

  18. Hygiene and Manufacturing Practices, Interagency Collaboration, and a Proposal for Improvement: A Case Study of Community Food Enterprise in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarin Rodmanee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the current hygiene and manufacturing practices adopted in a women’s community enterprise (WCE for processing an herbal seasoning product in Sakon Nakhon Province, Thailand. A multidisciplinary team comprised researchers and inspectors from government agencies was formed to conduct interviews and evaluations by using a good manufacturing practice (GMP checklist. The results showed that the WCE did not pass the GMP standard. We formed an action plan to identify the requirements for GMP implementation. Non-compliance factors were delegated to each stakeholder for action and implementation. To achieve an action plan, the participation of every stakeholder is crucial.

  19. Traditional public health practices in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladepo, O; Sridhar, M K

    1987-10-01

    Traditional beliefs and practices can help teach effective modern public health practices in Nigeria. A study conducted among large ethnic groups in Nigeria found that many of the people's traditional beliefs promoted good health practices and complemented modern health promotion efforts. The study was conducted by public health workers and students through open-ended questions among Yorubas, Hausas, and Ibos, the dominant indigenous ethnic groups of Nigeria. Interviewers questioned the respondents on myths, cultural taboos, legends, proverbs and songs. They also asked about cultural practices regarding water sanitation, waste disposal, food hygiene, vector control, and communicable disease control. Maintaining a clean water supply was a key concept in traditional beliefs. In addition, folklore emphasized sanitary disposal of human waste, general cleanliness, and the importance of personal hygiene. Proper food handling was treated in certain proverbs and myths, and there were many taboos on cooking, storing, and serving of food. The study found evil attached to rats, cockroaches, and flies in homes. Disease prevention was encouraged through tales and practices involving isolation of infected persons. PMID:3119843

  20. Development of a good agricultural practice to improve food safety and product quality in Indonesian vegetable production

    OpenAIRE

    Asandhi, A. A.; Schoorlemmer, H. B.; Dibyantori, L.; Voort, M. P. J.; Sulastrini, N.; Sulastrini, I.

    2006-01-01

    In the Hortin-Quality project a Good Agricultural Practice (Hortin-GAP) is developed in close cooperation with Indonesian farmers, trade companies and the indonesian government. This Hortin-GAP has a close relation to the international standards like HACCP and Eurep-GAP.

  1. Experimental remote handling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental mobile work system and a manipulator support system have been constructed to study various problems in remote handling systems such as control, communication, viewing, man-machine interface, etc. The mobile work system consists of the mobile work station which includes an electrical manipulator, a TV camera, a sub-computer, a servo-control unit, batteries, etc. which are mounted on a crawler-type vehicle and the master control station which includes a control panel, a main computer, a master arm, a TV monitor, etc. The manipulator support system is aimed at supporting a manipulator in a reactor vessel and is a tripedal mechanism which has three independently extensible legs for horizontal support. Other experimental remote handling systems are also being constructed or planned

  2. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narayan; Bhadauria, Dharmendra

    2013-07-01

    Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23) and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body. PMID:23961477

  3. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Narayan; Bhadauria, Dharmendra

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23) and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  4. Alimentos funcionales: análisis de la recomendación en la práctica diaria / Functional foods: analysis of the recommendation in the daily practice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MV, Millone; GF, Olagnero; EC, Santana.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción:La investigación científica, la innovación tecnológica y la tendencia hacia lo saludable revolucionaron la industria alimenticia con el nuevo concepto de "alimentos funcionales". Surgen en Japón en los años 80 y actualmente el mercado internacional se encuentra en pleno auge. Los Licenc [...] iados en Nutrición, como nexo entre ciencia, industria y consumidor, constituyen una pieza clave y cumplen un rol fundamental en educación y asesoramiento.El objetivodel estudio fue establecer el nivel de conocimiento que poseen los Licenciados en Nutrición en éste área sobre el concepto de "alimento funcional", fuentes de información y capacitación utilizadas, recomendación y uso adecuado. Material y métodos:se realizó un estudio cualitativo, descriptivo y transversal. Se entrevistaron 57 Licenciados de Ciudad de Buenos Aires y Conurbano Bonaerense. Resultados:La mitad de los entrevistados tenía información previa sobre los alimentos funcionales y, aunque el 63% desconocía su definición, los identificaban correctamente. Los más nombrados fueron los diseñados. Las fuentes bibliográficas y medios de información más nombrados fueron: "Internet", "libros", "congresos". El 91% consideró importante conocerlos y/o usarlos por el beneficio a la salud y utilidad. El resto no los consideró importantes por ausencia de necesidad, falta de información y desconfianza. El 72% recomendaría alimentos funcionales entre los que destacan lácteos (con probióticos, fitoesteroles y omega 3), cereales, frutas y hortalizas (semillas de lino, chía, salvado de avena). Entre las causas de no recomendación destacan precio y rótulos poco claros. Existe un marcado interés sobre capacitación y uso adecuado. Conclusiones:Los conocimientos que poseen los expertos en nutrición sobre alimentos funcionales son claves ya que deben interpretar y "traducir" la información científica y de la industria a la comunidad en general, como fuentes confiables e idóneas. Asegurar información adecuada a la población permitiría facilitar elecciones saludables y mejorar la calidad de vida. Abstract in english Introduction: Scientific research, technological innovation and the ongoing trend towards healthy things revolutionized the food industry with the new concept of "functional foods". They emerged in Japan in the 80´s and nowadays, the international market is booming. Dietitians, as the link between s [...] cience, industry and consumer, are a key piece and fulfill a fundamental role in education and advising. Theaimof this study was to establish the level of knowledge Dietitians have on the functional food concept, sources of information and training, recommendation and suitable use. Methods: A qualitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out. 57 Dietitians were interviewed in Buenos Aires City and Buenos Aires suburbs. Results:Half of the interviewed people had previous information on functional foods; although 63% did not know their definition, they identifed them correctly. The most named were the designed ones. The bibliography and means of information most named were: "Internet", "books", "congresses". 91% considered important to know them and/or use them due to health benefts and utility. The rest did not consider them important because of absence of necessity, lack of information and distrust. 72% would recommend functional dairies (with Probiotics, Phytosterol and Omega 3) and cereals, fruits and vegetables (fax seed, chia, oat bran). Among the causes of non-recommendation, Dietitians emphasize price and unclear labels. There is a strong interest in training and proper use. Conclusion: The knowledge of experts in nutrition on functional foods is key because they must interpret and "translate" the scientific and industrial information to the community as reliable and appropriate sources. The right information enables people to make healthy choices to improve their quality of life.

  5. Alimentos funcionales: análisis de la recomendación en la práctica diaria Functional foods: analysis of the recommendation in the daily practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MV Millone

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción:La investigación científica, la innovación tecnológica y la tendencia hacia lo saludable revolucionaron la industria alimenticia con el nuevo concepto de "alimentos funcionales". Surgen en Japón en los años 80 y actualmente el mercado internacional se encuentra en pleno auge. Los Licenciados en Nutrición, como nexo entre ciencia, industria y consumidor, constituyen una pieza clave y cumplen un rol fundamental en educación y asesoramiento.El objetivodel estudio fue establecer el nivel de conocimiento que poseen los Licenciados en Nutrición en éste área sobre el concepto de "alimento funcional", fuentes de información y capacitación utilizadas, recomendación y uso adecuado. Material y métodos:se realizó un estudio cualitativo, descriptivo y transversal. Se entrevistaron 57 Licenciados de Ciudad de Buenos Aires y Conurbano Bonaerense. Resultados:La mitad de los entrevistados tenía información previa sobre los alimentos funcionales y, aunque el 63% desconocía su definición, los identificaban correctamente. Los más nombrados fueron los diseñados. Las fuentes bibliográficas y medios de información más nombrados fueron: "Internet", "libros", "congresos". El 91% consideró importante conocerlos y/o usarlos por el beneficio a la salud y utilidad. El resto no los consideró importantes por ausencia de necesidad, falta de información y desconfianza. El 72% recomendaría alimentos funcionales entre los que destacan lácteos (con probióticos, fitoesteroles y omega 3, cereales, frutas y hortalizas (semillas de lino, chía, salvado de avena. Entre las causas de no recomendación destacan precio y rótulos poco claros. Existe un marcado interés sobre capacitación y uso adecuado. Conclusiones:Los conocimientos que poseen los expertos en nutrición sobre alimentos funcionales son claves ya que deben interpretar y "traducir" la información científica y de la industria a la comunidad en general, como fuentes confiables e idóneas. Asegurar información adecuada a la población permitiría facilitar elecciones saludables y mejorar la calidad de vida.Introduction: Scientific research, technological innovation and the ongoing trend towards healthy things revolutionized the food industry with the new concept of "functional foods". They emerged in Japan in the 80´s and nowadays, the international market is booming. Dietitians, as the link between science, industry and consumer, are a key piece and fulfill a fundamental role in education and advising. Theaimof this study was to establish the level of knowledge Dietitians have on the functional food concept, sources of information and training, recommendation and suitable use. Methods: A qualitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out. 57 Dietitians were interviewed in Buenos Aires City and Buenos Aires suburbs. Results:Half of the interviewed people had previous information on functional foods; although 63% did not know their definition, they identifed them correctly. The most named were the designed ones. The bibliography and means of information most named were: "Internet", "books", "congresses". 91% considered important to know them and/or use them due to health benefts and utility. The rest did not consider them important because of absence of necessity, lack of information and distrust. 72% would recommend functional dairies (with Probiotics, Phytosterol and Omega 3 and cereals, fruits and vegetables (fax seed, chia, oat bran. Among the causes of non-recommendation, Dietitians emphasize price and unclear labels. There is a strong interest in training and proper use. Conclusion: The knowledge of experts in nutrition on functional foods is key because they must interpret and "translate" the scientific and industrial information to the community as reliable and appropriate sources. The right information enables people to make healthy choices to improve their quality of life.

