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Ethical dilemmas faced by hospice social workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical decision making is critically important in hospice social work. Through in-depth interviews, researchers explored ethical dilemmas faced by 14 hospice social workers and the processes they used to move toward resolution. The dilemmas were integrated into a framework focused on the sources of ethical conflict: the client system, the agency, and the profession. Processes involved in resolving ethical dilemmas included consulting with other professionals, weighing the pros and cons of options, and bringing about desired outcomes. Findings suggest that hospice teams should be provided with opportunities to meaningfully discuss ethical decision making. Further, the involvement of social workers in administrative leadership is recommended to increase the likelihood that discipline-specific perspectives are incorporated into formal policies and procedures that shape practice in ethically complex situations. PMID:25397348

Dennis, Mary Kate; Washington, Karla T; Koenig, Terry L

2014-10-01

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Evidence, Ethics & Social Policy Dilemmas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within the philosophy of the social sciences, the relationship between evidence, ethics, and social policy is in need of further analysis. The present paper is an attempt to argue that while important social policies can, and perhaps ought to be, grounded in ethical theory, they are seldom articulated in this fashion due to the ambiguity surrounding the "evidence condition." Using a consequentialist-utilitarian framework, and a case study of a policy dilemma, the authors analyze the difficulties associated with resolving policy-based dilemmas which must appeal to evidential support as a justification for an ethical stand. Implication for the relevance of ethics to social policy formulation are discussed in detail.

Steven I. Miller

1993-07-01

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An Ethics Primer: Sample Ethical Dilemmas and "The Lifeboat"  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource is a PDF that provides teachers with an outline of "The Lifeboat," a classical ethics dilemma. The resource includes student handouts and a group discussion activity. Also included are four other classical ethical dilemmas for students to discuss before and after learning about the classic ethical perspectives.

2008-01-01

4

Whistleblowing: an ethical dilemma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because most organizations depend on computer systems that electronically store important data to perform crucial business functions, the integrity of these information systems is paramount. Securing company systems, however, is not always an easy task. More sophisticated systems often provide widespread access to computer resources and increased user knowledge, which may lead to added difficulties in maintaining security. This paper explores whistleblowing employees' exposing illegal or unethical computer practices taking place in the organization as a method of computer security and the support for whistleblowing found in codes of ethical conduct formulated by professional societies.

Joan K. Pierson

1993-11-01

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Classification and Correlates of Ethical Dilemmas in Hospital Social Work.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coded hospital social workers' (n=16) descriptions of ethical dilemmas according to principles in conflict. Most ethical dilemmas involved conflicts between client self-determination and client best interest. Ethical dilemmas were more likely when patient mental status was impaired and when decision making was problematic. Ethical dilemmas were…

Proctor, Enola K.; And Others

1993-01-01

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Teaching, Learning and Ethical Dilemmas: Lessons from Albert Camus  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past half century, Albert Camus's story "The Guest" has attracted a great deal of scholarly attention. "The Guest" focuses on the ethical dilemmas faced by Daru, a school teacher in Algeria, and the two visitors he receives one day: Balducci, a gendarme, and an unnamed Arab prisoner. This paper addresses Camus's text from an educational…

Roberts, Peter

2008-01-01

7

Code of ethics and ethical dilemmas' management in health professions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the main interest of health professionals is for the well-being of patients/clients, ethical decision making is one of the prominent elements of his/her professionalism. Aim: The present study aims to illustrate the role of ethical judgment and the so-called "moral imagination" in health professions. Method and material: Review of theoretical and research literature, including both classic and recent sources about ethical dilemmas that health professionals may anticipate, as well as the suggested ways to manage these dilemmas. Results: Health professionals often have to act in complicated situations. Review of relevant literature indicates that the professionals' ethical decisions are structured not only through the codes of ethics, but also through other collective practices, such as organizational culture and cultural schemas about the role of health professional. Resorting to schematic thinking may temporarily release the professional from his/her concerns, but in the long run, it may devoid him/her of the sense of satisfaction from work and of the ability to offer clients the optimal care. The development of the so-called "moral imagination" permits the professional to advance from the typical application of the rules to actual ethical judgment. Conclusions: Ethical decision making presupposes not only a thorough knowledge of ethical guidelines, but also the development of the ability to openly reflect upon the ethical dimensions of an issue (moral imagination that allows health professionals to overcome schematic thinking and investigate comprehensive solutions to ethical dilemmas.

