WorldWideScience
1

Ethical dilemmas in antibiotic treatment: focus on the elderly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maximal antibiotic treatment for all patients suspected of harbouring a bacterial infection is non-viable, because it will rapidly induce resistance and exhaust this finite resource. This raises two ethical dilemmas: the question of whether we are justified in increasing the danger to a present, named, patient so as to benefit future, unknown, patients; and whether we are allowed to do so without asking the present patient for consent. Although the considerations for healthy elderly patients are similar to younger adults, the answers are complex when addressing patients with dementia, severely reduced quality of life and at end of life. We argue that a public debate on the balance between benefit to a present patient versus harm to future patients should be conducted. Such a debate should include examinations of scenarios in which antibiotic treatment does not gain any benefit in a patient with infection: at the end of life; in situations in which resistance is such that empirical antibiotic treatment seldom matches the susceptibilities of the pathogen; and in patients with no quality of life. An explicit cost-benefit model, incorporating quality of life and risk of resistance, in computerized decision support might obviate a clinician's need to deal with these difficult issues at bedside. PMID:25636923

Leibovici, L; Paul, M

2015-01-01

2

Ethical dilemmas in pharmacy.  

OpenAIRE

Results of surveys in which pharmacy students and pharmacists responded to ethical dilemmas are discussed. Respondents indicated a high level of concern about patient welfare and patient rights in dilemmas involving conflicts with socio-economic issues, and with peers and physicians. Conflicts that might arise as the roles of pharmacists change and the health-care systems evolve are also discussed.

Lowenthal, W.

1988-01-01

3

Ethical dilemmas and nursing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Professional responsibilities, tradition, and personal conscience along with legal, philosophical, and religious convictions dictate nursing interventions. Inevitably, these factors embrace life-sustaining therapies; however, in view of complications, prognosis, pain and suffering, and their own views of quality of life, some patients express wishes inconsistent with life-sustaining measures. In other situations, the health care provider as well as the patient may view heroic efforts as more debilitating than resortative. Resolving the conflict while preserving the patient's best interests requires a confrontation with the status of "do-not resuscitate" policies within th e nurse's institution, informed consent, refusal, and competency as the necessary underpinnings for the development of an ethical and legal posture within the profession, with which to approach significant decisions regarding life-sustaining therapies. Literally every hour of every day nurses are immediately and directly involved with resolving ethical dilemmas based upon judgements and interpretations of oral or written orders, patient and family wishes, professional training, and an infinite number of other factors. When clear policies or orders are lacking, the nurse is left with the burden of making a life or death decision. It is imperative that professional nurses assess the administrative, legal, and ethical ramifications of their actions in terms of ethical codes of practice, patients' rights, institutional and personal liability, civil and criminal laws, and private conscience. An understanding of these issues, passive and active euthansia, state and national trends, and uniform legislation can assist in resolutions of the no-code dilemma. Nursing as a profession must strive to develop sound and consistent guidelines and rationale for the scope of practice in ethical dilemmas. PMID:6487215

Helm, A

1984-08-01

4

Exploring Ethical Dilemmas Using the "Drifting Goals" Archetype  

Science.gov (United States)

This article demonstrates how the system archetype "drifting goals" can be used in the classroom to explore ethical dilemmas. System archetypes provide a framework that shifts the focus from seeing ethical dilemmas as stemming solely from the acts of individuals to exploring the systemic structures that are responsible for generic patterns of…

Bardoel, E. Anne; Haslett, Tim

2006-01-01

5

Ethical dilemmas in nursing.  

OpenAIRE

Nurses are increasingly realising that they can offer relevant information and participate in decision-making involving ethical issues. However, inter-professional communications are frequently inadequate, and do not permit exchange of opinions. The consequences are often frustrating and upsetting for nurses whose care is affected by others' policies. This paper explores these issues using some clinical examples.

Wilson-barnett, J.

1986-01-01

6

Ethical-Economic Dilemmas in Business Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to support the idea of institutionalizing business ethics education at all business schools. Further, the article stresses the importance of using ethical-economic dilemmas in business ethics education. It argues that business students should learn that managerial work is too complex to make do with expertise and experience and help them to acquire the skill of ethical reflection of economic activity. Solving ethical-economic dilemmas in business ethics courses helps to develop cognitive skills in considering economic or managerial problems on the basis of ethical and economic interaction. In order to support the main purpose stated above, we aimed at getting a picture of how respondents assess and solve an ethical-economic dilemma. Hence, this article presents results of an empirical investigation of the ethical decision-making (EDM process on a sample of Slovak students of Management.

Anna Remišová

2014-12-01

7

Code of ethics and ethical dilemmas' management in health professions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the main interest of health professionals is for the well-being of patients/clients, ethical decision making is one of the prominent elements of his/her professionalism. Aim: The present study aims to illustrate the role of ethical judgment and the so-called "moral imagination" in health professions. Method and material: Review of theoretical and research literature, including both classic and recent sources about ethical dilemmas that health professionals may anticipate, as well as the suggested ways to manage these dilemmas. Results: Health professionals often have to act in complicated situations. Review of relevant literature indicates that the professionals' ethical decisions are structured not only through the codes of ethics, but also through other collective practices, such as organizational culture and cultural schemas about the role of health professional. Resorting to schematic thinking may temporarily release the professional from his/her concerns, but in the long run, it may devoid him/her of the sense of satisfaction from work and of the ability to offer clients the optimal care. The development of the so-called "moral imagination" permits the professional to advance from the typical application of the rules to actual ethical judgment. Conclusions: Ethical decision making presupposes not only a thorough knowledge of ethical guidelines, but also the development of the ability to openly reflect upon the ethical dimensions of an issue (moral imagination that allows health professionals to overcome schematic thinking and investigate comprehensive solutions to ethical dilemmas.

Sofia Triadafyllidou

2011-10-01

8

Caring ethics and a Somali reproductive dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of traditional ethical methodologies is inadequate in addressing a constructed maternal-fetal rights conflict in a multicultural obstetrical setting. The use of caring ethics and a relational approach is better suited to address multicultural conceptualizations of autonomy and moral distress. The way power differentials, authoritative knowledge, and informed consent are intertwined in this dilemma will be illuminated by contrasting traditional bioethics and a caring ethics approach. Cultural safety is suggested as a way to develop a relational ontology. Using caring ethics and a relational approach can alleviate moral distress in health-care providers, while promoting collaboration and trust between providers and their patients and ultimately decreasing reproductive disparities. This article examines how a relational approach can be applied to a cross-cultural reproductive dilemma. PMID:23275457

Narruhn, Robin; Schellenberg, Ingra R

2013-06-01

9

Ethics and Family Practice: Some Modern Dilemmas  

OpenAIRE

Ethical dilemmas in family practice have increased in frequency and complexity as both the potential benefit and the potential harm of medical treatments have increased. All physicians must be aware of moral issues relating to medicine. Family physicians commonly face ethical problems concerning the patient with diminished autonomy; the right to refuse treatment; allocation of resources; informed consent; surrogate consent (for children, for the incompetent, and for those with diminished auto...

Dunn, Earl V.

1990-01-01

10

Ethical Dilemmas in Retail Merchandising: Student Perceptions  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical dilemmas observed by students in retailing internships were the basis for a survey in which students indicated their perceptions as to whether case situations involved unethical behavior. Expanded case situations were offered to students for further exploration. The specific questions posed in this study included the following: (1) In what…

Paulins, V. Ann; Lombardy, Lisa

2005-01-01

11

Resolving Ethical Dilemmas in the Classroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical teaching dilemmas generally fit four patterns: individual versus community, truth versus loyalty, short-term versus long-term, and justice versus mercy. Research discloses five core shared values: compassion, honesty, fairness, responsibility, and respect. When choosing among end-, rule-, and care-based resolution approaches, teachers'…

Kidder, Rushworth M.; Born, Patricia L.

1999-01-01

12

Ethical dilemmas in clinical genetics.  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses the results of a survey of medical and paramedical opinion relating to various difficult ethical issues in clinical genetics. These include the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship, prenatal diagnosis and termination, and Huntington's chorea. It is suggested that this method provides a useful means of assessing what is ethically acceptable in contemporary society.

Young, I. D.

1984-01-01

13

Appropriate care of the newborn: ethical dilemmas.  

OpenAIRE

Medical advances in newborn care have raised ethical dilemmas as to the level of care which is appropriate when an infant is severely damaged and incapable of a reasonable quality of life in the future. Some of the considerations, philosophical and practical, are discussed. It is concluded that within the framework of the law and after due consultation, decisions are best reached in privacy by the parents and their medical advisor and should be based on the perceived interests of the child.

Dunn, P. M.

1993-01-01

14

Ethical Dilemmas of Intra-vitro Fertilization  

OpenAIRE

The article reviews the issues of in vitro fertilization and the ethical dilemmas that rise from the impact of the medical, social, moral and legal framework of this method of assisted human reproduction, starting with the origin of gametes, the status of embryos and of biological or shedding parents, the maternal age, the sexual orientation of parents, the fate of embryos, the experimentation on embryo, taking into account the legislative framework, but also the moral and religious ones.The ...

Firuleasa, Ingrid-laura; Florescu, Silvia; Moldovan, Mona

2010-01-01

15

Ethical Dilemma of Governmental Wiretapping  

CERN Document Server

USA Government wiretapping activities is a very controversial issue. Undoubtedly this technology can assist law enforced authority to detect / identify unlawful or hostile activities; however, this task raises severe privacy concerns. In this paper, we have discussed this complex information technology issue of governmental wiretapping and how it effects both public and private liberties. Legislation has had a major impact on the uses and the stigma of wiretapping for the war on terrorism. This paper also analyzes the ethical and legal concerns inherent when discussing the benefits and concerns of wiretapping. The analysis has concluded with the effects of wiretapping laws as they relate to future government actions in their fight against terrorists.

Mullikin, Arwen; Rahman, M

2010-01-01

16

Virtue ethics: an approach to moral dilemmas in nursing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nurses are increasingly confronted with situations of moral difficulty, such as not to feed terminally ill patients, whistle blowing, or participation in termination of pregnancy. Most of these moral dilemmas are often analyzed using the principle-based approach which applies the four moral principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence, and nonmalificence. In some instances, consequentialism is considered, but these frameworks have their limitations. Their limitations has to do with a consideration for the interpersonal nature of clinical nursing practice on the one hand, and is not always clear on how to judge which consequences are best on the other hand. When principles are in conflict it is not always easy to decide which principle should dominate. Furthermore, these frameworks do not take into account the importance of the interpersonal and emotional element of human experience. On the contrary, decision making about moral issues in healthcare demands that nurses exercise rational control over emotions. This clearly focuses the attention on the nurse as moral agent and in particular their character. In this article I argue that virtue ethics as an approach, which focus of the character of a person, might provide a more holistic analysis of moral dilemmas in nursing and might facilitate more flexible and creative solutions when combined with other theories of moral decision-making. Advancing this argument, firstly, I provide the central features of virtue ethics. Secondly I describe a story in which a moral dilemma is evident. Lastly I apply virtue ethics as an approach to this moral dilemma and in particular focusing on the virtues inherent in the nurse as moral agent in the story.

E Arries

2005-09-01

17

An Analysis of Student Choices in Medical Ethical Dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes a study undertaken to assess student choices in medical ethical dilemmas. Medical ethical dilemmas are interpreted to include problems such as abortion, euthanasia, sterilization, experimentation on humans, allocation of scarce medical resources, and physician and health personnel training. The major purpose of the study was…

Woloshin, Phyllis Lerman

18

Ethical and legal dilemmas in infertility treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main characteristics of the new millennium is the affirmation of human rights in all aspects of human existence, with the intention of turning declarative statements into reality. Development of up-to-date assisted reproductive technologies (ART and their application in infertility treatment have raised numerous ethical, legal, religious, social and other questions. In vitro fertilization, donation of gametes, embryos and pre-embryos, cryopreservation of gametes, embryos, ovarian and testicular tissues, embryo transfer, genetic reproductive techniques, cloning and other sophisticated methods used in infertility treatment require cooperation between the medical and legal professions. Ethical aspects of human reproduction and assisted fertilization are based on full respect of the life of an individual even before conception, from pre-embryo stage, via embryo stage and fetus stage to a newborn infant. Regarding investigative and clinical projects, this standpoint implies the legalization of all ART procedures, unencumbered exchange of information and consensus about their application, and adherence to the basic ethical principles of autonomy benefit, justice and common welfare. Ethical postulates provide unequivocal directions in the creation of new life and resolve all possible ethical dilemmas, protecting the rights of doctors and participant in relevant procedures alike and reasserting the crucial principle - respect of human dignity.

Dragojevi?-Diki? Svetlana

2004-01-01

19

Ethical Dilemmas In Management: An African Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The modern workplace is composed of people with diverse backgrounds in terms of nationality, culture, religion, age, education and socioeconomic status. Each of these people enters the work with different values, goals, and perceptions of acceptable behaviours. The diverse background creates ethical challenges for individuals as well as managers. There are issues and decisions that are to be made by workers in the organization that have implications for their job security and salary, and success of the organization. Pressure may be on the workers to protect their own interests, sometimes at the risk of losing personal and corporate integrity. This paper attempts to evaluate ethical dilemmas and conflicts from an Africa perspective, bearing in mind different value systems between western and African nations.

Abolaji Joachim Abiodun

2014-09-01

20

Ethical dilemmas in the care of people with dementia.  

OpenAIRE

Following a two-year inquiry, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics published a report in October 2009 on the ethical dilemmas raised by dementia. Community nurses play an important role in supporting carers of people with dementia, but face ethical dilemmas of their own, for example, balancing the needs of the person with dementia and those of the carers, and deciding when to share confidential information with others. The report sets out an ethical approach to care, as well as recommendations o...

Hope, T.

2009-01-01

21

Ethical and Legal Dilemmas in Radiology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and objectives: Today with so many so-phisticated modalities in radiology, it is very difficult, if at all possible, for radiologist to master every thing and sometimes they are put in the position of reading a study where they really don't have the expertise they ought to have. Thus there are more malpractice suits against radiologists than the past decades. It is the purpose of this review to find guidelines for deal-ing with ethical and legal dilemmas in radiology. Materials & Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed malpractice and lawsuit cases stated against radiologists in the Iran University of Medical Sciences during 2001-2004 with comparative study of mal-practice cases in France, India, and USA. Results: We found that the most prevalent causes which radiologists are sued for are, (1 deviation from standards, misdiagnoses; (2 over-charging patients; (3 poor communication; (4 refusing to seek consul-tations when necessary; (5 referral to site of self-interest and fee splitting (Dichotomy;(6 misleading and untruthful advertising; (7 other ethical negli-gences such as inadequate respect for "belief and ideas of patients, autonomy, the right to consent and refuse procedure", breech of confidentiality, etc. Conclusions: Like other health care providers, radi-ologists should have their own Code of ethics and guidelines to describe standards of profession, disci-plinary procedures for violation of ethical and legal rules. These should be preferably provided by the Iranian Society of Radiology.

Ma. Ashrafi

2005-08-01

22

Exploring how IBCLCs manage ethical dilemmas: a qualitative study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Professional health care practice should be based on ethical decisions and actions. When there are competing ethical standards or principles, one must choose between two or more competing options. This study explores ethical dilemmas experienced by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants. Methods The investigator interviewed seven International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and analyzed the interviews using qualitative research methods. Results "Staying...

Noel-Weiss Joy; Cragg Betty; Woodend A

2012-01-01

23

Pediatric liver transplantation - ethical dilemmas in a disabled patient.  

Science.gov (United States)

Allocation of medical resources, especially resources with absolute scarcity such as organs for transplant, is a difficult task. Medical, surgical, and ethical considerations should be evaluated. In solid organ transplantation, ethics committees are the gate keepers that deal with moral philosophy when moral values are in conflict. Often, no good solution to a dilemma in these medical ethics exists. Our case presents split living liver donation for retransplantation in a mentally disabled girl, with few medical ethics principles at stake. PMID:22081968

Toker, A; Salzer, L

2012-09-01

24

Novel ethical dilemmas arising in geriatric clinical practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to determine empirically the state of the art of the medical care, when healthcare personal is confronted with ethical dilemmas related with the care they give to the geriatric population. An observational, longitudinal, prospective and qualitative study was conducted by analyzing the correlation between healthcare personnel-patient relationship, and ethical judgments regarding dilemmas that arise in daily clinical practice with geriatric patients. Mexican healthcare personnel with current active practices were asked to write up an ethical dilemma that arose frequently or that had impacted their medical practice. From the narrative input, we were able to draw up a database with 421 dilemmas, and those corresponding to patients 60 years and older were selected (n = 54, 12.8 %). The axiological analysis of the narrative dilemmas of geriatric patients was made using dialectical empiricism. The axiological analysis values found most frequently were classified into three groups: the impact of healthcare, the roles of the physician, and refusal of therapy; the healthcare role of educator, caring for the patients' life and the risk of imminent death where the values found more often. The persistence and universality of certain dilemmas in geriatrics calls for awareness and requires a good training in the ethical discernment of these dilemmas. This would help to improve substantially the care and the life quality of this population. PMID:25185872

Calleja-Sordo, Elisa Constanza; de Hoyos, Adalberto; Méndez-Jiménez, Jorge; Altamirano-Bustamante, Nelly F; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Valderrama, Alejandro; García-Peña, Carmen; Altamirano-Bustamante, Myriam M

2015-05-01

25

Levinas's ethics as a basis of healthcare - challenges and dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Levinas's ethics has in the last decades exerted a significant influence on Nursing and Caring Science. The core of Levinas's ethics - his analyses of how our subjectivity is established in the ethical encounter with our neighbour or the?Other - is applied both to healthcare practice and in the project of building an identity of Nursing and Caring Science. Levinas's analyses are highly abstract and metaphysical, and also non-normative. Thus, his analyses cannot be applied directly to practical problems and questions. Theorists in Nursing and Caring Science are generally aware of this. Nevertheless, many of them use Levinas's analyses to explore and solve questions of practical and normative character. This article focuses on the challenges and dilemmas of using Levinas in this manner. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents some central ideas of Levinas's ethics based on the latter part of his authorship. The main focus is on the radicalism of Levinas's critique of the symbolic order (which includes concepts, categories, knowledge, etc.) - or as he puts it 'the said' - as a basis for subjectivity and responsibility. Levinas's notions of saying, anarchy, and singularity accentuate this point of view. These notions refer to conditions in the language, which counteract the symbolic order in the ethical encounter to such an extent that it becomes an incomprehensible. Levinas gives the argumentation a metaphysical frame: The encounter with the incomprehensible is an encounter with the Holy, which is not the ontological God, but a metaphysical desire. It is a mystery as to what this means, and herein lies possibly the main challenge when using Levinas's ethics in science and research: How to maintain the radicalism of his critique of the symbolic order when this is to be communicated in a scientific context that expects clarification of statements and ideas? The second part of the article explores this question by examining how some theorists use Levinas's ethics on questions and problems in the area of healthcare and Nursing and Caring Science. The focus is especially on the theorists' reception and use of the just mentioned notions. The study reveals that these theorists to a large extent transform Levinas's ethics according to their own approaches, with the result that his ethics loses its critical radicalism. Thus, I question the reason why they use Levinas. PMID:25413564

Nordtug, Birgit

2015-01-01

26

Ethical dilemmas in pediatric and adolescent psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.  

Science.gov (United States)

To date, only a very narrow window of ethical dilemmas in psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) has been explored. Numerous distinct ethical dilemmas arise in diagnosing and treating pediatric and adolescent patients with PNESs. Important ethical values at stake include trust, transparency, confidentiality, professionalism, autonomy of all stakeholders, and justice. In order to further elucidate the ethical challenges in caring for this population, an ethical analysis of the special challenges faced in four specific domains is undertaken: (1) conducting and communicating a diagnosis of PNESs, (2) advising patients about full transparency and disclosure to community including patients' peers, (3) responding to requests to continue antiepileptic drugs, and (4) managing challenges arising from school policy and procedure. An analysis of these ethical issues is essential for the advancement of best care practices that promote the overall well-being of patients and their families. PMID:25022823

Cole, Cristie M; Falcone, Tatiana; Caplan, Rochelle; Timmons-Mitchell, Jane; Jares, Kristine; Ford, Paul J

2014-08-01

27

Prolonging life: legal, ethical, and social dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of modern medicine to prolong life has raised a variety of difficult legal, ethical, and social issues on which reasonable minds can differ. Among these are the morality of euthanasia in cases of deep coma or irreversible injury, as well as the Dead Donor Rule with respect to organ harvesting and transplants. As science continues to refine and develop lifesaving technologies, questions remain as to how much medical effort and financial resources should be expended to prolong the lives of patients suspended between life and death. At what point should death be considered irreversible? What criteria should be used to determine when to withhold or withdraw life-prolonging treatments in cases of severe brain damage and terminal illness? To explore these complex dilemmas, Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion panel. Pediatrician Sam Shemie, hospice medical director Christopher P. Comfort, bioethicist Mildred Z. Solomon, and attorney Barbara Coombs Lee examined the underlying assumptions and considerations that ultimately shape individual and societal decisions surrounding these issues. The following is an edited transcript of the discussion that occurred November 12, 2013, 7:00-8:30 PM, at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City. PMID:25079490

Paulson, Steve; Comfort, Christopher P; Lee, Barbara Coombs; Shemie, Sam; Solomon, Mildred Z

2014-11-01

28

Ecology and social justice: ethical dilemmas and revolutionary hopes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Western culture has alienated man from the rest of nature and made himself oblivious to the rights of other living things. Yet many critics of the environmental movement claim that it is necessary to continue exploiting nature in order to achieve social justice. The tension between those focusing on human needs and those striving for ecological goals reveals a flaw in our culture which makes unemployment the price exacted for environmental protection. The political orientation of the opposing groups is traditionally a liberal respect of other's right. The ethical dilemma arises in setting acceptable limits for exploitation of both man and nature, but one which is grounded in a respect for otherness. (DCK)

Heinegg, P.

29

Some Ethical Dilemmas in Counselling and Counselling Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses a number of dilemmas in relation to the ethical practice of counseling, counselor training, and research and evaluation of counseling. A number of relevant issues are explored, including: use of training videos of therapists with real clients; informed consent; how research and evaluation changes the therapeutic process; and publication…

West, William

2002-01-01

30

[The ethical dilemma of water fluoridation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Dental caries remains a worldwide public health problem because of its magnitude and impact on affected people's quality of life. Among preventive strategies, water fluoridation is one of the most important, but its value still remains uncertain after more than a half century of its use. The aim of this study is to analyse some of the ethical arguments for and against water fluoridation and to determine if empirical data allow to decide if there are correct policies from a bioethical perspective. Autonomy, compulsory medication (mass medication), precautionary principle, justice in health care and ethics of protection are discussed. It is concluded that fluoridation is beneficial and that there is no ethical reason to oppose it, based on a specific kind of ethics developed to analyse and clarify complex public health issues. PMID:18259663

Mendoza V, Carolina

2007-11-01

31

The oil industry and climate change: strategies and ethical dilemmas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see,' and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO{sub 2} emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (i) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (ii) avoiding responsibility; and (iii) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors. (Author)

Hove, S. van den [MEDIAN, Valldoreix (Spain); Le Menestrel, M. [University Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Bettignies, H.C. de [INSEAD, Fontainebleau (France)

2002-07-01

32

The oil industry and climate change. Strategies and ethical dilemmas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors.

Van den Hove, S. [MEDIAN, Passeig Pintor Romero 8, 08197 Valldoreix (Spain); Le Menestrel, Marc [University Pompeu Fabra, Ramon Trias Fargas 25-27, 08005 Barcelona (Spain); De Bettignies, Henri-Claude [INSEAD, Boulevard de Constance, F-77305 Fontainebleau Cedex (France)

2002-07-01

33

Animal ethics dilemma : a computer supported learning tool  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways to explore the program; for example, they can navigate the program using the 'Assist Me' option, which explains the basis of theethical arguments. Reality text provides details of real events on which the case is based, and a glossary of terminology is available for the students to explore. Selected access to a case template is also available, enabling students and teachers to create their own case studies. Evaluation of the program has been ongoing during its development.

Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina

2006-01-01

34

Gender Differences In Responses To Hypothetical Business Ethical Dilemmas By Business Undergraduates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Business leaders are often failing to display ethical behavior in business decisions. This paper examines the gender differences found in undergraduate business students when faced with ethical decision making dilemmas.

Margie L. McInerney

2011-01-01

35

Gender Differences In Responses To Hypothetical Business Ethical Dilemmas By Business Undergraduates  

OpenAIRE

Business leaders are often failing to display ethical behavior in business decisions. This paper examines the gender differences found in undergraduate business students when faced with ethical decision making dilemmas.

Mcinerney, Margie L.; Mader, Deanna D.; Mader, Fred H.

2011-01-01

36

Ethical and legal dilemmas in infertility treatment  

OpenAIRE

One of the main characteristics of the new millennium is the affirmation of human rights in all aspects of human existence, with the intention of turning declarative statements into reality. Development of up-to-date assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and their application in infertility treatment have raised numerous ethical, legal, religious, social and other questions. In vitro fertilization, donation of gametes, embryos and pre-embryos, cryopreservation of gametes, embryos, ovarian ...

Dragojevi?-Diki? Svetlana; Dragani? Saveta; Diki? Sr?an S.; Pilija Vladimir

2004-01-01

37

Anatomical investigations and their ethical dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The multi-faceted nature of modern anatomy comes as a surprise to many, especially when confronted by such seemingly different topics as cadavers and human embryo research. However, even these disparate facets of anatomy are linked by common underlying ethical considerations. This article traces historical views of anatomy and places them alongside the more contemporary dimensions of whole-body plastination, use of human material obtained under unethical circumstances, and human embryo research. These dimensions introduce issues of respect, human dignity, consent, scientific integrity, and societal expectations. PMID:17072864

Jones, D Gareth

2007-04-01

38

[Clinical ethic dilemmas and difficulties in reporting child abuse].  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of reported cases of child abuse has been rising steadily in Taiwan. Although child abuse reporting is mandatory for healthcare professionals, Taiwan-specific social norms and traditional cultural values make the decision to report such abuse more complex and difficult. We used Jonsen's four topics method to examine a suspected case of child abuse and to analyze its associated dilemmas and ethical difficulties. We then discussed the identified conflicts among the three aspects of cultural values, legal obligations, and personal values. Findings indicate that healthcare professionals experience dilemmas among these three aspects. Reporting suspected child abuse appears the best resolution after considering and balancing the principles of non-malfeasance, beneficence, fidelity and follow-up care. Once reported, resources can be provided to the affected child and his ÷ her family. This case analysis provides a reference for healthcare professionals to deal with child abuse cases. PMID:22851401

Huang, Tzu-Yi; Chiang, Wan-Lin; Su, Yi-Fei; Feng, Jui-Ying

2012-08-01

39

Methodological and Ethical Dilemmas Encountered during Field Research of Family Violence Experienced by Adolescent Women in Buenos Aires  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to examine some obstacles and dilemmas related to methodological strategies and ethical considerations that arose during the fieldwork of research focused on family violence during the stages of pregnancy and childbirth in adolescent females in Buenos Aires during 2007. From this study, we are able to contribute some…

Luxardo, Natalia; Colombo, Graciela; Iglesias, Gabriela

2011-01-01

40

Medical confidentiality versus disclosure: Ethical and legal dilemmas.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

A case is described of a fifty year old single man who made disclosures about criminal sexual practices during a psychiatric assessment. In common practice with other professional men, a doctor is under a duty not to disclose, without the consent of his patient, information which he has gained in his professional capacity other than in exceptional circumstances. We discuss the ethical and legal considerations surrounding issues of medical confidentiality and the dilemma that sometimes face clinicians, when they feel obliged, in the public interest, to disclose information they have gained in confidence. Breach of confidences can have deleterious consequences; particularly for the doctor-patient relationship, but failure to disclose in some situations could have serious implications for the well-being of the wider society. Doctors should be aware of the basic principles of confidentiality and the ethical and legal framework around which they are built.

Agyapong, V I O

2009-02-01

41

Ethical dilemmas in supervision and a proposal for the code of ethics of the Society for supervision  

OpenAIRE

The main purpose of this paper is a contribution to the specialist practice of supervision in Slovenia – a proposal for The code of ethics, which will be considered by the Society for supervision. Its main objective is to encourage practitioners to reflect on the ethical concepts with a purpose of establishing a referential professional frame from the perspective of ethics. In the »ethical dilemmas in supervision« I write about the importance of the supervisor attitude, his conscience...

Eiselt, Ajda

2011-01-01

42

Staff attitudes to talking openly about ethical dilemmas : the role of business ethics conceptions and trust  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To ensure ethical employee behavior, companies often utilize several forms of mostly one-way communication such as codes of conduct. The extent to which these efforts, in addition to informing about the company stance on ethics, are able to positively influence behavior is disputed. Research on business ethics communication and behavior reveals that a good predictor of ethical conduct is open workplace dialogue about ethics.  In this paper, I therefore address the question: What influences employee attitudes to talking openly about ethical issues? Answers are proposed on the basis of focus group interviews at the healthcare company Novo Nordisk.   It was found that interest in discussing ethical issues was influenced by two main factors: employee conceptualizations of business ethics, and the level of inter-collegial trust, credibility, and confidence. In this paper, by examining these phenomena, I aim at providing insight that can help managers in their attempts to promote open workplace dialogue aboutethical issues.

Trapp, Leila

2010-01-01

43

Social Decision Making Social Dilemmas, Social Values, and Ethical Judgments  

CERN Document Server

This book, in honor of David Messick, is about social decisions and the role cooperation plays in social life. Noted contributors who worked with Dave over the years will discuss their work in social judgment, decision making and ethics which was so important to Dave.The book offers a unique and valuable contribution to the fields of social psychology and organizational behavior. Ethical decision making, a central focus of this volume, is highly relevant to current scholarship and research in both disciplines. The volume will be suitable for graduate level courses in organizational behavior, s

Kramer, Roderick M; Bazerman, Max H

2009-01-01

44

Support for ethical dilemmas in individual cases: experiences from the Neu-Mariahilf hospital in Goettingen  

OpenAIRE

Prompted by a recommendation of the two Christian hospital associations in Germany, the Neu-Mariahilf Hospital in Goettingen set up a health ethics committee in autumn 1998. It is the committee's task to give support to staff members, patients and their relatives in individual cases where ethical dilemmas arise. The following article descibes the committee's work by means of three cases.

Simon, A.

2001-01-01

45

Reporting Child Sexual Abuse: Ethical Dilemmas, and Guidelines for Decision Making.  

Science.gov (United States)

All states have laws mandating that certain individuals report suspected occurrences of child abuse. Mandatory reporting statutes, their administration, and their judicial interpretation have created many ethical, legal, and clinical dilemmas. The abrogation of the confidentiality in the therapeutic relationship is probably the foremost ethical

Zambelli, Grace C.; Lee, Sandra S.

46

[Perception of nurses about ethical dilemmas related to terminal patients in intensive care units].  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to learn about nurses' perception about ethical dilemmas in nursing care for terminal patients in the context of a general hospital ICU in the city of São Paulo, and what they take into account when making decisions. The study was performed through interviews with ten nurses working at the ICU, using a qualitative approach based on content analysis. Ethical dilemmas were found to be linked to: diversity of values; presence of terminal patients at the ICU; uncertainties aboutterminality and the limits of intervention to prolong the patients' lives; disagreements in decision-making; non-acceptance of the process of dying by the patients' families and the lack of clarifications for the patient and the family. In addition, the nurses consider their values, the professional ethics, empathy and dialogue with co-workers to make decisions in view of such ethical dilemmas. PMID:19437851

Chaves, Adriano Aparecido Bezerra; Massarollo, Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

2009-03-01

47

Staff Attitudes to Talking Openly About Ethical Dilemmas : The Role of Business Ethics Conceptions and Trust  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To ensure ethical employee behavior, companies often utilize several forms of mostly one-way communication such as codes of conduct. The extent to which these efforts, in addition to informing about the company stance on ethics, are able to positively influence behavior is disputed. In contrast, research on business ethics communication and behavior indicates a relatively clear, positive link between open workplace dialogue about ethical issues and ethical conduct. In this paper, I therefore address the question: What influences employee attitudes to talking openly about ethical issues? Answers are proposed on the basis of focus group interviews with staff at the Denmark and Brazil affiliates of the global healthcare company Novo Nordisk. It was found that interest in discussing ethical issues was influenced by two main factors: employee conceptualizations of business ethics, and the level of inter-collegial trust, credibility, and confidence. In this paper, by examining these phenomena, I am at providinginsight that can both inform scholars in these fields as well as help managers in their attempts to promote open workplace dialogue about ethical issues.

Trapp, Leila

2011-01-01

48

Considering ethical dilemmas related to brain death in newborns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brain death (BD, as the irreversible and permanent loss of cerebral and brainstem function, is relatively uncommon among newborns who need life support. It is considered the result of an acute and irreversible central nervous system insult. Asphyxia, severe intracranial hemorrhage and infection are the most common causes of  BD in children. BD diagnosis is usually based on clinical criteria. Dilemmas about life prolonging treatment for severely compromised infants – as brain dead infants are – has become challenging since neonatal intensive care unit (NICU care has developed, quality of life and resource issues are nowadays continuously underlined. Caring for premature babies is expensive and costs have risen especially since an increased number of infants with handicaps survives. Intensivists’ main duty is first to save lives and then to interrupt treatment in certain conditions like detrimental brain damage. The objective of this article is to present ethical decisions regarding brain dead newborns in order to balance between organ donation necessities and withholding/withdrawing treatment, with respect to the important role of infants’ parents in the process.

Ilias Chatziioannidis

2014-01-01

49

Medical education must make room for student-specific ethical dilemmas  

OpenAIRE

Most contemporary undergraduate courses in medical ethics leave a critical gap unfilled because they fail to address student-specific issues, says third-year student Joye St. Onge. In this article, which won third prize in CMAJs 1996 Dr. William Logie Medical Ethics Essay Contest, St. Onge outlines the importance of discussing student-specific ethical dilemmas and suggests ways to introduce such teaching in medical schools.

St Onge, J.

1997-01-01

50

Do RFIDs (radio frequency identifier devices) provide new ethical dilemmas for librarians and information professionals?  

OpenAIRE

Abstract: This paper provides an analysis of the current and potential ethical implications of RFID technology for the library and information professions. These issues are analysed as a series of ethical dilemmas, or hard-to-resolve competing ethical obligations, which the librarian has in relationship to information objects, library users and the wider social and political environment or state. A process model of the library is used as a framework for the discussion to illustrate the ...

Thornley, Clare V.; Gibb, Forbes; Ferguson, Stuart; Weckert, John

2011-01-01

51

Doing the job well : looking at the role of ethics and ethical dilemmas in the work of pastoral counsellors  

OpenAIRE

This article looks at the experiences and needs of pastoral counsellors and ministers regarding ethical dilemmas in performing their duties. The problem that arose is that pastoral counsellors have an ethically and psychologically dangerous task and are not necessarily adequately prepared for or supported in that task. It is a study conducted within the framework of practical theology. A social constructionist paradigm, supported by a narrative approach to research was chosen. Thus the resear...

Human, H.; Muller, Julian C.

2009-01-01

52

Digital Security Governance and Accountability in Europe: Ethical Dilemmas in Terrorism Risk Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital security governance – the use of digital personal data for threat analysis on the basis of (automated risk profiling – enhances terrorism risk management in Europe. European security strategies emphasise that information and communication technology increasingly play a key role in preventing and anticipating threats such as terrorism and cyber-crime. It enables, for example, the sharing of personal, financial or travellers’ data with third countries. This article focuses on digital security governance in the context of the Passenger Name Record (PNR, the Advance Passenger Information (API and the Terrorist Finance Tracking System (TFTP programmes. Particularly, it considers the ethical dilemmas of using and sharing digital personal data as well as accountability for this type of risk management. Because there are broader socio-political, legal and technological issues connected to the use of information and communication technology for digital security governance, the concept of accountability in this article is holistic.

Quirine Eijkman

2014-01-01

53

Ethical dilemmas and PD as important steps towards critical e-government design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The delivering of public services to citizens through the internet -- also known as e-government - has gained serious momentum, driven by political ambitions of improved efficiency. E-government, however, is considered complex and e-government failures are well known from media. Research of how e-government is enacted inside government is sparse. Technology mediated public services in real world entail ethical dilemmas. By extracting ethical dilemmas from a qualitative e-government participatory design study, this paper shows how ethical dilemmas may inform future e-government design and design processes. The case, adoption of digital post in a local e-government setting, showed that design flaws, staff's concern for citizens and political fear of citizens' critique had an impact on e-government adoption.

Berger, Jesper Bull

2014-01-01

54

Ethical dilemmas in occupational therapy and physical therapy: a survey of practitioners in the UK National Health Service.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: To identify ethical dilemmas experienced by occupational and physical therapists working in the UK National Health Service (NHS). To compare ethical contexts, themes and principles across the two groups. DESIGN: A structured questionnaire was circulated to the managers of occupational and physical therapy services in England and Wales. SUBJECTS: The questionnaires were given to 238 occupational and 249 physical therapists who conformed to set criteria. RESULTS: Ethical dilemmas ex...

Barnitt, R.

1998-01-01

55

The problem of choice in major dilemmas of obstetrics- actors, roles, ethical arguments and influences  

OpenAIRE

The article discusses the principle of autonomy of patientss choice in a highly sensitive area, the obstetrics, regarding two issues which arise many dilemmas and debates, the induced abortion and the elective cesarean section..It brings up many pro and cons ethical arguments, reviews the various points of view and historical, legal, religious and humanist influences.Article stresses the need to adapt the old ethic principles to the realities of the actual complex society and the necessity of...

Firuleasa, Ingrid-laura

2010-01-01

56

Ethical dilemmas in a cross-cultural context. A Chinese example.  

OpenAIRE

Considerable attention is now being given to ethical conflicts raised by such issues as the disclosure of diagnosis and prognosis, the role of the family in making medical decisions, and the withholding or withdrawing of treatment of terminally ill patients. Already complicated, these issues take on added complexity in contexts where medical professionals and patients have differing cultural beliefs and practices. Ethical dilemmas that develop in multicultural settings have been largely unadd...

Muller, J. H.; Desmond, B.

1992-01-01

57

Ethical Dilemmas of Cervical Cancer Screening: Will these programs benefit patients?  

OpenAIRE

Cervical screening presents several ethical dilemmas to family physicians. The author reviews the risks associated with screening, costs versus benefits of running a screening program, and the issues surrounding patient autonomy and patient coercion. Is saving one life worthwhile, and at what cost? Cervical screening programs are imperative in family practice, but only if harm to the patient is minimized and ethical objections are addressed.

Snadden, David

1992-01-01

58

Action ethical dilemmas in surgery: an interview study of practicing surgeons  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe the kinds of ethical dilemmas surgeons face during practice. Methods Five male and five female surgeons at a University hospital in Norway were interviewed as part of a comprehensive investigation into the narratives of physicians and nurses about ethically difficult situations in surgical units. The transcribed interview texts were subjected to a phenomenological-hermeneutic interpretation. Results No gender differences were found in ...

