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Safe Food Handling: Knowledge, Perceptions, and Self-Reported Practices of Turkish Consumers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines Turkish consumers’ perceptions and knowledge of safe food handling practices. Theirattitudes, opinions, and self-reported practices in the purchase, transportation, storage, preparation, andconsumption of food were studied. Data was collected from a total of 440 consumers living in Istanbul, Turkeythrough the use of a self-administered, structured, and undisguised questionnaire. A combination of stratified andsystematic random sampling was used...

Aygen, Gul F.

2012-01-01

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Application of the WHO Keys of Safer Food to Improve Food Handling Practices of Food Vendors in a Poor Resource Community in Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data was collected from food vendors in a poor resource community in Ghana, which showed that the vendors constituted an important source of oro-faecal transmission. Following this, the WHO five keys of safer food were utilized in an evidence based training programme for the vendors to improve their food handling practices. Impact assessment of the food safety training showed that 67.6% of the vendors had acquired some knowledge from the workshop and were putting it into practice. Lack of food safety equipment was a major hinderance to behavioral change among the vendors as far food handling practices are concerned.

Eric S. Donkor

2009-11-01

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Varying influences of motivation factors on employees' likelihood to perform safe food handling practices because of demographic differences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food safety training has been the primary avenue for ensuring food workers are performing proper food handling practices and thus, serving safe food. Yet, knowledge of safe food handling practices does not necessarily result in actual performance of these practices. This research identified participating food service employees' level of agreement with four factors of motivation (internal motivations, communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and determined if respondents with different demographic characteristics reported different motivating factors. Data were collected from 311 food service employees who did not have any supervisory responsibilities. Intrinsic motivation agreement scores were consistently the highest of all four motivational factors evaluated and did not differ across any of the demographic characteristics considered. In contrast, motivation agreement scores for communication, reward-punishment, and resources did differ based on respondents' gender, age, place of employment, job status, food service experience, completion of food handler course, or possession of a food safety certification. In general, respondents agreed that these motivation factors influenced their likelihood to perform various safe food handling procedures. This research begins to illustrate how employees' demographic characteristics influence their responses to various motivators, helping to clarify the complex situation of ensuring safe food in retail establishments. Future research into why employee willingness to perform varies more for extrinsic motivation than for intrinsic motivation could assist food service managers in structuring employee development programs and the work environment, in a manner that aids in improving external motivation (communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and capitalizing on internal motivation. PMID:21219719

Ellis, Jason D; Arendt, Susan W; Strohbehn, Catherine H; Meyer, Janell; Paez, Paola

2010-11-01

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SAFE HANDLING OF FOODS  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial food-borne illnesses pose a significant health problem in Japan. In 1996 the world's largest outbreak of Escherichia coli food illness occurred in Japan. Since then, new regulatory measures were established, including strict hygiene practices in meat and food processi...

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Prevalence of high-risk food consumption and food-handling practices among adults: a multistate survey, 1996 to 1997. The Foodnet Working Group.  

Science.gov (United States)

Risk factors for foodborne diseases include consumption of high-risk foods and unsanitary food-handling practices; however, little is known about the prevalence of these risk factors in the general population. A survey was done in five FoodNet sites (California, Connecticut, Georgia, Minnesota, Oregon) to determine the prevalence of these risk factors in the population. A total of 7,493 adults were interviewed by telephone between 1 July 1996 and 30 June 1997. Results showed that 1.5% drank raw milk, 1.9% ate raw shellfish, 18% ate runny egg, 30% preferred pink hamburger, 93% said they almost always washed their cutting board after cutting raw chicken, and 93% said they almost always washed their hands after handling raw meat or poultry, during 5 days before interview. The results differed by state and demographic group. Consumption of raw shellfish (3.2%) and undercooked hamburger (43%) were more common in Connecticut than other states. Raw milk consumption was more common among people who lived on a farm (8.6%) compared with people who lived in a city or urban area (1.1%). Preference for undercooked hamburger was more common among men (35%), young adults (18 to 25 years, 33%), people with college education (38%), and among people with household income of more than $100,000/year (49%). African-Americans were less likely to prefer undercooked hamburger compared to other racial groups (10% versus 30%). Young adults compared to older adults were less likely to wash their hands after handling raw chicken (88% versus 95%), and men washed their hands less often than women (89% versus 97%). Although there were statistical differences between demographic groups, they are insufficient to warrant targeted educational programs. PMID:11079697

Shiferaw, B; Yang, S; Cieslak, P; Vugia, D; Marcus, R; Koehler, J; Deneen, V; Angulo, F

2000-11-01

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Safe Handling of Take-Out Foods  

Science.gov (United States)

... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Safe Handling of Take-out Foods Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

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21 CFR 1250.35 - Health of persons handling food.  

Science.gov (United States)

...ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...CONVEYANCE SANITATION Food Service Sanitation on Land and...Health of persons handling food. (a) Any person...serving of water, other beverages, or food....

2010-04-01

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Implementing manual handling codes of practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the aspects to be looked at when developing codes of practice for the safer manual handling of patients. The author examines in detail the various considerations that need to be taken into account when staff and managers are drawing up a code of practice for their particular workplace. PMID:7667147

Love, C

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Food safety practices among Norwegian consumers.  

Science.gov (United States)

An informed consumer can compensate for several potential food safety violations or contaminations that may occur earlier in the food production chain. However, a consumer can also destroy the work of others in the chain by poor food handling practices, e.g., by storing chilled ready-to-eat foods at abusive temperatures. To target risk-reducing strategies, consumer groups with high-risk behavior should be identified. The aim of this study was to identify demographic characteristics associated with high-risk food handling practices among Norwegian consumers. More than 2,000 randomly selected Norwegian consumers were surveyed, and the results were analyzed with a risk-based grading system, awarding demerit points for self-reported food safety violations. The violations were categorized into groups, and an ordinary multiple linear regression analysis was run on the summarized demerit score for each group and for the entire survey group as a whole. Young and elderly men were identified as the least informed consumer groups with the most unsafe practices regarding food safety. Single persons reported poorer practices than those in a relationship. People with higher education reported poorer practices than those with lower or no education, and those living in the capital of Norway (Oslo) reported following more unsafe food practices than people living elsewhere in Norway. Men reported poorer food safety practices than women in all categories with two exceptions: parboiling raw vegetables before consumption and knowledge of refrigerator temperature. These findings suggest that risk-reducing measures should target men, and a strategy is needed to change their behavior and attitudes. PMID:24215699

Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Lavik, Randi; Ueland, Øydis; Jacobsen, Eivind; Hagtvedt, Therese; Langsrud, Solveig

2013-11-01

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Irradiated food: too hot to handle?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses current arguments for and against the irradiation of food for human consumption. The technique, which involves bombarding batches of food with gamma rays, x rays or accelerated electrons, is claimed to halt spoilage, kill bacteria and thus extend the shelf-life of various foodstuffs. Irradiated foods are at present indistinguishable from non-irradiated food and this problem may not be solved before the government's bill legalizes the process. Opponents claim the technique may not be safe and that the food industry may use it to fool consumers into buying rotten foods. Proponents say that even though many foods, such as poultry, seafood, fruits, vegetables and spices may be treated, it is unlikely that more than a small proportion will be. They reject safety worries as alarmist exaggeration. (UK)

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Staphylococcus aureus Contamination during Food Preparation, Processing and Handling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Throughout the world, food processing and handling is a major problem leading to food poisoning and infection. A total of 480 samples was analyzed for Staphylococcus aureus contamination which resulted from food processing. Most of the isolates were taken from food-handlers using nasal swabs. The most contaminated food was chicken pastries, followed by egg sandwiches and spring rolls. Isolates from all samples produced virulence factors hemolysin, coagulase, DNase and enterotoxins. Five different enterotoxins (SEs were isolated and identified from different samples. The detected SEs are SEA to SEE. Most the isolates secreted SEA followed by SEB. The strains were multiple-resistant to several antibiotics. Ampicillin and penicillin were the most resisted antibiotics. The value of this investigation is to generate awareness about the dangers of food processing and handling leading to infections by foodborne microbes which constitute a potential health risk for the consumers

Al-Bahry S. N.

2014-10-01

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Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some food types and the consequent restrictions for others. Such information improves our understanding of the trophic interrelations between different fish species living together in one community.- Cy...

Sibbing, F. A.

1984-01-01

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Handling Food Safely on the Road  

Science.gov (United States)

... a real invitation for foodborne illness and a spoiled vacation. When in the Vacation Home or the Recreation Vehicle... If a vacation home or a recreational vehicle has not been used for a while, check leftover canned food from last year. The Meat and Poultry Hotline ...

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Microbiological surveillance of food handling at NASA-MSFC  

Science.gov (United States)

A microbiological surveillance program of cafeterias and snack bars was conducted to supplement the inspections by NASA Medical Center personnel and to gather information for cafeteria management to pinpoint areas of possible contamination. The work conducted under the program from its inception in January, 1972, to its termination on September 15, 1972 is summarized. Ten food handling facilities were included in the surveillance at NASA-MSFC.

Beyerle, F. J.

1973-01-01

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21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General...handling statements. (a) Self-pressurized containers...use of such foods requires consumption with adequate amounts of...swallowing difficulties to avoid consumption of the product...

2010-04-01

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TO STUDY ON AWARENESS OF THE KITCHEN HOLDERS AND HOME MAKERS REGARDING SAFETY AND SANITARY HANDLING OF FOOD PRODUCT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The chances of food contamination largely depend on the health status of food handlers & their hygiene behaviors and practices. The present study was conducted to assess health status of food handlers and kitchen holders, working in kitchen. Objective. : To assess the awareness of the kitchen holders and home makers regarding safety and sanitary handling of food product. Methodology: The study was carried out using the following tools for the analyze the awareness of the kitchen holders and home makers regarding safety and sanitary handling of food product. Self designed questionnaire was used in the study. Statistical Analysis: SPSS Statistic 20 for statistical processing. Descriptive statistics of frequency to analyze general characteristics, and food contamination pattern. Results and Discussion: Both male and female are not much aware about food contamination. But females were keep their kitchen clean and dry and having good sanitary habits more than male so females are much aware than male about food handling practices. Conclusion: The health status and the level of personal hygiene of the food handlers in the eating establishments were found to be unsatisfactory. Food hygiene can be best promoted by educating the kitchen holders about personal hygiene.

Pooja Verma

2014-09-01

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Food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs of primary food preparers in families with young children. A mixed methods study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food preparers in families with young children are responsible for safe food preparation and handling to prevent foodborne illness. To explore the food safety perceptions, beliefs, and practices of primary food preparers in families with children 10 years of age and younger, a mixed methods convergent parallel design and constructs of the Health Belief Model were used. A random sampling of 72 primary food handlers (36.2±8.6 years of age, 88% female) within young families in urban and rural areas of two Midwestern states completed a knowledge survey and participated in ten focus groups. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for codes and common themes. Forty-four percent scored less than the average knowledge score of 73%. Participants believe children are susceptible to foodborne illness but perceive its severity to be low with gastrointestinal discomfort as the primary outcome. Using safe food handling practices and avoiding inconveniences were benefits of preventing foodborne illness. Childcare duties, time and knowledge were barriers to practicing food safety. Confidence in preventing foodborne illness was high, especially when personal control over food handling is present. The low knowledge scores and reported practices revealed a false sense of confidence despite parental concern to protect their child from harm. Food safety messages that emphasize the susceptibility and severity of foodborne illness in children are needed to reach this audience for adoption of safe food handling practices. PMID:24211815

Meysenburg, Rebecca; Albrecht, Julie A; Litchfield, Ruth; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K

2014-02-01

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Novel Additive Manufacturing Pneumatic Actuators and Mechanisms for Food Handling Grippers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conventional pneumatic grippers are widely used in industrial pick and place robot processes for rigid objects. They are simple, robust and fast, but their design, motion and features are limited, and they do not fulfil the final purpose. Food products have a wide variety of shapes and textures and are susceptible to damaged. Robot grippers for food handling should adapt to this wide range of dimensions and must be fast, cheap, reasonably reliable, and with cheap and reasonable maintenance costs. They should not damage the product and must meet hygienic conditions. The additive manufacturing (AM process is able to manufacture parts without significant restrictions, and is Polyamide approved as food contact material by FDA. This paper presents that, taking the best of plastic flexibility, AM allows the implementation of novel actuators, original compliant mechanisms and practical grippers that are cheap, light, fast, small and easily adaptable to specific food products. However, if they are not carefully designed, the results can present problems, such as permanent deformations, low deformation limits, and low operation speed. We present possible solutions for the use of AM to design proper robot grippers for food handling. Some successful results, such as AM actuators based on deformable air chambers, AM compliant mechanisms, and grippers developed in a single part will be introduced and discussed.

Carlos Blanes

2014-07-01

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Food service workers' self-reported food preparation practices: an EHS-Net study.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted by the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net), a network of environmental health specialists and epidemiologists at federal and state health agencies, whose mission is to improve environmental health practice. One of EHS-Net's primary goals is to improve the understanding of the underlying causes of foodborne illness using a system-based approach. As part of this ongoing effort, EHS-Net analyzed data from a telephone survey of food service workers designed to increase our understanding of food preparation practices (a cause of foodborne illness) in restaurants. Results indicated that risky food preparation practices were commonly reported. Respondents said that at work they did not always wear gloves while touching ready-to-eat (RTE) food (60%), did not always wash their hands or change their gloves between handling raw meat and RTE food (23% and 33%), did not use a thermometer to check food temperatures (53%), and had worked while sick with vomiting or diarrhea (5%). Several factors were associated with safer food preparation practices. Workers responsible for food preparation reported washing their hands and wearing gloves when handling RTE food more often than workers not responsible for food preparation. Workers who cooked reported changing their gloves more often than workers who did not cook. Older workers and managers reported washing their hands more often than younger workers and non-managers. Workers in chain restaurants more frequently reported using thermometers than workers in independently owned restaurants. This study provides valuable information concerning the prevalence of food preparation practices and factors that may impact those practices. Additional research is needed to better understand those factors. PMID:15881976

Green, Laura; Selman, Carol; Banerjee, Anyana; Marcus, Ruthanne; Medus, Carlota; Angulo, Frederick J; Radke, Vince; Buchanan, Sharunda

2005-01-01

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78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and...regulations for irradiation of animal feed and pet food to provide for the...Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food (21 CFR part...

2013-05-10

 
 
 
 
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77 FR 34212 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. FDA-2007-F-0390] (Formerly 2007F-0115) Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food AGENCY...Drugs, 21 CFR part 179 is amended as follows: PART 179--IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD 1....

2012-06-11

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Best Practices for Core Facilities: Handling External Customers  

Science.gov (United States)

This article addresses the growing interest among U.S. scientific organizations and federal funding agencies in strengthening research partnerships between American universities and the private sector. It outlines how core facilities at universities can contribute to this partnership by offering services and access to high-end instrumentation to both nonprofit organizations and commercial organizations. We describe institutional policies (best practices) and procedures (terms and conditions) that are essential for facilitating and enabling such partnerships. In addition, we provide an overview of the relevant federal regulations that apply to external use of academic core facilities and offer a set of guidelines for handling them. We conclude by encouraging directors and managers of core facilities to work with the relevant organizational offices to promote and nurture such partnerships. If handled appropriately, we believe such partnerships can be a win-win situation for both organizations that will support research and bolster the American economy. PMID:23814500

Hockberger, Philip; Meyn, Susan; Nicklin, Connie; Tabarini, Diane; Turpen, Paula; Auger, Julie

2013-01-01

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Food Preparation, Practices, and Safety In The Hmong Community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foodborne illnesses are syndromes that are acquired as a result of eating foods that contain sufficient quantities of poisonous substances or pathogens. Cultural practices place the Hmongat an increased risk for food borne illnesses resulting from improper food handling, preparation, and storage. The risk for illness is further complicated by the fact that the Hmong have verylimited knowledge about food-borne disease and they find themselves in a situation in which they cannot control the space in the house available for food preparation. Data for this qualitative study were collected from 25 Hmong individuals aged 18 and over residing in Fresno, California. Participants in this study did not appear to understand the direct relationship between bacteria and food borne illnesses. Similarly, study participants were more likely to reportreliance on traditional medicine to address foodborne illnesses. Results from this study indicate a need to reach the Hmong community with culturally appropriate messages relating to food preparation and practice. Messages must acknowledge the role of food in cultural celebrations, while seeking to decrease the risk for foodborne illnesses.

Miguel A. Pérez

2007-01-01

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Safety aspects in preparation and handling of infant food.  

Science.gov (United States)

Powdered infant formula (PIF) can become contaminated during production with harmful bacteria such as Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii). Inadequate conditions of preparation and handling of PIF can therefore exacerbate the risk of severe infection, especially in preterm infants. The WHO emphasized three main interventions for preparation and handling of PIF: (1) to dilute the powdered milk in water at a temperature of at least 70°C to inactivate Cronobacter spp.; (2) to consume milk right after each preparation, and (3) to store reconstituted milk at warmers or thermos bottles. In institutional settings, written guidelines for preparation and handling of PIF should be established. The use of sterile liquid formula is encouraged for healthy newborn infants in maternity wards; PIF should be prepared on a daily basis. Safe infant feeding involves the production of microbiologically cleaner infant formula by industry, and both education and support for the caregivers in preparing and handling the formula. PMID:22699771

Turck, Dominique

2012-01-01

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Liberalisation of municipal waste handling : compatible with sustainable practices?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Liberalisation of municipal waste handling: How are sustainable practices pursued? In the process of liberalization of public services in Europe contracting out the collection of municipal waste has surged. Research in Denmark has shown that municipalities in general have pursued a narrow policy of price reductions in stead of quality demands in both environmental and working environmental terms. A recent study showed major deficits in the capacities of the municipalities to administer qualitative requirements in the tender process and to manage the contracts as an integral part of a scheme for improved performance of municipal waste management. The study stresses the need for training and guidance of municipal administrators. Highlighting ‘best practice’ examples the study shows, however, that it is perfectly possible to end up with quality service on contract. It takes a mixture of careful design of requirement specifications in the tender material and deployment of resources to follow up on the contract and cooperate with the contractor in problem-solving. The study finds the municipalities in a key position to break the ‘vicious circle’ of renouncement of responsibility, untamed market forces and low quality performance. By assuming responsibility, setting and following up on high quality standards the tender instrument presents an additional instrument to legislation and market based means to institutionalize more sustainable practices in waste management

Busck, Ole Gunni

2006-01-01

26

21 CFR 1250.38 - Toilet and lavatory facilities for use of food-handling employees.  

Science.gov (United States)

... (a) Toilet and lavatory facilities of suitable design and construction shall be provided for use of food-handling...lieu of hot and cold running water. (c) All toilet rooms shall be maintained in a clean...

2010-04-01

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Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic-nozzle sprays.

Lyons, Shawn M; Harrison, Mark A [Food Science and Technology Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-2610 (United States); Law, S Edward, E-mail: edlaw@engr.uga.edu [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Applied Electrostatics Laboratory www.ael.engr.uga.edu, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-4435 (United States)

2011-06-23

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78 FR 34565 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and...regulations for irradiation of animal feed and pet food that appeared in the...regulations for irradiation of animal feed and pet food that appeared in...

2013-06-10

29

Critical control points of complementary food preparation and handling in eastern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate microbial contamination and critical control points (CCPs in the preparation and handling of complementary foods in 120 households in Imo state, Nigeria. METHODS: The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP approach was used to investigate processes and procedures that contributed to microbial contamination, growth and survival, and to identify points where controls could be applied to prevent or eliminate these microbiological hazards or reduce them to acceptable levels. Food samples were collected and tested microbiologically at different stages of preparation and handling. FINDINGS: During cooking, all foods attained temperatures capable of destroying vegetative forms of food-borne pathogens. However, the risk of contamination increased by storage of food at ambient temperature, by using insufficiently high temperatures to reheat the food, and by adding contaminated ingredients such as dried ground crayfish and soybean powder at stages where no further heat treatment was applied. The purchasing of contaminated raw foodstuffs and ingredients, particularly raw akamu, from vendors in open markets is also a CCP. CONCLUSION: Although an unsafe environment poses many hazards for children?s food, the hygienic quality of prepared food can be assured if basic food safety principles are observed. When many factors contribute to food contamination, identification of CCPs becomes particularly important and can facilitate appropriate targeting of resources and prevention efforts.

Ehiri John E.

2001-01-01

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The impact of food manufacturing practices on food borne diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food-borne illness is a major international problem and an important cause of reduced economic growth. The contamination of the food supply with the pathogens and its persistence, growth, multiplication and/or toxin production has emerged as an important public health concern. Most of these problems could be controlled with the efforts on the part of the food handlers, whether in a processing plant, a restaurant, and others. In contrast with most chemical hazardous compounds, the concentration of food pathogens changes during the processing, storage, and meal preparation, making it difficult to estimate the number of the microorganisms or the concentration of their toxins at the time of ingestion by the consumer. This review shows main microorganisms related to the manipulation practices such as Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. and describes the factors regarding the food-borne illness highlighting the impact of good manipulation practices on the food safety and food quality.Doenças veiculadas por alimentos são um dos maiores problemas de Saúde Pública no mundo, sendo responsáveis por reduções no crescimento econômico global. A contaminação de alimentos com patógenos e sua persistência, crescimento, multiplicação e/ou produção de toxinas é de interesse da Saúde Pública. Estes problemas podem ser controlados com esforços e treinamento constante de manipuladores de alimentos. Em contraste com perigos químicos e físicos, a concentração de patógenos em alimentos é modificada durante etapas de processamento, acondicionamento e preparação, tornando difícil estimar e quantificar o número de microrganismos ou a concentração de suas toxinas no momento da ingestão do alimento. Esta revisão comenta sobre os principais microrganismos bacterianos relacionados à práticas de manipulação como Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp. ressaltando o consumo de alimentos em ruas, o desenvolvimento de doenças veiculadas por alimentos e enfatizando o impacto de boas práticas de manipulação na segurança e qualidade de alimentos.

Cristina Paiva de Sousa

2008-08-01

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The impact of food manufacturing practices on food borne diseases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Doenças veiculadas por alimentos são um dos maiores problemas de Saúde Pública no mundo, sendo responsáveis por reduções no crescimento econômico global. A contaminação de alimentos com patógenos e sua persistência, crescimento, multiplicação e/ou produção de toxinas é de interesse da Saúde Pública. [...] Estes problemas podem ser controlados com esforços e treinamento constante de manipuladores de alimentos. Em contraste com perigos químicos e físicos, a concentração de patógenos em alimentos é modificada durante etapas de processamento, acondicionamento e preparação, tornando difícil estimar e quantificar o número de microrganismos ou a concentração de suas toxinas no momento da ingestão do alimento. Esta revisão comenta sobre os principais microrganismos bacterianos relacionados à práticas de manipulação como Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp. ressaltando o consumo de alimentos em ruas, o desenvolvimento de doenças veiculadas por alimentos e enfatizando o impacto de boas práticas de manipulação na segurança e qualidade de alimentos. Abstract in english Food-borne illness is a major international problem and an important cause of reduced economic growth. The contamination of the food supply with the pathogens and its persistence, growth, multiplication and/or toxin production has emerged as an important public health concern. Most of these problems [...] could be controlled with the efforts on the part of the food handlers, whether in a processing plant, a restaurant, and others. In contrast with most chemical hazardous compounds, the concentration of food pathogens changes during the processing, storage, and meal preparation, making it difficult to estimate the number of the microorganisms or the concentration of their toxins at the time of ingestion by the consumer. This review shows main microorganisms related to the manipulation practices such as Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. and describes the factors regarding the food-borne illness highlighting the impact of good manipulation practices on the food safety and food quality.

Cristina Paiva de, Sousa.

2008-08-01

32

Uranium hexafluoride: A manual of good handling practices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For many years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have shared with the nuclear industry their experience in the area of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) shipping containers and handling procedures. The information contained in this manual updates information contained in earlier issues. It covers the essential aspects of UF6 handling, cylinder filling and emptying, general principles of weighing and sampling, shipping, and the use of protective overpacks. The physical and chemical properties of UF6 are also described and tabulated. The nuclear industry is responsible for furnishing its own shipping cylinders and suitable protective overpacks. A substantial effort has been made by the industry to standardize UF6 cylinders, samples, and overpacks. The quality of feed materials is important to the safe and efficient operation of the enriching facilities, and the UF6 product purity from the enriching facilities is equally important to the fuel fabricator, the utilities, the operators of research reactors, and other users. The requirements have been the impetus for an aggressive effort by DOE and its contractors to develop accurate techniques for sampling and for chemical and isotopic analysis. A quality control program is maintained within the DOE enriching facilities to ensure that the proper degree of accuracy and precision are obtained for all the required measurements. The procedures and systems described for safe handling of UF6 presented in this document have been developed and evaluated in DOE facilities during more than 40 years of handling vast quantities of UF6. With proper consideration for its nuclear properties, UF6 may be safely handled in essentially the same manner as any other corrosive and/or toxic chemical

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7 CFR 800.61 - Prohibited grain handling practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

...practices. (a) Definitions. For the purpose... (1) Defined for export elevators at export...Defined for other than export elevators as set forth...and weighed. (3) Marketing dockage and foreign...or weighed. (6) Export loading...

2010-01-01

34

Evidence-Based Practices for Safe Patient Handling and Movement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Efforts to reduce injuries associated with patient handling are often based on tradition and personal experience rather than scientific evidence. The purpose of this article is to summarize current evidence for interventions designed to reduce caregiver injuries, a significant problem for decades. Despite strong evidence, published over three decades, the most commonly used strategies have strong evidence that demonstrate they are ineffective. There is a growing body of evidence to support newer interventions that are effective or show promise in reducing musculoskeletal pain and injuries in care providers. The authors have organized potential solutions into three established ergonomic solution types: engineering based, administrative, and behavioral. For each intervention, the level of evidence to support its use is provided.

Nelson, A., Baptiste, A

2004-09-01

35

Critical control points of complementary food preparation and handling in eastern Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate microbial contamination and critical control points (CCPs) in the preparation and handling of complementary foods in 120 households in Imo state, Nigeria. METHODS: The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach was used to investigate processes and procedures that contributed to microbial contamination, growth and survival, and to identify points where controls could be applied to prevent or eliminate these microbiological hazards or reduce them to accep...

Azubuike Marcel C.

2001-01-01

36

SNAP-Ed Improves Food Safety Practices through Nutrition Education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Snap-Ed nutrition education classes and food demonstrations allow for observation and modeling of correct food safety practices. Through the Utah State University’s Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAPEd), low-income participants completing four or more nutrition education lessons completed a retrospective post/pre behavior questionnaire. Results demonstrated increased intent to follow food safety practices by properly cooking, chilling, and separating food items, as we...

Christofferson, D.; Allen, K.; Smith, J.; Leblanc, Heidi

2013-01-01

37

Food Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Hospital Food Handlers in Davao City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study determined the relationships between food safety knowledge and practices of hospital food handlers in Davao City and also between their attitudes and practices regarding food safety. Questionnaire patterned after the Key Food Safety Guidelines of Pacific Northwest Publications was administered to 51 food handlers to generate the data. It was found that hospital food handlers in Davao City are highly knowledgeable and have favorable attitudes in food safety. The extent of food safety practices of food handlers in general is high except for their practices in cooking foods adequately and in keeping foods at safe temperatures which are only at moderate extent. In addition, there was no significant difference in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of food handlers regarding food safety when they were grouped according to sex, age, level of education and length of service. In general, this study revealed that neither of the knowledge nor attitudes of the hospital food handlers were able to establish significant relationships with their practices regarding food safety.

Jason O. Molina

2012-10-01

38

A survey on knowledge and self-reported formula handling practices of parents and child care workers in Palermo, Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Powdered infant formula (PIF is not a sterile product, but this information appears to be poorly diffused among child caregivers. Parents and child care workers may behave in an unsafe manner when handling PIF. Methods This study involved parents and child care workers in the 24 municipal child care centres of Palermo. Knowledge and self-reported practices about PIF handling were investigated by a structured questionnaire. A Likert scale was used to measure the strength of the respondent's feelings. Association of knowledge and self-reported practices with demographic variables was also evaluated. Results 42.4% of parents and 71.0% of child care workers filled in the questionnaire. Significant differences were found between parents and child care workers for age and education. 73.2% of parents and 84.4% of child care workers were confident in sterility of PIF. Generally, adherence to safe procedures when reconstituting and handling PIF was more frequently reported by child care workers who, according to the existing legislation, are regularly subjected to a periodic training on food safety principles and practices. Age and education significantly influenced the answers to the questionnaire of both parents and child care workers. Conclusion The results of the study reveal that parents and child care workers are generally unaware that powdered formulas may contain viable microorganisms. However, child care workers consistently chose safer options than parents when answering the questions about adherence to hygienic practices. At present it seems unfeasible to produce sterile PIF, but the risk of growth of hazardous organisms in formula at the time of administration should be minimized by promoting safer behaviours among caregivers to infants in both institutional settings and home.

Mammina Caterina

2009-12-01

39

Sheep pre-slaughter handling practices and their effect on meat quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aspects related to ovine production systems in Mexico were revisited, as well as the relationship between the transport and the ante-mortem handling with ovine welfare and pre slaughter operations. Animals stress evaluation is fundamental importance for this process, where the observation of animal behavior is basic to determinate and understands the scope of this biological phenomenon. Finally, we make reference to two of the main meat quality attributes that can be affected as consequence of non-appropriated handling practice and operations that implies the un-knowledge of animal conduct. The conclusion is that the handling practices previous to slaughter of ovine specie had a considerable influence on carcass quality. In Mexico is important to focus the cattle research on the productive systems improvement in consideration to animal welfare in the different productive process steps.

Francisco Gerardo Ríos-Rincón

2013-06-01

40

PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This screening addresses the critical characteristics for food industry type cans and containers used for handling and storage of special nuclear materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). HNF-5460, Revision 0 specified a minimum tin plate of 0.50 Ib./base box. Since the food pack cans currently used and that have been tested have a listed tin plate of 0.20 lbs. per base box, Revision 1 reduced the tin plate to {ge} 0.20 Ib./base box (i.e., No. 20 tinned commercial steel or heavier). This revision lists Critical Characteristics for two (2) large filtered containers, and associated shielding over-packs. These new containers are called ''Nuclear Material Containers'' (NMCs). They are supplied in various sizes, which can be nested, one inside another. The PFP will use NMCs with volumes up to 8-quarts as needed to over-pack largely bulged containers.

BONADIE, E.P.

2000-08-22

 
 
 
 
41

Sanitation Practices among Food Handlers in a Military Food Service Institution, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted over a period of two months to assess the food hygiene practices among food handlers in a military food service institution that have been trained with food safety practices and knowledge. Since limited data was published for the services rendered to governmental agencies such as the military, this study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and motivation of food handlers under this institution that was responsible for the provision of food to the armed forces in Malaysia. Findings from this study offered an insight for food sanitation practices and influence of the authority towards food service institutions under the policy of voluntary HACCP practices.

Hai Yen Lee

2012-11-01

42

Standard Practice for Sampling Airborne Particulate Contamination in Cleanrooms for Handling Aerospace Fluids  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This practice covers a procedure for sampling airborne particulate matter larger than 5 m in size. The method is designed to be used in specific areas, commonly called cleanrooms in the aerospace industry, where aerospace fluids are handled. Note 1 Practice F 50 is an alternative procedure. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2006-01-01

43

Young people's food practices and social relationships. A thematic synthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food practices are embedded in everyday life and social relationships. In youth nutrition promotion little attention is awarded to this centrality of food practices, yet it may play a pivotal role for young people's overall health and wellbeing beyond the calories food provides. Limited research is available explicitly investigating how food practices affect social relationships. The aim of this synthesis was therefore to find out how young people use everyday food practices to build, strengthen, and negotiate their social relationships. Using a thematic synthesis approach, we analysed 26 qualitative studies exploring young people's food practices. Eight themes provided insight into the ways food practices affected social relationships: caring, talking, sharing, integrating, trusting, reciprocating, negotiating, and belonging. The results showed that young people use food actively to foster connections, show their agency, and manage relationships. This synthesis provides insight into the settings of significance for young people where more research could explore the use of food in everyday life as important for their social relationships. A focus on social relationships could broaden the scope of nutrition interventions to promote health in physical and psychosocial dimensions. Areas for future research are discussed. PMID:25017130

Neely, Eva; Walton, Mat; Stephens, Christine

2014-11-01

44

Handling practice changes before and later slaughter to reduce the presence of DFD meat in beef  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the production chain, animals are exposed to a series of factors and commercial practices that result in stress. These factors are mainly climatic variations, transport, handling, pre-slaughter waiting, stunning and slaughter. Any negative effect is in function of the type, duration and intensity of the stressing factors before slaughter and the individual susceptibility of animals. These pre-slaughter adverse effects have impact not only on animal welfare, but they also have clear repercussion in meat quality and economic profit of livestock producers. The presence of DFD meat is an issue that affects the quality and economic aspects and this can be minimized through giving major importance to animal welfare, implying changes in animal handling before slaughter. Personal involved in animal handling must be capacitated besides preventive maintenance to equipment in order to improve production.

Cristina Pérez-Linares

2011-12-01

45

Regulation and practice of workers' protection from chemical exposures during container handling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Fumigation of freight containers to prevent spread of pests and off-gassing of freight are sources of volatile chemicals that may constitute significant health risks when released. The aim of the study was to investigate the regulation and practice of container handling in Denmark with focus on preventive measures to reduce risk of chemical exposure. Methods: A comprehensive systematic search of scientific literature, legislation and recommendations related to safe work with transport containers from international and Danish regulatory bodies was performed. The practice of handling containers was investigated in a qualitative study based on a series of semi-structured interviews with key informants, including managers and health and safety representatives of organizations that handle containers. Results: Although several international and national regulations and local safety instructions relate to container handling, the provided information is not sufficiently detailed to conduct safe practicein many aspects. In accordance with the scientific literature, the interviewees estimate that there is a high frequency (5 to 50%) of containers with hazardous chemical exposure that are regarded as potentially damaging to health, although recognisable health effects are rare. There is limited knowledge about the types of chemicals, which mostly cannot be measured by available devices at the worksite. Aeration and use of personal protective equipment are typical preventive measures in practice, but their use is not consistent and does not necessarily ensure adequate protection. Conclusions: Managers, workers, even occupational health professionals have limited knowledge about the hazardous chemicals that can be released from containers. Detailed risk assessment and specific instructions on risk management are needed for safe handling of transport containers.

NØrgaard FlØe Pedersen, Randi; Jepsen, JØrgen Riis

2014-01-01

46

Factors affecting practical application of food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

FAO and IAEA convened an Advisory Group Meeting on Commercial Use of Food Irradiation in order to discuss problems of the industry's acceptance of food irradiation and their remedies. Senior executives from major food industries, trade and consumer organizations were invited to discuss these problems and to prepare a report which would serve as the basis for future plan of action by sponsoring Organizations in the field of food irradiation. This publication contains the report of the meeting, papers presented by the participants and their recommendations to the sponsoring Organizations. Refs and tabs

47

Practical application of food irradiation in Asia and the Pacific  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first regional seminar on food irradiation in Asia was held in Tokyo in 1981. In view of several significant international developments on food irradiation it was considered timely to convene the second seminar in this field to assess practical application of food irradiation in the Asian and Pacific region. Over 70 papers were submitted for the Seminar. Eight technical sessions covering practical aspects of food irradiation (e.g. technology transfer, legislation and control, food irradiation facilities and their economics, transportation trials, market testing and consumer acceptance, commercial development of food irradiation, etc.) were included in the Seminar programme. A Working Group to assess the present situation and future application of food irradiation in the region was convened during the Seminar. The report of the Working Group is included in the Proceedings. Refs, figs and tabs

48

Evaluation of Food Hygiene Knowledge Attitudes and Practices of Food Handlers in Food Businesses in Accra, Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food handlers have a prime role to play in food businesses, and that is to guarantee that meals served are hygienic for consumption. Conscious or inadvertent contamination of such food places consumers at risk of suffering from food- borne illnesses. For this reason the study was carried out to document the food hygiene knowledge, attitudes and practices of some food handlers, in food businesses in Accra, Ghana and also to determine the microbiological load of the foods sold by the food businesses. The study targeted food handlers in the hotel industry. The study involved a field survey, followed by a laboratory assessment of microbiological status of food samples obtained from the sampled hotels. Cross tabulations and chi – squared tests (5% significance level as well as frequency distributions were used to analyze the data obtained from the field survey. Data obtained from the laboratory assessment were also compared to standard values of microbiological counts. Majority of respondents were between the ages of 30 - 40 years (42.9% with tertiary or post secondary education. Food hygiene knowledge and attitudes were satisfactory, however its practice was challenging. Gender, age and educational level of respondents did not influence their food hygiene practices. Microbial counts of all food samples was generally high ranging from 1.2 × 105 CFU/g to 1.1 × 108 CFU /g. The total coliform counts of foods ranged from 1.0 × 104 CFU/g to 5.0 × 106 CFU/g, and these were obtained from three out of the five hotel kitchens sampled. The study concluded that, the food hygiene knowledge and attitudes of the food handlers did not result in efficient food hygiene practices.

George Amponsah Annor

2011-10-01

49

Pesticide-handling practices of smallholder coffee farmers in Eastern Jamaica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticide use among smallholder coffee producers in Jamaica has been associated with significant occupational health effects. Research on pesticide handling practices, however, has been scarce, especially in eastern Jamaica. This explorative study aims at filling this gap and provides a first basis to develop effective interventions to promote a safer pesticide use. A random sample of 81 coffee farmers was surveyed. The majority of farmers reported to suffer from at least one health symptom associated with pesticide handling, but safety practices were scarcely adopted. There was also the risk that other household members and the wider local community are exposed to pesticides. The lack of training on pesticide management, the role of health services and the cost for protective equipment seemed to be the most significant factors that influence current pesticide handling practices in eastern Jamaica. Further research is recommended to develop a systemic understanding of farmer’s behaviour to provide a more solid basis for the development of future intervention programmes.

Giuseppe Feola

2013-08-01

50

Creating healthy food environments through global benchmarking of government nutrition policies and food industry practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unhealthy processed food products are increasingly dominating over healthy foods, making food and nutrition environments unhealthier. Development and implementation of strong government healthy food policies is currently being circumvented in many countries by powerful food industry lobbying. In order to increase accountability of both governments and the private sector for their actions, and improve the healthiness of food environments, INFORMAS (the International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support) has recently been founded to systematically and comprehensively monitor food environments and policies in countries of varying size and income. This will enable INFORMAS to rank both governments and private sector companies globally according to their actions on food environments. Identification of those countries which have the healthiest food and nutrition policies and using them as international benchmarks against which national progress towards best practice can be assessed, should support reductions in global obesity and diet-related NCDs. PMID:24594359

Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

2014-01-01

51

76 FR 51308 - Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule  

Science.gov (United States)

...Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices'' (``Unavailability...Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices: Statement of Basis and Purpose: The Rule, 36 FR 8777...Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices, 54 FR...

2011-08-18

52

Chemotherapy-Knowledge and Handling Practice of Nurses Working in a Medical University of Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Many antineoplastic agents are known to be teratogenic and mutagenic to humans. Nurses are the main groups that are exposed to these drugs in hospital setting. Generally, the occupational activities that pose to greatest risk of exposure are the preparation and administration of antineoplastic agents, cleaning of chemotherapy spills, and handling of patient excreta. Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of nurse regarding the way of exposure of Cytotoxic Drugs (CDs and to determine the current patterns of use of personal protective equipments while handling antineoplastic chemotherapeutic agents. Methods: An analytic cross sectional study was carried out at BPKIHS Dharan. The study was carried out on 125 nurses. The random sampling technique was used to select the study subjects using structured and semi-structured questionnaire. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Result: More than 92% of participants reported usually wearing gloves during chemotherapy handling; 6% reported using laboratory coats as protective garments. Usual use of face and respiratory protection was less than 5%. Chemotherapy was reported to be prepared in nursing station where there are no laminar airflow hoods in 100% of work settings. None of the subjects have reportedly provided any type of medical monitoring. Conclusion: Use and availability of gloves have increased but personal protective equipment like protective garments, face and respiratory protective, when handling chemotherapy have decreased and medical monitoring of exposed employees still is neither widely practiced nor consistent with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA guidelines.