Sofia Triadafyllidou

2011-10-01

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Action ethical dilemmas in surgery: an interview study of practicing surgeons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe the kinds of ethical dilemmas surgeons face during practice. Methods Five male and five female surgeons at a University hospital in Norway were interviewed as part of a comprehensive investigation into the narratives of physicians and nurses about ethically difficult situations in surgical units. The transcribed interview texts were subjected to a phenomenological-hermeneutic interpretation. Results No gender differences were found in the kinds of ethical dilemmas identified among male and female surgeons. The main finding was that surgeons experienced ethical dilemmas in deciding the right treatment in different situations. The dilemmas included starting or withholding treatment, continuing or withdrawing treatment, overtreatment, respecting the patients and meeting patients' expectations. The main focus in the narratives was on ethical dilemmas concerning the patients' well-being, treatment and care. The surgeons narrated about whether they should act according to their own convictions or according to the opinions of principal colleagues or colleagues from other departments. Handling incompetent colleagues was also seen as an ethical dilemma. Prioritization of limited resources and following social laws and regulations represented ethical dilemmas when they contradicted what the surgeons considered was in the patients' best interests. Conclusion The surgeons seemed confident in their professional role although the many ethical dilemmas they experienced in trying to meet the expectations of patients, colleagues and society also made them professionally and personally vulnerable.

Nordam Ann

2005-07-01

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A virtue ethics approach to moral dilemmas in medicine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most moral dilemmas in medicine are analysed using the four principles with some consideration of consequentialism but these frameworks have limitations. It is not always clear how to judge which consequences are best. When principles conflict it is not always easy to decide which should dominate. They also do not take account of the importance of the emotional element of human experience. Virtue ethics is a framework that focuses on the character of the moral agent rather than the rightness ...

Gardiner, P.

2003-01-01

10

Moral Dilemmas and the Concept of Value in Engineering Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to show that the consideration of value is necessary to understand moral dilemmas in engineering ethics. First, the author shows that moral dilemmas are not fully understood in engineering ethics and argues that it is due to the lack of understanding of value. Second, the author considers the concept of value from the viewpoint of ‘desirability’ . Finally, three suggestions for improving engineering ethics in the understanding of moral dilemmas are made.

Ohishi, Toshihiro

11

Ethical dilemmas in fetal echocardiography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent technology permits detection of congenital heart diseases as early as the 17th or 18th week of gestation. These detectable defects include hypoplastic left heart syndrome, Ebstein anomaly, and atrioventricular canal malformation. Surgical treatments for these problems raise ethical as well as medical questions regarding patients whose prenatal diagnosis reveals congenital heart disease. We report six cases of in utero diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome and other complex congenital heart anomalies. Empirical factors relevant to our management were gestational age, severity of the anomaly, degree of certainty of diagnosis and prognosis, possibilities for treatment, and parental wishes regarding the fetus or newborn. Each of these factors was examined in the context of the reported cases and correlated with ethical principles applicable to obstetrics and neonatology: 1) respect for parental autonomy, 2) promotion of the infant's welfare, and 3) fairness in distributing scarce medical resources. We maintain that the first two principles are paramount in ethical decisions regarding individual patients, while the third is foremost in policy decisions affecting others as well. PMID:2649819

Veille, J C; Mahowald, M B; Sivakoff, M

1989-05-01

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Ethical Dilemma of Governmental Wiretapping  

CERN Document Server

USA Government wiretapping activities is a very controversial issue. Undoubtedly this technology can assist law enforced authority to detect / identify unlawful or hostile activities; however, this task raises severe privacy concerns. In this paper, we have discussed this complex information technology issue of governmental wiretapping and how it effects both public and private liberties. Legislation has had a major impact on the uses and the stigma of wiretapping for the war on terrorism. This paper also analyzes the ethical and legal concerns inherent when discussing the benefits and concerns of wiretapping. The analysis has concluded with the effects of wiretapping laws as they relate to future government actions in their fight against terrorists.

Mullikin, Arwen; Rahman, M

2010-01-01

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Ethical Dilemmas of Intra-vitro Fertilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article reviews the issues of in vitro fertilization and the ethical dilemmas that rise from the impact of the medical, social, moral and legal framework of this method of assisted human reproduction, starting with the origin of gametes, the status of embryos and of biological or shedding parents, the maternal age, the sexual orientation of parents, the fate of embryos, the experimentation on embryo, taking into account the legislative framework, but also the moral and religious ones.The dilemmas are all under review, seeking to highlight the positive and negative aspects of the process, considering fairly the need of these techniques and the benefits of their use and the benefit they would bring to society.

Ingrid-Laura FIRULEASA

2010-07-01

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Ethical and legal dilemmas in infertility treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main characteristics of the new millennium is the affirmation of human rights in all aspects of human existence, with the intention of turning declarative statements into reality. Development of up-to-date assisted reproductive technologies (ART and their application in infertility treatment have raised numerous ethical, legal, religious, social and other questions. In vitro fertilization, donation of gametes, embryos and pre-embryos, cryopreservation of gametes, embryos, ovarian and testicular tissues, embryo transfer, genetic reproductive techniques, cloning and other sophisticated methods used in infertility treatment require cooperation between the medical and legal professions. Ethical aspects of human reproduction and assisted fertilization are based on full respect of the life of an individual even before conception, from pre-embryo stage, via embryo stage and fetus stage to a newborn infant. Regarding investigative and clinical projects, this standpoint implies the legalization of all ART procedures, unencumbered exchange of information and consensus about their application, and adherence to the basic ethical principles of autonomy benefit, justice and common welfare. Ethical postulates provide unequivocal directions in the creation of new life and resolve all possible ethical dilemmas, protecting the rights of doctors and participant in relevant procedures alike and reasserting the crucial principle - respect of human dignity.