Nordam Ann; Torjuul Kirsti; Sørlie Venke

2005-01-01

59

Current products and practice section: religious, cultural, and ethical dilemmas in orthodontics.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are potential religious, cultural and ethical dilemmas facing patients who are undergoing orthodontic treatment. Opinions were collected from religious and cultural leaders, as well as from non-religious groups who take an ethical standpoint on certain medical or dental treatment. Factors relating to ingredients in orthodontic products, timing of orthodontic appointments, and the effects of religious fasting are all discussed. It is important to recognize all patients' opinions and beliefs when planning and undertaking orthodontic treatment. PMID:12644613

Mattick, C R

2003-03-01

60

The clinician's dilemma: two dimensions of ethical care.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a continuing intense medico-ethico-legal debate around legalized euthanasia and physician assisted suicide such that ethically informed clinicians often agree with the arguments but feel hesitant about the conclusion, especially when it may bring about a change in law. We argue that this confusion results from the convergence of two continua that underpin the conduct of a clinician and are especially prominent in psychiatry. The two continua concern the duty of care and the importance of patient autonomy and they do not quite map into traditional divides in debates about sanctity of life, paternalism, and autonomy. As ethical dimensions, they come into sharp focus in the psychological complexities of end-of-life care and they form two key factors in most ethical and legal or disciplinary deliberations about a clinician's actions. Whereas both dimensions are important when a clinician reflects on what s/he has done or should do, they need careful balancing in a request for euthanasia or physician assisted suicide where the patient wants to take a decisive role in his or her own end-of-life care. However, end-of-life is also a situation where clinicians often encounter 'cries for help' so that both continua are importantly in play. Balancing these two continua without using blunt legal instruments is often required in psychiatric care in such a way as to problematize the idea that patient decisions should dominate the care options available. A simplistic approach to that issue arguably plays into what has been called an 'impoverished construction of life and death' and, some would say, devalues the basic commitments fundamental to medical care. PMID:23830641

Gillett, Grant; Chamberlain, Joshua

2013-01-01

61

Ethical Dilemmas in Hospice and Palliative Care Units for Advanced Cancer Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethical dilemmas that face heathcare team members referring patients to hospice programs include the ability of clinicians to predict accurately a patient bad prognosis. They affect day-to-day patient management in palliative care programs including healthcare team members concern over the use of morphine because possible respiratory depression in the patient, the question of providing enteral or parenteral nutritional support to patients who refuse to eat and the question of providing parenteral fluids to patients who are unable to take fluids during the terminal phrases of illness. A final ethical dilemma concerns the methodology for quality of life research in palliative care. Understanding and resolving these ethical dilemmas is an important factor determining the quality of the caring for the patient. The ethical dilemmas that are discussed in the article likely to occur in this period can be prevented through his/her participation in the decisions concerning his or her treatment. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 65-79

Beyhan Bag

2013-02-01

62

International Ethical Dilemmas Confronting Australian Managers: Implications for the Training and Development of Employees Working Overseas  

Science.gov (United States)

Globalisation has seen diverse cultures becoming increasingly entwined and interdependent as business organisations operate in a borderless world. When organisations operate internationally they often find that countries differ in what is considered wrong or right. The objectives of the research were to identify cross-cultural ethical dilemmas

Pedigo, Kerry; Marshall, Verena

2004-01-01

63

Research as Therapy, Therapy as Research: Ethical Dilemmas in New-Paradigm Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores the ethical dilemmas raised by changes in research paradigms that encourage the development of a relationship between researcher and participant. In such contexts it becomes increasingly difficult to distinguish between a therapeutic relationship and a research interview. (Author/GCP)

Hart, Nicola; Crawford-Wright, Anne

1999-01-01

64

Counselling in the Post Office: Facing Up to the Legal and Ethical Dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The legal and ethical dilemmas faced by counselors working in organizations are outlined, together with the need for the counseling profession to set clear competency and supervision standards for practitioners. Uses counseling services provided within the British postal system as a model. (Author/KW)

Tehrani, Noreen

1996-01-01

65

Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: An Ethical Dilemma for Career Guidance Practice?  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual harassment in the workplace poses something of an ethical dilemma for career guidance practice. This is because it is now known that about half of all working women in the UK are likely to be victims at some stage of their employment and that the effects on individuals are invariably negative and can be positively harmful. What, therefore,…

Bimrose, Jenny

2004-01-01

66

The ethical Dilemma of lifestyle change: designing for sustainable schools and sustainable citizenship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores how participation and sustainability are being addressed by architects within the Building Schools for the Future (BSF programme in the UK. The intentions promoted by the programme are certainly ambitious, but the ways to fulfil these aims are ill-explored. Simply focusing on providing innovative learning technologies, or indeed teaching young people about physical sustainability features in buildings, will not necessarily teach them the skills they will need to respond to the environmental and social challenges of a rapidly changing world. However, anticipating those skills is one of the most problematic issues of the programme. The involvement of young people in the design of schools is used to suggest empowerment, place-making and to promote social cohesion but this is set against government design literature which advocates for exemplars, standard layouts and best practice, all leading to forms of standardisation. The potentials for tokenistic student involvement and conflict with policy aims are evident. This paper explores two issues: how to foster in young people an ethic towards future generations, and the role of co-design practices in this process. Michael Oakeshott calls teaching the conversation of mankind. In this paper, I look at the philosophy of Hannah Arendt, Emmanuel Levinas, Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Luce Irigaray to argue that investigating the ethical dilemmas of the programme through critical dialogue with students offers an approach to meeting government objectives, building sustainable schools, and fostering sustainable citizenship.

Andrea Wheeler

2009-06-01

67

Ethical Dilemmas of Providing Pro Bono Art Therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.

Moon, Bruce L.

2011-01-01

68

Dilemas éticos en el cuidado enfermero / Ethics dilemmas in nursing care  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Describir situaciones que plantean dilemas éticos propios del ejercicio de la enfermería que influyen en los significados otorgados por los pacientes al cuidado. Metodología: se revisaron los datos obtenidos en entrevistas en profundidad de dos estudios fenomenológicos realizados con 21 pa [...] rticipantes adultos que habían estado hospitalizados. Los datos se analizaron según el esquema propuesto por Cohen, Kahan y Steeves. Resultados y discusión: Situaciones de cuidado descritas por los participantes muestran como en decisiones tomadas por los enfermeros desplazan a los pacientes del papel protagónico en el cuidado y cusan rechazo y malestar. Conclusiones: Enfoques de práctica de enfermería basada en decisiones erróneas que no responden a las expectativas de los pacientes requieran de la identificación de dilemas para resolverlos en beneficio de los pacientes y contribuir a la humanización y calidad. Abstract in english Objective: To describe situations involving typical ethical dilemmas in nursing practice that influence patients' meanings about nursing care. Methodology: Data obtained from two phenomenological studies with 21 adults participants who were hospitalized and were interviewed in depth. The analysis wa [...] s carried out according to the outline proposed by Cohen, Kahan and Steeves. Outcomes and discussion: Participants described situations in which nurses deprived them the protagonist role as they should have in nursing care. This aspect contributed to patient's rejection toward care. Conclusion: Nursing practice focuses based on erroneous decisions that don't comply to patients expectations required identification of dilemmas which must had been solved in a benefical way to patients in order to contribute to humanization and quality.

Óscar, Beltrán-Salazar.

2011-06-01

69

Ethical dilemmas and the decision-making process. Is a consensus realistic?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydroelectric development projects, which frequently encounter ethical dilemmas, cannot be subject only to legal rules. Ethics are also at stake, especially in controversial situations. The purpose of this paper, which is based on an lEA report, is to find ethical principles that may help in the search for standards of conduct regarding hydropower development and the environment. The principles serve as the criteria for an article on legal and regulatory frameworks that also appears in this issue. This paper begins by restating, according to the lEA report, recurrent dilemmas raised by hydroelectricity projects (the protection of nature versus the satisfaction of essential human needs, distribution of wealth, the rights of affected communities, and the diversity of rules and cultural differences). The paper then presents and describes the five ethical principles discussed in the lEA report (stewardship; participatory decision-making; prudence and control; fairness and justice; and optimality). These principles are derived from international law and can guide decision-makers faced with dilemmas arising from hydropower projects. Accordingly, this text is a complement to the article on legal and regulatory frameworks that also appears in this issue. (Author)

Berube, Gilles; Villeneuve, Francois [Hydro-Quebec, Environment Dept., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

2002-11-01

70

Nurse Activism in the newborn intensive care unit: actions in response to an ethical dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nurses working in a newborn intensive care unit report that treatment decision disagreements for infants in their care may lead to ethical dilemmas involving all health-care providers. Applying Rest's Four-Component Model of Moral Action as the theoretical framework, this study examined the responses of 224 newborn intensive care unit nurses to the Nurses Ethical Involvement Survey. The three most frequent actions selected were as follows: talking with other nurses, talking with doctors, and requesting a team meeting. The multiple regression analysis indicates that newborn intensive care unit nurses with greater concern for the ethical aspects of clinical practice (p = .001) and an increased perception of their ability to influence ethical decision making (p = .018) were more likely to display Nurse Activism. Future research is necessary to identify other factors leading to and inhibiting Nurse Activism as these findings explained just 8.5% of the variance. PMID:23454980

Settle, Peggy Doyle

2014-03-01

71

Ethical dilemmas around the dying patient with stroke: a qualitative interview study with team members on stroke units in Sweden.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Sweden, individuals affected by severe stroke are treated in specialized stroke units. In these units, patients are attended by a multiprofessional team with a focus on care in the acute phase of stroke, rehabilitation phase, and palliative phase. Caring for patients with such a large variety in condition and symptoms might be an extra challenge for the team. Today, there is a lack of knowledge in team experiences of the dilemmas that appear and the consequences that emerge. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to study ethical dilemmas, different approaches, and what consequences they had among healthcare professionals working with the dying patients with stroke in acute stroke units. Forty-one healthcare professionals working in a stroke team were interviewed either in focus groups or individually. The data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using content analysis. The ethical dilemmas that appeared were depending on "nondecisions" about palliative care or discontinuation of treatments. The lack of decision made the team members act based on their own individual skills, because of the absence of common communication tools. When a decision was made, the healthcare professionals had "problems holding to the decision." The devised and applied plans could be revalued, which was described as a setback to nondecisions again. The underlying problem and theme was "communication barriers," a consequence related to the absence of common skills and consensus among the value system. This study highlights the importance of palliative care knowledge and skills, even for patients experiencing severe stroke. To make a decision and to hold on to that is a presupposition in creating a credible care plan. However, implementing a common set of values based on palliative care with symptom control and quality of life might minimize the risk of the communication barrier that may arise and increases the ability to create a healthcare that is meaningful and dignified. PMID:24796473

Eriksson, Helene; Andersson, Gisela; Olsson, Louise; Milberg, Anna; Friedrichsen, Maria

2014-06-01

72

Legal, Ethical, and Financial Dilemmas in Electronic Health Record Adoption and Use  

OpenAIRE

Electronic health records (EHRs) facilitate several innovations capable of reforming health care. Despite their promise, many currently unanswered legal, ethical, and financial questions threaten the widespread adoption and use of EHRs. Key legal dilemmas that must be addressed in the near-term pertain to the extent of clinicians' responsibilities for reviewing the entire computer-accessible clinical synopsis from multiple clinicians and institutions, the liabilities posed by overriding clini...

Sittig, Dean F.; Singh, Hardeep

2011-01-01

73

Painful dilemmas: the ethics of animal-based pain research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While it has the potential to deliver important human benefits, animal-based pain research raises ethical questions, because it involves inducing pain in sentient beings. Ethical decision-making, connected with this variety of research, requires informed harm-benefit analysis, and the aim of this paper is to provide information for such an analysis. We present an overview of the different models and their consequences for animal welfare, showing that, of the many animal models available, most have a considerable welfare impact on the animal. While the usual approach to pain control through administration of analgesic substances is usually unsuitable in pain research, refinement remains an option, both within the experimental protocol and in general husbandry and handling. Drawing on the overview, we develop a discussion of the ethical acceptability of animal-based pain research against the background of the kinds of harm done to the animals involved, the potential for refinement, and the expected benefits ofthe research.

Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M.; SandØe, Peter

2009-01-01

74

Has Our Knowledge of Neuroscience Led to Ethical Dilemmas?  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a lesson dealing with a new subdivision of bioethics called neuroethics. As our knowledge of the brain and nervous system expands, so do the ethical issues that result from this knowledge. This new area of study results from our increasing research in the field of neurobiology. In the first part of this activity, students will discuss the stigma associated with psychological illness. They will then be introduced to Dr. Kay Jamison who discusses some of the ethical implications of bipolar disorder. The class will take part in an activity called a Topical Barometer where they will have to choose a position regarding an ethical decision. In Part 2 of the activity, they will write a position paper after exploring the topic of drug enhancement, another controversial issue in the world of neuroscience. From the original handout text by Caren Gough

Susan Musante

75

Living will does not resolve medical-ethical-legal dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Living Will is an ethically acceptable document that serves to convey a patient's attitude toward terminal illness and to facilitate a physician's decision not to prolong the dying process. But in a Christian context, the Christian Affirmation of Life is a superior document by which to express and aid such decision making. Because the Living Will advances the concept of negative euthanasia--an ethical, legal, and political misnomer--and abets the effort to legalize positive or direct euthanasia, it should not be given legal recognition. As a legal document, the Living Will could seriously affect both patients and physicians. PMID:1270060

Monagle, J F

1976-05-01

76

Dilemmas of medical ethics in the Canadian Penitentiary Service.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a unique hospital in Canada-and perhaps in the world-because it is built outside prison walls and it exists specifically for the psychiatric treatment of prisoners. It is on the one hand a hospital and on the other a prison. Moreover it has to provide the same quality and standard of care which is expected of a hospital associated with a university. From the time the hospital was established moral dilemmas appeared which were concerned with conflicts between the medical and custodial treatment of prisoners, and also with the attitudes of those having the status of prisoner-patient. Dr Roy describes these dilemmas and attitudes, and in particular a special conference which was convened to discuss them. Not only doctors and prison officials took part in this meeting but also general practitioners, theologians, philosophers, ex-prisoners, judges, lawyers, Members of Parliament and Senators. This must have been a unique occasion and Dr Roy's description may provide the impetus to examine these prison problems in other settings. PMID:1003435

Roy, C

1976-12-01

77

A Right to Die?: Ethical Dilemmas of Euthanasia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Euthanasia is considered an important social issue of the 1990s. Mental health professionals should understand the differences between voluntary, involuntary, passive, and active euthanasia; mercy killing, and assisted suicide. Encourages counselors to ethically formulate client-supportive positions to help clients face life-and-death decisions.…

Albright, Dianne E.; Hazler, Richard J.

1992-01-01

78

Ethical dilemmas in scientific publication: pitfalls and solutions for editors  

OpenAIRE

Editors of scientific journals need to be conversant with the mechanisms by which scientific misconduct is amplified by publication practices. This paper provides definitions, ways to document the extent of the problem, and examples of editorial attempts to counter fraud. Fabrication, falsification, duplication, ghost authorship, gift authorship, lack of ethics approval, non-disclosure, 'salami' publication, conflicts of interest, auto-citation, duplicate submission, duplicate publications, a...

Gollogly Laragh; Momen Hooman

2006-01-01

79

An Examination of Ethical Dilemmas in the Nigerian Banking Sector  

OpenAIRE

Banks in the modern day society, almost everywhere, play a multifarious role, which includes unifying and intermediary roles between the fund-supplying and fund-demanding sides of the society, executing savings and investment functions. Considering the requirements for protection of the rights and interests of innumerable depositors, establishment of stability and confidence in financial markets along with requirements for economic development, banks are expected to ethically pursue their ope...

Ahmad Bello, Dogarawa

2004-01-01

80

The Ethical Dilemma Of The Usa Government Wiretapping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available USA Government wiretapping activities is a very controversial issue. Undoubtedly this technology canassist law enforced authority to detect / identify unlawful or hostile activities; however, this task raisessevere privacy concerns. In this paper, we have discussed this complex information technology issue ofgovernmental wiretapping and how it effects both public and private liberties. Legislation has had amajor impact on the uses and the stigma of wiretapping for the war on terrorism. This paper alsoanalyzes the ethical and legal concerns inherent when discussing the benefits and concerns ofwiretapping. The analysis has concluded with the effects of wiretapping laws as they relate to futuregovernment actions in their fight against terrorists.

Arwen Mullikin

2010-11-01

81

The ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses: an approach from the philosophy of max scheler  

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Full Text Available Objective: this study intends reflect philosophically about the ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses from the Intensive Care Center at University Hospital Antonio Pedro, from the Theory of Value of Max Scheler. Methods: this is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. The population shall be defined by the technique of saturation, consisting of nurses of the sector, to be interviewed after the signing of the Free Informed Consent forms, if they wish participate spontaneously in the study. The information will be transcribed, categorized in order of significance and analyzed from the theoretical framework of Max Scheler who looks on the objectivity of values and the process of seizure of emotional character. The project has received approval from the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine / University Hospital Antonio Pedro. Expected results: through the analysis of data, based on theoretical referential, the study intends to contribute to the decision making process of nurses, in front of the possible ethical dilemmas experienced with regard to practical work and, moreover, with the quality of care provided by nurses in the Intensive Care Center.

Marlise Silva Barros, Rose Mary Costa Rosa Andrade Silva, Eliane Ramos Pereira, Marcos Andrade Silva

2009-10-01

82

O julgamento moral de dilemas éticos em negociação / Moral judgment of ethical dilemmas in negotiation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Os processos cognitivos da tomada de decisão ética têm sido objeto de estudo de diversas pesquisas interessadas em compreender o que motiva os executivos a tomar as decisões eticamente questionáveis. A negociação é uma das práticas empresariais mais interessantes para estudar a honestidade e a ética [...] , uma vez que é central a todas as interações humanas e rica em dilemas éticos. Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo analisar em que medida diferenças individuais em termos de prioridades do sistema de valores condicionam o julgamento moral de práticas negociais eticamente ambíguas. Usando um modelo de equações estruturais, as relações entre os sistemas de valores, a ideologia ética e o julgamento moral são avaliadas. Os resultados sugerem que as dimensões da individualidade humana analisadas exercem uma influência significativa na forma como os gestores avaliam a moralidade de práticas negociais eticamente ambíguas. Os resultados podem ainda contribuir significativamente para melhorar a compreensão do processo de tomada de decisão ética. Abstract in english The cognitive processes underlying ethical decision making have been object of several studies interested in understanding what motivates executives to make ethically questionable decisions. Negotiation is one of the most interesting activities to study honesty and ethics, since it is central to all [...] human interactions and it poses several ethical dilemmas to the negotiators. This study has the objective to analyze how individual differences in values systems' priorities influence the moral judgment of ethically ambiguous negotiation practices. Using structural equations modeling, the relationships among an individual's personal values, ethical ideology and moral judgment are investigated. The empirical results suggest that the aforementioned dimensions of human individuality influence the moral judgment of ethically ambiguous negotiation tactics. These findings may significantly contribute to the theoretical understanding of ethical decision making processes.

Filipe João Bera de Azevedo, Sobral.

2009-10-01

83

The problem of choice in major dilemmas of obstetrics- actors, roles, ethical arguments and influences  

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Full Text Available The article discusses the principle of autonomy of patientss choice in a highly sensitive area, the obstetrics, regarding two issues which arise many dilemmas and debates, the induced abortion and the elective cesarean section..It brings up many pro and cons ethical arguments, reviews the various points of view and historical, legal, religious and humanist influences.Article stresses the need to adapt the old ethic principles to the realities of the actual complex society and the necessity of fully respect for the fundamental rights of the patient, including autonomy. Article leaves still open the problem of the influence of various factors on patients choice, and the need for the physician to assure the observance of this right.

Ingrid-Laura FIRULEASA

2010-12-01

84

Dilema ético de la eutanasia Ethical dilemma of euthanasia  

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Full Text Available La eutanasia significa una muerte buena. Desde el punto de vista jurídico, es la muerte sin sufrimiento físico provocada por propia voluntad de un enfermo incurable. En la práctica consiste en administrar drogas, fármacos u otras sustancias que alivien el dolor aunque con ello se acorte la vida. La decisión de la aplicación de la eutanasia ha sido un problema persistente en la historia de la humanidad, ideologías diversas se enfrentan defendiendo sus argumentos de si debe o no practicarse. El objetivo de este trabajo, es exponer las consideraciones éticas, científicas y religiosas, sobre la práctica de la eutanasia a partir de un análisis histórico desde los tiempos de Platón hasta la actualidad. Lo verdaderamente importante es que el hombre, como ser racional, capaz de revolucionar constantemente la ciencia y la técnica y de transformar la naturaleza en beneficio de la especie, debe también morir con dignidad.Euthanasia means nice death. From the legal viewpoint, it means physical suffering-free provoked death willingly accepted by a terminally-ill patient. In practice, it means to administer drugs, pharmaceuticals or other substances that release pain even though they may reduce lifetime. The decision for euthanasia has been a persistent controversy in the history of mankind; thus various ideologies clash in support of arguments in favour or against this practice. The objective of this paper is to present ethical, scientific and religious considerations on the implementation of euthanasia, taking as a basis a historical analysis covering from Platon up to the present times. It is really important that man, as a rational being capable of permanently revolutionizing science and technique and transforming nature for the benefit of the species, should also die with dignity.

Mabel Creagh Peña

2012-03-01

85

Ethical dilemmas? UK immigration, Legal Aid funding reform and caseworkers  

OpenAIRE

The article considers the kinds of responsibilities anthropologists might have when working on immigration and asylum matters, particularly in the light of recent 'reforms' to the funding of legal aid in the UK. The article focuses on a single case study in its context, exploring an interaction between an immigrant applicant and a lawyer/case worker in a not-for-profit Law Centre. The paper shows how case workers find themselves caught in the middle, squeezed between increasing financial pres...

James, Deborah; Killick, Evan

2010-01-01

86

Ethical Dilemmas in Financial Reporting Situations and the Preferred Mode of Resolution of Ethical Conflicts as Taken by Certified and Noncertified Management Accountants in Organizations with Perceived Different Ethical Work Climates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Responses from 37.7% of 491 chief financial officers surveyed revealed a majority of organizational climates based on law and codes. Most believed their organizations attempted sound financial reporting and ethical operation. Certified accountants perceived a greater likelihood of the occurrence of ethical dilemmas than did noncertified…

McKenna, John N.

1995-01-01

87

Ethical Dilemmas when Diagnosing Hypertension Dilemas éticos en el diagnóstico de hipertensión arterial  

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Full Text Available A review on the ethical dilemmas in the diagnosis of hypertension and some elements in the emergence of the bioethics concept was performed. Ethical conflicts that appear at each stage of diagnosis of hypertension: at the time of providing the information, at the point of indication and performance of diagnostic tests, when communicating the diagnosis and during subsequent decision making were identified. We conclude that technological development will introduce new ethical decisions in the diagnosis of hypertension that will increasingly involve the interests of society and create, in one way or another, ethical and moral conflict in the decision making process.Se realizó una revisión sobre los dilemas éticos en el diagnóstico de la hipertensión arterial, así como de algunos elementos en el surgimiento del concepto de bioética. Se identificaron los conflictos éticos que aparecen en cada etapa del diagnóstico de la hipertensión arterial: en el momento de suministrar la información, en el instante de la indicación y realización de las pruebas diagnósticas, en la comunicación del diagnóstico y en la toma de decisiones posteriores. Se concluye que el desarrollo tecnológico va a introducir nuevas decisiones éticas en el diagnóstico de la hipertensión arterial que van a involucrar cada vez más los intereses de la sociedad y crear de una manera u otra conflictos éticos y morales en la toma de decisiones.

Rolando Montero Díaz

2012-12-01

88

Ethical and legal dilemmas arising during predictive testing for adult-onset disease: the experience of Huntington disease.  

OpenAIRE

The goal of predictive testing is to modify the risk for currently healthy individuals to develop a genetic disease in the future. Such testing using polymorphic DNA markers has had major application in Huntington disease. The Canadian Collaborative Study of Predictive Testing for Huntington Disease has been guided by major principles of medical ethics, including autonomy, beneficence, confidentiality, and justice. Numerous ethical and legal dilemmas have arisen in this program, challenging t...

Huggins, M.; Bloch, M.; Kanani, S.; Quarrell, O. W.; Theilman, J.; Hedrick, A.; Dickens, B.; Lynch, A.; Hayden, M.

1990-01-01

89

Ethical dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

I am a nursing student on placement with a mental health community team. A regular service user has been bringing me a gift each time he comes for his appointment. It started with a packet of biscuits, then chocolates, and last week he brought me flowers. What should I do? PMID:25783261

Gallagher, Ann

2015-03-18

90

Ethical and Epistemic Dilemmas in Empirically-Engaged Philosophy of Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This essay examines several ethical and epistemological issues that arise when philosophers conduct empirical research focused on, or in collaboration with, community groups seeking to bring about systemic change. This type of research can yield important policy lessons about effective community-driven reform and how to incorporate the voices of…

Newman, Anne; Glass, Ronald David

2015-01-01

91

'I am in blood Stepp'd in so far...': ethical dilemmas and the sports team doctor.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many ethical dilemmas that are unique to sports medicine because of the unusual clinical environment of caring for players within the context of a team whose primary objective is to win. Many of these ethical issues arise because the traditional relationship between doctor and patient is distorted or absent. The emergence of a doctor-patient-team triad has created a scenario in which the team's priority can conflict with or even replace the doctor's primary obligation to player well-being. As a result, the customary ethical norms that provide guidelines for most forms of clinical practice, such as patient autonomy and confidentiality, are not easily translated in the field of sports medicine. Sports doctors are frequently under intense pressure, whether implicit or explicit, from management, coaches, trainers and agents, to improve performance of the athlete in the short term rather than considering the long-term sequelae of such decisions. A myriad of ethical dilemmas are encountered, and for many of these dilemmas there are no right answers. In this article, a number of ethical principles and how they relate to sports medicine are discussed. To conclude, a list of guidelines has been drawn up to offer some support to doctors facing an ethical quandary, the most important of which is 'do not abdicate your responsibility to the individual player.''I am in blood Stepp'd in so far that, should I wade no more, Returning would be as tedious as to go o'er' -Macbeth: Act III, Scene IV, William Shakespeare. PMID:19948531

Devitt, Brian Meldan; McCarthy, Conor

2010-02-01

92

Ethical dilemmas of a clinician/ researcher interviewing women who have grown up in a family where there was domestic violence  

OpenAIRE

The ideas in this paper developed as a result of the discussions that we, the authors, had about the ethical dilemmas that arise when interviewing participants on sensitive topics, during the research supervision process of a grounded theory study (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967). The participants were eight adult women who grew up in a family in which they witnessed domestic violence. They were interviewed around their understanding of how these experiences have impacted their adult r...

Sammut Scerri, C.; Abela, A.; Vetere, Al

2012-01-01

93

Ethical dilemmas, work-related guilt, and posttraumatic stress reactions of news journalists covering the terror attack in norway in 2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

News journalists working on crisis-related assignments may experience dilemmas with regard to how to conduct their work without causing additional harm to first-hand victims. In this study, we investigated how exposure to journalistic ethical dilemmas during the Oslo/Utøya terror attack in 2011 and subsequent work-related guilt were related to the development of posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions. Norwegian journalists (N = 371) covering the terror attack participated in a web-based survey 8-9 months after the incident. We found that females reported more ethical dilemmas during the assignment than males (n = 356, d = 0.51). We also found that being on the scene was not related to more exposure to dilemmas (n = 311, d = 0.01). Moreover, we discovered that work-related guilt had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between exposure to ethical dilemmas and severity of PTS reactions (n = 344, completely standardized indirect effect size = .11, 95% CI [.04, .19]. The results showed that exposure to ethical dilemmas may affect the development of long-term psychological impairment. We concluded that media organizations can prevent postcrisis impairment by preparing employees for possible exposure to dilemmas during crisis-related assignments. PMID:25864505

Backholm, Klas; Idås, Trond

2015-04-01

94

015. Ethical dilemmas, medical protocols and deontology in diagnosis of lung cancer during pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Lung cancer is second in frequency in both sexes, with very poor prognosis and high mortality rates. Smoking is the main cause. Malignant neoplasms of the lung on pregnancy are not very frequent. They constitute a direct threat for the woman’s life and simultaneously the outcome of pregnancy is doubtful. Objective We present this case because of the rarity of coexistence of lung neoplasm and pregnancy, in absence of treatment guidelines. The question of overcoming, by the attending physician, the ethical dilemmas and the medical protocols is apposed, in the progress and outcome of pregnancy, when lung malignant neoplasm coexists. Methods A 33-year-old woman, smoker, with occasional alcohol consumption and medical history of Leiden thrombophilia, is at 18-19 weeks of gestation. She presents to the emergency department of the general hospital with reported episodes of dyspnea and cough. She refers cough with difficulty in the elimination of sputum, dyspnea, orthopnea, facial and neck edema with venous distension, common symptoms of superior vena cava syndrome. The CT scan revealed a lung mass in the right upper lobe with the right hilum involved. The rest of the staging was negative. Results The first bronchoscopy revealed edema in the main carina and right upper lobe stenosis while the biopsy samples did not demonstrate a histological identification. Mediastinoscopy was followed and revealed a poorly differentiated carcinoma (primary pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor). Both patient and relatives consented to start chemotherapy treatment. After four cycles of chemotherapy with carboplatin + etoposide, the patient in the 7th month of gestation, gave birth to a healthy baby boy weighted 1,130 gr. The patient died after four months because she suffered from an extremely aggressive tumor with brain and diffused spinal metastatic infiltrations and also from the appearance of paraneoplastic disorders like Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. Conclusions The successful outcome of pregnancy with coexisting malignant lung neoplasm is an achievable target, even though seems rather impossible. It is required a conscious overcoming, not only of the lack of existing treatment guidelines but also by the involving of the ethical dilemmas that may arise.

Manos, Emmanouil; Gkika, Dimitra; Euthimiou, Christoforos; Lola, Vassiliki; Potonos, Stefanos; Kokkori, Ioanna; Tsiouda, Theodora; Pililitsis, Leonidas; Angel, Jacob

2015-01-01

95

Developing Ethical Knowledge in the Spirit of Judaism  

Science.gov (United States)

This study attempts to describe Jewish teachers' perceptions about their ethical dilemmas based on stories derived from the Bible. Sixty teachers were asked to submit descriptions of their ethical dilemmas to the study website; submissions were then discussed in focus groups. The findings were grouped by the ATLAS.ti into five categories: Telling…

Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

2012-01-01

96

Bioethics for clinicians: 12. Ethical dilemmas that arise in the care of pregnant women: rethinking "maternal-fetal conflicts".  

OpenAIRE

When a pregnant woman makes a decision or acts in a manner that may be detrimental to the health and well-being of her fetus, her physician may be faced with an ethical dilemma. Is the physician's primary duty to respect the woman's autonomy, or to promote behaviour that may be in the best interest of the fetus? The controversial concept of "fetal rights" or the "fetus as a patient" contributes to the notion that the pregnant woman and her fetus are potential adversaries. However, Canadian la...

Flagler, E.; Baylis, F.; Rodgers, S.

1997-01-01

97

Virtue ethics - an old answer to a new dilemma? Part 2. The case for inclusive virtue ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

While Principlism is a widely accepted consensus statement for ethics, the moral theory that underpins it faces serious challenges. This two-part paper proposes a version of virtue theory as a more grounded system of moral analysis. Part 2 examines the role of basic moral theory as the foundation to ethics and suggests how virtue theory can be used as a central framework for ethics while being inclusive of insights from deontology and consequentialism. PMID:25792615

Misselbrook, David

2015-03-01

98

Advanced restorative dentistry - a problem for the elderly? An ethical dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The type of dental restorations taken into old age may have an adverse effect on the quality of life of the elderly. Root caries and dry mouth increase in prevalence with age and may precipitate the breakdown of remaining natural and restored teeth. At present the availability of dental personnel and facilities in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) is limited, often non-existent, and the elderly living at home may be unable to easily gain access to dental care. Thus, the provision of appropriate and timely dental treatment may not occur, resulting in prolonged pain and suffering. It is important that, as our elderly population increasingly retain natural teeth into advanced old age, appropriate funds are made available to ensure their dental health is maintained. A lack of early intervention to arrest dental disease may result in life-threatening medical consequences in the elderly, such as ventilator assisted pneumonia or the need for a general anaesthetic and possible associated medical risks. Significant local disease, such as osteonecrosis, may also result from a lack of appropriate dental intervention. The necessity to remove questionable teeth prior to irradiation for neoplastic disease or bisphosphonate prescription for neoplastic disease or severe osteoporosis emphasizes the need for regular dental care. In contrast, extensive dental restorative treatment for younger people may have benefits, such as optimal dental aesthetics and oral function, but in older individuals careful consideration should be given to select the most appropriate treatment modality so that adverse situations can be avoided or their resolution simplified should they occur later when the individual is compromised or in a RACF. This may mean the use of conservative dental restorative materials and an avoidance of complex restorative options which may be difficult for the individual or RACF staff to maintain. Some years after receipt of their complex restorations they may be unable to cope with the operative demands and financial burden of resolving their deteriorating dental situation and so complex implant-born structures and precision removable prostheses should probably be avoided for those individuals contemplating entering a care situation. Therefore, the timing of the provision of complex dentistry poses an ethical dilemma. PMID:25762047

Murray, C G

2015-03-01

99

Ethical Dilemma Factor in Regarding Physical Restraints to Elderly of Female Nurses with the Living Together Experience  

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Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to illuminate the connotation of “dilemma” regarding the use of physical restraint on elderly patients as represented by female nurses working in general wards at community hospitals who also live with elderly adults at home. Method: The study used the questionnaire method with an independently prepared questionnaire. Participants: The objective of the study was explained to the persons in charge of nursing in the selected 17 hospitals, and 1929. Finally, this study of participants were 524 female nurses working in general 54 wards (excluding the emergency wards of psychiatry, pediatrics, obstetrics, outpatients, operating rooms, and intensive care units at community hospitals who also live with elderly adults at home. Results and conclusions: Cronbach’s overall coefficient for the 20 items of dilemma was high (0.78 and the factor analysis extracted four dilemma factors as having a characteristic value of 1 (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure value = 0.81 with a cumulative contribution ratio of 64.5%. The high Cronbach’s for these items (0.86, 0.88, 0.87 and 0.81 confirmed the internal consistencies. With respect to the dilemma where nurses working in general wards at community hospitals who also live with elderly adults at home are faced with the physical restraint of elderly persons, four factors in the clarification of the dilemma were extracted: accomplishment of medical-treatment and accident prevention, characteristic features in nursing for elderly patients with dementia, healthcare professional relationship in nursing for elderly patients with dementia, and priorities on the accident prevention for elderly patients with dementia. Therefore, the construction of four systems to cope with these dilemmas is suggested. These systems would enable practising nurses to: (i institution of policies to encourage discussion between nurses and other medical staff to reach consensus on treatment; (ii allocating elderly care specialists to wards to promote alternatives to restraints; (iii establishment of safety standards to define nurses’ responsibilities; and (iv institution of continuous ethical education for nurses.

Masako Aota

2012-09-01

100

Language acquisition, motherhood, and the perpetual preservation of ethical dialogue: a model for ethical discourse focusing on Julia Kristeva  

OpenAIRE

This article proposes that Julia Kristeva’s semiotic view of language supports the mother/child paradigm as a model for ethical discourse. Her defense of motherhood, particularly her discussion of the sacredness of maternal love and the mother tongue, strengthens the argument that motherhood is a primary means of preserving language acquisition and ethical development. It focuses on motherhood’s ability to ensure, protect and preserve the possibility of productive ethical discourse throug...

Jennifer Lemma

2009-01-01

101

An approach to ethic dilemmas of geriatric medicine. Un acercamiento a los dilemas éticos de la medicina geriátrica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The bioethical formulation is based on three (or four principles: beneficence (and no maleficence, after some authors, justice and autonomy. In spite of multiple received criticisms this proposal have been enriched and strengthened. From this point, sanitary activity and the medical practice as well, can be considered as activities with a clear social insertion, thus susceptible of an ethical analysis which goes beyond of the narrow margins of the professional ethics. Population aging as a worldwide phenomenon will bring about a major demand of the assistance and social services. New ethic dilemmas could emerge from the demographic changes, related to the intergenerational, family and health services relationship overall. General practitioners and particularly gerontologist should be prepared to face this medical an ethical challenges. La formulación bioética está basada en la definición de tres (o cuatro principios: beneficencia (y no maleficencia según algunos autores, justicia y autonomía. A pesar de las múltiples críticas recibidas, dicha propuesta no ha hecho sino enriquecerse y consolidarse. De ahí que la actividad sanitaria, y, dentro de ella, la práctica médica, puedan ser consideradas como actividades con una clara inserción social, susceptible, por tanto, de un análisis ético que vaya más allá de los estrechos márgenes de la ética profesional. El envejecimiento poblacional como fenómeno mundial, traerá consigo una mayor demanda de los servicios asistenciales y sociales. Nuevos dilemas éticos se producen a la luz de los cambios demográficos, sobre todos los relacionados con la relación intergeneracional, la familia y los servicios de salud en general. Los médicos generales y los gerontólogos en particular deben estar preparados para enfrentar estos desafíos médicos y éticos en general.

Carlos Daniel Mayor Igarza

2008-06-01

102

Dealing with Dilemmas in a Morally Polarized Era: The Conflicting Ethical Codes of Educational Leaders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although scholars may recognize the importance of ethics for educational leaders, they have not yet resolved how the subject can or should be taught. This paper presents an approach to teaching ethics that incorporates both traditional and nontraditional methods, discusses how this approach is carried out with a diverse student body, and attempts…

Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.

103

El dilema ético de la fluoración del agua potable / The ethical dilemma of water fluoridation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Dental caries remains a worldwide public health problem because of its magnitude and impact on affected people's quality of life. Among preventive strategies, water fluoridation is one of the most important, but its value still remains uncertain after more than a half of Century of its use. The aim [...] of this study is to analyse some of the ethical arguments for and against water fluoridation and to determine if empirical data allow to decide if there are correct policies from a bioethical perspective. Autonomy, compulsory medication (mass medication), precautionary principle, justice in health care and ethics of protection are discussed. It is concluded that fluoridation is beneficial and that there is no ethical reason to oppose it, based on a specific kind of ethics developed to analyse and clarify complex public health's issues

Carolina, Mendoza V.

1487-14-01

104

El dilema ético de la fluoración del agua potable The ethical dilemma of water fluoridation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dental caries remains a worldwide public health problem because of its magnitude and impact on affected people's quality of life. Among preventive strategies, water fluoridation is one of the most important, but its value still remains uncertain after more than a half of Century of its use. The aim of this study is to analyse some of the ethical arguments for and against water fluoridation and to determine if empirical data allow to decide if there are correct policies from a bioethical perspective. Autonomy, compulsory medication (mass medication, precautionary principle, justice in health care and ethics of protection are discussed. It is concluded that fluoridation is beneficial and that there is no ethical reason to oppose it, based on a specific kind of ethics developed to analyse and clarify complex public health's issues

Carolina Mendoza V

2007-11-01

105

Economics, health and development: some ethical dilemmas facing the World Bank and the international community  

OpenAIRE

The World Bank is committed to "work[ing] with countries to improve the health, nutrition and population outcomes of the world's poor, and to protect[ing] the population from the impoverishing effects of illness, malnutrition and high fertility".1 Ethical issues arise in the interpretation of these objectives and in helping countries formulate strategies and policies. It is these ethical issues—which are often not acknowledged by commentators—that are the subject of this paper. It asks wh...

Wagstaff, A.

2001-01-01

106

Ethical Dilemmas in Protecting Individual Rights Versus Public Protection in the Case of Infectious Diseases  

OpenAIRE

Infectious diseases—including emerging and re-emerging diseases such as Ebola and tuberculosis—continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality in the globalizing, contemporary world. This article discusses the ethical issues associated with protecting the rights of individuals versus the protection of the health of populations in the case of infectious diseases. The discussion uses the traditional medical ethics approach together with the public health approach presented by Fad...

Kai-Lit Phua

2013-01-01

107

Ethics and Tax Education: A Change in Focus Is Needed  

Science.gov (United States)

The corporate scandals of recent years have highlighted the failure of ethics, not only in corporate management, but also in the big accounting firms. For tax professionals, there is an inherent conflict of interest that makes studying ethics in the context of tax practice problematic. On the one hand, the tax professional is a client advocate…

Waples, Elaine; Darayseh, Musa

2009-01-01

108

Language acquisition, motherhood, and the perpetual preservation of ethical dialogue: a model for ethical discourse focusing on Julia Kristeva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article proposes that Julia Kristeva’s semiotic view of language supports the mother/child paradigm as a model for ethical discourse. Her defense of motherhood, particularly her discussion of the sacredness of maternal love and the mother tongue, strengthens the argument that motherhood is a primary means of preserving language acquisition and ethical development. It focuses on motherhood’s ability to ensure, protect and preserve the possibility of productive ethical discourse through verbal and non-verbal means of communication. This article discusses the constraints of language, and its effects on the actualization of self.

Jennifer Lemma

2009-01-01

109

Effects of brain lesions on moral agency: ethical dilemmas in investigating moral behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding how the "brain produces behavior" is a guiding idea in neuroscience. It is thus of no surprise that establishing an interrelation between brain pathology and antisocial behavior has a long history in brain research. However, interrelating the brain with moral agency-the ability to act in reference to right and wrong-is tricky with respect to therapy and rehabilitation of patients affected by brain lesions. In this contribution, we outline the complexity of the relationship between the brain and moral behavior, and we discuss ethical issues of the neuroscience of ethics and of its clinical consequences. First, we introduce a theory of moral agency and apply it to the issue of behavioral changes caused by brain lesions. Second, we present a typology of brain lesions both with respect to their cause, their temporal development, and the potential for neural plasticity allowing for rehabilitation. We exemplify this scheme with case studies and outline major knowledge gaps that are relevant for clinical practice. Third, we analyze ethical pitfalls when trying to understand the brain-morality relation. In this way, our contribution addresses both researchers in neuroscience of ethics and clinicians who treat patients affected by brain lesions to better understand the complex ethical questions, which are raised by research and therapy of brain lesion patients. PMID:25120025

Christen, Markus; Müller, Sabine

2015-01-01

110

The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter.

London Leslie

2010-08-01

111

Ethical Dilemmas and Emergent Values Encountered by Working College Students: Implications for Marketing Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

A large body of pedagogical research exists on developing curricula and ethics training tools to prepare college graduates for entering the workforce. However, many college students are "already" in the workforce while they attend school. Many of these jobs are entry-level or frontline employee positions in retail or service industries,…

Bush, Victoria D.; Smith, Rachel Korthage; Bush, Alan J.

2013-01-01

112

Stakeholder Analysis: Using the Jigsaw Method for Ethical Dilemmas in Business  

OpenAIRE

Stakeholder analysis is an essential part of business education as students develop awareness of the different perspectives that influence business and the difficult decisions made by business, government and communities. An important aspect of learning is to think critically about who is presenting the viewpoint and the conclusions they have drawn. We have found that the Jigsaw Method is a powerful way to learn the importance of different viewpoints in the teaching of ethical practice and su...

Wood, Leigh N.; Peter Dixon

2011-01-01

113

Sustainable and responsible preventive medicine : Conceptualising ethical dilemmas arising from clinical implementation of advancing medical technology  

OpenAIRE

Background and setting Health care has become one of the most expansive activities in contemporary societies, and technology is one of its most influential factors. The modern medical-technological enterprise is however facing unprecedented practical, ethical and epistemic challenges. This thesis arises from a well-founded concern that medicine in general, and individually targeted preventive medicine in particular, may be about to become technified and dehumanised to an extent where its inte...