Ramanand Chaudhary

2012-02-01

53

The Special Health Education Course Effects on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Preparation, Distribution and Sale Centers Food Staff in Kermanshah  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:The food handling employee education program improves food safety. Determining knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP level of workers who prepare, distribute and sale the food products make easy to control food safety. This study aimed to evaluate effects of intensive food safety education course on KAP of food handlers. in Kermanshah."nMaterials andMethods: Knowledge, attitude and practice of 370workers of variety of food handling fields were studied before and after educational intervention course.Avalidated questionnaire about knowledge, attitude based on instruction from Ministry of Health and Medical Sciences for food handling was used for data collection. Paired t-test and ?2 were applied for statistical analysis."nResults: The results showed positive effects of education program on KAP of food handlers. There was significant increase in knowledge marks before and after intervention, 20.5+ 4.03 vs. 23.73 + 3.75 (p<0.001.Attitude and practice of participants were increased significantly before 107.2+14.6; 43.93+7.6 compared to after 112.23+14.5; 46.11+8 intervention respectively (p<0.001. The most increased mark of KAP was belonged to 21-30 years age group."nConclusion: Our findings confirm that educational intervention improved KAP of food handlers. To increase food safety, running periodical educational courses for the same filed workers with final exam and providing certificate highly recommended.

M Rezaee

2010-10-01

54

Fiscal Food Policy : Equity and Practice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

When it comes to buying food, price is influential, but is a ‘fat tax’ the answer to curb obesity? Dr Stuart G Nicholls from Lancaster University, Assistant Professor Dr Wencke Gwozdz and Professor, Dr Lucia A Reisch from Copenhagen Business School and Dr Kristin Voigt from Lancaster University look at whether a fiscal policy would work.

G. Nicholls, Stuart; Gwozdz, Wencke

2011-01-01

55

Functional foods: from theory to practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among Functional Foods there are many different "traditional" foods rich in specific compounds shown to produce an effect or modulate a function in our organism. However, in most cases, e. g. in tomato, the evidence has not been sufficient to obtain an official health claim. Nevertheless it is important to investigate further the effects of vegetables in our diet and to communicate correctly their advantages for health. Different works were performed in my laboratory on cruciferous vegetables which contain a lot of active compounds such as vitamins, minerals, carotenoids and glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are metabolised and absorbed as isothiocyanates that can affect the activity of enzymes involved both in the antioxidant defence system and in the detoxification from xenobiotics.. Promising are the preliminary results of human intervention studies demonstrating that the regular intake of broccoli for a relatively short period of time could significantly affect glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and cell protection against DNA damage. The entity of the protective effect registered seems also related to the genetic characteristic (GSTM1 polimorphysm) of the subjects considered. These results support the use of the nutrigenetic approach also to study functional foods (e. g. for specific groups of population). PMID:19685434

Porrini, Marisa

2008-12-01

56

Practice of handling radioactive wastes outside the nuclear fuel cycle in Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the handling of radioactive wastes, which are not produced in facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. The actual amounts of radioactive waste are given showing also the fractions coming from institutions under consideration with respect to the total amount. For different areas as institutions producing radioactive waste, plants conditioning the waste, storing facilities or for the planned final repository the practice of handling, conditioning or storing is described; different methods are discussed. As far as possible and reasonable hints or recommendations are worked out. In some areas problems could be identified, e.g. some nuclides as tritium or radium, are not easily conditioned for a final repository, the lack of final prescriptions how to process the waste for the final repository, differing conditions for the waste to be transferred to the intermediate storage facilities, lack of guidelines how to analyse the waste contaminated with short-lifed nuclides after the decay-time before it is deposited, and the lack of harmonized and perhaps centralized facilities to process the waste before it will be stored in the final repository. Facilities should be capable to cope with non-radioactive aspects as chemical or toxic aspects during processing. It may be summarized, that the handling of radioactive waste produced in non-fuel cycle facilities in general has been regulated and planned for the complete line from the beginning to the repository. Though there are still some aspects as those summarized above that may and should be improved

57

Knowledge and practice of confidential data handling in the Welsh Deanery: a brief report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent large-scale personal data loss incidents highlighted the need for public bodies to more securely handle confidential data. We surveyed trainees from all specialties in the Welsh Deanery for their knowledge and practice. All registered trainees were invited to participate in an online anonymised survey. There were 880 completed and non-duplicated responses (52.9% response rate). Responses were analysed using Microsoft Access. Over 40% (388/880 (44.1%)) did not use formal guidelines on storage or disposal of confidential data. The majority appeared to dispose of confidential paper documents securely, that is, using shredders and white shredder bags. However, there were significant numbers of unmarked responses. Clinical documents, such as theatre lists, were taken home by 281/880 (31.9%) of trainees. The majority secured their computers (569/871 (65.3%)) by either not keeping patient identifiable data on them or using encryption. However, 302/871 (34.7%) did not adequately secure their computers. The surgical and anaesthetic specialties were least aware of formal confidentiality guidelines (95/178 (53.4%)) and 52/102 (51.0%) respectively) and least secured their computers (106/178 (59.6%) and 63/102 (61.8%) respectively). Education is needed to improve knowledge and practice of confidential data handling. This may be delivered through workshops during induction programmes or as part of European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL) modules. Training is especially indicated for the surgical and anaesthetic specialties. PMID:21149322

Jackson, L E; Lim, M W

2011-01-01

58

77 FR 27586 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food  

Science.gov (United States)

...principles of radiation chemistry and the chemical composition of foods. Public Citizen also contends that...Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (CODEX STAN 106-1983)'' Codex Alimentarius Commission, Food and Agriculture Organization...

2012-05-11

59

Food-related beliefs, eating behavior, and classroom food practices of middle school teachers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined classroom food practices and eating behavior of middle school teachers from 16 schools in a metropolitan area, located in the upper Midwest. In winter 1999-2000, teachers in sixth, seventh, and eighth grade were surveyed (response rate = 70%; n = 490/701). Questions addressed teachers' classroom food practices, eating behavior while at school, personal health, and attitudes about the school food environment. Use of food as an incentive/reward for students was a common classroom practice in middle schools, and most foods did not support development of health eating patterns by young adolescents. Candy was the most frequently used food item, reported by 73% of teachers, followed by cookies/doughnuts (37%), sweetened drinks (35%), and pizza (28%). Many middle school teachers did not role model healthy eating behavior at school. Prevalent use of vending was a particular concern, with beverage and snack vending use reported by 62% and 35% of teachers, respectively. Most vending items purchased were sweetened drinks (57%) and high-fat or high-sugar snacks (85%). Low perceived personal health, high-fat scores, and low support for the school food environment were some of the significant correlates of teachers' eating behavior. School and health professionals should continue to advocate for schoolwide policies and programs that support students and teachers if the goal of an integrated healthy school food environment is to be realized. PMID:12389375

Kubik, Martha Y; Lytle, Leslie A; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary; Perry, Cheryl L

2002-10-01

60

Toward practical definitions of quality for food science  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A new practical approach to developing workable definitions of quality is presented to overcome the numerous semantic and conceptual difficulties that an common with the use of the word quality in food science. This approach links the concept of quality, through a general definition, by adding the missing link of specific definitions related to measurable attributes and properties determined by standard methods to provide values that can be used to evaluate foods or to set specifications. It is compatible with control, assurance, HACCP, regulatory, TQM, and other normal uses of the both the word quality, and the concept quality, in food science and technology.

Bremner, Allan

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Ageing and life extension practices for fuel handling system at Madras Atomic Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reliable functioning of all fuel handling system components, as per design intent is essential to execute the on power refuelling operations of PHWR reactors for sustained power operation. For several critical equipment, as no standby provisions exist, monitoring the performance and timely replacement of equipment are to be done meticulously to achieve adequate system availability. At the same time, too frequent servicing activities cannot be afforded, on cost, availability and high manrem exposure consideration. Though at design stage through proper selection of materials, equipment and process applications, dependable systems are envisaged, certain modification in operating practices, logics, process parameters, and addition of new equipment become necessary to assess the ageing as well as to extend the life of the equipment. In Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) fuel handling system several changes have been incorporated, improving upon the system performance reliability which inherently helps in extending the life of the critical equipment. In this paper some significant modifications implemented are presented, which are contributing to improve upon the life span of the equipment. (author)

62

Food Buying Practices of Mexican Americans in East Los Angeles.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a pilot study of the nutritional status of Mexican American preschool children attending Head Start in East Los Angeles in the spring of 1969, questions were asked concerning their families' buying and food practices. This paper reports on the information obtained from the 21 questionnaires which were returned. Answers to the following…

Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

63

Semantic Provisioning of Children's Food: Commerce, Care and Maternal Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing upon in-depth interviews with mothers in the US about feeding their young children, this article examines how consumer culture--broadly construed--constitutes part of the indispensable context of mothering practices. The argument put forward is that mothers not only provide food and sustenance for their children, but necessarily encounter,…

Cook, Daniel Thomas

2009-01-01

64

Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, from practice to theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an allergic disease, probably non-IgE-mediated, with expression predominantly in the GI tract. The most characteristic symptom is repeated, debilitating vomiting. It occurs 2-6 h after ingestion of culprit food and is usually accompanied by pallor and lethargy. There may be diarrhea, and in 10-20% of cases, severe hypotension. These symptoms resolve completely within a few hours. The food most frequently involved is cow's milk, followed by rice, but many other foods may be involved. The prognosis is generally good in a few years. In this review the authors try to cope, with the help of some case histories, with the practical clinical aspects of FPIES. The authors also try to provide a management approach based on current knowledge, and finally, to point out the aspects of FPIES that are still controversial. PMID:23971749

Miceli Sopo, Stefano; Greco, Monica; Monaco, Serena; Tripodi, Salvatore; Calvani, Mauro

2013-08-01

65

21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING...40 CFR part 82. (d) Protein products. (1) The...WARNING: Very low calorie protein diets (below 400 Calories...

2010-04-01

66

Keeping Kids Safe: A Guide for Safe Food Handling & Sanitation for Child Care Providers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because children under age 5 are susceptible to food-borne illnesses and children in diapers present special sanitation and health problems, food safety and sanitation are emerging as important issues for child care providers. This booklet is designed to give providers and parents a quick and easy reference for food safety and sanitation. The…

Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

67

21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...containers. (1) The label of a food packaged in a self-pressurized...this section, the label of a food packaged in a self-pressurized...Products expelled in the form of a foam or cream, which contain less...than one-half ounce. (c) Food containing or manufactured...

2010-04-01

68

Food safety in hospital: knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing staff of two hospitals in Sicily, Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Food hygiene in hospital poses peculiar problems, particularly given the presence of patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. Moreover, in nosocomial outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, the mortality risk has been proved to be significantly higher than the community outbreaks and highest for foodborne outbreaks. On the other hand, the common involvement in the role of food handlers of nurses or domestic staff, not specifically trained about food hygiene and HACCP, may represent a further cause of concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning food safety of the nursing staff of two hospitals in Palermo, Italy. Association with some demographic and work-related determinants was also investigated. Methods The survey was conducted, by using a semi-structured questionnaire, in March-November 2005 in an acute general hospital and a paediatric hospital, where nursing staff is routinely involved in food service functions. Results Overall, 401 nurses (279, 37.1%, of the General Hospital and 122, 53.5%, of the Paediatric Hospital, respectively answered. Among the respondents there was a generalized lack of knowledge about etiologic agents and food vehicles associated to foodborne diseases and proper temperatures of storage of hot and cold ready to eat foods. A general positive attitude towards temperature control and using clothing and gloves, when handling food, was shared by the respondents nurses, but questions about cross-contamination, refreezing and handling unwrapped food with cuts or abrasions on hands were frequently answered incorrectly. The practice section performed better, though sharing of utensils for raw and uncooked foods and thawing of frozen foods at room temperatures proved to be widely frequent among the respondents. Age, gender, educational level and length of service were inconsistently associated with the answer pattern. More than 80% of the respondent nurses did not attend any educational course on food hygiene. Those who attended at least one training course fared significantly better about some knowledge issues, but no difference was detected in both the attitude and practice sections. Conclusion Results strongly emphasize the need for a safer management of catering in the hospitals, where non professional food handlers, like nursing or domestic staff, are involved in food service functions.

La Guardia Maurizio

2007-04-01

69

21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...food products represented or intended for dietery (food) supplementation that derive more than 50 percent of their total caloric...issuance of the order. The order may also be appealed within the same period of 5-working days by any other person having...

2010-04-01

70

Food irradiation in the control of storage and handling losses in the Philippine onions and garlic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information will be provided on the nature and magnitude of the control of postharvest losses in onions and garlic from the application of irradiation. Control of losses is measured in storage and during post storage marketing of the commodities. Information will also be presented on market tests and survey of consumer reaction to irradiated onions. The benefits of irradiation will be discussed in relation to the need to reduce postharvest losses in the food supply and to address consumer concerns over the safety of food due to the use of chemicals. (author)

71

PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for PFP's Vault Operations system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to perform its safety function. The changes in these specifications have no detrimental effect on the descriptions and parameters related to handling plutonium solids in the authorization basis. Because no parameters or sequences exceed the limits described in the authorization bases, no accident or abnormal conditions are affected. The specifications prescribed in this critical characteristics document do not represent an unreviewed safety question

72

21 CFR 101.17 - Food labeling warning, notice, and safe handling statements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Weight Reduction in Such Diets Without Medical Supervision. Not for use by infants...less than 400 Calories per day without medical supervision. (3) The label...exempt from this requirement if a viscous adhesive mass is not formed when the food is...

2010-04-01

73

A practical approach to the assesment of manual handling equipment for cargo: multinational abrasives in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Manual Handling of Loads is an activity present in virtually all production system, when developed without ergonomic principles of design and sizing can generate several instances of discomfort and musculoskeletal disorders. This work was carried out to measure, set limits and risks and guide specifications for the cargo handling carts in a specific company, tracing the anthropometric profile of the productive population and performing a quantitative evaluation of forces and design models of cars used in the company. PMID:22317569

Barbosa Neto, João; Centeio, Eduardo Aparecido; de Sampaio Siqueira, Fernando; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

2012-01-01

74

Code of practice for the control and safe handling of radioactive sources used for therapeutic purposes (1988)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Code is intended as a guide to safe practices in the use of sealed and unsealed radioactive sources and in the management of patients being treated with them. It covers the procedures for the handling, preparation and use of radioactive sources, precautions to be taken for patients undergoing treatment, storage and transport of radioactive sources within a hospital or clinic, and routine testing of sealed sources

75

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of University Students Regarding the Use of Nutritional Information and Food Labels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The food nutrition label provides the nutrition information that helps consumers on food choices and used to give us information so that customer can choose between foods. This study was aimed to determine the association between knowledge, attitude and practices on food label use and to determine the factors that influence the use of food labels during making food purchasing decision among university students. A cross-sectional study of undergraduate students at UiTM Puncak Alam in the Kuala...

Khairil Anuar, M. I.; Norazmir, M. N.; Nurliyana, G.

2011-01-01

76

Standard Practice for Handling, Transporting, and Installing Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) Sample Plates Used in Environmentally Controlled Areas for Spacecraft  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This practice covers the handling, transporting, and installing of sample plates used for the gravimetric determination of nonvolatile residue (NVR) within and between facilities. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2007-01-01

77

Hygienic Practices among Food Vendors in Educational Institutions in Ghana: The Case of Konongo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the booming street food industry in the developing world there is an urgent need to ensure food vendors adhere to hygienic practices to protect public health. This study assessed the adherence to food hygiene practices by food vendors in educational institutions in Konongo, Ghana. Structured questionnaires, extensive observation and interviews were used for the study involving 60 food vendors from 20 basic schools. Attributable to the influence of school authorities and the level of in-training of food vendors, the study points out that food vendors in educational institutions generally adhered to good food hygiene practices, namely, regular medical examination (93%, protection of food from flies and dust (55%; proper serving of food (100%; good hand hygiene (63%; and the use of personal protective clothing (52%. The training of food vendors on food hygiene, instead of the level of education had a significant association (p < 0.05 with crucial food hygiene practices such as medical examination, hand hygiene and protection of food from flies and dust. Further, regulatory bodies legally mandated to efficiently monitor the activities of food vendors lacked the adequate capacity to do so. The study proposes that efforts should be geared towards developing training programmes for food vendors as well as capacity building of the stakeholders.

Isaac Monney

2013-07-01

78

"Current Good Manufacturing Practices" and the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Food and Drug Administration (hereinafter, FDA) regulates food, drugs, and cosmetics in order to ensure that these products are safe and truthfully labelled. As part of its responsibilities under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (hereinafter, Act), the FDA monitors the manufacturing practices of companies involved in the production of food, drugs, and medical devices. The manufacturing practices used by these companies must comply with certain standards, identified in the Act as "...

Goldstein, Beth F.

1995-01-01

79

Sample handling in surface sensitive chemical and biological sensing: a practical review of basic fluidics and analyte transport.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper gives an overview of the advantages and associated caveats of the most common sample handling methods in surface-sensitive chemical and biological sensing. We summarize the basic theoretical and practical considerations one faces when designing and assembling the fluidic part of the sensor devices. The influence of analyte size, the use of closed and flow-through cuvettes, the importance of flow rate, tubing length and diameter, bubble traps, pressure-driven pumping, cuvette dead volumes, and sample injection systems are all discussed. Typical application areas of particular arrangements are also highlighted, such as the monitoring of cellular adhesion, biomolecule adsorption-desorption and ligand-receptor affinity binding. Our work is a practical review in the sense that for every sample handling arrangement considered we present our own experimental data and critically review our experience with the given arrangement. In the experimental part we focus on sample handling in optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) measurements, but the present study is equally applicable for other biosensing technologies in which an analyte in solution is captured at a surface and its presence is monitored. Explicit attention is given to features that are expected to play an increasingly decisive role in determining the reliability of (bio)chemical sensing measurements, such as analyte transport to the sensor surface; the distorting influence of dead volumes in the fluidic system; and the appropriate sample handling of cell suspensions (e.g. their quasi-simultaneous deposition). At the appropriate places, biological aspects closely related to fluidics (e.g. cellular mechanotransduction, competitive adsorption, blood flow in veins) are also discussed, particularly with regard to their models used in biosensing. PMID:24846752

Orgovan, Norbert; Patko, Daniel; Hos, Csaba; Kurunczi, Sándor; Szabó, Bálint; Ramsden, Jeremy J; Horvath, Robert

2014-09-01

80

Practical handling skills during road transport of fattening pigs from farm to slaughterhouse: A brief review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The transport of fattening pigs is characterized by a strong human-animal interaction. Consequent handling is important because of animal welfare, meat quality and matching economic consequences. During road transport, human impact can be divided in different steps: 1 driving pigs from the pens via an alley to the trailer, 2 loading, 3 actual transport, 4 unloading to the lairage, and 5 the final phase driving pigs to the stunning. An inadequate design and a poor condition of the facilities will negatively affect the ease of handling pigs. Because of the consequences, acute stress during transport and slaughter should be minimized by acting on the education of people, on equipment and on preparation of animals for the journey. Education programs have to be repeated regularly so that knowledge can be refreshed.

Bert Driessen

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

Trends impacting food safety in retail foodservice: implications for dietetics practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food safety in retail foodservice is increasingly important to consumers. Trends that impact food safety concerns include the increasing number of meals eaten away from home, increasing consumer awareness about food safety, an aging population, changes in the foodservice workforce, changing technology in work environments, changes in food procurement, foodservice risk factors, and food defense concerns. Each of these trends has implications for dietetics practice, both in working with consumers and managing foodservice operations. PMID:18589025

Sneed, Jeannie; Strohbehn, Catherine H

2008-07-01

82

Putting local food on the menu: comparing the food purchasing practices of Vancouver’s Chinese and fine dining restaurants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, the concept of local food has attracted a great amount of attention. Little is known, however, about the organization and particular characteristics of local agrifood systems in different regions. This research paper examines the extent to which Chinese and fine dining restaurants in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), purchase products from the local BC food system. The study also explores what factors affect the food purchasing practices, marketing strategies and supply chain...

Smith, Sarah M.

2011-01-01

83

Using the FoodEx-LTC to assess institutional food service practices through nursing home residents' perspectives on nutrition care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Undernutrition occurs in approximately 2 of every 5 nursing home residents, negatively influencing their health and quality of life. The purposes of this study were to collect data about institutional meal preparation and food service practices that promote or retard adequate nutritional intake and to evaluate residents' food and food service satisfaction. Methods. The FoodEx-LTC, a simple, 44-item, 5-subscale questionnaire that measures food and food service satisfaction, was administered to 61 residents. Serum albumin and body mass index gauged the nutritional status of each resident. SPSS for Windows, version 10, was used for analyses. Results. Overall, 89% of residents were satisfied or somewhat satisfied with the food service. Of those who ate in the dining room, 44% had to wait to go back to their rooms, presenting a quality of life issue. Fifty-two percent received food they hated, 56% often received the same food, and 59% received food always cooked the same way. Most residents (75%) felt comfortable refusing food they did not like, but 65% did not complain. Most (79%) wanted to choose what to eat, but only 54% believed that choosing when to eat was important. Conclusions. The FoodEx-LTC, used to monitor nutrition care in nursing homes, incorporates residents' views into service delivery and responds to the Health Care Finance Administration's Nutritional and Hydration Awareness Campaign, part of the federal Nursing Home Initiative. Using the FoodEx-LTC to identify residents' perspectives may promote resident satisfaction and dietary intake through adaptation of nursing home food and food service practices. PMID:15741295

Evans, Bronwynne C; Crogan, Neva L

2005-01-01

84

Practice and Reflection on Developing Food Banks in XI CHANG  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Food bank is a kind of savings service for the grain enterprises involving the unused grain in the business turnover to control the grain resources after the revolution of purchase and sale food market. This paper talks about the necessity and feasibility of promoting the food bank in XI CHANG from perspectives of increasing farmers’ income, declining food consumption and facilitating people’s life and from perspectives of the background of food bank development, the successful experience...

Chenghua Liu; Shengyu He

2012-01-01

85

Code of practice for the safe handling of corpses containing radioactive materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Code is intended as a guide to the safe handling of the bodies of persons who have died while undergoing treatment with radioactive substances, whether sealed or unsealed, and which still retain, in or on the body, significant amounts of radioactivity. Such corpses may act as sources of ionizing radiations to which pathologists and others attending them may unknowingly be exposed. As ionizing radiations may cause adverse biological effects in those exposed to them it is desirable to keep such exposure to a minimum

86

Traditional foods and practices of Spanish-speaking Latina mothers influence the home food environment: implications for future interventions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to obtain in-depth information from low-income, Spanish-speaking Latino families with young children to guide the development of culturally appropriate nutrition interventions. Focus groups were used to assess parent's knowledge about healthful eating, the home food environment, perceived influences on children's eating habits, food purchasing practices, and commonly used strategies to promote healthful eating among their children. Thirty-four Latino parents (33 women; 27 born in Mexico; 21 food-insecure) of preschool-aged children participated in four focus group discussions conducted in Spanish by a trained moderator. The focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and coded by independent raters. Results suggest that in general, parents were very knowledgeable about healthful eating and cited both parents and school as significant factors influencing children's eating habits; at home, most families had more traditional Mexican foods available than American foods; cost and familiarity with foods were the most influential factors affecting food purchasing; many parents had rules regarding sugar intake; and parents cited role modeling, reinforcement, and creative food preparation as ways to encourage children's healthful eating habits. Finally, parents generated ideas on how to best assist Latino families through interventions. Parents indicated that future interventions should be community based and teach skills to purchase and prepare meals that include low-cost and traditional Mexican ingredients, using hands-on activities. In addition, interventions could encourage and reinforce healthy food-related practices that Latino families bring from their native countries. PMID:21703381

Evans, Alexandra; Chow, Sherman; Jennings, Rose; Dave, Jayna; Scoblick, Kathryn; Sterba, Katherine Regan; Loyo, Jennifer

2011-07-01

87

Handling uncertainty : policy and organizational practices in Tanzania's small-scale gold mining sector  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Small-scale mining supports the livelihoods of several hundred thousand rural households in Africa. Nonetheless, the understanding of the organizational dynamics of small-scale miners' activities is modest. The paper outlines the small-scale mining codes in Tanzania and contrasts them to prevalent organizational practices in two Tanzanian small-scale mining settlements. It is argued that there is a need to adjust the regulatory mechanisms to well-consolidated practices: If basic practices differ substantially from official prescriptions of the mining codes over an extended period of time, certain elements of the regulatory framework need reconsideration. The paper examines three pertinent operational components that vary in form and managing practices between the two study sites: dealing with licence acquisition, accessing working capital, and sharing output. These components are considered vital for the proper manoeuvring of local small-scale mining operators and the reasons for the variations are essential to understand for policymakers and development practitioners. By incorporating prevalent practices and context-dependent variations in some of the crucial organizational components, it is possible to design a robust and resilient regulatory framework for small-scale mining. A number of policy adjustments are consequently proposed.

JØnsson, Jesper Bosse; Fold, Niels

2009-01-01

88

Using Cross-practice Collaboration to Meet the Evolving Legal Needs of Local Food Entrepreneurs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article begins by highlighting several of the legal barriers commonly faced by local food businesses. The article then demonstrates that policy lawyers and transactional lawyers can effectively collaborate to improve the food system by providing synergistic feedback that informs each other’s practices, thereby improving service for food-related clients and enhancing the legal environment for future local food entrepreneurs. The article describes the methods that two clinics at Harva...

Broad Leib, Emily Michele; Kool, Amanda

2013-01-01

89

Facts about food irradiation: Microbiological safety of irradiated food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This fact sheet considers the microbiological safety of irradiated food, with especial reference to Clostridium botulinum. Irradiated food, as food treated by any ''sub-sterilizing'' process, must be handled, packaged and stored following good manufacturing practices to prevent growth and toxin production of C. botulinum. Food irradiation does not lead to increased microbiological hazards, nor can it be used to save already spoiled foods. 4 refs

90

Clarifying concepts of food parenting practices. A Delphi study with an application to snacking behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inconsistencies in measurements of food parenting practices continue to exist. Fundamental to this problem is the lack of clarity about what is understood by different concepts of food parenting practices. The purpose of this study was to clarify food parenting practice concepts related to snacking. A three round Delphi study among an international group of experts (n = 63) was conducted. In the first round, an open-ended survey was used to collect food parenting practice descriptions and concept labels associated with those practices. In the second round, participants were asked to match up descriptions with the appropriate concept labels. The third and final round allowed participants to reconsider how descriptions and concept labels were matched, taking into account the opinions expressed in round two. Round one produced 408 descriptions of food parenting practices and 110 different concept names. Round two started with 116 descriptions of food parenting practices and 20 concept names. On 40 descriptions, consensus regarding the underlying concept name was reached in round two. Of the remaining 76 descriptions, consensus on 47 descriptions regarding the underlying concept name was reached in round three. The present study supports the essential process of consensus development with respect to food parenting practices concepts. PMID:24732407

Gevers, D W M; Kremers, S P J; de Vries, N K; van Assema, P

2014-08-01

91

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food irradiation is a promising technology in which food products are exposed to a controlled amount of radiant energy to eliminate disease-causing bacteria. The process can also control parasites and insects, reduce spoilage and inhibit ripening and sprouting. Food irradiation is endorsed by the most important health organisations (WHO, CDC, USDA, FDA, EFSA, etc.) and allowed in nearly 40 Countries. It is to remember that irradiation is not a substitute either for comprehensive food safety programs or for good food-handling practices. Irradiated foods must be labelled with either the statement treated with radiation or treated by irradiation and the international symbol for irradiation, the radura. Some consumer associations suppose negative aspects of irradiation, such as increase of the number of free radicals in food and decrease of antioxidant vitamins that neutralize them

92

Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: Initiatives, practices, and consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discarded electronic goods contain a range of toxic materials requiring special handling. Developed countries have conventions, directives, and laws to regulate their disposal, most based on extended producer responsibility. Manufacturers take back items collected by retailers and local governments for safe destruction or recovery of materials. Compliance, however, is difficult to assure, and frequently runs against economic incentives. The expense of proper disposal leads to the shipment of large amounts of e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other developing countries. Shipment is often through middlemen, and under tariff classifications that make quantities difficult to assess. There, despite the intents of national regulations and hazardous waste laws, most e-waste is treated as general refuse, or crudely processed, often by burning or acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released, harm to the environment, workers, and area residents is inevitable. The faster growth of e-waste generated in the developing than in the developed world presages continued expansion of a pervasive and inexpensive informal processing sector, efficient in its own way, but inherently hazard-ridden. - Highlights: ? Much e-waste, expensive to process safely, illegally goes to developing countries. ? E-waste processing in developing countries pollutes with heavy metals and dioxins. ? Well-conceived developing world waste regulations lack enforceability. ? Crude e-waste processing cannot recover several rare materials. ? The amount of e-waste unsafely processed will continue to grow.

Sthiannopkao, Suthipong, E-mail: suthisuthi@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Dong-A University, 37 Nakdong-Daero 550 beon-gil Saha-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Wong, Ming Hung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

2013-10-01

93

Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: Initiatives, practices, and consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Discarded electronic goods contain a range of toxic materials requiring special handling. Developed countries have conventions, directives, and laws to regulate their disposal, most based on extended producer responsibility. Manufacturers take back items collected by retailers and local governments for safe destruction or recovery of materials. Compliance, however, is difficult to assure, and frequently runs against economic incentives. The expense of proper disposal leads to the shipment of large amounts of e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other developing countries. Shipment is often through middlemen, and under tariff classifications that make quantities difficult to assess. There, despite the intents of national regulations and hazardous waste laws, most e-waste is treated as general refuse, or crudely processed, often by burning or acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released, harm to the environment, workers, and area residents is inevitable. The faster growth of e-waste generated in the developing than in the developed world presages continued expansion of a pervasive and inexpensive informal processing sector, efficient in its own way, but inherently hazard-ridden. - Highlights: ? Much e-waste, expensive to process safely, illegally goes to developing countries. ? E-waste processing in developing countries pollutes with heavy metals and dioxins. ? Well-conceived developing world waste regulations lack enforceability. ? Crude e-waste processing cannot recover several rare materials. ? The amount of e-waste unsafely processed will continue to grow

94

Food Safety Education Using an Interactive Multimedia Kiosk in a WIC Setting: Correlates of Client Satisfaction and Practical Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To assess acceptability of food safety education delivered by interactive multimedia (IMM) in a Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children Program (WIC) clinic. Methods: Female clients or caregivers (n = 176) completed the food-handling survey; then an IMM food safety education program on a computer kiosk.…

Trepka, Mary Jo; Newman, Frederick L.; Huffman, Fatma G.; Dixon, Zisca

2010-01-01

95

Characterization of Newcastle Disease Virus and poultry-handling practices in live poultry markets, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Newcastle disease represents the most severe poultry disease responsible for marked economic losses in Ethiopia. To provide a molecular characterization of Newcastle disease viruses circulating in this country, a cross sectional survey was conducted at five selected live poultry market sites in Addis Ababa. In addition, baseline data on the live poultry market system were acquired through a detailed questionnaire submitted to poultry traders. We identified 44/146 positive samples, 29 of which were virulent strains belonging to sub-genotype VIf. The very poor biosecurity practices, which have resulted from responses of the participants, suggest that they might have had a heavy impact in the spread of the disease. This study provides important information on epidemiology and control of NDV in Ethiopia and highlights the importance of implementing surveillances and biosecurity practices in live poultry markets. PMID:25279281

Mulisa, Delesa Damena; W/Kiros, Menbere Kidane; Alemu, Redeat Belaineh; Keno, Melaku Sombo; Furaso, Alice; Heidari, Alireza; Chibsa, Tesfaye Rufael; Chunde, Hassen Chaka

2014-01-01

96

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of University Students Regarding the Use of Nutritional Information and Food Labels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The food nutrition label provides the nutrition information that helps consumers on food choices and used to give us information so that customer can choose between foods. This study was aimed to determine the association between knowledge, attitude and practices on food label use and to determine the factors that influence the use of food labels during making food purchasing decision among university students. A cross-sectional study of undergraduate students at UiTM Puncak Alam in the Kuala Selangor district of Malaysia was conducted in June until July 2011. Three hundred twenty nine students (n = 329 volunteered to complete a Food Label Use Questionnaire (FLUQ which included question about sociodemographics, level of knowledge about food and nutrition, attitude and practices related to using food labels and factors affecting the use of food labelling. Hypothesis testing was completed using Independent t-test, Pearson chi-square and descriptive analysis in which the statistical significant level was set at a = 0.05. The results show that, only 21.6% of the students often use the food label during food purchasing decision. These study shows that the practices by read the nutrition information were significantly associated with the use of food label (p<0.05. The important aspect during buying food product was expiry date (98.5%, taste (95.7%, price (92.4% and nutrient content (90.5% were significantly associated with the use of food label. The students attitude which is do not know how to use nutritional information label (p = 0.028 and label was not attractive (p = 0.037 were significantly associated on food label use.

M.I. Khairil Anuar

2011-01-01

97

Command and Data Handling Flight Software test framework: A Radiation Belt Storm Probes practice  

Science.gov (United States)

During the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission, a test framework was developed by the Embedded Applications Group in the Space Department at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The test framework is implemented for verification of the Command and Data Handling (C& DH) Flight Software. The RBSP C& DH Flight Software consists of applications developed for use with Goddard Space Flight Center's core Flight Executive (cFE) architecture. The test framework's initial concept originated with tests developed for verification of the Autonomy rules that execute with the Autonomy Engine application of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software. The test framework was adopted and expanded for system and requirements verification of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software. During the evolution of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software test framework design, a set of script conventions and a script library were developed. The script conventions and library eased integration of system and requirements verification tests into a comprehensive automated test suite. The comprehensive test suite is currently being used to verify releases of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software. In addition to providing the details and benefits of the test framework, the discussion will include several lessons learned throughout the verification process of RBSP C& DH Flight Software. Our next mission, Solar Probe Plus (SPP), will use the cFE architecture for the C& DH Flight Software. SPP also plans to use the same ground system as RBSP. Many of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software applications are reusable on the SPP mission, therefore there is potential for test design and test framework reuse for system and requirements verification.

Hill, T. A.; Reid, W. M.; Wortman, K. A.

98

Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment and Excess Sludge Handling Practices in the Federated States of Micronesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of wastewater treatment facilities in the Federated States of Micronesia revealed a lack of fully functional treatment systems and conditions that potentially could lead to adverse environmental impacts and public health concerns. Due to inadequate facilities, the amount and composition of wastewater entering the plants as well as the degree of treatment being achieved is largely unknown. In some cases raw sewage is being discharged directly into the ocean and waste sludge is regularly taken by local residents for agricultural purposes without adequate treatment. In addition, the need to establish best management practices for placement and maintenance of septic tanks is urgent. Furthermore, development of eco-friendly solutions is needed to more effectively treat wastewater from industrial and agricultural sources in an effort to abate current pollution problems. Comparisons of treatment methods being used and problems encountered at different locations in the islands would provide valuable information to aid in the development of sustainable treatment practices throughout Micronesia.

Joseph D. Rouse

2013-09-01

99

Handling and reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens: A practice survey among pathologists  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are controversies on how to best sample and report radical prostatectomy specimens in order to accurately assess prognostic factors. The propensity for obedience to proposed guidelines are controversial likewise. We conducted a survey among Turkish pathologists and residents to assess the attitudes on this issue. Participants were asked about their pathology practice and how they fix, cut and sample the gland or report histologic-based prognostic factors. The results are discussed in the light of the current literature. Fifty-five percent of the 103 participants were studying in centers reporting over 10000 surgical specimens per year, 20% of which were non-university settings. The results showed that submission of whole gland (55% and volume assessment (25% were usually practiced in university hospitals (p<0.001 and p=0.02, respectively. Whole mount sectioning was not performed in any center. None of the participants use an alternative grading system, 19% comment upon tertiary Gleason pattern but define it as either the third most frequent pattern (10% or the highest grade constituting less than 5% of tumor (8%. Prognostic factors of proven significance as Gleason score, extraprostatic extension, vesicula seminalis invasion, and margin status are searched and commented by all respondents while the factors that require validation in multivariate studies are generally assessed by university members.

Ba?ak DO?ANAV?ARG?L

2007-05-01

100

Food irradiation: technology transfer in Asia, practical experiences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nordion International Inc., in cooperation with the Thai Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) recently completed a unique food irradiation technology transfer project in Thailand. This complete food irradiation technology transfer project included the design and construction of an automatic multipurpose irradiation facility as well as the services of construction and installation management and experts in facility operation, maintenance and training. This paper provides an insight into the many events that led to the successful conclusion of the world's first complete food irradiation technology transfer project. (Author)

 
 
 
 
101

Food irradiation: Technology transfer in Asia, practical experiences  

Science.gov (United States)

Nordion International Inc., in cooperation with the Thai Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) recently completed a unique food irradiation technology transfer project in Thailand. This complete food irradiation technology transfer project included the design and construction of an automatic multipurpose irradiation facility as well as the services of construction and installation management and experts in facility operation, maintenance and training. This paper provides an insight into the many events that led to the succesful conclusion of the world's first complete food irradiation technology transfer project.

Kunstadt, Peter; Eng, P.

1993-10-01

102

Practical aspects of testing food contact materials for migration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Progress in three areas has provided analytical methods and understanding to assist in migration testing for compliance with European Community Directives on food contact materials. A simple migration test has been developed to indicate whether or not a food makes fatty contact with plastics. This test is then used to guide the initial choice of appropriate food simulants. The Karl Fischer technique for water determination has been used to eliminate the need to humidity condition plastics in overall migration testing. This results in more rapid and more reliable migration testing. Finally, the stability of 'positive-list' monomers and other starting substances has been examined in food simulants. This identifies those substances which, for reasons of reactivity, may not be expected to survive a migration test and for which, therefore, migration testing as such is inappropriate. PMID:8039579

Castle, L; Honeybone, C A; Jickells, S M; Philo, M R; Sharman, M

1994-01-01

103

Practical handling of AIO admixtures – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 10  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available All-in-one admixtures (AIO-admixtures provide safe, effective and low-risk PN (parenteral nutrition for practically all indications and applications. Water, energy (carbohydrates and lipids, amino acids, vitamins and trace elements are infused together with PN either as industrially-manufactured AIO admixtures provided as two- or three-chamber bags (shelf life usually more than 12 months completed with electrolytes and micronutrients where appropriate or as individually compounded ready-to-use AIO admixtures (compounding, usually prepared by a pharmacy on either a daily or weekly basis and stored at 2–8°C. Physico-chemical and microbial stability of an AIO admixture is essential for the safety and effectiveness of patient-specific PN, and its assurance requires specialist pharmaceutical knowledge. The stability should be documented for an application period of 24 (–48 hours. It is advisable to offer a limited selection of different PN regimes in each hospital. For reasons of drug and medication safety, PN admixtures prepared for individual patients must be correctly labelled and specifications for storage conditions must also be followed during transport. Monitoring is required where applicable. Micronutrients are usually administered separately to AIO admixtures. In case compatibility and stability have been well documented trace elements and/or combination preparations including water-soluble or water-soluble/fat soluble vitamin supplements can be added to PN admixtures under strict aseptic conditions. AIO admixtures are usually not used as vehicles for drugs (incompatibilities.