Dragojevi?-Diki? Svetlana

2004-01-01

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Ethical codes of psychologists conceal dilemmas of confidentiality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background. Ethical decision-making, related to the principal dilemmas, is a complicated process which is influenced by many factors: client‘s values, attitudes and true experience, psychologist‘s values, attitudes and true experience, public standards, ethic codes, laws and organizational needs. A psychologist seeks for the most effective ways of decision-making and tries to avoid ethical dilemmas; he or she should retain balance in all of these factors. The purpose of this study was to ...

Auks?tinaityte?, Rasa; Pauliukevc?iu?te?, Klaudija

2008-01-01

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Ethical and Legal Dilemmas in Radiology  

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Full Text Available Background and objectives: Today with so many so-phisticated modalities in radiology, it is very difficult, if at all possible, for radiologist to master every thing and sometimes they are put in the position of reading a study where they really don't have the expertise they ought to have. Thus there are more malpractice suits against radiologists than the past decades. It is the purpose of this review to find guidelines for deal-ing with ethical and legal dilemmas in radiology. Materials & Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed malpractice and lawsuit cases stated against radiologists in the Iran University of Medical Sciences during 2001-2004 with comparative study of mal-practice cases in France, India, and USA. Results: We found that the most prevalent causes which radiologists are sued for are, (1 deviation from standards, misdiagnoses; (2 over-charging patients; (3 poor communication; (4 refusing to seek consul-tations when necessary; (5 referral to site of self-interest and fee splitting (Dichotomy;(6 misleading and untruthful advertising; (7 other ethical negli-gences such as inadequate respect for "belief and ideas of patients, autonomy, the right to consent and refuse procedure", breech of confidentiality, etc. Conclusions: Like other health care providers, radi-ologists should have their own Code of ethics and guidelines to describe standards of profession, disci-plinary procedures for violation of ethical and legal rules. These should be preferably provided by the Iranian Society of Radiology.

Ma. Ashrafi

2005-08-01

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Ethical Dilemmas of Swedish School Leaders: Contrasts and Common Themes  

Science.gov (United States)

Being a skillful school leader presumes the competence to judge the ethical consequences of actions. This implies a need for all school agents to discover and analyze what values are at stake and, in turn, reconcile didactic rationality with ethical rationality. This article aims to explore ethical dilemmas in daily school practice, experienced…

Norberg, Katarina; Johansson, Olof

2007-01-01

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Exploring how IBCLCs manage ethical dilemmas: a qualitative study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Professional health care practice should be based on ethical decisions and actions. When there are competing ethical standards or principles, one must choose between two or more competing options. This study explores ethical dilemmas experienced by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants. Methods The investigator interviewed seven International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and analyzed the interviews using qualitative research methods. Results "Staying Mother-Centred" emerged as the overall theme. It encompassed six categories that emerged as steps in managing ethical dilemmas: 1 recognizing the dilemma; 2 identifying context; 3 determining choices; 4 strategies used; 5 results and choices the mother made; and 6 follow-up. The category, "Strategies used", was further analyzed and six sub-themes emerged: building trust; diffusing situations; empowering mothers; finding balance; providing information; and setting priorities. Conclusions This study provides a framework for understanding how International Board Certified Lactation Consultants manage ethical dilemmas. Although the details of their stories changed, the essence of the experience remained quite constant with the participants making choices and acting to support the mothers. The framework could be the used for further research or to develop tools to support IBCLCs as they manage ethical dilemmas and to strengthen the profession with a firm ethics foundation.