  6. Food problems and food irradiation, recent trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is to contribute to the stable security of foodstuffs which is the fundamental condition of human survival by improving the preservation of foodstuffs and food sanitation utilizing the biological effect due to irradiation. The research and development have been carried out internationally since 1950s, but after the safety declaration of irradiated foods in 1980 by the international organ concerned, the permission and practical use for foods in various foreign countries, the technology transfer to developing countries and so on have been advanced. At present, food irradiation is permitted in 38 countries, and the practical irradiation is carried out in 24 countries. In Japan, the irradiation of potatoes to prevent germination was permitted in 1972, and the practical irradiation on potatoes of yearly 15,000 t is carried out. In the near future, irradiated foods will appear in international foodstuff market, and Japan which imports foodstuffs must cope with them. Foodstuffs and the safety, food irradiation, the soundness of irradiated foods, food irradiation in various foreign countries and Japan, the trend of international organs and the criticism of food irradiation are reported. (K.I.)

  7. Uranium hexafluoride handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF6 from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride

  8. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. The hazard analysis and critical control point system in food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is a preventive method of ensuring food safety. Its objectives are the identification of consumer safety hazards that can occur in the production line and the establishment of a control process to guarantee a safer product for the consumer; it is based on the identification of potential hazards to food safety and on measures aimed at preventing these hazards. HACCP is the system of choice in the management of food safety. The principles of HACCP are applicable to all phases of food production, including basic husbandry practices, food preparation and handling, food processing, food service, distribution systems, and consumer handling and use. The HACCP system is involved in every aspect of food safety production (according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO] and the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods [ICMSF]). The most basic concept underlying the HACCP system is that of prevention rather than inspection. The control of processes and conditions comprises the critical control point (CCP) element. HACCP is simply a methodical, flexible, and systematic application of the appropriate science and technology for planning, controlling, and documenting the safe production of foods. The successful application of HACCP requires the full commitment and involvement of management and the workforce, using a multidisciplinary approach that should include, as appropriate, expertise in agronomy, veterinary health, microbiology, public health, food technology, environmental health, chemistry, engineering, and so on according to the particular situation. Application of the HACCP system is compatible with the implementation of total quality management (TQM) systems such as the ISO 9000 series. PMID:15156035

  10. Using vignettes to tap into moral reasoning in public health policy: practical advice and design principles from a study on food advertising to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Catherine L; Taylor, Emily; Hoang, Sylvia; Cook, Brian

    2014-10-01

    In this article, we describe a process for designing and applying vignettes in public health policy research and practice. We developed this methodology for a study on moral reasoning underpinning policy debate on food advertising to children. Using vignettes prompted policy actors who were relatively entrenched in particular ways of speaking professionally about a controversial and ethically challenging issue to converse in a more authentic and reflective way. Vignettes hold benefits and complexities. They can focus attention on moral conflicts, draw out different types of evidence to support moral reasoning, and enable simultaneous consideration of real and ideal worlds. We suggest a process and recommendations on design features for crafting vignettes for public health policy. PMID:25121818

  11. Global Food Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterveer, P. J. M.

    2005-01-01

    In the context of global modernity, the organisation of food production and consumption is changing. These changes have two important consequences, new food-related risks and concerns are emerging while conventional nation-state-based regulatory practices can no longer deal satisfactorily with food risks and concerns, either old or new. Consequently, innovative arrangements are needed to respond to the challenges facing food governance in global modernity. Such innovative arrangements have to...

  12. A vibration absorber for motorcycle handles

    OpenAIRE

    Fasana, Alessandro; Giorcelli, Ermanno

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a vibration absorber to ameliorate the comfort of motorcycle handles. The concept of dynamical absorber is briefly summarised and a frequency response function is expressed as the ratio of vibration amplitudes (transmissibility). Some practical hints on the tuning strategy are also suggested in order to correctly define the absorber and then achieve the most effective vibration reduction. A specifically designed item is presented, with the peculiar char...

  13. A Practical Implementation of the Gibbs Sampler for Mixture of Distributions: Application to the Determination of Specifications in Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cornebise, Julien; Maumy, Myriam; Girard, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    This article, mainly targeted to practitioners, illustrates practical issues that may arise when applying MCMC technics to a mixture of distributions model on real data. This data is provided by coffee manufacturer to determine specifications for soluble coffee. Assuming a known number of components, parameters of each component are estimated using the Gibbs sampler and specifications are derived as the 99% quantile of the first distribution. Convergence and label-switching are discussed. Det...

  14. Operational semantics for signal handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Strygin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Signals are a lightweight form of interprocess communication in Unix. When a process receives a signal, the control flow is interrupted and a previously installed signal handler is run. Signal handling is reminiscent both of exception handling and concurrent interleaving of processes. In this paper, we investigate different approaches to formalizing signal handling in operational semantics, and compare them in a series of examples. We find the big-step style of operational semantics to be well suited to modelling signal handling. We integrate exception handling with our big-step semantics of signal handling, by adopting the exception convention as defined in the Definition of Standard ML. The semantics needs to capture the complex interactions between signal handling and exception handling.

  15. The Neckarwestheim fuel handling procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the procedure applied in Nuclear Power Plant Neckarwestheim II to prevent fuel handling errors at the planning and the operation stage. In this procedure an interlock logic protected against malfunction is used for the loading machine hindering this machine from handling operations which are not laid down in a 'handling sequence plan' established by an authorized person and checked by an empowered person according to the quality assurance requirements. The 'handling sequence plan' is generated with the computer code ALFA which uses appropriate interlock logic schemes to prevent fuel handling errors already at the planning stage. Fuel handling operations cannot be executed until the 'handling sequence plan' is installed in the control unit of the fuel handling machine by an authorized person. (author)

  16. Food culture in the home environment : family meal practices and values can support healthy eating and self-regulation in young people in four European countries.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. F. De Wit, John; Stok, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overweight epidemics, including among children and adolescents, are fuelled by contemporary obesogenic environments. Recent research and theory highlight the importance of socio-cultural factors in mitigating adverse impacts of the abundance of food in high-income countries. The current study examines whether family meal culture shapes young people's eating behaviors and self-regulation. METHODS: Young people aged 10-17 years were recruited through schools in four European countries: the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom. A total of 2,764 participants (mean age 13.2 years; 49.1% girls) completed a self-report questionnaire in class, providing information on healthy and unhealthy eating, joint family meals and communal meal values and use of eating-related self-regulation strategies. RESULTS: Path analysis found that family meal culture variables were significantly associated with young people's eating behaviors, as was self-regulation. Significant indirect effects of familymeal culture were also found, through self-regulation. CONCLUSIONS: Results confirm that family meal culture, encompassing values as well as practices, shapes young people's eating behaviors. Findings extend and link previously separate lines of enquiry by showing how food cultures can play out in the home environment. Importantly, the study contributes novel evidence suggesting that self-regulation is shaped by the home environment and mediates its influence.