Stanga, Z.

2009-11-01

104

Knowledge and Practice of Prechewing/Prewarming Food by HIV-Infected Women  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: HIV transmission has been associated with offering a child food prechewed by an HIV-infected caregiver. We assessed awareness of prechewing and oral prewarming of food by an adult before offering it to a child among HIV-infected pregnant women and clinical investigators in 3 Latin American countries. METHODS: HIV-infected pregnant women at 12 sites (Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Longitudinal Study in Latin American Countries, a prospective cohort trial) in Argentina, Brazil, and Peru were administered a screening survey about prechewing/prewarming of infant foods and cautioned against these feeding practices. Survey responses were analyzed, overall, and stratified according to country. RESULTS: Of the 401 HIV-infected pregnant women interviewed, 34% had heard about prechewing (50% from Argentina, 32% from Brazil, and 36% from Peru), 23% knew someone who prechewed food for infants, and 4% had prechewed food in the past. Seventeen percent had heard about oral prewarming of food, 13% knew someone who prewarmed food for infants, and 3% had prewarmed food for an infant in the past. Women who reported knowing someone who prechewed were more likely to also know someone who prewarmed food (P < .0001). Few site investigators anticipated that their patients would be aware of these practices. CONCLUSIONS: Prechewing food, a potential risk factor for HIV transmission, and orally prewarming food, which has not been associated with HIV transmission but might expose a child to blood from an HIV-infected adult, are not uncommon practices in Latin America. Both practices should be further investigated. Site investigator responses underscore that health care providers could be missing information about cultural practices that patients may not report unless specifically asked. PMID:21482608

Freimanis-Hance, Laura; Dominguez, Kenneth; Mitchell, Charles; Menezes, Jacqueline; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Peixoto, Mario F.; Alarcon, Jorge; Coelho, Debora F.; Read, Jennifer S.

2011-01-01

105

What do Andy Warhol, pecorino and wasabi have in common? Food practices in Ljubljana and Maribor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors present an analysis of food practices based on the research project »Media consumption, class and cultural stratification«. A cluster analysis of data obtained from a random sample of the adult population in Ljubljana and Maribor, the two biggest cities in Slovenia, revealed four food cultures: Aspiring traditionalists (27% of the sample, Struggling traditionalists (32%, Health conscious and socially responsible hedonists (29% and Traditionalists, adapted to urban trends (12%. The findings support previous research which recognises significant associations between food practices, socio-demographic factors (particularly education, values and cultural consumption. The data show that food practices in Ljubljana and Maribor are still primarily traditionalistic, as are several other practices of everyday life.

Tanja Kamin

2012-12-01

106

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice between Medical and Non-Medical Sciences Students about Food Labeling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Considering the significant role of consumers’ awareness about food labels in making healthy food choices, this study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and prac-tice of university students about food labeling.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 332 students aged 18-25 yr in five different academic ma-jors (including Nutrition, Public Health, Health Services Administration, Paramedical and En-gineering) were asked to complete an approved questionnaire contained f...

Aida Malek Mahdavi; Paria Abdolahi; Reza Mahdavi

2012-01-01

107

Beliefs and practices of urban mothers regarding "hot" and "cold" foods in childhood illnesses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Beliefs and practices of 100 urban mothers regarding "hot" and "cold" foods during four common childhood illnesses were determined by using a pretested, partly structured interview schedule. Egg, by 60% of mothers, mango by 52%, lentils by 49%, jaggery by 46% were considered "hot" properties. "Hot" foods were preferred and "cold" foods restricted in the treatment of cough and cold and illnesses with rash. In diarrhoea, "cold" foods were preferred and "hot" foods restricted. The knowledge that many food combinations and certain procedures are believed to change the properties of common food may be utilized in promoting the consumption of nutritionally balanced diets. Introduction of culturally acceptable education in nutrition which incorporates the above knowledge is likely to help in the prevention of protein-energy malnutrition and to increase parental co-operation during therapy. PMID:6185086

Real, M; Kumar, V; Nanda, M; Vanaja, K

1982-06-01

108

Practical applications of phage-based technologies in food safety  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major foodborne pathogen. It produces Shiga toxins that cause bloody diarrhea and, in some cases, hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. E. coli O157:H7 mainly colonizes the intestine of cattle. Once infected, cattle can shed high concentrations of the bacteria leading to widespread transmission along the food production chain. Here, we describe the successful application of bacteriophages for the control of E. coli O157:H7 in food matrices. Sixteen of wild-type an...

Pan, Yanying

2013-01-01

109

Identifying Key Risk Behaviors Regarding Personal Hygiene and Food Safety Practices of Food Handlers Working in Eating Establishments Located Within a Hospital Campus in Kolkata  

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Full Text Available Background: Hospital canteens cater to a large population group and personal hygiene and food safety practices of food handlers assume immense importance to prevent food borne disease outbreaks. Objectives: To assess the self-reported behaviour of food handlers on personal hygiene and food safety practices and to find out their morbidity profile. Methods: An observational study was conducted by interviewing 67 consenting food handlers working in different eateries inside a hospital campus, using a pretested, predesigned schedule. Results: Majority (46.3% of food handlers were educated upto primary level. Only 14.9% foodhandlers received preplacement training and 10.5%, preplacement medical checkup. Though practices of hand washing after going to toilet (95.5% and before preparing food (79.1% was reported to be quite high but for most other practices, hygiene was found to be low. Cuts/injuries on hands was reported as the most common morbidity in 44.8% but 11.9% continued work without any treatment. Conclusion: Preplacement training and in-service education on personal / food hygiene should be provided to all food handlers. Periodic medical checkups and routine sanitary inspection can improve their adherence to personal hygiene and food safety practices and prevent outbreak of food borne illnesses

Prianka Mukhopadhyay*, Gautam Kr. Joardar, Kanad Bag, Amrita Samanta, Sonali Sain and Sesadri Koley

2012-01-01

110

Best practice in sustainable public-sector food procurement  

Mar 7, 2005 ... 2.2 Fruit and vegetable supply chain issues and action areas............................. .... \\Summarise the key factors in sustainable procurement practice, with reference to \\..... In the South West the thinking is also emerging that where a ...

111

Impact Analysis of Knowledge Practice for Food Safety in Urban Area of Varanasi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was planned with main objective of identifying buying practices of homemakers and their awareness in food practices in Varanasi (urban area. For this objective, questionnaire was prepared and distributed among selected people depends on their age group, sex and educational background. Statistical test were carried out on the basis of frequency of male and female respondents obtained in total respondents (n = 300. Chi square test were carried out and the calculated value were compared with value of t test (0.05 and on this basis, conclusion were drawn. Correlation between different variables was determined for their impact. Study revealed that educated people of both sexes follow slightly good buying practices while homemakers are not following food practices and also they differ significantly in following the practices in term of use of quality water which affects the family health. Study also revealed that age and awareness are not interlinked while education is interlinked with good practices.

S.M. Bhatt

2010-01-01

112

Analysis of School Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine how school districts have implemented food safety programs based on HACCP principles. Specific objectives included: (1) Evaluate how schools are implementing components of food safety programs; and (2) Determine foodservice employees food-handling practices related to food safety.…

Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin; Sneed, Jeannie; Kwon, Junehee; Olds, David; Cole, Kerri; Shanklin, Carol

2014-01-01

113

A survey of current ostrich handling and transport practices in North America with reference to ostrich welfare and transportation guidelines set up in other countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Appropriate management of an ostrich's exposure to stressors during preslaughter handling and transport practices can improve its well-being and product quality. Because of the lack of information about ostrich farming and transportation in North America and lack of developed Codes of Practice for ratite transport in Canada and the United States, the first objective of our research was to identify current preslaughter handling and transport practices of the ostrich industry in Canada and the United States, and to identify potential welfare issues based on the current practices. The second objective of this research was to review ostrich transport welfare standards and guidelines from Australia, European Union, New Zealand, and South Africa to investigate if those guidelines are applicable to Canadian and American ostrich production systems. Preliminary producer interviews, on-farm visits, and literature review information sources were used to design a producer questionnaire that was used to survey producers by Internet and mail surveying methods to identify existing ostrich transport norms in Canada and the United States. Based on the results of our producer survey and review of the transport standards and guidelines, we conclude that following factors are potential ostrich handling and transport welfare issues in Canada and the United States: lack of scientific information about welfare of ostriches during handling and transport; unfamiliarity of handlers and birds with handling and transport practices; not considering birds' social bounds, sex, behavior, and physical state in mixing them during handling and transport process; lack of an established specific maximum water and feed withdrawal duration for ostrich transport in Canada and the United States; lack of a specific vehicle designed for ratite transportation in Canada and the United States considering different physical body characteristics of ostriches compared with other species; exposure of birds to natural light during transport inside the trailer; overcrowding; and long transportation in Canada and the United States. Results of this research will contribute toward developing Codes of Practice for preslaughter handling, transportation, and slaughter of ostriches in Canada and the United States. PMID:24570450

Bejaei, M; Cheng, K M

2014-02-01

114

Perceived parental food controlling practices are related to obesogenic or leptogenic child life style behaviors.  

Science.gov (United States)

To better understand whether the parental food controlling practices pressure and restriction to eat are obesity preventing or obesity promoting, this study examined whether these parenting practices are related to other (food or non-food) areas that are generally regarded as obesogenic or leptogenic. Are these foods controlling practices more indicative of obesogenic or leptogenic child life style behaviors? In a sample of 7-12-year-old boys and girls (n = 943) the perceived parental food controlling practices were related to various measures for unhealthy life style. Using factor analysis we assessed whether there is a constellation of lifestyle behaviors that is potentially obesogenic or leptogenic. Remarkably, perceived parental restriction and pressure loaded on two different factors. Perceived parental restriction to eat had a negative loading on a factor that further comprised potential obesogenic child life style behaviors, such as snacking (positive loading), time spend with screen media (television or computer) (positive loadings) and frequency of fruit consumption (negative loading). Perceived parental pressure to eat had a positive loading on a factor that further comprised potential leptogenic life style behaviors such as frequency of eating a breakfast meal and sporting (positive loadings). It is concluded that low perceived parental restriction in regard to food may perhaps be a sign of more uninvolved 'neglecting' or indulgent parenting/obesogenic home environment, whereas high perceived parental pressure to eat may be sign of a more 'concerned' leptogenic parenting/home environment, though more research into style of parenting is needed. PMID:19467280

Van Strien, Tatjana; van Niekerk, Rianne; Ouwens, Machteld A

2009-08-01

115

Survey of current vitamin D food fortification practices in the United States and Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

Widespread poor vitamin D status in all age and gender groups in the United States (USA) and Canada increases the need for new food sources. Currently ?60% of the intake of vitamin D from foods is from fortified foods in these countries. Those groups in greatest need are consuming significantly lower amounts of commonly fortified foods such as milk. Both countries allow voluntary vitamin D fortification of some other foods, although in Canada this practice is only done on a case-by-case basis. Novel approaches to vitamin D fortification of food in both countries now include "bio-addition" in which food staples are fortified through the addition of another vitamin D-rich food to animal feed during production, or manipulation of food post-harvest or pre-processing. These bio-addition approaches provide a wider range of foods containing vitamin D, and thus appeal to differing preferences, cultures and possibly economic status. An example is the post-harvest exposure of edible mushrooms to ultraviolet light. However, further research into safety and efficacy of bio-addition needs to be established in different target populations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:23104118

Calvo, Mona S; Whiting, Susan J

2013-07-01

116

Vitamin profile of cooked foods: how healthy is the practice of ready-to-eat foods?  

Science.gov (United States)

During recent years importance of B complex vitamins, beta-carotene and vitamin C has been realised in terms of their antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. Fruits and vegetables are the rich sources of these vitamins. However, there are considerable cooking losses of vitamins, and information on vitamin contents of cooked foods is essential for assessing the adequacy of vitamin intakes. Secondly, there is a growing trend to consume ready-to-eat foods such as stuffed pancakes (samosa, patties), pastries, French fries; replacing traditional foods for lunch or dinner like roti, vegetable curry, bread, non-vegetarian items. Ready-to-eat foods are considered to give empty calories rather than a balanced diet. A study was undertaken to estimate ascorbic acid, folic acid, riboflavin, thiamine and beta-carotene of 263 cooked food samples and 260 meals representing dietary patterns of Asia, Africa, Europe, USA and Latin America by spectrophotometry and photoflurometry. A broad range of beta-carotene (84-2038 mcg%), riboflavin (0.01-0.48 mg%), thiamine (0.04-0.36 mg%), vitamin C (1-28 mg%) and folate (26-111 mcg%) was observed in individual foods. Bakery products and sweets were found to be poor sources and green leafy vegetables and fruits were good sources of these five vitamins. The differences between ready-to-eat foods and meals consumed during lunch or dinner were prominent for beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, riboflavin and folic acid (P types of fruits and vegetables rich in vitamins; preferably in their uncooked form, rather than considering their total consumption. PMID:11951583

Agte, Vaishali; Tarwadi, Kirtan; Mengale, Sangeeta; Hinge, Ashwini; Chiplonkar, Shashi

2002-05-01

117

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice between Medical and Non-Medical Sciences Students about Food Labeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Considering the significant role of consumers awareness about food labels in making healthy food choices, this study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and prac-tice of university students about food labeling.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 332 students aged 18-25 yr in five different academic ma-jors (including Nutrition, Public Health, Health Services Administration, Paramedical and En-gineering were asked to complete an approved questionnaire contained fifteen questions. The chi-square test was applied to examine the differences across various major groups.Results: 89.2% of the students believed that food labels had effect on nutritional awareness. 77.4% were agreed with the usefulness of the food labels and 79.2% did not feel that nutrition claims on food label were truthful. For 84% of students, the expiry date and storage conditions information were the most important informational cues to appear on the food labels. From 47.6% of students who reported the use of nutrition facts label in their often or always shopping; only 32.3% used the information on labels to fit the food into their daily diet. Surprisingly, fatty acids were the least noteworthy items (1.9% on nutrition facts labels. Regarding students’ major, there was significant difference in their knowledge, attitude and practice about truth of the nutri-tion claims, using food labels and importance of health claims (P<0.05.Conclusion: Food labels were more useful tools for students and had an effect on their nutri-tional awareness. Designing and implementation of the educational programs in order to increase the level of knowledge about food labels is suggested.

Aida Malek Mahdavi

2012-12-01

118

Food webs: a ladder for picking strawberries or a practical tool for practical problems?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While food webs have provided a rich vein of research material over the last 50 years, they have largely been the subject matter of the pure ecologist working in natural habitats. While there are some notable exceptions to this trend, there are, as I explain in this paper, many applied questions that could be answered using a food web approach. The paper is divided into two halves. The first half provides a brief review of six areas where food webs have begun to be used as an applied tool: re...

Memmott, Jane

2009-01-01

119

A Study of impact of Education on Awareness, Personal Hygiene and Practices of food handlers of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kashmir, India  

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Full Text Available Background Each year 9.4 million people suffer from food borne diseases throughout the world; everyday cases related to food borne diseases are recorded in all countries from the most to the least developed ones. A major risk of food contamination lies with the food handlers.Several food borne disease outbreaks have been reported to have been associated with poor personal hygiene of people handling food stuffs. Method A questionnaire was structured for the purpose of data collection to find out effect of educational background on personal hygiene, awareness regarding transmission of food borne infections and routine practices among food handler of the food establishments of a super speciality teaching hospital of Kashmir. Results Out of 121 respondents (33.05 percent cooks, 42.97 percent stewards and 23.97 percent dishwashers, 90.90 percent were males and 9.10 percent females. Majority (90.90 percent have educational background below high school level (group B and the rest (9.10% have education above 10th standard (group A. Soap was used by majority(90.9% of group A in comparison to group B(59.1% before entering kitchen.72.7% of group A employees change their shoes and use kitchen slippers in the kitchen, whereas only 31.8% of group B employees do so and the rest(68.2% do not change the foot wear before entering the kitchen.While 81.8% of group A employees responded that diarrhoeal diseases spread by contaminated food,majority of group B(62.7% responded other reasons.81.8% of group A feel it necessary to chlorinate or filter visibly clean water, whereas only 52.7% of group B feel so. Conclusion Food handlers of any food establishment, in particular hospital kitchen should have high standard of educational background to have enough awareness regarding food borne diseases and importance of personal hygiene to prevent transmission of diseases. Because of poor educational background, the food handlers in our study didn’t know the importance of use of soap & therefore despite availability of soap in washrooms, 59.1% of group B employees wash their hands with plain water before commencing their work. Lack of awareness of transmission of food borne infections & personal hygiene are secondary to lack of knowledge due poor education.

Hina

2013-05-01

120

The Importance of Prebiotics in Functional Foods and Clinical Practice  

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Full Text Available Prebiotics are substances that can promote the growth of beneficial microorganisms, mainly in the intestinal tract, and will modify the colonic microbiota. The following health benefits are attributed to prebiotics: relief from poor digestion of lactose, increased resistance to bacterial infection, better immune response and possible protection against cancer, reduction of the risk of diseases such as intestinal disease, cardiovascular disease, non-insulin dependent diabetes, obesity and osteoporosis. This article presents a discussion of prebiotics, with descriptions of the concepts and its use in clinical practice, and a review of some recent research showing the benefits that these ingredients provide to human health and providing data on the recommended intakes for consumption.

Elisvânia Freitas dos Santos

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
121

Impact Analysis of Knowledge Practice for Food Safety in Urban Area of Varanasi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was planned with main objective of identifying buying practices of homemakers and their awareness in food practices in Varanasi (urban area). For this objective, questionnaire was prepared and distributed among selected people depends on their age group, sex and educational background. Statistical test were carried out on the basis of frequency of male and female respondents obtained in total respondents (n = 300). Chi square test were carried out and the calculated value we...

Bhatt, S. M.; Shuchi Rai Bhatt; Anita Singh

2010-01-01

122

Seed handling practices: four fast-growing hardwoods for humid tropical plantations in the Eighties. [Acacia mangium, Albizia falcataria, E. deglupta, Gmelina arborea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research in Sabah in 1981/82 is reported on the phenology, harvesting, cleaning, testing and storage of the seed of Acacia mangium, Albizia falcataria, Eucalyptus deglupta and Gmelina arborea. Seed handling practices were standardized for all except G. arborea. In A. mangium, branch lopping was the preferred harvesting method, and variation was observed in the fruiting season and seed funicle type (probably due to introgression with A. auriculiformis).

Bowen, M.R.; Eusebio, T.V.

1984-01-01

123

Food parenting practices and child dietary behavior. Prospective relations and the moderating role of general parenting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on parenting practices has focused on individual behaviors while largely failing to consider the context of their use, i.e., general parenting. We examined the extent to which food parenting practices predict children's dietary behavior (classified as unhealthy: snacking, sugar-sweetened beverage; and healthy: water and fruit intake). Furthermore, we tested the moderating role of general parenting on this relationship. Within the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, in the Netherlands, questionnaire data were collected at 6 and 8 years (N = 1654). Correlations were computed to assess the association between food parenting practices and general parenting (i.e., nurturance, behavioral control, structure, coercive control, and overprotection). Linear regression models were fitted to assess whether food parenting practices predict dietary behavior. Instrumental and emotional feeding, and pressure to eat were found to have associations with undesirable child dietary behavior (increased unhealthy intake/decreased healthy intake), whereas associations were in the desirable direction for covert control, encouragement and restriction. Moderation analyses were performed by evaluating interactions with general parenting. The associations of encouragement and covert control with desirable child dietary behaviors were found to be stronger for children who were reared in a positive parenting context. Future research should assess the influence of contextual parenting factors moderating the relationships between food parenting and child dietary behavior as the basis for the development of more effective family-based interventions. PMID:24727101

Sleddens, Ester F C; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; Dagnelie, Pieter C; De Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel

2014-08-01

124

Children's Visual Representations of Food and Meal Time: Towards an Understanding of Nutrition and Educational Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the broad perspective of school and social exclusion, this article pays attention to an important factor of exclusion: overweight and obesity in primary school children. An interdisciplinary research was conducted and aimed at the study of social representations and practices surrounding food which primary school children, their parents and…

Savoie-Zajc, Lorraine

2005-01-01

125

The influence of infant food advertising on infant feeding practices in St. Vincent.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey designed to examine the extent to which infant food advertising could be shown measurably to influence infant feeding practices was carried out in St. Vincent in the eastern Caribbean. A questionnaire was administered to mothers of about 200 children one to two years old, nearly a complete sample in each of two towns. Infant food advertising was found to be uncommon. The typical infant feeding pattern, largely a combination of both breast feeding and bottle feeding, had existed for decades. Despite the fact that this was not a very appropriate setting for such a study and that there were a number of methodological constraints, the results of two multiple regression analyses suggested that the more a mother was influenced by infant food advertising, the sooner she began to bottle feed and the sooner she stopped breastfeeding. The cessation of all promotion of commercial infant foods, to the public as well as to health professionals, is called for. PMID:7076379

Greiner, T; Latham, M C

1982-01-01

126

Investigation of Food Acceptability and Feeding Practices for Lipid Nutrient Supplements and Blended Flours Used to Treat Moderate Malnutrition  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To examine acceptability and feeding practices associated with different supplementary food items and identify practices associated with weight gain. Methods: Caregivers (n = 409) whose children had been enrolled in a trial comparing a fortified corn-soy blended flour (CSB++), soy ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF), and soy/whey…

Wang, Richard J.; Trehan, Indi; LaGrone, Lacey N.; Weisz, Ariana J.; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M.; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Manary, Mark J.

2013-01-01

127

Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially. PMID:21192997

Hjelmar, Ulf

2011-04-01

128

Impact of Media and Education on Food Practices in Urban Area of Varanasi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Currently food malpractices are increasing in various metro cities of India and all the measures taken by agencies are failed to detect rapidly and many times it becomes late when the adulteration is detected. Worst scenario is the adulteration of some branded items of the children’s and in the women’s use such as milk cheese, ghee and oils. Therefore, Study for food practices and safety measures was done in selected area of Varanasi which was also validated by the wetlab meth...

Bhatt Shuchi R, Bhatt Sheeendra M.

2012-01-01

129

Codex general standard for irradiated foods and recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission was established to implement the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. The purpose of this programme is to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. At its 15th session, held in July 1983, the Commission adopted a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and a Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods. This Standard takes into account the recommendations and conclusions of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committees convened to evaluate all available data concerning the various aspects of food irradiation. This Standard refers only to those aspects which relate to the processing of foods by ionising energy. The Standard recognizes that the process of food irradiation has been established as safe for general application to an overall average level of absorbed dose of 10 KGy. The latter value shold not be regarded as a toxicological upper limit above which irradiated foods become unsafe; it is simply the level at or below which safety has been established. The Standard provides certain mandatory provisions concerning the facilities used and for the control of the process in the irradiation plants. The present Standard requires that shipping documents accompanying irradiated foods moving in trade should indicate the fact of irradiation. The labelling of prepackaged irradiated foods intended for direct sale to the consumer is not covered in this Standard

130

Best Practice No 179: Guidelines for breast needle core biopsy handling and reporting in breast screening assessment  

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Non-operative diagnosis has become the norm in breast disease assessment and, until relatively recently, fine needle aspiration cytology has been the sampling method of choice. The introduction of automated core biopsy guns in the mid 1990s led to the additional introduction of core biopsy in assessment units. This paper presents a summary of the guidance on handling and routine reporting of breast needle core biopsy specimens in the context of breast disease multidisciplinary assessment. Thi...

Ellis, I. O.; Humphreys, S.; Michell, M.; Pinder, S. E.; Wells, C. A.; Zakhour, H. D.

2004-01-01

131

Electron accelerators for food preservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interest in radiation processing of agricultural and food products is emerging world over for reasons related to: a) Persistently high food losses due to infestation, contamination and spoilage, b) Mounting concern over food borne diseases and, c) Growing international trade in food products that must meet stiff import standards of quality and quarantine. The radiation processing has demonstrated practical benefits, in all above areas, when integrated within an established system for safe handling and distribution of the agricultural and food products in a country

132

Household Food Security Is Associated with Infant Feeding Practices in Rural Bangladesh1,2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although household food security (HHFS) has been shown to affect diet, nutrition, and health of adults and also learning in children, no study has examined associations with infant feeding practices (IFP). We studied 1343 infants born between May 2002 and December 2003 in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention in Matlab study to investigate the effect of HHFS on IFP in rural Bangladesh. We measured HHFS using a previously developed 11-item scale. Cumulative and current infant feeding ...

Saha, Kuntal K.; Frongillo, Edward A.; Alam, Dewan S.; Arifeen, Shams E.; Persson, Lars A?ke; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.

2008-01-01

133

Women Food Safety Practices from Shopping to Eating in Ankara, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the methods used for food storage and preparation in the Turkish household and to determine the domestic knowledge on food hygiene and food safety. A sample of 250 randomly selected, voluntary, married Turkish women participated in the survey. The research data were collected through a questionnaire and face-to-face interviews. The research findings revealed that the great majority of the women purchased meat at the end of shopping, thawed raw meat in the refrigerator, left hot food to cool in the room temperature and did not know the required refrigerator temperature for proper food storage. It was determined that 89.2% of the women deemed hand washing very important, but 43.2% of them did not wash their hands appropriately. Ninety point four percent of the women did not know the definition of cross contamination. The findings proved that some practices of the women changed according to their educational status. Considering the foodborne poisonings, the importance of education provided for women becomes evidently clear.

Canan Talas

2009-01-01

134

Food consumption by young children: a function of parental feeding goals and practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Staggering health implications are associated with poor child diet. Given the importance of parents in impacting children's eating outcomes, the current study examined a theoretical framework in which both parental feeding goals and practices impact specific healthy and unhealthy child eating behaviors. Participants were 171 mothers of 3-6year old children who were diverse both socioeconomically and with regard to BMI. Mothers completed questionnaires via Mechanical Turk, an online workforce through Amazon.com. Structural Equation Modeling showed an adequate model fit in which Negative Feeding Practices (e.g., using food as a reward) mediated the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals (i.e., feeding children with health-oriented goals in mind) and Negative Eating Behaviors (e.g., consumption of candy and snacks). However, Negative Feeding Practices did not mediate the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals and Positive Eating Behaviors (i.e., fruits and vegetables). These findings suggest the important role of habitual food parenting practices in children's eating and have implications for parental health education programs. PMID:24275668

Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison E; Hoffmann, Debra A; Meers, Molly R; Koball, Afton M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

2014-03-01

135

Collaborative research: Development of a manual on elasmobranch handling and release best practices in tropical tuna purse-seine fisheries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The reduction of by-catch mortality is an objective of the ecosystem approach to fisheries and a request made by consumers. Elasmobranchs, an important component of the French tropical tuna purse seine fishery by-catch, are currently thrown back into the sea. Fishers interact with various types of elasmobranchs that range widely in size, weight and shape, and could pose various degrees of danger to the crew. A diversity of discarding practices within the fleet were reported, some practices we...

Poisson, Francois; Seret, Bernard; Vernet, Anne-lise; Goujon, Michel; Dagorn, Laurent

2014-01-01

136

Meeting the requirements of importing countries: practice and policy for on-farm approaches to food safety.  

Science.gov (United States)

In light of the increasing consumer demand for safe, high-quality food and recent public health concerns about food-borne illness, governments and agricultural industries are under pressure to provide comprehensive food safety policies and programmes consistent with international best practice. Countries that export food commodities derived from livestock must meet both the requirements of the importing country and domestic standards. It is internationally accepted that end-product quality control, and similar methods aimed at ensuring food safety, cannot adequately ensure the safety of the final product. To achieve an acceptable level of food safety, governments and the agricultural industry must work collaboratively to provide quality assurance systems, based on sound risk management principles, throughout the food supply chain. Quality assurance systems on livestock farms, as in other parts of the food supply chain, should address food safety using hazard analysis critical control point principles. These systems should target areas including biosecurity, disease monitoring and reporting, feedstuff safety, the safe use of agricultural and veterinary chemicals, the control of potential food-borne pathogens and traceability. They should also be supported by accredited training programmes, which award certification on completion, and auditing programmes to ensure that both local and internationally recognised guidelines and standards continue to be met. This paper discusses the development of policies for on-farm food safety measures and their practical implementation in the context of quality assurance programmes, using the Australian beef industry as a case study. PMID:17094706

Dagg, P J; Butler, R J; Murray, J G; Biddle, R R

2006-08-01

137

Identifying Practical Solutions to Meet America’s Fiber Needs: Proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the “Food & Fiber Summit,” which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber’s role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap.

Amy R. Mobley

2014-07-01

138

Advanced glycation end products in foods and a practical guide to their reduction in the diet.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern diets are largely heat-processed and as a result contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Dietary advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) are known to contribute to increased oxidant stress and inflammation, which are linked to the recent epidemics of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This report significantly expands the available dAGE database, validates the dAGE testing methodology, compares cooking procedures and inhibitory agents on new dAGE formation, and introduces practical approaches for reducing dAGE consumption in daily life. Based on the findings, dry heat promotes new dAGE formation by >10- to 100-fold above the uncooked state across food categories. Animal-derived foods that are high in fat and protein are generally AGE-rich and prone to new AGE formation during cooking. In contrast, carbohydrate-rich foods such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and milk contain relatively few AGEs, even after cooking. The formation of new dAGEs during cooking was prevented by the AGE inhibitory compound aminoguanidine and significantly reduced by cooking with moist heat, using shorter cooking times, cooking at lower temperatures, and by use of acidic ingredients such as lemon juice or vinegar. The new dAGE database provides a valuable instrument for estimating dAGE intake and for guiding food choices to reduce dAGE intake. PMID:20497781

Uribarri, Jaime; Woodruff, Sandra; Goodman, Susan; Cai, Weijing; Chen, Xue; Pyzik, Renata; Yong, Angie; Striker, Gary E; Vlassara, Helen

2010-06-01

139

Child feeding practices, food habits, anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance among preschoolers in Peninsular Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to determine the relationship between child feeding practices, food habits, and anthropometric indicators with cognitive performance of preschoolers aged 4-6 years in Peninsular Malaysia (n=1933). Parents were interviewed on socio-demographic background, nutrition knowledge, child feeding practices and food habits. Height and weight of the preschoolers were measured; BMI-for-age, weight-for-age and height-for-age were determined. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The mean monthly household income was RM3610 and 59.6% of parents attained secondary education. Thirty-three percent of parents had good knowledge on nutrition, 39% satisfactory and 28% poor. For child feeding practices, perceived responsibility had the highest mean score (M=3.99, SD=0.72), while perceived child weight had the lowest (M=2.94, SD=0.38). The prevalence of possible risk of overweight, being overweight, and obesity were 3.9%, 7.9% and 8.1%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of underweight and stunting were 8.0% and 8.4%, respectively. Breakfast was the second most frequently skipped meal (16.8%) after dinner (18.1%). The mean cognitive score was 103.5 (SD=14.4). Height-for-age and consumption of dinner were found to contribute significantly towards cognitive performance after controlling for socio-demographic background and parent's nutrition knowledge. PMID:22265752

Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Norimah, Abdul Karim; Hazizi, Abu Saad; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Loh, Siow Hon; Suraya, Ibrahim

2012-04-01

140

Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant and Aboriginal women in Canada: a study protocol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to understand ethnocultural food and health practices of Aboriginal and immigrant women, and how these intersect with respect to the legacy of Aboriginal colonialism and to the social contexts of cultural adaptation and adjustment of immigrants. The findings will inform the development of visual tools for health promotion by practitioners. Methods/Design This four-phase study employs a case study design allowing for multiple means of data collection and different units of analysis. Phase 1 consists of a scoping review of the literature. Phases 2 and 3 incorporate pictorial representations of food choices (photovoice in Phase 2 with semi-structured photo-elicited interviews (in Phase 3. The findings from Phases 1-3 and consultations with key stakeholders will generate key understandings for Phase 4, the production of culturally appropriate visual tools. For the scoping review, an emerging methodological framework will be utilized in addition to systematic review guidelines. A research librarian will assist with the search strategy and retrieval of literature. For Phases 2 and 3, recruitment of 20-24 women will be facilitated by team member affiliations at perinatal clinics in one of the city's most diverse neighbourhoods. The interviews will reveal culturally normative practices surrounding maternal food choices and consumption, including how women negotiate these practices within their own worldview and experiences. A structured and comprehensive integrated knowledge translation plan has been formulated. Discussion The findings of this study will provide practitioners with an understanding of the cultural differences that affect women's dietary choices during maternity. We expect that the developed resources will be of immediate use within the women's units and will enhance counseling efforts. Wide dissemination of outputs may have a greater long term impact in the primary and secondary prevention of these high risk conditions.

Higginbottom Gina MA

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

Food safety and risk communication: cases history and best practice (in avian flu  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of institutional communication in the case of health risks and emergencies. The article is divided in three sections. The first section examines the most recent theories on risk and on its communicational aspect; the second analyses a recent state of emergency crisis, specifically the panic which stemmed from the perceived danger of an avian flu pandemic in Italy; and finally an example of best practice in the form of a food safety handbook designed and edited by the Italian Ministry of Rural Affairs, which was based on the skills and knowledge acquired during the avian flu emergency.

Piermarco Aroldi

2007-03-01

142

Knowledge, attitudes, and poultry-handling practices of poultry workers in relation to avian influenza in India  

Science.gov (United States)

Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The recent pandemics caused by highly pathogenic AIA (H5N1) in domestic poultry is currently rated phase 3 by the World Health Organization on the pandemicalert scale. Materials and Methods: A pretested and semistructured survey instrument was administered to both live bird market and poultry farm workers in two most populous cities in Karnataka in South India to collect data on demographics, knowledge, attitude, and practices among them. Results: The mean age was similar among both population groups (31.5 years). There was a higher level of biosecurity practices adopted in poultry farms compared with those adopted in live bird market. Knowledge regarding AI was acceptable but poorly correlated with actual biosecurity practices. Discussion: Live bird market and poultry farm workers have been identified as the weakest link in the prevention and control of the spread of AI in the two most populous cities studied in Karnataka. Conclusion: Risk reduction models of behavior change targeting these groups are important toward the control and prevention of AI spread. PMID:24082643

Kumar, Sudhir C.; Ramesh, Naveen; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Joseph, Bobby; Alle, Prashanth; Belani, Kumar G.; Osterholm, Michael T.

2013-01-01

143

[A guide to good practice for information security in the handling of personal health data by health personnel in ambulatory care facilities].  

Science.gov (United States)

The appearance of electronic health records has led to the need to strengthen the security of personal health data in order to ensure privacy. Despite the large number of technical security measures and recommendations that exist to protect the security of health data, there is an increase in violations of the privacy of patients' personal data in healthcare organizations, which is in many cases caused by the mistakes or oversights of healthcare professionals. In this paper, we present a guide to good practice for information security in the handling of personal health data by health personnel, drawn from recommendations, regulations and national and international standards. The material presented in this paper can be used in the security audit of health professionals, or as a part of continuing education programs in ambulatory care facilities. PMID:24582808

Sánchez-Henarejos, Ana; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio; Hernández-Hernández, Isabel; Sánchez-García, Ana Belén; Carrillo de Gea, Juan Manuel

2014-04-01

144

Foods  

... Charles Brennan Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Christchurch, New Zealand Tel. +64 ...lincoln.ac.nz/staff-profile?staffid=charles.brennan Interests: polysaccharide utilisation, glycemic response; dietary fibre; food structure and function Contribution:...Group, Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Agriculture and Life Sciences, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand Interests: positive components of ...

145

Tobacco advertising and sales practices in licensed retail outlets after the Food and Drug Administration regulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess retailer compliance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations on tobacco sales and advertising practices, including point-of-sale advertisements, in two distinct Columbus, Ohio neighborhood groups by income. Data were gathered from a random sample of 129 licensed tobacco retailers, which included data on both exterior and interior advertisements as well as sales practices. Descriptive analyses compared retail outlets by high and low income neighborhood locations. Compliance with FDA regulations was high in the random sample of urban tobacco retail outlets. None of the retail outlets sold loose cigarettes or offered free items with purchase. Less than 10% of the outlets surveyed offered self-service access to cigarettes or smokeless tobacco products. From all surveyed retail outlets 95% had cigarette, 57% had smokeless, and 57% had cigar advertisements at the point-of-sale. There were no significant differences in compliance by income, but the mean number of advertisements on the building and self-service access to cigars was significantly different by neighborhood income. There was a high degree of compliance with the new FDA regulation on tobacco marketing and sales practices in urban retail tobacco outlets in Columbus, Ohio. Tobacco advertising and marketing remain highly prevalent in retail outlets, with some significant differences between high and low income neighborhoods. PMID:22197961

Frick, Ryan G; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Wewers, Mary Ellen

2012-10-01

146

A practical approach to handling the uncertainty analysis in gamma spectroscopy with the software's Gamma Vision and Genie  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The national Swedish network of laboratories in emergency response and preparedness should provide with fast and reliable measurements. That is why these results should be given with a measure of its quality, which is the measurement uncertainty, as has been stated in several international standards. Many gamma spectroscopy software packages contain advance algorithms for calculation of the activity and its measurement uncertainty. They even include elements of quality assurance and quality control. Despite of that, not all sources of uncertainty are always taken into account. The two most used analysis software packages in the Swedish network of laboratories in emergency response are Gamma Vision from Ortec and Genie (with and without APEX) from Canberra. The purpose of this paper is to present two groups of practical evaluations of uncertainty components for the same kind of gamma-spectroscopy analysis, one that would suit Gamma Vision users and other for Genie users, including the Labsocs tool. The main idea is to profit as much as possible of the software capabilities and semi-manually add the contribution of uncertainty sources that are not been taken into account. The reports from both the software packages are modified so as to reflect the contribution of all sources of uncertainty into the reported relative combined uncertainty. The examples of gamma spectroscopy analysis are for samples of the same matrix and the different geometries foreseen in the context of emergency response by the Swedish emergency network. Together with the evaluation of the uncertainty components a review on the uncertainty propagation and the assumptions taken in each of the software packages is presented. (author)

147

Food Safety Practices Assessment Tool: An Innovative Way to Test Food Safety Skills among Individuals with Special Needs  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes an innovative assessment tool designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a food safety skills curriculum for learners receiving special education services. As schools respond to the increased demand for training students with special needs about food safety, the need for effective curricula and tools is also increasing. A…

Carbone, Elena T.; Scarpati, Stanley E.; Pivarnik, Lori F.

2013-01-01

148

Do We Care about What We Buy or Eat? A Practical Study of the Healthy Foods Eaten by Jordanian Youth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scholars and practitioners have taken a deep interest in the food choice of young Jordanians and found that it hasbeen influenced by a variety of determinants that affect consumers of what they buy and eat. Such determinantshave not tested practically from scholars within the Jordanian market context. By reviewing large numbers of foodchoice studies, four factors are found essential and chosen to be investigated practically which are: food products’availability, cost, benefit and sensory appeal. Quantitative analysis approach has been used in this study to collectthe suitable data. Convenience sampling and regression analysis was employed to test the hypotheses. Additionalexplanations can be found of how the hypotheses have been developed and tested.Results indicated that the main healthy food products choice and purchase determinants are food availability, foodcost, benefits and sensory appeal. Additional explanation of data collection methods, analysis and findings can befound in more details.