Getz, Linn

2006-01-01

114

Stakeholder Analysis: Using the Jigsaw Method for Ethical Dilemmas in Business  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stakeholder analysis is an essential part of business education as students develop awareness of the different perspectives that influence business and the difficult decisions made by business, government and communities. An important aspect of learning is to think critically about who is presenting the viewpoint and the conclusions they have drawn. We have found that the Jigsaw Method is a powerful way to learn the importance of different viewpoints in the teaching of ethical practice and sustainability.

Leigh N Wood

2011-03-01

115

Sustainable and responsible preventive medicine :Conceptualising ethical dilemmas arising from clinical implementation of advancing medical technology  

OpenAIRE

Background and setting Health care has become one of the most expansive activities in contemporary societies, and technology is one of its most influential factors. The modern medical-technological enterprise is however facing unprecedented practical, ethical and epistemic challenges. This thesis arises from a well-founded concern that medicine in general, and individually targeted preventive medicine in particular, may be about to become technified and dehumanised to an extent where its inte...

Getz, Linn

2006-01-01

116

The use of pornographic materials by adolescent male cancer patients when banking sperm in the UK: legal and ethical dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased awareness of the importance of fertility concerns to teenage cancer survivors is leading to growing numbers of male teenagers being offered sperm banking at the time of diagnosis. This is now extending to males diagnosed with other conditions where gonadotoxic agents are used in treatment. The storage of sperm in these circumstances is a challenging aspect of health care, given the complex issues and timescale involved. UK law has been enacted to protect legal minors from the potentially harmful effects of exposure to pornographic materials, yet there is reason to suppose that their use in this context could have therapeutic benefit in aiding successful masturbation. This paper uses material gained through consultation with the eleven largest UK sperm banks and 94 male teenage cancer survivors, to discuss the associated legal and ethical dilemmas, including those around the role of parents/carers. Findings suggest that there is variable practice in sperm banks, that almost a quarter of teenage males wanted access to soft porn when banking sperm, and half wanted to bring in their own materials. It concludes that there is an urgent need for any legal barriers to the therapeutic use of pornographic materials to be understood and examined. PMID:17786648

Crawshaw, Marilyn A; Glaser, Adam W; Pacey, Allan A

2007-09-01

117

Ethical Dilemma and Management of Infertility in HIV Seropositive Discordant Couples: A Case Study in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The traditional African society places an invaluable premium on procreation and, in some communities, a woman's place in her matrimony is only confirmed on positive reproductive outcome. Infertility is rife in Nigeria, and HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection is a global pandemic, which has led to a drop in life expectancy across the world. In Nigeria, a number of cultural norms relating to gender roles and power dynamics constitute a serious barrier to issues of sexuality and infertility. Couples are concerned about their infertility diagnostic test being disclosed to each other, especially before marriage. This concern is understandable, especially in an environment that lacks the modern concepts and attitude toward sexual matters. This is complicated by the advent of HIV/AIDS infection and the societal mind-set that look at seropostive individuals as transgressors. At present, sexual and reproductive health rights are currently not in place because ethical issues are not given prominence by many physicians in Nigeria. A case of an infertile and seropostive discordant couple, which raised a lot of medical and ethical concerns, is presented here to awaken the consciousness of Nigerian physicians and stimulate discussions on the ethical matters such as this in clinical practice. PMID:23634339

Umeora, Ouj; Chukwuneke, Fn

2013-01-01

118

Environmental Education and Environmental Ethics: Theory, Practice, and Mixed Messages (1).  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented is a review of environmental ethics since the Belgrade Charter of 1976. Outlines seven ethical positions to be considered. Discusses ethics in environmental education practice. Focuses on four ways to lessen the dilemma of the presentation of values in environmental education. (CW)

Simmons, Deborah A.

1988-01-01

119

[Newborn at the limit of viability. Part 1: Ethical dilemmas, international recommendations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immense scientific and technological progress in perinatal medicine during the 1990s enabled to save extremely immature newborns. The fact faced doctors with new challenges and ethical problems regarding especially infants born at the limit of viability (22-26 weeks of gestation). The aim of this study is an attempt to answer the question concerning the mode of operation in the delivery room and/or NICU towards this group of infants. Decisions may concern undertaking resuscitation, limiting medical procedures and the use of palliative care. Materials for preparation of this paper included international recommendations developed by teams of specialists (part 1), as well as Polish recommendations (part 2). The first part presents world epidemiological data regarding survival rate and long-term developmental assessment of extremely low gestational age infants, indicating difficulties in interpretation of some of the research. We also emphasized the discrepancies in precise evaluation of gestational age, which is of great significance for qualifying the newborn into the group unable to survive or at the limit of viability. For better assessment of the research, recommendations developed by FIGO Committee in 1994 are presented: "Ethical aspects in management of newborn infants at the threshold of viability." In the discussion part we presented differences between world recommendations regarding newborns at the limit of viability, emphasizing the need to define the "grey zone" (gestational age at which there is doubt about the newborns' viability and development and, as a result, the possibility of making "good" therapeutic decisions is limited). In summary it has been emphasized that at the current state of knowledge decisions cannot be based solely on gestational age and estimated body weight, but other factors improving or worsening the prognosis should be taken into consideration as well. Finally the situation in Poland is discussed, indicating problems regarding this group of newborns. It is also emphasized that a Team for Ethical Recommendations in Perinatology, appointed in 2009, developed recommendations which are discussed in the second part of the paper. PMID:22253120

Rutkowska, Magdalena

2011-01-01

120

Dilemas Éticos y Modelos Deontológicos para el Periodista Usuario de Medios Sociales / Ethical Dilemmas and Deontological Models for Journalist User of Social Media  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo se propone identificar los principales dilemas éticos emergentes en el uso de medios sociales por parte de los periodistas. Para ello, recorre experiencias recientes que dieron lugar a reflexiones sobre la necesidad de establecer pautas específicas para la publicación de contenidos en es [...] tos medios, y analiza las características y la pertinencia de las respuestas deontológicas a esos dilemas, ensayadas en los últimos dos años por distintas organizaciones periodísticas de proyección internacional. Finalmente, se clasifican y describen los modelos deontológicos de acuerdo con el grado de autonomía que las organizaciones conceden al periodista para que se exprese libremente en los medios sociales, y se plantea la necesidad de la autorregulación individual y de fortalecer el compromiso del periodista con la excelencia profesional. Abstract in english This paper aims to identify key emerging ethical dilemmas when journalists use social media. To this end, it goes over recent experiences that led to reflections on the need for specific guidelines for publishing content in social media, and analyzes the characteristics and relevance of ethical resp [...] onses to these dilemmas, that were stated in the last two years by different international news organizations. Lastly, it classifies and describes ethical models according to the degree of autonomy granted by organizations to their journalists to express themselvesfreely in social media, and raises the needfor individual self-regulation and for strengthen journalist's commitment with professional excellence.

Mariano, Ure.

2013-06-01

121

Rubber dam application in endodontic practice: an update on critical educational and ethical dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proper isolation is an essential prerequisite for successful endodontic treatment. This article aims to provide an update on the prevalence of rubber dam (RD) use, and the role of education along with attitudes of general dental practitioners (GDPs) and patients towards the application of RD in endodontics. Critical ethical issues are also highlighted. Using certain keywords, an electronic search was conducted spanning the period from January 1983 to April 2013 to identify the available related investigations, and the pooled data were then analysed. The results show that although RD is the Standard of Care in endodontic practice, there is a clear discrepancy in what GDPs are taught in dental school and what they practice after graduation. There is little scientific evidence to support the application of RD; however, patient safety and clinical practice guidelines indicate that it is unnecessary and unethical to consider a cohort study to prove what is already universally agreed upon. A few clinical situations may require special management which should be highlighted in the current guidelines. This would pave the way for clear and straightforward universal guidelines. PMID:25091028

Ahmed, H M A; Cohen, S; Lévy, G; Steier, L; Bukiet, F

2014-12-01

122

Genomic medicine: health care issues and the unresolved ethical and social dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our perception of the mechanism by which single genes can cause disease is evolving. This has led to the understanding of the pathophysiological basis of common diseases. Genomic Medicine continues to contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of disease. Medicine has strived to achieve the goal of tailoring interventions to individual variations in risk and treatment response and advances in medical genomics will facilitate this process. Relevant to present-day practice is the use of genomic information to classify individuals according to disease susceptibility or expected responsiveness to a pharmacologic treatment and to provide targeted interventions. By investigating the genetic profile of individuals, medical professionals are able to select patients and use the information obtained to plan out a course of treatment that is much more in step with the way their body works. However, society is concerned about the effect genetic knowledge will have on ethnic or racial groups. Currently, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act prohibits discrimination based on genetics. There is a need to increase the understanding of the social and ethical challenges that genomics information may pose to clinicians and scientists. This review is not meant to be exhaustive; rather, clinically relevant examples are used to illustrate how genomic medicine can facilitate the provision of molecular diagnostic methods that improve drug therapy. Finally, the rapid pace of change in genomics may likely make my conclusions today obsolete tomorrow. PMID:22713532

Idemyor, Vincent

2014-01-01

123

The Conceptual and Practical Ethical Dilemmas of Using Health Discussion Board Posts as Research Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Increasing numbers of people living with a long-term health condition are putting personal health information online, including on discussion boards. Many discussion boards contain material of potential use to researchers; however, it is unclear how this information can and should be used by researchers. To date there has been no evaluation of the views of those individuals sharing health information online regarding the use of their shared information for research purposes. Objective To explore the views of contributors to online diabetes discussion boards with regards to if (and how) they feel their contributions to boards should be used by health researchers. Methods A qualitative approach was employed using online semistructured asynchronous (email) interviews. Interpretative description methodology was used to assess the interview transcripts, and quotations were extracted and anonymized to support each theme. Results 26 interviews were carried out. Participants agreed that forum posts are in the public domain and that aggregated information could be freely used by researchers. This was agreed to be a good way of ensuring that the view of people living with diabetes is being heard in research. There was no consensus on the need for permission to use individual information, such as quotations, with some people happy for this to be freely used and others feeling that permission is necessary. Conclusions Participants acknowledged the dichotomy of having placed information into the public domain in an unrestricted way, with some interviewees also wanting to retain control of its use. The Internet is a new research location, and rather than trying to apply traditional ethical norms to this new genre, a new modus operandi is required. The authors propose introducing new norms for presenting research carried out with online discussion boards. PMID:23748147

Hind, Martin; Thomas, Bronwen; Hewitt-Taylor, Jaqui

2013-01-01

124

Ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is from the 1989 CONTEMPO issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, the purpose of which is to keep physicians informed of recent developments in different areas of medicine through brief overviews by specialists in each field. In his article on ethics, Pellegrino focuses on the issues of euthanasia and fetal research. The practice of active, voluntary euthanasia raises questions about the difference between killing a terminally ill patient and withholding or withdrawing life-prolonging treatment, the limits of patient autonomy, the compatibility of active euthanasia with professional ethics, and the social consequences of legalizing euthanasia. The debate over the use of fetal tissue for research and treatment centers on the issue of induced abortion. PMID:2709576

Pellegrino, E D

1989-05-19

125

The ethical Dilemma of lifestyle change: designing for sustainable schools and sustainable citizenship  

OpenAIRE

This paper explores how participation and sustainability are being addressed by architects within the Building Schools for the Future (BSF) programme in the UK. The intentions promoted by the programme are certainly ambitious, but the ways to fulfil these aims are ill-explored. Simply focusing on providing innovative learning technologies, or indeed teaching young people about physical sustainability features in buildings, will not necessarily teach them the skills they will need to respond t...

Andrea Wheeler

2009-01-01

126

Digital Security Governance and Accountability in Europe: Ethical Dilemmas in Terrorism Risk Management  

OpenAIRE

Digital security governance – the use of digital personal data for threat analysis on the basis of (automated) risk profiling – enhances terrorism risk management in Europe. European security strategies emphasise that information and communication technology increasingly play a key role in preventing and anticipating threats such as terrorism and cyber-crime. It enables, for example, the sharing of personal, financial or travellers’ data with third countries. This article focuses on dig...

Quirine Eijkman

2014-01-01

127

THE PARADIGM OF ANTIGONE AND GACEL SAYAH: An approach to historical and contemporary Ethical/moral dilemmas of Journalism  

OpenAIRE

This work intends to locate and to explore the complexities of
some classical moral dilemmas in human history considering two
paradigms as references: Antigone’s, created by Sophocles; and
Gacel Sayah’s, created by Vázquez-Figueroa. The work situates
both historical and contemporary dilemmas of journalism and
points out examples furnished by professionals in activity and
academic experts. At the s...

Francisco José Castilhos Karam

2011-01-01

128

Microethics: the ethics of everyday clinical practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past several decades, medical ethics has gained a solid foothold in medical education and is now a required course in most medical schools. Although the field of medical ethics is by nature eclectic, moral philosophy has played a dominant role in defining both the content of what is taught and the methodology for reasoning about ethical dilemmas. Most educators largely rely on the case-based method for teaching ethics, grounding the ethical reasoning in an amalgam of theories drawn from moral philosophy, including consequentialism, deontology, and principlism. In this article we hope to make a case for augmenting the focus of education in medical ethics. We propose complementing the traditional approach to medical ethics with a more embedded approach, one that has been described by others as "microethics," the ethics of everyday clinical practice. PMID:25600383

Truog, Robert D; Brown, Stephen D; Browning, David; Hundert, Edward M; Rider, Elizabeth A; Bell, Sigall K; Meyer, Elaine C

2015-01-01

129

Ethical Decision Making: Basic Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

Among counselors, ethical dilemmas occur often. Although ethical dilemmas are challenging, they can be solved by implementing a code of ethics and/or an ethical decision-making model. Using case studies, the authors illustrate how counselors can make informed, accurate decisions that are made to protect the welfare of the client. It also helps…

Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, C. Bret

2008-01-01

130

Feeling trapped and being torn: Physicians' narratives about ethical dilemmas in hemodialysis care that evoke a troubled conscience  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background This study is part of a major study about difficulties in communicating ethical problems within and among professional groups working in hemodialysis care. Describing experiences of ethically difficult situations that induce a troubled conscience may raise consciousness about ethical problems and thereby open the way to further reflection. The aim of this study was to illuminate the meanings of being in ethically difficult situations that led to the burden of a troubled co...

Dahlqvist Vera; Grönlund Catarina; Is, So?derberg Anna

2011-01-01

131

Ethical Issues in Physiatrist Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Editorial on Ethical Issues. Medical ethics is at the centre of medical practice. It isrightly gaining much needed renewed focus and attentionin the evolving scenario. The impetus for it may beattributed to the revelations that arose through Nurembergtrials, the framework elements that define research andpublications related compulsions, and indeed the contextand state of affairs of present day medical jurisprudence.The physiatrist’s practice cannot remain untouched bythe moral and ethical dilemmas faced in today’s world.Although the pillars of the specialty are grounded in the

Hand G

2008-04-01

132

El diagnóstico de preimplantación genética. Perspectivas científicas y dilemas bioéticos / The diagnosis of genetic pre-implantation. Scientific Perspectives and bio-ethical dilemma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El diagnóstico de preimplantación genética (DPG) es la prueba más reciente entre las técnicas de diagnóstico genético. En este trabajo se analiza su desarrollo, sus indicaciones médicas y los dilemas bioéticos que se pueden llegar a presentar con su uso indiscriminado. Se propone, además, unas pregu [...] ntas que guíen la toma de decisiones para implantar o no un embrión con algún defecto genético. Por último, se analizan algunos argumentos filosóficos a favor y en contra del PDG. Abstract in english The diagnosis of genetic pre-implantation (PGD) is the most recent test amongst the genetic diagnostic techniques. This works analyses its development, medical indications and bio-ethical dilemma that may occur with indiscriminate use. It has been proposed as well that some questions guiding the phy [...] sicians in the decision making process to implant or not an embryo with some genetic defect. And last, some philosophical issues are also analyzed in pro or against PGD.

Orlando, Mejía.

2005-12-01

133

El diagnóstico de preimplantación genética. Perspectivas científicas y dilemas bioéticos The diagnosis of genetic pre-implantation. Scientific Perspectives and bio-ethical dilemma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El diagnóstico de preimplantación genética (DPG es la prueba más reciente entre las técnicas de diagnóstico genético. En este trabajo se analiza su desarrollo, sus indicaciones médicas y los dilemas bioéticos que se pueden llegar a presentar con su uso indiscriminado. Se propone, además, unas preguntas que guíen la toma de decisiones para implantar o no un embrión con algún defecto genético. Por último, se analizan algunos argumentos filosóficos a favor y en contra del PDG.The diagnosis of genetic pre-implantation (PGD is the most recent test amongst the genetic diagnostic techniques. This works analyses its development, medical indications and bio-ethical dilemma that may occur with indiscriminate use. It has been proposed as well that some questions guiding the physicians in the decision making process to implant or not an embryo with some genetic defect. And last, some philosophical issues are also analyzed in pro or against PGD.

Orlando Mejía

2005-12-01

134

The role of veterinarians in equestrian sport: A comparative review of ethical issues surrounding human and equine sports medicine?  

OpenAIRE

Veterinarians have a key role in providing medical care for sports horses during and between competitions, but the standard client:veterinarian relationship that exists in companion and production animal medicine is distorted by the involvement of third parties in sports medicine, resulting in distinct ethical dilemmas which warrant focused academic attention. By comparing the existing literature on human sports medicine, this article reviews the ethical dilemmas which face veterinarians trea...

Campbell, Madeleine L. H.

2013-01-01

135

Ethical Dilemmas in Individual and Collective Rights-Based Approaches to Tertiary Education Scholarships: The Cases of Canada and Cuba  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the ongoing debates in Canadian higher education is the dilemma of the brain drain and the seemingly conflicting goals between the strategies and intentions of various government departments. While Citizenship and Immigration Canada aims to recruit the brightest students from across the globe to study in Canada and to enable their long-term…

Lehr, Sabine

2008-01-01

136

Iconoclastic ethics.  

OpenAIRE

Arguments are advanced, on a pragmatic basis, for preferring a 'situational' approach to medical ethical problems, rather than an approach based on any one of the dogmatic formulations on offer. The consequences of such a preference are exemplified in relation to confidentiality; and in relation to the ethical dilemmas which surround the beginning and the end of terrestrial human life.

Black, D.

1984-01-01

137

The Ethics of Radiological Protection: A Focus on Values and Objectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Christopher Clement emphasised how the RP system is based on science, values and experience and that ethics focuses on values, normative statements, while facts as descriptive statements, are more a question of science. Even full and complete knowledge is not sufficient to decide what ought to be since it is not possible to derive statements of values (what ought to be) from statements of facts (what is). In the case of radiation effects where knowledge is far from complete, value judgements are necessary. Different types of values include aesthetics with beauty and harmony, and ethics with good and right, as values. The RP system relates to human conduct, which is about action and focus on right and wrong actions. The presentation briefly reviewed different schools of ethical though (Aristotele, Bentham and Kant) and theories of normative ethics in particular consequentialism /utilitarianism and deontology. These approaches are elegant, but have flaws. A more complex approach was presented on the basis of Ross indicating that obligations must be balanced depending on each circumstance, where ethical decisions are a matter of balancing potentially conflicting responsibilities or values. A pragmatic approach was proposed, seeking a set of values relevant to the RP system, commonly acceptable to the widest possible range of cultures. The challenge with this approach rests in clarifying the values (responsibilities/duties/obligations) related to the system of radiological protection and at the same time in clarifying the objectives in the protection of people and of the environment. A list of thoughts was proposed, in the final part of the presentation, concerning the objective of providing a reasonable level of protection to all people in medical exposures, occupational and public exposures, which includes: the recognition of the special status of children, acceptable to all, but not necessarily equal for all and a separate treatment for the very small segments of society suffering from specific and rare medical conditions

138

Perspectives on Applied Ethics  

OpenAIRE

Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

2007-01-01

139

Los dilemas éticos y jurídicos relacionados con las transfusiones de sangre en las situaciones límites / Ethical and Legal Dilemmas related to Blood Transfusions in Limit Situations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se discuten los dilemas éticos, médicos y legales que surgen como consecuencia de la decisión del paciente de no aceptar transfusiones de sangre por motivos religiosos o personales. En las situaciones límites, es decir cuando la frontera entre la vida y la muerte es estrecha, la tran [...] sfusión puede significar la diferencia entre sobrevivir o morir. Se reflexiona acerca de la implicación ética, legal y jurisprudencial en Venezuela, en pacientes quienes por razones personales o religiosas no aceptan las transfusiones sanguíneas, en situaciones cuando la posibilidad de muerte es elevada si el paciente no es transfundido. Abstract in english This paper discusses the ethical, medical and legal dilemmas that arise when a patient decides not to accept blood transfusions for religious and personal reasons. In limit situations, that is, when there is a narrow border between life and death, a transfusion can mean the difference between surviv [...] ing and dying. The study reflects on the ethical, legal and jurisprudential implications in Venezuela for patients who, for personal or religious reasons, do not accept blood transfusions in situations when the possibility of death is high if the patient is not transfused.

Fernando, Guzmán Toro.

2010-08-01

140

Ethical Dilemmas Surrounding the Use of Ventricular Assist Devices in Supporting Patients with End-Stage Organ Dysfunction  

OpenAIRE

Successful practice of cardiovascular medicine requires familiarity with the complex ethical issues that accompany therapeutic innovation and diffusion. Even as technologies transition from experimental to standard care, challenges remain. Mechanical circulatory support devices, for instance, are increasingly conceptualized as conventional therapies. Despite this, or perhaps because of it, the ethical issues surrounding the use of these devices in patients with end-stage organ dysfunction are...

Bruce, Courtenay R.; Brody, Baruch; Majumder, Mary A.

2013-01-01

141

Beyond ethical dilemmas: improving the quality of end-of-life care in the intensive care unit  

OpenAIRE

Consensus guidelines on providing optimal end-of-life care in the intensive care unit (ICU) are important tools. However, despite 30 years of ethical discourse and consensus on many of the principles that guide end-of-life care in the ICU, care remains inadequate. Although consensus on the most challenging ethical aspects of some cases will remain elusive, this need not deter clinicians from engaging in practical quality improvement, best practice, and educational interventions to provide com...

Rubenfeld, Gordon D.; Curtis, J. Randall

2002-01-01

142

Dilemas éticos y bioéticos de la práctica pediátrica en la Atención Primaria de Salud / Ethical and Bioethical Dilemmas in Paediatric Primary Health Care Setting  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La ética médica es el conjunto de principios y normas que rigen entre los profesionales de la salud, la relación del médico con sus pacientes, con sus familiares, con otros profesionales de la salud, para lograr la preservación de la salud, el tratamiento y recuperación de los pacientes. La bioética [...] se fundamenta en la sociedad en el equipo salud-paciente, las decisiones pueden ser tomadas por el Comité de Ética y el paciente toma parte en las decisiones. El pediatra de la Atención Primaria de Salud tiene la responsabilidad moral de brindar una atención esmerada, pues su compromiso no es solo con el niño y su familia, es también con la salud pública cubana y el país en general. Para reflexionar sobre los principales dilemas éticos y bioéticos en el ejercicio de la práctica pediátrica en la Atención Primaria de Salud se realizó esta revisión Abstract in english Medical Ethics gathers a group of principles and standards that rule out the behaviour amongst the health staff and amongst the doctor-patient and doctor-relatives relationship in order to preserve the patient?s health, treatment and rehabilitation. Bioethics has its bases on society in the health-p [...] atient team, and decisions can be taken by an Ethics Commission with the patient?s participation in the decision-taking process. The paediatrician in the primary health care setting should give a qualified health attention not only to the children but to their family members too due to the specialists? commitment with the Cuban public health in general. Therefore, this bibliographical review is carried out to reflect on the main ethical dilemmas at the primary health care setting in the paediatric practice.

José, García Mendiola; Gisselle, Chi Gil; Maite, Piñeiro Barreiro; Niurka, Callejas Sánchez.

2010-04-01

143

Critical thinking by nurses on ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies  

OpenAIRE

This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empat...

Botes, A.

2000-01-01

144

Internação por ordem judicial: dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeiros Internación por orden judicial: dilemas éticos vividos por enfermeros Hospitalization by court order: ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesquisa qualitativa, cujo objetivo foi descrever as situações vivenciadas e os dilemas éticos dos enfermeiros no percurso de encaminhamento e recebimento, por ordem judicial, de pacientes com indicação de internação em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI. Foi efetivada entrevista parcialmente estruturada com 10 enfermeiros, que atuam em UTI e 10 que atuam em emergência de hospitais públicos e privados da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Os dados foram submetidos à análise temática. Os resultados indicam que os enfermeiros vivenciam dilemas éticos consequentes aos problemas de superlotação das UTI e das emergências, da precária tecnologia especializada, da orientação quanto ao benefício concedido pela lei. Concluiu-se que é fundamental a participação dos enfermeiros em debates que possibilitem mapear as diferentes instâncias que têm promovido esta situação, muitas vezes caótica.Investigación cualitativa cuyo objetivo fue describir las situaciones vividas y los dilemas éticos de los enfermeros en el transcurso del envío y recibimiento por orden judicial de pacientes con indicación de internamiento en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI. Se realizó una entrevista parcialmente estructurada con 10 enfermeros que actuaban en la UCI y 10 que actuaban en Emergencias de hospitales públicos y privados de la región metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Los datos fueron analizados según el Análisis Temático. Los resultados indican que los enfermeros experimentan dilemas éticos consiguientes problemas de hacinamiento en emergencia y UCI, especialista en tecnología pobre, la orientación en cuanto a los beneficios establecidos por la ley. Se concluye que es fundamental la participación de los enfermeros en debates que posibiliten mapear las diferentes instancias que han promovido esta situación muchas veces caótica.A qualitative study aimed at describing the situations experienced and the ethical dilemmas of nurses in the process of referring and receiving hospitalized patients by court order who require admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. A partially structured interview was conducted with 10 nurses who worked in the ICU and 10 who worked in the Emergency Room (ER in public and private hospitals in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The data was analyzed following the Semantic Analysis. The results indicated that nurses experienced ethical dilemmas associated with problems of overcrowding in emergency rooms and ICUs, poor specialized technology and orientation as to the benefits provided by law. We concluded that it is essential for nurses to participate in discussions that allow the planning of the different instances that have been promoting this often chaotic situation.

Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira Vargas

2013-03-01

145

Internação por ordem judicial: dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeiros / Hospitalization by court order: ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses / Internación por orden judicial: dilemas éticos vividos por enfermeros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pesquisa qualitativa, cujo objetivo foi descrever as situações vivenciadas e os dilemas éticos dos enfermeiros no percurso de encaminhamento e recebimento, por ordem judicial, de pacientes com indicação de internação em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Foi efetivada entrevista parcialmente estrut [...] urada com 10 enfermeiros, que atuam em UTI e 10 que atuam em emergência de hospitais públicos e privados da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Os dados foram submetidos à análise temática. Os resultados indicam que os enfermeiros vivenciam dilemas éticos consequentes aos problemas de superlotação das UTI e das emergências, da precária tecnologia especializada, da orientação quanto ao benefício concedido pela lei. Concluiu-se que é fundamental a participação dos enfermeiros em debates que possibilitem mapear as diferentes instâncias que têm promovido esta situação, muitas vezes caótica. Abstract in spanish Investigación cualitativa cuyo objetivo fue describir las situaciones vividas y los dilemas éticos de los enfermeros en el transcurso del envío y recibimiento por orden judicial de pacientes con indicación de internamiento en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI). Se realizó una entrevista parcialm [...] ente estructurada con 10 enfermeros que actuaban en la UCI y 10 que actuaban en Emergencias de hospitales públicos y privados de la región metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Los datos fueron analizados según el Análisis Temático. Los resultados indican que los enfermeros experimentan dilemas éticos consiguientes problemas de hacinamiento en emergencia y UCI, especialista en tecnología pobre, la orientación en cuanto a los beneficios establecidos por la ley. Se concluye que es fundamental la participación de los enfermeros en debates que posibiliten mapear las diferentes instancias que han promovido esta situación muchas veces caótica. Abstract in english A qualitative study aimed at describing the situations experienced and the ethical dilemmas of nurses in the process of referring and receiving hospitalized patients by court order who require admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). A partially structured interview was conducted with 10 nurses w [...] ho worked in the ICU and 10 who worked in the Emergency Room (ER) in public and private hospitals in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The data was analyzed following the Semantic Analysis. The results indicated that nurses experienced ethical dilemmas associated with problems of overcrowding in emergency rooms and ICUs, poor specialized technology and orientation as to the benefits provided by law. We concluded that it is essential for nurses to participate in discussions that allow the planning of the different instances that have been promoting this often chaotic situation.

Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira, Vargas; Flávia Regina Souza, Ramos; Dulcinéia Ghizoni, Schneider; Nadir, Schneider; Alessandra Ceci dos, Santos; Sandra Maria Cezar, Leal.

2013-03-01

146

Responsibility, fairness and credibility - ethical dilemmas concerning nuclear waste; Ansvar, raettvisa och trovaerdighet - etiska dilemman kring kaernavfall  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is written with the aim to stimulate discussion and studies on ethical aspects of nuclear waste management. It does not penetrate the technical details of the different stages of waste handling, but concentrates on questions such as our responsibility towards future generations etc.

Nilsson, Annika [ed.

1999-11-01

147

Responsibility, fairness and credibility - ethical dilemmas concerning nuclear waste. Ansvar, raettvisa och trovaerdighet - etiska dilemman kring kaernavfall  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is written with the aim to stimulate discussion and studies on ethical aspects of nuclear waste management. It does not penetrate the technical details of the different stages of waste handling, but concentrates on questions such as our responsibility towards future generations etc.

Nilsson, Annika (ed.)

1999-01-01

148

Everyday Ethics: Framing youth participation in organizational practice  

OpenAIRE

Much of the literature on ethical issues in child and youth participation has drawn on the episodic experiences of participatory research efforts in which young people’s input has been sought, transcribed and represented. This literature focuses in particular on the power dynamics and ethical dilemmas embedded in time-bound adult/child and outsider/insider relationships. While we agree that these issues are crucial and in need of further examination, it is equally important to examine the e...

Davide Driskell; Neema Kudva

2009-01-01

149

Ethical dilemmas in scientific publication: pitfalls and solutions for editors Dilemas éticos na publicação científica: dificuldades e soluções para editores  

OpenAIRE

Editors of scientific journals need to be conversant with the mechanisms by which scientific misconduct is amplified by publication practices. This paper provides definitions, ways to document the extent of the problem, and examples of editorial attempts to counter fraud. Fabrication, falsification, duplication, ghost authorship, gift authorship, lack of ethics approval, non-disclosure, 'salami' publication, conflicts of interest, auto-citation, duplicate submission, duplicate publications, a...

Laragh Gollogly; Hooman Momen

2006-01-01

150

Ethical Child Welfare Practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noting that child welfare professionals can improve the quality and integrity of the services they provide if they develop ethical decision making skills, this book provides child welfare administrators and caseworkers with a framework for assessing ethical dilemmas, making sound ethical decisions, and delivering services with integrity to…

Leever, Martin G.; DeCiani, Gina; Mulaney, Ellen; Hasslinger, Heather; Gambrill, Eileen

151

Designing an Ethics Class.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines…

Prager, Richard

1993-01-01

152

Cómo enfrenta el hinduismo un dilema ético-clínico How does Hinduism analyze an ethical clinical dilemma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is indispensable for physicians to understand and recognize the fusion of different cultures, to deliver the best possible service to patients with different cultural backgrounds, especially when ethical-medical problems are involved. The Hindu community in Chile differs in significant ways with the western culture. This is especially true for some issues such as the belief in reincarnation or gender inequality, among others. These discrepancies can be relevant for the analysis of several bioethical problems. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the different beliefs, traditions and Hindu visions. We hereby present a review of Hinduism, its relation with medical practice and, as an example, a case of abortion in a Hindu family. Reviewing the traditions, beliefs and methods will help to understand and respect the beliefs of different cultures in contemporary and globalized bioethics.

Suraj Samtani B

2009-11-01

153

Dentes como fonte de Células-Tronco: uma alternativa aos dilemas éticos / Teeth as source of Stem Cells: an alternative to ethical dilemmas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available As Células-Tronco têm sido objeto principal de estudo no campo científico da Medicina Regenerativa. Estas células, quando obtidas de embriões, podem se diferenciar em todos os tecidos, embora os métodos utilizados para sua obtenção necessitem lidar com dilemas éticos e legais. Em busca de alternativ [...] as às fontes de células-tronco, os dentes vêm ganhando espaço. Estes órgãos apresentam no tecido pulpar e estruturas adjacentes características fundamentais como, multidiferenciação e capacidade de autoduplicação, além de facilidade de acesso e obtenção. Este trabalho apresenta o conhecimento atual e as perspectivas sobre o uso das células-tronco de origem dentária com destaque para as de dentes decíduos esfoliados. Especial atenção foi dada às limitações legais e administrativas para o funcionamento dos Bancos de Dentes Humanos e Biobancos no Brasil, aspecto que se revelado o principal entrave para a difusão do uso de células-tronco de origem dentária. Abstract in english Stem cells have been the main object of study in the Restorative Medicine scientific field. When obtained from embryos, such cells may distinguish in all tissues, although the methods applied to obtain them have to deal with ethical and legal dilemmas. In the search for alternative sources of stem c [...] ells, teeth have gained relevant ground. Those organs present, in their pulp tissue and neighboring structures, fundamental characteristics, such as multilineage differentiation and capacity for self-renewing, besides the fact that they are easy to access and obtain. This work provides the current knowledge and perspectives about the application of stem cells from dental source, with emphasizing those obtained from exfoliated deciduous teeth. Especial attention has been drawn to legal and administrative constraints found in the activities of Human Teeth Banks and Biobanks in Brazil, an aspect that has risen as the main obstacles when communicating the use of stem cells from dental source.

Mariana, Rezende Machado; Rodrigo, Grazinoli Garrido.

154

Advertising Ethics: Student Attitudes and Behavioral Intent  

Science.gov (United States)

A national survey of 1,045 advertising students measured opinions about the ethical nature of advertising and ethical dilemmas in the advertising business. More than nine out of ten students agreed that working for a company with high ethical standards was important. Students rated all twelve workplace dilemmas presented as somewhat unethical. For…

Fullerton, Jami A.; Kendrick, Alice; McKinnon, Lori Melton

2013-01-01

155

Researching from within: external and internal ethical engagement  

OpenAIRE

This article examines the superficial and deep ethical and moral dilemmas confronting ‘insider’ researchers which we term external and internal ethical engagement. External ethical engagement refers to the traditional, easily identifiable ethical issues that insider researchers attend to by submitting their application for ethical approval to their institution’s internal review board. Internal ethical engagement relates to the deeper level ethical and moral dilemmas that insider researc...

Floyd, Alan; Arthur, L.

2012-01-01

156

Ethical dilemmas in scientific publication: pitfalls and solutions for editors Dilemas éticos na publicação científica: dificuldades e soluções para editores  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Editors of scientific journals need to be conversant with the mechanisms by which scientific misconduct is amplified by publication practices. This paper provides definitions, ways to document the extent of the problem, and examples of editorial attempts to counter fraud. Fabrication, falsification, duplication, ghost authorship, gift authorship, lack of ethics approval, non-disclosure, 'salami' publication, conflicts of interest, auto-citation, duplicate submission, duplicate publications, and plagiarism are common problems. Editorial misconduct includes failure to observe due process, undue delay in reaching decisions and communicating these to authors, inappropriate review procedures, and confounding a journal's content with its advertising or promotional potential. Editors also can be admonished by their peers for failure to investigate suspected misconduct, failure to retract when indicated, and failure to abide voluntarily by the six main sources of relevant international guidelines on research, its reporting and editorial practice. Editors are in a good position to promulgate reasonable standards of practice, and can start by using consensus guidelines on publication ethics to state explicitly how their journals function. Reviewers, editors, authors and readers all then have a better chance to understand, and abide by, the rules of publishing.Editores de revistas científicas precisam estar atentos aos mecanismos de disseminação de condutas inadequadas no processo de publicação. Este artigo fornece definições, formas de documentar a extensão do problema e exemplos de iniciativas para conter fraudes editorias. Fabricação, falsificação, duplicação, autoria-fantasma, autoria concedida, falta de ética na aprovação de manuscritos, não-divulgação desses fatos, publicação "salami", conflitos de interesse, autocitação, submissão e publicação duplicadas, e plágio são problemas comuns. A conduta editorial inadequada inclui: falha em seguir o processo devido, atraso nas decisões e comunicação com os autores, falhas na revisão, e confundir o conteúdo de um periódico com seu potencial promocional e de propaganda. Os editores podem ser advertidos por seus pares por não investigar comportamento científico suspeito, por não se retratar quando indicado ou não obedecer as seis principais fontes internacionais de orientação em pesquisa, publicação e política editorial. Os editores estão em posição privilegiada para promover práticas adequadas, adotando orientações éticas e claras sobre os procedimentos adotados nos periódicos. Assim, revisores, editores, autores e leitores terão condições de compreender e seguir as normas de publicação.

Laragh Gollogly

2006-08-01

157

Can we do better? Researchers' experiences with ethical review boards on projects with later life as a focus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this study was to describe researchers' experiences in submitting ethical proposals focused on older adult populations, including studies with persons with dementia, to ethical review boards. Ethical approval was granted for an online survey. Researchers were recruited via listservs and snowballing techniques. Participants included 157 persons (73% female) from Australia and the United States, with a mean age of 46 (±13). Six main issues were encountered by researchers who participated in this survey. In descending order, these included questions regarding: informed consent and information requirements (61.1%), participants' vulnerability, particularly for those with cognitive impairments (58.6%), participant burden (44.6%), data access (29.3%), adverse effects of data collection/intervention (26.8%), and study methodology (25.5%). An inductive content analysis of responses revealed a range of encounters with ethical review panels spanning positive, negative, and neutral experiences. Concerns voiced about ethical review boards included committees being overly focused on legal risk, as well as not always hearing the voice of older research participants, both potential and actual. Respondents noted inability to move forward on studies, as well as loss of researchers and participant groups from gerontological and clinical research as a result of negative interactions with ethics committees. Positive interactions with the committees reinforced researchers' need to carefully construct their research approaches with persons with dementia in particular. Suggested guidelines for committees when dealing with ethics applications involving older adults include self-reflecting on potential biases and stereotypes, and seeking further clarification and information from gerontological researchers before arriving at decisions. PMID:25374104

Pachana, Nancy A; Liddle, Jacki; Peel, Nancye M; Beattie, Elizabeth; Juang, Christine; Knight, Bob G

2015-01-01

158

Health Care Ethics: Dilemmas, Issues and Conflicts. Midwest Alliance in Nursing Annual Fall Workshop (6th, Indianapolis, Indiana, September 5-6, 1985).  

Science.gov (United States)

A variety of ethical issues confronting the nursing profession are examined in these proceedings. The following papers are presented: (1) "Ethics: Care & Conflict," by Leah Curtin; (2) "The Interface of Politics and Ethics in Nursing," by Mila Aroskar; (3) "Pluralistic Ethical Decision-Making," by Rita Payton; (4) "Compassion, Technology & the…

Prock, Valencia N., Ed.; And Others

159

Denis Goulet and the project of development ethics: choices in methodology, focus and organization  

OpenAIRE

Denis Goulet (1931-2006) was a pioneer of human development theory and the main founder of work on “development ethics” as a self-conscious field that, by his definition, treats the ethical and value questions posed by development theory, planning, and practice. The paper looks at aspects of Goulet’s work in relation to four issues concerning the project of development ethics—[1] scope, [2] methodology, [3] roles, [4] organisational format and identity. It compares h...

Gasper, D. R.

2008-01-01

160

From subject to participant: ethics and the evolving role of community in health research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Belmont Report principles focus on the well-being of the research subject, yet community-engaged investigators often eschew the role of subject for that of participant. We conducted semistructured interviews with 29 community and academic investigators working on 10 community-engaged studies. Interviews elicited perspectives on ethical priorities and ethical challenges. Interviewees drew on the Belmont Report to describe 4 key principles of ethical community-engaged research (embodying ethical action, respecting participants, generalizing beneficence, and negotiating justice). However, novel aspects of the participant role were the source of most ethical challenges. We theorize that the shift in ethical focus from subject to participant will pose new ethical dilemmas for community-engaged investigators and for other constituents interested in increasing community involvement in health research. PMID:25790380

Bromley, Elizabeth; Mikesell, Lisa; Jones, Felica; Khodyakov, Dmitry

2015-05-01

161

Teaching medical ethics to meet the realities of a changing health care system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The changing context of medical practice--bureaucratic, political, or economic--demands that doctors have the knowledge and skills to face these new realities. Such changes impose obstacles on doctors delivering ethical care to vulnerable patient populations. Modern medical ethics education requires a focus upon the knowledge and skills necessary to close the gap between the theory and practice of ethical care. Physicians and doctors-in-training must learn to be morally sensitive to ethical dilemmas on the wards, learn how to make professionally grounded decisions with their patients and other medical providers, and develop the leadership, dedication, and courage to fulfill ethical values in the face of disincentives and bureaucratic challenges. A new core focus of medical ethics education must turn to learning how to put ethics into practice by teaching physicians to realistically negotiate the new institutional maze of 21st-century medicine. PMID:24802645

Millstone, Michael

2014-06-01

162

Ethical Issues in Teaching about Research Ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes experiences teaching ethical issues in the conduct of research over several semesters using a simulation of research into obedience by S. Milgram in the early 1960s. Describes students' reactions to the simulation at emotional and intellectual levels and discusses the ethical dilemma these reactions have created for teachers…

Lucas, Keith B.; Lidstone, John G.