Noel-Weiss Joy

2012-07-01

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Levinas's ethics as a basis of healthcare - challenges and dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Levinas's ethics has in the last decades exerted a significant influence on Nursing and Caring Science. The core of Levinas's ethics - his analyses of how our subjectivity is established in the ethical encounter with our neighbour or the?Other - is applied both to healthcare practice and in the project of building an identity of Nursing and Caring Science. Levinas's analyses are highly abstract and metaphysical, and also non-normative. Thus, his analyses cannot be applied directly to practical problems and questions. Theorists in Nursing and Caring Science are generally aware of this. Nevertheless, many of them use Levinas's analyses to explore and solve questions of practical and normative character. This article focuses on the challenges and dilemmas of using Levinas in this manner. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents some central ideas of Levinas's ethics based on the latter part of his authorship. The main focus is on the radicalism of Levinas's critique of the symbolic order (which includes concepts, categories, knowledge, etc.) - or as he puts it 'the said' - as a basis for subjectivity and responsibility. Levinas's notions of saying, anarchy, and singularity accentuate this point of view. These notions refer to conditions in the language, which counteract the symbolic order in the ethical encounter to such an extent that it becomes an incomprehensible. Levinas gives the argumentation a metaphysical frame: The encounter with the incomprehensible is an encounter with the Holy, which is not the ontological God, but a metaphysical desire. It is a mystery as to what this means, and herein lies possibly the main challenge when using Levinas's ethics in science and research: How to maintain the radicalism of his critique of the symbolic order when this is to be communicated in a scientific context that expects clarification of statements and ideas? The second part of the article explores this question by examining how some theorists use Levinas's ethics on questions and problems in the area of healthcare and Nursing and Caring Science. The focus is especially on the theorists' reception and use of the just mentioned notions. The study reveals that these theorists to a large extent transform Levinas's ethics according to their own approaches, with the result that his ethics loses its critical radicalism. Thus, I question the reason why they use Levinas. PMID:25413564

Nordtug, Birgit

2015-01-01

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REASONS AND CONSEQUENCES OF APPLIED LEADERSHIP STYLES IN ETHICAL DILEMMAS WHEN NURSE MANAGERS MAKE DECISIONS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Background: Understanding the reasons and consequences of leadership styles in ethical dilemmas is fundamental to exploring nurse managers' abilities to influence outcomes for patients and nursing personnel. Purpose: To explain the associations between different leadership styles, reasons for their application and its consequences when nurse managers make decisions in ethical dilemmas. Methods: The data were collected between 15 October 2011 and 30 April 2012 by statistically validated questionnaire. The respondents (n=278) were nurse managers. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0, calculating Spearman's correlations, the Stepwise Regression and ANOVA. Results: The reasons for applying different leadership styles in ethical dilemmas include personal characteristics, years in work position, institutional factors, and the professional authority of nurse managers. The applied leadership styles in ethical dilemmas are associated with the consequences regarding the satisfaction of patients', relatives' and nurse managers' needs. Conclusions: Nurse managers exhibited leadership styles oriented to maintenance, focusing more on the "doing the job" than on managing the decision-making in ethical dilemmas. PMID:25242639

Zydziunaite, V; Suominen, T

2014-09-21

 
 
 
 
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Prolonging life: legal, ethical, and social dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of modern medicine to prolong life has raised a variety of difficult legal, ethical, and social issues on which reasonable minds can differ. Among these are the morality of euthanasia in cases of deep coma or irreversible injury, as well as the Dead Donor Rule with respect to organ harvesting and transplants. As science continues to refine and develop lifesaving technologies, questions remain as to how much medical effort and financial resources should be expended to prolong the lives of patients suspended between life and death. At what point should death be considered irreversible? What criteria should be used to determine when to withhold or withdraw life-prolonging treatments in cases of severe brain damage and terminal illness? To explore these complex dilemmas, Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion panel. Pediatrician Sam Shemie, hospice medical director Christopher P. Comfort, bioethicist Mildred Z. Solomon, and attorney Barbara Coombs Lee examined the underlying assumptions and considerations that ultimately shape individual and societal decisions surrounding these issues. The following is an edited transcript of the discussion that occurred November 12, 2013, 7:00-8:30 PM, at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City. PMID:25079490

Paulson, Steve; Comfort, Christopher P; Lee, Barbara Coombs; Shemie, Sam; Solomon, Mildred Z

2014-11-01

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Ethical Fairy Tales: Using Fairy Tales as Illustrative Ethical Dilemmas with Counseling Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning to navigate ethical dilemmas is important in counseling students' training. According to the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2009 standards, counseling students must receive ethics education. A common goal for counselor educators is to assist students in translating ethical theory into…

Henderson, Kathryn L.; Malone, Stefanie L.

2012-01-01

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Teaching Social Work Students to Resolve Ethical Dilemmas in Domestic Violence  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines findings from three focus groups conducted about resolving ethical dilemmas in the area of domestic violence. The study's findings point to the need to increase content on domestic violence throughout the social work curriculum and provide educational opportunities for field instructors and local professionals. Helping…

Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

2007-01-01

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Ethical Dilemmas Associated with Self-Disclosure in Student Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Personal and reflective writing assignments in psychology courses may prompt self-disclosure that presents ethical dilemmas. The literature discusses responsibilities of the psychologist in instances such as disclosure of suicidal ideation or threats of harming others within the context of the therapist-client relationship, but significantly less…

Haney, Michelle R.