Muhammad Turki Alshurideh

2014-03-01

149

The influence of maternal infant feeding practices and beliefs on the expression of food neophobia in toddlers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food neophobia is a highly heritable trait characterized by the rejection of foods that are novel or unknown and potentially limits dietary variety, with lower intake and preference particularly for fruits and vegetables. Understanding non-genetic (environmental) factors that may influence the expression of food neophobia is essential to improving children's consumption of fruits and vegetables and encouraging the adoption of healthier diets. The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal infant feeding beliefs (at 4 months) were associated with the expression of food neophobia in toddlers and whether controlling feeding practices mediated this relationship. Participants were 244 first-time mothers (M?=?30.4, SD?=?5.1 years) allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial. The relationships between infant feeding beliefs (Infant Feeding Questionnaire) at 4 months and controlling child feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire) and food neophobia (Child Food Neophobia Scale) at 24 months were tested using correlational and multiple linear regression models (adjusted for significant covariates). Higher maternal Concern about infant under-eating and becoming underweight at 4 months was associated with higher child food neophobia at 2 years. Similarly, lower Awareness of infant hunger and satiety cues was associated with higher child food neophobia. Both associations were significantly mediated by mothers' use of Pressure to eat. Intervening early to promote positive feeding practices to mothers may help reduce the use of controlling practices as children develop. Further research that can further elucidate the bi-directional nature of the mother-child feeding relationship is still required. PMID:25014743

Cassells, Erin L; Magarey, Anthea M; Daniels, Lynne A; Mallan, Kimberley M

2014-11-01

150

Occupational health and food safety risks associated with traditional slaughter practices of goats in Gauteng, South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ritual slaughter of goats is a common practice in South Africa if the relative proportion of informal slaughter is taken into account. Religious, traditional or customary slaughter is legal in terms of meat safety legislation in South Africa. However, it is suggested that there is lack of understanding of basic food safety and occupational health concepts, and that this exposes the community to a wide spectrum of meat related hazards and food-borne diseases. Many hazards that are associated w...

Qekwana, Daniel Nenene

2012-01-01

151

Food  

... For a pdf summarising our experience and expertise on food, please click here. Reducing food waste by extending product life Started: June 2013 Due for completion: February 2014 WRAP An update of the Retailer survey, examination of the way in which product life ...Defra Brook Lyndhurst has been contracted, alongside SeaWeb - an international NGO dedicated to communicating ocean sustainability issues - to undertake a piece of action-based research (ABR) on the issue of ‘under-utilised’ species. ... Understanding consumer food waste out of home Started: February 2012 ... Brook Lyndhurst - The Food Issue Started: November 2012 Ended: November 2012 Please click here to download a pdf with information on our food expertise and experience... Consumer perceptions of the Fairtrade mark Started: April 2012 Ended: September 2012 Fairtrade International Following our 2011 work ...

152

Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players.

Pablo M. García-Rovés

2014-07-01

153

Nutrient intake and food habits of soccer players: analyzing the correlates of eating practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player's career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. PMID:25045939

García-Rovés, Pablo M; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Angeles M; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

2014-07-01

154

Practical issues in adopting a traveling wave thermoacoustic cooler for use in a food storage refrigerator  

Science.gov (United States)

CFIC/QDrive has developed a food storage refrigerator for the Army based on thermoacoustic technology. This ``Phase II'' SBIR project is a continuation of a ``Phase I'' effort that explored using a standing-wave thermoacoustic cooler for the refrigerator. The standing-wave cooler was found to be too inefficient with too low a power density to be practical, so it was switched to an acoustic Stirling, or traveling-wave thermoacoustic (regenerator based) cooler for Phase II. The major challenges of this project were adapting the Stirling-style cooler to a food storage application, and not the fundamentals of the cooler itself (the one exception being the issue of acoustic streaming). The challenges include: Running at 60 Hz (without frequency-shifting electronics), heat exchange without circulating fluids, dynamic balance, guarantee of long life, efficiency, and compactness (power density). How these challenges were met and how they drove the design, in most cases away from what would be ideal for the cycle itself, will be discussed. Time permitting, how the additional pressure of low unit cost would affect this type of product development will also be discussed. [Research supported by the U. S. Army through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant.

Spoor, Philip S.

2005-09-01

155

Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association With Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose:?Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for nutrition and medical service provision to this population.?Design and Methods:?In-home interviews and oral examinations were conducted with 635 adul...

Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2010-01-01

156

Vegan Killjoys at the Table—Contesting Happiness and Negotiating Relationships with Food Practices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reports upon research on vegan transition, which I bring into dialogue with Sara Ahmed’s figure of the killjoy. Ahmed’s work on affect and the feminist killjoy is found to be apt for considering contemporary vegans and their transgression of normative scripts of happiness and commensality in a dominant meat and dairy consuming culture. The decentring of joy and happiness is also found to be integral to the critical deconstructive work of the vegan killjoy. Ahmed’s ideas further complement the frame of practice theory that I draw upon to understand the process of transition especially in the sense of opposing the meanings of dominant practices. Although food and veganism are not commented upon by Ahmed, the vegan subject constitutes, I argue, a potent further example of what she terms an “affect alien” who must willfully struggle against a dominant affective order and community. Drawing upon interviews with 40 vegans based in the UK, I illustrate examples of contestation and negotiation by vegans and those close to them. The article finds in the figure of the killjoy not only a frame by which to partly understand the negotiation of relationships between vegans and non-vegans but also an opportunity for further intersectional labour between veganism and feminism.

Richard Twine

2014-11-01

157

Quality Early Education--Quality Food and Nutrition Practices? Some Initial Results from a Pilot Research Project into Food and Nutrition Practices in Early Years Settings in Kent, UK  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper draws upon work conducted as part of a research project into food and nutrition in the early years, and looks very specifically at the way in which practitioners in the field are both aware of current debates around such issues and how they put good policy into their practice. In drawing out such debates with practitioners, it also…

Alderton, Tony; Campbell-Barr, Verity

2005-01-01

158

handling Simulator  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aiming at the disadvantage of hardware of large-scale ship handling simulator at home and abroad which has closed equipment, bad expandability, high price and so on, we design the console’s frequently-used hardware equipments of the large-scale ship handling simulator based on the research strength of our college. Besides, the overall architecture of the hardware system and the hardware and software design of some equipments are also provided in detailed. The simulator follows the standards on the use of simulators of A-1/12 section of Manila amendments to the STCW Convention and meets the prescribed performance standards of China Maritime Safety Administration about “the notice of related matters on doing preparatory work for meeting Manila amendments to the STCW Convention (Sea Crew [2011] No.923” and has broad market prospects. Now, the simulator has been applied to many domestic navigation colleges or institutions and has achieved good results.

Shen-Hua Yang

2013-01-01

159

Association between Travel Times and Food Procurement Practices among Female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants in Eastern North Carolina  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To examine associations between self-reported vehicular travel behaviors, perceived stress, food procurement practices, and body mass index among female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Analysis: The authors used correlation and regression analyses to examine cross-sectional associations between travel time…

Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Moore, Justin B.; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D.; Liu, Haiyong; Saelens, Brian E.

2011-01-01

160

Neofobias Alimentares: importância na prática clínica / Food neophobia: importance in clinical practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: Revisão da evidência científica do tema Neofobias Alimentares (NA), focando os aspetos mais importantes da sua aplicação na prática clínica. Métodos de revisão: Pesquisa bibliográfica da literatura em Inglês e Português, de Janeiro de 2001 a Fevereiro de 2012 através da Medline/Pubmed, sít [...] ios de Medicina Baseada na Evidência e livros de texto de Fisiologia. Resultados: O termo NA define-se como uma relutância na aceitação de novos sabores. O gosto por certos alimentos é um processo complexo que se inicia no útero, continua com o aleitamento e permanece pela vida fora. Embora exista influência de fatores genéticos, estes podem ser influenciados por exposições precoces e repetidas aos diferentes sabores, o que irá modular o paladar e diminuir o risco de patologias futuras, nomeadamente obesidade infantil. A janela para habituação aos sabores é estreita e a rejeição de alimentos introduzidos após os quatro anos é maior. A aceitação de um novo sabor até aos cinco anos necessita frequentemente de 10 a 15 exposições repetidas. As emoções, aspetos sociais e processos digestivos, são fatores influenciadores da aquisição do gosto. Conclusões: As preferências gustativas são muito estáveis e podem durar toda a vida, pelo que devemos dar uma especial atenção às crianças e pais no processo de “educação do gosto”. Ao dar à criança alguns alimentos preferidos juntamente com os novos alimentos e ao manter a calma para as neofobias temporárias, talvez seja a chave para o desenvolvimento das preferências gustativas. Reforços negativos, nomeadamente pressões, devem ser evitados, devendo-se valorizar os reforços positivos. Abstract in english Objective: To review the scientific evidence of the theme Food Neophobias (FN), focus on the most important aspects of their application in clinical practice. Review methods: A systematic review was performed for papers published between January 2001 to February 2012, in Portuguese/English, in the m [...] edical databases Medline/Pubmed, Cochrane Library, National Guideline Clearinghouse, evidence-based medicine sites and Physiology text books. Results: The term FN is defined as a reluctant acceptance of new flavours. The taste for certain foods is a complex process that begins in utero, continues during breastfeeding and remains throughout life. Although there is an influence of genetic factors, these can be contradicted by early and repeated exposure to different flavours, which will modulate the taste and will reduce the risk of future diseases, including childhood obesity. As the window for habituation to new flavours is thin, the rejection of foods introduced after four years is higher. The acceptance of a new flavour up to five years often requires 10 to 15 repeated exposures. Emotions, social aspects and digestive processes, are factors that influence the acquisition of taste. Conclusions: The gustatory preferences are very stable and can follow up lifelong and we should pay particular attention to children and parents in the “taste education” process. By giving the child some favourite foods with new foods and to stay calm for temporary neophobias, may be the key to the development of taste preferences. The negative reinforcement, such pressures, should be avoided, and the positive reinforcement should be implemented.

Ana Isabel, Silva; Andreia, Teles.

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

Popularising right food and feeding practices in Spain (1847-1950): The handbooks of domestic economy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to analyze a sample of domestic economy handbooks in order to assess the popularization of correct food and feeding practices in Spain between 1847 and 1950. With this contribution, we wish to evaluate another factor that would influence the Spanish food transition. We are a [...] ware that this is a very indirect source, given the high levels of illiteracy among women in Spain during the last third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. A further factor to be considered is the low proportion of girls attending school. We have analyzed the handbooks published in three periods. The first ranges from the last third of the 19th century to the first decade of the 20th. These handbooks are considered in order to provide background for a comparison with the works published from 1900 onwards. The second period focuses on the 1920s and the 1930s. The last period covers the handbooks published after the Civil War under the monopoly of the Sección Femenina (women's section of the Falange). Over the years under consideration, recommendations underwent a progressive modification from the very simple leaflets used in the 19th century to the introduction of scientific factors into the teaching of domestic economy. The work of Rosa Sensat represented the beginnings of this trend. A further modernizing factor was the appearance of vitamins in some of the handbooks. After the war, the number of handbooks decreased and they were, in general, very poor. If we consider the content on vitamins, there was a lack or shortage of information in comparison with some of the books published in the same period outside the monopoly of the Sección Femenina. In conclusion, we can state that the repetition of recommendations on good feeding habits and the increase in girls attending school would exert a positive influence on the food transition of the Spanish population.

Enrique, Perdiguero-Gil; Ramón, Castejón-Bolea.

162

Comparison of School Food Policies and Food Preparation Practices before and after the Local Wellness Policy among Indiana High Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Federal legislation requires local education agencies or school districts to develop a local wellness policy. No data-based research using a prospective cohort of a representative sample of secondary schools has been conducted to investigate the impact of the local wellness policy. Purpose: To investigate changes in school food

Seo, Dong-Chul

2009-01-01

163

Interrupt Handling  

Science.gov (United States)

The OâÂÂReilly Online Catalog provides us with a look at Chapter 9 of the book Linux Device Drivers by Alessandro Rubini and Jonathon Corbet. The chapter is entitled Interrupt Handling and it covers the overall control of interrupts, preparing the parallel port, installing and interrupt handler, interrupt sharing, race conditions, and more. The website offers example functions and codes to assist in the installation, implementation, and comprehension processes. The easily navigable table of contents makes the amount of text on the website easy and stress-free and the ordering information is available if the entire book seems of interest to those computer science teachers and students.

Corbet, Jonathan; Rubini, Alessandro

2009-07-06

164

Current situation of food irradiation practice in U.S.A  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

nd reasonable in price. FOOD TECHnology also commented that food industries has become more friendly towards food irradiation and they petitioned FDA for clearance of beef irradiation to decontaminate E. coli 0157:H7, but the private companies still hesitated to pick up this process therefore we need more efforts of PR. (J.P.N.)

165

Radiation technology for value addition to food and agro commodities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

166

Food Preparation at Home an Example of New Practical Strategies in the Swedish Municipal Food Service - A Qualitative Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to describe how one of 290 Swedish municipalities improved its FS service by terminating their earlier service of food distribution (FD which was the delivery of ready cooked meals produced at a central kitchen in the community and introducing food preparation at the client’s home. The revised system is referred to as the new FS. This study was performed using an action research approach. The data was collected by individual- and group interviews and through participatory observations. The transcribed interview material was analysed using qualitative content analysis. The (n=30 subjects were recruited The findings of this study revealed that the new FS was experienced as being a good service, that the new municipal FS met individual needs in a better way and that the elderly recipients could participate more actively in planning and preparing their meals. In conclusion, it was found that having their food prepared at home was considered by many of the recipients to be synonymous with individually adjusted help. The results of the study could have implications for nursing, public administration and gerontology.

Zada Pajalic

2013-09-01

167

Potential Risk Handling Alternatives for Supply Chain Disruptions in Liquid Food Production – the case of V&S Vin & Sprit AB, the Sundsvall site  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

V&S Sundsvall (a part of V&S Vin & Sprit AB) is a Swedish company producing different alcoholic beverages, mainly for the Swedish market. The company has lately paid increasing attention to supply chain disruption risk issues. In another study, one of the authors (Paulsson 2007) developed a model, called the DRISC (Disruption Risks In Supply Chains) model, for the structuring, evaluation and handling of risks related to disruptions in the product flow in the supply chain. The DRI...

Paulsson, Ulf; Nilsson, Carl-henric

2008-01-01

168

Handling Sports Pressure and Competition  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Sports > Handling Sports Pressure and Competition Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? How Can Stress ... deal with sports stress like your coach or fitness instructor. Here are some other things you can ...

169

Handling Sports Pressure and Competition  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Sports > Handling Sports Pressure and Competition Print A A A Text Size What's in this ... reviewed: September 2013 Back 1 ? 2 ? 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC ...

170

Human health risk from heavy metal via food crops consumption with wastewater irrigation practices in Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study was designed to investigate the potential human health risks associated with consumption of food crops contaminated with toxic heavy metals. Cadmium (Cd) concentration in surface soils; Cd, lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr) in the irrigation water and food crops were above permissible limits. The accumulation factor (AF) was >1 for manganese (Mn) and Pb in different food crops. The Health Risk Index (HRI) was >1 for Pb in all food crops irrigated with wastewater and tube well water. HRI >1 was also recorded for Cd in all selected vegetables; and for Mn in Spinacia oleracea irrigated with wastewater. All wastewater irrigated samples (soil and food crops) exhibited high relative contamination level as compared to samples irrigated with tube well water. Our results emphasized the need for pretreatment of wastewater and routine monitoring in order to avoid contamination of food crops from the wastewater irrigation system. PMID:24075531

Khan, Muhammad Usman; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Muhammad, Said

2013-11-01

171

Position of the American Dietetic Association: food and nutrition professionals can implement practices to conserve natural resources and support ecological sustainability.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association to encourage environmentally responsible practices that conserve natural resources, minimize the quantity of waste generated, and support the ecological sustainability of the food system-the process of food production, transformation, distribution, access, and consumption. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, play various roles in the food system and work in settings where efforts to conserve can have significant effects. Natural resources that provide the foundation for the food system include biodiversity, soil, land, energy, water, and air. A food system that degrades or depletes its resource base is not sustainable. Making wise food purchases and food management decisions entails understanding the external costs of food production and foodservice and how these external costs affect food system sustainability. This position paper provides information, specific action-oriented strategies, and resources to guide registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, in food decision making and professional practice. Food and nutrition professionals also can participate in policy making at the local, state, and national levels, and can support policies that encourage the development of local sustainable food systems. Our actions today have global consequences. Conserving and protecting resources will contribute to the sustainability of the global food system now and in the future. PMID:17571455

Harmon, Alison H; Gerald, Bonnie L

2007-06-01

172

Intravaginal and menstrual practices among women working in food and recreational facilities in Mwanza, Tanzania: implications for microbicide trials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intravaginal and menstrual practices may potentially influence results of trials of microbicides for HIV prevention through effects on the vaginal environment and on adherence to microbicide and placebo products. As part of the feasibility study for the Microbicides Development Programme Phase 3 trial of a vaginal microbicide in Mwanza, a variety of quantitative and qualitative methods were used to describe these practices, associations with behaviour and underlying social norms among women working in food and recreational facilities. Intravaginal cleansing by inserting fingers and either water alone or soap and water was thought necessary to remove "uchafu" (dirt), referring to vaginal secretions, including menstrual blood and post-coital discharge. Vaginal cleansing was carried out within 2 hours after 45% of sex acts. Sexual enhancement practices were less common. Intravaginal and menstrual practices and associated behaviours and demographic factors should be measured and monitored throughout microbicide trials to enable analyses of their impacts on microbicide effectiveness. PMID:20665101

Allen, Caroline F; Desmond, Nicola; Chiduo, Betty; Medard, Lemmy; Lees, Shelley S; Vallely, Andrew; Francis, Suzanna C; Ross, David A; Hayes, Richard J

2010-10-01

173

I can never be normal : A conversation about race, daily life practices, food and power  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article focuses on the doing and undoing of race in daily life practices in Denmark. It takes the form of a dialogue between two women, a heterosexual Muslim woman of color and a lesbian white woman, who discuss and analyze how their daily life, e.g. interactions with their children’s schools and daycare institutions, shape their racial and gendered experiences. Drawing upon black feminist theory, postcolonial theory, critical race and whiteness studies, the two women illustrate inclusions and exclusions in their society based on gender, race, class and sexuality – and especially pinpoint to how these categories intersect in processes of inclusion and exclusion. The article argues that the lack of a Nordic vocabulary for the term ‘race’ – as ‘race’ is associated with biological racism which dominated in the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century, and hence is viewed as a historical phenomenon left behind – prevents contemporary people from addressing existing patterns of racial discrimination, inclusion and exclusion in their daily lives, as well as from connecting their contemporary struggles to historical struggles and inequalities. Furthermore, they illustrate how food, class and race intersect with an analysis of the so-called New Nordic Kitchen, exemplified by the world famous Copenhagen restaurant NOMA. The article interprets the New Nordic Kitchen, which has become very popular in the Nordic countries in recent years, as a culinary project performing whiteness, and connects the New Nordic Kitchen’s obsession with ‘the authentic Nordic’ with historical race science in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century.

Andreassen, Rikke; Ahmed Andresen, Uzma

2014-01-01

174

Practical discrimination of good and bad cooked food using metal oxide semiconductor odour sensor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An increasing concentration of ammonia in cooked food is in direct proportion to the extent of decay. This fact is used to design an electronic nose (e-nose based on metal oxide semiconductor odour sensor circuit capable of discriminating good and bad cooked food. On the basis of the data produced by the e-nose circuit, a feedforward multilayer neural network is designed and trained to recognize varying concentrations of ammonia in the food. Test results of the prototype e-nose system show that it is capable of classifying cooked food as being good or bad with over 92% average success rate.

Essiet Ima O.

2013-01-01

175

Pesticide safety risk, food chain organization, and the adoption of sustainable farming practices: The case of Moroccan early tomatoes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fresh produce pesticide safety risk has grown into a major concern of North European consumers and governments for the last twenty years. Our study expands on safety control issues and gives insights into how fresh vegetable chains organize to comply with retail private safety standards and thus get access to export and modern domestic markets. Most studies on the adoption of good agricultural practice certifications and integrated pest management overlook the influence of food chain organiza...

Aubert, M.; Bouhsina, Z.; Codron, J. M.; Rousset, S.

2013-01-01

176

A Tale of Two Cities: A Study of Access to Food, Lessons for Public Health Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: To map food access in the city of Preston in the north-west of England in order to determine access, availability and affordability of healthy food options. Design and methodology: The research design employed a number of distinct methods including: surveys of shops; interviews with local people and shopkeepers; a cost and availability…

Caraher, Martin; Lloyd, Susan; Lawton, Julie; Singh, Gulab; Horsley, Kayt; Mussa, Fozia

2010-01-01

177

Local French Food Initiatives in Practice: The Emergence of a Social Movement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article analyses the development of local food systems from a social movement perspective. It examines the case study of a farm market located in France and considers whether and how local initiatives in food distribution can be viewed as a social movement, using social theory as the conceptual framework.

Angela Giovanangeli

2013-01-01

178

Local French Food Initiatives in Practice: The Emergence of a Social Movement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyses the development of local food systems from a social movement perspective. It examines the case study of a farm market located in France and considers whether and how local initiatives in food distribution can be viewed as a social movement, using social theory as the conceptual framework.

Angela Giovanangeli

2013-07-01

179

A Practical Guide for Estimating Dietary Fat and Fiber Using Limited Food Frequency Data.  

Science.gov (United States)

A methodology is presented for estimating daily intake of dietary fat and fiber based on limited food frequency data. The procedure, which relies on National Food Consumption Survey data and daily consumption rates, can provide baseline estimates of dietary patterns for health promotion policymakers. (SLD)

Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

1992-01-01

180

Safety of patient meals in 2 hospitals in Alexandria, Egypt before and after training of food handlers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We assessed the food safety knowledge and food handling practices of 23 food handlers in 2 hospitals in Alexandria, Egypt [Gamal Abdel Nasser (GAN) and Medical Research Institute (MRI)] before and after a food safety training programme, and also the bacteriological quality of patient meals and kitchen equipment. There was a significant improvement in all knowledge-associated parameters except for personal hygiene in GAN. There was an improvement in the food safety practices in both hospitals. The bacteriological quality of most patient meals and food preparation surfaces and utensils improved after training. The bacteriological quality of patients' meals served in GAN was generally better than that in MRI. PMID:19166178

El Derea, H; Salem, E; Fawzi, M; Abdel Azeem, M

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gives details of sources used for food irradiation, brief description of the process, safety of food irradiation process, practical applications and the amount of doses used for spices, condiments, mangoes etc., limitations of food irradiation, international status of clearance of irradiated foods, versatility of the process

182

Buying Practices and Prevalence of Adulteration in Selected Food items in a Rural Area of Wardha District: A Cross - Sectional Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Food adulteration in India includes both willful adulteration and substandard food which do not confirm to prescribe food standard. There is striking paucity of reliable data with regard to extent of adulteration and documentation of food borne illnesses reflecting lack of attention and focus on this problem. Objectives: To find the prevalence of food adulteration, buying practices of selected food items and their awareness towards food adulteration act. Also assess relationship between per-capita incomes, education of respondents, and food borne illnesses with magnitude of adulteration in each house-hold. Methods: With the best estimate of 50%, sample size comes to 89. By stratifying the village according to social strata and randomly selecting the households with PPS. Questionnaire was administered to fulfill our objectives and food items were tested. Data analyzed by numeral with percentage, Pearson moment correlation, F test and chi square test. Results: In 68.5% Households, wife (home-maker buys the grocery. Majority of them never read the food labels. All the selected food items were adulterated ranging from 76 % to 11%. Mean percentage of purity was highest in literates (47.5 ± 22.48 than illiterates and just literates. Food borne illness was prevalent in households with low purity of food. Association was found between per capita income and percentage of purity (0.765.

Khapre MP

2011-11-01

183

Food Projects in London: Lessons for Policy and Practice--A Hidden Sector and the Need for "More Unhealthy Puddings ... Sometimes"  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Objective: Successive governments have promoted local action to address food components of public health. This article presents findings from research commissioned by the (then) London NHS Office, scoping the range of food projects in the London area, and the potential challenges to public health practice. Methods: Research followed…

Caraher, Martin; Dowler, Elizabeth

2007-01-01

184

The meaning of the food practices of the peoples of Mmotla, near Pretoria, South Africa : a socio-cultural and socio-psychological approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study the aim was to describe and understand how meanings emerge from the context in which the food practices of the peoples of Mmotla were construed. South African society is multi-cultural and black South Africans, upon contact with Western-oriented societies, seem to have gradually or partially adopted the Western lifestyle including eating patterns, leading to changing traditional food practices that can be mostly attributed to the effect of acculturation, urbanisation...

Viljoen, Annemarie Therese

2010-01-01

185

Food irradiation and habitual consumption of food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last years, an increasing amount of people is consuming more fruits, vegetables, seeds and sprouts, with the health effects of food in mind. Otherwise, the accepted shelf food safety found in some countries led to a growing trust in the product's hygienic quality, that leads to behaviors like opening a package and immediately consume the contents. Besides the well disseminated knowledge of good cooking practices, the lack of time, found mainly in big cities, may take to the dinning tables food with an increasing potential of pathogenic organisms contamination. For instance, the alfalfa, beam, clover and radish sprouts caused many reported Salmonella and E. coli outbreaks in countries like the USA, United Kingdom, Japan, Sweden, Finland, Canada and Denmark. Many of the likely source of contaminations were the contamination of the seeds before sprouting. To control these contaminations, the irradiation doses over 1 kGy is effective and the association of irradiation and chemical treatments is being studied. The bacteriological control performance of the irradiation becomes this technique one of the most applied to dry herbs and spices witch, without adequate treatment, could be important sources of foodborne outbreaks. Good production, handling, packing and distribution practices may, with the use of ionizing radiation to reach the desired bacteriological inactivation or decontamination level, significantly contribute to the necessary food safety, allowing it to be safely ready to eat. (author)

186

Microbial community distribution and extracellular enzyme activities in leach bed reactor treating food waste: effect of different leachate recirculation practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed at understanding the relationship between microbial community and extracellular enzyme activities of leach bed reactor (LBR) treating food waste under different leachate recirculation practices (once per day and continuous) and liquid to solid (L/S) ratios (1:1 and 0.5:1). Microbial community analysis using PCR-DGGE revealed that Lactobacillus sp., Bifidobacter sp., and Proteobacteria were the most abundant species. Number of phylotypes was higher in LBRs with intermittent recirculation; whereas, lower number of phylotypes dominated by the key players of degradation was observed with continuous recirculation. The L/S ratio of 1:1 significantly enhanced the volatile solids removal compared with 0.5:1; however, this effect was insignificant under once a day leachate recirculation. Continuous leachate recirculation with 1:1 L/S ratio significantly improved the organic leaching (240 g COD/kgvolatile solid) and showed distinct extracellular enzyme activities suitable for food waste acidogenesis. PMID:24972915

Xu, Su Yun; Karthikeyan, Obuli P; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

2014-09-01

187

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to BE FOOD SAFE! Additional Information Consumer Update: Food Safety Tips for Healthy Holidays [ARCHIVED] Produce Safety: Safe Handling of Raw Produce and Fresh-Squeezed Fruit and Vegetable Juices Playing It Safe With Eggs Page Last ...

188

Modeling Food Web Interactions in Benthic Deep-Sea Ecosystems: A Practical Guide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deep-sea benthic systems are notoriously difficult to sample. Even more than for other benthic systems, many flows among biological groups cannot be directly measured, and data sets remain incomplete and uncertain. In such cases, mathematical models are often used to quantify unmeasured biological interactions. Here, we show how to use so-called linear inverse models (LIMs to reconstruct material and energy flows through food webs in which the number of measurements is a fraction of the total number of flows. These models add mass balance, physiological and behavioral constraints, and diet information to the scarce measurements. We explain how these information sources can be included in LIMs, and how the resulting models can be subsequently solved. This method is demonstrated by two examples—a very simple three-compartment food web model, and a simplified benthic carbon food web for Porcupine Abyssal Plain. We conclude by elaborating on recent developments and prospects.

Karline Soetaert

2009-03-01

189

Practical implications of developments in legislation on food irradiation in the European Union  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food irradiation legislation is very different in most member-states of the EU. For many years there was the desire by many interested groups to harmonise this legislation. As the member-states had a different view on irradiated foods, often based on their existing regulation, it took many years and revised drafts to come to a harmonised regulation acceptable to the majority. The background on the development of this EU-legislation and the final draft is discussed. Some information is also given on the possible influence of WTO (SPS- and TBT-agreements) and Codex Alimentarius on this EU-legislation. (author)

190

[Street food in the national agenda of food and nutrition security: an essay for sanitary qualification in Brazil].  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2014, the World Cup will be staged in Brazil. Is Brazil able to ensure safe street food is on offer? This paper seeks to elicit reflection on some problems relating to the sale of street food, thereby contributing to highlight this theme in the food security agenda in Brazil. The scope of this study is exclusively street food. Care is taken not to reduce the broader concepts of food security and the importance of sanitary and hygienic handling is stressed as one of the core components of food and nutrition security. In this context the following aspects are discussed: the credibility of the official data on insanitary outbreaks related to street food; street food security compared to that in other eating environments; and the training of people to modify inadequate food handling practices. Thus, in the discussion about problems in the street food market it is essential to improve the quantity and quality of the training of food handlers in order to implement food and nutrition security as promoting the human right to adequate food and ensure that the topic is urgently included on the national calendar of public health debates. PMID:24897213

Bezerra, Aída Couto Dinucci; Mancuso, Ana Maria Cervato; Heitz, Sarah Jeanne Jorge

2014-05-01

191

Aproximación práctica al diagnóstico de la alergia alimentaria / Practical approach to the diagnosis of food allergy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La alergia alimentaria representa la primera expresión clínica de atopia durante la vida, ya sea con manifestaciones gastrointestinales o cutáneas, seguidas de asma y rinitis. A este continuo desarrollo de enfermedades se ha denominado "marcha atópica". Es un problema importante de salud, no sólo pa [...] ra los pacientes sino también incluye al grupo familiar y social. Se define como una respuesta inmunológica anormal ante la ingesta de proteínas alimenticias que ocasionan una reacción clínica adversa. La mayoría de las personas desarrolla tolerancia a los antígenos alimentarios, los cuales constantemente acceden al organismo. Sin embargo, cuando la tolerancia falla, el sistema inmune responde con reacciones de hipersensibilidad. El diagnóstico de la alergia alimentaria todavía es un ejercicio clínico que depende de una historia cuidadosa, de la determinación específica de IgE, pruebas de parche, una apropiada dieta de exclusión y la realización de reto cegado. Abstract in english Food allergy has become the first clinical expression of atopy, beginning with dermal o gastric manifestations to continue with asthma an rhinitis ("the atopic march"), a very severe health problem not only for many children and parents, but also for the entire medical and paramedical community. Foo [...] d allergy is defined as an abnormal immunological reaction to food proteins, which causes an adverse clinical reaction. Most of the people become tolerant to many foods; however, these tolerances sometimes fail and become an immunological reaction. The evaluation of a child with suspected food allergy includes detailed medical history, physical examination, screening tests and response to elimination diet and to oral food challenge. None of the screening tests -alone or in combination- can definitely diagnose or exclude it.

Marco Antonio, Góngora-Meléndez; Juan José Luis, Sienra-Monge; Blanca Estela, Del Río-Navarro; Lourdes, Ávila Castañón.

2010-10-01

192

Aproximación práctica al diagnóstico de la alergia alimentaria / Practical approach to the diagnosis of food allergy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La alergia alimentaria representa la primera expresión clínica de atopia durante la vida, ya sea con manifestaciones gastrointestinales o cutáneas, seguidas de asma y rinitis. A este continuo desarrollo de enfermedades se ha denominado "marcha atópica". Es un problema importante de salud, no sólo pa [...] ra los pacientes sino también incluye al grupo familiar y social. Se define como una respuesta inmunológica anormal ante la ingesta de proteínas alimenticias que ocasionan una reacción clínica adversa. La mayoría de las personas desarrolla tolerancia a los antígenos alimentarios, los cuales constantemente acceden al organismo. Sin embargo, cuando la tolerancia falla, el sistema inmune responde con reacciones de hipersensibilidad. El diagnóstico de la alergia alimentaria todavía es un ejercicio clínico que depende de una historia cuidadosa, de la determinación específica de IgE, pruebas de parche, una apropiada dieta de exclusión y la realización de reto cegado. Abstract in english Food allergy has become the first clinical expression of atopy, beginning with dermal o gastric manifestations to continue with asthma an rhinitis ("the atopic march"), a very severe health problem not only for many children and parents, but also for the entire medical and paramedical community. Foo [...] d allergy is defined as an abnormal immunological reaction to food proteins, which causes an adverse clinical reaction. Most of the people become tolerant to many foods; however, these tolerances sometimes fail and become an immunological reaction. The evaluation of a child with suspected food allergy includes detailed medical history, physical examination, screening tests and response to elimination diet and to oral food challenge. None of the screening tests -alone or in combination- can definitely diagnose or exclude it.

Marco Antonio, Góngora-Meléndez; Juan José Luis, Sienra-Monge; Blanca Estela, Del Río-Navarro; Lourdes, Ávila Castañón.

193

Studying the nutritional beliefs and food practices of Malagasy school children parents. A contribution to the understanding of malnutrition in Madagascar.  

Science.gov (United States)

Madagascar is severely affected by the problem of children malnutrition. The present study aimed at exploring school children Malagasy parents' food practices and beliefs structures about the nutritional value of foods, to better understand the causes of this malnutrition. A combination of Focus Groups (72 participants), and questionnaires (1000 interviewees) was used to evaluate the food beliefs and the nutritional habits of low income parents of school age children in urban and rural areas of Antananarivo and Antsiranana. The respondents' beliefs were shown to focus not only on the nutrient and energetic composition of food, but also to involve more general relations between food and health and particularly the sanitary properties of food. Compared with such sanitary properties, nutrient content was not considered to be the priority in food choice and food preparation. The food category considered to be the most nutritive was cereals, ahead of protein foods, or vegetables and fruit. Nutritional beliefs were not the same in the Antananarivo and Antsiranana areas, nor between urban and rural areas of Antsiranana. Different socio-economic contexts, food availability and information may explain these differences. This study could guide actors involved in nutrition promotion to adapt to specific areas their nutrition programmes in the fight against malnutrition. PMID:24887056

Ramaroson Rakotosamimanana, Vonimihaingo; Arvisenet, Gaëlle; Valentin, Dominique

2014-10-01

194

Sharing food, sharing taste? Consumption practices, gender relations and individuality in Czech families  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A la lumière des théories sociologiques et anthropologiques de la famille et de la parenté, cet article pose la question de la préparation et de la consommation de nourriture dans les familles tchèques de différentes générations, et ce, aussi bien en milieu rural qu’urbain. Sur la base d’une enquête qualitative (entretiens ainsi que de données d’observation, l’article interroge le rôle que joue réellement le partage alimentaire dans la vie quotidienne des familles étudiées, ainsi que dans la construction de liens entre les membres de la famille, en particulier concernant les relations entre hommes et femmes. Ensuite, l’article se focalise sur la famille en tant qu’«unité de consommation», ainsi que sur son développement dans le temps. Comment se construit le régime alimentaire familial et jusqu’où se développent, entre les membres de la famille, des préférences alimentaires partagées? Sur la base des modèles émergeants relatifs aux pratiques alimentaires, le débat est ouvert quant aux rôles entre hommes et femmes ainsi que sur les thèmes relatifs au traditionalisme et au pouvoir. L’argument principal est que la formation de relations au sein même de la famille dépend moins du partage de nourriture que du rôle joué par les femmes dans la préparation et la distribution des repas, compte tenu des désirs de chacun des membres de la famille.In the context of sociological and anthropological theories about family and kinship, this article discusses the preparation and consumption of food in Czech families of different generations, both urban and rural. Based on a qualitative interview study and participant observation, the article begins by investigating the role played by the sharing of food in everyday family life and in the shaping of relations, including gender relations, between family members. Next, the article focuses on the family as a consumption unit and on its development over time. What does the family diet consist of and to what extent do family members develop a taste for the same foods? The article discusses gender roles, traditionalism and power based on evolving patterns of food consumption. It is mainly argued that relationship building within families depends less on shared food consumption than on the role played by women in the cooking and distribution of food, bearing in mind the likes and dislikes of individual family members.

Haldis Haukanes

2008-03-01

195

Farming practices change food web structures in cereal aphid–parasitoid–hyperparasitoid communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agricultural intensification has been shown to result in a decline in biodiversity across many taxa, but the changes in community structure and species interactions remain little understood. We have analysed and compared the structure of feeding interactions for cereal aphids and their primary and secondary parasitoids in organically and conventionally managed winter wheat fields using quantitative food web metrics (interaction evenness, generality, vulnerability, link density). Despite littl...

Lohaus, Katharina; Vidal, Stefan; Thies, Carsten

2012-01-01

196

Farming practices change food web structures in cereal aphid–parasitoid–hyperparasitoid communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agricultural intensification has been shown to result in a decline in biodiversity across many taxa, but the changes in community structure and species interactions remain little understood. We have analysed and compared the structure of feeding interactions for cereal aphids and their primary and secondary parasitoids in organically and conventionally managed winter wheat fields using quantitative food web metrics (interaction evenness, generality, vulnerability, link density). Despite littl...

Lohaus, Katharina; Vidal, Stefan; Thies, Carsten

2013-01-01

197

21 CFR 1250.28 - Source and handling of ice.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Source and handling of ice. 1250.28 Section 1250.28 Food and Drugs ...Conveyances, and Vessels § 1250.28 Source and handling of ice. Ice coming in contact with food or drink and not...

2010-04-01

198

An Investigation of the Safety of High Risk Sandwich Bar Foods Through the Application of Microbial Analysis, Temperature Monitoring and Microbial Predictive Modelling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rising incidents of food poisoning may be related to growing evidence of unsatisfactory temperature and hygiene practices in preparing and storing ready-to-eat foods. Four sandwich bar outlets in Dublin city center were observed regarding the quality of food handling and storage practices of chilled vacuum packed cooked chicken breast. A pilot microbial sampling plan proved Staphylococcus aureus was the major microorganism of concern. Microbial counts revealed a S. aureus count of ) cfu/g on ...

Maher, Marie-clare

2002-01-01

199

Determination of te spontaneous ignition temperature of bulk materials. Simple to handle possibility for the practice; Bestimmung der Selbstentzuendungstemperatur von Schuettguetern. Einfach handhabbarer Weg fuer die Praxis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bulk materials are widely used in industry. Bulk materials come up not only in mining (coal), in agriculture (flour) and food industry (coffee), but also in the pharmaceutical industry for example in the production of specialty chemicals and pigments. Mass-produced goods in tonnages are produced, processed, transported and stored. Due to the poor heat transfer in the bulks the relatively large storage volumes are especially critical in view of a possible self-ignition.

Kimpel, Sebastian; Horn, Joerg; Franke, Juergen [consilab Gesellschaft fuer Anlagensicherheit mbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2012-06-15

200

Surface-near geothermal power. Handling of hydro-economic requirements in the practice; Oberflaechennahe Geothermie. Umgang mit den wasserwirtschaftlichen Anforderungen in der Praxis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the meeting of the Bavarian Environment Agency (Augsburg, Federal Republic of Germany) at 1st December, 2009, the following lectures were held: (1) Hydro-economical requirements and working assistance of the Bavarian Environment Agency (Hannes Berger); (2) Technology, dimensioning and safety devices for heat pumps and heat source plants soil - groundwater (Erich Ramming); (3) Well devices for the thermal utilization of the groundwater - planning, production and quality assurance (Michael Thoren); (4) Geothermal probes: Handling of raw materials and welding at the building site (Hubert Graf); (5) Geothermal probes - planning and calculation (Burkhard Sanner); (6) Geothermal probes - drilling operations (Sven Tewes); (7) Certification of drilling companies according to W 120 (Udo Peth); (8) Operation of geothermal plants - Examples from one-family house to football stadium (Arno Poehlmann).