2000-01-01

163

Written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia: an empirical-based organizational-ethical framework.  

Science.gov (United States)

As euthanasia has become a widely debated issue in many Western countries, hospitals and nursing homes especially are increasingly being confronted with this ethically sensitive societal issue. The focus of this paper is how healthcare institutions can deal with euthanasia requests on an organizational level by means of a written institutional ethics policy. The general aim is to make a critical analysis whether these policies can be considered as organizational-ethical instruments that support healthcare institutions to take their institutional responsibility for dealing with euthanasia requests. By means of an interpretative analysis, we conducted a process of reinterpretation of results of former Belgian empirical studies on written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia in dialogue with the existing international literature. The study findings revealed that legal regulations, ethical and care-oriented aspects strongly affected the development, the content, and the impact of written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia. Hence, these three cornerstones-law, care and ethics-constituted the basis for the empirical-based organizational-ethical framework for written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia that is presented in this paper. However, having a euthanasia policy does not automatically lead to more legal transparency, or to a more professional and ethical care practice. The study findings suggest that the development and implementation of an ethics policy on euthanasia as an organizational-ethical instrument should be considered as a dynamic process. Administrators and ethics committees must take responsibility to actively create an ethical climate supporting care providers who have to deal with ethical dilemmas in their practice. PMID:24420744

Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris

2014-05-01

164

Dilemas éticos em UTI: contribuições da Teoria dos Valores de Max Scheler / Ethical dilemmas in ICU: contributions of Max Scheler's Theory of Values / Dilemas éticos en UTI: contribuciones de la Teoría de Valores de Max Scheler  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O estudo objetivou refletir, tomando como base o referencial teórico de Max Scheler, sobre os dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeiros na UTI, e sobre os valores que norteiam suas atitudes e decisões. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa, tendo sido entrevistados dez enfermeiros da UTI de um hospital [...] universitário. Identificou-se a vivência de dilemas éticos referentes à terminalidade relacionada aos limites de intervenções e de utilização dos recursos materiais, além da questão da transfusão de sangue em caso de restrição religiosa. Os valores identificados foram: respeito, dignidade do paciente, conhecimento científico, humildade, paixão pela profissão e amor a Deus. A teoria dos valores constitui importante subsídio para enfermagem por permitir a abordagem de uma ética humanizadora da práxis, especialmente nas situações de dilemas éticos. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue reflexionar, con base en el marco teórico de Max Scheler, sobre los dilemas éticos experimentados por enfermeros en la UCI, y sobre los valores que orientan sus actitudes y decisiones,. Se trata de investigación cualitativa y fueran entrevistados diez enfermeros de la UCI [...] de un hospital universitario. Identificada la experiencia de los dilemas éticos relativos a la condición terminal sobre los límites de la intervención y el uso de los recursos materiales, más allá de la cuestión de la transfusión de sangre en caso de restricciones religiosas. Los valores identificados fueron: el respeto, la dignidad del paciente, el conocimiento científico, la humildad, la pasión por la profesión y el amor de Dios. La teoría del valor constituye un instrumento importante para la enfermería, permitiendo el uso de una ética humana de la práctica en situaciones de dilemas éticos. Abstract in english The study aimed to reflect, based on the theoretical framework of Max Scheler, about the ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses in the ICU, and about the values that guide their actions and decisions,. This is qualitative research, and ten ICU nurses have been interviewed at a university hospital. I [...] t was identified the experience of ethical dilemmas related to the terminality related to the limits of intervention and use of material resources, as well as the issue of blood transfusion in case of religious restrictions. The values identified were: respect, dignity of the patient, scientific knowledge, humility, passion for the profession and love of God. The theory of values is an important tool for nursing because it allows the approach of an ethics of humanizing praxis, especially in situations of ethical dilemmas.

Marlise Barros de, Medeiros; Eliane Ramos, Pereira; Rose Mary Costa Rosa Andrade, Silva; Marcos Andrade, Silva.

2012-04-01

165

A dynamic model of ethical reasoning in speech pathology  

OpenAIRE

Ten new graduate speech pathologists recounted their experiences in managing workplace ethical dilemmas in semi?structured interviews. Their stories were analysed for elements that described the nature and management of the ethical dilemmas. Ethical reasoning themes were generated to reflect the participants' approaches to managing these dilemmas. Finally, a conceptual model, the Dynamic Model of Ethical Reasoning, was developed. This model incorporates the elements of awareness, independen...

Kenny, Belinda; Lincoln, Michelle; Balandin, Susan

2007-01-01

166

Ethics in oncology nursing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the process of cancer treatment and care, the ethical duties of the cancer nurses contribute to preventing ethical dilemmas, resolving ethical problems, and most importantly maintaining an ethical cancer care system. The ethical duties of humanistic caregiving, disclosure, honesty, relief of pain and suffering, fair distribution of resources, provision of adequate palliative care, and assistance to patients and families for imminent death, which are the hallmarks of oncology nursing, are justified by the values, professional standards and the contemporary roles of nursing. Therefore, ethical competency of the oncology nurse is an inevitable requirement.

Nermin ERSOY

2009-01-01

167

Unraveling Ethics: Reflections from a Community-Based Participatory Research Project with Youth  

Science.gov (United States)

There is limited literature describing the ethical dilemmas that arise when conducting community-based participatory research. The following provides a case example of ethical dilemmas that developed during a multi-method community-based participatory action research project with youth in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Several ethical dilemmas emerged…

Walsh, Christine A.; Hewson, Jennifer; Shier, Michael; Morales, Edwin

2008-01-01

168

Compliant sinners, obstinate saints: How power and self-focus determine the effectiveness of social influences in ethical decision making  

OpenAIRE

In this research, we examine when and why organizational environments influence how employees respond to moral issues. Past research proposed that social influences in organizations affect employees' ethical decision making, but did not explain when and why some individuals are affected by the organizational environment and some disregard it. To address this problem, we drew on research on power to propose that power makes people more self-focused, which, in turn, makes them more likely to ac...

Pitesa, Marko; Thau, Stefan

2013-01-01

169

Teaching Ethics: Telling Stories.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to develop moral literacy, nursing students should be exposed to both rules- and justice-based ethics and to a feminist care perspective. They can learn to analyze and understand ethical dilemmas and to tell their own stories in order to identify the influences on their decision making. (SK)

Bowman, Ann

1995-01-01

170

Ethics Commission Member's Comment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) Ethics Commission member's comments and suggestions about how early childhood educators can best make sound decisions about the ethical dilemma of the welfare of the child and the confidentiality of its divorced parents. (BB)

Riley, Sue Spayth

1988-01-01

171

Delegates vote on ethical dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

A different approach to the question 'Just because we can, does it mean we should?' was taken in an interactive congress session on April 11. Delegates taking part in the session were asked to vote to indicate their agreement or disagreement with various statements and scenarios, with an invited panel discussing some of the issues. PMID:25883183

2015-04-18

172

Machine Ethics: Creating an Ethical Intelligent Agent  

OpenAIRE

The newly emerging field of machine ethics (Anderson and Anderson 2006) is concerned with adding an ethical dimension to machines. Unlike computer ethics -- which has traditionally focused on ethical issues surrounding humans' use of machines -- machine ethics is concerned with ensuring that the behavior of machines toward human users, and perhaps other machines as well, is ethically acceptable. In this article we discuss the importance of machine ethics, the need for machines that represent ...

Anderson, Michael; Anderson, Susan Leigh

2007-01-01

173

Villager's dilemma  

OpenAIRE

With deeper study of the Game Theory, some conditions of Prisoner's Dilemma is no longer suitable of games in real life. So we try to develop a new model-Villager's Dilemma which has more realistic conditions to stimulate the process of game. It is emphasize that Prisoner's Dilemma is an exception which is lack of universality and the importance of rules in the game. And it puts forward that to let the rule maker take part in the game and specifies game players can stop the ...

He, Beihang

2009-01-01

174

Ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses presented in nursing publications Dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeros y presentados en publicaciones de enfermería Dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeiros apresentados em publicações de enfermagem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This systematic literature review used nursing studies about "ethics" published in the SCIELO database. The objective was to identify the ethical dilemmas of nursing, based on a literature review of nursing publications between 2002 and 2006. Forty publications were found, of which seventeen were selected. The analysis of the articles permitted the organization of the following categories: ethics, the health system and nursing practice; ethics and nursing teaching-learning; ethics and nursing care. We noticed that the authors attributed a multidimensional approach to ethical issues. However, we considered it necessary to pay closer attention to the ethical aspects involved in nursing practice. There is a clear need for further studies, showing new ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses, so that they can contribute to a change in attitude, with outcomes for professional practice.Se trata de una revisión sistemática de la literatura, realizada en artículos del área de la enfermería, contenidos en el banco de datos SCIELO, y que abordaron el tema "ética". El estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los dilemas éticos de la enfermería a partir de una revisión de la literatura en publicaciones sobre esa área, en el período de 2002 a 2006. Se localizaron cuarenta publicaciones, de las cuales fueron seleccionadas diecisiete. El análisis de los artículos permitió la organización de las categorías en: ética, el sistema de salud y la práctica de enfermería, ética y la enseñanza-aprendizaje en la enfermería y, ética y el cuidado de enfermería. Se percibió que los autores realizaron, sobre las cuestiones éticas, un abordaje multidimensional, entretanto, se consideró necesario, en este estudio, dar mayor atención a los aspectos éticos que se encuentran frecuentemente en la práctica de enfermería. Quedó clara la necesidad de realizar otros estudios que pongan en evidencia nuevos dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeros, en el sentido de contribuir para el cambio de actitud, que implicaría en mejorar la calidad de la práctica profesional.Trata-se de revisão sistemática da literatura, realizada em artigos da área da enfermagem, contidos no banco de dados SCIELO, e que abordaram o tema "ética". Teve como objetivo identificar os dilemas éticos da enfermagem a partir de revisão de literatura em publicações da área, no período de 2002 a 2006. Localizou-se quarenta publicações, das quais foram selecionadas dezessete. A análise dos artigos permitiu a organização das categorias: ética, o sistema de saúde e a prática de enfermagem, ética e o ensino-aprendizagem na enfermagem, ética e o cuidado de enfermagem. Percebeu-se que os autores atribuíram às questões éticas abordagem multidimensional, no entanto, considerou-se, aqui, necessária maior atenção a respeito dos aspectos éticos que permeiam a prática de enfermagem. Ficou clara a necessidade de mais estudos que evidenciem novos dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeiros, no sentido de contribuir para mudança de atitude, implicando na qualidade da prática profissional.

Maria Adelane Alves Monteiro

2008-12-01

175

Dilemma An Instant Lexicographer  

CERN Document Server

Dilemma is intended to enhance quality and increase productivity of expert human translators by presenting to the writer relevant lexical information mechanically extracted from comparable existing translations, thus replacing - or compensating for the absence of - a lexicographer and stand-by terminologist rather than the translator. Using statistics and crude surface analysis and a minimum of prior information, Dilemma identifies instances and suggests their counterparts in parallel source and target texts, on all levels down to individual words. Dilemma forms part of a tool kit for translation where focus is on text structure and over-all consistency in large text volumes rather than on framing sentences, on interaction between many actors in a large project rather than on retrieval of machine-stored data and on decision making rather than on application of given rules. In particular, the system has been tuned to the needs of the ongoing translation of European Community legislation into the languages of c...

Karlgren, H; Nordström, M; Pettersson, P E; Wahrolen, B; Karlgren, Hans; Karlgren, Jussi; Nordstr\\"om, Magnus; Pettersson, Paul; Wahrol\\'en, Bengt

1994-01-01

176

The Ethics of Workplace Interventions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper.

Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans JØrgen

2004-01-01

177

Dilemas éticos / Ehtical dilemma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Resumen Son múltiples los dilemas éticos que enfrentan los profesionales de enfermería en el cumplimiento de su labor y que sugieren una toma de decisión fundamentada en los conocimientos, habilidades y en la experiencia, pero donde la ética y la moral es la que posibilita que esta se soporte en val [...] ores, principios y argumentos éticos. Aplicar la Bioética y cumplir con los Derechos Humanos requiere una profunda modificación en toda la cultura sanitaria; ya sea en los propios profesionales, en sus relaciones inter- e intraprofesionales, ya en la organización y gestión de los servicios. No basta con tener normativas, hay que realizar cambios y aportaciones delimitando el quehacer y estableciendo la corresponsabilización que permita la contribución de cada grupo profesional. En este artículo se realiza una reflexión sobre algunos dilemas éticos en el ámbito hospitalario, planteando situaciones dilemáticas que nos sirvan para tomar conciencia sobre la importancia de cuestiones tan relevantes como el respeto a la autonomía del paciente, el consentimiento informado, la justicia distributiva de los recursos sanitarios, entre otros. Abstract in english Abstract There are many ethical dilemmas that nursing professionals have to face in fulfilling their work and that suggest decision making should be based on knowledge, ability, skills and experience, but where ethics and morality are the ones that enable this work to be supported on values, princip [...] les and ethical arguments. Applying Bioethics and Human Rights requires a radical change in the whole culture of health; whether professionals themselves, in their personal and intraprofessional relations, and in the organization and management of services. It is not enough to have rules, you have to make changes and contributions delineating the work and establishing joint responsibility, that allows the contribution of each professional group. This article is a reflection on ethical dilemmas taking place in hospitals, raising controversial situations that serve as awareness on the importance of such relevant issues as respect for patient autonomy, informed consent, and distributive justice of health resources, among others.

Elizabeth, Villarreal Cantillo; Gloria, Visbal Illera.

2013-01-01

178

An analytic approach to resolving problems in medical ethics.  

OpenAIRE

Education in ethics among practising professionals should provide a systematic procedure for resolving moral problems. A method for such decision-making is outlined using the two classical orientations in moral philosophy, teleology and deontology. Teleological views such as utilitarianism resolve moral dilemmas by calculating the excess of good over harm expected to be produced by each feasible alternative for action. The deontological view focuses on rights, duties, and principles of justic...

Candee, D.; Puka, B.

1984-01-01

179

From Theory to Practice: Facing Ethical Challenges as a Clinical Intern  

Science.gov (United States)

Although formal ethics classes provide a basic foundation in managing ethical dilemmas, professionals often point to their experiences on internship as an important training ground for consolidation of their ethical development. Clinical interns face many personal and professional transitions that can lead to a number of ethical dilemmas.…

Hambrick, James P.; Pimentel, Sandra; Albano, Anne Marie

2009-01-01

180

Technology / Society Interaction and Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

Technology is something present in our everyday lives. From the computer we type our e-mails on to the plasma television where we watch our favorite shows, technology is an integral part of how we live. This website, created by Engineering Technology Pathways, presents the interaction of technology with society and the ethical issues associated with that interplay. Focusing mostly on the role of engineers in the creation of technology, the website provides examples of responsible practices employed by the profession. The website introduces the reader to different case studies that are examples of these ethical dilemmas. In the end, this is a good overview as it introduces students to issues not typically associated with the field of engineering.

Heitkamp, Greg

181

Researching from within: External and Internal Ethical Engagement  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the superficial and deep ethical and moral dilemmas confronting "insider" researchers, which we term external and internal ethical engagement. External ethical engagement refers to the traditional, easily identifiable ethical issues that insider researchers attend to by submitting their application for ethical approval to…

Floyd, Alan; Arthur, Linet

2012-01-01

182

Book review: Ethics of media  

OpenAIRE

"Ethics of Media." Nick Couldry, Mirca Madianou, Amit Pinchevski (eds). Palgrave Macillan. June 2013. --- Do digital media create new ethical dilemmas? What is our responsibility as spectators and witnesses? Bringing together philosophers and media scholars and drawing on a range of contemporary case studies, Ethics of Media aims to highlight the diversity of competing answers to the question, ‘is there an ethics of media?’ Patrick Weir finds that this is thought provoking first step in d...

Weir, Patrick

2013-01-01

183

Payment of research participants: current practice and policies of Irish research ethics committees.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Payment of research participants helps to increase recruitment for research studies, but can pose ethical dilemmas. Research ethics committees (RECs) have a centrally important role in guiding this practice, but standardisation of the ethical approval process in Ireland is lacking.

Roche, Eric

2013-09-01

184

Brief report : ethical problems in research practice  

OpenAIRE

Most accounts of the ethical problems facing researchers across a broad spectrum of research fields come from ethicists, ethics committees, and specialists committed to the study of ethics in human research. In contrast, this study reports on the ethical questions that researchers, themselves, report facing in their everyday practice. Fifty-five Swedish researchers contributed 109 examples of ethical dilemmas, conflicts, and problems in research. They were all researchers at the postdoctoral ...

Colnerud, Gunnel

2013-01-01

185

An ethics toolbox for neurotechnology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in neurotechnology will raise new ethical dilemmas, to which scientists and the rest of society must respond. Here I present a "toolbox" of concepts to help us analyze these issues and communicate with each other about them across differences of ethical intuition. PMID:25856484

Farah, Martha J

2015-04-01

186

Ethical problems in clinical practice  

OpenAIRE

Ethics is about judgment, which is rarely black and white. This paper highlights some of the ethical dilemmas that face practising clinicians in their everyday life and restates how useful the General Medical Council guidance is to make appropriate decisions. The authors have faced all eight of the clinical scenarios in this paper in their routine clinical practice.

Downes, T.; Channer, K.

2003-01-01

187

Encyclopedia of Information Ethics and Security  

OpenAIRE

233Rapid developments in information andcommunication technologies have created newsecurity threats along with ethical dilemmas. Thesedevelopments have been so fast that appropriatesecurity precautions and ethical codes fail to keeppace with the technological developments. In thisrespect, education of both professionals andordinary citizens regarding information technologyethics carries utmost importance. Encyclopedia ofInformation Ethics and Security serves as anauthentic and comprehensive r...

Akbulut, Reviewed By Yavuz

2008-01-01

188

Moral Courage in a World of Dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses four attributes of a decision-making process to resolve ethical dilemmas successfully: consists of core, shared values; emphasizes right-versus-right rather than right-versus-wrong; provides resolution principles; emphasizes moral courage. Describes characteristics of moral courage. (PKP)

Kidder, Rushworth M.; Born, Patricia L.

2002-01-01

189

Managers’ Views on Ethics Education in Business Schools : An Empirical Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

More and more scholars are expressing their apprehensions regarding the current state of management education. The increased number of corporate scandals has fueled their concerns that training students to have sound business ethics upon graduation has failed. Consequently, research is emerging that focuses on the lack of impact that business ethics teaching has had on students in recent years. Remarkably, the voice of managers has barely been heard in this area, even though they are the ones who are among those best suited to evaluate graduates’ capabilities to solve ethical dilemmas. This research presents the managers’ view on the role of business schools in training students in business ethics, and the managers’ evaluation of business schools’ success in that area. The findings reveal that managers are quite disappointed with the lack of improvement in the ethics of graduating students. Managers nonetheless provide a range of ideas for business schools to work on, and particularly, call for closer collaboration between industry and business schools.

Sigurjonsson, Throstur Olaf; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

2014-01-01

190

Assisted or Hastened Death: The Healthcare Practitioner’s Dilemma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Assisting or hastening death is a dilemma with many ethical as well as practical issues facing healthcare practitioners in many countries worldwide now. Various arguments for and against assisted dying have been made over time but the call from the public for legalisation of euthanasia or assisted suicide has never been stronger. While many studies have documented the reluctance of medical and other health professionals to be involved in the practice of assisted dying or euthanasia, there is still much open debate in the public domain. Those who have the most experience of palliative care are strongest in their opposition to assisted death or euthanasia. This paper explores salient practical and ethical considerations for healthcare practitioners associated with assisted death, with a focus on examining the concepts of autonomy for patients and healthcare practitioners. The role of the healthcare practitioner has clearly and undoubtedly changed over time with advances in healthcare practices but the duty of care has not changed. The dilemmas for healthcare practitioners thus who have competent patients requesting hastened death extends far beyond acting within a country’s laws as they go to the very heart of the relationship between the practitioner and patient.

Rod Duncan MacLeod

2012-07-01

191

Assisted or hastened death: the healthcare practitioner's dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assisting or hastening death is a dilemma with many ethical as well as practical issues facing healthcare practitioners in many countries worldwide now. Various arguments for and against assisted dying have been made over time but the call from the public for legalisation of euthanasia or assisted suicide has never been stronger. While many studies have documented the reluctance of medical and other health professionals to be involved in the practice of assisted dying or euthanasia, there is still much open debate in the public domain. Those who have the most experience of palliative care are strongest in their opposition to assisted death or euthanasia. This paper explores salient practical and ethical considerations for healthcare practitioners associated with assisted death, with a focus on examining the concepts of autonomy for patients and healthcare practitioners. The role of the healthcare practitioner has clearly and undoubtedly changed over time with advances in healthcare practices but the duty of care has not changed. The dilemmas for healthcare practitioners thus who have competent patients requesting hastened death extends far beyond acting within a country's laws as they go to the very heart of the relationship between the practitioner and patient. PMID:23121745

Macleod, Rod Duncan; Wilson, Donna M; Malpas, Phillipa

2012-11-01

192

A meaty matter. Pet diet and the vegetarian's dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present research examined pet ownership, current pet diet, and guilt associated with pet diet among a fairly large sample of non-meat-eaters (n=515). It specifically focused on the conflict that pits feeding one's pet an animal-based diet that may be perceived as best promoting their well-being with concerns over animal welfare and environmental degradation threatened by such diets, here labeled the vegetarian's dilemma. Questionnaire responses indicated that ethically motivated meat abstainers were more likely to own pets and owned more of them than those motivated by health concerns or a combination of ethical and health concerns. Vegans and those resisting meat on ethical grounds were more likely to feed their pet a vegetarian diet and expressed the greatest concerns over feeding their pet an animal-based diet. For vegans and ethical meat abstainers, it is suggested that questions concerning what to feed their pet approaches a tragic tradeoff contrasting two sacred values: protecting the well-being of their pets and protecting the well-being of other animals and the environment. For meat abstainers motivated by health concerns, this constitutes a relatively easy moral problem because the primary concern for such individuals is the health of their pet with less or no regard for other ramifications of the decision, i.e., harming other animals or the environment. PMID:23619313

Rothgerber, Hank

2013-09-01

193

Making the Grade: Methods for Teaching Outdoor Ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stresses the importance of outdoor ethics education and describes educational strategies such as public awareness campaigns, codes of ethics, dilemma discussions, role plays and simulations, "trigger" films, guided ethics observations, recognizing and rewarding ethical behavior, using role models, guiding students in developing personal codes of…

Matthews, Bruce

1993-01-01

194

The Ethical Problems of Reserach : An empirical study of ethics in research practice  

OpenAIRE

Most accounts of the ethical problems facing researchers across a broad spectrum of research fields come from ethicists, ethics committees and specialists committed to the study of ethics in human research. In contrast, this study reports on the ethical questions that researchers, themselves, report facing in their everyday practice. Fifty-five Swedish researchers contributed 109 examples of ethical dilemmas, conflicts and problems in research. They were all researchers at the post-doctoral l...

Colnerud, Gunnel

2013-01-01

195

Toward an horizon in design ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper suggests that design ethics can be enriched by considering ethics beyond the traditional approaches of deontology, teleology, and virtue ethics. Design practice and design ethics literature tend to frame ethics in design according to these approaches. The paper argues that a fundamental and concrete ethical understanding of design ethics can also be found in Sartrean Existentialism, a philosophy centered on the individual and his/her absolute freedom. Through the analysis of four core concepts of Sartrean Existentialism that define a specific ethics, the paper illustrates why such philosophical approach is relevant to design ethics. The paper also shows how Sartrean Existentialism and its ethics apply to critical issues of professional practice in design such as professional engagement and design decision-making. The paper finally argues that Sartre's philosophy and ethics is a perspective that offers the designer in design practice a solid ground to engage his/her ethical dilemma. PMID:19644771

d'Anjou, Philippe

2010-06-01

196

Handbook on Ethical Issues in Anthropology  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Anthropological Association has recently added number 23 to its series of special online publications. Edited by Joan Cassell and Sue-Ellen Jacobs, this collection of six essays is presented to "stimulate discussion and reflection on ethical issues" among anthropologists. Offerings include a background essay and annotated bibliography, two essays containing fictional ethical dilemmas and proposed solutions, an essay on introducing issues of ethical responsibility into the classroom, and guidelines on holding a workshop on ethical problems in fieldwork.

197

Ethical issues and Huntington's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethical dilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper.  PMID:24300652

Kromberg, Jennifer G R; Wessels, Tina-Marié

2013-12-01

198

A pesquisa e os dilemas éticos do trabalho da Enfermagem / The research and the ethical dilemmas of Nursing work / La investigación y los dilemas éticos del trabajo de Enfermería  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Trata o presente artigo de uma reflexão acerca da pesquisa e dos dilemas éticos do trabalho da enfermagem, tendo como principal objetivo fornecer subsídios para ajudar a pensar o cuidar, no cotidiano profissional, no campo do ensino, da pesquisa e, particularmente, da assistência. Recorremos a autor [...] es que tratam a respeito da ética, do trabalho e da condição humana, buscando a articulação entre esses conhecimentos e o fazer da Enfermagem, em seu cotidiano. Concluímos que diante da realidade da saúde, em meio a tantas adversidades com as quais nos deparamos, no dia-a-dia da prática profissional, seja no ensino, na pesquisa ou na assistência de Enfermagem, o pensar e agir com ética é uma condição estruturante, que enobrece e humaniza a profissão dando sentido às ações de seus profissionais. Abstract in spanish El presente artículo es una reflexión sobre la investigación y los dilemas éticos del trabajo de Enfermería, con el objetivo primordial de ofrecer subsidios para ayudar a pensar la atención, de acuerdo con la práctica profesional en el campo de la educación, la investigación, y en particular la asis [...] tencia. Recurrimos a autores que se ocupan de la ética, el trabajo y la condición humana, en la búsqueda de una relación entre este conocimiento y el quehacer de Enfermería en su vida diaria. Se concluye que, dada la realidad de salud, en medio de tantas adversidades con las que nos enfrentamos en la práctica diaria, ya sea en la docencia, la investigación o la atención de enfermería, pensar y actuar de manera ética es una condición estructurante, que humaniza y dignifica la profesión y que da sentido a las acciones de sus profesionales. Abstract in english This paper is a reflection on research and the ethical dilemmas of nursing work, with the primary objective of providing subsidies to help thinking about care, according to professional practice in the field of education, research, and particularly of assistance. We rely on authors who deal about et [...] hics, labor and human condition, finding a link between this knowledge and nursing's doing in its daily practice. We conclude that given the reality of health, amid so many adversities with which we are faced in day-to-day practice, whether in teaching, research or nursing care, to think and to act ethically is a structuring condition, which humanizes and ennobles the profession giving meaning to the actions of its professionals.

Raimunda Medeiros, Germano.

2013-09-01

199

Anthropology Ethics: Online Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Studying humankind can give us great insight into the complexities of society and culture. However, any research involving human subjects comes with a thorny set of ethical considerations. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln's Ethics Center has curated this collection of online resources related to ethical dilemmas and situations in anthropology. The materials are divided into four areas: Case Studies, About, Additional Teaching Resources, and Codes of Ethics. The Case Studies area is quite well-developed, containing 20 rigorously vetted case studies from SUNY-Buffalo, the Society for Economic Botany, and the Smithsonian Institution. For those just entering the field, the Codes of Ethics area might be quite useful. It offers up professional codes from organizations like the American Anthropological Association, the American Association of Museums, and the American Folklore Society.

200

Ethical issues in the introduction of case management for elderly people.  

Science.gov (United States)

As case management is under development in France for elderly people, this study sets out to identify and analyse key situations responsible for ethical dilemmas for French case managers. We based our study on the analyses of individual interviews made with case managers and focus-group discussions, bringing together all case managers working in local organisations running for at least a year. We identified three situations giving rise to ethical dilemmas: in the order of importance, the refusals of care, the practicalities of collecting and sharing personal data and the allocation of resources. These three situations can lead to conflict between the principle of beneficence and those of respect for autonomy, non-maleficence and justice. We describe here how French case managers practically deal with these situations. PMID:22918055

Corvol, Aline; Moutel, Grégoire; Gagnon, Dominique; Nugue, Mathilde; Saint-Jean, Olivier; Somme, Dominique

2013-02-01

201

Ethics and Nanotechnology  

Science.gov (United States)

This page from the Understanding Nano website introduces concepts of nanotechnology-related ethics. In addition to the reading materials, the page provides a list of websites and organizations that focus on ethics and nanotechnology.

202

Reanimación cardiopulmonar en el paciente oncológico terminal: Dilemas éticos y bioéticos en Enfermería / Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in terminal oncologic patient: Ethical and bioethical dilemmas in Nursing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La vida empieza a tener sentido cuando ayudas a otro, a ponerse de pie y a andar sabiendo que su camino llega al final. Con tal propósito se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal en el contexto hospitalario del Hospital Universitario Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau de la provincia de Villa Clara [...] en el período de octubre de 2005 a abril de 2006. Con el objetivo de determinar el nivel de conocimiento teórico práctico del personal de enfermería en el manejo de la Reanimación Cardiopulmonar (RCP) en el paciente oncológico terminal en urgencias. Se tomó una muestra de 115 enfermeros, que constituyó el 65 % de los que laboran en las diferentes salas del centro hospitalario a partir de un muestreo probabilístico intencional, se incluyeron enfermeros licenciados así como técnicos que laboran en estos servicios, se excluyeron enfermeros en maestrías, licencias y certificados prolongados. Las variables estudiadas fueron nivel de actualización en RCP oncológica, conducta en la reanimación, valores en enfermería, criterio de eutanasia, manejo psicológico del paciente oncológico, principios éticos en enfermería. Se aplicaron encuestas, entrevistas a profundidad, formulario, criterio de expertos y revisión actualizada del tema. Se confeccionaron tablas y gráficos estadísticos con los resultados de los diferentes procederes en las etapas incluidas en el estudio. Se determinó que existe una relación psicoafectiva positiva paciente-enfermero, así como criterio adecuado de enfermería con respecto a la muerte digna y actualización científica sobre el manejo de la reanimación cardiopulmonar oncológica terminal Abstract in english Life starts to have sense when you help somebody else to stand up and to walk, knowing that they are going to die. A longitudinal and descriptive study was undertaken in the hospital context of "Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau" Hospital of Villa Clara Province from October 2005 to April 2006 to determ [...] ine the level of theoretical and practical knowledge of the Nursing staff in the management of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (PCR) in terminal oncologic patients in the emergency service. A sample of 115 nurses (65%) was taken from those working in different wards of the hospital, starting from an intentional probabilistic sampling. Nursing licentiates, as well as technicians working in these services were included. Nurses who were taking Master's degree courses, and those with leaves of absence and prolonged medical certificates were excluded. The studied variables were: updating level in oncologic CPR, resuscitation behaviour, Nursing values, euthanasia criterion, psychological management of the oncologic patient and Nursing ethical principles. Surveys, in-depth interviews, questionnaires, expert's criteria and updated reviews of the topic were used. Statistical tables and graphics with the results of the different procedures in the stages included in the study were made. It was concluded that there was a positive psychoaffective patient-nurse relation, as well as a Nursing proper criterion regarding a dignified death, and an adequate scientific updating on the management of terminal oncologic cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Evaldo, Sardiñas Llerenas; Vivian M, Alvarez Pérez; Armando, Núñez Machado.

2007-12-01

203

Ethical Issues in Continuing Professional Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Continuing professional education practitioners often face ethical dilemmas regarding their obligations to multiple stakeholders and issues arising in new arenas such as the workplace, distance education, and collaboration with business. Codes of ethics can guide practice, but practitioners should also identify their personal core values system…

Lawler, Patricia Ann

2000-01-01

204

Health Ethics Education for Health Administration Chaplains  

Science.gov (United States)

It is imperative for divinity and health administration programs to improve their level of ethics education for their graduates who work as health administration chaplains. With an initial presentation of the variation of ethical dilemmas presented in health care facilities covering social, organizational, and patient levels, we indicate the need…

Porter, Russell; Broussard, Amelia; Duckett, Todd

2008-01-01

205

Present state of reproductive medicine in Japan – ethical issues with a focus on those seen in court cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Against a background of on the one hand, a declining demography and a conservative family register system that emphasizes the importance of the blood line, and on the other hand, an increase in the number of people undergoing fertility treatment, the absence of a legal regulatory framework concerning ART matters is likely to result in an increasing number of contradictory situations. It is against this background that the paper sets out to examine the judgements of court cases related to ART, with a particular focus on the legal determination of parental status, and to link these to aspects of the legal and socio-ethical environment within which the courts make their judgements. Methods The methods used were thorough investigation of all the court cases concerning ART in the public domain in Japan, including the arguments of the concerned parties and the judgements so far delivered. With the court cases as a central focal point, trends in Japan, including deliberations by government and academic societies, are reviewed, and the findings of surveys on the degree of understanding and attitudes among the people toward ART are summarized. Results In terms of the judgements to date, the central criteria used by the courts in determining parental status were the act of parturition and the consent of the husband of the concerned couple. The government and academic societies have displayed a cautious attitude toward ART, but the findings of attitude surveys among the people at large show a generally positive attitude toward ART. Attitudes toward the overwhelming importance hitherto attached to the bloodline are also seen to be changing. Conclusion The main conclusion is that in the absence of a legal regulatory framework for ART, there is likely to be an increase in the contradictions between the use of outdated legal precedents and the technical development of ART. Since much of the specialist discussion necessary for the formulation of a legal framework has already been carried out, the speedy enactment of comprehensive and at the same time flexible legislation would be highly desirable, but further wide-ranging discussion involving the general public is likely to be needed first.

Mayeda Mayumi

2006-04-01

206

Book review: Ethical decision-making in social research  

OpenAIRE

Offering support and guidance throughout the research process – from designing research proposals and submitting them for ethical scrutiny to anticipating ethical dilemmas that might arise whilst research is being planned, conducted, and reported – Ron Iphofen’s book is an accessible and thoughtful companion for professional researchers navigating the growing demands for ethical practice, finds Cole Armstrong.

Armstrong, Cole

2013-01-01

207

Dilemma of repeat collaborations in creative projects  

OpenAIRE

We focus on how repeat collaboration in creative projects affects the performance. Repeat collaboration has two contradictory aspects. One of them is a positive aspect: team development or experience. The other aspect is negative: team degeneration or abrasion. This contradiction causes the dilemma whether we should keep collaborating or not. The contradiction has not been quantitatively analysed. We provided extensive and quantitative analyses of the dilemma in creative ...

Inoue, Hiroyasu

2014-01-01

208

Gender Differences in Personal Selling Ethics Evaluations: Do They Exist and What Does Their Existence Mean for Teaching Sales Ethics?  

Science.gov (United States)

Sales career opportunities are growing, and the number of women in sales is increasing. Educators must adequately prepare both men and women for today's ethical sales dilemmas. Using the Personal Selling Ethics Scale, the current study analyzes the impact of idealism and relativism on the sales ethics evaluations of men and women. Results indicate…

Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy; Kondo, Christopher

2012-01-01

209

What is the Business of Ethics in Business Ethics?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For the last decades, business ethics have spread from a new brand of a few socially and environmentally benevolent companies to the corporate mainstream. Thus, today, business ethics have become a central concern for both business managers and researchers in order to manage the cultural value base of the organization, stakeholder relations, etc.. Throughout the history of business ethics, though, and especially in the last decade, a series of studies have criticized the dominant view of business ethics for being instrumental and reductive. This critique often dismisses business ethics altogether. This paper addresses these “movements” or approaches to business ethics. It argues that business ethics is caught between two conceptions of what it is for. The first movement promotes the idea that it can be a reassuring and satisfying set of ideas that reminds us how to do the right thing in order to manage the cultural value base of the organization, stakeholder relations, etc.. The second movement promotes the idea that ethics is something that threatens us by exposing us to dilemmas and differences. The paper concludes that business ethics is both a source of solutions and questions. This acknowledgement allows us to engage with business ethics in a theoretical fruitful and ethically engaged manner that challenges us to see business ethics as a involving both practical solutions and critical questions.

Lystbæk, Christian Tang

210

Ethics in policing  

OpenAIRE

A number of ethical issues and dilemmas are to be found in policing. Police officers do engage in unethical behaviour which often originates from the norms of the organisational culture. However, working in the world of policing provides officers with the ability to rationalise, excuse and justify unethical behaviour, while maintaining a moral self image. Culture, values and norms as unconscious and conscious feelings are terms which have different, though not unrelated meanings and manifest ...

Prinsloo, Johan; South African Society for Greek Philosophy and the Humanities; Kingshott, Brian

2004-01-01

211

Dilemas éticos en torno al proceso de selección de candidatos a implantes cocleares / Ethical dilemmas regarding the selection process of candidates to cochlear implants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La adaptación de los implantes cocleares (IC) amerita una selección cuidadosa de los posibles candidatos y del respeto pleno de su autonomía. El propósito se centró en promover la autonomía con respecto al uso de los IC en personas sordas, sus padres y representantes legales, con base al desarrollo [...] de un programa educativo. El diseño surgió de un diagnóstico que se obtuvo en una investigación cualitativa realizada en una escuela de sordos. Como técnica para la recolección de datos se utilizaron encuestas y conversaciones con padres de niños sordos receptores de IC y de niños sordos candidatos a recibirlos. La evaluación se elaboró a partir del análisis de conversaciones, testimonios y producciones escritas aportadas por los participantes. Los resultados muestran que los padres no recibieron información oportuna y suficiente por el equipo médico. Representa un aporte significativo e innovador para conformar un espacio para la obtención de información y para tomar decisiones responsables y autónomas. Abstract in english The use of Cochlear Implants (CI) requires a thorough selection of possible candidates as well as the respect of their autonomy. The purpose was focused on promoting autonomy regarding the use of Cochlear Implants in deaf people, their parents and legal guardians, towards an educational program abou [...] t CI. The design of the study was obtained from diagnosis performed during a qualitative research in a deaf school. As techniques for the collection of data, there were surveys and conversation exchange with the parents of deaf children recipients of CI, as well as deaf children candidates to receive them. The assessment was elaborated using as basis the analysis of conversations, testimonies and written productions provided by the participants. The results show that most of the parents did not receive appropriate and sufficient information from the medical team. Represents a significant and innovative contribution to create a space to obtain essential information for responsible and autonomous decision making.

Betzabeth, Cárdenas Aldana; Beatriz Valles, González.

2014-12-01

212

The Ethics of Biowarfare  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue-focused, reviewed, student article alarms that nations need to take preventative measures to curb the development and proliferation of biological and chemical weapons, such as: adopting a scientific code of ethics, incorporating ethics into graduate science courses, formulating accountability mechanisms for research, and raising academic, industry, and public awareness of ethical issues.

Daniel Reyes (Santa Clara University, California; )

2003-02-01

213

Publication aspects of ethics in photogrammetry  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the Code of Ethics of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), the principles on which ethics are founded consist of honesty, justice, and courtesy, forming a moral philosophy associated with mutual interest among men. We will cover in particular the ethical problems of publication of photogrammetric material in the various media. There are many such problems, and we often face a dilemma in selecting a course which is the right thing to do.

Thompson, Morris M.

1991-01-01

214

Ethical map reading in neonatal care.  

OpenAIRE

This paper suggests that medical ethics is often based on assumptions, commonly shared in modern medicine, which can cause problems and which need to be questioned. Two contrasting yet complementary ways of thinking about ethical dilemmas in neonatal care are described as the 'separation' and the 'attachment' approaches. The contribution of medical ethics to the substance and quality of discussions between doctors and parents is considered.

Alderson, P.

1987-01-01

215

Queer Teachers' Ethical Dilemmas regarding Queer Youth  

Science.gov (United States)

Although all teachers are expected to be "role models," discursive trajectories reaching back to the West's gay liberation pressure queer teachers to be role models in specific ways--by "coming out" and helping queer students out of their "time of difficulty." Paradoxically, discourses that construct children as innocent and queers-as-a-threat…

Russell, Vanessa Tamara

2010-01-01

216

Seeking Justice after a Dictatorship: Ethical Dilemmas  

OpenAIRE

The meaning that Justice has after a conflict in a society might vary regarding the political development and cultural and shared values of a certain society. Rawls, in his Theory of Justice gives his idea of what justice is and presents two principles of justice that he argues are required to live in a good society: a first principle that secures equal rights and liberties for all individuals and a second egalitarian principle that restrains the consequences of economic inequalities within s...

Medina Bustos, Ayeray Mirta

2006-01-01

217

Rituals & Ethics: Structuring Participation in a Theatrical Mode.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that linking ethics to rituals in drama lessons can promote reflection on individual responses to moral dilemmas. Describes how a group of drama teachers and theater students worked with 24 children (9 and 10 years old) from a public primary school in a process-drama in which the children worked in-role to solve a dilemma. (SR)

Cabral, Beatriz Angela Vieira

2000-01-01

218

Brief note about the dilemmas of public election  

OpenAIRE

In this brief comment, the public choice theory aims to distinguish the dilemmas and conflicts in formal and empirical. The hypothesis argues that the reality more complex than the principles of choice of Pareto and Liberalism*. Both the ethics and politics are taking decisions that are not always in line with the requirements of rationality and complete information.