  17. Percepción de la imagen corporal y prácticas alimentarias entre indígenas Mayas de Yucatán, México / Body image perception and food practices of Mayan indigenous of Yucatan, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Odette, Pérez I; Damaris, Estrella.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue conocer la percepción de la imagen corporal y las prácticas alimentarias de indígenas mayas de dos zonas rurales de Yucatán, México. Se seleccionaron 10 familias por conveniencia hasta que se obtuvo el punto de saturación teórica, con un total de 8 mujeres y 2 hombres de [...] la comunidad de Xanláh (zona maicera), y 8 mujeres y 3 hombres de la localidad de Mucuyché (zona henequenera); se les pesó y midió para identificar el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC), dieta habitual y entrevistas en profundidad (cuya guía fue validada en un estudio previo) para conocer la percepción de la imagen. Las respuestas mostraron similitudes en ambas comunidades, el estar 'gordito' o 'gordita' forma parte de su contexto cultural y de la "normalidad" y, seleccionan los alimentos no por su valor nutritivo, sino por el estatus, reconocimiento y prestigio que dichos alimentos representan. Es indispensable que las políticas se orienten con estrategias pertinentes a los contextos sociales y culturales del país. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to assess body image perception and feeding practices of indigenous Mayan of two different rural areas of Yucatan. Eight men and 2 women from 10 families of the community of Xanlah (corn forming area) and 8 women and 3 men from another community called Mucuyche (Heneq [...] uen plantation) were selected; height and weight were measured to determine body mass index (BMI). Usual dietary practices and in-depth interviews were done to know their self-image perception. The answers showed similarities in both communities, being "chubby" is part of their cultural context and considered "normal" and food selection was not based on nutritional value, but on the status, recognition and prestige which these foods represent. It's essential that the nutrition policies are implemented with strategies that are pertinent to the social and cultural context of the country.

  18. Public health nutritionists’ role in the promotion of healthy food practices Atuação do nutricionista em saúde pública na promoção da alimentação saudável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Faber Boog

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the insertion of nutritionists in the Public Health areas through studies which performed this diagnosis, and reflect about the development of competencies for promoting healthy food practices. The results of these studies are initially presented in order to quantify, describe and analyze the insertion of nutritionists in the Primary Health Network and in the Family Health Program or propose an orientation for their role in the Public Health field. The contribution of these studies is analyzed and some considerations are made about the development of competencies targeting the promotion of healthy food practices. The subjects which can contribute for the development of these competencies are then suggested: peculiarity of the intervention about daily issues, intervention in nutrition as health care, teamwork and development as educator.O artigo tem por objetivo analisar a inserção do nutricionista no campo da Saúde Pública, a partir de estudos que realizaram esse diagnóstico e refletir sobre o desenvolvimento de competências para a promoção de práticas alimentares saudáveis. Inicialmente são apresentados resultados de estudos realizados com a finalidade de quantificar, descrever e analisar a inserção do nutricionista na Rede Básica de Saúde e no Programa Saúde da Família, ou propor direcionamentos para a sua atuação no campo da Saúde Pública. Em seguida, se apresenta uma análise crítica da contribuição desses trabalhos e uma reflexão sobre o desenvolvimento de competências para promoção de práticas alimentares saudáveis. Finalmente, são sugeridos temas que podem contribuir para o desenvolvimento dessas competências: peculiaridades da intervenção sobre questões do cotidiano como é o caso da alimentação, a intervenção em nutrição como cuidado, trabalho em equipe e formação como educador.

  19. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  20. Cultural Eating Practices among Jordanians

    OpenAIRE

    Fwzieh Hammad; Omar Ershidat; Hala Bawadi; Zaid Al-Hamdan; Hiba Bawadi; Lana Agraib

    2012-01-01

    Culture has an enormous impact on individuals’ food choices and practices. This research aimed to screen cultural eating practices among Jordanians. Jordanian adults (N = 4750) completed a survey with regard to common eating practices in Jordan. Practices were classified into 4 themes, namely regular eating practices (7 practices), seasonal eating practices (4 practices), eating practices in social occasions (6 practices), and eating practices in religious occasions (10 practices). Interest...

  1. ASEAN workshop on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proceedings was organized by the ASEAN Food Handling Bureau in Collaboration with the Thai Atomic Energy Commission for Peace. Experts from ASEAN and overseas were invited to present a series of papers covering the state of the art of irradiation technology and the important issues relating to food irradiation

  2. Relationship between consumer food safety knowledge and reported behavior among students from health sciences in one region of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayoa, Roncesvalles; Córdoba, María; García-Jalón, Isabel; Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Vitas, Ana Isabel

    2005-12-01

    A survey was conducted to investigate the relationship between knowledge about food safety and actual food handling practices among Spanish university students (mainly from the health sciences disciplines) who usually prepare meals at home. Based on level of education in food safety topics, students were divided in three groups: high, which included students from Food Science and Nutrition; medium, which included students from other health sciences; and low, which included students from non-health-related studies. More than two thirds of the 562 people selected had an accurate knowledge of the eight foodborne pathogens included in the survey, but only 5.2% were able to identify Staphylococcus aureus as a foodborne pathogen. Significant differences in responses were found depending on educational level concerning the food safety topic. For food handling, up to 60% of the responses reflected accurate knowledge of proper storage of prepared meals and washing of hands and materials to avoid cross-contamination. However, with the exception of questions related to storage temperature, there was considerable difference between knowledge and reported behavior. Although 98.6% of the participants recognized the importance of hand washing before and during food preparation, only one quarter (24.4%) affirmed that they washed their hands with soap and water. On questions concerning food practices, more accurate answers were given by the older students. Women answered questions regarding cross-contamination more accurately, whereas men were more accurate in response to questions concerning temperature and food preservation. In general, students with more knowledge of food hygiene had better reported practices, but even these students reported some high-risk behaviors. These results confirm the need to improve educational programs, ensuring that the acquired knowledge actually modifies consumer behavior. PMID:16355835

  3. Prácticas alimentarias y significados de alimentos light de familias de un sector urbano de Bogotá / Feeding Practices and meanings of light foods in families of a bogota urban sector

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina, Garzón Medina; Idaly, Barreto.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar las prácticas alimentarias y significados de alimentos light de familias de un sector urbano de Bogotá. Para ello se realizó un estudio descriptivo con la participación de 110 personas pertenecientes a 40 familias. Se elaboró una encuesta con [...] preguntas abiertas y cerradas que indagaba por aspectos demográficos, procesos de socialización alimentaria, prácticas alimentarias y consumo de alimentos light. Los principales resultados muestran que la alimentación es un espacio para compartir en familia donde la mamá es el eje central de la socialización del consumo alimentario y de inicio a la comensalidad. El alimento light lo definen las familias simbólicamente como nutriente y lo relacionan con lo dietético y lo ligero, con el placer de no contraer deuda de gordura. El significado funcional como medicina por su asociación con una mejor digestión, el aumento de las defensas naturales del cuerpo humano y un mejor estado de salud que orientan y fomentan prácticas de alimentación saludable. Abstract in english Abstract This research aimed to identify dietary practices and the meanings of light foods in urban families in Bogota. This descriptive study was conducted with the participation of 110 persons belonging to 40 families. A survey was developed with open-ended questions which asked for demographic, s [...] ocialization processes regarding food, food practices and light food consumption. The main results show that food is a space to share with family where mom is the backbone of the socialization of home food consumption and commensality. Light foods are defined by families symbolically as a nutrient, and they relate with diets and keeping a light weight, thereby with the pleasure of not becoming fat. Light foods also have a functional significance as medicines, due to their association with better digestion, increasing the body's natural defenses and better health status to guide and encourage healthy eating practices.

  4. Food irradiation and habitual consumption of food; A irradiacao de alimentos e os habitos alimentares atuais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omi, Nelson M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: nminoru@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    In the last years, an increasing amount of people is consuming more fruits, vegetables, seeds and sprouts, with the health effects of food in mind. Otherwise, the accepted shelf food safety found in some countries led to a growing trust in the product's hygienic quality, that leads to behaviors like opening a package and immediately consume the contents. Besides the well disseminated knowledge of good cooking practices, the lack of time, found mainly in big cities, may take to the dinning tables food with an increasing potential of pathogenic organisms contamination. For instance, the alfalfa, beam, clover and radish sprouts caused many reported Salmonella and E. coli outbreaks in countries like the USA, United Kingdom, Japan, Sweden, Finland, Canada and Denmark. Many of the likely source of contaminations were the contamination of the seeds before sprouting. To control these contaminations, the irradiation doses over 1 kGy is effective and the association of irradiation and chemical treatments is being studied. The bacteriological control performance of the irradiation becomes this technique one of the most applied to dry herbs and spices witch, without adequate treatment, could be important sources of foodborne outbreaks. Good production, handling, packing and distribution practices may, with the use of ionizing radiation to reach the desired bacteriological inactivation or decontamination level, significantly contribute to the necessary food safety, allowing it to be safely ready to eat. (author)

  5. Holiday Food Safety

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safe Handling of Raw Produce and Fresh-Squeezed Fruit and Vegetable Juices Playing It Safe With Eggs More in Consumers Education Resource Library Food Facts for Consumers Selected Health Topics For Women Kids & Teens Resources for You ...