NONE

2009-12-15

 
 
 
 
201

Standard practice for dosimetry in electron and bremsstrahlung irradiation facilities for food processing. ASTM standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E-10 on Nuclear Technology and Applications and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E10.01 on Dosimetry for Radiation Processing. Current edition approved Jan. 10, 1998. Published June 1998. Originally published as E 1431-91. Last previous edition E 1431-91

202

Materials handling centre: making business more efficient  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the Materials Handling Forum at RSM is to narrow the gap between research and practice by promoting and disseminating academic knowledge, sharing innovative ideas, generating research questions, and co-developing new research themes with industry partners.

Bollen, B.

2012-01-01

203

THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE IODINE FORTIFICATION OF THE FOOD PRODUCTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this study was the investigation of the principles of food fortification with iodine. It was researched the opportunity of molecular iodine incorporation in vegetable oil, physical and chemical properties of iodized vegetable oil and other food products fortified with iodized oil. By physical and chemical methods it was established the presence of iodine-triglyceride compounds in iodized oil, formed by fixing the molecular iodine at the double bound of the unsaturated fatty acids. The results of the investigations of the physical-chemical, microbiological and organoleptic properties, the oxidation stability of iodine fortified products compared to the control samples, indicate the absence of sensitive difference during the maturation and storage processes. The iodine bioavailability in fortified lipid products has been investigated in vitro and in vivo conditions. It was established, that the recovery percent of iodine represents 57-92?0(in vitro. In vivo researches have proved that iodized lipid products are influencing the metabolic processes by accumulation of iodine in animal’s body, as a result of an efficient digestion and a high iodine bioavailability from the present complexes.

Rodica Sturza

2010-04-01

204

The NOURISH randomised control trial: Positive feeding practices and food preferences in early childhood - a primary prevention program for childhood obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Primary prevention of childhood overweight is an international priority. In Australia 20-25% of 2-8 year olds are already overweight. These children are at substantially increased the risk of becoming overweight adults, with attendant increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Early feeding practices determine infant exposure to food (type, amount, frequency) and include responses (eg coercion) to infant feeding behaviour (eg. food refusal). There is corre...

Farrell Ann; Nicholson Jan M; Battistutta Diana; Magarey Anthea; Daniels Lynne A; Davidson Geoffrey; Cleghorn Geoffrey

2009-01-01

205

Effect of the food production chain from farm practices to vegetable processing on outbreak incidence.  

Science.gov (United States)

The popularity in the consumption of fresh and fresh-cut vegetables continues to increase globally. Fresh vegetables are an integral part of a healthy diet, providing vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and other health-promoting compounds. The diversity of fresh vegetables and packaging formats (spring mix in clamshell container, bagged heads of lettuce) support increased consumption. Unfortunately, vegetable production and processing practices are not sufficient to ensure complete microbial safety. This review highlights a few specific areas that require greater attention and research. Selected outbreaks are presented to emphasize the need for science-based 'best practices'. Laboratory and field studies have focused on inactivation of pathogens associated with manure in liquid, slurry or solid forms. As production practices change, other forms and types of soil amendments are being used more prevalently. Information regarding the microbial safety of fish emulsion and pellet form of manure is limited. The topic of global climate change is controversial, but the potential effect on agriculture cannot be ignored. Changes in temperature, precipitation, humidity and wind can impact crops and the microorganisms that are associated with production environments. Climate change could potentially enhance the ability of pathogens to survive and persist in soil, water and crops, increasing human health risks. Limited research has focused on the prevalence and behaviour of viruses in pre and post-harvest environments and on vegetable commodities. Globally, viruses are a major cause of foodborne illnesses, but are seldom tested for in soil, soil amendments, manure and crops. Greater attention must also be given to the improvement in the microbial quality of seeds used in sprout production. Human pathogens associated with seeds can result in contamination of sprouts intended for human consumption, even when all appropriate 'best practices' are used by sprout growers. PMID:25251466

Jung, Yangjin; Jang, Hyein; Matthews, Karl R

2014-11-01

206

Food, farm and environment development and sustainability: from theory to practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available International cooperation for development has always been looked at with scepticism since it exists. In fact, the different assistance projects which are carried out to help developing countries bring benefits more to the donor countries than to the receiving ones, triggering a process of economic development in the former. The “investments” of the various projects come back multiplied. FAO themselves, instead of using their resources on real projects helping to reduce world famine, waste away billion dollars to pay salaries, benefits, transfers and general expenses.While in underdeveloped countries million people die for famine, in the rich countries tons of food are destroyed because they aren’t considered marketable anymore. This is a huge waste of resources besides being a serious damage to the environment and an unsustainable system on the long term.

Andrea Segrè

2008-04-01

207

Food, farm and environment development and sustainability: from theory to practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available International cooperation for development has always been looked at with scepticism since it exists. In fact, the different assistance projects which are carried out to help developing countries bring benefits more to the donor countries than to the receiving ones, triggering a process of economic development in the former. The “investments” of the various projects come back multiplied. FAO themselves, instead of using their resources on real projects helping to reduce world famine, waste away billion dollars to pay salaries, benefits, transfers and general expenses.While in underdeveloped countries million people die for famine, in the rich countries tons of food are destroyed because they aren’t considered marketable anymore. This is a huge waste of resources besides being a serious damage to the environment and an unsustainable system on the long term.

Andrea Segrè

2011-02-01

208

COMPARE NITRATE REMOVAL METHODS: FOR SOME COMMUNITIES, ION EXCHANGE MAY BE THE MOST ECONOMICAL, PRACTICAL WAY OF HANDLING NITRATE-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrate is a ground water contaminant that results from fertilizers and septic tank wastes. Many treatment methods have been investigated for nitrate removal but only ion exchange, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis are considered to be practical. Of these three methods, ion exc...

209

Practical problems in the transfer of the food irradiation technology from the laboratory to the industry and trade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Not all applications of food irradiation developed in laboratories appear feasible at the commercial level. Without taking into account the social and economic factors, some of the obstacles regarding the commodities themselves and some practical aspects of a commercial irradiator are reviewed. The dose distribution found in most facilities make it almost impossible to irradiate products with a narrow dose range tolerance. Treatment of perishable commodities may turn to be difficult, especially in contract facilities, as it is not easy to plan. Similarly, combination of processes will not always be achievable. Applications to products for which the production is both seasonal and scattered do not appear feasible. Some progress is still needed in fields such as, packaging to avoid insect reinfestation after irradiation routine dosimetry and irradiators design

210

Consumer Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards the Use of Monosodium Glutamate and Food Grade Bullion Cubes as Dietary Constituents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The knowledge attitude and practice in use of Monosodium Glutamate (MSG and food Grade Bullion Cubes (FGBCs by 240 respondents randomly selected from the rural and urban areas of Enugu and Nsukka in Enugu state were investigated. Information was obtained by means of questionnaires feeding regime and focus group discussions. The feeding regime involved a sample of 15 subjects randomly selected from university students who previously complained of some problem after consumption of MSG. The results showed that 98.3% of the respondents were currently using food flavour enhancers (MSGs and FGBCs in cooking stews, soups, pottages, pepper soups, moi moi, sauce and others. Consumption of FGBCs in terms of number of households was 95.8% and MSG 49.6%. Consumption was on a daily basis. The low and high category of users of FGBCs consumed 14 g and 24 g/person/week respectively while for MSG it was 0.9 g and 6.6 g/person/week, respectively. In addition, a total of 82.5% and 42.5% have knowledge of FGBCs and MSG respectively. The major medium of information was Radio (50%. Results also showed that 95% used FGBCs because it is affordable, while 54.6% used MSG because it is generally good. A total of 71.3% were aware of the health problems associated with MSG. Out of this number, 45% have experienced it. The 14-day feeding trials showed no health problems on the subjects investigated. Nutrition education, information on safety of MSG, fortification of MSG and consumption of fortified foods are recommended.

H.N. Henry-Unaeze

2010-01-01

211

Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran and others

2006-01-15

212

Household Food Insecurity, Maternal Nutritional Status, and Infant Feeding Practices Among HIV-infected Ugandan Women Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Household food insecurity (HHFI) may be a barrier to both optimal maternal nutritional status and infant feeding practices, but few studies have tested this relationship quantitatively, and never among HIV-infected individuals. We therefore described the prevalence of HHFI and explored if it was associated with poorer maternal nutritional status, shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and fewer animal-source complementary foods. We assessed these outcomes using bivariate and multivariate analyses among 178 HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding (BF) women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in the PROMOTE trial (NCT00993031), a prospective, longitudinal cohort study in Tororo, Uganda. HHFI was common; the prevalence of severe, moderate, and little to no household hunger was 7.3, 39.9, and 52.8 %, respectively. Poor maternal nutritional status was common and women in households experiencing moderate to severe household hunger (MSHH) had statistically significantly lower body mass index (BMIs) at enrollment (21.3 vs. 22.5, p pregnancy, but not gestational weight gain, was significantly lower for MSHH [adjusted beta (95 % CI) -0.79 (-1.56, -0.02), p = 0.04; -2.06 (-4.31, 0.19), p = 0.07], respectively. The prevalence (95 % CI) of EBF at 6 months was 67.2 % (59.7-73.5 %), and the proportion of women BF at 12 months was 80.4 % (73.3-85.7 %). MSHH was not associated with prevalence of EBF at 6 months or BF at 12 months. However, among those women still EBF at 4 months (81.4 % of population), those experiencing MSHH were significantly more likely to cease EBF between 4 and 6 months (aHR 2.38, 95 % CI 1.02-5.58). The prevalence of HHFI, maternal malnutrition, and suboptimal infant feeding practices are high and the causal relationships among these phenomena must be further explored. PMID:24585398

Young, Sera L; Plenty, Albert H J; Luwedde, Flavia A; Natamba, Barnabas K; Natureeba, Paul; Achan, Jane; Mwesigwa, Julia; Ruel, Theodore D; Ades, Veronica; Osterbauer, Beth; Clark, Tamara D; Dorsey, Grant; Charlebois, Edwin D; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane V; Cohan, Deborah L

2014-11-01

213

Poor Nutrition Status and Associated Feeding Practices among HIV-Positive Children in a Food Secure Region in Tanzania: A Call for Tailored Nutrition Training  

Science.gov (United States)

Undernutrition among HIV-positive children can be ameliorated if they are given adequate foods in the right frequency and diversity. Food insecurity is known to undermine such efforts, but even in food rich areas, people have undernutrition. As yet no study has examined feeding practices and their associations with nutrition status among as HIV-positive children in regions with high food production. We therefore examined the magnitude of undernutrition and its association with feeding practices among HIV-positive children in a high food production region in Tanzania. Methods We conducted this mixed-method study among 748 children aged 6 months-14 years attending 9 of a total of 32 care and treatment centers in Tanga region, Tanzania. We collected quantitative data using a standard questionnaire and qualitative data through seven focus group discussions (FGDs). Results HIV-positive children had high magnitudes of undernutrition. Stunting, underweight, wasting, and thinness were prevalent among 61.9%, 38.7%, 26.0%, and 21.1% of HIV-positive children, respectively. They also had poor feeding practices: 88.1% were fed at a frequency below the recommendations, and 62.3% had a low level of dietary diversity. Lower feeding frequency was associated with stunting (??=?0.11, p?=?0.016); underweight (??=?0.12, p?=?0.029); and thinness (??=?0.11, p?=?0.026). Lower feeding frequency was associated with low wealth index (??=?0.06, pfood insecurity (??=??0.05, pfood insecurity, low income, and poverty. Conclusion Feeding practices and nutrition status were poor among HIV-positive children even in food rich areas. Improving feeding frequency may help to ameliorate undernutrition. To improve it, tailored interventions should target children of poor households, the food insecure, and caregivers who have received only a low level of education. PMID:24846016

Sunguya, Bruno F.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Mlunde, Linda B.; Urassa, David P.; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

2014-01-01

214

Food for Work Program and its Implications on Food Security: A Critical Review with a Practical Example from the Amhara Region, Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A systematic evaluation of food-for-work (FFW programs in Ethiopia is seriously lacking. Most of the few available reports indicate that these programs have reached very few achievements in terms of food security and reduction of poverty at large. As expressed by Holden et al. (2005, FFW programs are commonly aimed to produce or maintain potentially valuable public goods necessary to stimulate productivity and thus income growth. Natural resources management, like rural road construction, erosion control and afforestation of degraded lands can be mentioned as valuable measures which could stimulate productivity and agricultural growth. The poverty reduction and food security impact of food or cash for work activities are larger if they offer not only seasonal job opportunities to the rural community but also long term employment possibilities. This is more likely if the projects are regionally dispersed and combined with basic education. In the Ethiopian context, it was always questionable if the continuous boom in food aid (regardless of cash or food for work purposes was the solution for the long standing food insecurity and poverty crises in the country. The study discusses the efficiency of FFW programs that aimed to reduce rural poverty and ensure food security on the one hand, and the impact of the food aid on resource and time allocation of the participating households for own food production on the other. The study is based on a field research conducted at a FFW program project, in the Amhara region, Ethiopia run by the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ with the view of improving food security in the Amhara region, Ethiopia. A household theoretical model is used to analyze the sample data, whether FFW program may indeed reduce household food insecurity and/or has some crowding-out effects on labour allocation of participating households for own field production.

Ashenafi Gedamu

2006-10-01

215

Food irradiation: Public opinion surveys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Canadian government are discussing the legislation, regulations and practical protocol necessary for the commercialization of food irradiation. Food industry marketing, public relations and media expertise will be needed to successfully introduce this new processing choice to retailers and consumers. Consumer research to date including consumer opinion studies and market trials conducted in the Netherlands, United States, South Africa and Canada will be explored for signposts to successful approaches to the introduction of irradiated foods to retailers and consumers. Research has indicated that the terms used to describe irradiation and information designed to reduce consumer fears will be important marketing tools. Marketers will be challenged to promote old foods, which look the same to consumers, in a new light. Simple like or dislike or intention to buy surveys will not be effective tools. Consumer fears must be identified and effectively handled to support a receptive climate for irradiated food products. A cooperative government, industry, health professional, consumer association and retailer effort will be necessary for the successful introduction of irradiated foods into the marketplace. Grocery Products Manufacturers of Canada is a national trade association of more than 150 major companies engaged in the manufacture of food, non-alcoholic beverages and array of other national-brand consumer items sold through retail outlets.

Kerr, S.D.

1987-01-01

216

Food irradiation: Public opinion surveys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Canadian government are discussing the legislation, regulations and practical protocol necessary for the commercialization of food irradiation. Food industry marketing, public relations and media expertise will be needed to successfully introduce this new processing choice to retailers and consumers. Consumer research to date including consumer opinion studies and market trials conducted in the Netherlands, United States, South Africa and Canada will be explored for signposts to successful approaches to the introduction of irradiated foods to retailers and consumers. Research has indicated that the terms used to describe irradiation and information designed to reduce consumer fears will be important marketing tools. Marketers will be challenged to promote old foods, which look the same to consumers, in a new light. Simple like or dislike or intention to buy surveys will not be effective tools. Consumer fears must be identified and effectively handled to support a receptive climate for irradiated food products. A cooperative government, industry, health professional, consumer association and retailer effort will be necessary for the successful introduction of irradiated foods into the marketplace. Grocery Products Manufacturers of Canada is a national trade association of more than 150 major companies engaged in the manufacture of food, non-alcoholic beverages and array of other national-brand consumer items sold through retail outletstail outlets

217

Remote control handling arm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention concerns a remote control arm, of the type comprising an articulated assembly connecting a handling component to a support. This articulated assembly is made up from standard and separate components interconnected by an articulation allowing for the transmission of an independent movement to produce a pre-determined movement of this handling component with respect to the said support. Such handling arms are fully described in French patent No. 1459250, in which, incidentally, one of the inventors mentioned is the same person as in this application. One of the most important uses of such handling arms is in the fitting of power remote handling devices for hot nuclear laboratories

218

Development of online learning activities to enhance student knowledge of animal behaviour prior to engaging in live animal handling practical sessions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Learning activities were developed to increase the awareness of animal behaviour among first year students enrolled in animal-associated degrees prior to students engaging in hands-on live animal practical sessions. Learning activities were developed in an easy to use collegial online environment and to encourage student engagement in learning activities. One hundred and one students were given a preliminary and post learning activity survey to assess their initial knowledge and experience of animal behaviour, as well as to determine if the learning activities increased the students’ knowledge of animal behaviour after engaging in the learning activities. Of the students surveyed, most currently owned pets or have had pets (91.1%, some had animal-related qualifications (22.8% and currently worked in an animal-related position (24.8%. There was a significant difference (70.3% increase in student responses after engaging in the learning activities with the major change occurring in the students’ understanding of the term ‘ethology’, regardless of the level of qualifications or animal-related career experience. In addition, after engaging in the learning activities, most students believed that they could better articulate and interpret animal behaviors based on their observations. Overall, the inclusion of learning activities successfully increased the ability of students to understand behavioral traits of animals, which will increase safety in live animal practical sessions. The learning activities also encouraged a collegial learning environment that enhanced new knowledge construction amongst the students.

Julie M Old

2011-07-01

219

Envisioning Agricultural Sustainability from Field to Plate: Comparing Producer and Consumer Attitudes and Practices toward "Environmentally Friendly" Food and Farming in Washington State, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

A substantial body of sociological research has examined the relationship between farmers' environmental attitudes and their conservation behaviors, but little research has compared the attitudes of producers and consumers toward the environment with their behaviors or practices in support of sustainable agri-food systems. This paper addresses…

Selfa, Theresa; Jussaume, Raymond A., Jr.; Winter, Michael

2008-01-01

220

"Is It Okay to Eat a Dog in Korea...like China?" Assumptions of National Food-Eating Practices in Intercultural Interaction  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a small body of research which shows how intercultural communication is constituted in and through talk-in-interaction, and can be made relevant or irrelevant by interactants on a moment-by-moment basis. Our paper builds on this literature by investigating how cultural assumptions of national food-eating practices are deployed, contested…

Brandt, Adam; Jenks, Christopher

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Food and Personal Hygiene Perceptions and Practices among Caregivers Whose Children Have Diarrhea: A Qualitative Study of Urban Mothers in Tangerang, Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To examine caregivers' perceptions and practices related to food and personal hygiene and its association with diarrhea in children 6 to 36 months of age who suffered recurrent diarrhea. Design: This qualitative study, conducted in March and April 2006, used both in-depth interviews and direct observation data. Setting: Urban Tangerang,…

Usfar, Avita A.; Iswarawanti, Dwi N.; Davelyna, Devy; Dillon, Drupadi

2010-01-01

222

Revision of the recommended international general standard for irradiated foods and of the recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of the findings and statements of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food, convened in Geneva from 27 October to 3 November 1980, a Consultation Group, convened in Geneva from 1 to 3 July 1981 suggested the revision of the Recommended International General Standard for Irradiated Foods and of the Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities. The proposed changes are given and justified and the revised wording of the documents presented

223

Safe Handling of Radioisotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

224

A Study on Consumer Awareness, Safety Perceptions & Practices about Food Preservatives and Flavouring Agents Used in Packed /Canned Foods from South India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Conclusion: Though there was awareness, the knowledge was inadequate. Unfavourable practices were observed. The gaps in the knowledge and unhealthy practices need to be addressed by public awareness campaign.

Harsha Kumar H N, Anshu Kumar Jha, Khushboo K Taneja, Krishan Kabra, Hafeez M Sadiq

2013-01-01

225

The NOURISH randomised control trial: Positive feeding practices and food preferences in early childhood - a primary prevention program for childhood obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary prevention of childhood overweight is an international priority. In Australia 20-25% of 2-8 year olds are already overweight. These children are at substantially increased the risk of becoming overweight adults, with attendant increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Early feeding practices determine infant exposure to food (type, amount, frequency and include responses (eg coercion to infant feeding behaviour (eg. food refusal. There is correlational evidence linking parenting style and early feeding practices to child eating behaviour and weight status. A focus on early feeding is consistent with the national focus on early childhood as the foundation for life-long health and well being. The NOURISH trial aims to implement and evaluate a community-based intervention to promote early feeding practices that will foster healthy food preferences and intake and preserve the innate capacity to self-regulate food intake in young children. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial (RCT aims to recruit 820 first-time mothers and their healthy term infants. A consecutive sample of eligible mothers will be approached postnatally at major maternity hospitals in Brisbane and Adelaide. Initial consent will be for re-contact for full enrolment when the infants are 4-7 months old. Individual mother- infant dyads will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will provide anticipatory guidance via two modules of six fortnightly parent education and peer support group sessions, each followed by six months of regular maintenance contact. The modules will commence when the infants are aged 4-7 and 13-16 months to coincide with establishment of solid feeding, and autonomy and independence, respectively. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, with follow up at nine and 18 months. These will include infant intake (type and amount of foods, food preferences, feeding behaviour and growth and self-reported maternal feeding practices and parenting practices and efficacy. Covariates will include sociodemographics, infant feeding mode and temperament, maternal weight status and weight concern and child care exposure. Discussion Despite the strong rationale to focus on parents' early feeding practices as a key determinant of child food preferences, intake and self-regulatory capacity, prospective longitudinal and intervention studies are rare. This trial will be amongst to provide Level II evidence regarding the impact of an intervention (commencing prior to age 12 months on children's eating patterns and behaviours. Trial Registration ACTRN12608000056392

Farrell Ann

2009-10-01

226

Nuclear fuel handling apparatus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fuel handling machine for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor in which a retractable handling tube and gripper are lowered into the reactor to withdraw a spent fuel assembly into the handling tube. The handling tube containing the fuel assembly immersed in liquid sodium is then withdrawn completely from the reactor into the outer barrel of the handling machine. The machine is then used to transport the spent fuel assembly directly to a remotely located decay tank. The fuel handling machine includes a decay heat removal system which continuously removes heat from the interior of the handling tube and which is capable of operating at its full cooling capacity at all times. The handling tube is supported in the machine from an articulated joint which enables it to readily align itself with the correct position in the core. An emergency sodium supply is carried directly by the machine to provide make up in the event of a loss of sodium from the handling tube during transport to the decay tank. 5 claims, 32 drawing figures

227

Exploring the concepts of food sovereignty and social capital in relation to The organic principles, practices and policies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Food sovereignty is a concept based on an idea of food security (a varied diet with diversified, nutritious and culturally appropriate food) for everybody including the right of people, communities and nations to define their own food and agriculture, to protect and regulate domestic agricultural production and trade in order to achieve sustainable development objectives. Food sovereignty is increasingly discussed and debated, e.g. in relation to power over seed, water, land and food, which become privatized and do not belong the people, communities and countries, where farming and food processing take place. Social capital refers to social networking and mobilisation of resources, forming communities and societies taking collective action and exchanging of e.g. knowledge and experience. Strengthening social capital in local societies empower peasants, processors and societies, which are in risk of losing power over land, food, other agricultural products and trade. The food sovereignty concept can be argued to be strongly related to the organic principles. This paper explores the concept of food sovereignty and the potential role of active social capital building to develop organic farming built on agro-ecological methods. Social and learning networks for farmers, processors and small businesses for collective action and common learning can be important pathways to organic farming and food systems with food sovereignty.

Vaarst, Mette

228

9 CFR 354.120 - Manner of handling products in an official plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Manner of handling products in an official plant. 354.120 Section 354.120 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.120 Manner of handling products in an official...

2010-01-01

229

Human factors issues in fuel handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The staff of the Atomic Energy Control Board wish to further their understanding of human factors issues of potential concern associated with fuel handling in CANDU nuclear power stations. This study contributes to that objective by analysing the role of human performance in the overall fuel handling process at Ontario Hydro's Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, and reporting findings in several areas. A number of issues are identified in the areas of design, operating and maintenance practices, and the organizational and management environment

230

29 CFR 1910.272 - Grain handling facilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...grain handling facilities should be aware that the Food and Drug Administration must approve the specific oil treatment used...effectiveness of the maintenance program can be demonstrated. Scheduling of preventive maintenance should be based on...

2010-07-01

231

Food, Globalization and Sustainability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of international trade and global food governance. Distance in time and space between food producers and consumers is increasing and new concerns are arising. These include the environmental impact of food pro...

Oosterveer, P. J. M.; Sonnenfeld, D. A.

2011-01-01

232

Perfil socioeconômico e profissional de manipuladores de alimentos e o impacto positivo de um curso de capacitação em Boas Práticas de Fabricação / Socioeconomic and professional profile of food handlers and the positive impact of a training course on Good Manufacturing Practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Doenças transmitidas por alimentos constituem um problema de saúde pública em nível mundial e estão frequentemente associadas a falhas na manipulação dos alimentos. Conhecer o perfil socioeconômico e profissional, bem como o nível de conhecimento dos manipuladores de alimentos, é requisito essencial [...] para o planejamento de políticas públicas e programas de capacitação visando a segurança e qualidade dos alimentos. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o perfil socioeconômico e profissional de manipuladores de alimentos, e o impacto de um curso de capacitação em Boas Práticas de Fabricação (BPF) realizado na cidade de Araraquara-SP, Brasil. Um total de 192 manipuladores respondeu a dois questionários: o primeiro, para avaliar o nível de conhecimento dos manipuladores sobre BPF antes (avaliação diagnóstica) e depois (avaliação final) de participar do curso; o segundo, para realizar um levantamento do perfil socioeconômico e profissional dos manipuladores. Os resultados mostraram que o curso de capacitação repercutiu de forma positiva no nível de conhecimento dos manipuladores, sendo que todos os temas sobre BPF avaliados apresentaram um percentual de respostas corretas significativamente maior na avaliação final em relação à avaliação diagnóstica. Isso indica a necessidade de aperfeiçoamento constante, para garantir a qualificação profissional dos manipuladores e, consequentemente, a qualidade dos alimentos e a segurança alimentar dos consumidores. Abstract in english Foodborne diseases are a worldwide public health problem frequently associated with failures during food handling. Knowledge of the socioeconomic and professional profile of food handlers and their knowledge about the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) are required in order to plan public policies a [...] nd training programs aimed at food safety and quality. This study aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic and professional profile of food handlers and the impact of giving a training course on Good Manufacturing Practices in the city of Araraquara, São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 192 food handlers answered the following two questionnaires: the first to assess their level of knowledge on GMP, which was applied before (initial evaluation) and after (final evaluation) the training course, and the second to assess the food handlers' socioeconomic and professional profiles. The results showed that the training course had a positive impact on the food handlers' level of knowledge, since all topics on GMP showed a higher percentage of correct answers in the final evaluation than in the initial evaluation. These data indicate the need for continuous training courses to improve the qualification of food handlers, and hence of the food quality and food safety for consumers.

Gabriela Gianini Guilherme, Devides; Daniele Fernanda, Maffei; Maria da Penha Longo Mortatti, Catanozi.

233

Perfil socioeconômico e profissional de manipuladores de alimentos e o impacto positivo de um curso de capacitação em Boas Práticas de Fabricação / Socioeconomic and professional profile of food handlers and the positive impact of a training course on Good Manufacturing Practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Doenças transmitidas por alimentos constituem um problema de saúde pública em nível mundial e estão frequentemente associadas a falhas na manipulação dos alimentos. Conhecer o perfil socioeconômico e profissional, bem como o nível de conhecimento dos manipuladores de alimentos, é requisito essencial [...] para o planejamento de políticas públicas e programas de capacitação visando a segurança e qualidade dos alimentos. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o perfil socioeconômico e profissional de manipuladores de alimentos, e o impacto de um curso de capacitação em Boas Práticas de Fabricação (BPF) realizado na cidade de Araraquara-SP, Brasil. Um total de 192 manipuladores respondeu a dois questionários: o primeiro, para avaliar o nível de conhecimento dos manipuladores sobre BPF antes (avaliação diagnóstica) e depois (avaliação final) de participar do curso; o segundo, para realizar um levantamento do perfil socioeconômico e profissional dos manipuladores. Os resultados mostraram que o curso de capacitação repercutiu de forma positiva no nível de conhecimento dos manipuladores, sendo que todos os temas sobre BPF avaliados apresentaram um percentual de respostas corretas significativamente maior na avaliação final em relação à avaliação diagnóstica. Isso indica a necessidade de aperfeiçoamento constante, para garantir a qualificação profissional dos manipuladores e, consequentemente, a qualidade dos alimentos e a segurança alimentar dos consumidores. Abstract in english Foodborne diseases are a worldwide public health problem frequently associated with failures during food handling. Knowledge of the socioeconomic and professional profile of food handlers and their knowledge about the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) are required in order to plan public policies a [...] nd training programs aimed at food safety and quality. This study aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic and professional profile of food handlers and the impact of giving a training course on Good Manufacturing Practices in the city of Araraquara, São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 192 food handlers answered the following two questionnaires: the first to assess their level of knowledge on GMP, which was applied before (initial evaluation) and after (final evaluation) the training course, and the second to assess the food handlers' socioeconomic and professional profiles. The results showed that the training course had a positive impact on the food handlers' level of knowledge, since all topics on GMP showed a higher percentage of correct answers in the final evaluation than in the initial evaluation. These data indicate the need for continuous training courses to improve the qualification of food handlers, and hence of the food quality and food safety for consumers.

Gabriela Gianini Guilherme, Devides; Daniele Fernanda, Maffei; Maria da Penha Longo Mortatti, Catanozi.

2014-06-01

234

76 FR 9027 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Best Practices for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Drug Administration Staff on Best Practices for Conducting and Reporting Pharmacoepidemiologic...industry and FDA staff entitled ``Best Practices for Conducting and Reporting Pharmacoepidemiologic...guidance is intended to describe best practices pertaining to conducting and...

2011-02-16

235

DRUM HANDLING PRACTICES AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the research effort was to provide technical guidance on planning and implementing safe and cost-effective response actions applicable to hazardous waste sites containing drums. The manual provides detailed technical guidance on methods, procedures, and equipment s...

236

Street-Vended Foods Improvement: Contamination Mechanisms and Application of Food Safety Objective Strategy : Critical Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data collected from street-vended food enterprises and on vendors in west African countries revealed that, they provide a variety of ready-to-eat foods to a high proportion of the populations. Nevertheless, their handling and trading practices are not permit to obtain safe food. While, street-vended foods are easily contaminated by food borne pathogen and others chemicals compounds. The street-vended foods contamination mechanisms were identified and improvement pathways were suggested. Indeed, Food Safety Objective (FSO concept developed by FAO and WHO, can be used as ideal strategy for safe street food production. However, to reach this goal, the Critical Control Points (CCP, Microbiological and Risks Assessment (MRA, and hygienic status during street food production and sale were gathered. By assembling and analyzing the data, the safety assurance for safe street food obtaining was evaluated at every step of production chain. The data were juxtaposed to FSO concept frame work and applied along the street-vended food production chain. We applied Performance Objective (PO and Control Measure (CM respectively at operational levels, measure at relevant points of risk and points, that permit reduction of all contamination risks along the chain, to enhancing safe food obtaining. The FSO concept could help government to elaborate guidance for street foods production, vending and consumption, producers and vendors, training about HACCP pre-requisites and information for global view on safe street-vended food (SSF production. This will be an important task for the primary health care system aiming at `health for all`.

Barro Nicolas

2007-01-01

237

Level of Knowledge and Compliance of Mexican Food Code among Hospital Foodservice Employees in Guadalajara, México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contamination of food may occur at any point during the food distribution channel. However, mishandling of food at the last segment of food distribution where food is prepared for consumption often causes outbreaks. Keeping food safe in hospitals is particularly imperative because of the population they serve and the potentially hazardous environment. This article presents the results of a pencil and paper self-reported survey on the knowledge of Mexican food code, NOM-093-SSA1-1994, and field observation of the compliance of the code among the hospital foodservice employees in Guadalajara, México. One hundred twenty-seven employees from six public and private hospitals participated in the study. Of the respondents, 81.5% were aware of the importance of personal hygiene in food safety. Professional attire including hair restraints and mouth cover were always used. These participants, however seldom used thermometers, and only 37% of respondents knew the correct temperatures for refrigeration. In most hospitals correct procedures for sanitizing food contact surfaces that were prescribed by the sanitizing chemical manufacturers were practiced. Only 25% of the participants knew that their work was defined by the food code. Strategies for dissemination of the food code, and food safety training of the employees are urgently needed. Commitment and support of the hospital are needed in order to improve safe food handling practices in these hospitals.

Elsa Ramírez

2011-11-01

238

Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

Farkas, J. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary)); Zukal, E. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary))

1992-01-01

239

Future of remote handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The field of remote handling started with the invention of mechanical master-slave and electromechanical manipulators in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Those developments and that of shielding windows applied in hot cells and bays remain the dominant application of remote handling. The development of electric master-slave manipulators in the 1950s under the direction of Ray Goertz, and further development and applications in accelerator and nuclear fuel reprocessing, has made advanced remote handling a viable scheme for many applications. In very recent times, the application of robotics to analytical chemistry, fuel pellet fabrication, and explosives handling is a precursor to an expanded application of that technology. This paper will review the state-of-the-art in three areas and offer the authors view of the future over approximately the next ten years

240

Tritium handling facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the development of the controlled thermonuclear reactor, some of the most important and urgent matters are to get necessary amounts of deuterium and tritium as fuel gases and to establish the technologies for safe handling and control of tritium. The design of tritium handling facilities has been carried out. The objective is to study the safe handling technologies and to get the research and development programs of fuel cycling system in the controlled thermonuclear reactor. This report summarized the results of our studies on the multiple barrier containment systems based on the design philosophy of ''Defence in Depth'' and also based on the tritium storage and removal systems to satisfy the maximum permissible concentration of tritium in the atmosphere (MPCa). In addition, it summarized the research and development programs to design and construct a large-scale tritium handling facilities in future. (author)

 
 
 
 
241

Harvesting and handling agricultural residues for energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Significant progress in understanding the needs for design of agricultural residue collection and handling systems has been made but additional research is required. Recommendations are made for research to (a) integrate residue collection and handling systems into general agricultural practices through the development of multi-use equipment and total harvest systems; (b) improve methods for routine evaluation of agricultural residue resources, possibly through remote sensing and image processing; (c) analyze biomass properties to obtain detailed data relevant to engineering design and analysis; (d) evaluate long-term environmental, social, and agronomic impacts of residue collection; (e) develop improved equipment with higher capacities to reduce residue collection and handling costs, with emphasis on optimal design of complete systems including collection, transportation, processing, storage, and utilization; and (f) produce standard forms of biomass fuels or products to enhance material handling and expand biomass markets through improved reliability and automatic control of biomass conversion and other utilization systems. 118 references.

Jenkins, B.M.; Summer, H.R.

1986-05-01

242

Introduction to the Microbiological Spoilage of Foods and Beverages  

Science.gov (United States)

Though direct evidence of ancient food-handling practices is difficult to obtain and examine, it seems safe to assume that over the span of several million years, prehistoric humans struggled to maintain an adequate food supply. Their daily food needed to be hunted or harvested and consumed before it spoiled and became unfit to eat. Freshly killed animals, for example, could not have been kept for very long periods of time. Moreover, many early humans were nomadic, continually searching for food. We can imagine that, with an unreliable food supply, their lives must have often been literally "feast or famine." Yet, our ancestors gradually learned by accident, or by trial and error, simple techniques that could extend the storage time of their food (Block, 1991). Their brain capacity was similar to that of modern humans; therefore, some of them were likely early scientists and technologists. They would have learned that primitive cereal grains, nuts and berries, etc. could be stored in covered vessels to keep them dry and safer from mold spoilage. Animal products could be kept in cool places or dried and smoked over a fire, as the controlled use of fire by humans is thought to have begun about 400,000 years ago. Quite likely, naturally desiccated or fermented foods were also noticed and produced routinely to provide a more stable supply of edible food. Along with the development of agricultural practices for crop and animal production, the "simple" food-handling practices developed during the relatively countless millennia of prehistory paved the way for human civilizations.

Sperber, William H.

243

Food Chain & Food Web  

Science.gov (United States)

What are the differences and similarities between food chain and food web? Print (2) Garden Gate Print (1) Venn Diagram Garden Gate Venn Diagram Let's learn about the food chain and food web.Read the notes.Food Chain 4 Also, view more notes on food chain and food web. Go to the 7th title Food Chain which is before the Habitats and food chain title of the webpage.Food Chain Power Point Presentation Record what you learn ...

B, Ms.

2011-10-27

244

Targeted interventions of ultra-poor women in rural Rangpur, Bangladesh: do they make a difference to appropriate cooking practices, food habits and sanitation?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to assess whether teaching good cooking practices, food habits and sanitation to ultra-poor rural women in four rural communities of Rangpur district, Bangladesh, with a high density of extremely poor households, would improve the overall health of the community. The sample size was 200 respondents combined from the target and control areas. In the target area, twelve in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were undertaken for knowledge dissemination. Descriptive and mixed-model analyses were performed. The results show that washing hands with soap was 1.35 times more likely in the target than the control group (phand-washing behaviour: before cutting vegetables, preparing food, feeding a child and eating, and after defecating and cleaning a baby (phand-washing in every-day life. PMID:24355498

Yeasmin, Lubna; Akter, Shamima; Shahidul Islam, A M; Mizanur Rahman, Md; Akashi, Hidechika; Jesmin, Subrina

2014-07-01

245

Irradiation pilot plants and experimental facilities available for food preservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the ever-increasing world food crisis mankind has to face today, the prevention of spoilage of perishable food is gaining in momentum. The World Food Conference (Rome, November 1974) of the United Nations clearly recognized the importance of food preservation and urged action in this field. Irradiation is one of the recently discovered methods to preserve food. Its practical introduction largely depends on three main factors: (a) proof of the safety for human consumption of the irradiated product, (b) technological feasibility and (c) economic competitiveness of the process. As data on safety for consumption ('wholesomeness') continue to become available, the number of countries authorizing the irradiation of certain food items is growing (present total: 17 countries), and the same is true for the number of licensed irradiated commodities (total: 23). Under these conditions, testing of the technological and economic feasibility of food irradiation is a matter of increasing importance. Economic feasibility of any industrial operation can only be studied in larger-scale experiments. Thus, they can only be performed with radiation sources larger than those found in laboratories, i.e. in pilot irradiators, capable of handling from a few hundred to a few thousand kilograms of material within a short period of time. The Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has attempted to collect data on the availability, foed to collect data on the availability, for food preservation, of suitable irradiators in Member States

246

Handle with Care  

Science.gov (United States)

The Centers for Disease Control estimates that every year 76 million Americans get some kind of food poisoning, more than 300,000 are hospitalized, and approximately 5,000 people die. A 2004 analysis by the Center for Science in the Public Interest indicates that contaminated produce is responsible for the greatest number of food-borne illnesses.…

Merrill, Margaret C.