Estrada, Fernando

2012-01-01

219

The Counsellor as Researcher: Boundary Issues and Critical Dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews some of the ethical issues that emerged during a study of 25 adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Discusses some cases where boundary issues became problematic; also discusses the dilemmas faced in working within a person-centered, qualitative approach. Examines considerations of counseling researchers and their trainers when…

Etherington, Kim

1996-01-01

220

Procedure versus process: ethical paradigms and the conduct of qualitative research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Research is fundamental to improving the quality of health care. The need for regulation of research is clear. However, the bureaucratic complexity of research governance has raised concerns that the regulatory mechanisms intended to protect participants now threaten to undermine or stifle the research enterprise, especially as this relates to sensitive topics and hard to reach groups. Discussion Much criticism of research governance has focused on long delays in obtaining ethical approvals, restrictions imposed on study conduct, and the inappropriateness of evaluating qualitative studies within the methodological and risk assessment frameworks applied to biomedical and clinical research. Less attention has been given to the different epistemologies underlying biomedical and qualitative investigation. The bioethical framework underpinning current regulatory structures is fundamentally at odds with the practice of emergent, negotiated micro-ethics required in qualitative research. The complex and shifting nature of real world settings delivers unanticipated ethical issues and (occasionally genuine dilemmas which go beyond easy or formulaic ‘procedural’ resolution. This is not to say that qualitative studies are ‘unethical’ but that their ethical nature can only be safeguarded through the practice of ‘micro-ethics’ based on the judgement and integrity of researchers in the field. Summary This paper considers the implications of contrasting ethical paradigms for the conduct of qualitative research and the value of ‘empirical ethics’ as a means of liberating qualitative (and other research from an outmoded and unduly restrictive research governance framework based on abstract prinicipalism, divorced from real world contexts and values.

Pollock Kristian

2012-09-01

221

Ethical dilemmas in blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses: a legal-bioethical analysis / Dilemas éticos en la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeová: un análisis jurídico-bioético / Dilemas éticos na hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová: uma análise jurídico-bioética  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar a produção de conhecimento pelos profissionais de saúde acerca da hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová (TJ), listar as alternativas terapêuticas para a hemotransfusão nesses indivíduos e citar o ordenamento jurídico, ético e bioético no concernente a hemotransfusão em TJ. MÉT [...] ODOS: Coletaram-se dados nas bases de dados LILACS e SciELO, periódicos de Enfermagem e no http://www.google.com.br. Incluiram-se artigos enfocando hemotransfusão em TJ, e excluíram-se os que não abordassem essa temática ou estivessem repetidos. Utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: As categorias temáticas sinalizam que as TJ acatam a auto-transfusão e se contrapõem à prática médica da hemotransfusão, mesmo que ela represente a continuidade da vida. CONCLUSÃO: Os profissionais de saúde vivenciam dilemas éticos quando precisam administrar hemotransfusão em TJ devido a liberdade religiosa não ser um valor absoluto e a aparente colisão de direitos fundamentais exigir uma tomada de decisão centrada no ordenamento jurídico e nos princípios bioéticos. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Identificar la producción de conocimiento por los profesionales de salud respecto a la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeova (TJ), listar las alternativas terapéuticas de la transfusión sanguínea en esos individuos y citar la ordenanza jurídica, ética y bioética en lo que concierne a [...] la transfusión sanguínea en TJ. MÉTODOS: Se recolectaron datos en las bases de datos LILACS y SciELO, periódicos de Enfermería y en el http://www.google.com.br. Se incluyeron artículos enfocando la transfusión sanguínea en TJ, y se excluyeron a los que no abordaban esa temática o estaban repetidos. Se utilizó el análisis de contenido. RESULTADOS: Las categorías temáticas señalan que los TJ acatan la auto-transfusión y se contraponen a la práctica médica de la transfusión sanguínea, aunque ella represente la continuidad de la vida. CONCLUSIÓN: Los profesionales de salud vivencian dilemas éticos cuando precisan realizar transfusiones sanguíneas en TJ debido a que la libertad religiosa no es un valor absoluto y la aparente colisión de derechos fundamentales les exige una toma de decisión centrada en la ordenanza jurídica y en los principios bioéticos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify knowledge production by healthcare professionals about blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses (JW), listing the therapeutic alternatives for blood transfusion in these individuals and citing the legal, ethical and bioethical standards regarding blood transfusion in JWs. METH [...] ODS: Data were collected in the LILACS and SciELO databases, Nursing journals and on http://www.google.com.br. Articles focusing on blood transfusion in JWs were included, and texts that were repeated or did not approach this theme were excluded. Content analysis was used. RESULTS: The thematic categories show that the JWs accept self-transfusion and are opposed to the medical practice of blood transfusion, even if it represents the continuity of life. CONCLUSION: Healthcare professionals experience ethical dilemmas when they need to perform blood transfusion in JWs due to the fact that religious freedom is not an absolute value, and the apparent collision of fundamental rights demands that a decision be made, centered on legal standards and bioethical principles.

Inacia Sátiro Xavier de, França; Rosilene Santos, Baptista; Virgínia Rosana de Sousa, Brito.

222

Ethical dilemmas in blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses: a legal-bioethical analysis Dilemas éticos en la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeová: un análisis jurídico-bioético Dilemas éticos na hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová: uma análise jurídico-bioética  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify knowledge production by healthcare professionals about blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses (JW, listing the therapeutic alternatives for blood transfusion in these individuals and citing the legal, ethical and bioethical standards regarding blood transfusion in JWs. METHODS: Data were collected in the LILACS and SciELO databases, Nursing journals and on http://www.google.com.br. Articles focusing on blood transfusion in JWs were included, and texts that were repeated or did not approach this theme were excluded. Content analysis was used. RESULTS: The thematic categories show that the JWs accept self-transfusion and are opposed to the medical practice of blood transfusion, even if it represents the continuity of life. CONCLUSION: Healthcare professionals experience ethical dilemmas when they need to perform blood transfusion in JWs due to the fact that religious freedom is not an absolute value, and the apparent collision of fundamental rights demands that a decision be made, centered on legal standards and bioethical principles.OBJETIVO: Identificar la producción de conocimiento por los profesionales de salud respecto a la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeova (TJ, listar las alternativas terapéuticas de la transfusión sanguínea en esos individuos y citar la ordenanza jurídica, ética y bioética en lo que concierne a la transfusión sanguínea en TJ. MÉTODOS: Se recolectaron datos en las bases de datos LILACS y SciELO, periódicos de Enfermería y en el http://www.google.com.br. Se incluyeron artículos enfocando la transfusión sanguínea en TJ, y se excluyeron a los que no abordaban esa temática o estaban repetidos. Se utilizó el análisis de contenido. RESULTADOS: Las categorías temáticas señalan que los TJ acatan la auto-transfusión y se contraponen a la práctica médica de la transfusión sanguínea, aunque ella represente la continuidad de la vida. CONCLUSIÓN: Los profesionales de salud vivencian dilemas éticos cuando precisan realizar transfusiones sanguíneas en TJ debido a que la libertad religiosa no es un valor absoluto y la aparente colisión de derechos fundamentales les exige una toma de decisión centrada en la ordenanza jurídica y en los principios bioéticos.OBJETIVO: Identificar a produção de conhecimento pelos profissionais de saúde acerca da hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová (TJ, listar as alternativas terapêuticas para a hemotransfusão nesses indivíduos e citar o ordenamento jurídico, ético e bioético no concernente a hemotransfusão em TJ. MÉTODOS: Coletaram-se dados nas bases de dados LILACS e SciELO, periódicos de Enfermagem e no http://www.google.com.br. Incluiram-se artigos enfocando hemotransfusão em TJ, e excluíram-se os que não abordassem essa temática ou estivessem repetidos. Utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: As categorias temáticas sinalizam que as TJ acatam a auto-transfusão e se contrapõem à prática médica da hemotransfusão, mesmo que ela represente a continuidade da vida. CONCLUSÃO: Os profissionais de saúde vivenciam dilemas éticos quando precisam administrar hemotransfusão em TJ devido a liberdade religiosa não ser um valor absoluto e a aparente colisão de direitos fundamentais exigir uma tomada de decisão centrada no ordenamento jurídico e nos princípios bioéticos.

Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França

2008-01-01

223

Ecological Ethics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deborah Oughton started with a view of the work in progress by the ICRP TG 94 on ethics, from the historical context and the principles-based ethics in RP, to continue with an overview of the ethical theories and with the main area of elaboration which concerns the common values, to conclude with considerations about the implementation in different area such as biomedicine, nuclear safety and workers, ecological aspects, and environmental health and society. By reading again the ICRP and IAEA publications on the ethical aspects in the protection of environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, the presentation covers the various and different cultures within the history of environmental ethics, the perception of Nature and the theories of environmental ethics, in particular by focusing on anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as philosophical worldwide views, and on conservation, biodiversity, sustainability, environmental justice and human dignity, as primary principles of environmental protection. The influence of western Christianity, with a view of man dominating over every creeping thing on earth, and of the non-western ideas, the human perception of Nature has been analyzed and discussed to conclude that, in reality then, the anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as reflected in many cultures and religions, they all support the need to protect the environment and to recognise and preserve the diversity. Three challenges were then discussed in the presentation: the ecosystem approach and ecological economics, for example in the case of Fukushima by asking what is the economic cost of marine contamination; the ecosystem changes with attention to what harms, as in the case of the environment in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl; and the environmental consequences of remediation, which can be considered a source of controversy for environmental ethics and policy

224

Ethical Issues in the End of Life Care for Cancer Patients in Iran  

OpenAIRE

Background: In the recent years, advances in medical technologies for end stage cancer patients’ care have affected the end-of-life decision-making in clinical practice and exposed oncologists to serious ethical dilemmas. But little is known about oncologists' viewpoints in our country regarding their ethical problems in this mention. We aimed to clarify the ethical dilemmas which Iranian oncologists may face in our health care setting and to determine factors influencing decision-making pr...

Mina Mobasher; Nouzar Nakhaee; Mamak Tahmasebi; Farzaneh ZaHedi; Bagher Larijani

2013-01-01

225

Informed recruitment in partner studies of HIV transmission: an ethical issue in couples research  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Much attention has been devoted to ethical issues related to randomized controlled trials for HIV treatment and prevention. However, there has been less discussion of ethical issues surrounding families involved in observational studies of HIV transmission. This paper describes the process of ethical deliberation about how best to obtain informed consent from sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs) tested for HIV, within a recent HIV study in Eastern Europe. The study aimed to assess the amount of HIV serodiscordance among IDUs and their sexual partners, identify barriers to harm reduction, and explore ways to optimize intervention programs. Including IDUs, either HIV-positive or at high risk for HIV, and their sexual partners would help to gain a more complete understanding of barriers to and opportunities for intervention. Discussion This paper focuses on the ethical dilemma regarding informed recruitment: whether researchers should disclose to sexual partners of IDUs that they were recruited because their partner injects drugs (i.e., their heightened risk for HIV). Disclosing risks to partners upholds the ethical value of respect for persons through informed consent. However, disclosure compromises the IDU's confidentiality, and potentially, the scientific validity of the research. Following a brief literature review, we summarize the researchers' systematic evaluation of this issue from ethical, scientific, and logistical perspectives. While the cultural context may be somewhat unique to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the issues raised and solutions proposed here inform epidemiological research designs and their underlying ethical tensions. Summary We present ethical arguments in favor of disclosure, discuss how cultural context shapes the ethical issues, and recommend refinement of guidance for couples research of communicable diseases to assist investigators encountering these ethical issues in the future. PMID:19709442

McNutt, Louise-Anne; Gordon, Elisa J; Uusküla, Anneli

2009-01-01

226

An Ethics Study: Implications of Knowledge for School Counselor Candidates, School Counseling Supervisors, Practicing School Counselors and Training Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper addresses a survey conducted to examine knowledge of ethics in school counselor candidates. Students in school counseling practicum and internship classes indicated their familiarity with ethical codes and ethical decision making-models and responded to items pertaining to ethical dilemmas. Areas of concern to counselor educators…

Boes, Susan R.; Chibbaro, Julia S.; Bingeman, Brittany A.

2006-01-01

227

The task of nursing ethics.  

OpenAIRE

This paper raises the questions: 'What do we expect from nursing ethics?' and 'Is the literature of nursing ethics any different from that of medical ethics?' It is suggested that rather than develop nursing ethics as a separate field writers in nursing ethics should take a lead in making the patient the central focus of health care ethics. The case is made for empirical work in health care ethics and it is suggested that a good way of setting about this is to ask practising nurses about the ...

Melia, K. M.

1994-01-01

228

Engineering ethics beyond engineers' ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Engineering ethics is usually focused on engineers' ethics, engineers acting as individuals. Certainly, these professionals play a central role in the matter, but engineers are not a singularity inside engineering; they exist and operate as a part of a complex network of mutual relationships between many other people, organizations and groups. When engineering ethics and engineers' ethics are taken as one and the same thing the paradigm of the ethical engineer which prevails is that of the heroic engineer, a certain model of the ideal engineer: someone both quite individualistic and strong enough to deal with all the moral challenges that could arise. We argue that this is not the best approach, at least today in our interrelated world. We have achieved a high degree of independence from nature by means of technology. In exchange for this autonomy we have become increasingly tied up with very complex systems to which we constantly delegate new tasks and powers. Concerns about safety keep growing everywhere due to the fact that now we have a sensitive awareness of the huge amount of power we are both consuming and deploying, thus, new forms of dialogue and consensus have to be incorporated at different levels, in different forums and at different times. Within these democratic channels of participation not just the needs and interests, but also the responsibilities and mutual commitments of all parties should be taken into account. PMID:21761243

Basart, Josep M; Serra, Montse

2013-03-01

229

Viewpoint discrimination and contestation of ideas on its merits, leadership and organizational ethics: expanding the African bioethics agenda.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 3rd Pan-African Ethics Human Rights and Medical Law (3rd EHRML) conference was held in Johannesburg on July 7, 2013, as part of the Africa Health Congress. The conference brought together bioethicists, researchers and scholars from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Kenya and Nigeria working in the field of bioethics as well as students and healthcare workers interested in learning about ethical issues confronting the African continent. The conference which ran with a theme of "Bioethical and legal perspectives in biomedical research and medical practice in Africa with a focus on: Informed consent, HIV-AIDS & Tuberculosis, leadership & organizational ethics, patients and healthcare workers rights," was designed to expand the dialogue on African bioethics beyond the traditional focus on research ethics and the ethical dilemmas surrounding the conduct of biomedical research in developing countries. This introductory article highlights some of areas of focus at the conference including issues of leadership, organizational ethics and patients and healthcare workers rights in Africa. We analyze the importance of free speech, public debate of issues, argumentation and the need to introduce the teaching and learning of ethics to students in Africa in accordance with UNESCO guidelines. This article also focuses on other challenges confronting Africa today from an ethical standpoint, including the issues of poor leadership and organizational ethics which are main contributors to the problems prevalent in African countries, such as poverty, poor education and healthcare delivery systems, terrorism, social inequities, infrastructural deficits and other forms of 'structural violence' confronting vulnerable African communities. We believe that each of the eight articles included in this supplement, which have been rigorously peer-reviewed are a good example of current research on bioethics in Africa, and explore some new directions towards broadening the African bioethics agenda as we move forward to a new dawn for Africa in the 21st century. PMID:24564890

Chima, Sylvester C; Mduluza, Takafira; Kipkemboi, Julius

2013-01-01

230

Viewpoint discrimination and contestation of ideas on its merits, leadership and organizational ethics: expanding the African bioethics agenda  

Science.gov (United States)

The 3rd Pan-African Ethics Human Rights and Medical Law (3rd EHRML) conference was held in Johannesburg on July 7, 2013, as part of the Africa Health Congress. The conference brought together bioethicists, researchers and scholars from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Kenya and Nigeria working in the field of bioethics as well as students and healthcare workers interested in learning about ethical issues confronting the African continent. The conference which ran with a theme of "Bioethical and legal perspectives in biomedical research and medical practice in Africa with a focus on: Informed consent, HIV-AIDS & Tuberculosis, leadership & organizational ethics, patients and healthcare workers rights," was designed to expand the dialogue on African bioethics beyond the traditional focus on research ethics and the ethical dilemmas surrounding the conduct of biomedical research in developing countries. This introductory article highlights some of areas of focus at the conference including issues of leadership, organizational ethics and patients and healthcare workers rights in Africa. We analyze the importance of free speech, public debate of issues, argumentation and the need to introduce the teaching and learning of ethics to students in Africa in accordance with UNESCO guidelines. This article also focuses on other challenges confronting Africa today from an ethical standpoint, including the issues of poor leadership and organizational ethics which are main contributors to the problems prevalent in African countries, such as poverty, poor education and healthcare delivery systems, terrorism, social inequities, infrastructural deficits and other forms of 'structural violence' confronting vulnerable African communities. We believe that each of the eight articles included in this supplement, which have been rigorously peer-reviewed are a good example of current research on bioethics in Africa, and explore some new directions towards broadening the African bioethics agenda as we move forward to a new dawn for Africa in the 21st century. PMID:24564890

2013-01-01

231

Competing ethical claims in abortion.  

Science.gov (United States)

In cases of abortion, as in all cases of nursing care, the nurse has the ethical obligation to provide the best nursing care possible without judging the rightness or wrongness of the patient's action or behavior. Several staff nurses at a small community hospital in the United States personally believe that abortion is ethically wrong. This personal belief is reinforced for many by their religious belief system. Because of a rotation policy at this hospital, all nurses will be assigned to work in the abortion clinic, and this presents several problems. Initially, there is the ethical dilemma of an individual nurse's personal-religious value system, and the obligation to self to live according to it. This is in opposition to the ethical obligation to care for all patients. The nursing administration also faces an ethical problem related to enforcing this policy in the fairest way possible. Another problem for the nursing administration is a legal obligation to make sure that all patients receive adquate nursing care. The nurses at this 1 community hospital asked to meet with the nursing administratio for the purpose of discussing the issue of working in the abortion clinic. The meeting took place and though exploration of value systems and issues and through mutual willingness to compromise without being compromised, decisions to resolve the dilemma were reached. It was agreed that nurses would not be made to rotate into the abortion clinic against their religious beliefs and that nurses who did not have that ethical stance would work there. PMID:6901588

Davis, A J

1980-07-01

232

Percepção de enfermeiros sobre dilemas éticos relacionados a pacientes terminais em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva / Perception of nurses about ethical dilemmas related to terminal patients in intensive care units / Percepción de enfermeros sobre dilemas éticos relacionados a pacientes terminales en unidades de terapia intensiva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivos conhecer a percepção de enfermeiros sobre dilemas éticos existentes na assistência de enfermagem a pacientes terminais, no contexto da UTI de um hospital geral do município de São Paulo e o que é considerado para a tomada de decisão. O estudo foi realizado atravé [...] s de entrevistas com dez enfermeiros atuantes na UTI, utilizando uma abordagem qualitativa, conforme a análise de conteúdo. Foram encontrados dilemas éticos ligados a: diversidade de valores; presença dos pacientes terminais na UTI; incertezas sobre a terminalidade e limites de intervenção para prolongar a vida dos pacientes; discordância de tomadas de decisão; não aceitação do processo de morte pela família do paciente e a falta de esclarecimento da família e do paciente. Além disso, para tomar decisão frente aos dilemas éticos, ele considera os seus valores, a ética profissional, a empatia e o diálogo com os colegas. Abstract in spanish El presente estudio tuvo como objetivos conocer la percepción de enfermeros sobre dilemas éticos existentes en la asistencia de enfermería a pacientes terminales en el contexto de la UTI de un hospital de São Paulo y lo que se considera como la toma de decisiones. El estudio fue realizado desde una [...] perspectiva cualitativa, utilizando el análisis de contenidos. Fueron entrevistados diez enfermeros actuantes en la UTI. El estudio mostró que los enfermeros encuentran dilemas éticos generados por diversos factores: diversidad de valores; presencia dem los pacientes terminales en la UTI; incertidumbre generada a raíz de la condición terminal; los límites de intervención para prolongar la vida; discordancia en la toma de decisiones; resistencia para aceptar el proceso de muerte por parte de la familia y la falta de esclarecimiento de la família y de los pacientes. Además, sus valores, la ética profesional, la empatía y el diálogo son tenidos en cuenta para tomar decisiones. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to learn about nurses' perception about ethical dilemmas in nursing care for terminal patients in the context of a general hospital ICU in the city of São Paulo, and what they take into account when making decisions. The study was performed through interviews with ten n [...] urses working at the ICU, using a qualitative approach based on content analysis. Ethical dilemmas were found to be linked to: diversity of values; presence of terminal patients at the ICU; uncertainties about terminality and the limits of intervention to prolong the patients' lives; disagreements in decision-making; non-acceptance of the process of dying by the patients' families and the lack of clarifications for the patient and the family. In addition, the nurses consider their values, the professional ethics, empathy and dialogue with co-workers to make decisions in view of such ethical dilemmas.

Adriano Aparecido Bezerra, Chaves; Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga, Massarollo.

2009-03-01

233

The Noncustodial Parent: Dilemmas and Interventions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focuses on noncustodial parents, who are usually fathers. Discusses 10 dilemmas of parents in the noncustodial position and delineates what can be done by individual and family counselors to enhance ability of noncustodial parents to maintain parenting relationships with their children. (Author)

Wilbur, Janice Roberts; Wilbur, Michael

1988-01-01

234

Education for Entry into Practice: An Ethical Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Issues of practice, licensure, and education for associate and bachelor's degree nursing indicate a lack of consensus. The perspective of an ethic of care highlights moral dilemmas that must be resolved because the current state of nursing education and practice is ethically dubious. (SK)

Hess, Joanne D.

1996-01-01

235

Postmodern Career Counselling, Theory and Training: Ethical Considerations  

Science.gov (United States)

This article suggests a re-consideration of the way in which postmodern career counselling and theory could position counsellors in relation to their clients. It also poses ethical challenges and questions to developing career counsellors and their established educators. More specifically, the article explores the ethical dilemmas confronting…

Kuit, Wim; Watson, Mark

2005-01-01

236

False or Recovered Memories?: Legal and Ethical Implications for Therapists.  

Science.gov (United States)

Places the development of the debate over false or recovered memories in its social and historical context. Identifies some of the ethical and legal implications of this area of work for therapists by using the Drama Triangle. Outlines ethical dilemmas for therapists and some of the implications for therapeutic practice. (RJM)

Jenkins, Peter

1997-01-01

237

Integration and Exchange: How Executive MBA Students Envision Ethics Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethics education provided by universities in general, and MBA programs aimed at future business leaders in particular, has come under intense public scrutiny because of corporate scandals and ethical dilemmas. To date, academic research has been mainly devoted to the characteristics of instruction formats and their effectiveness, characteristics…

Gruber, Verena; Schlegelmilch, Bodo B.

2013-01-01

238

Balancing Ethics and Quality in Educational Research--The Ethical Matrix Method  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper addresses ethical issues in educational research with a focus on the interplay between research ethics and both internal and external quality of research. Research ethics is divided into three domains: (1) ethics "within" the research community; (2) ethics concerning relationships with "individuals and groups directly…

Tangen, Reidun

2014-01-01

239

Dilemma of repeat collaborations in creative projects  

CERN Document Server

We focus on how repeat collaboration in creative projects affects the performance. Repeat collaboration has two contradictory aspects. One of them is a positive aspect: team development or experience. The other aspect is negative: team degeneration or abrasion. This contradiction causes the dilemma whether we should keep collaborating or not. The contradiction has not been quantitatively analysed. We provided extensive and quantitative analyses of the dilemma in creative projects by using patent data of Japan and the United States. We proposed the three conditions to validate the existence of the dilemma quantitatively. First condition is the better impact of team patents is, the longer collaborations occur. Second condition is impact of consecutive patents decrease after hits a team makes. Third condition is at some point of consecutive patents, expectation of impact by switching teams is better than one of a consecutive production. We found these conditions arise in patents of Japan and the United States. T...

Inoue, Hiroyasu

2014-01-01

240

Communicating Effectively to Resolve Ethical Concerns: The Role of School Psychology Supervisors  

Science.gov (United States)

It is incumbent upon each school psychologist to engage in ethical behavior based on current ethical codes guiding school psychology. The school psychologist is often the team member most knowledgeable regarding federal and state laws mandating educational services. Sometimes ethical dilemmas that school psychologists face are the result of a…

Olley, Rivka I.

2010-01-01

241

Ethics in the Business School Curriculum: A Challenge for the 1990s.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of business ethics as a field of study was accelerated by major business scandals and the subsequent appeal to business schools to produce graduates with a high level of ethical awareness. The most critical dilemma stems from introducing instruction in ethical values to institutions accustomed to teaching economic values. (Author)

Singh, Jang B.

1990-01-01

242

Chimeras: an ethical consideration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scientists have started with experimentation that raises difficult ethical questions. It comprises taking material from the human blueprint (DNA and inserting this in various test animals. The purpose of such research is noble, namely the alleviation of hu- man suffering. Yet the ethical ramifications of blending the hu- man and animal genome are significant, especially for Chris- tians. The creation of all living entities after their kind and the image-bearing dignity attributed to man both come under se- vere ethical stress for those who presuppose divine order in God’s ecology.  For non-Christians the philosophical dilemma ought not to exist in the ethical sense if applied at the purest level. If the human is merely a kind of animal, along with and ontologically not diffe- rent from other animals, there is little logical reason to object to chimeric research apart from a concern about what such re- search and application might do to the order of life pragmati- cally. However, many non-Christian do object. Man is made in God’s image and the concept of human dignity and a universal sense of right and wrong still binds Christians and non-Chris- tians when considering ethics in the field of chimeric research. As the mixing of human stem cells with embryonic animals takes place, certain non-Christian authors protest that human dignity is being diminished and the animal essence is being vio- lated.

H.J.G. Zandman

2011-07-01

243

The development and assessment of an NIH-funded research ethics training program.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to increase the number of researchers with skills "in identifying and addressing the ethical, legal, and social implications of their research," the National Institutes of Health (NIH) solicited training grant proposals from 1999 to 2004 and subsequently funded approved programs. The authors describe the content, format, and outcomes of one such training program that ran from 2002 to 2006 and share key lessons learned about program formats and assessment methods. Jointly developed by the Saint Louis University Center for Health Care Ethics and the Missouri Institute of Mental Health Continuing Education department, the training program focused on mental health research and adopted a train-the-trainer model. It was offered in on-site and distance-learning formats. Key outcomes of the program included educational products (such as 70 case studies posted on the course Web site, a textbook, and an instructional DVD) and program completion by 40 trainees. Assessment involved pre- and posttesting focused on knowledge of research ethics, ethical problem-solving skills, and levels of confidence in addressing ethical issues in mental health research. The program succeeded in increasing participants' knowledge of ethical issues and their beliefs that they could identify issues, identify problem-solving resources, and solve ethical problems. However, scores on the case-based problem-solving assessment dropped in posttesting, apparently because of diminished confidence about the right course of action in the specific dilemma presented; the implications of this finding for ethics assessment are discussed. Overall satisfaction was high, and dropout rates were low but three times higher for distance-learners than for on-site participants. PMID:18520469

DuBois, James M; Dueker, Jeffrey M; Anderson, Emily E; Campbell, Jean

2008-06-01

244

Ethics and its challenges  

OpenAIRE

I would like to look at some of the challenges of ethcis today. Therefore, in the first part I say something about ethics, the ethical theories and ethical concepts. Afterwords I am going to explain a little bit about the human dimensions, the dealing with experiences (i.e. work); because the human person has to decide the right thing in the right place on the right time, and in relatively freedom. In the end, there are some ideas about applied ethics which is necessary to focusing on the pra...

Johannes Michael Schnarrer

2006-01-01

245

Environmental Studies and Utilitarian Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a…

Wolff, Brian G.

2009-01-01

246

Dilemmas in undertaking research in paediatric intensive care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Providing evidence-based interventions for infants and children is important in paediatric intensive care, where decision making impacts most acutely on morbidity and mortality. However, despite the major progress of medicine in the 21st century, we still lack this evidence for majority of the decisions we make. In this article, we explore and suggest possible solutions for several dilemmas faced by paediatric intensive care researchers. These include ethical dilemmas such as validity of informed consent, use of deferred consent, balancing risk versus benefit and methodological dilemmas such as how to generate high-quality evidence with low-patient volume, choice of valid outcome measures and how best to use research and researchers' networks. PMID:24919710

Kanthimathinathan, Hari Krishnan; Scholefield, Barnaby R

2014-11-01

247

The teaching of medical ethics to medical students.  

OpenAIRE

Teaching medical ethics to medical students in a pluralistic society is a challenging task. Teachers of ethics have obligations not just to teach the subject matter but to help create an academic environment in which well motivated students have reinforcement of their inherent good qualities. Emphasis should be placed on the ethical aspects of daily medical practice and not just on the dramatic dilemmas raised by modern technology. Interdisciplinary teaching should be encouraged and teaching ...

Glick, S. M.

1994-01-01

248

Ethics in the Hospitality Industry: Review and Research Agenda  

OpenAIRE

Practitioners in the hospitality sector rate ethics as one of the most important issues faced by the industry. Manyscholars argue that the hospitality sector is open to frequent unethical practices. Managers and employees, due tointensive face-to-face interactions with clients, confront many ethical dilemmas in their day-to-day operations.Previous research confirms that a positive ethical climate nurtures a healthy organization by increasing managerand employee job satisfaction, enhancing cu...

Mouna Knani

2014-01-01

249

Dementia and ethics: the views of informal carers  

OpenAIRE

There has been little work on the ethical issues facing non-professionals who care for relatives or others with dementia. A qualitative pilot study was conducted in ten such individuals, eight of them women, caring for persons drawn mainly from one general practice. The interviews indicated that many of the dilemmas faced by carers are ethical and that the issues differ from those faced by professionals. Ethical issues are sometimes the most troublesome matter for care...

Hughes, Julian C.; Hope, Tony; Reader, Steve; Rice, Dee

2002-01-01

250

The everyday ethics of field work research with vulnerable patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients are increasingly involved in health informatics research. Researchers are always aware of the ethical dimensions of their research, but studies in the field with patients--especially among the frail, elderly, cognitively impaired--present specific additional 'everyday moral dilemmas'. Reflecting on experiences of a hospital study of patients with dementia, this paper draws attention on the type and constant presence of this situated ethics, the immediacy of decision-making, and the importance of everyday ethics for health informatics. PMID:25160300

Lichtner, Valentina

2014-01-01

251

Ethics and its challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available I would like to look at some of the challenges of ethcis today. Therefore, in the first part I say something about ethics, the ethical theories and ethical concepts. Afterwords I am going to explain a little bit about the human dimensions, the dealing with experiences (i.e. work; because the human person has to decide the right thing in the right place on the right time, and in relatively freedom. In the end, there are some ideas about applied ethics which is necessary to focusing on the practical issues, too. Otherwise people who do not like the ethical discussions they could think that ethical ideas are selfsufficient and do not make sense, but I will tell them something else....

Johannes Michael Schnarrer

2006-04-01

252

Ethics: A Matter of Moral Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Courses in theoretical ethics are unrelated to the moral delemmas that nurses encounter in practice, according to the authors. They present a method for moral education in nursing curricula utilizing seminars for dilemma discussion that can help students to progress in moral judgment. (MF)

Krawczyk, Rosemary; Kudzma, Elizabeth

1978-01-01

253

Ethical Issues in School Art Therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

School art therapists face numerous ethical dilemmas, from referrals to therapy, through privacy, safety and predictability in the art therapy room, to the need to balance cooperation with the educational staff and its expectations of shared information with loyalty to the patient. Breach of confidentiality also has legal implications. The…

Moriya, Dafna

2006-01-01

254

Dilemmas in end-stage heart failure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heart failure (HF), a complex clinical syndrome due to structural or functional disorder of the heart, is a major global health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA alone, and over 23 million worldwide. As a leading cause of hospitalizations among patients aged 65 years or older, HF is a major consumer of healthcare resources, creating a substantial strain on the healthcare system. This paper discusses the epidemiology of HF, financial impact, and multifaceted predicaments in end-stage HF care. A search was conducted on the U.S. National Library of Medicine website (www.pubmed.gov) using keywords such as end-stage heart failure, palliative care, ethical dilemmas. Despite the poor prognosis of HF (worse than that for many cancers), many HF patients, caregivers, and clinicians are unaware of the poor prognosis. In addition, the unpredictable clinical trajectory of HF complicates the planning of end-of-life care, such as palliative care and hospice, leading to underutilization of such resources. In conclusion, ethical dilemmas in end-stage HF are numerous, embroiling not only the patient, but also the caregiver, healthcare team, and society. PMID:25678905

Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Saravolatz, Louis; Hirsh, Benjamin; Agrawal, Pratik; Scarabelli, Tiziano M

2015-01-01

255

Business ethics across the curriculum?  

OpenAIRE

This article describes and discusses team teaching and particularly guest lectures as a way of integrating ethics into the business curriculum. After a brief discussion of business school responsibilities and the teaching of ethics, the article looks at efforts to integrate the teaching of ethics across the curriculum. Then, findings from a small pilot study among business ethics and business school colleagues are summarized and discussed, with a focus on guest lecturing and team teaching, bo...

Brinkmann, Johannes; Sims, Ronald R.; Nelson, Lawrence J.

2011-01-01

256

Medical Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

... have an ethical aspect. For example, there are ethical issues relating to End of life care: Should a patient receive nutrition? What about advance directives and resuscitation orders? Abortion: When does life begin? Is it ethical to ...

257

Ethical Issues within the Gerontological Nursing Curriculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation focuses on ethical issues that need to be addressed within the gerontological nursing curriculum for preparing nurses to become change agents and catalysts in the health care of the older population. Ethics and ethical principles are defined, and three ethical principles are discussed: justice; beneficence; and autonomy.…

Bahr, Rose Therese

258

When Ethics Survive Where People Do Not  

OpenAIRE

The provision of health care service in resource-poor settings is associated with a broad set of ethical issues. Devakumar's case discusses the ethical issues related to the inability to treat in a cholera clinic patients who do not have cholera. This paper gives a closer look on the context in which Devakumar's case took place. It also analyses the potential local and organizational factors that gives rise to ethical dilemmas and aggravate them. It also proposes a framework to help in the pr...

Hussein, Ghaiath M. A.

2010-01-01

259

Virtue ethics and an ethics of care: complementary or in conflict?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts virtue ethics and care ethics to determine their mutual relation. It is argued that there is one tradition within virtue ethics that emphasises that virtue is knowledge and also focuses on direct altruism. There is no opposition between that form of virtue ethics and ethics of care. Furthermore, there are principled objections to generalising the necessarily asymmetric relations of an ethic of care to the case of justice as reciprocal fairness.

Alan Thomas

2011-07-01

260

A situated practice of ethics for participatory visual and digital methods in public health research and practice: a focus on digital storytelling.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores ethical considerations related to participatory visual and digital methods for public health research and practice, through the lens of an approach known as "digital storytelling." We begin by briefly describing the digital storytelling process and its applications to public health research and practice. Next, we explore 6 common challenges: fuzzy boundaries, recruitment and consent to participate, power of shaping, representation and harm, confidentiality, and release of materials. We discuss their complexities and offer some considerations for ethical practice. We hope this article serves as a catalyst for expanded dialogue about the need for high standards of integrity and a situated practice of ethics wherein researchers and practitioners reflexively consider ethical decision-making as part of the ongoing work of public health. PMID:23948015

Gubrium, Aline C; Hill, Amy L; Flicker, Sarah

2014-09-01

261

The Ethical Role of Information in Sustainable Communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussion of sustainable communities, or sustainable development, focuses on the ethical role of information in fostering sustainable environmental development. Topics include background information, developments in information technology, permaculture in the area of horticulture and information ethics, information ethics models, hardware…

Lockway, Larry

1995-01-01

262

Ethics outside of inpatient care: the need for alliances between clinical and organizational ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The norms and practices of clinical ethics took form relative to the environment and relationships of hospital care. These practices do not easily translate into the outpatient context because the environment and relational dynamics differ. Yet, as outpatient care becomes the center of health care delivery, the experiences of ethical tension for outpatient clinicians warrant greater responses. Although a substantial body of literature on the nature of the doctor-physician relationship has been developed and could provide theoretical groundwork for an outpatient ethics, this literature is not sufficient to support outpatient caregivers in practical dilemmas. For physicians who are employed by or affiliated with a larger organization, a stronger alliance between clinical ethics and organizational ethics, identity, and mission will promote expansion of ethics resources in outpatient settings and address structural constraints in outpatient clinical care. PMID:24609755

Barina, Rachelle

2014-12-01

263

Indian policeman's dilemma: A game theoretic model  

OpenAIRE

This paper focuses on a one person game called Indian policeman's dilemma (IPD). It represents the internal conflict between emotion and profession of a typical Indian police officer. We have 'split' the game to be played independently by different personality modules of the same player. Each module then appears as an independent individual player of the game. None of the players knows the exact payoff values of any of the others. Only greater than or less than type of inequ...

Majumdar, Kaushik Kumar

2010-01-01

264

A Computerised Business Ethics Expert System -A new approach to improving the ethical quality of business decision-making  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Where unethical business decision-making arises from failures of ethical perception, there is an important role for ethical training and decision-making tools. These may help business people to consider all relevant issues when assessing the ethical status of potential decisions. Ethical training programmes give business people a basic understanding of the principles which underlie ethical judgements and equip them with many of the necessary skills for dealing with the ethical dilemmas which they face in their jobs. Similarly, ethical decision-making tools may guide managers through the various ethical considerations which are relevant to business decision-making and help them to develop their ethical-perceptual skills. Furthermore, by establishing and reinforcing good ethical decision-making practices, training programmes and decision-making tools may also reduce the incidence of self-consciously unethical decision-making. A new approach to improving the ethical quality of business decision-making by the use of computerized business ethics expert systems is proposed. These systems have the potential to guide business people through a process of ethical evaluation while simultaneously fulfilling an educational role, thus providing many of the benefits of both training programmes and decision-making tools. While the prospect of a computer system which could simply make ethical judgements for business people is both unrealistic and undesirable, a system which leads human decision-makers through a structured assessment process has the potential for genuine benefits. Keywords: Expert Systems, Ethical Decision Making

Bernie Brenner

2007-06-01

265

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis principles and ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) followed by implantation of unaffected embryos offers high-risk couples the option to decrease the risk of genetic disease in their offspring without the dilemma of a prenatal diagnosis that may be followed by a termination of pregnancy. Polar body, blastomere and blastocyst biopsies are currently being performed, whereas the two major technologies used for single-cell genetic analysis involve the polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in-situ hybridization. PGD, similar to other prenatal diagnosis methods, raises many ethical and legal dilemmas. The high cost of practice and the low pregnancy rate achieved are still considered the major drawbacks of this new procedure. PMID:9756304

Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

1998-08-01

266

Emotion Interference Solves Social Dilemma  

OpenAIRE

Roles of emotion in decision-making have been attracting attention in neuroeconomics and behavioral game theory. We mathematically demonstrate that “emotion interference”, a recently-discovered psychological phenomenon [1] helps to solve social dilemma in a one-shot prisoner’s dilemma game. Furthermore, the present theory also accounts for the violation of Savage’s sure-thing principle in the prisoner’s dilemma [2]. Furthermore, it is also explained that why people in the society wi...

Taiki Takahashi

2012-01-01

267

A Qualitative Study of Immigration Policy and Practice Dilemmas for Social Work Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Social policy shapes the infrastructure wherein social work is practiced. However, what happens when a particular social policy is seemingly incongruent with the social work code of ethics? How do social work students conceive and resolve potential practice dilemmas that may arise as a consequence? In this study, the authors explored potential…

Furman, Rich; Langer, Carol L.; Sanchez, Thomas Wayne; Negi, Nalini Junko

2007-01-01

268

Iterated crowdsourcing dilemma game  

Science.gov (United States)

The Internet has enabled the emergence of collective problem solving, also known as crowdsourcing, as a viable option for solving complex tasks. However, the openness of crowdsourcing presents a challenge because solutions obtained by it can be sabotaged, stolen, and manipulated at a low cost for the attacker. We extend a previously proposed crowdsourcing dilemma game to an iterated game to address this question. We enumerate pure evolutionarily stable strategies within the class of so-called reactive strategies, i.e., those depending on the last action of the opponent. Among the 4096 possible reactive strategies, we find 16 strategies each of which is stable in some parameter regions. Repeated encounters of the players can improve social welfare when the damage inflicted by an attack and the cost of attack are both small. Under the current framework, repeated interactions do not really ameliorate the crowdsourcing dilemma in a majority of the parameter space.

Oishi, Koji; Cebrian, Manuel; Abeliuk, Andres; Masuda, Naoki

2014-02-01

269

How to Have a Successful Science and Ethics Discussion  

Science.gov (United States)

Students often come to class discussions with preformed opinions on many ethical issues. The challenging task for teachers is to help students learn to identify the facts of a case, recognize the underlying ethical dilemmas, and to understand the different perspectives involved. These objectives can be met successfully by following the three key components to effective discussions related to ethics and science that are discussed in this article: Content and lesson strategies, a decision-making model, and a familiarity with ethical perspectives (see Figure 1).

Jeanne Ting Chowning

2005-12-01

270

ETHICS IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIAL AND HEALTH POLICY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today modern society pays great attention to the development of ethical guidelines for each profession and their implementation in the form of codes of ethics to individual policies. In particular, the Ministry of Health and Welfare is faced in meeting the ethical codes of the current economic and political developments in society. Optimization of standards for health and social care that are implemented through normative no systematic evaluation of the impact on each target group significantly reduces their quality of life. The paper draws attention to the dilemmas of social work and health care in relation to ethics.