  6. Food Concerns. Research Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Debra J.

    1998-01-01

    Adolescent vegetarianism is most frequent among females, and involves meat avoidance, concern for the environment and animal welfare, gender equality, weight loss behaviors, and a concern with body appearance. It can be a precursor to eating disorders. Training and ongoing follow-up are necessary to instill proper food handling procedures in…

  7. Radioactive material handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equipment for handling radioactive waste material that is contained in protective canisters that are to be placed in bore holes in deep water beds comprises a carrier carrying a number of such canisters in a string, the carrier being movable to and locatable with the head of a bore hole. A container of grout is also carried by the carrier and the grout is passed through a valve in the grout container into the bore hole. Winch mechanism is mounted in the carrier for lowering the string of canisters into the bore hole so that the canisters become sealed in the bore hole, embedded in the grout. (author)

  8. Safe handling of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been tremendous growth in the number of industrial and medical institutions using radioisotopes produced in nuclear reactors. This is associated with potential hazards and dangers if appropriate precautions are not taken in handling these. Hence, an effective and meaningful control programme is a must to regulate situations involving potential exposure to radiation such as the production, uses, transport, storage and disposal of radioisotopes. Such regulatory control is generally aimed at protecting the workers and the public from dangers or risks related to ionizing radiation taking into account the net benefit derived. (author)

  9. Handling of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result for the Fast Breeder Development extensive experience is available worldwide with respect to Sodium technology. Due to the extension of the research program to topping cycles with Potassium as the working medium, test facilities with Potassium have been designed and operated in the Institute of Reactor Safety. The different chemical properties of Sodium and Potassium give rise in new safety concepts and operating procedures. The handling problems of Potassium are described in the light of theoretical properties and own experiences. Selected literature on main safety and operating problems complete this report. (Author)

  10. Need for a uniform system of control for ensuring acceptance of irradiated food in trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As national and international trade in food increases, and as markets become more knowledgeable and demanding, all food preservation techniques must be applied in a consistent, uniform manner using recognized systems of control. Such systems are particularly relevant to irradiation since inspection of the final product cannot reveal previous handling or the treatment applied. Several UN agencies provide governments with food control assistance. FAO has a major programme to provide assistance and training on food laws and regulations, on food laboratories and inspection systems, on monitoring of contaminants, and on the formulation of national strategies for the control of food quality. Other agencies have specialized programmes relating to their primary interest. For example, the WHO focuses on food safety, both chemical and microbiological. It also promotes processes, such as irradiation which can make a contribution to primary health care. The IAEA has training and support programmes for the appropriate use of nuclear techniques in food and agriculture. Together, the three agencies support the work of the International Consultative Groups on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) which provides codes of Good Irradiation Practice, guidelines, training courses and inventories of use to regulators and industry. The key areas for control in food irradiation facilities are the design, construction and operation of the facility; personnel training; raw materials; product processing, ining; raw materials; product processing, including packaging materials; record maintenance; and the environmental impact of the overall operation. (author). 6 refs

  11. Radiation and ecological aspects of tritium handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of VNIIEF investigations into regularities of radioactive waste production in tritium handling (gaseous, liquid, solid wastes) as well as tritium and its oxide (HTO, DTO, TTO) migration in environmental objects (air, water, soil, vegetation) are presented. The doses of population exposure due to tritium release into the atmosphere have been determined. The dose factor being 2.2 E13 mrem*L/Ci/year. The constants of tritium oxide sorption by foods and the density of tritium fallout near the term source have been used to develop the conceptual international design of thermonuclear reactor (ITER)

  12. 9 CFR 590.935 - Means of conveyance and equipment used in handling egg products to be maintained in sanitary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...conveyance and equipment used in handling egg products to be maintained...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...conveyance and equipment used in handling egg products to be maintained...devices used in moving and handling such product offered for...

  13. 9 CFR 381.201 - Means of conveyance and equipment used in handling poultry products offered for entry to be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...conveyance and equipment used in handling poultry products offered for...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...conveyance and equipment used in handling poultry products offered for...devices used in moving and handling any poultry product...

  14. Evaluation of the food safety training for food handlers in restaurant operations

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung-Hee; Kwak, Tong-Kyung; Chang, Hye-Ja

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the extent of improvement of food safety knowledge and practices of employee through food safety training. Employee knowledge and practice for food safety were evaluated before and after the food safety training program. The training program and questionnaires for evaluating employee knowledge and practices concerning food safety, and a checklist for determining food safety performance of restaurants were developed. Data were analyzed using the SPSS program. Twelve restaur...

  15. Food, design, users: how to design food interaction modes

    OpenAIRE

    Allione, Cristina; Lerma, Beatrice; Giorgi, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Food is becoming a design material: its use and consumption along with the entire related scenario have changed. Food, in particular, is no longer of interest only to cooks and pastry chefs but also to designers, of food and otherwise. The design of the new "material-food" creates new sensory worlds: as a result, the taste is analysed as a new and unexpected experience. At the same time, food handling is another crucial aspect that has acquired growing importance: what is the consumer's behav...

  16. Control of automatic materials handling in radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some agricultural and food industry raw materials and products can be effectively sterilized by ionizing radiation for better quality and longer shelf-life. A microelectronically controlled automatic materials handling system installed in an irradiation facility of AGROSTER Company, Hungary, is described. Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) type FESTO FPC 606 were applied to control the motion of containers. (R.P.) 6 figs

  17. Food hygiene on the wards

    OpenAIRE

    Steuer, Walter

    2007-01-01

    A problem that is often overlooked or simply not given enough attention: the food served to patients from the kitchen is not sterile. If food is allowed to stand at room temperature for a long time, both in the case of food cooked for lunch and of food intended for supper which has been previously chilled, there is the possibility of massive spore germination or of dangerous toxin formation. Therefore regulations on how to handle food and beverages (e.g. tea) must be set out in the infection ...

  18. Evaluative Practices in the Culinary Field : A Case of Restaurant Rankings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo; Strandgaard, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with evaluative practices within the culinary field. The focus is on the evaluative practices performed by two restaurant ranking systems, respectively the Michelin Red Guide system handled by the French tire manufacturer Michelin and the San Pellegrino ’World’s 50 Best Restaurant’ list organized by the English based Restaurant Magazine. Both ranking systems evaluate and rate restaurants (judging their food, service, physical setting and so forth) but in different ways through different practices and means, and with somewhat different results.

  19. 75 FR 25281 - Food Protection Workshop; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ...workshop include: (1) Food defense programs, (2...practices, (3) reportable food registry, (4) Hazard...Critical Control Point (HACCP), (5) good agricultural practices, (6) food recalls, (7) pathogens...will provide regulated industry with greater...

  20. Sonic ingredients in television food programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Rørdam Larsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this article is the use, significance, and role of sound in food and food travel programmes, exemplified by cooking programmes broadcast on Danish television – public service and commercial channels. The aim is to demonstrate how sound and music in this kind of programme plays an important part mediating both the cooking and the kitchen as wellordered and well organized. The use of music represents flow, but refers also to locality, globality and identity, and is often linked to the notions of nostalgia, tradition and authenticity, and contributes to an aesthetization of food programmes as it forms part of the performance and presentation of meals. The early kitchen programmes emphasized on information, as a kind of living cooking books as the idea was to enlighten the housewives and their practices by challenging their common sense choices introducing a more French inspired kitchen. In relation to such kitchen programmes todays cooking programmes seem to appeal to a broader sensibility as they present us to the possibilities of modern life, and the chefs’ multisensuorious performances underlines this – often induced by the sound. It is through the sounds in food programmes that an authentic experience of taste and smell is mediated to the viewer: both through the lustful, approving sounds made by presenters and through the cooks’ handling of raw materials. What looks delicious, also smells and tastes delicious – mediated through sound.

  1. Food for Thought: A Critical Overview of Current Practical and Conceptual Challenges in Trace Element Analysis in Natural Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Filella

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The practical and conceptual challenges faced by the analysis of trace elements present in natural waters are not merely, as is often thought, an endless race towards lower detection limits or to the development of techniques allowing the determination of any possible chemical species formed by all chemical elements. Rather, as discussed in this paper, they include the development of (i robust, cheap, and reliable methods that could also be used by laypeople (the experience gained in the development of field kits for As is discussed as an example from which similar developments for other elements may be drawn; (ii more environmentally-friendly methods (the current guiding criteria probably being too simplistic; and (iii methods making it possible to follow diel concentration changes and sharp concentration variations caused by the probable increase of heavy rainfall events. This paper also claims that neither the measurement of total concentrations (reliable methods are lacking for many elements of the periodic table of trace elements, as illustrated through the cases of Bi, Te, and Sb, nor chemical speciation analysis, are as mature as often thought. In particular, chemical speciation studies demand the development of a better, comprehensive conceptual framework. A trial is carried out to lay the basis of such a framework.

  2. 7 CFR 1030.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1030.19 Section...UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.19 Commercial food processing establishment. See §...

  3. 7 CFR 1001.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1001.19 Section...NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.19 Commercial food processing establishment. See §...

  4. 7 CFR 1006.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1006.19 Section...THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.19 Commercial food processing establishment. See §...

  5. 7 CFR 1005.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1005.19 Section...APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.19 Commercial food processing establishment. See §...