2006-01-01

247

Adaptation on a regional level. From national and supranational strategies to practical actions in the local and regional government and the economic life; Klimatilpassing paa regionalt nivaa. Fraa nasjonale og overnasjonale strategiar til praktisk handling i fylke, kommunar og naeringsliv  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presentation reviews various national strategies in the climate policies with emphasis on challenge approaches and greenhouse gas emissions. Measures in and implementations of the climatic handling and policies both regionally, nationally and supranationally are discussed (tk)

Flaete, Oddvar

2008-07-01

248

Economics of Food Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To-day very reliable irradiation equipment is available, and for an industrialist it is largely an economic consideration whether he should go in for an otherwise acceptable irradiation processing. In Denmark an industrial concern has now found it economically justifiable to establish a multi-purpose industrial plant, equipped with an American linac, and this facility will be able to process food.l To date, few plants in the world have recorded actual cost experiences for industrial food processing, but cost figures from other fields may serve as a guide. In practical calculations it is convenient to divide the work into certain typical groups, e.g. facilities for ''bulk'', ''medium'', ''thin'', and ''multi-purpose'', but food products may come under any of these headings. Costs of irradiation depend on product properties, type of plant, annual and monthly quantities, doses, control standards, special requirements for re-packing or other additional handling, etc. Definite figures for a particular case must be based on an exact calculation, but for a preliminary judgement many general price-range indications are available to the industrialist, and for a variety of purposes it is already evident that irradiation processing is economically sound. Apart from plant economy it is advisable for the industrialist to study some general commercial problems also, such as consumer preference and marketing structure, for the commodity in question. This can often best be done by marketing a pilot production of some quantity, before final decisions are taken regarding major investments in highly-specialized equipment. For some products market testing has already been done with good results by existing research or production facilities, and indeed actual commercial marketing has been reported. In conclusion, many food irradiation processes seem to be promising from an economic point of view. (author)

249

15 years of existence of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ICGFI essentially contributed to international dissemination of unbiased information about the advantages and risks of food irradiation. The body has issued ICGFI publications containing codes of good practice for a variety of purposes, as eg. for operation of irradiation facilities for the treatment of food (GIP), or guidelines for due handling of irradiated food (GMP). Training courses have been offered to scientists, especially from developing countries, as well as for inspectors of national supervisory authorities. The activities of the advisory group as well as the conditions governing future activities are discussed. (orig./CB)

250

Facts about food irradiation: Irradiation and food safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This fact sheet focusses on the question of whether irradiation can be used to make spoiled food good. No food processing procedures can substitute for good hygienic practices, and good manufacturing practices must be followed in the preparation of food whether or not the food is intended for further processing by irradiation or any other means. 3 refs

251

21 CFR 179.25 - General provisions for food irradiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

... true General provisions for food irradiation. 179.25 Section 179.25 Food...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING...179.25 General provisions for food irradiation. For the purposes of §...

2010-04-01

252

Oficinas de boas práticas de fabricação: construindo estratégias para garantir a segurança alimentar Workshops for good manufacturing practices: building strategies for ensuring food security  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comercialização de alimentos tradicionais resgata a história e a cultura presentes nos alimentos. Os pescadores artesanais são os principais responsáveis pelo abastecimento do mercado nacional. Considerando-se a importância da adoção de procedimentos de Boas Práticas de Fabricação em toda cadeia produtiva, o presente trabalho visa a socializar uma experiência construtiva de uma oficina de Boas Práticas de Fabricação para pescadoras. Diante disso, realizou-se um levantamento de conceitos e atitudes voltadas para produção segura de alimentos, utilizando-se como instrumento entrevistas, além da observação de seus hábitos e atitudes. Os resultados evidenciam que estas pescadoras percebem as Boas Práticas de Fabricação como sinônimo de higiene e de poder comercializar o pescado sem reclamações; porém, as mesmas não têm noção dos procedimentos de Boas Práticas de Fabricação na sua atividade. O processo formativo se constitui como uma das estratégias de base para consolidação dos grupos, sendo as oficinas alternativas eficientes, de fácil execução e baixo custo.The marketing of traditional foods recalls the history and culture in feeding. The fishermen are primarily responsible for supplying the domestic market. Considering the importance of adopting procedures for Good Manufacturing Practices throughout the production chain, this paper aims to socialize a constructive experience of a Good Manufacturing Practices workshop for fishers. Therefore, we carried out a survey of concepts and attitudes towards safe food production, using interviews as an instrument, and are observed their habits and attitudes. The results show that these Good Manufacturing Practices perceive as synonymous with health and able to market the fish without complaint, but they are not aware of the procedures for Good Manufacturing Practices activities. The training process is constituted as one of the basic strategies for strengthening these groups, workshops efficient alternatives, easy implementation and low cost.

Tarcisio da Silva Costa

2012-05-01

253

Oficinas de boas práticas de fabricação: construindo estratégias para garantir a segurança alimentar / Workshops for good manufacturing practices: building strategies for ensuring food security  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A comercialização de alimentos tradicionais resgata a história e a cultura presentes nos alimentos. Os pescadores artesanais são os principais responsáveis pelo abastecimento do mercado nacional. Considerando-se a importância da adoção de procedimentos de Boas Práticas de Fabricação em toda cadeia p [...] rodutiva, o presente trabalho visa a socializar uma experiência construtiva de uma oficina de Boas Práticas de Fabricação para pescadoras. Diante disso, realizou-se um levantamento de conceitos e atitudes voltadas para produção segura de alimentos, utilizando-se como instrumento entrevistas, além da observação de seus hábitos e atitudes. Os resultados evidenciam que estas pescadoras percebem as Boas Práticas de Fabricação como sinônimo de higiene e de poder comercializar o pescado sem reclamações; porém, as mesmas não têm noção dos procedimentos de Boas Práticas de Fabricação na sua atividade. O processo formativo se constitui como uma das estratégias de base para consolidação dos grupos, sendo as oficinas alternativas eficientes, de fácil execução e baixo custo. Abstract in english The marketing of traditional foods recalls the history and culture in feeding. The fishermen are primarily responsible for supplying the domestic market. Considering the importance of adopting procedures for Good Manufacturing Practices throughout the production chain, this paper aims to socialize a [...] constructive experience of a Good Manufacturing Practices workshop for fishers. Therefore, we carried out a survey of concepts and attitudes towards safe food production, using interviews as an instrument, and are observed their habits and attitudes. The results show that these Good Manufacturing Practices perceive as synonymous with health and able to market the fish without complaint, but they are not aware of the procedures for Good Manufacturing Practices activities. The training process is constituted as one of the basic strategies for strengthening these groups, workshops efficient alternatives, easy implementation and low cost.

Tarcisio da Silva, Costa; Gabrielly Sobral, Neiva; Valéria Macedo Almeida, Camilo; Fernanda de, Freitas; Isabella de Matos Mendes da, Silva.

254

Cooper-Harper Experience Report for Spacecraft Handling Qualities Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

A synopsis of experience from the fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft communities in handling qualities development and the use of the Cooper-Harper pilot rating scale is presented as background for spacecraft handling qualities research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E). In addition, handling qualities experiences and lessons-learned from previous United States (US) spacecraft developments are reviewed. This report is intended to provide a central location for references, best practices, and lessons-learned to guide current and future spacecraft handling qualities RDT&E.

Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.; Frost, Chad R.; Alderete, Thomas S.

2009-01-01

255

Experimental remote handling systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental mobile work system and a manipulator support system have been constructed to study various problems in remote handling systems such as control, communication, viewing, man-machine interface, etc. The mobile work system consists of the mobile work station which includes an electrical manipulator, a TV camera, a sub-computer, a servo-control unit, batteries, etc. which are mounted on a crawler-type vehicle and the master control station which includes a control panel, a main computer, a master arm, a TV monitor, etc. The manipulator support system is aimed at supporting a manipulator in a reactor vessel and is a tripedal mechanism which has three independently extensible legs for horizontal support. Other experimental remote handling systems are also being constructed or planned

256

Fuel handling method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a method of handling MOX fuels transferred in a state being contained in a fuel transferring vessel to a reactor building, when they are transferred from the fuel casks to a fuel erection stand, they are transferred in a state where the MOX fuels are covered by a shielding member for shielding radiation emitted from the MOX fuels. In addition, when they are transferred from the fuel casks to a fuel detection device, they are transferred also in a state being covered by a shielding member in the same manner. Since they are transferred in a state where they are covered by a shielding member for shielding radiation emitted from the MOX fuels, operation can be conducted in a circumstance where radiation is shielded sufficiently, and an operator's radiation exposure can be reduced. In addition, since MOX fuels can be handled in the same manner as uranium fuels, the workability is not deteriorated. (N.H.)

257

Test sample handling apparatus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A test sample handling apparatus using automatic scintillation counting for gamma detection, for use in such fields as radioimmunoassay, is described. The apparatus automatically and continuously counts large numbers of samples rapidly and efficiently by the simultaneous counting of two samples. By means of sequential ordering of non-sequential counting data, it is possible to obtain precisely ordered data while utilizing sample carrier holders having a minimum length. (U.K.)

258

Solid waste handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.)

259

Handling and Transport Problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arrangements for special or dangerous transport operations by road arising out of the activities of the Atomic Energy Commission are made by the Works and Installations Division which acts in concert with the Monitoring and Protection Division (MPD) whenever radioactive substances or appliances are involved. In view of the risk of irradiation and contamination entailed in handling and transporting radioactive substances, including waste, a specialized transport and storage team has been formed as a complement to the emergency and decontamination teams

260

Developments in coal handling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article discusses recent technological advances in coal handling made by the German firm, Schade. From the 1950s advances have been made in scraper reclaimers and combined stacker/reclaimers. In the late 1980s Schade introduced the portal bridge reclaimer for reclaiming and blending several stockpiles of various bulk materials arranged in a line. Recently a circular stacker/reclaimer has been designed and is operating at a power plant in Taiwan. 9 figs.

Fischer, W. [Schade Lagertechnik (Germany)

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Critical control points of complementary food preparation and handling in eastern Nigeria / Points de contrôle critiques dans la préparation et la manipulation des aliments de complément dans l’est du Nigéria / Puntos críticos de control en la preparación y manipulación de alimentos complementarios en el este de Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Investigar la contaminación microbiana y los puntos críticos de control (PCC) en la preparación y manipulación de alimentos complementarios en 120 hogares del Estado de Imo (Nigeria). MÉTODOS: Se empleó el sistema de análisis de peligros en puntos críticos de control (HACCP) para investiga [...] r los procesos y procedimientos que favorecían la contaminación microbiana y el crecimiento y la supervivencia de los microbios, así como para identificar los puntos donde podían aplicarse controles a fin de prevenir, eliminar o reducir esos riesgos microbiológicos hasta niveles admisibles. Se sometieron a análisis microbiológico muestras de alimentos recogidas en diferentes etapas de la preparación y manipulación. RESULTADOS: Durante la cocción todos los alimentos alcanzaron temperaturas capaces de destruir las formas vegetativas de los patógenos de transmisión alimentaria. Sin embargo, el riesgo de contaminación aumentó al almacenar los alimentos a temperatura ambiente, cuando se usaron temperaturas insuficientemente altas para recalentar el alimento, y al añadir ingredientes - por ejemplo cangrejo seco molido o soja en polvo - contaminados en etapas tras las cuales no se aplicaba ningún tratamiento térmico. La compra en mercados de alimentos e ingredientes crudos, especialmente de akamu, contaminados también constituye un PCC. CONCLUSIÓN: Aunque un entorno insalubre acarrea muchos peligros para la alimentación de los niños, si se observan los principios básicos de inocuidad de los alimentos es posible asegurar la calidad higiénica de los alimentos preparados. Cuando la contaminación es el resultado de muchos factores, la identificación de los PCC resulta especialmente importante y puede facilitar la adecuada focalización de los recursos y de las actividades de prevención. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate microbial contamination and critical control points (CCPs) in the preparation and handling of complementary foods in 120 households in Imo state, Nigeria. METHODS: The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach was used to investigate processes and procedures t [...] hat contributed to microbial contamination, growth and survival, and to identify points where controls could be applied to prevent or eliminate these microbiological hazards or reduce them to acceptable levels. Food samples were collected and tested microbiologically at different stages of preparation and handling. FINDINGS: During cooking, all foods attained temperatures capable of destroying vegetative forms of food-borne pathogens. However, the risk of contamination increased by storage of food at ambient temperature, by using insufficiently high temperatures to reheat the food, and by adding contaminated ingredients such as dried ground crayfish and soybean powder at stages where no further heat treatment was applied. The purchasing of contaminated raw foodstuffs and ingredients, particularly raw akamu, from vendors in open markets is also a CCP. CONCLUSION: Although an unsafe environment poses many hazards for children’s food, the hygienic quality of prepared food can be assured if basic food safety principles are observed. When many factors contribute to food contamination, identification of CCPs becomes particularly important and can facilitate appropriate targeting of resources and prevention efforts.

John E., Ehiri; Marcel C., Azubuike; Collins N., Ubbaonu; Ebere C., Anyanwu; Kasimir M., Ibe; Michael O., Ogbonna.

262

Alergia alimentar: atualização prática do ponto de vista gastroenterológico / Food allergy: a practical update from the gastroenterological viewpoint  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Apresentar uma revisão atualizada e crítica sobre alergias alimentares, focando principalmente em tratamento e prevenção. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão da literatura publicada obtida através do banco de dados MEDLINE, sendo selecionados os mais atuais e representativos do tema (2000-2006). A [...] pesquisa incluiu os sites da European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) e American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A prevalência de doenças alérgicas tem aumentado nas últimas décadas e alergia alimentar parece fazer parte desse aumento. Alergia alimentar é muito mais comum em pediatria e apresenta impacto médico, financeiro e social significativos em crianças menores e suas famílias. Tratamento e prevenção da alergia alimentar são desafios maiores do ponto de vista da saúde pública e para as comunidades médica e científica. Há muita informação incorreta e condutas médicas discutíveis nessa área. Apresentamos e discutimos as recomendações publicadas pelos Comitês de Nutrição da ESPGHAN juntamente com a Sociedade Européia Pediátrica de Alergologia e Imunologia Clínica (ESPACI) e AAP. CONCLUSÃO: Excesso de diagnósticos de alergia alimentar é bastante prevalente. Há necessidade de uniformização de definições e procedimentos diagnósticos. O objetivo primário do manejo deve ser o de instituir medidas efetivas de prevenção das alergias alimentares. Há necessidade de métodos precisos para confirmar ou excluir o diagnóstico. Os pacientes necessitam tratamento apropriado através da eliminação de alimentos que causam sintomas, ao mesmo tempo evitando os efeitos adversos nutricionais e o custo de dietas inadequadas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To present an up-to-date and critical review regarding food allergies, focusing mainly on treatment and prevention. SOURCES: Review of published literature searched on MEDLINE database; those data which were the most up-to-date and representative were selected (2000-2006). The search incl [...] uded the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased over the last decades, and food allergy seems to be part of this increase. Food allergy is much more common in pediatrics and has a significant medical, financial and social impact on young children and their families. Treatment and prevention of food allergy is a major challenge for public health, scientific and medical communities. There is a lot of misinformation and the medical management of this condition is still discussable. We present and discuss the guidelines regarding criteria for the prevention of food allergy and atopic diseases published by the Nutrition Committees of ESPGHAN jointly with the European Society for Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (ESPACI) and AAP. CONCLUSION: The overdiagnosis of food allergy is quite prevalent. There is a need for standardization of definitions and diagnostic procedures. The primary goal of therapy should be to first establish effective means of preventing food allergies. There is a need for accurate diagnostic methods to confirm or rule out the diagnosis. Patients need appropriate treatment by eliminating foods that cause symptoms, while avoiding the nutritional side effects and the cost of inappropriate diets.

Cristina Targa, Ferreira; Ernest, Seidman.

2007-02-01

263

Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

1991-12-31

264

Uranium hexafluoride handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF6 from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride

265

Operational semantics for signal handling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Signals are a lightweight form of interprocess communication in Unix. When a process receives a signal, the control flow is interrupted and a previously installed signal handler is run. Signal handling is reminiscent both of exception handling and concurrent interleaving of processes. In this paper, we investigate different approaches to formalizing signal handling in operational semantics, and compare them in a series of examples. We find the big-step style of operational semantics to be well suited to modelling signal handling. We integrate exception handling with our big-step semantics of signal handling, by adopting the exception convention as defined in the Definition of Standard ML. The semantics needs to capture the complex interactions between signal handling and exception handling.

Maxim Strygin

2012-08-01

266

Keeping up appearances: perceptions of street food safety in urban Kumasi, Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

The growing street food sector in low-income countries offers easy access to inexpensive food as well as new job opportunities for urban residents. While this development is positive in many ways, it also presents new public health challenges for the urban population. Safe food hygiene is difficult to practice at street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been linked to street food. This study investigates local perceptions of food safety among street food vendors and their consumers in Kumasi, Ghana in order to identify the most important aspects to be included in future public health interventions concerning street food safety. This qualitative study includes data from a triangulation of various qualitative methods. Observations at several markets and street food vending sites in Kumasi were performed. Fourteen street food vendors were chosen for in-depth studies, and extensive participant observations and several interviews were carried out with case vendors. In addition, street interviews and Focus Group Discussions were carried out with street food customers. The study found that although vendors and consumers demonstrated basic knowledge of food safety, the criteria did not emphasize basic hygiene practices such as hand washing, cleaning of utensils, washing of raw vegetables, and quality of ingredients. Instead, four main food selection criteria could be identified and were related to (1) aesthetic appearance of food and food stand, (2) appearance of the food vendor, (3) interpersonal trust in the vendor, and (4) consumers often chose to prioritize price and accessibility of food--not putting much stress on food safety. Hence, consumers relied on risk avoidance strategies by assessing neatness, appearance, and trustworthiness of vendor. Vendors were also found to emphasize appearance while vending and to ignore core food safety practices while preparing food. These findings are discussed in this paper using social and anthropological theoretical concepts such as 'purity', 'contamination', 'hygiene puzzles', and 'impression behaviors' from Douglas, Van Der Geest, and Goffman. The findings indicate that educating vendors in safe food handling is evidently insufficient. Future public health interventions within the street food sector should give emphasis to the importance of appearance and neatness when designing communication strategies. Neglected aspects of food safety, such as good hand hygiene and cleanliness of kitchen facilities, should be emphasized. Local vendor networks can be an effective point of entry for future food hygiene promotion initiatives. PMID:18821020

Rheinländer, Thilde; Olsen, Mette; Bakang, John Abubakar; Takyi, Harriet; Konradsen, Flemming; Samuelsen, Helle

2008-11-01

267

Safe handling of radiopharmaceuticals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There has been tremendous growth in the number of industrial and medical institutions using radioisotopes produced in nuclear reactors. This is associated with potential hazards and dangers if appropriate precautions are not taken in handling these. Hence, an effective and meaningful control programme is a must to regulate situations involving potential exposure to radiation such as the production, uses, transport, storage and disposal of radioisotopes. Such regulatory control is generally aimed at protecting the workers and the public from dangers or risks related to ionizing radiation taking into account the net benefit derived. (author)

268

Handling of potassium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result for the Fast Breeder Development extensive experience is available worldwide with respect to Sodium technology. Due to the extension of the research program to topping cycles with Potassium as the working medium, test facilities with Potassium have been designed and operated in the Institute of Reactor Safety. The different chemical properties of Sodium and Potassium give rise in new safety concepts and operating procedures. The handling problems of Potassium are described in the light of theoretical properties and own experiences. Selected literature on main safety and operating problems complete this report. (Author)

269

Crud handling circuit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process for handling the problems of crud formation during the solvent extraction of wet-process phosphoric acid, e.g. for uranium and rare earth removal, is described. It involves clarification of the crud-solvent mixture, settling, water washing the residue and treatment of the crud with a caustic wash to remove and regenerate the solvent. Applicable to synergistic mixtures of dialkylphosphoric acids and trialkylphosphine oxides dissolved in inert diluents and more preferably to the reductive stripping technique. (U.K.)

270

Radioactive material handling equipment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Equipment for handling radioactive waste material that is contained in protective canisters that are to be placed in bore holes in deep water beds comprises a carrier carrying a number of such canisters in a string, the carrier being movable to and locatable with the head of a bore hole. A container of grout is also carried by the carrier and the grout is passed through a valve in the grout container into the bore hole. Winch mechanism is mounted in the carrier for lowering the string of canisters into the bore hole so that the canisters become sealed in the bore hole, embedded in the grout. (author)

271

A vibration absorber for motorcycle handles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes the application of a vibration absorber to ameliorate the comfort of motorcycle handles. The concept of dynamical absorber is briefly summarised and a frequency response function is expressed as the ratio of vibration amplitudes (transmissibility). Some practical hints on the tuning strategy are also suggested in order to correctly define the absorber and then achieve the most effective vibration reduction. A specifically designed item is presented, with the peculiar char...

Fasana, Alessandro; Giorcelli, Ermanno

2010-01-01

272

Alimentos funcionales: análisis de la recomendación en la práctica diaria / Functional foods: analysis of the recommendation in the daily practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción:La investigación científica, la innovación tecnológica y la tendencia hacia lo saludable revolucionaron la industria alimenticia con el nuevo concepto de "alimentos funcionales". Surgen en Japón en los años 80 y actualmente el mercado internacional se encuentra en pleno auge. Los Licenc [...] iados en Nutrición, como nexo entre ciencia, industria y consumidor, constituyen una pieza clave y cumplen un rol fundamental en educación y asesoramiento.El objetivodel estudio fue establecer el nivel de conocimiento que poseen los Licenciados en Nutrición en éste área sobre el concepto de "alimento funcional", fuentes de información y capacitación utilizadas, recomendación y uso adecuado. Material y métodos:se realizó un estudio cualitativo, descriptivo y transversal. Se entrevistaron 57 Licenciados de Ciudad de Buenos Aires y Conurbano Bonaerense. Resultados:La mitad de los entrevistados tenía información previa sobre los alimentos funcionales y, aunque el 63% desconocía su definición, los identificaban correctamente. Los más nombrados fueron los diseñados. Las fuentes bibliográficas y medios de información más nombrados fueron: "Internet", "libros", "congresos". El 91% consideró importante conocerlos y/o usarlos por el beneficio a la salud y utilidad. El resto no los consideró importantes por ausencia de necesidad, falta de información y desconfianza. El 72% recomendaría alimentos funcionales entre los que destacan lácteos (con probióticos, fitoesteroles y omega 3), cereales, frutas y hortalizas (semillas de lino, chía, salvado de avena). Entre las causas de no recomendación destacan precio y rótulos poco claros. Existe un marcado interés sobre capacitación y uso adecuado. Conclusiones:Los conocimientos que poseen los expertos en nutrición sobre alimentos funcionales son claves ya que deben interpretar y "traducir" la información científica y de la industria a la comunidad en general, como fuentes confiables e idóneas. Asegurar información adecuada a la población permitiría facilitar elecciones saludables y mejorar la calidad de vida. Abstract in english Introduction: Scientific research, technological innovation and the ongoing trend towards healthy things revolutionized the food industry with the new concept of "functional foods". They emerged in Japan in the 80´s and nowadays, the international market is booming. Dietitians, as the link between s [...] cience, industry and consumer, are a key piece and fulfill a fundamental role in education and advising. Theaimof this study was to establish the level of knowledge Dietitians have on the functional food concept, sources of information and training, recommendation and suitable use. Methods: A qualitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out. 57 Dietitians were interviewed in Buenos Aires City and Buenos Aires suburbs. Results:Half of the interviewed people had previous information on functional foods; although 63% did not know their definition, they identifed them correctly. The most named were the designed ones. The bibliography and means of information most named were: "Internet", "books", "congresses". 91% considered important to know them and/or use them due to health benefts and utility. The rest did not consider them important because of absence of necessity, lack of information and distrust. 72% would recommend functional dairies (with Probiotics, Phytosterol and Omega 3) and cereals, fruits and vegetables (fax seed, chia, oat bran). Among the causes of non-recommendation, Dietitians emphasize price and unclear labels. There is a strong interest in training and proper use. Conclusion: The knowledge of experts in nutrition on functional foods is key because they must interpret and "translate" the scientific and industrial information to the community as reliable and appropriate sources. The right information enables people to make healthy choices to improve their quality of life.

MV, Millone; GF, Olagnero; EC, Santana.

2011-03-01

273

Alimentos funcionales: análisis de la recomendación en la práctica diaria Functional foods: analysis of the recommendation in the daily practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción:La investigación científica, la innovación tecnológica y la tendencia hacia lo saludable revolucionaron la industria alimenticia con el nuevo concepto de "alimentos funcionales". Surgen en Japón en los años 80 y actualmente el mercado internacional se encuentra en pleno auge. Los Licenciados en Nutrición, como nexo entre ciencia, industria y consumidor, constituyen una pieza clave y cumplen un rol fundamental en educación y asesoramiento.El objetivodel estudio fue establecer el nivel de conocimiento que poseen los Licenciados en Nutrición en éste área sobre el concepto de "alimento funcional", fuentes de información y capacitación utilizadas, recomendación y uso adecuado. Material y métodos:se realizó un estudio cualitativo, descriptivo y transversal. Se entrevistaron 57 Licenciados de Ciudad de Buenos Aires y Conurbano Bonaerense. Resultados:La mitad de los entrevistados tenía información previa sobre los alimentos funcionales y, aunque el 63% desconocía su definición, los identificaban correctamente. Los más nombrados fueron los diseñados. Las fuentes bibliográficas y medios de información más nombrados fueron: "Internet", "libros", "congresos". El 91% consideró importante conocerlos y/o usarlos por el beneficio a la salud y utilidad. El resto no los consideró importantes por ausencia de necesidad, falta de información y desconfianza. El 72% recomendaría alimentos funcionales entre los que destacan lácteos (con probióticos, fitoesteroles y omega 3, cereales, frutas y hortalizas (semillas de lino, chía, salvado de avena. Entre las causas de no recomendación destacan precio y rótulos poco claros. Existe un marcado interés sobre capacitación y uso adecuado. Conclusiones:Los conocimientos que poseen los expertos en nutrición sobre alimentos funcionales son claves ya que deben interpretar y "traducir" la información científica y de la industria a la comunidad en general, como fuentes confiables e idóneas. Asegurar información adecuada a la población permitiría facilitar elecciones saludables y mejorar la calidad de vida.Introduction: Scientific research, technological innovation and the ongoing trend towards healthy things revolutionized the food industry with the new concept of "functional foods". They emerged in Japan in the 80´s and nowadays, the international market is booming. Dietitians, as the link between science, industry and consumer, are a key piece and fulfill a fundamental role in education and advising. Theaimof this study was to establish the level of knowledge Dietitians have on the functional food concept, sources of information and training, recommendation and suitable use. Methods: A qualitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out. 57 Dietitians were interviewed in Buenos Aires City and Buenos Aires suburbs. Results:Half of the interviewed people had previous information on functional foods; although 63% did not know their definition, they identifed them correctly. The most named were the designed ones. The bibliography and means of information most named were: "Internet", "books", "congresses". 91% considered important to know them and/or use them due to health benefts and utility. The rest did not consider them important because of absence of necessity, lack of information and distrust. 72% would recommend functional dairies (with Probiotics, Phytosterol and Omega 3 and cereals, fruits and vegetables (fax seed, chia, oat bran. Among the causes of non-recommendation, Dietitians emphasize price and unclear labels. There is a strong interest in training and proper use. Conclusion: The knowledge of experts in nutrition on functional foods is key because they must interpret and "translate" the scientific and industrial information to the community as reliable and appropriate sources. The right information enables people to make healthy choices to improve their quality of life.

MV Millone

2011-03-01

274

Influence of the practices used in lettuce salads preparation in a catering unit in terms of food safety  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays, the consumption of vegetables has assumed particular importance. Several studies over the last decade have shown that the consumption of vegetables may reduce the occurrence of cancers and lessen the risk of coronary heart disease. However, leafy green vegetables may represent some microbiological hazards. In spite of this, catering units that offer these kinds of products have to guarantee their quality and safety. The present study intended to evaluate the practices used in let...

Rodrigues, A?ngela; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Ange?lico, Conceic?a?o Vaz; Pereira, Ermelinda

2011-01-01

275

The Biology of Food  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author discusses "The Biology of Food" course. This course--a large lecture course with no laboratory section--is a mixture of kitchen chemistry, post-eating food metabolism, origins of different foods (from crop breeding to evolution), and ecological and environmental impacts of farming and harvesting practices. Nearly every…

Bonner, J. Jose

2004-01-01

276

Using vignettes to tap into moral reasoning in public health policy: practical advice and design principles from a study on food advertising to children.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we describe a process for designing and applying vignettes in public health policy research and practice. We developed this methodology for a study on moral reasoning underpinning policy debate on food advertising to children. Using vignettes prompted policy actors who were relatively entrenched in particular ways of speaking professionally about a controversial and ethically challenging issue to converse in a more authentic and reflective way. Vignettes hold benefits and complexities. They can focus attention on moral conflicts, draw out different types of evidence to support moral reasoning, and enable simultaneous consideration of real and ideal worlds. We suggest a process and recommendations on design features for crafting vignettes for public health policy. PMID:25121818

Mah, Catherine L; Taylor, Emily; Hoang, Sylvia; Cook, Brian

2014-10-01

277

Handling and Transport Problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I. The handling and transport of radioactive waste involves the risk of irradiation and contamination. It is necessary to draw up special regulations governing the removal and transport of waste within the centres or from one centre to another, and to entrust transport to a group in charge of specialized teams. The organization, equipment and efficiency of such teams is then considered. II. Certain types of transport operation are particularly dangerous and require special transport units and fixed installations. This applies, in particular, to the disposal of highly radioactive liquids. A description is given of a composite transport unit, consisting of a towing vehicle, semi-trailer and tank holding 500 l of liquid with an activity of up to 1,000 c/l. The drawing-off of the liquid waste, routing of the transport unit and precautions to be taken are discussed. (author)

278

Reprocessing, plutonium handling, recycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Working Group 4 was set up as one of the eight Working Groups appointed by the Organizing Conference of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) in Washington on 19-21 October 1977. The Group held a series of meetings between December 1977 and October 1979 to study reprocessing, plutonium handling and the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors. The Group agreed that its primary objectives were: (a) To evaluate the need for reprocessing of thermal reactor fuel on an industrial scale and for recycling it in thermal and fast reactors, taking account of economic, environmental, energy resource, technological and institutional aspects and of the work of the other relevant Working Groups; (b) To identify means of minimizing the risk of proliferation in relation to the reprocessing and recycle of nuclear fuels. This publication is a final report of INFCE Working Group 4

279

Remote handling in ZEPHYR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A conceptual design of the ZEPHYR building is described. The listed radiation data show that remote handling devices will be necessary in most areas of the building. For difficult repair and maintenance works it is intended to transfer complete units from the experimental hall to a hot cell which provides better working conditions. The necessary crane systems and other transport means are summarized as well as suitable commercially available manipulators and observation devices. The conept of automatic devices for cutting and welding and other operations inside the vacuum vessel and the belonging position control system is sketched. Guidelines for the design of passive components are set up in order to facilitate remote operation. (orig.)

280

CLINICAL WASTE HANDLING AND OBSTACLES IN MALAYSIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As in many other developing countries, the generation of clinical waste in Malaysia has increased significantly over the last few decades. Even though the serious impact of the clinical waste on human beings and the environment is significant, only minor attention is directed to its proper handling and legal aspects. This study seeks to examine the management of clinical waste in Selangor’s government hospitals as well as problems that arise from the current practice of clinical waste management. A depth interview with the responsible concession who handles the clinical waste management in those hospitals also has been taken. In general, it was found that the consortium’s administration was reasonably aware of the importance of clinical waste management. However, significant voids were presented that need to be addressed in future including efficient segregation, better handling and transfer means, as well as the need for training and awareness programs for the personnel. Other obstacles faced by consortiums were to handle the clinical waste including the operational costs. Waste minimizing and recycling, as well as the alternative treatment methods for incineration are regarded to be major challenges in the future.

Shaidatul Shida Razali

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Prácticas alimentarias y significados de alimentos light de familias de un sector urbano de Bogotá / Feeding Practices and meanings of light foods in families of a bogota urban sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar las prácticas alimentarias y significados de alimentos light de familias de un sector urbano de Bogotá. Para ello se realizó un estudio descriptivo con la participación de 110 personas pertenecientes a 40 familias. Se elaboró una encuesta con [...] preguntas abiertas y cerradas que indagaba por aspectos demográficos, procesos de socialización alimentaria, prácticas alimentarias y consumo de alimentos light. Los principales resultados muestran que la alimentación es un espacio para compartir en familia donde la mamá es el eje central de la socialización del consumo alimentario y de inicio a la comensalidad. El alimento light lo definen las familias simbólicamente como nutriente y lo relacionan con lo dietético y lo ligero, con el placer de no contraer deuda de gordura. El significado funcional como medicina por su asociación con una mejor digestión, el aumento de las defensas naturales del cuerpo humano y un mejor estado de salud que orientan y fomentan prácticas de alimentación saludable. Abstract in english Abstract This research aimed to identify dietary practices and the meanings of light foods in urban families in Bogota. This descriptive study was conducted with the participation of 110 persons belonging to 40 families. A survey was developed with open-ended questions which asked for demographic, s [...] ocialization processes regarding food, food practices and light food consumption. The main results show that food is a space to share with family where mom is the backbone of the socialization of home food consumption and commensality. Light foods are defined by families symbolically as a nutrient, and they relate with diets and keeping a light weight, thereby with the pleasure of not becoming fat. Light foods also have a functional significance as medicines, due to their association with better digestion, increasing the body's natural defenses and better health status to guide and encourage healthy eating practices.

Carolina, Garzón Medina; Idaly, Barreto.

2013-01-01

282

Prácticas alimentarias y significados de alimentos light de familias de un sector urbano de Bogotá / Feeding Practices and meanings of light foods in families of a bogota urban sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar las prácticas alimentarias y significados de alimentos light de familias de un sector urbano de Bogotá. Para ello se realizó un estudio descriptivo con la participación de 110 personas pertenecientes a 40 familias. Se elaboró una encuesta con [...] preguntas abiertas y cerradas que indagaba por aspectos demográficos, procesos de socialización alimentaria, prácticas alimentarias y consumo de alimentos light. Los principales resultados muestran que la alimentación es un espacio para compartir en familia donde la mamá es el eje central de la socialización del consumo alimentario y de inicio a la comensalidad. El alimento light lo definen las familias simbólicamente como nutriente y lo relacionan con lo dietético y lo ligero, con el placer de no contraer deuda de gordura. El significado funcional como medicina por su asociación con una mejor digestión, el aumento de las defensas naturales del cuerpo humano y un mejor estado de salud que orientan y fomentan prácticas de alimentación saludable. Abstract in english Abstract This research aimed to identify dietary practices and the meanings of light foods in urban families in Bogota. This descriptive study was conducted with the participation of 110 persons belonging to 40 families. A survey was developed with open-ended questions which asked for demographic, s [...] ocialization processes regarding food, food practices and light food consumption. The main results show that food is a space to share with family where mom is the backbone of the socialization of home food consumption and commensality. Light foods are defined by families symbolically as a nutrient, and they relate with diets and keeping a light weight, thereby with the pleasure of not becoming fat. Light foods also have a functional significance as medicines, due to their association with better digestion, increasing the body's natural defenses and better health status to guide and encourage healthy eating practices.

Carolina, Garzón Medina; Idaly, Barreto.

283

Food Concerns. Research Notes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adolescent vegetarianism is most frequent among females, and involves meat avoidance, concern for the environment and animal welfare, gender equality, weight loss behaviors, and a concern with body appearance. It can be a precursor to eating disorders. Training and ongoing follow-up are necessary to instill proper food handling procedures in…

Jordan, Debra J.

1998-01-01

284

Unvented Drum Handling Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This drum-handling plan proposes a method to deal with unvented transuranic drums encountered during retrieval of drums. Finding unvented drums during retrieval activities was expected, as identified in the Transuranic (TRU) Phase I Retrieval Plan (HNF-4781). However, significant numbers of unvented drums were not expected until excavation of buried drums began. This plan represents accelerated planning for management of unvented drums. A plan is proposed that manages unvented drums differently based on three categories. The first category of drums is any that visually appear to be pressurized. These will be vented immediately, using either the Hanford Fire Department Hazardous Materials (Haz. Mat.) team, if such are encountered before the facilities' capabilities are established, or using internal capabilities, once established. To date, no drums have been retrieved that showed signs of pressurization. The second category consists of drums that contain a minimal amount of Pu isotopes. This minimal amount is typically less than 1 gram of Pu, but may be waste-stream dependent. Drums in this category are assayed to determine if they are low-level waste (LLW). LLW drums are typically disposed of without venting. Any unvented drums that assay as TRU will be staged for a future venting campaign, using appropriate safety precautions in their handling. The third category of drums is those for which records show larger amounts of Pu isotopes (typically greater than or equal to 1 gram of Pu). These are assumed to be TRU and are not assayed at this point, but are staged for a future venting campaign. Any of these drums that do not have a visible venting device will be staged awaiting venting, and will be managed under appropriate controls, including covering the drums to protect from direct solar exposure, minimizing of container movement, and placement of a barrier to restrict vehicle access. There are a number of equipment options available to perform the venting. The preferred option is to use equipment provided by a commercial vendor during the first few years of retrieval and venting. This is based on a number of reasons. First, retrieval funding is uncertain. Using a commercial vendor will allow DOE-RL to avoid the investment and maintenance costs if retrieval is not funded. Second, when funding can be identified, retrieval will likely be performed with minimal initial throughput and intermittent operations. Again, costs can be saved by using contracted vendor services only as needed, rather than supporting Hanford equipment full time. When full-scale retrieval begins and the number of drums requiring venting increases significantly, then use of the Hanford container venting system (CVS) should be considered.

MCDONALD, K.M.

2000-08-01

285

Food Allergy  

Science.gov (United States)

... Eye Allergy Eye Drops Food Allergy Food Allergy Food Intolerance Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES) Gastroesophageal Reflux ... intolerant to it. Some of the symptoms of food intolerance and food allergy are similar, but the differences ...

286

Food Mapping: A Psychogeographical Method for Raising Food Consciousness  

Science.gov (United States)

Food mapping is a new, participatory, interdisciplinary pedagogical approach to learning about our modern food systems. This method is inspired by the Situationist International's practice of the "dérive" and draws from the discourses of critical geography, the food movement's research on food deserts, and participatory action…

Wight, R. Alan; Killham, Jennifer

2014-01-01

287

Experience in handling abnormal and emergency situations in PHWR fuel handling system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On-power Fuel Handling System of PHWR reactor consists of complicated mechanisms operating in multiple media like heavy water, light water and oil. This remote controlled system is the lifeline of PHWR reactor. The complexity of on-power fuel handling system and the need to continuously improve its performance presents challenges at every step. A large number of innovations, modifications and improvements in the system have been made by the stations, design group and R and D units to meet the challenges of higher refueling rate. Innovations in operating/maintenance practices and the methods to safely retrieve from abnormal/emergency situations in shortest possible time had to be specifically devised from the embryonic stage. A lot of efforts were required to be put in by various agencies to develop and formalise the operating procedures for handling various emergency conditions. The implementation of these procedures required the development of special tools/fixtures which had to be tested and tried out in mock-ups before their actual use. The retrieval from emergency situations like handling of damaged bundles in MAPS in early eighties, bundles dropped in shuttle station in NAPS in 1998 and failure of fuel string to move due to damaged bundles at Kaiga in 2003 are some of the most difficult situations handled over the years.This paper focuses on the challenges faced during handling of Safety-related Events in PHWR Fuel Handling System. It also discusses development ong System. It also discusses development of procedures and tooling to retrieve from abnormal situations and various innovations and design improvements to avoid the recurrence of the events. (author)

288

TFTR tritium handling concepts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, to be located on the Princeton Forrestal Campus, is expected to operate with 1 to 2.5 MA tritium--deuterium plasmas, with the pulses involving injection of 50 to 150 Ci (5 to 16 mg) of tritium. Attainment of fusion conditions is based on generation of an approximately 1 keV tritium plasma by ohmic heating and conversion to a moderately hot tritium--deuterium ion plasma by injection of a ''preheating'' deuterium neutral beam (40 to 80 keV), followed by injection of a ''reacting'' beam of high energy neutral deuterium (120 to 150 keV). Additionally, compressions accompany the beam injections. Environmental, safety and cost considerations led to the decision to limit the amount of tritium gas on-site to that required for an experiment, maintaining all other tritium in ''solidified'' form. The form of the tritium supply is as uranium tritide, while the spent tritium and other hydrogen isotopes are getter-trapped by zirconium--aluminum alloy. The issues treated include: (1) design concepts for the tritium generator and its purification, dispensing, replenishment, containment, and containment--cleanup systems; (2) features of the spent plasma trapping system, particularly the regenerable absorption cartridges, their integration into the vacuum system, and the handling of non-getterables; (3) tritium permeation through the equipment and the anticipated releases to the environment; (4) overview of the tritium related ventilation systems; and (5) design bases for the facility's tritium clean-up systems

289

Colonic potassium handling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Homeostatic control of plasma K+ is a necessary physiological function. The daily dietary K+ intake of approximately 100 mmol is excreted predominantly by the distal tubules of the kidney. About 10% of the ingested K+ is excreted via the intestine. K+ handling in both organs is specifically regulated by hormones and adapts readily to changes in dietary K+ intake, aldosterone and multiple local paracrine agonists. In chronic renal insufficiency, colonic K+ secretion is greatly enhanced and becomes an important accessory K+ excretory pathway. During severe diarrheal diseases of different causes, intestinal K+ losses caused by activated ion secretion may become life threatening. This topical review provides an update of the molecular mechanisms and the regulation of mammalian colonic K+ absorption and secretion. It is motivated by recent results, which have identified the K+ secretory ion channel in the apical membrane of distal colonic enterocytes. The directed focus therefore covers the role of the apical Ca2+and cAMP-activated BK channel (KCa1.1) as the apparently only secretory K+ channel in the distal colon.