Liedermanová Ivana

2013-12-01

271

Iterated crowdsourcing dilemma game  

OpenAIRE

The Internet has enabled the emergence of collective problem solving, also known as crowdsourcing, as a viable option for solving complex tasks. However, the openness of crowdsourcing presents a challenge because solutions obtained by it can be sabotaged, stolen, and manipulated at a low cost for the attacker. We extend a previously proposed crowdsourcing dilemma game to an iterated game to address this question. We enumerate pure evolutionarily stable strategies within the ...

Koji Oishi; Manuel Cebrian; Andres Abeliuk; Naoki Masuda

2014-01-01

272

The Climate Policy Dilemma  

OpenAIRE

Climate policy poses a dilemma for environmental economists. The economic argument for stringent greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement is far from clear. There is disagreement among both climate scientists and economists concerning the likelihood of alternative climate outcomes, the nature and extent of the uncertainty of those outcomes, and the framework that should be used to evaluate potential benefits from GHG abatement, including key policy parameters. I argue that the case for stringent abatem...

Pindyck, Robert S.

2013-01-01

273

Ethics for One World  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Technological advancement has made the increasing closeness among the diverse regions of the world inevitable. This article focuses on the ethical implications that this proximity entails. The author analyzes how global warming, commerce, and international law are topics that should interest and involve all nations because the decisions taken towards these matters have global consequences. He purports that there is a need to apply an ethic for one world that also goes beyond the human species.

Singer, Peter

2005-01-01

274

Environmental and Ethical Aspects of Sustainable Mining in Greenland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The increased use of scarce metals in combination with climate changes pave way for extensive extraction of mineral resources in Greenland. The focus of this study is on environmental ethical aspects of mining activities in a vulnerable and unspoiled arctic nature. Mining can have several economic and social benefits for Greenland. On the other hand, the environmental impacts from mining are well known. Through DPSIR (Drivers, Pressures, States, Impacts, Responses) and Stakeholder analysis, we assess how future mining in Greenland can be sustainably implemented. The analysis revealed that numerous stakeholders have to be taken into consideration with a wide range of different interests. The DPSIR analysis clarified the availability of various potential political responses that could affect the drivers, pressures, states and impacts of mining mainly focused on implementation of effective environmental regulation strategies. Our findings revealed different environmental ethical dilemmas of which the most critical is how Greenland can open up for mining, gain economical revenue while averting destruction of unspoiled regions and aesthetic impairment. We recommend strict environmental legislation involving use of the “polluter pay principle”, continuous monitoring of pollution and establishment of an industry-funded catastrophe trust fund. These initiatives can ensure economic benefits while environmental impacts remain negligible.

Hansen, Sinne HjælmsØ; Pedersen, Lise Celine

2013-01-01

275

Ethics Column: "Ethical Challenges in the Care of Elderly Persons  

OpenAIRE

Ethical issues are central to any discussion or reflection on aging and health care. The authors of the OJIN topic, Health Care and the Aging Population: What Are Today's Challenges?, address a variety of topics including quality of life, long-term care planning, geriatric education, frail elder care, and successful aging behaviors. Imbedded in these topics are ethical issues that are relevant to nursing and/or health care. Thus, the focus of this column is to examine select ethical issues in...

Ludwick, R.

2003-01-01

276

BUSINESS ETHICS  

OpenAIRE

Ethics contain a set of principles of personal and professional conduct .The concept of Business ethics relates itself to the norms and the ideals businessman and business groups adopt in course of their activities in business .Business ethics is an assertion of “be good” and “do good” in business. Ethical business practices has been a blessing to the enterprises as it ensures faith in society ,government trust ,business partners trust .on the other hand unethical busi...

Raman Arora

2014-01-01

277

Ethics in the Work Environment: Applied Bioethics in the Hospital for Delta's Nursing Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1979, Delta College, in Michigan, established a bioethics requirement for all nursing students. This paper describes a project to teach one of the required ethics course to local hospitals to observe students while they work and discuss ethical dilemmas as they arose. Introductory sections discuss project rationale and procedures, indicating…

Plackowski, Linda C.

278

Maurice Hamington and Maureen Sander-Staudt (eds.) Applying care ethics to business (Dordrecht: Springer, 2011)  

OpenAIRE

Care ethics is a relatively recent development in ethics, originating in Carol Gilligan´s book In a Different Voice, published in 1982 and pointing out flaws in Kohlberg´s theory of moral development, specifically in choosing only boys for the experiments, in using moral dilemmas to measure moral development, and in his idea that morality only consisted in universal rules.

Guðmundur Heiðar Frímannsson 1952

2012-01-01

279

Ethics and the Promotion of Inclusiveness within Qualitative Research: Case Examples from Asia and the Pacific  

Science.gov (United States)

Qualitative researchers are often confronted by ethical challenges when making research decisions because current guidelines and principles guiding research ethics do not wholly cover the concerns that can arise in complex social research situations. In this article, the authors explore this dilemma in relation to our experiences of conducting…

Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.; Brijnath, Bianca; Crockett, Belinda

2010-01-01

280

NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct. Revised = Codigo de Conducta Etica. Revisada  

Science.gov (United States)

This document presents a code of ethics for early childhood educators that offers guidelines for responsible behavior and sets forth a common basis for resolving ethical dilemmas encountered in early education. It represents the English and Spanish versions of the revised code. Its contents were approved by the NAEYC Governing Board in April 2005…

National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP), 2005

2005-01-01

281

When Practice Takes Precedence: Conceptions of Inquiry and the Link to Ethical Posture  

Science.gov (United States)

Using participatory action research (PAR), this paper explores the ethical practice of students engaged in practitioner research in a higher education context. Using narrative enquiry, the paper explores the participants' experiences of practitioner research, including ethical dilemmas that resulted from a conflict of values between the…

McArdle, Karen; Birchley, Jacinta; Bruce, Jayne; Hurrell, Alison; Paterson, Sandra; Stephen, Mary

2015-01-01

282

Examining Moral Reasoning and Ethical Decision Making among Mississippi's Community College Administrators  

Science.gov (United States)

As ethical dilemmas arise in community colleges, administrators make decisions that require sensitivity to the organizational, political, and environmental factors surrounding their particular institutional climates and locales. The moral reasoning and ethical decision-making of community college administrators were examined in this study. In…

Wilson, Vernesia Bracey

2010-01-01

283

A Comparison of Special Education Administrators' and Teachers' Knowledge and Application of Ethics and Professional Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

The field of special education is wrought with ethical dilemmas. The Council for Exceptional Children has outlined its code of ethics and standards for professional practice for individuals working in the field of special education. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which special education administrators and teachers possess…

Fiedler, Craig R.; Van Haren, Barbara

2009-01-01

284

Ethical Issues in Physiatrist Practice  

OpenAIRE

Editorial on Ethical Issues. Medical ethics is at the centre of medical practice. It isrightly gaining much needed renewed focus and attentionin the evolving scenario. The impetus for it may beattributed to the revelations that arose through Nurembergtrials, the framework elements that define research andpublications related compulsions, and indeed the contextand state of affairs of present day medical jurisprudence.The physiatrist’s practice cannot remain untouched bythe moral and ethical...

Hand G

2008-01-01

285

Making ethical deliberations public: Some provisional resources for youth research ethics  

OpenAIRE

The focus of this special edition of Youth Studies Australia is on questions, issues, challenges and (tentative) solutions in relation to ensuring that research with young people is conducted ethically. This introductory paper by the guest editors of this edition draws on ethical principles as outlined in the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans and in the Fairbridge Code of Ethics for youth work. The authors explain how these principles can inform ethical youth ...

Te Riele, K.; Brooks, R.

2012-01-01

286

Ethics--Business Educators Teach Students To Do the Right Thing!  

Science.gov (United States)

This issue focuses on teaching ethics in business education programs. Exploring the teaching of ethics in both high school and college, the newsletter first presents an overview of ethics and the study of ethics and makes a case for teaching ethics in business education courses. Following a short commentary on the difficulty of teaching ethics is…

Keying In, 1997

1997-01-01

287

[Medical ethics as professional ethics].  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary medical ethics is far from the traditional concept of "In-Sul (benevolent art)" or "Yul-Li (?, ethics), which emphasizes so much the personality or the character of a doctor. Nowadays, medical ethics should be considered as "professional ethics" which regulates the acts and medical practices of ordinary doctors in their daily practice. The key concepts of the professional ethics are "autonomy", "integrity", and "professional standard" established by medical organizations such as medical societies or associations. Most of Korean doctors have not been familiar with the concept of professional ethics or professionalism, which is due to the modern history of Korea. However, the concept of professional ethics is really critical to Korean doctors from the perspective of professional dignity and social respect to this profession. The current healthcare system of Korea is suffering from many problems of both private and public sector. Nonetheless, the professional ethics is urgently demanded for that very reason. PMID:23018533

Kwon, Ivo

2012-09-25

288

Dilemas éticos da vida humana: a trajetória hospitalar de crianças portadoras de paralisia cerebral grave The ethical dilemmas of human life: the hospital history of children with serious cerebral palsy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O artigo é um estudo antropológico que aborda os pressupostos éticos do tratamento médico ministrado em crianças portadoras de paralisia cerebral grave. A pesquisa foi realizada a partir de um trabalho etnográfico de oito meses, com pacientes em tratamento no Centro de Paralisia Cerebral do Hospital Sarah, Salvador. A observação da terapêutica ministrada a estas crianças, que apresentam pouquíssimas mudanças do quadro clínico, levou ao questionamento já bastante sugerido em discussões relativas à deontologia médica: Qual o objetivo do tratamento médico empregado nestas crianças? Na verdade, os resultados desta pesquisa indicaram a existência de explicações sócio-humanistas que estariam além da explicação médico-científica oficial, a qual resumiria a terapêutica a um fisicalismo corporal.This study deals with the ethical premises of medical treatment for children with serious cerebral palsy. Eight months of ethnographic research were carried out with patients at the Cerebral Palsy Center in the Sarah Hospital in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Observation of treatment for these children, who displayed limited clinical change, led to the following question, as suggested by discussions from medical deontology: What is the purpose of medical treatment for children with serious cerebral palsy? The results of our research point to social and humanist explanations going beyond the official medical scientific explanation, which limits treatment to corporal mechanicism.

Debora Diniz

1996-09-01

289

Ethical Issues in Irregular Migration Research in Europe  

OpenAIRE

This paper is concerned with the ethical issues arising for researchers engaged in the study of irregular migration. Based on the authors' research experiences, the paper goes beyond analysis of ethical dilemmas and aims to provide some guidance to researchers in this field. Irregular migration is by definition an elusive phenomenon as it takes place in violation of the law and at the margins of society. The very nature of this phenomenon raises important issues, including the sensitivity and...

Du?vell, Franck; Triandafyllidou, Anna; Vollmer, Bastian

2010-01-01

290

Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Created in 2007, this website is a superb tool for learning about the ethical dilemmas engineers face in areas such as emerging technologies, environment, safety and sustainability, and responsible research. Visitors can learn about various ethical dilemmas via the site's collection of "Cases", "Essays & Articles", "Instructional Resources", and "Other Resources". The "Cases" link contains a fascinating collection of historical cases, hypothetical cases, fictionalized cases, numerical problems, and scenarios. Visitors will find cases that address a killer robot, reverse engineering, Internet privacy, and the real case of a "computerized radiation therapy machine and its software flaws, which caused massive overdoses to patients." The "Instructional Resources" link provides various university syllabi for courses on computers and the Internet, as well as a syllabus for a course for both young people and senior citizens which addresses the future of technology. Visitors will also find an informational article on the misuse of emerging technologies, entitled "Antibiotic Resistance and Dual Use".

291

A study in animal ethics in New Brunswick.  

OpenAIRE

Society uses animals in ever-increasing numbers and ways, providing ethical challenges. Decisions about animal use are guided by the social consensus ethic towards animals. Because there is no clear social consensus ethic, these decisions are difficult. Society's ethic is changing and a "new ethic" towards animals is emerging. This study addressed the need to better understand society's ethics towards animals. Qualitative research methodology (focus groups) was used to study 7 different anima...

Schneider, B. J.

2001-01-01

292

Ethics Updates  

Science.gov (United States)

Created in 1994 by Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego, the Ethics Updates site is designed primarily to be used to ethics instructors and their students. However, the site is rather interesting, so members of the general public may find themselves making a few return visits. Visitors can use the drop-down tabs on the top of the homepage to make their way through sections that cover some of the basic theories of ethics and also learn more about applied ethics in relation to such issues as animal rights, torture, and world hunger. Moving on, the "Resources" area includes case studies for discussion, a glossary of terms, classic texts in ethics, and ethics surveys. The site is rounded out by a search engine and a selection of videos that deal with various topics in ethics.

Hinman, Lawrence M.

293

Towards a dialogical ethics of interprofessionalism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contemporary medical practice brings a diverse range of professions and disciplines together in greater and closer contact. This situation of increasing complexity and changing professional roles gives rise to multifaceted ethical dilemmas and theoretical and practical concerns. In this essay we argue that for multidisciplinary relationships to be facilitated and to progress towards interdisciplinary teamwork, moral agents have to go beyond orthodox ethical systems and appeal to normative theory. We will argue that conceptualising ethics as a shared social practice may provide a useful starting point. This dialogic approach places greater emphasis on open deliberation and the articulation, negotiation, exploration and generation of new ethical perspectives in the here and now of clinical practice.

Irvine Rob

2004-10-01

294

The Importance of Teaching Ethics of Sustainability  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the importance of a focus on ethics in sustainability education and present results from a pilot graduate-level course titled the Ethics of Sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: This is a case study presenting a qualitative evaluation from a pilot 14-week Ethics of Sustainability course.…

Biedenweg, Kelly; Monroe, Martha C.; Oxarart, Annie

2013-01-01

295

Enhancing humanistic skills: an experiential approach to learning about ethical issues in health care.  

OpenAIRE

An outstanding feature of the study of nursing ethics is that it raises questions concerning moral virtue, conscience, consistency and character. A considerable section of the literature is devoted to ideas of how best to teach ethics to health professionals. It has been shown that when faced with ethical dilemmas nurses tended to rely on intuition and instinct to resolve them, with little systematic analysis to help the process. Nurses who have been in practice for a number of years may expe...

Sofaer, B.

1995-01-01

296

Ethics of compassion in education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main challenges currently facing education is the incorporation of the ethics of compassion at the theoretical level as well as in educational practice. This article outlines the main arguments that permit us to introduce a sentiment of compassion in the pedagogical proposals for moral education. Emphasis is placed on the complementary nature of ethics and moral development which, under various denominations, consider similar aspects: ethics of moral sentiments; ethics of care and responsibility; ethics of otherness; and ethics of hospitality among others. Finally, we arrive at two features that should be considered when implementing the teaching of compassion in the moral realm: the relationship between students and teachers, and the narrative focus in moral development.

M. Rosa BUXARRAIS ESTRADA

2009-11-01

297

Ethics in Crimes and Misdemeanors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper I employ Goodenough´s distinction between films that illustrate, are about and do philosophy to answer the question how we can identify the ethical content of movies. Crimes and Misdemeanors by Woody Allen is taken as an example but Mary L. Litch has argued that this movie illustrates ethical problems and is about ethics. On Litch´s reading the film reveals inherent flaws in utilitarianism and illustrates a Kantian insight as well as other ethical and religious theses. I argue, however, that Litch has relied on a too narrow method when identifying the ethics of Crimes and Misdemeanors. She focuses almost exclusively on dialogue and the general storyline. If we broaden our method to include sensitivity to filming, editing, camera angulation etc., we will not only realize a rather different ethical content in Crimes and Misdemeanors but also see how the movie stirkes close to home for most viewers of Hollywood movies.

Róbert Haraldsson

2014-03-01

298

Dilemma of Dilemmas: How Collective and Individual Perspectives Can Clarify the Size Dilemma in Voluntary Linear Public Goods Dilemmas  

Science.gov (United States)

Empirical findings on public goods dilemmas indicate an unresolved dilemma: that increasing size—the number of people in the dilemma—sometimes increases, decreases, or does not influence cooperation. We clarify this dilemma by first classifying public goods dilemma properties that specify individual outcomes as individual properties (e.g., Marginal Per Capita Return) and group outcomes as group properties (e.g., public good multiplier), mathematically showing how only one set of properties can remain constant as the dilemma size increases. Underpinning decision-making regarding individual and group properties, we propose that individuals are motivated by both individual and group preferences based on a theory of collective rationality. We use Van Lange's integrated model of social value orientations to operationalize these preferences as an amalgamation of outcomes for self, outcomes for others, and equality of outcomes. Based on this model, we then predict how the public good's benefit and size, combined with controlling individual versus group properties, produce different levels of cooperation in public goods dilemmas. A two (low vs. high benefit) by three (2-person baseline vs. 5-person holding constant individual properties vs. 5-person holding constant group properties) factorial experiment (group n = 99; participant n = 390) confirms our hypotheses. The results indicate that when holding constant group properties, size decreases cooperation. Yet when holding constant individual properties, size increases cooperation when benefit is low and does not affect cooperation when benefit is high. Using agent-based simulations of individual and group preferences vis-à-vis the integrative model, we fit a weighted simulation model to the empirical data. This fitted model is sufficient to reproduce the empirical results, but only when both individual (self-interest) and group (other-interest and equality) preference are included. Our research contributes to understanding how people's motivations and behaviors within public goods dilemmas interact with the properties of the dilemma to lead to collective outcomes. PMID:25799355

Shank, Daniel B.; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Saber, Saam; Gale, Thomas; Kirley, Michael

2015-01-01

299

Approaching Ethical Reasoning in Nursing Research through a Communitarian Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Case studies depict dilemmas in nursing research involving protection of community rights and community informed consent. Outlines research guidelines derived from communitarian ethical frameworks that consider beneficence, justice, and respect for autonomy in the context of community. (Contains 58 references.) (SK)

Dresden, Elissa; McElmurry, Beverly J.; McCreary, Linda L.

2003-01-01

300

Patient safety and ethics: a conflict of goods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nurses often face ethical dilemmas when providing care to patients with cancer. Although "doing the right thing" may seem obvious in the decision-making process, nurses are frequently challenged with a conflict of doing good regarding patient safety and patient advocacy versus maintaining collegial relationships. PMID:23178349

Hill, Joal

2012-12-01

301

The importance of meta-ethics in engineering education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our shared moral framework is negotiated as part of the social contract. Some elements of that framework are established (tell the truth under oath), but other elements lack an overlapping consensus (just when can an individual lie to protect his or her privacy?). The tidy bits of our accepted moral framework have been codified, becoming the subject of legal rather than ethical consideration. Those elements remaining in the realm of ethics seem fragmented and inconsistent. Yet, our engineering students will need to navigate the broken ground of this complex moral landscape. A minimalist approach would leave our students with formulated dogma--principles of right and wrong such as the National Society for Professional Engineers (NSPE) Code of Ethics for Engineers--but without any insight into the genesis of these principles. A slightly deeper, micro-ethics approach would teach our students to solve ethical problems by applying heuristics--giving our students a rational process to manipulate ethical dilemmas using the same principles simply referenced a priori by dogma. A macro-ethics approach--helping students to inductively construct a posteriori principles from case studies--goes beyond the simple statement or manipulation of principles, but falls short of linking personal moral principles to the larger, social context. Ultimately, it is this social context that requires both the application of ethical principles, and the negotiation of moral values--from an understanding of meta-ethics. The approaches to engineering ethics instruction (dogma, heuristics, case studies, and meta-ethics) can be associated with stages of moral development. If we leave our students with only a dogmatic reaction to ethical dilemmas, they will be dependent on the ethical decisions of others (a denial of their fundamental potential for moral autonomy). Heuristics offers a tool to deal independently with moral questions, but a tool that too frequently reduces to casuistry when rigidly applied to "simplified" dilemmas. Case studies, while providing a context for engineering ethics, can encourage the premature analysis of specific moral conduct rather than the development of broad moral principles--stifling our students' facility with meta-ethics. Clearly, if a moral sense is developmental, ethics instruction should lead our students from lower to higher stages of moral development. PMID:15152845

Haws, David R

2004-04-01

302

Ethics in the Hospitality Industry: Review and Research Agenda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Practitioners in the hospitality sector rate ethics as one of the most important issues faced by the industry. Manyscholars argue that the hospitality sector is open to frequent unethical practices. Managers and employees, due tointensive face-to-face interactions with clients, confront many ethical dilemmas in their day-to-day operations.Previous research confirms that a positive ethical climate nurtures a healthy organization by increasing managerand employee job satisfaction, enhancing customer experience, and increasing the organization’s profit. Despiteits crucial role, studies on ethics in the hospitality industry are limited compared to those undertaken in the moregeneral business area. This manuscript reviews the literature on ethical perceptions and practices amonghospitality managers, employees and students (future professionals, and proposes a research agenda. This criticreview intends to increase awareness and knowledge on the importance of this issue and give some orientationsfor scholars towards several important topics for future research in the area of hospitality ethics.

Mouna Knani

2014-02-01

303

Dilemmas of Modernity in Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The subject-matter of this paper is to try to find out some reference points in order to understand many dilemmas which accompanied modern society – its birth, evolution and spread throughout countries and centuries. The most frequent such dilemmas concerned the paramount criteria for choosing between individual or societal matters, between private propriety or public (state one, between private or public interests, between market mechanism or government policy as basis of the best decisions in human actions and matters. While analyzing such inconsistencies and dilemmas we can better understand the real nature of modernity and liberalism, especially what some researchers call “postmodernity”.

Sultana Suta-Selejan

2006-09-01

304

Emotion Interference Solves Social Dilemma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Roles of emotion in decision-making have been attracting attention in neuroeconomics and behavioral game theory. We mathematically demonstrate that “emotion interference”, a recently-discovered psychological phenomenon [1] helps to solve social dilemma in a one-shot prisoner’s dilemma game. Furthermore, the present theory also accounts for the violation of Savage’s sure-thing principle in the prisoner’s dilemma [2]. Furthermore, it is also explained that why people in the society with higher social mobility are more cooperative. Relations of the present work to recently evolving fields of neuroeconomics and quantum decision theory are discussed.

Taiki Takahashi

2012-12-01

305

Ethical challenges when reading aesthetic rape scenes  

OpenAIRE

Both the issue of the ethics of representation and the issue of the ethics of reading are particularly important when it comes to representations of suffering and violence. This chapter addresses the ethics of representing and the ethics of reading rape, with a focus on the latter. Depictions of rape are interesting study objects because the extreme situation of rape simultaneously evokes cultural scripts of sexual fantasies and lies in the domain of taboos and crime. Through those kinds of r...

Koopman, E. M.

2011-01-01

306

Ethical considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed

307

The low-level radioactive waste dilemma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dilemma of disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) is an issue faced by radiopharmaceutical companies and biomedical research and health care institutions as well as the nuclear industry itself. This chapter focuses on the programs and methods employed by one such research and educational institution as it strives to minimize the impact on the research community it serves and yet maintain a resonable, practical, and cost-effective LLRW disposal program. The type of program and the methods used may not be suitable for all applications, and the authors stress that each institution must determine which specific aspects and techniques best meet the goals and objectives of that organization

308

Asceticism as an eclectic ethics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The methodological divisions in ethics result in fundamental consequences both on the conceptual level and in the practical applicability of such ethics. These divisions arise from broader theoretical positions, however they are also the work of individual moral sensibilities or 'moral instincts', as they are called at least in the Hegelian tradition. The deontological, consequentialist, vrtue-, developmental and other methodological models of ethics have facilitated a miltiplication of standards of ethical argument. This process has been intellectually productive, however at the same time it has created significant problems for practical philosophy, especially for applied philosophical areas which require a clearly defined and specific referential relationship between the key values formative of the respective ethical models on the one hand, and the concrete moral challenges encountered by the proponents of such ethics, on the other. The contemporary, value- and methodologically transformative age, requires ethics to go beyond the methodological and conceptual reductionism and adopt a synthetic and eclectic approach to moral argument. The first question to be asked in this context is what types of already available normative ethical models might be reinterpreted and further developed into synthetic ethics. This paper discusses the ethics of asceticism, primarily in the form of Christian ethics, as a good candidate for a comprehensive and synthetic ethics. The paper purports to elucidate, on various levels, the potential of ascetic ethics to integrate elements of eudaimonistic ethics, duty ethics, virtue-ethics, consequentialist and deontological ethical methodologies. To do so the paper focuses two key and, at least by my lights, provocative questions: (1 To what extent the ethics of asceticism is 'negative' and based solely on the principles of self-denial, and to what extent is it able to incorporate a positive dynamic content? In other words, can the ascetic Christian ethics be interpreted so that it is able to integrate the concept of pleasure in the meaning of 'eudaimonia'? (2 Is an ascetic ethics able to generate specific moral questions instrumental to a moral justification of asctions, which would meaningfully integrate the various methods of ethical argument (minimally the deontological, consequentialist and virtue-ethics? If this consideration is able to show that ascetic ethics can achieve both goals, one could reasonably conclude that it is a good candidate for a general eclectic ethics. Of course, this would not automatically mean that the asectic ethics is the only potentially synthetic ethics, however it would facilitate a broader conceptualisation of asceticism as a practical way of moral thinking geared towards achieving a 'good life'. At the same time, such a consideration might open an additional inroad into the formulation of general criteria which practical philosophy, and especially ethics, would need to fulfil in order to address the composite and synthetic issues that life in a transformative age presents.

Fati? Aleksandar

2014-01-01

309

Ethics Updates  

Science.gov (United States)

Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego provides ethics students with a unique kind of meta-page where the user can choose from a wide array of information formats within each of the 23 topics under the main sub-headings of ethical theory and applied ethics. Topics covered include ethical relativism, utilitarianism, race and ethnicity, and euthanasia, among others. Information formats include links to web sites, bibliographies, court decisions, legislation, relevant documents, and articles in popular and professional literature. Much of the site content is adapted from Hinman's books.

310

Social patterning of screening uptake and the impact of facilitating informed choices: psychological and ethical analyses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Screening for unsuspected disease has both possible benefits and harms for those who participate. Historically the benefits of participation have been emphasized to maximize uptake reflecting a public health approach to policy; currently policy is moving towards an informed choice approach involving giving information about both benefits and harms of participation. However, no research has been conducted to evaluate the impact on health of an informed choice policy. Using psychological models, the first aim of this study was to describe an explanatory framework for variation in screening uptake and to apply this framework to assess the impact of informed choices in screening. The second aim was to evaluate ethically that impact. Data from a general population survey (n = 300) of beliefs and attitudes towards participation in diabetes screening indicated that greater orientation to the present is associated with greater social deprivation and lower expectation of participation in screening. The results inform an explanatory framework of social patterning of screening in which greater orientation to the present focuses attention on the disadvantages of screening, which tend to be immediate, thereby reducing participation. This framework suggests that an informed choice policy, by increasing the salience of possible harms of screening, might reduce uptake of screening more in those who are more deprived and orientated to the present. This possibility gives rise to an apparent dilemma where an ethical decision must be made between greater choice and avoiding health inequality. Philosophical perspectives on choice and inequality are used to point to some of the complexities in assessing whether there really is such a dilemma and if so how it should be resolved. The paper concludes with a discussion of the ethics of paternalism. PMID:18240023

Crockett, Rachel; Wilkinson, Timothy M; Marteau, Theresa M

2008-03-01

311

Cogeneration – Investment dilemma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy companies face several crucial investment dilemmas in the liberalized energy market. These are: the availability of energy sources, feed-in tariffs, market positioning and consumer satisfaction. Research analyzes profitability of the Cogeneration (Combined Heat and Power, CHP) project in the city of Rijeka. The CHP is designed to provide district heating for the University campus, the Hospital and active private consumers of district heating, and bring about further sales of electricity. Revitalization of the CHP project comprises necessary adaptive actions in the distribution power system but also real time monitoring, which enables the CHP island operation, with uninterrupted electric and thermal energy supply of critical consumers (e.g. hospital) in case of a serious disturbance. Results indicate the project profitability under several conditions: non-government regulation for heating price, feed-in tariffs and guaranteed sale of electricity together with added value from automatic control system (ACS)–island operation.

312

A model of student's dilemma  

CERN Document Server

Each year perhaps millions of young people face the following dilemma: should I continue my education or rather start working with already acquired skills. Right decision must take into account somebody's own abilities, accessibility to education institutions, competition, and potential benefits. A multi-agent, evolutionary model of this dilemma predicts a transition between stratified and homogeneous phases, evolution that diminishes fitness, fewer applicants per seat for decreased capacity of the university, and presence of poor students at \\'elite universities.

Lipowski, A; Lipowski, Adam; Ferreira, Antonio L.

2005-01-01

313

A model of student's dilemma  

OpenAIRE

Each year perhaps millions of young people face the following dilemma: should I continue my education or rather start working with already acquired skills. Right decision must take into account somebody's own abilities, accessibility to education institutions, competition, and potential benefits. A multi-agent, evolutionary model of this dilemma predicts a transition between stratified and homogeneous phases, evolution that diminishes fitness, fewer applicants per seat for d...

Lipowski, Adam; Ferreira, Antonio L.

2004-01-01

314

Ethical Issues in Pharmacogenetics  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article illustrates how pharmacogenetics promises drugs specific to an individual's condition. However, it poses some ethical concerns: invasion of medical privacy, unequal distribution of benefits, discrimination because it involves genetic tests, and research/business conflict-of-interest.

Carol Isaacson Barash (Genetics, Ethics & Policy Consulting, Inc.; )

2001-02-01

315

Ethical considerations of patient involvement in clinical psychiatric research.  

Science.gov (United States)

An important consideration in discussing psychiatric patients' rights is the involvement of such patients in research. In clinical psychiatric research, ethical decisions must be made about patients' ability to understand fully the nature and scope of the study. When family members, social networks, and other aspects of the patients' living situations are included in the study, the researcher must also consider the added risk of invasion of privacy. This paper discusses these ethical considerations through a review of the literature and a discussion of several research studies using descriptive or exploratory designs. Some suggestions for dealing with these ethical dilemmas are offered. PMID:10277284

Rose, L E

1986-06-01

316

The Ethics of Human Spaceflight  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter intends to lay out some essential ethics questions that might frame the next step of space exploration. In this, I undertake two sorts of tasks. The first is to respond to the core ethic question: Is it ethical to travel in space? The second, assuming for the moment that I can convince you that the first premise can be justified, is to comment on what ethical challenges will face us there. It is appropriate to have a philosopher comment on this at the fortieth anniversary celebration, since it was also in 1962 that the National Academy of Science first convened a panel of philosophers to comment on space travel. They asked at that time whether it was indeed a worthwhile pursuit to travel in space and what might be expected of such an effort. What is at stake in any such boundary crossing is how the changing of essential human perimeters changes our own moral status. Will such boundary crossing worsen our human condition, or will it enhance it? In this way, the geopolitical quest is then linked to the quest for ontology, Pisarro hunting for the fountain of youth, for gold, and for territory. What follows are a series of ethical claims that link the problem of discovery in the larger world and the attendant ethical dilemmas of our explorations, as well as how this exploration alters our concepts of life on Earth. In this, the role of the ethicist is to function as both a skeptic and a stranger, aware of the optimism of science and the pessimism of philosophy.

Zoloth, Laurie

2005-01-01

317

Special Education Leadership: Integrating Professional and Personal Codes of Ethics to Serve the Best Interests of the Child  

Science.gov (United States)

Special education teachers who also serve as case managers for students with disabilities are in unique leadership positions in which they face complex ethical dilemmas and are called on to make decisions that involve multiple competing interests and pressures. The purpose of this study was to explore how special education leaders identify ethical

Bon, Susan C.; Bigbee, Adam J.

2011-01-01

318

Evaluating the Intervention of an Ethics’ Class in Students’ Ethical Decision-Making: A Summative Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This summative evaluation is the result of two years’ of data reflecting the impact of an ethics class in terms of students’ ethical decision-making. The research compares aggregate responses from scenario-based pre- and post-survey open-ended survey questions designed to measure changes in ethical decision-making by comparing students’ cognitive and affective perceptions about ethical workplace behavior. Grounded  in constructivist theory, which explains how individuals “know” and “come to know something (Reeves, 2003, this intervention of an ethics class encourages students to make better and more informed ethical decisions in the workplace based on their understanding of their value and belief system. The findings suggest the intervention of an ethics class informed students’ cognitive and affective perceptions based on individual value and belief systems, strengthened student’s ability to remain open-minded and reconsider previous beliefs and actions from a 360 degree perspective, and increased student’s ability to apply new information to ethical dilemmas in the workplace.

Marquita Walker

2013-11-01

319

La participación de las audiencias desde distintos enfoques evaluativos: algunas consideraciones éticas y metodológicas / The audience participation since distinctly evaluative focusing: some ethic and methodological considerations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O impulso resultante da avaliação de programas e políticas públicas nos últimos anos levou a um aumento de práticas de avaliação que, distanciando-se da avaliação tradicional, outorgam um papel relevante, e inclusivamente hegemônico, aos vários grupos abrangidos em maior ou menor medida pelo program [...] a e sua avaliação. A dita participação é desejável não só do ponto de vista ético, como também metodológico. Nesta linha, apresentamos uma reflexão em torno da participação das audiências nos estudos da avaliação. Em primeiro lugar, abordamos as considerações metodológicas que levam a potenciar esta participação; a seguir, apresentamos os vários tipos de grupos que são chamados a participar. Detemo-nos depois no papel que esses grupos desempenham no projeto e realização destes estudos e na tomada de decisões posteriores segundo três formas de avaliação pluralistas - a avaliação centrada nos implicados, a avaliação participativa e a avaliação potenciadora. Por último, apresentamos algumas considerações sobre as dificuldades éticas e metodo-lógicas que pode acarretar a dita participação. Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english The impulse experimented by public programs and policies evaluation during the last years has brought about a remarkable increase of evaluative practices that, in contrast to traditional evaluation, grant the stakeholder groups a relevant, even hegemonic, role. The involvement of these groups in the [...] evaluation is highly desirable, not only from an ethical but also from a methodological point of view. From this perspective, a reflection on the audience participation in evaluative studies is presented. To begin with, methodological considerations supporting this participation are put forward. Next, the more habitually involved groups are described. Thereafter the role played by the aforementioned groups in the evaluation design and implementation and in the subsequent decision-making is analysed from three evaluative pluralist approaches: stakeholder based evaluation, participatory evaluation and empowerment evaluation. Finally, some considerations regarding ethical and methodological difficulties that can arise from the above-mentioned participation are discussed.

Esther, Martínez Piñeiro.

2002-12-01

320

Critical thinking by nurses on ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169. Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15. 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34 and Strauss and Corbin (1990. The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990. The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985 and Morse (1994 related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based on these findings the researcher concluded that nurses are not thinking critically when making ethical decisions concerning the termination of pregnancies. Recommendations are made as a possible solution for this problem.

A. Botes

2000-09-01

321

Dialectical principlism: an approach to finding the most ethical action.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most forensic psychiatrists occasionally face complex situations in forensic work in which ethics dilemmas cause discomfort. They want to determine the most ethical action, but the best choice is unclear. Fostering justice is primary in forensic roles, but secondary duties such as traditional biomedical ethics and personal values like helping society, combating racism, and being sensitive to cultural issues can impinge on or even outweigh the presumptive primary duty in extreme cases. Similarly, in treatment the psychiatrists' primary duty is to patients, but that can be outweighed by secondary duties such as protecting children and the elderly or maintaining security. The implications of one's actions matter. In forensic work, if the psychiatrist determines that he should not assist the party who wants to hire him, despite evidence clearly supporting its side, the only ethical option becomes not to accept the case at all, because the evidence does not support the better side. Sometimes it can be ethical to accept cases only for one side. In ethics-related dilemmas, I call the method of prioritizing and balancing all types of conflicting principles, duties, and personal and societal values in a dialectic to resolve conflicts among them dialectical principlism. This approach is designed to help determine the most ethical action. It is aspirational and is not intended to get the psychiatrist into trouble. PMID:25770274

Weinstock, Robert

2015-03-01

322

Ethical and epidemiological dilemmas in the treatment of dogs for visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America / Dilema ético y epidemiológico sobre el tratamiento de perros para la leishmaniasis visceral en América Latina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish En las Américas hay entre 4.500 y 6.800 casos anuales de leishmaniasis visceral grave y se estima que la mortalidad varía entre 7 y 10 %. Sin embargo, el subregistro y las infecciones subclínicas enmascaran la importancia epidemiológica real de la leishmaniasis visceral. Los esfuerzos de control que [...] típicamente se han enfocado en la aspersión de insecticidas contra los flebotomíneos vectores y el sacrificio de perros, han arrojado resultados dispares. No obstante, miles de perros se sacrifican cada año en países endémicos para leishmaniasis visceral. Además, los lineamientos actuales de los programas de control de la leishmaniasis han prohibido el tratamiento de perros con medicamentos de uso humano, mientras que otras drogas resultan en altas tasas de recaída. La sociedad requiere que los programas de control tengan un manejo más humanitario enfocado a limitar el sacrificio canino. Hay una necesidad urgente de promover la tenencia responsable de los perros y apoyar la investigación en: a) terapias veterinarias novedosas, b) diagnósticos moleculares de bajo costo y c) determinación de los umbrales de capacidad infecciosa canina para el manejo adecuado del reservorio. Abstract in english In the Americas there are between 4,500 and 6,800 annual cases of severe visceral leishmaniasis, and mortality is estimated to range between 7 and 10%. However, underreporting and subclinical infections mask the real epidemiological importance of visceral leishmaniasis. Control efforts, which have t [...] ypically focused on insecticide spraying of sand fly vectors and dog culling, have yielded disparate results. Nevertheless, thousands of dogs are sacrificed each year in countries endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. Additionally, current guidelines of leishmaniasis control programs have banned dog treatment with drugs of human use while therapy with other drugs resulted in high rates of relapses. Society requires that control programs take a more humanitarian approach aimed at limiting dog culling. There is an urgent need to promote responsible dog-ownership and support research on: a) novel veterinary therapies, b) low-cost molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis, and c) determination of dog infectivity threshold for proper reservoir management.

Bruno L, Travi.

2014-03-01

323

Health branding ethics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Commercial food health branding is a challenging branch of marketing because it might, at the same time, promote healthy living and be commercially viable. However, the power to influence individuals’ health behavior and overall health status makes it crucial for marketing professionals to take into account the ethical dimensions of health branding: this article presents a conceptual analysis of potential ethical problems in health branding. The analysis focuses on ethical concerns related to the application of three health brand elements (functional claims, process claims, and health symbols) as well as a number of general concerns that apply to health branding as such. Being a pioneering analysis, this article advances the academic understanding of health branding and provides practitioners with knowledge of important concerns to take into account when marketing health brands.

Anker, Thomas Boysen; SandØe, Peter

2011-01-01

324

What is good medical ethics? A clinician's perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Speaking from the perspective of a clinician and teacher, good medical ethics needs to make medicine better. Over the past 50?years medical ethics has helped shape the culture in medicine and medical practice for the better. However, recent healthcare scandals in the UK suggest more needs to be done to translate ethical reasoning into ethical practice. Focusing on clinical practice and individual patient care, I will argue that, to be good, medical ethics needs to become integral to the activities of health professionals and healthcare organisations. Ethics is like a language which brings a way of thinking and responding to the world. For ethics to become embedded in clinical practice, health professionals need to progress from classroom learners to fluent social speakers through ethical dialogue, ethical reflection and ethical actions. I will end by discussing three areas that need to be addressed to enable medical ethics to flourish and bring about change in everyday clinical care. PMID:25516942

Kong, Wing May

2015-01-01

325

Unhealthy incentives: healthcare's basic dilemma(s).  

Science.gov (United States)

The topic of an existing healthcare crisis has resounded in articles, papers, and the media for years. Amidst the ongoing healthcare crisis, several other global and economic crises have arisen to further complicate the focus for resolve. This article takes a basic look at the foundation of U.S. healthcare and evaluates the inappropriate incentives that currently drive the industry and prevent meaningful change. The commentary identifies causes of administrative and fiscal waste while proposing alternative concepts for consideration and further discussion. PMID:19663362

May, Jonathan R

2009-01-01

326

Applied Ethics and eHealth: Principles, Identity, and RFID  

Science.gov (United States)

The social and ethical implications of contemporary technologies are becoming an issue of steadily growing importance. This paper offers an overview in terms of identity and the field of ethics, and explores how these apply to eHealth in both theory and practice. The paper selects a specific circumstance in which these ethical issues can be explored. It focuses particularly on radio-frequency identifiers (RFID). It ends by discussing ethical issues more generally, and the practice of ethical consideration.

Whitehouse, Diane; Duquenoy, Penny

327

Psychologists abandon the Nuremberg ethic: concerns for detainee interrogations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the aftermath of 9-11, the American Psychological Association, one of the largest U.S. health professions, changed its ethics code so that it now runs counter to the Nuremberg Ethic. This historic post-9-11 change allows psychologists to set aside their ethical responsibilities whenever they are in irreconcilable conflict with military orders, governmental regulations, national and local laws, and other forms of governing legal authority. This article discusses the history, wording, rationale, and implications of the ethical standard that U.S. psychologists adopted 7 years ago, particularly in light of concerns over health care professionals' involvement in detainee interrogations and the controversy over psychologists' prominent involvement in settings like the Guantánamo Bay Detainment Camp and the Abu Ghraib prison. It discusses possible approaches to the complex dilemmas arising when ethical responsibilities conflict with laws, regulations, or other governing legal authority. PMID:19299016

Pope, Kenneth S; Gutheil, Thomas G

2009-01-01

328

Applied Ethics and tertiary education in South Africa: Teaching Business Ethics at the University of South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available This article explores how Applied Ethics, especially Business Ethics, is taught at the University of South Africa (Unisa). This discussion refers to the content of a particular Unisa module, Theoretical and Applied Ethics, which serves as an introduction to Bio-medical Ethics, Business Ethics and En [...] vironmental Ethics. The fundamentals of this course are: defining ethics; providing methods for moral decision-making; describing the role of ethics in a particular field and addressing common dilemmas in a specific context. The intention is to empower students to identify issues they are likely to face in the workplace, and to grow in confidence in their ability to make sound moral decisions when required to do so. The aim of this article is to contribute to the ongoing discussion between tertiary institutions about how the teaching of Business Ethics can be promoted, how moral decision-making in the workplace can be encouraged and what role theological ethics can play in this regard.