2004-01-01

25

The oil industry and climate change. Strategies and ethical dilemmas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors

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The oil industry and climate change: strategies and ethical dilemmas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see,' and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (i) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (ii) avoiding responsibility; and (iii) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors. (Author)

27

Conflict of interest : ethical dilemma in politics and administration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper addresses the subject of conflict of interest: an ethical dilemma in politics and administration. Conflict of interest denotes a situation in which an employee has a private financial interest sufficient to influence, or appear to influence, the exercise of his or her public duties. A primary reason for concern about conflicts of interest is that they reduce public trust and confidence in the integrity and impartiality of public functionaries. The subject of this article is the cat...

Mafunisa, M. J.

2003-01-01

28

Medical and ethical dilemma in brain death.  

Science.gov (United States)

For centuries, death has been defined, medically speaking, as the irreversible cessation of breathing and of nervous and cardiac activity. What radically changed this definition was the introduction of the concept "brain death" in 1968, by the "Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School". According to it, the irreversible coma was associated with brain death and considered to be a criterion for the diagnosis of the deceased individual. The evergrowing need for transplant organs (provided this respects the dead honor rule, stipulating that organs can't be harvested unless someone is deceased) lead to making arbitrary decisions regarding the establishment of the exact time of death during the process of "losing life". What actually triggers the controversy related to the concept of brain death is the dilemma of associating this concept with that of biologic death or death of the person, the difference between the two being made by whether the mental characteristics are accepted or not in defining and individualizing the death of the human being. Given these circumstances, a dilemma appears--that of defining the death of the individual: we define death, as it has been for centuries, as the moment when the cardio-respiratory function no longer exists, which leads to the loss of tens of thousands of lives that might have been saved through transplant. Yet, this may lead to manipulating the border between life and death, with the risk of trespassing each individual's right to life. PMID:23272519

Streba, Irina; Damian, Simona; Ioan, Beatrice

2012-01-01

29

Animal ethics dilemma : a computer supported learning tool  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways to explore the program; for example, they can navigate the program using the 'Assist Me' option, which explains the basis of theethical arguments. Reality text provides details of real events on which the case is based, and a glossary of terminology is available for the students to explore. Selected access to a case template is also available, enabling students and teachers to create their own case studies. Evaluation of the program has been ongoing during its development.

Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina

2006-01-01

30

Ethical and medical dilemmas of space tourism  

Science.gov (United States)

Space tourism is an important new venture, however it raises several issues that must be addressed; namely, the medical implications associated with space flight and potential for ethical problems surrounding the safety of such travel. It seems highly likely that businesses involved in space tourism could find themselves liable for any passenger deaths or injuries, if they are found to have been negligent. This paper, therefore, discusses such issues as the medical facilities that need to be made available on board a space facility, and the companies' duty to disclose to potential passengers the risks associated with microgravity and the likelihood of space sickness, loss of bone density, disease, and pregnancy.

Marsh, Melinda

31

Methodological and Ethical Dilemmas Encountered during Field Research of Family Violence Experienced by Adolescent Women in Buenos Aires  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to examine some obstacles and dilemmas related to methodological strategies and ethical considerations that arose during the fieldwork of research focused on family violence during the stages of pregnancy and childbirth in adolescent females in Buenos Aires during 2007. From this study, we are able to contribute some…

Luxardo, Natalia; Colombo, Graciela; Iglesias, Gabriela

2011-01-01

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Using Case Studies of Ethical Dilemmas for the Development of Moral Literacy: Towards Educating for Social Justice  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on a case study, framed as an ethical dilemma. It serves as an illustration for the teaching of moral literacy, with a special emphasis on social justice. Design/methodology/approach: Initially, the paper provides a rationale for the inclusion of case studies, emphasizing moral problems in university…

Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Hassinger, Robert E.

2007-01-01

33

Medical confidentiality versus disclosure: Ethical and legal dilemmas.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

A case is described of a fifty year old single man who made disclosures about criminal sexual practices during a psychiatric assessment. In common practice with other professional men, a doctor is under a duty not to disclose, without the consent of his patient, information which he has gained in his professional capacity other than in exceptional circumstances. We discuss the ethical and legal considerations surrounding issues of medical confidentiality and the dilemma that sometimes face clinicians, when they feel obliged, in the public interest, to disclose information they have gained in confidence. Breach of confidences can have deleterious consequences; particularly for the doctor-patient relationship, but failure to disclose in some situations could have serious implications for the well-being of the wider society. Doctors should be aware of the basic principles of confidentiality and the ethical and legal framework around which they are built.

Agyapong, V I O

2009-02-01

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Ethical dilemmas in supervision and a proposal for the code of ethics of the Society for supervision  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purpose of this paper is a contribution to the specialist practice of supervision in Slovenia – a proposal for The code of ethics, which will be considered by the Society for supervision. Its main objective is to encourage practitioners to reflect on the ethical concepts with a purpose of establishing a referential professional frame from the perspective of ethics. In the »ethical dilemmas in supervision« I write about the importance of the supervisor attitude, his conscience...