SØrensen, Mads Vaarby; Matos, Joana E.

2010-01-01

290

Food for Thought: A Critical Overview of Current Practical and Conceptual Challenges in Trace Element Analysis in Natural Waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The practical and conceptual challenges faced by the analysis of trace elements present in natural waters are not merely, as is often thought, an endless race towards lower detection limits or to the development of techniques allowing the determination of any possible chemical species formed by all chemical elements. Rather, as discussed in this paper, they include the development of (i robust, cheap, and reliable methods that could also be used by laypeople (the experience gained in the development of field kits for As is discussed as an example from which similar developments for other elements may be drawn; (ii more environmentally-friendly methods (the current guiding criteria probably being too simplistic; and (iii methods making it possible to follow diel concentration changes and sharp concentration variations caused by the probable increase of heavy rainfall events. This paper also claims that neither the measurement of total concentrations (reliable methods are lacking for many elements of the periodic table of trace elements, as illustrated through the cases of Bi, Te, and Sb, nor chemical speciation analysis, are as mature as often thought. In particular, chemical speciation studies demand the development of a better, comprehensive conceptual framework. A trial is carried out to lay the basis of such a framework.

Montserrat Filella

2013-07-01

291

Procedure of safe handling with cytostatic drugs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Working group for safe handling with cytostatic drugs has been formed by the Ministry of Health, and it consists of professionals from IORS, Federal Bureau of Weights and Measures, Industrial Medicine, Institute of Hematology, Military Medical Academy, and Crown Agents. The aim of this working group is to prepare procedures for safe handling with cytostatic drugs, as well as program for educational seminar for nurses, medical technicians, and pharmaceutical technicians. The procedures will serve as a guide of good practice of oncology health care, and will refer to all actions that health care professionals carry out from the moment of drugs arrival to the pharmacy to the moment of their application. In the first segment of this procedure, general rules are given for working with cytotoxic agents, control for risky exposures, safe system of work, control of working environment, monitoring of the employees' health condition adequate protection in the working environment, protective equipment of the employees (gloves, mask, cap, eyeglasses, shoe covers, coats and chambers for vertical laminary air stream. Storing of cytostatics, procedure in case of accident, and waste handling and removal are also described in this segment. Fifty-three standard operational procedures are described in detail in the second segment. Training scheme for preparation of chemotherapy is given in the third segment - education related to various fields and practical part, which would be carried out through workshops, and at the end of the course participants would pass a test and obtain certificate. After the procedures for safe handling with cytostatics are legally regulated employer will have to provide minimum of protective equipment, special rooms for the drugs dissolving, chambers with laminar airflow, 6 hours working time, rotation of the staff working with drugs dissolving in intervals of every five years, higher efficiency, better health control. In conclusion this specific field of work requires great psychological and physical efforts, and know-how. When taking care of ourselves, we are taking care of the others, as well.

Kodžo Dragan

2003-01-01

292

Network Handle by mobile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Now a days Administrator has to present to at his organization if he want to put control on the existing system. He has go to individual client to keep an eye, But practically its not possible for any Administrator, now we are providing a facility to user put controller on whole system using his mobile whether he is present in the office or not he will get the all the information on his mobile in form of sms

Nitin D. Shelokar

2011-06-01

293

Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. FINDINGS: Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined as the passage of > or = 3 stools per day by 110 vendors (94.0%, but none associated diarrhoea with bloody stools; only 21 (17.9% associated diarrhoea with germs. The surroundings of the vending sites were clean, but four sites (3.4% were classified as very dirty. The cooking of food well in advance of consumption, exposure of food to flies, and working with food at ground level and by hand were likely risk factors for contamination. Examinations were made of 511 menu items, classified as breakfast/snack foods, main dishes, soups and sauces, and cold dishes. Mesophilic bacteria were detected in 356 foods (69.7%: 28 contained Bacillus cereus (5.5%, 163 contained Staphylococcus aureus (31.9% and 172 contained Enterobacteriaceae (33.7%. The microbial quality of most of the foods was within the acceptable limits but samples of salads, macaroni, fufu, omo tuo and red pepper had unacceptable levels of contamination. Shigella sonnei and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were isolated from macaroni, rice, and tomato stew, and Salmonella arizonae from light soup. CONCLUSION: Street foods can be sources of enteropathogens. Vendors should therefore receive education in food hygiene. Special attention should be given to the causes of diarrhoea, the transmission of diarrhoeal pathogens, the handling of equipment and cooked food, hand-washing practices and environmental hygiene.

Mensah Patience

2002-01-01

294

Engineering for food production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The expenses of getting food from the field to the consumer are a major part of the cost of eating. Inefficiencies in that process, as well as the increasing production costs attributable to the intensive labor traditionally needed in harvesting and processing crops, are reflected in costs to consumers. These kinds of problems in agricultural productivity are becoming the province of an array of research disciplines. Basic and applied research into the properties of plant and animal materials is essential to the design of efficient food-handling machines and processes. Besides a general increase in productivity at every stage of food production, an understanding of the basic physical properties of food will result in reduced costs for handling and processing, reduction of damage and waste, savings in weight and bulk, improved shelf-life and stability, development of new food material, more objective standards of evaluation, and maintenance of quality under adverse conditions of handling, storage, and distribution. Improved engineering in each of these areas may be as important as increasing the world's available arable land. (MCW)

1976-01-01

295

Contamination from handling cytotoxic agents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contamination of personnel who handle cytotoxics has been proven via traces in urine. Despite safety standards for handling cytotoxics, operators can still be exposed to them, mainly through skin contact. Identification of sources of contamination is recommended to improve working procedures.

Jean François Latour

2010-01-01

296

Need for a uniform system of control for ensuring acceptance of irradiated food in trade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As national and international trade in food increases, and as markets become more knowledgeable and demanding, all food preservation techniques must be applied in a consistent, uniform manner using recognized systems of control. Such systems are particularly relevant to irradiation since inspection of the final product cannot reveal previous handling or the treatment applied. Several UN agencies provide governments with food control assistance. FAO has a major programme to provide assistance and training on food laws and regulations, on food laboratories and inspection systems, on monitoring of contaminants, and on the formulation of national strategies for the control of food quality. Other agencies have specialized programmes relating to their primary interest. For example, the WHO focuses on food safety, both chemical and microbiological. It also promotes processes, such as irradiation which can make a contribution to primary health care. The IAEA has training and support programmes for the appropriate use of nuclear techniques in food and agriculture. Together, the three agencies support the work of the International Consultative Groups on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) which provides codes of Good Irradiation Practice, guidelines, training courses and inventories of use to regulators and industry. The key areas for control in food irradiation facilities are the design, construction and operation of the facility; personnel training; raw materials; product processing, including packaging materials; record maintenance; and the environmental impact of the overall operation. (author). 6 refs

297

Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the ''Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study'' is to develop proposed design requirements for the repository Waste Handling System in sufficient detail to allow the surface facility design to proceed to the License Application effort if the proposed requirements are approved by DOE. Proposed requirements were developed to further refine waste handling facility performance characteristics and design constraints with an emphasis on supporting modular construction, minimizing fuel inventory, and optimizing facility maintainability and dry handling operations. To meet this objective, this study attempts to provide an alternative design to the Site Recommendation design that is flexible, simple, reliable, and can be constructed in phases. The design concept will be input to the ''Modular Design/Construction and Operation Options Report'', which will address the overall program objectives and direction, including options and issues associated with transportation, the subsurface facility, and Total System Life Cycle Cost. This study (herein) is limited to the Waste Handling System and associated fuel staging system

298

Implementation of a programme to market a complementary food supplement (Ying Yang Bao) and impacts on anaemia and feeding practices in Shanxi, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

In China, a full fat soy powder mixed with multiple micronutrient powders (Ying Yang Bao (YYB)) was developed, and the efficacy of YYB was shown in controlling anaemia and improving child growth and development. However, prior to 2008, there was no sustainable way to provide YYB to vulnerable populations, except through free distribution by the government. This study was to test the concept of public-private partnership (PPP) to deliver YYB and to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing YYB through PPP. Programme activities included development of a complementary food supplement (CFS) national standard, product concept test, product development and marketing, behavior change communication, monitoring and evaluation. Baseline and end-line surveys were used to evaluate product awareness, purchasing and the impacts of the project on anaemia and feeding practices. A Chinese CFS standard was approved. Caregivers and their 6- to-24-month-old children participated in the baseline (n=226) and the end-line survey (n=221). A concept test at the baseline survey showed that 78% of caregivers were willing to buy YYB at 0.1 USD. After developing the product and implementing the intervention for 8 months, 59.6% of surveyed caregivers purchased YYB. While not significant, the prevalence of anaemia was marginally lower at the end line (28.8%) than at the baseline (36.2%). For those purchasing YYB, the risk of anaemia was significantly reduced by 87% of odds (Pmarketing are identified as a prerequisite for marketing YYB or other nutritious CFS. Public and private advocacy and marketing could successfully increase awareness of YYB and access and use through market channels. The YYB project may be effective for reducing anaemia and improving feeding practices. PMID:21929638

Sun, Jing; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Shuaiming; Huang, Jian; Yang, Zhenyu; Huo, Junsheng; Chen, Chunming

2011-10-01

299

Autoconsumo e segurança alimentar: a agricultura familiar a partir dos saberes e práticas da alimentação Self-consumption and food security: family agriculture based on eating knowledge and practices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e analisar as classificações e representações da alimentação, bem como as práticas de produção e consumo de alimentos entre agricultores e agricultoras da região do Vale do Taquari (Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Os dados e as informações foram obtidos a partir de entrevistas e observação participante, orientadas por um esquema metodológico qualitativo. Participaram da pesquisa, realizada em 2004 e 2005, 48 famílias rurais, de três diferentes localidades. Os recursos teórico-analíticos utilizados foram os da antropologia da alimentação e da abordagem da reciprocidade. RESULTADOS: Entre as famílias estudadas é significativa a produção de alimentos para autoconsumo, sendo as mulheres as principais responsáveis por sua obtenção. As práticas alimentares, embora tenham sofrido modificações, em função da modernização da agricultura e da incorporação de produtos industrializados, guardam especificidades locais e estão relacionadas a diversas expressões de sociabilidade, como a circulação de alimentos e a realização de festas comunitárias, que, impregnadas por simbolismos, atualizam um modo de vida e têm garantido segurança alimentar. CONCLUSÃO: As práticas de produção para autoconsumo das famílias estudadas estão associadas à sua segurança alimentar e, desse modo, às suas estratégias de reprodução social. A circulação de alimentos e as escolhas alimentares expressam relações de sociabilidade e de identidade nas comunidades rurais estudadas. Aspectos socioculturais e distintos níveis de relações sociais apresentam-se em transformação, podendo colocar em risco a segurança alimentar das famílias. Tais processos inspiram a realização novos estudos.OBJECTIVE: To identify and to analyze eating classifications and representations as well the food production and consumption practices among farmers from Vale do Taquari (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: The data and information were collected from interviews and participatory observation, oriented by qualitative methods. The research involved 48 rural families from three different localities in 2004 and 2005. The theoretical and analytical resources were provided by food anthropology and reciprocity approach. RESULTS: The production of food for self-consumption among the studied families is significant and the main producers are women. Food practices have changed as a result of agricultural modernization and increased use of industrialized products, yet they maintain local specificity and are related to several expressions of sociability such as food exchanges and community parties. These are permeated by symbolisms that update the way of living and assure food security. CONCLUSION: The production practices for autoconsumption of the studied families are associated with food security and, in this way, to social reproduction strategies. Food exchanges and food choices express relationships of sociability and identity in the studied rural communities. Social and cultural aspects and different levels of social relationships are undergoing a transformation which may jeopardize the food security of the families. Such processes are inspiring new studies.

Renata Menasche

2008-08-01

300

Food Allergies  

Science.gov (United States)

... allergy. What’s the difference between food allergy and food intolerance? A true food allergy is a reaction triggered ... fights infection). Far more people simply have a food intolerance, which is unpleasant symptoms triggered by food (but ...

 
 
 
 
301

7 CFR 250.14 - Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

...handling of donated foods (if the current distributing...up commodities at a warehouse and to deliver the food to a centralized...noncompliance on the part of the warehouse management; (6...protect the value of food items which are...

2010-01-01

302

Remote handling devices in MLF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experimental facilities at J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) include the Materials and Life science Facility (MLF) with a JSNS (Japan Spallation Neutron Source). The main components of the JSNS need to be exchanged because of material damage due to proton and neutron irradiation. The irradiated components must be remotely maintained. Several kinds of areas, such as a hot-cell, are provided for remote handling operations. Several remote handling devices, such as a power manipulator (PM), master-slave manipulators (MSMs), a target exchange truck, a cutting device, a moderator exchange device, etc. have been installed. The commissioning tests for the remote handling devices are almost complete.

303

Remote handling devices in MLF  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The experimental facilities at J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) include the Materials and Life science Facility (MLF) with a JSNS (Japan Spallation Neutron Source). The main components of the JSNS need to be exchanged because of material damage due to proton and neutron irradiation. The irradiated components must be remotely maintained. Several kinds of areas, such as a hot-cell, are provided for remote handling operations. Several remote handling devices, such as a power manipulator (PM), master-slave manipulators (MSMs), a target exchange truck, a cutting device, a moderator exchange device, etc. have been installed. The commissioning tests for the remote handling devices are almost complete.

Kinoshita, Hidetaka [Neutron source section, Material and life science division, J-PARC center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)], E-mail: kinoshita.hidetaka@jaea.go.jp; Teshigawara, Makoto; Ito, Manabu; Takagiwa, Katsunori; Meigo, Shinichiro; Maekawa, Fujio; Kaminaga, Masanori; Futakawa, Masatoshi [Neutron source section, Material and life science division, J-PARC center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

2009-02-21

304

Trends in Bone Morphogenetic Protein Usage since the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Advisory in 2008: What Happens to Physician Practices When the Food and Drug Administration Issues an Advisory?  

Science.gov (United States)

Study Design?Retrospective cross-sectional study of spinal procedures from 2002 to 2010 using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. Objective?To determine the patterns of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) usage in fusion surgery before and after the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2008 advisory for the anterior cervical spine to understand how advisories affect U.S. physician practices. Methods?Procedures were identified through International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision procedure codes and were plotted over time based on fusion procedure type, site, and area of fusion. U.S. national trends were approximated by polynomial regression analysis. Results?The majority of the data trends of BMP usage reflect a second-order polynomial model. BMP usage in anterior cervical spine fusion procedures plateaued during the fourth quarter of 2007. The most apparent change in trend was noted in BMP usage pre- and postadvisory in the analysis of anterior cervical spine fusions. BMP percentage of use decreased in this area by 5% from the time of the FDA advisory to the fourth quarter of 2010. Conclusions?The decrease in BMP usage in anterior cervical spinal fusion procedures coincided with the timing of the FDA advisory. The fact that BMP continued to be used in cervical spine fusion procedures, even at lower rates, despite the advisory, may reflect the availability of new clinical information that could lessen complications (i.e., lower BMP dose, perioperative steroids, BMP containment). Furthermore, factors like the natural ceiling effect of use or demand for new technology, complications, prohibitive institutional costs, access to information, and insurance compensation may have all contributed to the BMP usage trends observed. PMID:25072000

Mckie, Janay; Qureshi, Sheeraz; Iatridis, James; Egorova, Natalia; Cho, Samuel; Hecht, Andrew

2014-06-01

305

Tritium handling in vacuum systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

Gill, J.T. [Monsanto Research Corp., Miamisburg, OH (United States). Mound Facility; Coffin, D.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1986-10-01

306

Order Handling in Convergent Environments  

CERN Document Server

The rapid development of IT&T technology had big impact on the traditional telecommunications market, transforming it from monopolistic market to highly competitive high-tech market where new services are required to be created frequently. This paper aims to describe a design approach that puts order management process (as part of enterprise application integration) in function of rapid service creation. In the text we will present a framework for collaborative order handling supporting convergent services. The design splits the order handling processes in convergent environments in three business process groups: order capture, order management and order fulfillment. The paper establishes abstract framework for order handling and provides design guidelines for transaction handling implementation based on the checkpoint and inverse command strategy. The proposed design approach is based in a convergent telecommunication environment. Same principles are applicable in solving problems of collaboration in fun...

Vrtanoski, Jordan

2012-01-01

307

Safety considerations when handling metal powders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Metal powder compaction offers unique advantages in the manufacture of net-shape components using techniques such as laser sintering, conventional press and sintering, metal injection moulding, direct rolling, direct forging, and hot isostatic pressing. If the output from the primary metal productio [...] n process is in powder form, then considerable cost and energy savings can be realized by direct conversion to semi-finished or final shapes. This possibility exists for titanium and possibly also for Ta, Zr, Hf, and Nb metals. However, these attractive benefits are associated with some significant risks. The high surface-to-volume ratio of powder particles coupled with the reactive nature of these metals means that special care must be taken when handling them. Powder explosions are unfortunately still a regular occurrence internationally and these often result in serious injury and loss of life. Even seemingly 'safe' compounds such as sugar, flour, and grain can be extremely hazardous when handled or milled and dust clouds are produced. In addition, exposure to airborne particles can have adverse effects on the human body, especially when particles are inhaled on a regular basis. Furthermore, the medical consequences of these are not fully understood, especially in the case of nanoparticles. The impact is often not observed immediately and debilitating illnesses may emerge only years or decades later. As far as is known, there are no South African guidelines for handling of metal powders. This paper attempts to provide an awareness of the risks associated with metal powders (including those produced indirectly by other metalworking/finishing operations) as well as some guidelines for their safe handling, based on international best practices.

J.M., Benson.

308

Fuel handling options for commercial fast breeder reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic requirements of a fast reactor fuel handling system are noted as well as some of the basic principles and how some of those principles are achieved in practice. Several fuel handling options are outlined and certain advantages and disadvantages illustrated, the most attractive systems for commercial exploitation are noted. Note is made of features and processes that could be developed in the future to assist in the further advancement of fast reactor fuel handling systems. It is concluded that with the increased commitment, particularly in Europe, to the development of large fast reactor systems, fuel handling and fuel cycle costs can be reduced and thereby make a contribution to the further exploitation of the fast reactor principle. (author)

309

7 CFR 920.11 - Handle.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 920.11 Section 920.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.11 Handle. Handle and ship are...

2010-01-01

310

Factors affecting compliance with moving and handling policy: Student nurses' views and experiences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The limited literature available suggests that there continues to be poor compliance by nurses with moving and handling regulations [Swain, J., Pufahl, E., Williamson, G., 2003. Do they practise what we teach? A survey of manual handling practice amongst student nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing 12(2), 297-306; Jootun, D., MacInnes, A., 2005. Examining how well students use correct handling procedures. Nursing Times 101(4), 38-40; Smallwood, J., 2006. Patient handling: student nurses' views. Learning in Health and Social Care 5(4), 208-219; Cornish, J., Jones, A., 2007. Evaluation of moving and handling training for pre-registration nurses and its application to practice. Nurse Education in Practice 7(3), 128-134]. This paper presents the final phase of a study in which student nurses' reports of their experience in practice are drawn upon to identify possible reasons for a lack of compliance with moving and handling policy. Focus groups were conducted using a topic guide comprising themes generated from the previous two phases of this study; a questionnaire survey and unstructured interviews [Cornish, J., Jones, A., 2007. Evaluation of moving and handling training for pre-registration nurses and its application to practice. Nurse Education in Practice 7(3), 128-134]. Seventeen pre-registration students participated, representing adult, child and mental health branches from both Degree and Diploma programmes Examples of poor practice set the context for the students' experiences. Factors affecting both compliance with poor practice or compliance with moving and handling regulations leading to good practice, are identified. Methods for the management of difficult moving and handling situations are also revealed. The study informs future developments in training and support mechanisms for students in practice. PMID:19447074

Cornish, Jocelyn; Jones, Anne

2010-03-01

311

Food irradiation control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief review is given of the control and monitoring of food irradiation with particular emphasis on the UK situation. After describing legal aspects, various applications of food irradiation in different countries are listed. Other topics discussed include code of practice for general control for both gamma radiation and electron beam facilities, dose specification, depth dose distribution and dosimetry. (U.K.)

312

Reproductive handle of the herd of cattle of double purpose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of the environmental factors is analyzed, in the reproductive efficiency of herd cattle of double purpose. The reproductive behavior begins with the gestation of the heifers. Under the conditions of the Colombian tropic these they reach the weight required for the reproduction to an age but late that in the temperate areas. Once the first childbirth, the cow takes place it enters in exhaustion that makes that this animal is the but difficult to reproduce after the childbirth, that which demands special cares of handling and feeding. The interval among the childbirth to evaluate the reproductive efficiency. Environmental factors that influence significantly. The use of the practice simple of handling, health, selection and feeding produces significant increments in the fertility of the herd of cattle of double purpose. One practices of effective handling in the improvement of the reproductive behavior of the cows of double purpose it is the restricted nursing

313

A working procedure for identifying emerging food safety issues at an early stage: Implications for European and international risk management practices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a need for early identification of emerging food safety issues in order to prevent them from developing into health risks. In this paper, various existing methods and procedures which can be used for early identification of safety issues are reviewed, including the monitoring of the occurrence of specific hazards within the food supply, or the incidences of food-borne diseases, as well as the combination of these data with other data or with expert opinions. Some methods, including h...

Marvin, H. J. P.; Kleter, G. A.; Frewer, L. J.; Cope, S. F.; Wentholt, M. T. A.; Rowe, G.

2009-01-01

314

The impact of food regulation on the food supply chain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, "a hazard" is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer. PMID:16483706

Aruoma, Okezie I

2006-04-01

315

The impact of food regulation on the food supply chain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, 'a hazard' is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that mark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer

316

Asthma, guides for diagnostic and handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper defines the asthma, includes topics as diagnostic, handling of the asthma, special situations as asthma and pregnancy, handling of the asthmatic patient's perioperatory and occupational asthma

317

CARRIER/CASK HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

em. The system consists of cranes, hoists, manipulators, and supporting equipment. The Carrier/Cask Handling System is designed with the tooling and fixtures necessary for handling a variety of casks. The Carrier/Cask Handling System performance and reliability are sufficient to support the shipping and emplacement schedules for the MGR. The Carrier/Cask Handling System interfaces with the Carrier/Cask Transport System, ATS, and CTS as noted above. The Carrier/Cask Handling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for building structures and space allocations. The Carrier/Cask Handling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical System for electrical power

318

FOOD SAFETY AT HOME  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consumers nowadays play a critical role in the prevention of food poisoning. For this reason, the present research was planned to collect data on how aware about food safety consumers are. A questionnaire considering food labelling, hygiene, transport, storage, preparation and kitchen hygiene was designed and submitted to consumers (health district ASL TO5. After questionnaire analysis, a training course was prepared to address specific problems. Kitchens of consentient participants were visited and data on hygiene (check-lists, samples from equipment and fridge surfaces, and fridge temperatures were collected. Questionnaires showed a lack of knowledge on correct food storage, handling, and kitchen hygiene. Households visits showed fridge temperatures above 4°C, highly contaminated washing sponges, and the presence of Listeria spp. in a fridge of a high risk consumer. These results evidence the role of consumer training in reducing foodborne diseases incidence.

B. Griglio

2011-04-01

319

Child feeding practices and household food insecurity among low-income mothers in Buenos Aires, Argentina Práticas de alimentação infantil e insegurança alimentar doméstica entre mães de baixa renda em Buenos Aires, Argentina  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This qualitative study of low-income mothers in Buenos Aires, Argentina, examines the influence of socio-economic conditions, organizational structures, family relationships, and food insecurity on child feeding practices and weight status. Thirty-eight mothers of preschool children living in urban Buenos Aires participated in four focus group discussions. The results indicated that many mothers were aware that obesity may be detrimental to the child's health, but most of them are unclear abo...

Ana Cristina Lindsay; Mabel Ferarro; Alejandra Franchello; Raul de La Barrera; Marcia Maria Tavares Machado; Martha Erin Pfeiffer; Karen Eileen Peterson

2012-01-01

320

Empowering Students to Handle Conflicts through the Use of Drama  

Science.gov (United States)

DRACON (DRAma for CONflict management) is an interdisciplinary and comparative action research project aimed at improving conflict handling among adolescent schoolchildren through the use of educational drama. The main purpose of our research has been to develop an integrated programme using conflict management as the theory and practice, and…

Malm, Birgitte; Lofgren, Horst

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Precautionary Advice on the Handling of Used Engine Oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this report is to review briefly the effects which changes taking place during use have on the toxic properties of used engine oils and, in particular, to provide advice on proper hygiene practice to enable these products to be handled safe...

R. Kahsnitz, R. L. Allen, A. J. Collings, A. R. Eyres, E. Imbeaux

1982-01-01

322

SRV-automatic handling device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Automatic handling device for the steam relief valves (SRV's) is developed in order to achieve a decrease in exposure of workers, increase in availability factor, improvement in reliability, improvement in safety of operation, and labor saving. A survey is made during a periodical inspection to examine the actual SVR handling operation. An SRV automatic handling device consists of four components: conveyor, armed conveyor, lifting machine, and control/monitoring system. The conveyor is so designed that the existing I-rail installed in the containment vessel can be used without any modification. This is employed for conveying an SRV along the rail. The armed conveyor, designed for a box rail, is used for an SRV installed away from the rail. By using the lifting machine, an SRV installed away from the I-rail is brought to a spot just below the rail so that the SRV can be transferred by the conveyor. The control/monitoring system consists of a control computer, operation panel, TV monitor and annunciator. The SRV handling device is operated by remote control from a control room. A trial equipment is constructed and performance/function testing is carried out using actual SRV's. As a result, is it shown that the SRV handling device requires only two operators to serve satisfactorily. The required time for removal and replacement of one SRV is about 10 minutes. (Nogami, K.)

323

RICE HARVEST HANDLING TO REDUCE YIELD LOSSES IN SOUTH SULAWESI  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Milled rice is main food has to priority to increasing the productivity. There was Yield losses at the harvesting time. The best harvest handling by using thresher machine could be reduce yield losses and time allocation. Experiment was conducted at South Sulawesi, during May - December 2009. The objectives the experiments were to known the effect of rice harvest machineries on save yield losses. The replication arranged in randomized complete design with three replication .Treatment consist ...

Sunanto; Razak, Nasruddin; Nasrullah

2011-01-01

324

Food Allergy  

Science.gov (United States)

Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... tree nuts, soy, and wheat. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

325

Food additives  

Science.gov (United States)

Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. Direct food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

326

The effect of handle angle on MAWL, wrist posture, RPE, and heart rate.  

Science.gov (United States)

In manual material handling tasks, the handle serves as the interface between the human operator and the box (the materials). Handle angle design can affect both wrist posture and lifting ability. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of handle angle on maximal acceptable weight of lifting (MAWL), perceived whole-body exertion, whole-body workload, wrist posture, and perceived wrist exertion. The results indicate that handle angle had a significant effect on wrist posture and wrist rating of perceived exertion (RPE). A box with a 0 degrees handle angle induced the greatest ulnar deviation and the highest wrist RPE. A 75 degrees handle angle induced the greatest radial deviation and a relatively high wrist RPE. A 30 degrees handle angle resulted in the greatest MAWL and the lowest level of wrist RPE. Overall, these findings suggest that 30 degrees and 45 degrees handle angles can provide favorable coupling conditions for the cutout-type handhold container handle. Actual or practical applications include the ergonomic design of container handles for manual material handling tasks industry. PMID:11324850

Wang, M J; Chung, H C; Chen, H C

2000-01-01

327

TNO reticle handling test platform  

Science.gov (United States)

Particle free handling of EUV reticles is a major concern in industry. For reaching economically feasible yield levels, it is reported that Particle-per-Reticle-Pass (PRP) levels should be better than 0.0001 for particles larger than 18 nm. Such cleanliness levels are yet to be reported for current reticle handling systems. A reticle handler was built based on a modular concept with three uniform linked base frames. In the first stage of the project a dual pod loading unit, two exchange units for opening inner pods and a reticle flip unit are installed on the base frames. In the near future improvements on cleanliness will be tested and particle detection equipment will be integrated. The system will act as a testing platform for clean handling technology for industry.

Crowcombe, W. E.; Hollemans, C. L.; Fritz, E. C.; van der Donck, J. C. J.; Koster, N. B.

2014-04-01

328

Safe Handling Tips for Pet Foods and Treats  

Science.gov (United States)

... treats can cause serious infections in dogs and cats, and in people too, especially children, older people, ... a clean, dedicated plastic container with a lid, keeping the top of the bag folded closed. Keep ...

329

Handling device, especially for handling nuclear power plant components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The handling device has a base moving on a horizontal track, a carriage moving on the base in a horizontal direction perpendicular to the track, a vertical hood on the carriage and a winch carried by the upper end of the hood. On the lower end of the hood different devices can be coupled

330

The handling of chemical data  

CERN Document Server

The Handling of Chemical Data deals with how measurements, such as those arrived at from chemical experimentation, are handled. The book discusses the different kinds of measurements and their specific dimensional characteristics by starting with the origin and presentation of chemical data. The text explains the units, fixed points, and relationships found between scales, the concept of dimensions, the presentation of quantitative data (whether in a tabular or graphical form), and some uses of empirical equations. The book also explains the relationship between two variables, and how equatio

Lark, P D; Bosworth, R C L

1968-01-01

331

Food irradiation experience in a large medical-products irradiator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent international and U.S. interest in irradiation as an alternative to chemical disinfestation has set the stage for pilot-plant food irradiation programs. Lessons learned in designing and operating large medical-product irradiators have significant value in designing plants for food irradiation. International Nutronics is utilizing its medic-products irradiation facility in Irvine, California, to gather data for extrapolation to full-scale agricultural product irradiator designs. Data generated to date show that excellent dose distribution and source utilization can achieved for product containers of a practical size. Extrapolation of these date to a field-located plant of 400 tons-day capacity has resulted in a cost-effective preliminary design capable of handling disinfestation at less than one cent per pound of product

332

A revolution in food preservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief consumer guide to food irradiation is presented. Aspects covered include some of the advantages of food irradiation compared to other methods of food preservation, the type of radiation used, the mechanism of action, some practical applications, safety and future benefits. (UK)

333

Modern food microbiology [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Explores the fundamental elements affecting the presence, activity, and control of microorganisms in food. Incorporates the key subjects required to meet the minimum standards for degrees in food science with a wealth of practical information about the most essential factors and principles that affect microorganisms in food.

334

Food Technology. Specification for Irradiated Food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Ghana Standard specifies the requirements and methods of sampling and testing for foods processed by irradiation for sprout inhibition, insect disinfestation, microbial decontamination, delaying ripening, shelf-life extension and general phytosanitary treatment. The absorbed dose range covered by this guide is between 0.2kGy and 10kGy. The practical minimum or maximum dose of a treatment may be lower or higher than this range, depending on the purpose of irradiation and the radiation tolerance of the particular type of food. This standard does not apply to foods exposed to radiation imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes

335

Do television food advertisements portray advertised foods in a 'healthy' food context?  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to food promotion influences food preferences and diet. As food advertisements tend to promote 'less healthy' products, food advertising probably plays some role in the 'obesity epidemic'. Amid calls for increased regulation, food manufacturers are beginning to engage in a variety of health-promoting marketing initiatives. Positioning products in the context of a 'healthy', balanced diet in television advertisements is one such initiative. We explored whether the wider food context in which foods are advertised on television are 'healthier' than the advertised foods themselves. All foods shown in food advertisements broadcast during 1 week on one commercial UK channel were identified and classified as 'primary' (i.e. the focus of advertisements) or 'incidental'. The nutritional content of all foods was determined and that of primary and incidental foods were compared. Almost two-thirds of food advertisements did not include any incidental foods. When a wider food context was present, this tended to be 'healthier' than the primary foods that were the focus of food advertisements - particularly in terms of the food groups represented. It is not yet clear what effect this may have on consumers' perceptions and behaviour, and whether or not this practice should be encouraged or discouraged from a public health perspective. PMID:21078214

Adams, Jean; Tyrrell, Rachel; White, Martin

2011-03-01

336

Guidelines for safe handling, use and disposal of nanoparticles  

Science.gov (United States)

Health, safety and environmental (HSE) risks of a technology is an inseparable part of it which threatens all exposed employees. It has been proved for many years that exposure to particles, in an occupational setting, could be linked with the onset of lung diseases, such as pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and mesotelioma and lung cancer. Nanoparticles, due to their unique characteristics including; small size, shape, high surface area, charge, chemical properties, solubility, and degree of agglomeration can cross cell boundaries or pass directly from the lungs into the blood stream and ultimately reach to all of the organs in the body. This is the reason why they may pose higher risk than the same mass and material of larger particles. Moreover, biodegradation of nanoparticles by some kinds of fungi (like wood decay fungi) may result in metabolites which may be toxic to microorganisms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bacteria and living cells can take up nanoparticles, providing the basis for potential bioaccumulation in the food chain. Considering Iran's prominent position in nanotechnologies and fast-growing in research and industrial activities, controlling nanoparticles related HSE risks should be highly considered. In general, there are three main approaches to risk and exposure control: engineering techniques, administrative means and personal protective equipments. These complementary approaches especially engineering techniques should be considered starting with the design stage of an industrial process. Administrative means of control constitute an additional approach when the other methods have not achieved the expected control levels. Administrative means of control must never substitute for engineering techniques, which always be performed according to standard practices. In some situations, due to insufficiently advanced technology and prohibitive costs, engineering measerus can not be implemended. In these situations, performing administrative means of control constitute other ways of limiaiting the occupational exposure risks. Accordingly, to minimize the risks from know and unknown health, safety and invironment hazards in research and occupational setting of the country, guideline for safe handling, use and disposal of manopractical has provided.

Amoabediny, G. H.; Naderi, A.; Malakootikhah, J.; Koohi, M. K.; Mortazavi, S. A.; Naderi, M.; Rashedi, H.

2009-05-01

337

Making Healthy Food Choices  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Students will see that food advertisements may not be the best information to use when deciding what to eat. They will investigate several resources for good information about foods and nutrition. Allow several weeks to complete this unit. UEN Core CurriculumStandard 1 Students will develop a sense of self. Objective 1 Describe and practice responsible behaviors for health and safety. a. Practice appropriate personal hygiene (e.g., bathe, wash hands, clean clothes). b. Describe the benefits of eating a variety of nutritious foods. c. Describe the benefits of physical activity. d. Describe substances that are helpful and harmful to the body. e. Practice basic safety and identify hazards. Making Healthy Food Choices #1 Task Definition - ...

Fox, Miss

2011-12-15

338

Ambientalização e politização do consumo nas práticas de compra de orgânicos / Sensibilisation à l'environnement et politisation de la consommation pour l'achat des produits bios / Enviromentalization and politicization of consumption in organic food purchasing practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo é refletir sobre processos de ambientalização e politização do consumo e do cotidiano, enfatizando o multifacetado campo da alimentação. O artigo se volta para os diferentes usos das práticas de compra de alimentos orgânicos, entendendo os consumidores como atores sociais. A problemática [...] central encontra-se nas seguintes questões: as práticas de compra de alimentos orgânicos são percebidas como forma de ação política? De que forma os consumidores lidam com os discursos e cobranças de responsabilidades pela crise ambiental? Com uma etnografia das práticas de compra de alimentos orgânicos e entrevistas em profundidade, o artigo identifica um aumento da autonomia política individual no encontro das esferas pública e privada no campo do consumo. A compra de orgânicos é percebida como um repertório de ação política romântico-individualista, sendo que essas práticas alimentam pontes com a cidadania, abrindo possibilidades para novos engajamentos coletivos. Abstract in english This article's main objective is to reflect upon the processes of environmentalization and politicization of consumption in daily life, emphasizing the multisided field of alimentation. The text focuses on different forms of organic food purchasing practices, by considering the consumers as social a [...] ctors. The main research questions are the following: Are the organic food purchasing practices perceived as a form of political action? How do consumers deal with the environmental discourse and the demand of responsibility regarding the environmental crisis? Through an ethnographic study of the organic food purchasing practices, the article reveals an increasing individual autonomy concerning political choices in the field of consumption, when public and private spheres meet. Organic food purchasing is perceived as part of a repertoire of individualistic romantic political actions, building bridges to citizenship and creating possibilities for new collective actions.

Marcelo, Castañeda.

339

Ambientalização e politização do consumo nas práticas de compra de orgânicos / Sensibilisation à l'environnement et politisation de la consommation pour l'achat des produits bios / Enviromentalization and politicization of consumption in organic food purchasing practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo é refletir sobre processos de ambientalização e politização do consumo e do cotidiano, enfatizando o multifacetado campo da alimentação. O artigo se volta para os diferentes usos das práticas de compra de alimentos orgânicos, entendendo os consumidores como atores sociais. A problemática [...] central encontra-se nas seguintes questões: as práticas de compra de alimentos orgânicos são percebidas como forma de ação política? De que forma os consumidores lidam com os discursos e cobranças de responsabilidades pela crise ambiental? Com uma etnografia das práticas de compra de alimentos orgânicos e entrevistas em profundidade, o artigo identifica um aumento da autonomia política individual no encontro das esferas pública e privada no campo do consumo. A compra de orgânicos é percebida como um repertório de ação política romântico-individualista, sendo que essas práticas alimentam pontes com a cidadania, abrindo possibilidades para novos engajamentos coletivos. Abstract in english This article's main objective is to reflect upon the processes of environmentalization and politicization of consumption in daily life, emphasizing the multisided field of alimentation. The text focuses on different forms of organic food purchasing practices, by considering the consumers as social a [...] ctors. The main research questions are the following: Are the organic food purchasing practices perceived as a form of political action? How do consumers deal with the environmental discourse and the demand of responsibility regarding the environmental crisis? Through an ethnographic study of the organic food purchasing practices, the article reveals an increasing individual autonomy concerning political choices in the field of consumption, when public and private spheres meet. Organic food purchasing is perceived as part of a repertoire of individualistic romantic political actions, building bridges to citizenship and creating possibilities for new collective actions.

Marcelo, Castañeda.

2012-04-01

340

Non-contact handling device  

Science.gov (United States)

A pressurized fluid handling nozzle has a body with a first end and a second end, a fluid conduit and a recess at the second end. The first end is configured for connection to a pressurized fluid source. The fluid conduit has an inlet at the first end and an outlet at the recess. The nozzle uses the Bernoulli effect for lifting a part.