  6. 7 CFR 1131.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1131.19 Section...THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.19 Commercial food processing establishment. See §...

  7. 7 CFR 1033.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1033.19 Section...THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.19 Commercial food processing establishment. See §...

  8. 7 CFR 1007.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1007.19 Section...SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.19 Commercial food processing establishment. See §...

  9. 7 CFR 1124.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1124.19 Section...NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.19 Commercial food processing establishment. See §...

  10. 7 CFR 1032.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1032.19 Section...THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.19 Commercial food processing establishment. See §...

  11. 7 CFR 1126.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1126.19 Section...SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.19 Commercial food processing establishment. See §...

  12. Remote handling in ZEPHYR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual design of the ZEPHYR building is described. The listed radiation data show that remote handling devices will be necessary in most areas of the building. For difficult repair and maintenance works it is intended to transfer complete units from the experimental hall to a hot cell which provides better working conditions. The necessary crane systems and other transport means are summarized as well as suitable commercially available manipulators and observation devices. The conept of automatic devices for cutting and welding and other operations inside the vacuum vessel and the belonging position control system is sketched. Guidelines for the design of passive components are set up in order to facilitate remote operation. (orig.)

  13. Handling and Transport Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I. The handling and transport of radioactive waste involves the risk of irradiation and contamination. It is necessary to draw up special regulations governing the removal and transport of waste within the centres or from one centre to another, and to entrust transport to a group in charge of specialized teams. The organization, equipment and efficiency of such teams is then considered. II. Certain types of transport operation are particularly dangerous and require special transport units and fixed installations. This applies, in particular, to the disposal of highly radioactive liquids. A description is given of a composite transport unit, consisting of a towing vehicle, semi-trailer and tank holding 500 l of liquid with an activity of up to 1,000 c/l. The drawing-off of the liquid waste, routing of the transport unit and precautions to be taken are discussed. (author)

  14. 75 FR 39699 - Sterigenics International, Inc.; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ...radiation in the production of shelf stable foods, including multiple...Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food to provide for the...radiation in the production of fully cooked shelf stable foods, including...

  15. Handling random errors and biases in methods used for short-term dietary assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Rossato, Sinara L.; Fuchs, Sandra C.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown the effect of diet on the incidence of chronic diseases; however, proper planning, designing, and statistical modeling are necessary to obtain precise and accurate food consumption data. Evaluation methods used for short-term assessment of food consumption of a population, such as tracking of food intake over 24h or food diaries, can be affected by random errors or biases inherent to the method. Statistical modeling is used to handle random errors, whereas p...

  16. Experience in handling abnormal and emergency situations in PHWR fuel handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-power Fuel Handling System of PHWR reactor consists of complicated mechanisms operating in multiple media like heavy water, light water and oil. This remote controlled system is the lifeline of PHWR reactor. The complexity of on-power fuel handling system and the need to continuously improve its performance presents challenges at every step. A large number of innovations, modifications and improvements in the system have been made by the stations, design group and R and D units to meet the challenges of higher refueling rate. Innovations in operating/maintenance practices and the methods to safely retrieve from abnormal/emergency situations in shortest possible time had to be specifically devised from the embryonic stage. A lot of efforts were required to be put in by various agencies to develop and formalise the operating procedures for handling various emergency conditions. The implementation of these procedures required the development of special tools/fixtures which had to be tested and tried out in mock-ups before their actual use. The retrieval from emergency situations like handling of damaged bundles in MAPS in early eighties, bundles dropped in shuttle station in NAPS in 1998 and failure of fuel string to move due to damaged bundles at Kaiga in 2003 are some of the most difficult situations handled over the years.This paper focuses on the challenges faced during handling of Safety-related Events in PHWR Fuel Handling System. It also discusses development ong System. It also discusses development of procedures and tooling to retrieve from abnormal situations and various innovations and design improvements to avoid the recurrence of the events. (author)

  17. New transport and handling contract

    CERN Document Server

    SC Department

    2008-01-01

    A new transport and handling contract entered into force on 1.10.2008. As with the previous contract, the user interface is the internal transport/handling request form on EDH: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TransportRequest/ To ensure that you receive the best possible service, we invite you to complete the various fields as accurately as possible and to include a mobile telephone number on which we can reach you. You can follow the progress of your request (schedule, completion) in the EDH request routing information. We remind you that the following deadlines apply: 48 hours for the transport of heavy goods (up to 8 tonnes) or simple handling operations 5 working days for crane operations, transport of extra-heavy goods, complex handling operations and combined transport and handling operations in the tunnel. For all enquiries, the number to contact remains unchanged: 72202. Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 72672 - 160319

  18. Alimentación del paciente de cáncer en fase avanzada y terminal: consideraciones éticas y recomendaciones prácticas / Ethical and practical recommendations: How to food terminal and advanced stage cancer patents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ángela J, Suárez Pérez.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fundamental del tratamiento al paciente de cáncer en fase avanzada y terminal es alcanzar la mejor calidad de vida posible. Para ello se requiere una atención integral cuya base científica, filosófica y ética preserve, en el final de la vida, la dimensión humana. La eficiencia y eficacia [...] de la atención depende de cuanto se adapte a las peculiaridades y condiciones concretas de cada paciente. Entre los síntomas que inciden con mayor frecuencia en estos pacientes se encuentra la anorexia, la que tiene consecuencias no sólo físicas sino que afecta otras esferas de la vida personal del enfermo. Se exponen las posibles causas de la anorexia, se plantean algunas consideraciones éticas en torno a la alimentación de estos pacientes y se brindan recomendaciones prácticas encaminadas a lograr un manejo adecuado de la alimentación que contribuya a mantener una calidad de vida aceptable en esta etapa de la vida. Abstract in english The main objective of the treatment to the cancer patient in advanced and terminal phases is to reach to the possible best quality of life. For this an integral attention is required, which scientific, philosophical and ethics base preserves, in the end of life, the human dimension. The efficiency a [...] nd effectiveness of attention depends on how much attention is adapted to each patient's peculiarities and concrete conditions. Among the symptoms that more frequently impact in this patients is the anorexia, that not only carries physical consequences, but rather it anorexia are exposed, some ethical considerations around the feeding of these patients and practical recommendations are offered, guided to achieve an appropriate handling of the feeding that contributes to maintain an acceptable quality of life in this stage

  19. Alimentación del paciente de cáncer en fase avanzada y terminal: consideraciones éticas y recomendaciones prácticas Ethical and practical recommendations: How to food terminal and advanced stage cancer patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela J Suárez Pérez

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fundamental del tratamiento al paciente de cáncer en fase avanzada y terminal es alcanzar la mejor calidad de vida posible. Para ello se requiere una atención integral cuya base científica, filosófica y ética preserve, en el final de la vida, la dimensión humana. La eficiencia y eficacia de la atención depende de cuanto se adapte a las peculiaridades y condiciones concretas de cada paciente. Entre los síntomas que inciden con mayor frecuencia en estos pacientes se encuentra la anorexia, la que tiene consecuencias no sólo físicas sino que afecta otras esferas de la vida personal del enfermo. Se exponen las posibles causas de la anorexia, se plantean algunas consideraciones éticas en torno a la alimentación de estos pacientes y se brindan recomendaciones prácticas encaminadas a lograr un manejo adecuado de la alimentación que contribuya a mantener una calidad de vida aceptable en esta etapa de la vida.The main objective of the treatment to the cancer patient in advanced and terminal phases is to reach to the possible best quality of life. For this an integral attention is required, which scientific, philosophical and ethics base preserves, in the end of life, the human dimension. The efficiency and effectiveness of attention depends on how much attention is adapted to each patient's peculiarities and concrete conditions. Among the symptoms that more frequently impact in this patients is the anorexia, that not only carries physical consequences, but rather it anorexia are exposed, some ethical considerations around the feeding of these patients and practical recommendations are offered, guided to achieve an appropriate handling of the feeding that contributes to maintain an acceptable quality of life in this stage

  20. Autoconsumo e segurança alimentar: a agricultura familiar a partir dos saberes e práticas da alimentação Self-consumption and food security: family agriculture based on eating knowledge and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Menasche