Eiselt, Ajda

2011-01-01

35

Exploring Some Ethical Dilemmas and Obligations of the Ethnographer  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on the ethical position of the ethnographer when encountering unethical activities. Ethnography affords a rich insight into cultures, often behind previously secure doors but it is also a demanding science. Our gatekeepers control our access and our relationships with them can determine our destiny. This paper offers an exchange…

Barbour, Andrew

2010-01-01

36

Social Decision Making Social Dilemmas, Social Values, and Ethical Judgments  

CERN Document Server

This book, in honor of David Messick, is about social decisions and the role cooperation plays in social life. Noted contributors who worked with Dave over the years will discuss their work in social judgment, decision making and ethics which was so important to Dave.The book offers a unique and valuable contribution to the fields of social psychology and organizational behavior. Ethical decision making, a central focus of this volume, is highly relevant to current scholarship and research in both disciplines. The volume will be suitable for graduate level courses in organizational behavior, s

Kramer, Roderick M; Bazerman, Max H

2009-01-01

37

Transplant in a patient with comorbid psychiatric illness: an ethical dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article addresses a difficult ethical dilemma that transplant surgeons may potentially encounter: whether a patient with a psychiatric illness is a good candidate for a liver transplant. This case study illustrates the challenges involved when considering the ethical principles of patient self-determination, distributive justice of scarce medical resources, "social worth," and protection of vulnerable patient populations. Are patients with psychiatric illness able to provide consent for transplantation? Is it possible to avoid misallocating valuable donor organs and, at the same time, fairly allocate these resources? This article seeks to answer these questions and provide insight into this ethical dilemma. PMID:25509229

Boyum, Eric N; Brown, Douglas; Zihni, Ahmed M; Keune, Jason D; Hong, Barry A; Kodner, Ira J; Ray, Shuddhadeb

2014-11-01

38

Considering ethical dilemmas related to brain death in newborns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brain death (BD, as the irreversible and permanent loss of cerebral and brainstem function, is relatively uncommon among newborns who need life support. It is considered the result of an acute and irreversible central nervous system insult. Asphyxia, severe intracranial hemorrhage and infection are the most common causes of  BD in children. BD diagnosis is usually based on clinical criteria. Dilemmas about life prolonging treatment for severely compromised infants – as brain dead infants are – has become challenging since neonatal intensive care unit (NICU care has developed, quality of life and resource issues are nowadays continuously underlined. Caring for premature babies is expensive and costs have risen especially since an increased number of infants with handicaps survives. Intensivists’ main duty is first to save lives and then to interrupt treatment in certain conditions like detrimental brain damage. The objective of this article is to present ethical decisions regarding brain dead newborns in order to balance between organ donation necessities and withholding/withdrawing treatment, with respect to the important role of infants’ parents in the process.

Ilias Chatziioannidis

2014-01-01

39

Do RFIDs (radio frequency identifier devices) provide new ethical dilemmas for librarians and information professionals?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract: This paper provides an analysis of the current and potential ethical implications of RFID technology for the library and information professions. These issues are analysed as a series of ethical dilemmas, or hard-to-resolve competing ethical obligations, which the librarian has in relationship to information objects, library users and the wider social and political environment or state. A process model of the library is used as a framework for the discussion to illustrate the ...

Thornley, Clare V.; Gibb, Forbes; Ferguson, Stuart; Weckert, John

2011-01-01

40

Ethical dilemmas in the biology undergraduate classroom: role-playing congressional testimony.  

Science.gov (United States)

Students often struggle with weighing multiple sides of bioethical dilemmas. The assignment described here incorporates discussion of ethical dilemmas in an upper-level undergraduate biology course. Students are introduced to ethical dilemmas in genetics through discussion of issues in small groups. They are then polled as to what positions they take on each dilemma and are assigned to argue a side opposite of one of their choices. Each student receives a subpoena to appear before a Senate subcommittee to give testimony as an expert witness. This role-play provides students with a starting point and motivation for developing their argument as well as a way to distance themselves from their own opinions by acting as someone holding the opposite stance. At the end of the presentations, students are required to reflect on the experience. PMID:25574284

Wiles, Amy M

2014-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

Digital Security Governance and Accountability in Europe: Ethical Dilemmas in Terrorism Risk Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital security governance – the use of digital personal data for threat analysis on the basis of (automated risk profiling – enhances terrorism risk management in Europe. European security strategies emphasise that information and communication technology increasingly play a key role in preventing and anticipating threats such as terrorism and cyber-crime. It enables, for example, the sharing of personal, financial or travellers’ data with third countries. This article focuses on digital security governance in the context of the Passenger Name Record (PNR, the Advance Passenger Information (API and the Terrorist Finance Tracking System (TFTP programmes. Particularly, it considers the ethical dilemmas of using and sharing digital personal data as well as accountability for this type of risk management. Because there are broader socio-political, legal and technological issues connected to the use of information and communication technology for digital security governance, the concept of accountability in this article is holistic.