Reece, Mark (Albuquerque, NM); Knorovsky, Gerald A. (Albuquerque, NM); MacCallum, Danny O. (Edgewood, NM)

2007-05-15

 
 
 
 
341

Software for handling MFME1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report deals with SEMFIP, a computer code for determining magnetic field measurements. The program is written in FORTRAN and ASSEMBLER. The preparations for establishing SEMFIP, the actual measurements, data handling and the problems that were experienced are discussed. Details on the computer code are supplied in an appendix

342

Personnel selection for material handling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Selecting persons who are unlikely to suffer an overexertion injury is one of three methods to reduce the risk of musculo-skeletal disorders in manual material handling. This paper describes the underlying models, methods, and techniques for such personnel selection. In particular, it describes the isoinertial LIFTEST in which persons actually lift weights to assess their capability for doing so on the job.

Kroemer, K.H.E.; Ing, D.

1985-01-01

343

Trade in irradiated foods: An approach to retailers and consumers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Government and industry in Canada are moving quickly to provide the legislation, regulations and practical protocol necessary for the commercialization of food irradiation. Marketing, public relations and media expertise will be needed to successfully introduce this new processing choice to retailers and consumers. Consumer research to date including studies conducted in the Netherlands, United States, South Africa and Canada will be explored for signposts to successful approaches to the introduction of irradiated foods to retailers and consumers. Research has indicated that the terms used to describe irradiation and information designed to reduce consumer fears will be important marketing tools. Marketers will be challenged to promote old foods which look the same to consumers, in a new light. Simple like or dislike or intention to buy surveys will not be effective tools. Consumer fears must be identified and effectively handled to support a receptive climate for irradiated food products. A cooperative government, industry, professional organization, consumer organization and retailer effort will be necessary for a successful introduction of irradiated foods into the marketplace. (author). 20 refs

344

Better fuel handling system performance through improved elastomers and seals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the area of elastomers, tests have identified specific compounds that perform well in each class of CANDU service. They offer gains in service life, sometimes by factors of ten or more. Moreover, the aging characteristics of these specific compounds are being thoroughly investigated, whereas many elastomers used previously were either non-specific or their aging was unknown. In this paper the benefits of elastomer upgrading, as well as the deficiencies of current station elastomer practices, are discussed in the context of fuel handling equipment. Guidelines for procurement, storage, handling and condition monitoring of elastomer seals are outlined. (author). 3 figs

345

Compressed Air System Renovation Project Improves Production at a Food Processing Facility: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the food processing facility project

346

Food irradiation now  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the start the Netherlands has made an important contribution to the irradiation of food through microbiological and toxicological research as well as through the setting-up of a pilot plant by the government and through the practical application of 'Gammaster' on a commercial basis. The proceedings of this tenth anniversary symposium of 'Gammaster' present all aspects of food irradiation and will undoubtedly help to remove the many misunderstandings. They offer information and indicate to the potential user a method that can make an important contribution to the prevention of decay and spoilage of foodstuffs and to the exclusion of food-borne infections and food poisoning in man. The book includes 8 contributions and 4 panel discussions in the field of microbiology; technology; legal aspects; and consumer aspects of food irradiation. As an appendix, the report 'Wholesomeness of irradiated food' of a joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee has been added. (orig./G.J.P.)

347

21 CFR 114.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 114.5 Section 114.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS General Provisions § 114.5 Current good manufacturing practice. The...

2010-04-01

348

Protocols for Handling Messages Between Simulation Computers  

Science.gov (United States)

Practical Simulator Network (PSimNet) is a set of data-communication protocols designed especially for use in handling messages between computers that are engaging cooperatively in real-time or nearly-real-time training simulations. In a typical application, computers that provide individualized training at widely dispersed locations would communicate, by use of PSimNet, with a central host computer that would provide a common computational- simulation environment and common data. Originally intended for use in supporting interfaces between training computers and computers that simulate the responses of spacecraft scientific payloads, PSimNet could be especially well suited for a variety of other applications -- for example, group automobile-driver training in a classroom. Another potential application might lie in networking of automobile-diagnostic computers at repair facilities to a central computer that would compile the expertise of numerous technicians and engineers and act as an expert consulting technician.

Balcerowski, John P.; Dunnam, Milton

2006-01-01

349

Error handling strategies in multiphase inverse modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Parameter estimation by inverse modeling involves the repeated evaluation of a function of residuals. These residuals represent both errors in the model and errors in the data. In practical applications of inverse modeling of multiphase flow and transport, the error structure of the final residuals often significantly deviates from the statistical assumptions that underlie standard maximum likelihood estimation using the least-squares method. Large random or systematic errors are likely to lead to convergence problems, biased parameter estimates, misleading uncertainty measures, or poor predictive capabilities of the calibrated model. The multiphase inverse modeling code iTOUGH2 supports strategies that identify and mitigate the impact of systematic or non-normal error structures. We discuss these approaches and provide an overview of the error handling features implemented in iTOUGH2.

Finsterle, S.; Zhang, Y.

2010-12-01

350

9 CFR 381.208 - Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry...  

Science.gov (United States)

...handled and transported as domestic products, and shall be subject to the...to the provisions of the Poultry Products Inspection Act and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (b) Poultry products entered in accordance with...

2010-01-01

351

Autoconsumo e segurança alimentar: a agricultura familiar a partir dos saberes e práticas da alimentação / Self-consumption and food security: family agriculture based on eating knowledge and practices  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Identificar e analisar as classificações e representações da alimentação, bem como as práticas de produção e consumo de alimentos entre agricultores e agricultoras da região do Vale do Taquari (Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil). MÉTODOS: Os dados e as informações foram obtidos a partir de entrevi [...] stas e observação participante, orientadas por um esquema metodológico qualitativo. Participaram da pesquisa, realizada em 2004 e 2005, 48 famílias rurais, de três diferentes localidades. Os recursos teórico-analíticos utilizados foram os da antropologia da alimentação e da abordagem da reciprocidade. RESULTADOS: Entre as famílias estudadas é significativa a produção de alimentos para autoconsumo, sendo as mulheres as principais responsáveis por sua obtenção. As práticas alimentares, embora tenham sofrido modificações, em função da modernização da agricultura e da incorporação de produtos industrializados, guardam especificidades locais e estão relacionadas a diversas expressões de sociabilidade, como a circulação de alimentos e a realização de festas comunitárias, que, impregnadas por simbolismos, atualizam um modo de vida e têm garantido segurança alimentar. CONCLUSÃO: As práticas de produção para autoconsumo das famílias estudadas estão associadas à sua segurança alimentar e, desse modo, às suas estratégias de reprodução social. A circulação de alimentos e as escolhas alimentares expressam relações de sociabilidade e de identidade nas comunidades rurais estudadas. Aspectos socioculturais e distintos níveis de relações sociais apresentam-se em transformação, podendo colocar em risco a segurança alimentar das famílias. Tais processos inspiram a realização novos estudos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify and to analyze eating classifications and representations as well the food production and consumption practices among farmers from Vale do Taquari (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). METHODS: The data and information were collected from interviews and participatory observation, orien [...] ted by qualitative methods. The research involved 48 rural families from three different localities in 2004 and 2005. The theoretical and analytical resources were provided by food anthropology and reciprocity approach. RESULTS: The production of food for self-consumption among the studied families is significant and the main producers are women. Food practices have changed as a result of agricultural modernization and increased use of industrialized products, yet they maintain local specificity and are related to several expressions of sociability such as food exchanges and community parties. These are permeated by symbolisms that update the way of living and assure food security. CONCLUSION: The production practices for autoconsumption of the studied families are associated with food security and, in this way, to social reproduction strategies. Food exchanges and food choices express relationships of sociability and identity in the studied rural communities. Social and cultural aspects and different levels of social relationships are undergoing a transformation which may jeopardize the food security of the families. Such processes are inspiring new studies.

Renata, Menasche; Flávia Charão, Marques; Cândida, Zanetti.

2008-08-01

352

Food allergy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

Youngshin Han

2012-05-01

353

Incidence Handling and Response System  

CERN Document Server

A computer network can be attacked in a number of ways. The security-related threats have become not only numerous but also diverse and they may also come in the form of blended attacks. It becomes difficult for any security system to block all types of attacks. This gives rise to the need of an incidence handling capability which is necessary for rapidly detecting incidents, minimizing loss and destruction, mitigating the weaknesses that were exploited and restoring the computing services. Incidence response has always been an important aspect of information security but it is often overlooked by security administrators. in this paper, we propose an automated system which will handle the security threats and make the computer network capable enough to withstand any kind of attack. we also present the state-of-the-art technology in computer, network and software which is required to build such a system.

Kalbande, Prof Dhananjay R; Singh, Mr Manish

2009-01-01

354

Approaches to the design of clean air handling facilities for radiopharmaceuticals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Manufacturing, handling and administering processes of radiopharmaceuticals have to meet the requirements of both the fields viz. ''radio'' activity and ''pharma'' activity. Both these fields often dictate conflicting requirements. A step by step analysis of these conflicts can lead to practices reasonably acceptable to both the fields. The design approaches include engineering concepts of radiation protection, concepts and practices for pharmaceuticals, biologically unsafe products/processes and manufacturing, handling and administering processes of radiopharmaceuticals

355

Sterile handling in the ICU  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sterile handling in the ICU is essential to prevent cross contamination and infections. It is therefore vital that all tables, scales, and other equipment that the patient comes into contact with should routinely be disinfected between patients. Disinfectants that are commonly used are alcohol, chlorine compounds, iodine compounds and glutaraldehyde. Tissues of the inner body are sterile and therefore any equipment that comes in to contact with tissues must be sterile. Commonly used steriliza...

Schoor, Mirinda

2008-01-01

356

Remote handling equipment for SNS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives information on the areas of the SNS, facility which become highly radioactive preventing hands-on maintenance. Levels of activity are sufficiently high in the Target Station Area of the SNS, especially under fault conditions, to warrant reactor technology to be used in the design of the water, drainage and ventilation systems. These problems, together with the type of remote handling equipment required in the SNS, are discussed

357

Remote handling in reprocessing plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Remote control will be the rule for maintenance in hot cells of future spent fuel reprocessing plants because of the radioactivity level. New handling equipments will be developed and intervention principles defined. Existing materials, recommendations for use and new manipulators are found in the PMDS' documentation. It is also a help in the choice and use of intervention means and a guide for the user

358

Learning lessons from container handling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal handling often requires long travel requirements. Now leading reel suppliers are working on new parallel lay solutions. Wampfler is a strong supporter of the variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) motor drive for cable reels and recently supplied two such drives for a new stacker reclaimer in Weipa, Queensland. Advances in monospiral reeling technology mean applications once thought too demanding for this system are now feasible. 2 photos.

NONE

2006-05-15

359

System operation, safety and handling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper reviews the design system, operation, and safe handling of liquid alkali metals. The hazardous characteristics of alkali metals are outlined, as well as the procedures for shipping and storage of the chemicals. Design and construction of equipment for a liquid metal system, and system operation, are both described, including cover materials of construction, pre-cleaning, leaks and repairs. Post operation cleaning procedures, disposal of residues, and firefighting, are also discussed. (U.K.)

360

Hazard analysis and critical control point to irradiated food in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food borne diseases, in particular gastro-intestinal infections, represent a very large group of pathologies with a strong negative impact on the health of the population because of their widespread nature. Little consideration is given to such conditions due to the fact that their symptoms are often moderate and self-limiting. This has led to a general underestimation of their importance, and consequently to incorrect practices during the preparation and preservation of food, resulting in the frequent occurrence of outbreaks involving groups of varying numbers of consumers. Despite substantial efforts in the avoidance of contamination, an upward trend in the number of outbreaks of food borne illnesses caused by non-spore forming pathogenic bacteria are reported in many countries. Good hygienic practices can reduce the level of contamination but the most important pathogens cannot presently be eliminated from most farms, nor is it possible to eliminate them by primary processing, particularly from those foods which are sold raw. Several decontamination methods exist but the most versatile treatment among them is the ionizing radiation procedure. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product. For successful implementation of a HACCP plan, management must be strongly committed to the HACCP concept. A firm commitment to HACCP by top management provides company employees with a sense of the importance of producing safe food. At the same time, it has to be always emphasized that, like other intervention strategies, irradiation must be applied as part of a total sanitation program. The benefits of irradiation should never be considered as an excuse for poor quality or for poor handling and storage conditions, i.e.. as a substitute for good manufacturing practices. By adopting an HACCP based approach to food safety management, it can be clearly demonstrated that the application of a technology like food irradiation is essential for ensuring the safety of raw food stuffs. Such an intervention should be considered as a CCP (Critical Control Point) in the food chain. Therefore, the potential benefit of irradiation, which is endorsed by national and international bodies surely merits serious consideration by public health authorities, industry and consumer groups worldwide. For such, a system of HACCP and the irradiation is primordial so that the alimentary .safety is maintained processes if they are applied correctly. (author)

 
 
 
 
361

Food use in middle and high school fundraising: Does policy support healthy practice? Results from a survey of Minnesota school principals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This descriptive, cross-sectional study aimed to examine classroom, school-wide and club/sports teams fundraising policies and practices of middle and high schools; concordance between policy and practice; and associations between healthy policy/practice scores and selected school characteristics. In 2006, principals/designees of middle (n=45) and high (n=71) schools in the St. Paul/Minneapolis, Minnesota metropolitan area completed a self-administered mailed survey. Schools were attended by ...

Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Moe, Stacey; Samuelson, Anne

2009-01-01

362

Desenvolvimento e reprodutibilidade de questionário para avaliar práticas e conhecimentos em segurança alimentar de nutricionistas da área clínica / Development and reliability of a questionnaire to assess clinical dietitians' practices and knowledge of food safety  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Os propósitos deste estudo foram desenvolver um questionário para avaliar práticas e conhecimentos em segurança sanitária alimentar, de nutricionistas da área clínica, e medir o nível de reprodutibilidade deste questionário. MÉTODOS: O questionário foi desenvolvido a partir de seis áreas t [...] emáticas: prevenção da contaminação cruzada; higiene pessoal/ambiental; controle de temperaturas e de alimentos de alto risco e segurança alimentar para indivíduos portadores do vírus da imunodeficiência humana/síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida. Para medir o nível de reprodutibilidade, utilizou-se o procedimento de teste e re-teste e a estatística kappa simples. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram os níveis de reprodutibilidade: >0,61 para 95,0%; entre 0,60-0,40 para 2,5% e 0,61), sugerindo que o mesmo representa uma boa opção para avaliar as práticas e os conhecimentos em segurança alimentar de nutricionistas da área clínica, visando ao planejamento de estratégias educativas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to develop a questionnaire to assess clinical dietitians´ practices and knowledge of food safety and determine the reliability of this instrument. METHODS: The questionnaire was developed around six areas: prevention of cross contamination, personal and env [...] ironmental hygiene; control of temperature and high-risk foods and food safety for individuals with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The reliability of the questionnaire was determined by the test-retest method and simple Kappa statistics. RESULTS: The results showed the reliability levels: >0.61 for 95.0%, from 0.60 to 0.40 for 2.5% and 0.61), suggesting that it is a good device to assess clinical dietitians´ practices and knowledge of food safety, which allows for the planning of educational strategies.

Luísa Helena Maia, Leite; William, Waissmann; Alessandra Bento, Veggi.

2007-08-01

363

Food safety through the meat supply chain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food poisoning in humans can be caused by many different bacterial genera. While the incidence of food poisoning in England, Wales and Scotland from Salmonella has reached a plateau, there has been an increase in the incidence from Campylobacter. The incidence from Escherichia coli O157:H7 rose to 1997 but declined slightly in 1998 (data from the Public Health Laboratory Service and the Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health). This organism has a high virulence in humans and a very low infective dose. Infection can produce a wide range of responses, including death. The low infective dose presents a major threat. The organism is relatively heat-sensitive and the cooking of food products to achieve a centre core temperature of 70 degrees C for 2 min is sufficient to destroy it. It is relatively acid-tolerant and will survive for several weeks at pH 4.2. Several foodstuffs, as well as water, have been implicated in world-wide outbreaks. The E. coli O157:H7 food-borne outbreak in Lanarkshire in 1996 led to 21 fatalities. The Pennington Group report, issued in April 1997, reported on the circumstances leading to this outbreak, the implications for food safety and the lessons to be learnt. Four areas covered within the Pennington Group report specific to meat hygiene are reviewed in this paper. On-farm practices must ensure the presentation of clean animals for slaughter. There is a requirement for the development and introduction of risk assessment techniques based upon Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points in abattoirs, and the Meat and Livestock Commission (MLC) is producing a manual for use by the abattoir sector. The Pennington report stated that there was a need for research into the potential use of end-process treatments such as steam pasteurization. The MLC is involved in evaluating such a system. Meat production premises and butchers' shops in England are introducing HACCP through an MLC scheme funded by the Department of Health. At the point of consumption, food safety is improved by the provision of practical guidelines regarding the handling of meat and meat products. These are distributed at retail outlets and communicated to secondary schools via MLC's educational publications. PMID:10880189

Attenborough, M; Matthews, K R

2000-01-01

364

Food Timeline  

Science.gov (United States)

The Food Timeline was created as an independent research project on food history and period recipes. The timeline begins before 17,000 B.C. with gatherable foods (shellfish, eggs, mushrooms) and chronicles the appearance of cultivated plants, domesticated food animals, and commercial food products up to the present day. Each type of food is represented by a link to additional information on it, and there are also links to period recipes appearing in chronological order on the timeline.

Lynne Olver, Chief Librarian, Morris County Library (NJ)

365

Food Packaging  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn how food packages are designed and made, including the three main functions. The packaging design and materials must keep food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in food, and identify a food appealingly. Then, in the associated activity, students act as if they are packaging engineers by designing and creating their own food packages for particular food types.

Engineering K-Phd Program

366

Food allergy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Food allergies affect up to 6% of young children and 3%–4% of adults. They encompass a range of disorders that may be IgE and/or non-IgE mediated, including anaphylaxis, pollen food syndrome, food-protein–induced enterocolitis syndrome, food-induced proctocolitis, eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, and atopic dermatitis. Many complex host factors and properties of foods are involved in the development of food allergy. With recent advances in the understanding of how these factors interact,...

Wang, Julie; Sampson, Hugh A.

2011-01-01

367

Food ionizing treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment of food with ionizing radiation is increasingly being recognized as a means of reducing food-borne illnesses and associated medical and other costs. In addition, the process may contribute to food security by preventing post-harvest losses, thereby making more food available to more people, eventually at lower cost. An ever increasing number of countries has approved the irradiation of a long and growing list of different food items, groups of classes, ranging from spices to grains to fruit and vegetables to meats and poultry and seafood. However, perception by consumers has been controversial and concerns have been expressed, particularly related to the safety of irradiated food. Therefore, the toxicological aspects of irradiated food are addressed in this dossier. It should be recognized that food irradiation is perhaps the most thoroughly investigated food processing technology. According to the World Health Organization 'irradiated food produced in accordance with established Good Manufacturing Practice can be considered safe and nutritionally adequate'. A recent evaluation by a WHO/FAO/IAEA study group (Geneva, Sept. 1997) even came to the conclusion, 'that as long as sensory qualities of food are retained and harmful microorganisms are destroyed, the actual amount of ionizing radiation applied is of secondary consideration'. Thus, also treatment of food with doses greater than the currently recommended upper level of 10 kGy by the Codex Alimentarius Covel of 10 kGy by the Codex Alimentarius Commission will not lead to changes in the composition of the food that, from a toxicological point of view, would have an adverse effect on human health. (author)

368

Food Quality and Safety: An Overview  

Science.gov (United States)

Food quality and safety is the foremost issue amongst the present days' consumers. Fresh fruits and vegetables are often thought of as healthful, nutritious foods having no risk of food borne illness associated with their consumption. However recent food borne illness outbreaks in countries have been traced to fresh fruits, vegetables, juices and milk. These incidences have caused producers, processors, transporters, distributors, and importers to re-evaluate quality of their fresh fruits and vegetables produce and identify the hazardous points such as production, handling and processing systems to prevent any food borne diseases.

Jha, Shyam N.

369

Microsoft PowerPoint - 0835_ WARRINGTON Technical and Operational Best Practices for Biospecimen Repositories.ppt  

Science.gov (United States)

Technical and Operational Technical and Operational Best Practices Overview Best Practices Overview State State - - of of - - the the - - Science Biospecimen Science Biospecimen Handling: Real World Perspective Handling: Real World Perspective Janet

370

Eggs and Poultry Purchase, Storage, and Preparation Practices of Consumers in Selected Asian Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to begin characterizing purchase, storage, handling, and preparation of poultry products and eggs by selected consumers in three Asian countries: India, Korea, and Thailand. Approximately 100 consumers in each location were recruited to participate in this study. The consumers were surveyed about eggs and poultry purchase behavior characteristics, such as temperatures and locations, storage behavior, such as storage locations in the refrigerator or freezer, preparation behavior, such as washing eggs and poultry before cooking, and handling behavior, such as using cutting boards during cooking. The results indicated differences in purchase and storage practices of raw eggs. Most Korean consumers purchased refrigerated eggs and stored the eggs in the refrigerator, while Indian and Thai consumers bought eggs that were stored at room temperature, but would refrigerate the eggs at home. Approximately half of the consumers in each country froze raw meat, poultry, or seafood. Food preparation practices showed potential for cross-contamination during cooking, such as using the same cutting board for different kinds of foods or not washing hands with soap and water. The results presented in this pilot study may lead to development of educational messages and raising consumer awareness of food safety practices in Asian countries.

Kadri Koppel

2014-01-01

371

7 CFR 58.443 - Whey handling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whey handling. 58.443 Section 58.443...and Operating Procedures § 58.443 Whey handling. (a) Adequate sanitary facilities shall be provided for the handling of whey. If outside, necessary precautions...

2010-01-01

372

7 CFR 966.323 - Handling regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

...each day during which handling activities have...means tomatoes grown in solution without soil; greenhouse...has the facilities for handling, regrading, resorting...in a brine or vinegar solution. U.S. tomato standards...through .299) and “Handling” regulations...

2010-01-01

373

Social media: handling negative comments.  

Science.gov (United States)

In September's BVA News (VR, September 6, 2014, vol 175, p 236) Paul Beevers, of the BVA's legal helpline, discussed the importance of social media policies for practices. Here, he looks at what practices need to consider when dealing with negative comments made on social media. PMID:25359752

2014-11-01

374

Thesis Handling in University Libraries  

Science.gov (United States)

Libraries of ninety universities granting doctorates were surveyed regarding binding, cataloging, classification, storage and checking of format practices for theses and dissertations. Recommended processing practice involves full descriptive and subject cataloging with author input on the latter point, and the elimination of all but the most…

Patterson, Kelly; And Others

1977-01-01

375

Isotrace sulphur hexafluoride handling system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the SNEAP 1981 Conference, we reported on the design of the sulphur hexafluoride gas handling system for the IsoTrace 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. This system has now been installed and tested and in the past few weeks we have acquired some experience operating it. The system incorporates several unusual features: PVC pipe for the gas transfer lines, neoprane bags for storage of the gas and an oil lubricated compressor. This report discusses each of these features in greater depth and then give some typical operating details. A diagram of the entire system is shown

376

The handling of radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the more interesting and important contributions to a recent International Symposium on the Handling of Radiation Accidents are discussed and personal comments on many of the papers presented are included. The principal conclusion of the Symposium was that although the nuclear industry has an excellent safety record, there is no room for complacency. Continuing attention to emergency planning and exercising are essential in order to maintain this position. A full list of the papers presented at the Symposium is included as an Appendix. (author)

377

Fast Continuous Collision Detection and Handling for Desktop Virtual Prototyping  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an overview of our recent work on continuous collision detection methods and constraints handling for rigid polyhedral objects. We demonstrate that continuous collision detection algorithms are practical in interactive dynamics simulation of complex polyhedral rigid bodies and show how continuous collision detection and efficient constraint-based dynamics algorithms allow to perform various virtual prototyping tasks intuitively, precisely and robustly on commodity desktop ...

Redon, Stephane

2004-01-01

378

Health physics considerations in UF{sub 6} handling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Uranium is a radioactive substance that emits alpha particles and very small amounts of gamma radiation. Its daughter products emit beta and gamma radiation. In uranium handling operations these are the radiations one must consider. This presentation will review the characteristics of the radiations, the isotopes from which they originate, the growth and decay of the uranium daughter products, and some specific health physics practices dictated by these factors.

Bailey, J.C. [Norway Assoicates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1991-12-31

379

Object handling in the archaeology classroom – Strategies for success  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Direct encounters with archaeological materials are an effective way to teach the practical side of the discipline while developing transferable skills such as observation, deductive reasoning, critical analysis and group working. This paper draws on the authors own experiences to develop guidelines for object handling in the university classroom. Good preparation, informed implementation, consolidation of gains and integration of such sessions into the wider curriculum are key elements of an effective strategy.

Rachael Thyrza Sparks

2010-01-01

380

7 CFR 246.12 - Food delivery systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

...to ensure the lowest practicable food prices consistent with adequate participant...specified time period. (v) Purchase price on food instruments and cash-value vouchers...price adjustments to the purchase price on food instruments submitted by the...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

7 CFR 800.61 - Prohibited grain handling practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

...floors, equipment, and other areas, commonly referred to as dust sweepings; and...Grain sold under an exemption shall be consumed or processed into a product(s) by...grain in commercial channels, except for vegetable oil which may be used as a dust...

2010-01-01

382

Sludge Handling System Conceptual Design Document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) has been stored underwater in the K Basins for more than 40 years. Over time, corrosion products from the degrading fuel rods, storage rack dust, concrete from pool walls, and environmental particulate have accumulated as sludge on the floors and in the pits of the K Basins. Additional sludge will be generated during the handling and cleaning of the SNF canisters during fuel removal from the basins. The sludge is not regulated as a dangerous or hazardous waste, but it does meet the definition of waste regulated under the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA). This conceptual design document (CDD) presents the technical, cost, and schedule baselines for the Sludge Handling System (SHS), SNF Sub-project A.13(b). The SHS provides for the design and procurement of sludge containers, container overpacks, the transportation of filled containers, and receipt and storage of the sludge at T Plant. The sludge will be stored at T Plant until the method for treatment and disposal of remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste is determined. To optimize storage at T Plant, the sludge is divided into two streams. One stream is more reactive and will be stored under water. The second stream is less reactive and can be stored dry. Stainless steel vessels designed specially for this project will safely contain the sludge during transport and storage. The sludge containers will be transported to T Plant using the existing multi-canister overpack (MCO) cask and translti-canister overpack (MCO) cask and transporter. Upgrades to T Plant will provide two types of storage for the sludge containers. The T Plant pool cell will be upgraded with equipment and systems to store the more reactive waste stream. Select process cells will be fitted with equipment to hold the less reactive waste stream. Both types of storage will be designed to meet TSCA requirements. As a best-management practice, reasonable Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements also will be met. The nuclear safety analysis also designates some of the systems as Safety Class. All systems that will receive, unload, and store the sludge containers at T Plant will be designed for remote operation to limit worker exposure. This CDD validates that the SHS and components can be designed, fabricated, installed, tested, and verified ready for operation within the schedule and budget allotted

383

The Internationalization Process of the E-marketplace FoodIT A/S  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This case describes the early internationalization process and the considerations about a future international expansion of an e-marketplace. The case illustrates the complexity of internationalizing an internet-based SME. FoodIT is trying to identify the most suitable entry modes; i.e. entry modes that can handle a fast, broad and deep international expansion process with very limited resources. The case raises important questions as to the importance of physical presence for a dot.com firm selling digital products; products that in theory can be distributed digitally but in practice need to be organized by real people having real face-to-face dialog.

Rask, Morten

2007-01-01

384

A preliminary evaluation of the effect of glove use by food handlers in fast food restaurants.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to determine whether the levels of selected microorganisms differed on foods handled by gloved and bare hands at fast food restaurants. Three hundred seventy-one plain flour tortillas were purchased from fast food restaurants and analyzed for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., coliform bacteria, and heterotrophic plate count bacteria. Approximately 46% of the samples were handled by workers wearing gloves compared with 52% of samples with bare hand contact. Coliform bacteria were found in 9.6% of samples handled by gloved workers and 4.4% of samples handled by bare hands, although this difference was not statistically significant. The distribution of heterotrophic plate count bacteria, a general measure of hygiene, was also higher in samples handled by gloved workers in one restaurant chain. The presence of E. coli, Klebsiella sp., and S. aureus was detected in one, two, and eight samples, respectively, and there were no significant differences between samples handled by gloved or bare hands. Neither direct contact of the tortilla with the food preparation surface nor gender of the worker affected the level of any organism tested. The observed tendency of food workers to wear the same pair of gloves for extended periods and complacency might account for the apparent failure of gloves to reduce or prevent bacterial contamination. The results further suggest that glove use might be counterproductive because workers might wash their hands less frequently when gloved. PMID:15690825

Lynch, Robert A; Phillips, Margaret L; Elledge, Brenda L; Hanumanthaiah, Sridhar; Boatright, Daniel T

2005-01-01

385

Darlington fuel handling trolley availability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Where we were 2005? In February 2004 a landmark event occurred at Darlington, the powertrack for fueling machine trolley 2 failed catastrophically, resulting in significant damage. This failure resulted in a unit shutdown, significant repair work, and several months of trolley unavailability. Going forward, the Darlington fuel handling system continued to be plagued with frequent equipment reliability issues. Equipment not performing per design challenged unit average zone levels, staff frustration levels, and the completion of planned maintenance. A deteriorating trend was evident as demonstrated by: Frequent equipment breakdowns (>2/week) impacting fuelling capability, and challenging unit average zone levels and operator frustration levels High operator intervention required in semi-auto mode due to frequent operation stops -equipment not performing per design High maintenance frustration - equipment not available to be fixed due to the need to fuel to maintain zone levels Little planned maintenance due to frequent breakdowns- fire fighting mode Large maintenance backlogs relative to station targets By early 2005, confidence in fuel handling equipment was extremely low, a strategy to recover and sustain reliability was vital to our future operation. (author)

Connors, B. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2008-07-01

386

Food irradiation in South Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article indicates the necessity for additional methods of food preservation and emphasises that food irradiation is developing into an important method of food preservation because it has been proved scientifically and practically that food irradiation can be applied effectively; also that there is absolute certainty that radiation-processed products are safe and nutritious and that such food is acceptable to the consumer and food trade, also with a view to costs. It discusses the joint food irradiation programme of the AEB and Department of Agriculture and Fisheries and points out that exemption for the irradiation of potatoes was already obtained in 1977 and later for mango's, paw-paws, chicken, onions, garlic and strawberries. Conditional exemption was obtained for avocado's and dried bananas. Other food-kinds on which research is being continued are grapes, melons, mushrooms, stone fruit and spices

387

The planning system and fast food outlets in London: lessons for health promotion practice / O sistema de planeamento dos “outlets” de “fast food” em Londres: lições para a prática da promoção da saúde  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este artigo aborda o modo como a promoção da saúde pode usar o planeamento como uma ferramenta para se comer de modo mais saudável. A pesquisa centra-se na disponibilidade e na concentração de “outlets” de “fast food” em Londres. A política pública de saúde limita o planeamento às estruturas locais, [...] dentro de um desenho teórico estreito que vai desde a psicologia social à economia liberal. A política está centrada na mudança do comportamento, nos acordos voluntários e na devolução da função saúde pública às autoridades locais. Tal estrutura apresenta barreiras a uma eficaz promoção da saúde baseada na equidade. Uma estratégia apoiada nos determinantes sociais seria consistente com um planeamento de apoio à infraestrutura reguladora nacional. Abstract in english This article considers how health promotion can use planning as a tool to enhance healthy eating choices. It draws on research in relation to the availability and concentration of fast food outlets in a London borough. Current public health policy is confining planning to local settings within a nar [...] row framework drawing on discourses from social psychology and libertarian economics. Policy is focusing on behaviour change, voluntary agreements and devolution of the public health function to local authorities. Such a framework presents barriers to effective equity-based health promotion. A social determinant-based health promotion strategy would be consistent with a national regulatory infrastructure supporting planning.

Martin, Caraher; Eileen, O' Keefe; Sue, Lloyd; Tim, Madelin.

2013-01-01

388

Dosimetry for food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Manual of Food Irradiation Dosimetry was published in 1977 under the auspices of the IAEA as Technical Reports Series No. 178. It was the first monograph of its kind and served as a reference in the field of radiation processing and in the development of standards. While the essential information about radiation dosimetry in this publication has not become obsolete, other publications on radiation dosimetry have become available which have provided useful information for incorporation in this updated version. There is already a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and an associated Code of Practice for Operation of Irradiation Facilities used for Treatment of Food, issued in 1984 by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of the FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme. The Codex Standard contains provisions on irradiation facilities and process control which include, among other requirements, that control of the processes within facilities shall include the keeping of adequate records including quantitative dosimetry. Appendix A of the Standard provides an explanation of process control and dosimetric requirements in compliance with the Codex Standard. By 1999, over 40 countries had implemented national regulations or issued specific approval for certain irradiated food items/classes of food based on the principles of the Codex Standard and its Code of Practice. Food irradiation is thus expanding, as over 30 countries are now actually applying this process for the treatmenlly applying this process for the treatment of one or more food products for commercial purposes. Irradiated foods are being marketed at retail level in several countries. With the increasing recognition and application of irradiation as a sanitary and phytosanitary treatment of food based on the provisions of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization, international trade in irradiated food is expected to expand during the next decade. It is therefore essential that proper dosimetry systems are used to ensure the compliance of trade in irradiated food with national and international standards. In view of the foregoing, FAO and the IAEA, through their Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, considered it timely to revise the Manual of Food Irradiation Dosimetry. A Consultants' Meeting was convened in Vienna from 27 to 30 October 1998 to revise the Manual

389

Handling Sports Pressure and Competition  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... it slowly. Repeat the exercise five times. Muscle relaxation: Contract (flex) a group of muscles tightly. Keep ... games where the pressure's on. Learn and practice relaxation techniques, like those described in the previous section. ...

390

Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC--28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC--28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use of these components or their related manufacturer. A component produced by one manufacturer certainly varies dimensionally from a similar product produced by a different manufacturer. The internal envelope dimensions are dependent on the selection of the individual components. The external envelope dimensions, as well as, key interface dimensions are established within this calculation and are to be treated as bounding dimensions

391

Food masquerade.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radishes cut to look like roses, watermelons carved into fruit baskets, apples made into swans, cakes frosted to look like dolls—when did this game of food masquerade start and how? This essay speculates about food's on-going history of disguise, of pretending to be what it's not. From the Renaissance courtier's delight in confections disguised as beasts, birds, and other fancies to our present day fascination with Japanese bento lunch boxes, food masquerade would seem to be a fanciful part of the history of food.Food masquerade injects some levity into our growing seriousness about food, our suspicion that most supermarket food is riddled with toxins and bad karma. It proposes that eating food should be fun. Food masquerade also gets to the very heart of artistic visual representation: the magical transformation of paint, clay or wood into an image of something else. It is a synecdoche for art itself. PMID:21539044

Bermingham, Ann

2010-01-01

392

CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this facility description document (FDD) is to establish requirements and associated bases that drive the design of the Canister Handling Facility (CHF), which will allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This FDD identifies the requirements and describes the facility design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This FDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This FDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The FDD follows the design with regard to the description of the facility. The description provided in this FDD reflects the current results of the design process.

J.F. Beesley

2005-04-21

393

CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this facility description document (FDD) is to establish requirements and associated bases that drive the design of the Canister Handling Facility (CHF), which will allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This FDD identifies the requirements and describes the facility design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This FDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This FDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The FDD follows the design with regard to the description of the facility. The description provided in this FDD reflects the current results of the design process

394

Fuel Handling Facility Description Document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the facility description document (FDD) is to establish the requirements and their bases that drive the design of the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) to allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. It identifies the requirements and describes the facility design as it currently exists, with emphasis on design attributes provided to meet the requirements. This FDD was developed as an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. It trails the design with regard to the description of the facility. This description is a reflection of the results of the design process to date

395

Remotely handled vacuum flange connections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the design of ZEPHYR, a fusion experiment for ignition and burn control, remotely handled high vacuum flanges were developed. The main features are: The tightening forces are transmitted via conically shaped flanges by a clamping chain, specially formed for small friction; the clamping forces are produced by one or two screws to minimize the positioning of remotely controlled manipulators; The arrangement is such that the flanges become completely free for axial removal, combined with exact axial alignment; the sealing areas are deepened so that scratching is avoided; the flange connection is suitable for elastomer and aluminium seals in a temperature range of 80 to 430 K. Up to now flanges with inner diameter of 100 to 650 mm have been successfully tested, larger flanges are under preparation. (orig.)

396

Obit: Radio Astronomy Data Handling  

Science.gov (United States)

Obit is a group of software packages for handling radio astronomy data, especially interferometric and single dish OTF imaging. Obit is primarily an environment in which new data processing algorithms can be developed and tested but which can also be used for production processing of a certain range of scientific problems. The package supports both prepackaged, compiled tasks and a python interface to the major class functionality to allow rapid prototyping using python scripts; it allows access to multiple disk--resident data formats, in particular access to either AIPS disk data or FITS files. Obit applications are interoperable with Classic AIPS and the ObitTalk python interface gives access to AIPS tasks as well as Obit libraries and tasks.

Cotton, Bill

2013-07-01

397

Safeguards information handling and treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper aims at the handling and treatment of nuclear safeguard relevant information by using the linguistic assessment approach. This is based on a hierarchical analysis of States' nuclear activities in a multi-layer structure of the evaluation model. Special emphasis is given to the synthesis and evaluation analysis of the Physical Model indicator information. Accordingly, we focus on the aggregation process with consideration of the different kinds of qualitative criteria. Especially we consider the symbolic approach that acts by the direct computation on linguistic values instead of the approximation approach by using the associated membership function. In this framework, several kinds of ordinal linguistic aggregation operators are presented and analyzed. The application of these linguistic aggregation operators to the combination of the Physical Model indicator information is provided. The study is undertaken in the framework of the Belgian Support Programme to the IAEA (task BEL C 01323). (author)

398

Importância das práticas alimentares no primeiro ano de vida na prevenção da deficiência de ferro / Importance of food practices during the first year of life to prevent iron deficiency  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A reconhecida relevância da anemia por deficiência de ferro, em termos de saúde pública, decorre não apenas da magnitude de sua ocorrência, mas, principalmente, dos efeitos deletérios que ocasiona à saúde da criança. Com o objetivo de investigar as práticas alimentares no primeiro ano de vida e sua [...] associação com a deficiência de ferro, realizou-se revisão da literatura científica nacional e internacional sobre a questão, selecionando os artigos mais relevantes. Crianças que nascem atermo e com peso adequado, ao receberem o leite materno de forma exclusiva suprem suas necessidades de ferro, sendo desnecessário qualquer complemento nos primeiros seis meses de vida. Próximo aos seis meses de idade ocorre gradualmente o esgotamento das reservas de ferro e a alimentação complementar passa a ter papel predominante no atendimento às necessidades desse nutriente. O papel do aleitamento materno na ocorrência da deficiência de ferro é ainda controverso e parece depender do país, região e tipo de leite utilizado em substituição ao leite materno. Na impossibilidade da continuidade do aleitamento materno, a substituição deste por leite de vaca aumenta o risco de a criança apresentar deficiência de ferro. Práticas complementares que comprovadamente contribuem com a prevenção da deficiência de ferro são: alimentação complementar com alta biodisponibilidade de ferro, alimentos fortificados e suplemento de ferro em doses profiláticas. Dieta com alta biodisponibilidade de ferro é aquela que contém os alimentos básicos da família, desde que saudáveis, com a presença de carne, vitamina A e vitamina C. A alimentação no primeiro ano de vida tem papel important