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e analisar as classificações e representações da alimentação, bem como as práticas de produção e consumo de alimentos entre agricultores e agricultoras da região do Vale do Taquari (Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Os dados e as informações foram obtidos a partir de entrevistas e observação participante, orientadas por um esquema metodológico qualitativo. Participaram da pesquisa, realizada em 2004 e 2005, 48 famílias rurais, de três diferentes localidades. Os recursos teórico-analíticos utilizados foram os da antropologia da alimentação e da abordagem da reciprocidade. RESULTADOS: Entre as famílias estudadas é significativa a produção de alimentos para autoconsumo, sendo as mulheres as principais responsáveis por sua obtenção. As práticas alimentares, embora tenham sofrido modificações, em função da modernização da agricultura e da incorporação de produtos industrializados, guardam especificidades locais e estão relacionadas a diversas expressões de sociabilidade, como a circulação de alimentos e a realização de festas comunitárias, que, impregnadas por simbolismos, atualizam um modo de vida e têm garantido segurança alimentar. CONCLUSÃO: As práticas de produção para autoconsumo das famílias estudadas estão associadas à sua segurança alimentar e, desse modo, às suas estratégias de reprodução social. A circulação de alimentos e as escolhas alimentares expressam relações de sociabilidade e de identidade nas comunidades rurais estudadas. Aspectos socioculturais e distintos níveis de relações sociais apresentam-se em transformação, podendo colocar em risco a segurança alimentar das famílias. Tais processos inspiram a realização novos estudos.OBJECTIVE: To identify and to analyze eating classifications and representations as well the food production and consumption practices among farmers from Vale do Taquari (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: The data and information were collected from interviews and participatory observation, oriented by qualitative methods. The research involved 48 rural families from three different localities in 2004 and 2005. The theoretical and analytical resources were provided by food anthropology and reciprocity approach. RESULTS: The production of food for self-consumption among the studied families is significant and the main producers are women. Food practices have changed as a result of agricultural modernization and increased use of industrialized products, yet they maintain local specificity and are related to several expressions of sociability such as food exchanges and community parties. These are permeated by symbolisms that update the way of living and assure food security. CONCLUSION: The production practices for autoconsumption of the studied families are associated with food security and, in this way, to social reproduction strategies. Food exchanges and food choices express relationships of sociability and identity in the studied rural communities. Social and cultural aspects and different levels of social relationships are undergoing a transformation which may jeopardize the food security of the families. Such processes are inspiring new studies.

  1. Using irradiation for preservation of foods and agricultural commodities in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Agricultural Policy was formulated to draw the guideline for the development of Malaysian agriculture until 2000. The most important aspect of the policy is to encourage the agricultural sector to increase productivity in order to attain self-sufficiency and to promote export. To increase agricultural and food production, it is necessary to upgrade the quality and to reduce postharvest loss. The food preservation during handling, processing and storage is important, and the current preservation methods emphasize the improvement in handling, drying, chilling, freezing and the use of chemicals. The technology of food irradiation was introduced only at the research level in Malaysia in 1974. Presently, UTN (Unit Tenaga Nuklear) has a semi-commercial Co-60 facility suitable for the research and development of food irradiation. The commercial use of irradiation and the marketing of treated agricultural and food products are still prohibited. The objective of this paper is to review briefly the possibility of the practical application of food irradiation in Malaysia. The irradiation of rice, black and white pepper, frozen shrimps, cocoa, fruits and vegetables is discussed. (K.I.)

  2. Trends in Modern Exception Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kuta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Exception handling is nowadays a necessary component of error proof information systems. The paper presents overview of techniques and models of exception handling, problems connected with them and potential solutions. The aspects of implementation of propagation mechanisms and exception handling, their effect on semantics and general program efficiency are also taken into account. Presented mechanisms were adopted to modern programming languages. Considering design area, formal methods and formal verification of program properties we can notice exception handling mechanisms are weakly present what makes a field for future research.

  3. Implementation of a programme to market a complementary food supplement (Ying Yang Bao) and impacts on anaemia and feeding practices in Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Shuaiming; Huang, Jian; Yang, Zhenyu; Huo, Junsheng; Chen, Chunming

    2011-10-01

    In China, a full fat soy powder mixed with multiple micronutrient powders (Ying Yang Bao (YYB)) was developed, and the efficacy of YYB was shown in controlling anaemia and improving child growth and development. However, prior to 2008, there was no sustainable way to provide YYB to vulnerable populations, except through free distribution by the government. This study was to test the concept of public-private partnership (PPP) to deliver YYB and to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing YYB through PPP. Programme activities included development of a complementary food supplement (CFS) national standard, product concept test, product development and marketing, behavior change communication, monitoring and evaluation. Baseline and end-line surveys were used to evaluate product awareness, purchasing and the impacts of the project on anaemia and feeding practices. A Chinese CFS standard was approved. Caregivers and their 6- to-24-month-old children participated in the baseline (n=226) and the end-line survey (n=221). A concept test at the baseline survey showed that 78% of caregivers were willing to buy YYB at 0.1 USD. After developing the product and implementing the intervention for 8 months, 59.6% of surveyed caregivers purchased YYB. While not significant, the prevalence of anaemia was marginally lower at the end line (28.8%) than at the baseline (36.2%). For those purchasing YYB, the risk of anaemia was significantly reduced by 87% of odds (Pmarketing are identified as a prerequisite for marketing YYB or other nutritious CFS. Public and private advocacy and marketing could successfully increase awareness of YYB and access and use through market channels. The YYB project may be effective for reducing anaemia and improving feeding practices. PMID:21929638

  4. Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains ... org > Food and Fitness > Food > What Can I Eat > Making Healthy Food Choices Share: Print Page Text Size: A ...

  5. Food Safety Attitude of Culinary Arts Based Students in Public and Private Higher Learning Institutions (IPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patah, Mohd Onn Rashdi Abd; Issa, Zuraini Mat; Nor, Khamis Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Food safety issue is not new in Malaysia as problems such as unsafe food handling, doubtful food preparation, food poisoning outbreaks in schools and education institutions and spreading of infectious food borne illness has been discussed by the public more often than before. The purpose of this study is to examine the food safety knowledge and…

  6. TFTR tritium handling concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, to be located on the Princeton Forrestal Campus, is expected to operate with 1 to 2.5 MA tritium--deuterium plasmas, with the pulses involving injection of 50 to 150 Ci (5 to 16 mg) of tritium. Attainment of fusion conditions is based on generation of an approximately 1 keV tritium plasma by ohmic heating and conversion to a moderately hot tritium--deuterium ion plasma by injection of a ''preheating'' deuterium neutral beam (40 to 80 keV), followed by injection of a ''reacting'' beam of high energy neutral deuterium (120 to 150 keV). Additionally, compressions accompany the beam injections. Environmental, safety and cost considerations led to the decision to limit the amount of tritium gas on-site to that required for an experiment, maintaining all other tritium in ''solidified'' form. The form of the tritium supply is as uranium tritide, while the spent tritium and other hydrogen isotopes are getter-trapped by zirconium--aluminum alloy. The issues treated include: (1) design concepts for the tritium generator and its purification, dispensing, replenishment, containment, and containment--cleanup systems; (2) features of the spent plasma trapping system, particularly the regenerable absorption cartridges, their integration into the vacuum system, and the handling of non-getterables; (3) tritium permeation through the equipment and the anticipated releases to the environment; (4) overview of the tritium related ventilation systems; and (5) design bases for the facility's tritium clean-up systems

  7. Remote handling and accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-current levels of contemporary and proposed accelerator facilities induce radiation levels into components, requiring consideration be given to maintenance techniques that reduce personnel exposure. Typical components involved include beamstops, targets, collimators, windows, and instrumentation that intercepts the direct beam. Also included are beam extraction, injection, splitting, and kicking regions, as well as purposeful spill areas where beam tails are trimmed and neutral particles are deposited. Scattered beam and secondary particles activate components all along a beamline such as vacuum pipes, magnets, and shielding. Maintenance techniques vary from hands-on to TV-viewed operation using state-of-the-art servomanipulators. Bottom- or side-entry casks are used with thimble-type target and diagnostic assemblies. Long-handled tools are operated from behind shadow shields. Swinging shield doors, unstacking block, and horizontally rolling shield roofs are all used to provide access. Common to all techniques is the need to make operations simple and to provide a means of seeing and reaching the area

  8. Colonic potassium handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Mads Vaarby; Matos, Joana E.

    2010-01-01

    Homeostatic control of plasma K+ is a necessary physiological function. The daily dietary K+ intake of approximately 100 mmol is excreted predominantly by the distal tubules of the kidney. About 10% of the ingested K+ is excreted via the intestine. K+ handling in both organs is specifically regulated by hormones and adapts readily to changes in dietary K+ intake, aldosterone and multiple local paracrine agonists. In chronic renal insufficiency, colonic K+ secretion is greatly enhanced and becomes an important accessory K+ excretory pathway. During severe diarrheal diseases of different causes, intestinal K+ losses caused by activated ion secretion may become life threatening. This topical review provides an update of the molecular mechanisms and the regulation of mammalian colonic K+ absorption and secretion. It is motivated by recent results, which have identified the K+ secretory ion channel in the apical membrane of distal colonic enterocytes. The directed focus therefore covers the role of the apical Ca2+and cAMP-activated BK channel (KCa1.1) as the apparently only secretory K+ channel in the distal colon.