Quirine Eijkman

2014-01-01

42

Ethical dilemmas and PD as important steps towards critical e-government design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The delivering of public services to citizens through the internet -- also known as e-government - has gained serious momentum, driven by political ambitions of improved efficiency. E-government, however, is considered complex and e-government failures are well known from media. Research of how e-government is enacted inside government is sparse. Technology mediated public services in real world entail ethical dilemmas. By extracting ethical dilemmas from a qualitative e-government participatory design study, this paper shows how ethical dilemmas may inform future e-government design and design processes. The case, adoption of digital post in a local e-government setting, showed that design flaws, staff's concern for citizens and political fear of citizens' critique had an impact on e-government adoption.

Berger, Jesper Bull

2014-01-01

43

A Cognitive Approach to Ethical Dilemmas Originating from Information Technology Revolution: Some Considerations and Recommendations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the emergence of information technology, occurrence of some ethical problems seems to be inevitable. Due to importance of this topic, the present article, adopting a cognitive approach, aimed to debate some ethical challenges relating to information technology so that via identification of such issues, thinking how they can be eradicated or diminished was stimulated. To do this, it discussed theoretical foundations, offered some evidences and highlighted necessity of considering interoperability between ethics and information technology and their related consequences. Moreover, it examined some ethical dilemmas originating from information technology and finally, made a reference to several recommendations.

Jalal Rahimi

2012-03-01

44

Ethical Dilemmas of Cervical Cancer Screening: Will these programs benefit patients?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cervical screening presents several ethical dilemmas to family physicians. The author reviews the risks associated with screening, costs versus benefits of running a screening program, and the issues surrounding patient autonomy and patient coercion. Is saving one life worthwhile, and at what cost? Cervical screening programs are imperative in family practice, but only if harm to the patient is minimized and ethical objections are addressed.

Snadden, David

1992-01-01

45

Ethics and Reproductive Issues: The Dilemma of Choice  

Science.gov (United States)

This Science NetLinks lesson introduces students to the ethical implications of using our growing knowledge about the human genome to improve our personal and public health. Students will be asked to consider numerous ethical issues related to genetic testing and will find that there are no easy answers. Most importantly, students will learn that there is no one "answer" to an ethical question; rather, there exist a multitude of perspectives that must be taken into account. Ultimately, students will learn that making an ethical choice requires scientific knowledge and rational inquiry.

Science Netlinks;

2001-10-20

46

Ethical Dilemmas in the Development of Professional Sport  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses in detail the ethical issues in the contemporary professional sports and shows how these issues are addressed in the European Union countries and in the United States. From the ethical perspective it was decided that it is disputable to finance companies in competitive sports from a public purse (central and local government purse), to sponsor football clubs by bookmaking companies, to pay compensations (financial equivalents) for the change of membership in clubs by ...

Smolen?, Andrzej; Pawlak, Zbigniew

2010-01-01

47

Painful dilemmas: the ethics of animal-based pain research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While it has the potential to deliver important human benefits, animal-based pain research raises ethical questions, because it involves inducing pain in sentient beings. Ethical decision-making, connected with this variety of research, requires informed harm-benefit analysis, and the aim of this paper is to provide information for such an analysis. We present an overview of the different models and their consequences for animal welfare, showing that, of the many animal models available, most have a considerable welfare impact on the animal. While the usual approach to pain control through administration of analgesic substances is usually unsuitable in pain research, refinement remains an option, both within the experimental protocol and in general husbandry and handling. Drawing on the overview, we develop a discussion of the ethical acceptability of animal-based pain research against the background of the kinds of harm done to the animals involved, the potential for refinement, and the expected benefits ofthe research.

Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M.; SandØe, Peter

2009-01-01

48

Has Our Knowledge of Neuroscience Led to Ethical Dilemmas?  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a lesson dealing with a new subdivision of bioethics called neuroethics. As our knowledge of the brain and nervous system expands, so do the ethical issues that result from this knowledge. This new area of study results from our increasing research in the field of neurobiology. In the first part of this activity, students will discuss the stigma associated with psychological illness. They will then be introduced to Dr. Kay Jamison who discusses some of the ethical implications of bipolar disorder. The class will take part in an activity called a Topical Barometer where they will have to choose a position regarding an ethical decision. In Part 2 of the activity, they will write a position paper after exploring the topic of drug enhancement, another controversial issue in the world of neuroscience. From the original handout text by Caren Gough

Susan Musante

49

A Right to Die?: Ethical Dilemmas of Euthanasia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Euthanasia is considered an important social issue of the 1990s. Mental health professionals should understand the differences between voluntary, involuntary, passive, and active euthanasia; mercy killing, and assisted suicide. Encourages counselors to ethically formulate client-supportive positions to help clients face life-and-death decisions.…

Albright, Dianne E.; Hazler, Richard J.