Louise, Kretzschmar; Wessel, Bentley.

329

Towards a Christian ethic of work in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available This paper draws on the academic field of Christian ethics and focuses attention on an ethic of work within the South African context. Key terms such as 'an ethic of work', 'a work ethic' and 'ethics at work' are discussed in relation to varied experiences of work. The issues of why one ought to wor [...] k and what constitutes 'good' work are discussed with reference to current ethical and economic challenges. I argue that a Christian worldview, or understanding of reality, provides a much more credible contribution to an ethic of work than either a materialist view of reality or a system of patronage.

Louise, Kretzschmar.

2012-12-01

330

Simulation: a new approach to teaching ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of ethical conduct in health care was acknowledged as early as the fifth century in the Hippocratic Oath and continues to be an essential element of clinical practice. Providers face ethical dilemmas that are complex and unfold over time, testing both practitioners' knowledge and communication skills. Students learning to be health care providers need to develop the knowledge and skills necessary to negotiate complex situations involving ethical conflict. Simulation has been shown to be an effective learning environment for students to learn and practice complex and overlapping skills sets. However, there is little guidance in the literature on constructing effective simulation environments to assist students in applying ethical concepts. This article describes realistic simulations with trained, standardized patients that present ethical problems to graduate-level nurse-midwifery students. Student interactions with the standardized patients were monitored by faculty and peers, and group debriefing was used to help explore students' emotions and reactions. Student feedback postsimulation was exceedingly positive. This simulation could be easily adapted for use by health care education programs to assist students in developing competency with ethics. PMID:25141791

Buxton, Margaret; Phillippi, Julia C; Collins, Michelle R

2015-01-01

331

¿Ética, bioética o ética médica? / Ethics, bioethics or medical ethics?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Hace pocos años, términos como ética, bioética o ética médica eran ajenos en el uso en medicina clínica, así como en la ciencia experimental. Sin embargo, el aumento progresivo de los problemas éticos en la práctica de la medicina, que en ocasiones son verdaderos dilemas, ha producido confusión en e [...] l significado de cada uno de estos conceptos. Es por ello que nos ha parecido de interés revisar estos conceptos, así como el significado y utilidad que tiene cada uno de ellos. Abstract in english A few years ago, words like Ethics, Bioethics or Medical Ethics were unheard of in clinical medicine, as well as in experimental sciences. However, the increasing number of ethical conflicts in medical practice and dilemmas in clinical research has produced misunderstandings in the use of these term [...] s. Therefore, it presently seems interesting to review the basis of each one of these concepts, as well as the meaning and proper use of them.

ALBERTO, ROJAS O; LIBIA, LARA C.

2014-06-01

332

BUSINESS ETHICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethics contain a set of principles of personal and professional conduct .The concept of Business ethics relates itself to the norms and the ideals businessman and business groups adopt in course of their activities in business .Business ethics is an assertion of “be good” and “do good” in business. Ethical business practices has been a blessing to the enterprises as it ensures faith in society ,government trust ,business partners trust .on the other hand unethical business practices /behavior are may be the feel good factor in the short run for earning secret profit but prove as a monster in the long run as it leave a big spot on the enterprise image by indulging in activities like Black Marketing ,False Advertisement, Tax evasion etc .Thus it is the foremost duty of each enterprise to run its business on ethical grounds so that they can attain customers retention as well as employees retention in the long run and should not have a greed for becoming prey of unethical business practices thereby ditching the society as a whole .The principles laid down by IBE (Institute of Business Ethics ,London should be followed with sincerity by all enterprise leading to a trustworthy environment all around .

Raman Arora

2014-06-01

333

Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient Greek ethics, there is little unity to this group. Although there is a thin common ground that links all the group's members - a focus on the formation of character, on the nature of the passions, and on choice over the whole course of life - there are also crucial differences among them.

Martha Nussbaum

1998-12-01

334

The Ethical Dilemma Of The Usa Government Wiretapping  

OpenAIRE

USA Government wiretapping activities is a very controversial issue. Undoubtedly this technology canassist law enforced authority to detect / identify unlawful or hostile activities; however, this task raisessevere privacy concerns. In this paper, we have discussed this complex information technology issue ofgovernmental wiretapping and how it effects both public and private liberties. Legislation has had amajor impact on the uses and the stigma of wiretapping for the war on terrorism. This p...

Arwen Mullikin; Rahman, Syed M.

2010-01-01

335

Learners in the marketplace: Ethical and educational dilemmas  

OpenAIRE

Since the abolishment of legislation (the South African Schools Act, No. 84 of 1996) stipulating that a learner may only attend a certain school in an area, there is great competition amongst schools to attract learners to their schools. There is a tendency to regard as commodities learners who can be seen as assets to the school, especially if these learners show a talent for sports and have outstanding sporting achievements. The main aim of the research was to determine whether school princ...

Du Plessis, Elize C.; Petro Marais

2012-01-01

336

The Ethics of Workspace Surveillance  

OpenAIRE

The general framework of this thesis is that of ethical Technology Assessment (eTA). Whereas the first essay proposes an inclusive approach to technology assessment by delineating an ethical checklist, the following essays focus on two of the checklist points, i.e. “privacy” and “control, influence and power”, in relation to workspace surveillance. The core idea of Essay I (written in collaboration with Sven Ove Hansson) is that, due to its strong social impact, new technology and nov...

Palm, Elin

2008-01-01

337

Teaching corner: "first do no harm": teaching global health ethics to medical trainees through experiential learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies show that returning global health trainees often report having felt inadequately prepared to deal with ethical dilemmas they encountered during outreach clinical work. While global health training guidelines emphasize the importance of developing ethical and cultural competencies before embarking on fieldwork, their practical implementation is often lacking and consists mainly of recommendations regarding professional behavior and discussions of case studies. Evidence suggests that one of the most effective ways to teach certain skills in global health, including ethical and cultural competencies, is through service learning. This approach combines community service with experiential learning. Unfortunately, this approach to global health ethics training is often unattainable due to a lack of supervision and resources available at host locations. This often means that trainees enter global health initiatives unprepared to deal with ethical dilemmas, which has the potential for adverse consequences for patients and host institutions, thus contributing to growing concerns about exploitation and "medical tourism." From an educational perspective, exposure alone to such ethical dilemmas does not contribute to learning, due to lack of proper guidance. We propose that the tension between the benefits of service learning on the one hand and the respect for patients' rights and well-being on the other could be resolved by the application of a simulation-based approach to global health ethics education. PMID:25648122

Logar, Tea; Le, Phuoc; Harrison, James D; Glass, Marcia

2015-03-01

338

Argument-based medical ethics: a formal tool for critically appraising the normative medical ethics literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there are critical appraisal tools for other genres of the medical literature, there currently is no formal tool for physicians to use in their critical appraisal of the normative medical ethics literature. We present a formal assessment tool for the critical appraisal of the normative medical ethics literature that incorporates the intellectual standards of argument-based medical ethics and evidence-based medicine. We draw on the intellectual standards of argument-based ethics, ethical analysis and argument, and the literature on evidence-based medicine. The tool involves 4 questions about normative medical ethics papers: (1) Does the article address a focused ethics question? (2) Are the arguments that support the results of the article valid? (3) What are the results? (4) Will the results help me in clinical practice? Obstetrician-gynecologists can use this tool to appraise the normative literature of ethics in obstetrics and gynecology formally. PMID:15507927

McCullough, Laurence B; Coverdale, John H; Chervenak, Frank A

2004-10-01

339

The Ethics of Nanotechnology  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue-focused, reviewed, student article hopes that examining nanotechnology in the light of ethical decision-making will help us to answer questions such as: Do we need to create and enforce global laws for its development? How do we minimize potential dangers, such as weaponry uses? Is it our duty to share research with other nations? and How can we ensure that technology is used for the common good?

Andrew Chen (Santa Clara University, California; )

2002-03-01

340

TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER TRAINING. CURRICULUM DESIGN. NEW PROSPECTS AND DILEMMAS  

OpenAIRE

Institutional changes within universities and the challenge of EU enlargement present translator and interpreter trainers with both new opportunities and dilemmas. The major potential tension areas that must be addressed in the curricula include the status of retour translation and interpreting, the role of liaison interpreting in the curriculum, the separation of interpreter and translator training, and the focus on skills and techniques vs. background knowledge. The article suggests t...

Kwiecin?ski, Piotr; Feder, Marcin

2005-01-01

341

Ethics and technology design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article offers a discussion of the connection between technology and values and, specifically, I take a closer look at ethically sound design. In order to bring the discussion into a concrete context, the theory of Value Sensitive Design (VSD) will be the focus point. To illustrate my argument concerning design ethics, the discussion involves a case study of an augmented window, designed by the VSD Research Lab, which has turned out to be a potentially surveillanceenabling technology. I call attention to a “positivist problem” that has to do with the connection between the design context and the use context, which VSD seems to presuppose, and I argue that it is necessary to clearly distinguish between the two, since the designers’ intentions do not always correspond with the users’ practice; in fact, the relation between design and use is very complex and principally unpredictable. Thus, a design theory must accept that foresight is limited to anticipation rather than prediction. To overcome the positivist problem, I suggest a phenomenological approach to technology inspired by Don Ihde’s concept of multistability. This argument, which is general in nature and thus applies to any theory of design ethics, is intended as a constructive criticism, which can hopefully contribute to the further development of design ethics.

Albrechtslund, Anders

342

Ethics in Clinical Research: The Indian Perspective  

OpenAIRE

Ethics in clinical research focuses largely on identifying and implementing the acceptable conditions for exposure of some individuals to risks and burdens for the benefit of society at large. Ethical guidelines for clinical research were formulated only after discovery of inhumane behaviour with participants during research experiments. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code laying ethical principles for clinical research. With increasing research all over, World Health Organiza...

Sanmukhani, J.; Tripathi, C. B.

2011-01-01

343

Ethics applied to pharmacy practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article tries to develop an ethical reasoning that can be applied to (the practice of) pharmacy. Only general principles, based on accepted values in western society, lead to guidelines for ethical behaviour. Such essential values are personal autonomy, democracy and solidarity. The principle of nonmaleficience can be derived from these. Results of this analysis can be applied to health care and pharmacy practice. Subchapters deal with questions such as budget limitations and the autonomy of the patient versus that of the care provider. It concludes that protocols are important tools for ethical behaviour in every day practice. The ethical problem appears to be the unequal access to the health care system. An analysis of pharmaceutical care in the light of ethics can help to formulate the pharmacist's responsibilities. The principle of nonmaleficence is strongly connected to the pharmacy profession. Pharmacists should focus more on possible negative outcomes of pharmacotherapy. Monitoring the patient's medication, identification and prevention of possible adverse effects, medication surveillance, proper communication and information about the use of medicines are therefore priority items within our profession. A definition of target groups for pharmaceutical care will facilitate this task. A suggestion for a general code of ethics for pharmacists is proposed and compared with the code of ethics as currently accepted by the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP)-council. PMID:10815294

Dessing, R P

2000-02-01

344

The ethical problem of randomization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Fondazione Umberto Veronesi ethics committee recently published a statement concerning the inherent ethical issues of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), mainly focusing on randomization, raising many questions, and suggesting possible solutions. The main concern is that the patients enrolled in a RCT are used to improve medical knowledge, but they cannot be the beneficiaries of the results of the trials in which they are participating. Possible solutions come from a wider use of clinical and administrative databases, and an early termination of trials. We discuss this statement, emphasizing that the scientific and ethical reason for embarking on a clinical trial is uncertainty. The uncertainty regarding the comparative benefits and harms of each compared treatment (clinical equipoise) warrants equity in allocation. Randomization allows one to obtain unbiased evidence that we cannot know in advance. The expected probability of a new treatment to be successful describes the limits within which a study can be acceptable both from an ethical as well as a scientific point of view. Most people accept enrollment in a RCT if the probability of success of the experimental treatment is between 50 and 70%. The assumption and concern that there is a conflict between "scientific" and "ethical" aspects of a clinical trial due to randomization should at least be mitigated, considering that only scientifically sounded studies can be considered ethical. Randomization remains the appropriate approach to ensure the study's internal validity. Different aspects seem to be more important, from the ethical point of view, considering RCT and their publication. PMID:25194693

Colli, Agostino; Pagliaro, Luigi; Duca, Piergiorgio

2014-10-01

345

Disciplinary supervision following ethics complaints: goals, tasks, and ethical dimensions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical supervision is considered an integral component of the training of psychologists, and most of the professional literature is focused on this type of supervision. But psychologists also may supervise fully credentialed colleagues in other circumstances. One such context occurs when licensing boards mandate supervision as part of a disciplinary order. When supervision is provided in disciplinary cases, there are significant implications for the ethical dimensions of the supervisory relationship and concomitant ethical challenges for supervisors. Not only are the goals, objectives, and supervisory tasks of disciplinary supervision distinct from other types of supervision, but the supervisor's ethical responsibilities also encompass unique dimensions. Competence, informed consent, boundaries, confidentiality, and documentation are examined. Recommendations for reports to licensing boards include a statement of the clinical or ethical problems instigating discipline, description of how these problems have been addressed, and an assessment of the supervisee's current practices and ability to perform competently. PMID:25220953

Thomas, Janet T

2014-11-01

346

Research in a development setting: Ethical concerns during fieldwork in Tanzania  

OpenAIRE

This chapter discusses ethical concerns when conducting fieldwork on a sensitive topic in a development setting. Research on AIDS has been conducted in various settings and within various fields of science since its outbreak and has raised ethical dilemmas for the researchers. In this chapter the issues of fieldwork, vulnerable groups, power relations and sensitive research are discussed. The practice of using informed consent and securing anonymity for the participants is considered necessar...

Lindsjo?, Karin

2012-01-01

347

Considerations in Dealing with Ethical Conflict Encountered in Healthcare Reform: Perceptions of Nurse Leaders  

OpenAIRE

With the nursing profession continuing to face an array of ethical issues, the article reports the findings of a survey of members of the American Organization of Nurse Executives conducted in 2012 to determine the extent to which nurse leaders at different organization levels perceive various factors in their personal, professional and organizational environments to be helpful in resolving ethical dilemmas. After their personal values, nurse leaders perceive factors related to their organiza...

Robert Cooper; Garry Frank; Cherry Shogren

2014-01-01

348

Ethical Issues in Paediatric Practice - Part III: Issues relating to the dying process  

OpenAIRE

Despite the application of robust ethical principles, complex issues in child care commonly result in ethical dilemmas with no clear answers. This is especially so in those ‘life and death’ decisions relating to continuing curative therapy or opting for palliative care. As with many situations in paediatrics, these decisions are complicated by difficulties in establishing clear prognostic outcomes both in terms of disease progression and timescales, the child's reliance on third parties, ...

Attard-montalto, S.

2002-01-01

349

Ethical standards for the occupational health-nursing practitioner regarding the HIV positive person in the workplace  

OpenAIRE

The occupational health-nursing practitioner often becomes involved in ethical dilemmas with regard to the handling of HIV-positive people in the workplace in that the interests of the HIV-positive people conflict with the interests of the employer.

Opsomming
Die beroepsgesondheidsverpleegkundige raak dikwels in etiese dilemmas betrokke ten opsigte van die hantering van die MIV-positiewe persoon by die werkplek deurdat die belange van die MIV-positiewe pers...

Botes, A. C.; Otto, M.

2001-01-01

350

Ética médica en la literatura del siglo XIX / Medical Ethics in the 19th Century Literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Desde el siglo XX la humanidad está asediada por violencia, crisis del estado de derecho e impunidad, circunstancias que se extendieron al profesional de la salud: crisis de la ética moral médica. Objetivo: Aparte del registro de casos clínicos y dilemas ético-morales en el siglo XIX, investigar tes [...] timonios histórico médicos y de ética, moral, etiqueta y educación médicas en la literatura decimonónica, considerándola también resguardo fidedigno de ellos. Procedimiento histórico-analítico: Casos de autonomía, beneficencia, justicia, no maleficencia y solidaridad en 122 obras literarias (84 autores, 20 países) decimonónicas, elegidas -según analistas reconocidos- porque muestran coincidencia y trascendencia de objetos de la vida real con objetos representados literariamente, tomándose para este artículo Axel Munthe y su Historia de San Michele. Hallazgos: Se identificaron -agrupándose en cuadros analítico estadísticos- fragmentos literarios sobre impronta científica técnica, ejercicio profesional, relación galeno paciente, casos clínicos, dilemas ético morales, etiqueta y educación médicas, confirmándose que la dimensión médica más valiosa tiene raíces, tronco y fronda humanistas. Conclusiones: Innovación aportada: enfocada histórica, médica y bioéticamente, la obra literaria pudiera ser otra vía analítica reflexiva para que el médico lector esteta del siglo XXI, recuperando los objetos reales representados, escogiera la senda de su superación e hiciera crecer su éthos y su contribución al bien común. Abstract in english Since the last century, humanity has been besieged by violence, crisis of the state of law and impunity, everything extended to crisis of medical ethics moral. Objective: In addition to clinic cases and ethics and moral dilemmas in the nineteenth century, to investigate for testimonies of the histor [...] y of medicine and medical ethics, moral, etiquette and education in the nineteenth century literature, considering this a trustworthy archive of them. Analytic-historical proceeding: Cases of autonomy, beneficence, justice, nonmaleficence and solidarity in 122 nineteenth century literary masterpieces (84 authors, 20 countries), selected -according to prestigious scholars-because they show coincidence and transcendence of real life objects with literary represented objects, taking for this article just Axel Munthe s Story of San Michele. Finds: Grouped in statistical analytic tables literary paragraphs about technical scientific matters, professional exercise, medical patient relation, clinic cases, moral ethics dilemmas and medical etiquette and education were identified corroborating that the more worthy medical dimension has humanistic roots. Conclusions: Innovating contribution: focused through the lens of the medicine history and bioethics, literary masterpieces might be the reflexive analytical way for the twenty-first century physician/reader, to recover the real objects represented, to choose his excelling path and to increase his éthos and contribution to the common welfare.

Hugo, Fernández de Castro-Peredo.

2005-08-01

351

The ethics of drug development and promotion: the need for a wider view.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical issues at the interface between the medical profession and the pharmaceutical industry have generally been approached from the vantage point of medical professionalism, with a focus on conflict of interest as the key ethical concern. Although conflicts of interest remain important, other ethical issues may be obscured unless a wider perspective is adopted. Besides medical professionalism, the ethics of the clinical therapeutic relationship, ethics of public health, and business ethics all provide additional insights. PMID:23047778

Brody, Howard

2012-11-01

352

Everyday Ethics: Framing youth participation in organizational practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Much of the literature on ethical issues in child and youth participation has drawn on the episodic experiences of participatory research efforts in which young people’s input has been sought, transcribed and represented. This literature focuses in particular on the power dynamics and ethical dilemmas embedded in time-bound adult/child and outsider/insider relationships. While we agree that these issues are crucial and in need of further examination, it is equally important to examine the ethical issues embedded within the “everyday” practices of the organizations in and through which young people’s participation in community research and development often occurs (e.g., community-based organizations, schools and municipal agencies. Drawing on experience from three summers of work in promoting youth participation in adult-led organizations of varying purpose, scale and structure, a framework is postulated that presents participation as a spatial practice shaped by five overlapping dimensions. The framework is offered as a point of discussion and a potential tool for analysis in examining ethical issues for young people’s participation in relation to organizational practice. Une grande partie de la littérature sur les questions éthiques de la participation des jeunes et des enfants s’appuie sur des expériences sporadiques de recherche participative lors desquelles la vision des jeunes a été examinée, transcrite et représentée. Cette littérature se concentre notamment sur la dynamique de pouvoir et les dilemmes éthiques motivés par des rapports temporaires de type adulte/enfant, externe/interne. Ces sujets sont cruciaux et méritent plus d’étude ; toutefois, il est aussi important d’examiner les problèmes éthiques qui émergent dans la pratique « quotidienne » des organisations dans et à travers lesquelles a lieu généralement la participation des jeunes dans la recherche et le développement communautaire (e.g. organisations communautaires, écoles, agences municipales. Sur l’expérience de trois étés de travail dans la promotion de la participation au sein d’organisations dirigées par des adultes et ayant des missions, des tailles et des structures différentes, on propose un cadre dans lequel la participation est présentée en tant que pratique spatiale façonnée par cinq dimensions qui se chevauchent. Ce cadre est proposé afin de susciter la discussion et en tant qu’outil potentiel d’analyse dans l’examen des problèmes éthiques liés à la participation des jeunes et la pratique organisationnelle.

Davide Driskell

2009-06-01

353

The teaching of medical ethics to medical students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching medical ethics to medical students in a pluralistic society is a challenging task. Teachers of ethics have obligations not just to teach the subject matter but to help create an academic environment in which well motivated students have reinforcement of their inherent good qualities. Emphasis should be placed on the ethical aspects of daily medical practice and not just on the dramatic dilemmas raised by modern technology. Interdisciplinary teaching should be encouraged and teaching should span the entire duration of medical studies. Attention should be paid particularly to ethical problems faced by the students themselves, preferably at the time when the problems are most on the students' minds. A high level of academic demands, including critical examination of students' progress is recommended. Finally, personal humility on the part of teachers can help set a good example for students to follow. PMID:7861430

Glick, S M

1994-12-01

354

Ethics and the electronic health record in dental school clinics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic health records (EHRs) are a major development in the practice of dentistry, and dental schools and dental curricula have benefitted from this technology. Patient data entry, storage, retrieval, transmission, and archiving have been streamlined, and the potential for teledentistry and improvement in epidemiological research is beginning to be realized. However, maintaining patient health information in an electronic form has also changed the environment in dental education, setting up potential ethical dilemmas for students and faculty members. The purpose of this article is to explore some of the ethical issues related to EHRs, the advantages and concerns related to the use of computers in the dental operatory, the impact of the EHR on the doctor-patient relationship, the introduction of web-based EHRs, the link between technology and ethics, and potential solutions for the management of ethical concerns related to EHRs in dental schools. PMID:22550104

Cederberg, Robert A; Valenza, John A

2012-05-01

355

Ombud's corner: Use of sensemaking* in ethical decisions  

CERN Multimedia

In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   Taking ethical decisions can often be a dilemma - one that requires recognition and proper representation of multiple pieces of complex information, as well as an intuitive judgment about potential consequences. Pressure is particularly placed on organizational leaders, who are tasked with projects, partnerships and individuals. Constraining forces - be they personal, situational or environmental - can negatively influence any decision by decreasing ethical awareness, ethical sensitivity and ethical judgment. By creating mental compensatory models, the Sensemaking* technique serves to counteract these constraining forces that narrow the search and evaluation of&nbs...

Vincent Vuillemin

2012-01-01

356

Managing Organisational Ethics: Professionalism, Duty and HR Practitioners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After almost 20 years of researching, teaching and consulting in business and organisational ethics, this emerging field seems to be facing an organisational dilemma. Who should manage the ethics and integrity systems that are slowly being adopted by Australian firms?During consulting engagements with numerous Australian businesses it has become clear that the task of managing ethics and integrity systems, i.e. creation of codes of ethics, ethics committees, information programs, conducting of audits, etc, more often than not seems to be delegated to Human Resources Managers and their Departments. This trend appears to be unique to the Australian setting and contrary to the US where Ethics Officers and Compliance Officers assume this role.The purpose of this paper is to consider the question of who is appropriate to manage the ethics function in the Australian context. A literature review will examine the concept of professionalism and what characteristics and duties qualifies an occupation as a profession. In particular it will identify the role of knowledge and the existence of an organisation or association that regulates and licences the individual to operate as a professional. It will then identify the roles, responsibilities and characteristics of ethics officers so as to determine the knowledge required to undertake this task in an organisation setting.Given the predisposition to delegate this function to Human Resources practitioners in Australian Organisations, a review of formal Postgraduate Human Resources programs at the major Australian Universities will be undertaken. The objective of this task is to determine whether such programs contain any specific ethics content, in particular the creation of codes of ethics, codes of conduct, ethics training and the conducting of ethics audits. This will establish whether Australian Human Resource professions are sufficiently equipped with the knowledge and capabilities required to undertake this function through their formal education.

Michael Segon

2014-09-01

357

National scientific literature on nursing ethics: a systematic Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To identify the most prevalent nursing ethical issues published in scientific Brazilian journals. Methods: A systematic literature review with the following inclusion criteria: (1 articles on Nursing Ethics written in Portuguese, English, French, and Spanish; (2 published in Brazilian journals; (3 in the period from January 1997 to February 2009. The search was carried out in four databases BDENF, LILACS, MEDLINE, and SCIELO. The key-words were ethics AND nursing. The selected studies were classified into categories. The content of the articles were analyzed using the Collective Subject Discourse. The categories generated discourses by organizing the main excerpts from the abstracts of the selected studies, which are the “key expressions”. Results: A hundred and thirty three articles that met the inclusion criteria were classified into eight categories: 1. Nursing Care; 2. Dilemmas and Controversies; 3. Education; 4. Legal Aspects; 5. Research; 6. Management; 7. Values and Beliefs; 8. Perspectives and Health Policies. The category “Nursing Care” prevailed in 36% of the selected articles, and it was classified into six subcategories. “Dilemmas and Controversies” was the second most prevalent category (15%. Conclusion: The number of theoretical papers on ethical issues is high, but there is little research on the ethical experiences in nursing practice.

Ilka Nicéia D’Aquino Oliveira Teixeira

2010-03-01

358

Tragedy and delight: the ethics of decelerated ageing  

OpenAIRE

Biogerontology is sometimes viewed as similar to other forms of biomedical research in that it seeks to understand and treat a pathological process. Yet the prospect of treating ageing is extraordinary in terms of the profound changes to the human condition that would result. Recent advances in biogerontology allow a clearer view of the ethical issues and dilemmas that confront humanity with respect to treating ageing. For example, they imply that organismal senescence is a disease process wi...

Gems, David

2011-01-01

359

Further Discussion on the Construction of Ethics of Professional Accountants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Any country is facing the problem of ethics of professional accountants, which also has been a focus of accounting theories for many years. Especially since the financial crisis in 2008 and the recession of world economy, business has been difficult, which makes the ethics of professional accountants more important. In perspective of business ethics, the author discusses the characteristics and the structure of ethics of professional accountants, locating the barriers for the construction of ethics of professional accountants and relevant reasons, and proposing the way for establishing the system of ethics of professional accountants.

Yong Cheng

2012-05-01

360

Education confronts the energy dilemma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conference was convened to present a role that America's schools could play in solving or coping with the energy crisis. Eleven sessions were conducted to fulfill this concern: Our Energy Crisis and Education: A Critical Assessment; The Energy Agenda at the Office of Education; Energy Resources: Scenarios for the Future; The Moral Dilemma of Energy Education; Constraints Influencing Education's Role; Energy Education: What's Been Done to Date; Practitioners Discuss Their Future Roles, Responsibilities; Politics of Energy Education; Confronting the Energy Dilemma; The Meaning of Scarcity; and The Impact of the Carter Energy Program on American Schools. Summary reports and reactions to the conference conclude the proceedings. (MCW)

None

1977-01-01

361

Electronic Commerce: A Taxing Dilemma  

OpenAIRE

In the last five years, remote selling-led by online organizations - has surged. The resulting growth has created concern among both traditional and remote sellers as they jockey for improved competitive position and governmental entities, in particular US states, over the erosion of their tax revenues as sales are diverted to remote sellers. This paper explores the issues and potential solutions surrounding the e-commerce tax dilemma. It provides a current assessment of the taxation environm...

Steven John Simon

2002-01-01

362

Fundamental Dilemmas in Theoretical Physics  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we argue that there are foundational dilemmas in theoretical physics related to the concept of reality and the nature of mathematics in physics. Physical theory is treated as a conceptual organism which develops under the weight of its internal contradictions. The paper discusses in depth the problem of objective reality in physics and its relation to scientific practice. Then, it explores the problematic relation between physical meaning and mathematics in mo...

Ghassib, Hisham

2014-01-01

363

Awareness and Practice of Professional Ethics amongst Librarians in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is focused on the awareness and practicability of Librarianship ethics amongst librarians. Survey questionnaire was designed to identify the degree of awareness of librarianship ethics amongst librarians in Nigeria, whether the ethics are feasible and being utilized by librarians in their day to day library management, and to find out…

Igbeka, J. U.; Okoroma, F. N.

2013-01-01

364

Doing the Right Thing: Ethical Issues in Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent ethical lapses in corporate America have motivated institutions of higher education to focus more attention on their ethical responsibilities. These responsibilities include creating ethical learning environments in which students can learn the principles and traditions of professional practice and develop knowledge and skills to help them…

Couch, Sue

2005-01-01

365

Ethics vs. profits in the management of petroleum resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many of the decisions made by policy makers today may affect not only the people belonging to the present generation, but can have long-term effects that reach far into the future and thus significantly affect the life of future generations. The social rate of discount, which is the way that future consequences often are evaluated in present-day decision-making, unavoidably raises difficult issues of inter-generational justice. Greenhouse gas emissions caused by the use of non-renewable energy sources like oil and natural gas is an obvious example involving both economical and ethical concerns. The discussion in this paper is further motivated by the increasing demand for energy and the fact that more and more of the energy sources needed to fulfill this demand seem to be located in environmentally vulnerable areas. Norwegian authorities are faced with such a dilemma when considering whether to increase the petroleum activity in the Barents Sea. The concern is that such activity may cause irreversible environmental damages to the Barents Sea area. Furthermore, the petroleum resources are non-renewable meaning that for each unit of oil and gas produced today there will be one unit less left in the ground for future generations, leading to a debate about income distribution between generations. This paper focuses on some of the economic and philosophical arguments surrounding the debate about how social decision makers of the present generations should value the consequences their decisions may have on future generations (author) (ml)

Nese, Gjermund

2006-07-01

366

A Code of Ethics for the Early Childhood Field in Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study examined the ethical dilemmas faced by Australian early childhood professionals. Data were obtained from responses to a questionnaire mailed to 25 preschool centers and 25 child care centers in Western Australia, South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and the Northern Territory. Of 300 questionnaires mailed, a total of 99…

Clyde, Margaret; Rodd, Jillian

367

Creating the Conditions for Ethics: A Look at Project Adventure the Corporation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since "Project Adventure" teaches others to use the Full Value Contract (FVC), its corporate behavior should reflect FVC values of honesty and integrity. Nine dilemmas outline questions of business ethics related to "product" quality, financial survival, treatment of customers and their expectations, relationship with competitors, participative…

Terry, Nancy

1996-01-01

368

The Nazi Origins of Eduard Pernkopf's "Topographische Anatomie des Menschen:" The Biomedical Ethical Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery of the Nazi origins of the classic Pernkopf anatomy atlas is one example of scientific information obtained by doctors who violated the Hippocratic Oath. The ethical dilemmas that doctors and medical centers face as a result of this and other potentially tainted data is reviewed. (Author/AEF)

Israel, Howard A.

1998-01-01

369

Sustainable renovation of residential buildings and the landlord/tenant dilemma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The landlord/tenant dilemma arises when the interests of landlords and tenants misalign and is one of the greatest barriers hindering the development of sustainable renovation of residential buildings in Europe. The aim of this research is to investigate how regulatory changes and contractual solutions can help solve the landlord/tenant dilemma in relation to sustainable renovation of residential buildings, and how the general awareness of sustainable renovation can be increased. Particular focus is on whether tools like energy performance contracting and energy labeling can help solve the landlord/tenant dilemma. The research was done in relation to the specific situation in Denmark, but theory, information and experiences from other countries were included. The results show that there are plenty of opportunities to overcome the landlord/tenant dilemma, but principal/agent problems can only be overcome with a package solution. In the Danish national context the package solution must consist of legislative changes, financial incentives and better dissemination of information. Therefore, an array of different tools must be integrated and used in cooperation to overcome the dilemma. - Highlights: • There are plenty of opportunities to overcome the landlord/tenant dilemma. • The principal/agent problems can only be overcome with a package solution. • An array of different tools must be integrated and used in cooperation. • Legislative changes, financial incentives and better dissemination of information

370

Ethics Column:  

OpenAIRE

Ethics is concerned with the suffering humans cause one another and the related capacity of humans to recognize and address this suffering through the empathetic virtues of sympathy, compassion, and caring (Roberts, 1996). Much suffering throughout history can be related to the problem of "unacceptable" diversity among individuals or groups. Remembering the cruelties of the Nazi exterminations of Jews, slavery in the United States, and discrimination against homosexuals jolts us to awareness ...

Sorrell, J.

2003-01-01

371

Animal ethics  

OpenAIRE

This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possibl...

Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

2011-01-01

372

Corporate Governance Debate on Professional Ethics in Accounting Profession  

OpenAIRE

Paper focuses on the particular case of professional ethics in the context of the accounting profession. After briefly discussing recent events that made us reconsider our understanding of corporate governance, accountancy and ethics, we try to delimit the state of the art by looking at ethics from the accounting professions’ perspective. When aiming to clarify professional ethics, we closely analyze integrity based on the latest developments undertaken by European professional bodies. Find...

Carmen Giorgiana Bonaci; Ji?í Strouhal; Müllerová Libuše; Jaroslava Roubí?ková

2013-01-01

373

Further Discussion on the Construction of Ethics of Professional Accountants  

OpenAIRE

Any country is facing the problem of ethics of professional accountants, which also has been a focus of accounting theories for many years. Especially since the financial crisis in 2008 and the recession of world economy, business has been difficult, which makes the ethics of professional accountants more important. In perspective of business ethics, the author discusses the characteristics and the structure of ethics of professional accountants, locating the barriers for the construction of ...

Yong Cheng

2012-01-01

374

Teaching public administration ethics in higher education on-line  

OpenAIRE

In performing their functions, public officials have to make ethical choices. Learning about making ethical choices should therefore not be left to choice. Public officials should be equipped with ethical decision-making skills. This paper focuses on the teaching of Public Administration ethics in higher education. [In this paper the academic subject is spelt Public Administration whereas the practice is spelt public administration, (i.e. the one of activity)]. The paper covers issues such as...

Mafunisa, M. J.

2003-01-01

375

Teaching clinical ethics as a professional skill: bridging the gap between knowledge about ethics and its use in clinical practice.  

OpenAIRE

Ethical reasoning and decision-making may be thought of as 'professional skills', and in this sense are as relevant to efficient clinical practice as the biomedical and clinical sciences are to the diagnosis of a patient's problem. Despite this, however, undergraduate medical programmes in ethics tend to focus on the teaching of bioethical theories, concepts and/or prominent ethical issues such as IVF and euthanasia, rather than the use of such ethics knowledge (theories, principles, concepts...

Myser, C.; Kerridge, I. H.; Mitchell, K. R.

1995-01-01

376

The ethical junior: a typology of ethical problems faced by house officers  

OpenAIRE

Although many studies have explored the experiences of doctors in their first postgraduate year, few have focused on the ethical issues encountered by this group. Based on an extensive literature review of research involving house officers, we argue that these doctors encounter a broad range of ‘everyday’ ethical challenges, from truth-telling to working in non-ideal conditions. We propose a typology of house officers' ethical issues and advocate prioritizing these issues in undergraduate...

Mcdougall, Rosalind; Sokol, Daniel K.

2008-01-01

377

Organizational Commitment and Corporate Ethical Values: Exploring the Nexus between Employees' Psychological Contract and Firms' Ethical Behaviour in the Nigerian Insurance Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Commitment of employees to their organisations has been one of the central research themes in organisational study. Though, many predictors of organisational commitment abound in the literature, much is however not known on how ethical behaviour in the organisation affects employees’ commitment. Considering the nature of insurance services, and high potentials for ethical dilemma in the industry, this study contributes to organisational commitment literature by providing further understanding on the impact of corporate ethical values on organisational commitment in Nigeria. Underpinned by cognitive dissonance theory, the study proposes a significant relationship between the two constructs. While controlling for some demographic factors, corporate ethical values was hypothesized as a significant determinant of organisational commitment. With data from 415 managers, collected through Hunt’s et al (1989 Corporate Ethical Value and Hunt’s et al (1985 organisational commitment scales, the results of the multivariate analysis were presented, and discussed with managerial implications.

Musa Obalola

2012-02-01

378

The cultural and philosophical foundations of normative medical ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty years ago, the idea that culture and philosophy could provide a foundation for normative medical ethics was more easily entertained than it is today when the very notion of a norm, whether culturally, philosophically or ethically derived, is in itself a problem. In large measure this comes from our contemporary embrace of cultural and philosophical pluralism and an increasing tendency to exchange the difficult belief in abstract and universally applicable norms for the more accessible notion that ethical values are cultural and relative derivatives. Despite this, in the face of the unprecedented ethical dilemmas presented by modern medicine, we have attempted to apply traditional ethical norms and analysis to modern medicine to establish a consensus for its right practice. Unfortunately, the attempt has not been successful, so that wherever we turn we find that ethical problems in medicine remain intractable and unresolved. That, in turn, has prompted a certain scepticism about the efficacy of ethics in medicine. In order to understand why we have reached this impasse, it is essential to realize that we have seriously underestimated the way science and technology have informed and, as a consequence, transformed the practice of medicine. Contributing to this, our tendency to think of technology simply as a way of doing things has blinded us to the fact that it is more fundamentally a way of thinking, knowing and valuing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7801152

Hill, T P

1994-11-01

379

Delusion or obsession: Clinical dilemma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A 52-year old lady presented for admission with severe depression characterised by suicidal ideation and delusional belief. Case presentation Her treatment regime was reviewed and modified. The dilemma was whether she suffered from a psychotic depression with delusion or an obsessional disorder. She responded well to change of antipsychotic medication. Conclusions Her depression went in remission and her delusional belief decreased in intensity. She also gained reasonable insight into her problem. She is currently being followed up in the psychiatric outpatient clinic.

Gandhi Priya

2012-07-01

380

Animal ethics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind.

Palmer, Clare; SandØe, Peter

2011-01-01

381

Code of Ethics: Principles for Ethical Leadership  

OpenAIRE

The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the la...

Flite, Cathy A.; Harman, Laurinda B.

2013-01-01

382

The founder's dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Why do people start businesses? For the money and the chance to control their own companies, certainly. But new research from Harvard Business School professor Wasserman shows that those goals are largely incompatible. The author's studies indicate that a founder who gives up more equity to attract cofounders, new hires, and investors builds a more valuable company than one who parts with less equity. More often than not, however, those superior returns come from replacing the founder with a professional CEO more experienced with the needs of a growing company. This fundamental tension requires founders to make "rich" versus "king" trade-offs to maximize either their wealth or their control over the company. Founders seeking to remain in control (as John Gabbert of the furniture retailer Room & Board has done) would do well to restrict themselves to businesses where large amounts of capital aren't required and where they already have the skills and contacts they need. They may also want to wait until late in their careers, after they have developed broader management skills, before setting up shop. Entrepreneurs who focus on wealth, such as Jim Triandiflou, who founded Ockham Technologies, can make the leap sooner because they won't mind taking money from investors or depending on executives to manage their ventures. Such founders will often bring in new CEOs themselves and be more likely to work with their boards to develop new, post-succession roles for themselves. Choosing between money and power allows entrepreneurs to come to grips with what success means to them. Founders who want to manage empires will not believe they are successes if they lose control, even if they end up rich. Conversely, founders who understand that their goal is to amass wealth will not view themselves as failures when they step down from the top job. PMID:18314638

Wasserman, Noam

2008-02-01

383

Implementation Mechanism of Ethics in Business Organizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethics and ethical behavior are issues which are increasingly being focused on the business community today. People are becoming more concerned about what is actually happening in business organizations in the name of competition, growth, and profitability. Organizations are crossing the red zone of ethics and ethical behaviors. A growing number of organizations are constantly surveying and evaluating the unethical practice in business organizations worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of ethical practices and how to implement those ethical practices in business organizations. It is empirically proved that ethical practices in business organizations help to create favorable relationships with other organizations and can also establish long-term positive relationships with existing and potential future customers. Descriptive and analytical research methodology is applied in this research paper. The findings of this paper is that it is very essential to have a code of business ethics in every business organization and this code of business ethics must be implemented in the organization in objective and effective way.