  9. Safety measuring for sodium handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the report for the safety measures of sodium handling. These contents are prerequisites for the development of sodium technology and thus the workers participate in sodium handling and experiments have to know them perfectly. As an appendix, the relating parts of the laws are presented

  10. Trends in Bone Morphogenetic Protein Usage since the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Advisory in 2008: What Happens to Physician Practices When the Food and Drug Administration Issues an Advisory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckie, Janay; Qureshi, Sheeraz; Iatridis, James; Egorova, Natalia; Cho, Samuel; Hecht, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Study Design?Retrospective cross-sectional study of spinal procedures from 2002 to 2010 using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. Objective?To determine the patterns of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) usage in fusion surgery before and after the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2008 advisory for the anterior cervical spine to understand how advisories affect U.S. physician practices. Methods?Procedures were identified through International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision procedure codes and were plotted over time based on fusion procedure type, site, and area of fusion. U.S. national trends were approximated by polynomial regression analysis. Results?The majority of the data trends of BMP usage reflect a second-order polynomial model. BMP usage in anterior cervical spine fusion procedures plateaued during the fourth quarter of 2007. The most apparent change in trend was noted in BMP usage pre- and postadvisory in the analysis of anterior cervical spine fusions. BMP percentage of use decreased in this area by 5% from the time of the FDA advisory to the fourth quarter of 2010. Conclusions?The decrease in BMP usage in anterior cervical spinal fusion procedures coincided with the timing of the FDA advisory. The fact that BMP continued to be used in cervical spine fusion procedures, even at lower rates, despite the advisory, may reflect the availability of new clinical information that could lessen complications (i.e., lower BMP dose, perioperative steroids, BMP containment). Furthermore, factors like the natural ceiling effect of use or demand for new technology, complications, prohibitive institutional costs, access to information, and insurance compensation may have all contributed to the BMP usage trends observed. PMID:25072000

  11. Food irradiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of the control and monitoring of food irradiation with particular emphasis on the UK situation. After describing legal aspects, various applications of food irradiation in different countries are listed. Other topics discussed include code of practice for general control for both gamma radiation and electron beam facilities, dose specification, depth dose distribution and dosimetry. (U.K.)

  12. Food safety information and food demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Jensen, JØrgen Dejgård

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze how news about food-related health risks affects consumers’ demands for safe food products. Design/methodology/approach – By identifying structural breaks in an econometrically estimated demand model, news with permanent impact on demand is distinguished from news with temporary impact. The Danish demand for pasteurized versus shell eggs is used as an illustrative case. Findings – Negative safety news about one product variety can provide significant stimulation to the demand for safe varieties. Severe negative news about the safety of shell eggs induces a permanent increase in the demand for pasteurized eggs, while more moderate negative news influences demand temporarily and to a lesser extent. There is, however, considerable variation in the response to food safety news across socio-demographic groups of consumers. Research limitations/implications – The study has focused on the demand for raw eggs. Responses to food safety news may differ across foods. Furthermore, the study abstracts from possible cross-effects of safety news concerning other foods. Practical implications – The findings may be utilized for optimization of the timing and targeting of food safety information campaigns. Originality/value – The paper combines information, food safety and econometric methods to analyze the cross-impacts between negative food safety news and the demand for safe foods.

  13. Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the ''Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study'' is to develop proposed design requirements for the repository Waste Handling System in sufficient detail to allow the surface facility design to proceed to the License Application effort if the proposed requirements are approved by DOE. Proposed requirements were developed to further refine waste handling facility performance characteristics and design constraints with an emphasis on supporting modular construction, minimizing fuel inventory, and optimizing facility maintainability and dry handling operations. To meet this objective, this study attempts to provide an alternative design to the Site Recommendation design that is flexible, simple, reliable, and can be constructed in phases. The design concept will be input to the ''Modular Design/Construction and Operation Options Report'', which will address the overall program objectives and direction, including options and issues associated with transportation, the subsurface facility, and Total System Life Cycle Cost. This study (herein) is limited to the Waste Handling System and associated fuel staging system

  14. The impact of food regulation on the food supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, 'a hazard' is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that mark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer

  15. The impact of food regulation on the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruoma, Okezie I

    2006-04-01

    Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, "a hazard" is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer. PMID:16483706

  16. FOOD SAFETY AT HOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Griglio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumers nowadays play a critical role in the prevention of food poisoning. For this reason, the present research was planned to collect data on how aware about food safety consumers are. A questionnaire considering food labelling, hygiene, transport, storage, preparation and kitchen hygiene was designed and submitted to consumers (health district ASL TO5. After questionnaire analysis, a training course was prepared to address specific problems. Kitchens of consentient participants were visited and data on hygiene (check-lists, samples from equipment and fridge surfaces, and fridge temperatures were collected. Questionnaires showed a lack of knowledge on correct food storage, handling, and kitchen hygiene. Households visits showed fridge temperatures above 4°C, highly contaminated washing sponges, and the presence of Listeria spp. in a fridge of a high risk consumer. These results evidence the role of consumer training in reducing foodborne diseases incidence.

  17. Fuel handling options for commercial fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic requirements of a fast reactor fuel handling system are noted as well as some of the basic principles and how some of those principles are achieved in practice. Several fuel handling options are outlined and certain advantages and disadvantages illustrated, the most attractive systems for commercial exploitation are noted. Note is made of features and processes that could be developed in the future to assist in the further advancement of fast reactor fuel handling systems. It is concluded that with the increased commitment, particularly in Europe, to the development of large fast reactor systems, fuel handling and fuel cycle costs can be reduced and thereby make a contribution to the further exploitation of the fast reactor principle. (author)

  18. Application of lyoluminescence dosimetry in food irradiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the amino acid glutamine (C5H10N2O3) as a routine dosimeter for radiation processing plants in the dose range from 50 Gy to 35 kGy has been studied using a lyoluminescence technique. Calibration was carried out with ferrous sulphate (Fricke) dosimeters. It was found that in the dose range commonly used for food irradiation (1-10 kGy) the dose response curve is practically linear and the standard error of the data points is better than 3%. For low doses (50-500 Gy) the standard error is higher, up to 5%. Using inexpensive, simple and easy to handle instrumentation, lyoluminescence with glutamine is suitable as a routine technique for use in food irradiation technology. (author). 5 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  19. Food irradiation experience in a large medical-products irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent international and U.S. interest in irradiation as an alternative to chemical disinfestation has set the stage for pilot-plant food irradiation programs. Lessons learned in designing and operating large medical-product irradiators have significant value in designing plants for food irradiation. International Nutronics is utilizing its medic-products irradiation facility in Irvine, California, to gather data for extrapolation to full-scale agricultural product irradiator designs. Data generated to date show that excellent dose distribution and source utilization can achieved for product containers of a practical size. Extrapolation of these date to a field-located plant of 400 tons-day capacity has resulted in a cost-effective preliminary design capable of handling disinfestation at less than one cent per pound of product

  20. A working procedure for identifying emerging food safety issues at an early stage: Implications for European and international risk management practices

    OpenAIRE

    Marvin, H. J. P.; Kleter, G. A.; Frewer, L. J.; Cope, S. F.; Wentholt, M. T. A.; Rowe, G.

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for early identification of emerging food safety issues in order to prevent them from developing into health risks. In this paper, various existing methods and procedures which can be used for early identification of safety issues are reviewed, including the monitoring of the occurrence of specific hazards within the food supply, or the incidences of food-borne diseases, as well as the combination of these data with other data or with expert opinions. Some methods, including h...

  1. Safety considerations when handling metal powders

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.M., Benson.

    Full Text Available Metal powder compaction offers unique advantages in the manufacture of net-shape components using techniques such as laser sintering, conventional press and sintering, metal injection moulding, direct rolling, direct forging, and hot isostatic pressing. If the output from the primary metal productio [...] n process is in powder form, then considerable cost and energy savings can be realized by direct conversion to semi-finished or final shapes. This possibility exists for titanium and possibly also for Ta, Zr, Hf, and Nb metals. However, these attractive benefits are associated with some significant risks. The high surface-to-volume ratio of powder particles coupled with the reactive nature of these metals means that special care must be taken when handling them. Powder explosions are unfortunately still a regular occurrence internationally and these often result in serious injury and loss of life. Even seemingly 'safe' compounds such as sugar, flour, and grain can be extremely hazardous when handled or milled and dust clouds are produced. In addition, exposure to airborne particles can have adverse effects on the human body, especially when particles are inhaled on a regular basis. Furthermore, the medical consequences of these are not fully understood, especially in the case of nanoparticles. The impact is often not observed immediately and debilitating illnesses may emerge only years or decades later. As far as is known, there are no South African guidelines for handling of metal powders. This paper attempts to provide an awareness of the risks associated with metal powders (including those produced indirectly by other metalworking/finishing operations) as well as some guidelines for their safe handling, based on international best practices.

  2. A revolution in food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief consumer guide to food irradiation is presented. Aspects covered include some of the advantages of food irradiation compared to other methods of food preservation, the type of radiation used, the mechanism of action, some practical applications, safety and future benefits. (UK)

  3. Food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Additives in food; Artificial flavors and color ... Food Ingredients and Colors. International Food Information Council (IFIC) and U.S. Food and Drug Administration. November 2004; revised April 2010. ...

  4. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Plans Food-A-Pedia BMI Calculator Portion Distortion Printable Materials Getting Started with MyPlate Dietary Guidelines ... Growth During the Preschool Years Develop Healthy Eating Habits Picky Eating Physical Activity Food Safety Foods to ...

  5. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food got sick, food poisoning could be the problem. It's one thing to get food poisoning from something in your fridge, but imagine how many people could get sick if a restaurant served food that had these bad germs in ...

  6. Reproductive handle of the herd of cattle of double purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the environmental factors is analyzed, in the reproductive efficiency of herd cattle of double purpose. The reproductive behavior begins with the gestation of the heifers. Under the conditions of the Colombian tropic these they reach the weight required for the reproduction to an age but late that in the temperate areas. Once the first childbirth, the cow takes place it enters in exhaustion that makes that this animal is the but difficult to reproduce after the childbirth, that which demands special cares of handling and feeding. The interval among the childbirth to evaluate the reproductive efficiency. Environmental factors that influence significantly. The use of the practice simple of handling, health, selection and feeding produces significant increments in the fertility of the herd of cattle of double purpose. One practices of effective handling in the improvement of the reproductive behavior of the cows of double purpose it is the restricted nursing

  7. Making Healthy Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miss Fox

    2011-12-15

    Objective: Students will see that food advertisements may not be the best information to use when deciding what to eat. They will investigate several resources for good information about foods and nutrition. Allow several weeks to complete this unit. UEN Core CurriculumStandard 1 Students will develop a sense of self. Objective 1 Describe and practice responsible behaviors for health and safety. a. Practice appropriate personal hygiene (e.g., bathe, wash hands, clean clothes). b. Describe the benefits of eating a variety of nutritious foods. c. Describe the benefits of physical activity. d. Describe substances that are helpful and harmful to the body. e. Practice basic safety and identify hazards. Making Healthy Food Choices #1 Task Definition - ...

  8. 77 FR 45357 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Acceptance and Filing Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ...Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration...Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration...Research (HFM-17), Food and Drug Administration...document ``Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff Premarket...for document tracking, distribution, and handling;...

  9. 78 FR 101 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Acceptance and Filing Reviews for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ...Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration...Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration...Research (HFM-17), Food and Drug Administration...document ``Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff Premarket...for document tracking, distribution, and handling;...

  10. Decontamination manual of RI handling laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on experiences in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the essential and practical knowledge of radioactive contamination and its decontamination, and the method and procedure of floor decontamination are described for researcher and managing person in charge of handling radioisotopes (RI) in RI handling laboratories. Essential knowledge concerns the uniqueness of solid surface contamination derived from RI half lives and quantities, surface contamination density limit, and mode/mechanism of contamination. The principle of decontamination is a single conduct with recognition of chemical form of the RI under use. As the practical knowledge, there are physical and chemical methods of solid surface decontamination. The latter involves use of inorganic acids, chelaters and surfactants. Removal and replacement of contaminated solid like floor material are often effective. Distribution mapping of surface contamination can be done by measuring the radioactivity in possibly contaminated areas, and is useful for planning of effective decontamination. Floor surface decontamination is for the partial and spread areas of the floor. It is essential to conduct the decontamination with reagent from the highly to less contaminated areas. Skin decontamination with either neutral detergent or titanium oxide is also described. (N.I.)

  11. Evaluation of microbial loads and the effects of antimicrobial sprays in postharvest handling of California walnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelka, John C; Harris, Linda J

    2015-06-01

    Changes in aerobic plate count (APC) and Escherichia coli/coliform count (ECC) of inshell walnuts and walnut kernels were evaluated during commercial harvest and postharvest handling. APC and ECC for inshell walnuts collected from the tree were 6 and 4 log CFU/nut, respectively; counts increased by 1 log during harvest and hulling and decreased by 1 log during drying. Application of up to 200 ppm peracetic acid after hulling with or without a subsequent 2% lauric arginate spray reduced APC and ECC by less than 1 log CFU/nut; counts were not significantly different from the water control. A decrease in shell integrity was evident after drying: visible shell damage increased from 4 to 47% of walnuts after drying. Counts on kernels extracted from visibly intact walnuts from the tree were near the limit of detection (1.7 log CFU/nut). These counts increased by at least 1.4 log CFU/nut after hulling for both thin- and hard-shell cultivars. Microbial populations were 1.6-2.2 log CFU/nut higher for kernels from walnuts with broken shells than for kernels from walnuts with visibly intact shells before, but not after, drying. A better understanding of how microbial populations are affected by postharvest handling practices is important in the development of walnut-specific food safety programs. PMID:25791001

  12. Ergonomic material-handling device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsnick, Lance E.; Zalk, David M.; Perry, Catherine M.; Biggs, Terry; Tageson, Robert E.

    2004-08-24

    A hand-held ergonomic material-handling device capable of moving heavy objects, such as large waste containers and other large objects requiring mechanical assistance. The ergonomic material-handling device can be used with neutral postures of the back, shoulders, wrists and knees, thereby reducing potential injury to the user. The device involves two key features: 1) gives the user the ability to adjust the height of the handles of the device to ergonomically fit the needs of the user's back, wrists and shoulders; and 2) has a rounded handlebar shape, as well as the size and configuration of the handles which keep the user's wrists in a neutral posture during manipulation of the device.

  13. Handling device for stud tensioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The handling device for a stud tensioner machine used by example for fixing the reactor vessel head has an extension module, joining elements and means for displacement in vertical and horizontal axis

  14. Order Handling in Convergent Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Vrtanoski, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of IT&T technology had big impact on the traditional telecommunications market, transforming it from monopolistic market to highly competitive high-tech market where new services are required to be created frequently. This paper aims to describe a design approach that puts order management process (as part of enterprise application integration) in function of rapid service creation. In the text we will present a framework for collaborative order handling supporting convergent services. The design splits the order handling processes in convergent environments in three business process groups: order capture, order management and order fulfillment. The paper establishes abstract framework for order handling and provides design guidelines for transaction handling implementation based on the checkpoint and inverse command strategy. The proposed design approach is based in a convergent telecommunication environment. Same principles are applicable in solving problems of collaboration in fun...

  15. Lunar Materials Handling System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of lunar soil into and out of process equipment in support of in situ resource utilization...

  16. Lunar Materials Handling System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of bulk materials and products into and out of process equipment in support of lunar and Mars in...

  17. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, J.T. [Monsanto Research Corp., Miamisburg, OH (United States). Mound Facility; Coffin, D.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  18. Trade in irradiated foods: An approach to retailers and consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Government and industry in Canada are moving quickly to provide the legislation, regulations and practical protocol necessary for the commercialization of food irradiation. Marketing, public relations and media expertise will be needed to successfully introduce this new processing choice to retailers and consumers. Consumer research to date including studies conducted in the Netherlands, United States, South Africa and Canada will be explored for signposts to successful approaches to the introduction of irradiated foods to retailers and consumers. Research has indicated that the terms used to describe irradiation and information designed to reduce consumer fears will be important marketing tools. Marketers will be challenged to promote old foods which look the same to consumers, in a new light. Simple like or dislike or intention to buy surveys will not be effective tools. Consumer fears must be identified and effectively handled to support a receptive climate for irradiated food products. A cooperative government, industry, professional organization, consumer organization and retailer effort will be necessary for a successful introduction of irradiated foods into the marketplace. (author). 20 refs

  19. Should We Stop Looking for a Better Scoring Algorithm for Handling Implicit Association Test Data? Test of the Role of Errors, Extreme Latencies Treatment, Scoring Formula, and Practice Trials on Reliability and Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Richetin, Juliette; Costantini, Giulio; Perugini, Marco; Schönbrodt, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Since the development of D scores for the Implicit Association Test, few studies have examined whether there is a better scoring method. In this contribution, we tested the effect of four relevant parameters for IAT data that are the treatment of extreme latencies, the error treatment, the method for computing the IAT difference, and the distinction between practice and test critical trials. For some options of these different parameters, we included robust statistic methods that can provide ...

  20. Specific requirements for public exposure in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cause of radiation sources, by exposure to the public, has excluded all those medical and occupational exposures and exposure to natural background radiation normal, in the area. The main sources of public exposure that have found are: practices, discharges or spills, food or merchandise contaminated, chronic exposure scenarios (radon, NORM), waste management (predisposal management, storage, disposal). Public exposure can occur in two forms. One has been by procedure: transport, storage, handling of sources, radioactive waste, radioactive patient. The second has been per incident: transportation accidents, loss of sources, spread of contamination, unchecked pollution. (author)