Md. Abdul Jalil

2010-09-01

384

An Examination of Accounting Majors' Ethical Decisions before and after an Ethics Course Requirement  

Science.gov (United States)

The increased focus on ethical decision making in the accounting profession has resulted in greater attention being paid to the education of future accountants. Texas is one of the states that requires a State Board approved university course in Accounting Ethics to be on the transcript of prospective CPA candidates. This study reports on research…

Rogers, Violet; Smith, Aileen

2008-01-01

385

Ethical Codes of Nursing and the Practical Necessity in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nNursing is a universal health care necessity. Nursing profession, similar to the other medical professions, is responsible to maintain public health promotion, prevent diseases, and also care and rehabilitate client, family and the soci¬ety. The inher-ent nature of nursing is respect for moral values and human rights. However, clinical ethical dilem¬mas occur for nurses at all levels, not always concerning patients. Although this is the primary area of concern, it is relevant to all areas of nursing practice and every aspect of their professional roles including research activity, education and management. The ethical codes of nursing, which set out the ethical behaviors expected of registered nurses, are considered indisputable with regard to nursing practice. There are some national codes in the world but the international code of ethics for nurses was first adopted by the International Council of Nurses. The current paper gives an overview of nursing ethics history, which will be followed by the study on the promotion and dissemination of the nursing ethical codes and guidelines. The concepts, topics and strategies of some codes will be stated in this paper. The present study also aims to emphasize nursing ethics in Iran. Despite the compiling of general and specific guidelines of biomedical research in Iran during recent decade, there have been limited activities on the issue of nursing codes of ethics. Iranian nurses should be educated and fully prepared to en-gage with ethical is¬sues in the field of nursing. Given the importance of sociocultural issues, it is necessary to compile nurs-ing codes of ethics according to Islamic culture of Iran

M Sanjari

2008-06-01

386

The four principles: Can they be measured and do they predict ethical decision making?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The four principles of Beauchamp and Childress - autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice - have been extremely influential in the field of medical ethics, and are fundamental for understanding the current approach to ethical assessment in health care. This study tests whether these principles can be quantitatively measured on an individual level, and then subsequently if they are used in the decision making process when individuals are faced with ethical dilemmas. Methods The Analytic Hierarchy Process was used as a tool for the measurement of the principles. Four scenarios, which involved conflicts between the medical ethical principles, were presented to participants who then made judgments about the ethicality of the action in the scenario, and their intentions to act in the same manner if they were in the situation. Results Individual preferences for these medical ethical principles can be measured using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. This technique provides a useful tool in which to highlight individual medical ethical values. On average, individuals have a significant preference for non-maleficence over the other principles, however, and perhaps counter-intuitively, this preference does not seem to relate to applied ethical judgements in specific ethical dilemmas. Conclusions People state they value these medical ethical principles but they do not actually seem to use them directly in the decision making process. The reasons for this are explained through the lack of a behavioural model to account for the relevant situational factors not captured by the principles. The limitations of the principles in predicting ethical decision making are discussed.

Page Katie

2012-05-01

387

Ethics in Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical

Medlin, E. Lander

2010-01-01

388

Beyond Ethical Frameworks: Using Moral Experimentation in the Engineering Ethics Classroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although undergraduate engineering ethics courses often include the development of moral sensitivity as a learning objective and the use of active learning techniques, teaching centers on the transmission of cognitive knowledge. This article describes a complementary assignment asking students to perform an ethics "experiment" on themselves that has a potential to enhance affective learning and moral imagination. The article argues that the focus on cognitive learning may not promote, and may even impair, our efforts to foster moral sensitivity. In contrast, the active learning assignments and exercises, like the ethics "experiment" discussed, offer great potential to expand the scope of instruction in engineering ethics to include ethical behavior as well as knowledge. Engineering ethics education needs to extend beyond the narrow range of human action associated with the technical work of the engineer and explore ways to draw on broader lifeworld experiences to enrich professional practice and identity. PMID:25431220

Walling, Olivia

2014-11-28

389

Revision of Business Ethics  

OpenAIRE

Business ethics is a controversial topic. In my article I would like to explore where the limits of business ethics are and to what extent it can become part of the economic world. I would like to explore the question what the relationship between ethics and business is and whether what business ethicists consider ethics is real ethics in the fundamental sense of the world. The concept of business ethics will be discussed compared to general ethical theories and consequences drawn. I would li...

Tomas Sigmund

2011-01-01

390

Consenting futures: professional views on social, clinical and ethical aspects of information feedback to embryo donors in human embryonic stem cell research  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports from an ongoing multidisciplinary, ethnographic study that is exploring the views, values and practices (the ethical frameworks) drawn on by professional staff in assisted conception units and stem cell laboratories in relation to embryo donation for research purposes, particularly human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, in the UK. We focus here on the connection between possible incidental findings and the circumstances in which embryos are donated for hESC research, and report some of the uncertainties and dilemmas of our staff participants. We explore the views of our study participants in relation to two themes: (1) rights to information and anticipating how donors might be informed about future research findings and (2) occupational work goals and trust. PMID:21666741

Ehrich, Kathryn; Williams, Clare; Farsides, Bobbie

2010-01-01

391

Publication: an ethical imperative.  

OpenAIRE

Publication of medical research is both a monitor of the researcher's ethics and an audit of the local or regional ethics committee that approved it. Selectivity of publication or of the intention to publish lessens this audit. Opinions differ about what is ethically allowable in clinical and benchtop medical research. Ethical permission and ethical monitoring of medical research are subject to a hierarchy of pyramidal controls, starting in hospital and ending with the local, institutional, o...

Pearn, J.

1995-01-01

392

Business Ethics in CSR  

OpenAIRE

This project seeks to dissect the advent of CSR in business practice from the view of ethics. We perform this by laying out the theories of CSR, business ethics, deontology and utilitarianism. We then use the case studies of Lundbeck, The Body Shop, and British American Tobacco, to dissect some productions of CSR. These are compared to the above mentioned theories on ethics. We conclude that business ethics and CSR are only as good as the ethical base upon which they are built.

Birkvad Bernth, Camilla; Houmøller Mortensen, Kasper; Calles, Mark Benjamin; Wind, Martin; Saalfeldt, Rie

2013-01-01

393

Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.  

Science.gov (United States)

Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. PMID:23586767

Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

2013-05-01

394

The Territorial Prior-Residence Effect and Children's Behavior in Social Dilemmas  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on territorial behavior has focused on animal populations, and relatively little has dealt with territoriality in humans, except in the area of human sports. This study was an investigation of the prior-residence effect on children's behavior in social dilemmas. The analysis was carried out by means of research designed for preschool…

Han, Ru; Li, Shu; Shi, Jian-Nong

2009-01-01

395

The Conceptual Model of Personal Moral Philosophy (PMP and Ethical Decision Making (EDM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual model to examine the two dimensions of personal moral philosophy (Idealism and Relativism and its influences on the Ethical Decision Making. The study use the Forsyth's Taxonomy of Personal Moral Philosophy and the Rest's Ethical Decision Making Model serves as the starting points to develop the conceptual model. Two dimensions of PMP and 4 main components of Ethical Decision Making were used to construct the model from the extensive literature. The developed model will provide the base for assessing the level of Ethical Decision Making by studying the influences of the level of Personal Moral Philosophy. This finding further the insight of the understanding of the philosophical and ethical analysis of managerial dilemmas. The model provides an insightful for the analysis of Personal Moral Philosophy on Ethical Decision Making. The model examines the independent influences of Personal Moral Philosophy on Ethical Decision Making and treats Ethical Decision Making as dependent variables. Given that Ethical Decision Making are often detrimental to organizational functional efficiency, it is appropriate for the management to have better understanding to diagnose effects of the Personal Moral Philosophy on the Ethical Decision Making. For this analysis, this model will prove valuable.

Cynthia Ling Meng Chan

2011-02-01

396

Business ethics and corporate governance in the Second King Report: Farsighted or futile?  

OpenAIRE

The relationship between corporate governance and business ethics has always been ambiguous. Does corporate governance per definition have an ethical nature or is it merely self-interested? Is business ethics an integral part of corporate governance or is it marginalised or even excluded by the debate on corporate governance? Does corporate governance also include the governance of ethics? This article will focus on the relationship between corporate governance and business ethics from the pe...

Rossouw, G. J.

2002-01-01

397

China's energy security, the Malacca dilemma and responses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China's rapid economic growth has led to a huge increase in oil imports. This has raised great concern regarding its energy security because China depends on a single chokepoint, the Strait of Malacca, with nearly three-quarters of its oil imports flowing through the Strait. Given its strategic importance to China and China's little sway on the waterway, this viewpoint focuses mainly on China's concerns about and efforts at both demand and supply sides towards energy security, in particular regarding the Malacca dilemma, and puts potential Arctic oil and gas into that context.

398

[Ethics and reproductive health: the issue of HPV vaccination].  

Science.gov (United States)

The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the vaccination status. PMID:23539924

Mateji?, Bojana; Kesi?, Vesna

2013-01-01

399

Ethics in clinical research: the Indian perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethics in clinical research focuses largely on identifying and implementing the acceptable conditions for exposure of some individuals to risks and burdens for the benefit of society at large. Ethical guidelines for clinical research were formulated only after discovery of inhumane behaviour with participants during research experiments. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code laying ethical principles for clinical research. With increasing research all over, World Health Organization formulated guidelines in the form of Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. The US laid down its guidelines for ethical principles in the Belmont Report after discovery of the Tuskegee's Syphilis study. The Indian Council of Medical Research has laid down the 'Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Subjects' in the year 2000 which were revised in 2006. It gives twelve general principles to be followed by all biomedical researchers working in the country. The Ethics Committee stands as the bridge between the researcher and the ethical guidelines of the country. The basic responsibility of the Ethics Committee is to ensure an independent, competent and timely review of all ethical aspects of the project proposals received in order to safeguard the dignity, rights, safety and well-being of all actual or potential research participants. A well-documented informed consent process is the hallmark of any ethical research work. Informed consent respects individual's autonomy, to participate or not to participate in research. Concepts of vulnerable populations, therapeutic misconception and post trial access hold special importance in ethical conduct of research, especially in developing countries like India, where most of the research participants are uneducated and economically backward. PMID:22303053

Sanmukhani, J; Tripathi, C B

2011-03-01

400

Dilemmas of Justification in the Qualitative Study of Intimate Matters : Examples from Namibia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter focuses on the special obligation researchers have to consider carefully the ethical and moral aspects of their work when undertaking qualitative field research on intimate matters. The chapter argues that the term "justification" is central to a discussion of several dimensions of ethics in the various phases of research, from the conception of a research idea to the dissimination of research results.

TersbØl, Britt Pinkowski

2010-01-01

401

Sustainable Renovation of Residential Buildings and the Landlord/Tenant Dilemma  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The landlord/tenant dilemma arises when the interests of landlords and tenants misalign and is one of the greatest barriers hindering the development of sustainable renovation of residential buildings in Europe. The aim of this research is to investigate how regulatory changes and contractual solutions can help solve the landlord/tenant dilemma in relation to sustainable renovation of residential buildings, and how the general awareness of sustainable renovation can be increased. Particular focus is on whether tools like energy performance contracting and energy labeling can help solve the landlord/tenant dilemma. The research was done in relation to the specific situation in Denmark, but theory, information and experiences from other countries were included. The results show that there are plenty of opportunities to overcome the landlord/tenant dilemma, but principal/agent problems can only be overcome with a package solution. In the Danish national context the package solution must consist of legislative changes, financial incentives and better dissemination of information. Therefore, an array of different tools must be integrated and used in cooperation to overcome the dilemma.

Ástmarsson, Björn; Jensen, Per Anker

2013-01-01

402

Electronic Commerce: A Taxing Dilemma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last five years, remote selling-led by online organizations - has surged. The resulting growth has created concern among both traditional and remote sellers as they jockey for improved competitive position and governmental entities, in particular US states, over the erosion of their tax revenues as sales are diverted to remote sellers. This paper explores the issues and potential solutions surrounding the e-commerce tax dilemma. It provides a current assessment of the taxation environment for individuals and organizations impacted by the tax debate. Those individuals and organizations might include online business customers, remote sellers both traditional (mail order and online, tax equity organizations, and governmental bodies. Current tax obligations are explored based on landmark legal decisions. Potential short and long -term solutions are assessed.

Steven John Simon

2002-01-01

403

The iterated prisoners' dilemma 20 years on  

CERN Document Server

In 1984, Robert Axelrod published a book, relating the story of two competitions which he ran, where invited academics entered strategies for the Iterated Prisoners' Dilemma. The book, almost 20 years on, is still widely read and cited by academics and the general public. As a celebration of that landmark work, we have recreated those competitions to celebrate its 20th anniversary, by again inviting academics to submit prisoners' dilemma strategies. The first of these new competitions was run in July 2004, and the second in April 2005. Iterated Prisoners' Dilemma: 20 Years On essentially provides an update of the Axelrod's book. Specifically, it. Presents the prisoners' dilemma, its history and variants. Highlights original Axelrod''s work and its impact. Discusses results of new competitions. Showcases selected papers that reflect the latest researches in the area.

Kendall, Graham; Chong, Siang Yew

2007-01-01

404

The Investigation of the Opinions of Teacher Candidates about Current Ethical Issues in Terms of Various Variables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research is planned for determining teacher candidates’ opinions about some bioethics issues which include ethical dilemmas. In this research in which quantitative research techniques was used, a study group consisted of 238 teacher candidates from eight different departments at Gazi University in 2011-2012 academic year. Bioethical Values Inventory including scenarios located in the center of ethical issues, such as genetic screening tests, reproductive technologies and euthanasia used as an assessment instrument. Preferences of teacher candidates on scenarios are examined by using research variables such as the gender and studied department. In addition ethical approaches when making their decisions on ethical problems were analyzed. It was observed that the teacher candidates changed the ethical approaches while making decision for each scenario were varied. The teachers’ overall judgments and ethical approach preferences for each scenario did not differentiate according to the department and gender. Only gender-related differences were identified in the genetic screening test scenario.

?smet KURT

2013-01-01

405

Hospital Ethics Committees in Poland.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to UNESCO guidelines, one of the four forms of bioethics committees in medicine are the Hospital Ethics Committees (HECs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the above guidelines are implemented in real practice. There were 111 hospitals selected out of 176 Polish clinical hospitals and hospitals accredited by Center of Monitoring Quality in Health System. The study was conducted by the survey method. There were 56 (50 %) hospitals that responded to the survey. The number of HECs members fluctuated between 3 and 16 members, where usually 5 (22 % of HECs) members were part of the board committee. The composition of the HECs for professions other than physicians was diverse and non-standardized (nurses-in 86 % of HECs, clergy-42 %, lawyers-38 %, psychologists-28 %, hospital management-23 %, rehab staff-7 %, patient representatives-3 %, ethicists-2 %). Only 55 % of HECs had a professional set of standards. 98 % of HECs had specific tasks. 62 % of HECs were asked for their expertise, and 55 % prepared <6.88 % of the opinions were related to interpersonal relations between hospital personnel, patients and their families with emphasis on the interactions between superiors and their inferiors or hospital staff and patients and their families. Only 12 % of the opinions were reported by the respondents as related to ethical dilemmas. In conclusion, few Polish hospitals have HECs, and the structure, services and workload are not always adequate. To ensure a reliable operation of HECs requires the development of relevant legislation, standard operating procedures and well trained members. PMID:25388547

Czarkowski, Marek; Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Szyma?ska, Beata

2014-11-12

406

Ethical thinking and discrimination in health care  

OpenAIRE

RQ: Personal excellence of nursing focusing on self-transcendence and achievements is crucial for achieving excellence in health care. The question is whether there is unequal treatment of patients despite high ethical standards placed in health care.Purpose: Professional nurses code is a guide in assessing their ethical performance. People are different amongst each other, but have the same rights in the health system, which should be provided by health care services. The need to overcome in...

Aleksander Mlinšek

2012-01-01

407

Ethical Issues in Engineering Models: Personal Reflections  

OpenAIRE

I start this contribution with an overview of my personal involvement—as an Operations Research consultant—in several engineering case-studies that may raise ethical questions; these case studies employ simulation models. Next, I present an overview of the recent literature on ethical issues in modeling, focusing on the validation of the model’s assumptions; the decisive role of these assumptions leads to the quest for robust models. Actually, models are meant to solve practical problem...

Kleijnen, Jack P. C.

2010-01-01

408

A public health perspective on research ethics  

OpenAIRE

Ethical guidelines for conducting clinical trials have historically been based on a perceived therapeutic obligation to treat and benefit the patient?participants. The origins of this ethical framework can be traced to the Hippocratic oath originally written to guide doctors in caring for their patients, where the overriding moral obligation of doctors is strictly to do what is best for the individual patient, irrespective of other social considerations. In contrast, although medicine focus...

Buchanan, D. R.; Miller, F. G.

2006-01-01

409

Health promotion: an ethical analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thinking and practising ethically requires reasoning systematically about the right thing to do. Health promotion ethics - a form of applied ethics - includes analysis of health promotion practice and how this can be ethically justified. Existing frameworks can assist in such evaluation. These acknowledge the moral value of delivering benefits. But benefits need to be weighed against burdens, harms or wrongs, and these should be minimised: they include invading privacy, breaking confidentiality, restraining liberty, undermining self-determination or people's own values, or perpetuating injustice. Thinking about the ethics of health promotion also means recognising health promotion as a normative ideal: a vision of the good society. This ideal society values health, sees citizens as active and includes them in decisions that affect them, and makes the state responsible for providing all of its citizens, no matter how advantaged or disadvantaged, with the conditions and resources they need to be healthy. Ethicists writing about health promotion have focused on this relationship between the citizen and the state. Comparing existing frameworks, theories and the expressed values of practitioners themselves, we can see common patterns. All oppose pursuing an instrumental, individualistic, health-at-all-costs vision of health promotion. And all defend the moral significance of just processes: those that engage with citizens in a transparent, inclusive and open way. In recent years, some Australian governments have sought to delegitimise health promotion, defining it as extraneous to the role of the state. Good evidence is not enough to counter this trend, because it is founded in competing visions of a good society. For this reason, the most pressing agenda for health promotion ethics is to engage with communities, in a procedurally just way, about the role and responsibilities of the citizen and the state in promoting and maintaining good health. PMID:24739775

Carter, Stacy M

2014-04-01

410

Business Ethics Resources on WWW  

Science.gov (United States)

From the University of British Columbia's Centre for Applied Ethics, this extensive catalog of business ethics resources is divided into eight sections including Public Sector Ethics, Publications, Codes of Ethics, and Ethics Institutions and Organizations. Each section consists of briefly indexed links, organized in alphabetical order. Business Ethics Resources on the WWW also links to a page of applied ethics resources and the Centre for Applied Ethics.

411

Ethical and affective evaluation of environmental risks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text of publication follows: the present paper will be concerned with environmental risk perception, with special emphasis on those environmental risks that pertain to global change phenomena, such as climate change and ozone depletion. Two determinants of risk judgments are investigated that seem particularly relevant to environmental risks: ethical and affective evaluations. It is assumed that the focus of risk evaluation can be on one of two aspects: (a) on an evaluation of potential losses, or (b) on ethical considerations. We assume that both, potential loss and violation of ethical principles elicit emotional evaluations, but that these two judgmental aspects are associated with different specific emotions. Following cognitive emotion theories, we distinguish loss-based emotions, such as worry and fear, from ethical emotions, e.g., guilt and anger. A study is presented that investigates the role of ethical and affective evaluations in risk judgments. Various environmental risks were presented to subjects, e.g., air pollution, ozone depletion, climate change and destruction of ecological balance. For each environmental risk, subjects indicated in free-response format as well as on rating scales the extent to which ethical principles were violated, and the intensity of both loss-based and ethical emotions. The correlational structure of the emotion ratings confirms the distinction between loss-based and ethical emotions. Risk judgments co-vary with the strength of ethical evaluation and with the intensity of loss-based emotions, but are independent of ethical emotions. The implications of these findings for the risk appraisal process are discussed. (authors)

Bohm, G.; Pfister, H.R. [Bremen Univ. (Germany)

1998-07-01

412

Ethics for Management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Notes that it is essential that business organizations establish organizational systems that require satisfactory ethical business behaviors from everyone concerned, regardless of differences in personal outlooks. Outlines what needs to be done in order to effectively teach business ethics. (SG)

Jaques, Elliott

2003-01-01

413

Two problems in dynamic ethics  

OpenAIRE

Time raises a host of difficult ethical questions. This doctoral project focuses on two: 1. How are "static" comparative principles (e.g. equality, desert) to be understood over time? (The Problem of Fairness & Time) 2. How might separation (in time) between agents, objects, and threats affect claims to the relevant resources? (The New Problem of Temporal Distance) My work begins with a simple observation: our prima facie intuitions about the value of simple distributions change d...

Cox, Courtney Marie; Broome, John

2011-01-01

414

Ethics for Fundraisers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intended for professionals and others in the field of philanthropy, this book applies ethics and ethical decision-making to fund raising. Its primary aim is to enhance the level of ethical fund raising throughout the nonprofit sector by equipping those involved with frameworks for understanding and taking principled actions and preventing…

Anderson, Albert

415

Ethical Challenges in the Care of Elderly Persons  

OpenAIRE

Ethical issues are central to any discussion or reflection on aging and health care. The authors of the OJIN topic, Health Care and the Aging Population: What Are Today's Challenges?, address a variety of topics including quality of life, long-term care planning, geriatric education, frail elder care, and successful aging behaviors. Imbedded in these topics are ethical issues that are relevant to nursing and/or health care. Thus, the focus of this column is to examine select ethical issues in...

Ludwick, R.; Mary Silva

2003-01-01

416

Consumer Ethics Research: Reframing the Debate about Consumption for Good  

OpenAIRE

Consumer ethics is an underdeveloped specialism of business and marketing ethics, within which most publications have focused on bad rather than on good ethics, and on consumer dishonesty rather than on consumer idealism or consumer responsibility. This conceptual paper explores the latter perspective, and examines how we can seek to understand “consumer social responsibility” from perspectives such as consumer citizenship, political consumerism and consumer decision making. Much of...

Brinkmann, Johannes; Peattle, Ken

2008-01-01

417

Latent tuberculous infection: ethical considerations in formulating public health policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is increasing interest in the introduction of public health policies relating to latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). However, there has been little previous systematic engagement with LTBI from an ethical perspective. This article offers a general overview of ethical issues in relation to LTBI, with particular focus on those aspects relevant to the development and implementation of public health policy. Key characteristics of LTBI are discussed from an ethical perspective, with examples of challenging situations for policy makers. PMID:25574909

Denholm, J T; Matteelli, A; Reis, A

2015-02-01

418

STUDENTS’ OPPINION ABOUT PROFESSIONAL ETHICS RELATION OF THE TEACHERS  

OpenAIRE

Professional teacher’s ethics is a collection of moral codes of their professional work. It is significant that the teaching profession respects certain designated professional-ethical codes of conduct between the teachers and the students, with their colleagues and other people they professionally cooperate with.     This study is focused on analysis of the professional ethical relation of teachers towards students, seen from student’s point of view. These are the results of student?...

Vera Stojanovska

2013-01-01

419

THE TOURISM INDUSTRY OF ETHICS AND TOURISM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tourism industry is one of the largest industries in the world, and despite recent events that have made its operating environment more complex, the industry continues to grow [Theobald, 2005, Global Tourism, 3rdedn., Butterworth-Heinemann/Elsevier]. Commensurate to the size of the industry is a growth in the number of students pursuing degree courses in tourism around the world. Despite an increasingly sophisticated literature, the relative recency of the industry and its study has meant little attention has been paid in the ethics literature to the dilemmas facing tourism managers and its students. Based on interviews with senior members of the tourism industry six scenarios are developed with pertinence to the challenges faced by industry practitioners today.

Constan?a ENEA

2007-01-01

420

Conflicting and complementary ethics of animal welfare considerations in reintroductions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite differences in focus, goals, and strategies between conservation biology and animal welfare, both are inextricably linked in many ways, and greater consideration of animal welfare, although important in its own right, also has considerable potential to contribute to conservation success. Nevertheless, animal welfare and animal ethics are not always considered explicitly within conservation practice. We systematically reviewed the recent scientific peer-reviewed and online gray literature on reintroductions of captive-bred and wild-caught animals (mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles) to quantify the occurrence of animal welfare issues. We considered monitoring that could be indicative of the animal's welfare status and supportive management actions that could improve animal welfare (regardless of whether the aim was explicitly animal-welfare orientated). Potential welfare issues (of variable nature and extent) were recorded in 67% of 199 projects reviewed; the most common were mortality >50%, dispersal or loss of animals, disease, and human conflict. Most (>70%) projects monitored survival, 18% assessed body condition, and 2% monitored stress levels. Animal welfare, explicitly, was referred to in 6% of projects. Supportive actions, most commonly use of on-site prerelease pens and provision of supplemental food or water, were implemented in 79% of projects, although the extent and duration of support varied. Practitioners can address animal-welfare issues in reintroductions by considering the potential implications for individual animals at all stages of the release process using the decision tree presented. We urge practitioners to report potential animal-welfare issues, describe mitigation actions, and evaluate their efficacy to facilitate transparent evaluation of common moral dilemmas and to advance communal strategies for dealing with them. Currently, comparative mortality rates, health risks, postrelease stress, effectiveness of supportive measures, and behavior of individuals warrant further research to improve animal welfare in reintroductions and to increase success of such projects. PMID:23506045

Harrington, Lauren A; Moehrenschlager, Axel; Gelling, Merryl; Atkinson, Rob P D; Hughes, Joelene; Macdonald, David W

2013-06-01

421

Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation. PMID:24870041

Lamba, Shakti

2014-07-22

422

Energy partitioning schemes: a dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two closely related energy partitioning schemes, in which the total energy is presented as a sum of atomic and diatomic contributions by using the "atomic decomposition of identity", are compared on the example of N,N-dimethylformamide, a simple but chemically rich molecule. Both schemes account for different intramolecular interactions, for instance they identify the weak C-H...O intramolecular interactions, but give completely different numbers. (The energy decomposition scheme based on the virial theorem is also considered.) The comparison of the two schemes resulted in a dilemma which is especially striking when these schemes are applied for molecules distorted from their equilibrium structures: one either gets numbers which are "on the chemical scale" and have quite appealing values at the equilibrium molecular geometries, but exhibiting a counter-intuitive distance dependence (the two-center energy components increase in absolute value with the increase of the interatomic distances)--or numbers with too large absolute values but "correct" distance behaviour. The problem is connected with the quick decay of the diatomic kinetic energy components. PMID:17328441

Mayer, I

2007-01-01

423

Towards a framework for the elicitation of dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper covers the main findings of the doctoral research that was concerned with seeking to extend aspects of dilemma theory. In professional practice, the Trompenaars Hampden-Turner Dilemma Reconciliation Process(TM) is a vehicle delivering dilemma theory in application. It informs a manager or leader on how to explore the dilemmas they face, how to reconcile the tensions that result, and how to structure the action steps for implementing the reconciled solutions. This vehicle forms the professional practice of the author who seeks to bring more rigor to consulting practice and thereby also contribute to theory development in the domain. The critical review of dilemma theory reveals that previous authors are inconsistent and variously invalid in their use of the terms 'dilemma theory,' 'dilemma methodology,' 'dilemma process,' 'dilemma reconciliation,' etc., and therefore an attempt is made to resolve these inconsistencies by considering whether 'dilemmaism' at the meta-level might be positioned as a new paradigm of inquiry for (management) research that embodies ontological, epistemological, and methodical premises that frame an approach to the resolution of real world business problems in (multi) disciplinary; (multi) functional and (multi) cultural business environments. This research offers contributions to knowledge, professional practice and theory development from the exploration of the SPID model as a way to make the elicitation of dilemmas more rigorous and structured and in the broader context of exploring 'dilemmaism' as a new paradigm of inquiry. PMID:20046794

Burger, Marc J C

2008-08-01

424

Aesthetic/Cosmetic surgery and ethical challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Is aesthetic surgery a business guided by market structures aimed primarily at material gain and profit or a surgical intervention intended to benefit patients and an integral part of the health-care system? Is it a frivolous subspecialty or does it provide a real and much needed service to a wide range of patients? At present, cosmetic surgery is passing through an identity crisis as well as an acute ethical dilemma. A closer look from an ethical viewpoint makes clear that the doctor who offers aesthetic interventions faces many serious ethical problems which have to do with the identity of the surgeon as a healer. Aesthetic surgery that works only according to market categories runs the risk of losing the view for the real need of patients and will be nothing else than a part of a beauty industry which has the only aim to sell something, not to help people. Such an aesthetic surgery is losing sight of real values and makes profit from the ideology of a society that serves only vanity, youthfulness, and personal success. Unfortunately, some colleagues brag that they chose the plastic surgery specialty just to become rich aesthetic surgeons, using marketing tactics to promote their practice. This is, at present, the image we project. As rightly proposed, going back a little to Hippocrates, to the basics of being a physician, is urgently warranted! Being a physician is all that a "cosmetic" surgeon should be. In the long run, how one skillfully and ethically practices the art of plastic surgery will always speak louder than any words. PMID:18820963

Atiyeh, Bishara S; Rubeiz, Michel T; Hayek, Shady N

2008-11-01

425

Ethics, the Illegality of Physician Assisted Suicide in the United States, and the Role and Ordeal of Dr. Jack Kevorkian before His Death  

OpenAIRE

The paper tries to argue that physician-assisted suicide (PAS), which is opposed by the AMA and all US states except Oregon, is a moral and ethical dilemma that faces physicians, ethicists, legal experts, and others. To demonstrate this, the various dimensions of the debate are explored. This is accomplished by discussing the legal, ethical, medical and political ordeals of its most infamous practitioner, Dr. Jack Kevorkian of Michigan (1928-2011). As the paper argues, Dr. Kevorkian’s belie...

Hosseini, Hengameh M.

2012-01-01

426

Pharmaceutical ethics and physician liability in Side Effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

We review Side Effects, a 2013 film involving bioethics, pharmaceuticals, and financial conspiracies. After the main character Emily unsuccessfully attempts suicide, she begins receiving care from a psychiatrist, Dr. Banks. Following numerous events, she is placed on a fictional antidepressant, Ablixa, which leads her to suffer from sleepwalking. During an episode of sleepwalking she commits a serious crime. The film poses an interesting dilemma: How responsible would the physician be in this instance? We analyze this question by applying numerous ethical principles. PMID:23996742

Dhiman, Gaurav J; Amber, Kyle T

2013-12-01

427

THE ETHICAL CROSSROADS IN THE AGE OF THE “NEW MEDIA”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The spread of digital technology, which allows anyone (in theory
to disseminate in-formation on the Internet, is the greatest and a
dramatic new ethical question of the modern world. It is especially
true for the principles that traditionally have guided jour-nalism.
This article addresses some of the central dilemmas that journalism faces in this new context, and poses questions regarding possible limits to what should be made pub-lic, in view of the loss of this control historically applied through journalism and the everpresent hypothesis of anonymity on the net.

Sylvia Moretzsohn

2011-02-01

428

THE ETHICAL CROSSROADS IN THE AGE OF THE “NEW MEDIA”  

OpenAIRE

The spread of digital technology, which allows anyone (in theory)
to disseminate in-formation on the Internet, is the greatest and a
dramatic new ethical question of the modern world. It is especially
true for the principles that traditionally have guided jour-nalism.
This article addresses some of the central dilemmas that journalism faces in this new context, and poses questions regarding possible limits to what should be made pub-lic, in view of ...

Sylvia Moretzsohn

2011-01-01

429

Dilemas éticos de periodistas y mediadores en el caso de la liberación de rehenes en febrero de 2009: entrevistas a tres periodistas colombianos / Ethical Dilemmas of Journalists and Mediators in the case of the hostage liberations on February 2009: Interviews with three Colombian Journalists  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Durante la operación humanitaria que permitió el regreso a la libertad de tres policías y un soldado secuestrados por la guerrilla de las FARC se presentaron algunos incidentes que involucraron a periodistas y suscitaron controversia en Colombia. ¿Qué implicaciones éticas trae consigo el doble papel [...] de periodista y garante en una liberación de rehenes? ¿Qué pasa por la mente de un reportero cuando informa sobre este tipo de noticias? El artículo recoge las reflexiones de dos de los protagonistas de los hechos del 1 de febrero de 2009 y también las de un experto latinoamericano en ética periodística Abstract in english During the humanitarian operation that freed three members of the Colombian Police and one soldier of the Colombian Army held as hostages by the guerrilla organization FARC, some of the journalists got involved in incidents which opened up a debate in Colombia. What ethical implications does the dou [...] ble role of journalist and guarantor in a hostage liberation situation bring? What thoughts does a reporter have when informing about this kind of news ? This article collects the reflections of two journalists who were involved in the events on February 1st, 2009, and also those of a Latin American expert in journalistic ethics

JOSÈ VICENTE, ARIZMENDI.

2009-12-01

430

Development Ethics and Human Development  

OpenAIRE

‘Development ethics’ can be seen as comparable to business ethics, medical ethics, environmental ethics and similar areas of practical ethics. Each area of practice generates ethical questions about priorities and procedures, rights and responsibilities. So, first of all, ‘development ethics’ can be seen as a field of attention, an agenda of questions about major value choices involved in processes of social and economic development. What is good or ‘real’ development? ...

Gasper, D. R.

2009-01-01

431

Economics and industry do not mean ethical conduct in clinical trials  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical trials present an ethical dilemma for pharmaceutical companies. While companies may want to undertake and report these trials in an ethical manner, negative results can significantly affect product sales. There is accumulating evidence that company-financed trials are biased in favor of the product that the company makes. Ethical conduct in this article is defined as whether the trials are conducted in the best interests of the participants and/or reported in the best interests of patients. Nine examples of how clinical trials are violating multiple articles in the Declaration of Helsinki are discussed using concrete case reports from the literature. The recognition of ethical problems in company run trials is not something new, but to date no meaningful action has been taken to resolve this issue. What is necessary is to separate the financing of clinical trials from their conduct. PMID:25848540

2013-01-01

432

Sexuality and breastfeeding: woman/mother’s dilemmas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: to describe the influence of breastfeeding on women's sexuality; examine the plight of women to combine breastfeeding and sexuality and to discuss the issue of sexuality and breastfeeding from the perspective of professional nursing practice. Methodology: this is a descriptive study, from qualitative approach, based on the report of twenty mothers over two months postpartum, performed in July 2009 in a Healthcare Center in Rio de Janeiro city. The statements led to empirical categories and were worked from the perspective of thematic analysis. This study was approved by the Ethics in Research of the Municipal Health Department/RJ, registration number 97/09. Results: several changes were present in the sexual life of the mothers: decreased libido, poor vaginal lubrication, dyspareunia and lack of sex appeal of the breasts. Conclusion: the changes to the body with motherhood have sexual intercourse with a dilemma for the woman who can not always reconcile the role of wife and mother in the same body.

Danielle Moreira Marques, Adriana Lemos

2010-04-01

433

Resolving social dilemmas on evolving random networks  

CERN Document Server

We show that strategy independent adaptations of random interaction networks can induce powerful mechanisms, ranging from the Red Queen to group selection, that promote cooperation in evolutionary social dilemmas. These two mechanisms emerge spontaneously as dynamical processes due to deletions and additions of links, which are performed whenever players adopt new strategies and after a certain number of game iterations, respectively. The potency of cooperation promotion, as well as the mechanism responsible for it, can thereby be tuned via a single parameter determining the frequency of link additions. We thus demonstrate that coevolving random networks may evoke an appropriate mechanism for each social dilemma, such that cooperation prevails even by highly unfavorable conditions.

Szolnoki, Attila; 10.1209/0295-5075/86/30007

2009-01-01

434

Dilemmas and Solutions for a Sustainable Green Transition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mitigation of global warming and transitioning to a green and sustainable world are counteracted by a number of barriers and dilemmas. The paper analyses a number of these barriers and dilemmas in order to highlight efficient strategies and solutions for a sustainable development. Most governments in industrial countries do not pay enough attention to concepts as limits to growth in a finite globe and the importance of economic and social equity. They also overlook in practice the need for keeping at least 50% of known fossil reserves under ground in order to avoid a critical increase in global temperature. On the contrary, a number of industrial countries are now promoting exploitation of new fossil sources like shale gas and oil from tar sand. Reversing population growth facilitates sustainable development, but most governments of industrial nations appear to be more concerned about decreases in their population. The central problem is that limits to growth are not taken seriously by finance ministers in most industrial countries. This paper will focus on the consequences of limits to growth and the need for an alternative concept of employment and work.

Meyer, Niels I

2014-01-01

435

Librarianship Needs a New Code of Professional Ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussion of professional ethics focuses on a study by Johan Bekker that recommends a new code of ethics for librarians. Topics discussed include confidential information, extraoccupational activities, continuing education, research, occupational development, membership in occupational associations, and peer group role. A sidebar presents…

Finks, Lee W.

1991-01-01

436

Ethics in Language: The Case from World Englishes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the significance of a Wittgensteinian approach to the ethics of language for world Englishes. Focuses on the role of metaphysics in the ethics of language and on the significance of context in the moral use of language. Argues that morality lies not only in its content but also in its use. (Author/VWL)

Dhillon, Pradeep A.

2003-01-01

437

Organizational Ethics and Teachers' Intent to Leave: An Integrative Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The present study focuses on developing a conceptual framework that explores the relationships between teachers' intent to leave and a spectrum of ethics perceptions. The authors argue that these relationships are mediated by organizational commitment (affective and normative). Research Design: Organizational ethics was measured by…

Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava

2009-01-01

438

Teaching Ethics to High School Students: Virtue Meets Economics  

Science.gov (United States)

When highly visible lapses in ethics occur, education gets some of the blame. Principals in the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis and the Enron scandal had been educated at Harvard and other elite business schools, where professional and moral ideals had arguably been replaced by a focus on profits at the expense of ethics. A long-standing tradition…

Niederjohn, M. Scott; Nygard, Kim; Wood, William C.

2009-01-01

439

Becoming-Other: Developing the Ethics of Integration  

Science.gov (United States)

This article analyzes the philosophy of French post-structuralist Gilles Deleuze in the context of post-formal education. The article specifically focuses on Deleuze's unorthodox approach to epistemology and ethics as future-oriented and creative, and lays down the foundations for a new ethics of integration in education derived from Deleuze's…

Semetsky, Inna

2011-01-01

440

Relevance of the rationalist-intuitionist debate for ethics and professionalism in medical education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite widespread pedagogical efforts to modify discrete behaviors in developing physicians, the professionalism movement has generally shied away from essential questions such as what virtues characterize the good physician, and how are those virtues formed? Although there is widespread adoption of medical ethics curricula, there is still no consensus about the primary goals of ethics education. Two prevailing perspectives dominate the literature, constituting what is sometimes referred to as the "virtue/skill dichotomy". The first perspective argues that teaching ethics is a means of providing physicians with a skill set for analyzing and resolving ethical dilemmas. The second perspective suggests that teaching ethics is a means of creating virtuous physicians. The authors argue that this debate about medical ethics education mirrors the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate in contemporary moral psychology. In the following essay, the authors sketch the relevance of the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate to medical ethics and professionalism. They then outline a moral intuitionist model of virtuous caring that derives from but also extends the "social intuitionist model" of moral action and virtue. This moral intuitionist model suggests several practical implications specifically for medical character education but also for health science education in general. This approach proposes that character development is best accomplished by tuning-up (activating) moral intuitions, amplifying (intensifying) moral emotions related to intuitions, and strengthening (expanding) intuition-expressive, emotion-related moral virtues, more than by "learning" explicit ethical rules or principles. PMID:25319836

Leffel, G Michael; Oakes Mueller, Ross A; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D

2014-10-16

441

Corporate Governance Debate on Professional Ethics in Accounting Profession  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paper focuses on the particular case of professional ethics in the context of the accounting profession. After briefly discussing recent events that made us reconsider our understanding of corporate governance, accountancy and ethics, we try to delimit the state of the art by looking at ethics from the accounting professions’ perspective. When aiming to clarify professional ethics, we closely analyze integrity based on the latest developments undertaken by European professional bodies. Findings are used in identifying ways to contribute to the endeavor of aligning the profession’s performance with society’s reasonable expectations.

Carmen Giorgiana Bonaci

2013-09-01

442

Students' Ethical Decision-Making in an Information Technology Context: A Theory of Planned Behavior Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Business educators have increased the focus on ethics in the classroom. In order for students to become ethical professionals, they must first be held to an ethical standard as students. As information technology continues to permeate every aspect of students' lives, it becomes increasingly important to understand student decision-making in this…

Riemenschneider, Cynthia K.; Leonard, Lori N. K.; Manly, Tracy S.

2011-01-01

443

Ethics Education in Accounting Curricula: Does It Influence Recruiters' Hiring Decisions of Entry-Level Accountants?  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, the National Association of State Boards of Accountancy (NASBA) has focused its attention on mandating specific ethics coursework within the 150-hr requirement for eligibility to sit for the uniform CPA examination. This push for ethics education heightened attention toward ethics in the accounting curriculum and is the basis for the…

Breaux, Kevin; Chiasson, Michael; Mauldin, Shawn; Whitney, Teresa

2010-01-01

444

Quality in ethics consultations.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an increasing need for quality in ethics consultations, though there have been significant achievements in the United States and Europe. However, fundamental concerns that place the profession in jeopardy are discussed from the perspective of the U.S. in a manner that will be helpful for other countries. The descriptive component of the essay (the first two points) explains the achievements in ethics quality (illustrated by the IntegratedEthics program of the Veterans Health Administration) and the progress on standards and competencies for ethics consultations (represented by the Core Competencies of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities). Based on these achievements, the analytical component of the essay (the final three points) identifies and seeks to resolve three fundamental concerns (with increasing levels of importance) that compromise quality in ethics consultations: standards of quality; professionalism; and credentialing. The analysis argues for clearer standards of quality in ethics consultation and urges further professionalism by explaining the need for the following: interpreting the ASBH core competencies in a normative manner, developing a Code of Ethics, and clarifying the meaning of best practices. However, the most serious concern that threatens quality in ethics consultations is the lack of a credentialing process. This concern can be resolved effectively by developing an independent Ethics Consultation Accreditation Council to accredit and standardize graduate degree programs, fellowship experiences, and qualifying examinations. This credentialing process is indispensable if we are to strategically enhance quality in ethics consultations. PMID:23709338

Magill, Gerard

2013-11-01

445