1992-01-01

50

Responsibility, fairness and credibility - ethical dilemmas concerning nuclear waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is written with the aim to stimulate discussion and studies on ethical aspects of nuclear waste management. It does not penetrate the technical details of the different stages of waste handling, but concentrates on questions such as our responsibility towards future generations etc

51

The ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses: an approach from the philosophy of max scheler  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: this study intends reflect philosophically about the ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses from the Intensive Care Center at University Hospital Antonio Pedro, from the Theory of Value of Max Scheler. Methods: this is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. The population shall be defined by the technique of saturation, consisting of nurses of the sector, to be interviewed after the signing of the Free Informed Consent forms, if they wish participate spontaneously in the study. The information will be transcribed, categorized in order of significance and analyzed from the theoretical framework of Max Scheler who looks on the objectivity of values and the process of seizure of emotional character. The project has received approval from the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine / University Hospital Antonio Pedro. Expected results: through the analysis of data, based on theoretical referential, the study intends to contribute to the decision making process of nurses, in front of the possible ethical dilemmas experienced with regard to practical work and, moreover, with the quality of care provided by nurses in the Intensive Care Center.

Marlise Silva Barros, Rose Mary Costa Rosa Andrade Silva, Eliane Ramos Pereira, Marcos Andrade Silva

2009-10-01

52

[Involuntary treatment of mental patients in the community: Legal and ethical dilemmas].  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on the measure of involuntary treatment of mental patients in the community, not only with regard to human rights and more specifically those of persons with mental disorders, but also with regard to ethics and deontology in mental healthcare delivery service. In this light, the important role of informed consent in psychiatry with regard to the psychiatric act is examined. Informed consent of mental patients in treatment when they are in need of voluntary or involuntary hospitalization is further examined, while emphasis is being put on the case of involuntary treatment. The Convention for Human Rights and Biomedicine (Convention of ?viedo), the European Convention of Human Rights, other documents of International Organizations (UN) and specialized national legislation (A. 2071/1992, Chapter vi, Greek law) constitute basic reference and interpretation points. The examination of consent and the demarcation of the exceptions are important issues that need to be approached. More particularly, our interest lies with the article 7 of the Convention for Human Rights and Biomedicine, which specifically refers to the protection of person who suffers from a mental disorder. The opinion that informed consent in psychiatric treatment and involuntary treatment are concepts and processes which are distinct but not always mutually exclusive is enhanced. In any case, involuntary treatment causes major dilemmas as far as informed consent in the psychiatric act is concerned, as it raises issues that affect the autonomy of the person. Today, however, there are many factors which influence public politics towards the adoption of the measure of involuntary treatment within the community. How is it that this paradoxical link is legitimized and justified: involuntary treatment and community? The enactment of the above mentioned measure in many European and North American countries has created new paths in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. Nonetheless, it continues to divide the psychiatric and legal word for it causes intense questioning from a legal, ethical, deontological and clinical aspect, as it offends fundamental rights of the individual. In a legal civilization, in which the principle of informed consent or refusal constitutes a basic rule of the lawfulness of the medical and psychiatric act, any divergence from this rule has consequences for the patients and affects a well-tempered therapeutic treatment. The above mentioned measure could be counterbalanced by the legal regulation of advance directives and the provision for the appointment of a proxy person by the mental patient. PMID:25630547

Mitrossili, M

2014-01-01

53

Dilema ético de la eutanasia / Ethical dilemma of euthanasia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La eutanasia significa una muerte buena. Desde el punto de vista jurídico, es la muerte sin sufrimiento físico provocada por propia voluntad de un enfermo incurable. En la práctica consiste en administrar drogas, fármacos u otras sustancias que alivien el dolor aunque con ello se acorte la vida. La [...] decisión de la aplicación de la eutanasia ha sido un problema persistente en la historia de la humanidad, ideologías diversas se enfrentan defendiendo sus argumentos de si debe o no practicarse. El objetivo de este trabajo, es exponer las consideraciones éticas, científicas y religiosas, sobre la práctica de la eutanasia a partir de un análisis histórico desde los tiempos de Platón hasta la actualidad. Lo verdaderamente importante es que el hombre, como ser racional, capaz de revolucionar constantemente la ciencia y la técnica y de transformar la naturaleza en beneficio de la especie, debe también morir con dignidad. Abstract in english Euthanasia means nice death. From the legal viewpoint, it means physical suffering-free provoked death willingly accepted by a terminally-ill patient. In practice, it means to administer drugs, pharmaceuticals or other substances that release pain even though they may reduce lifetime. The decision f [...] or euthanasia has been a persistent controversy in the history of mankind; thus various ideologies clash in support of arguments in favour or against this practice. The objective of this paper is to present ethical, scientific and religious considerations on the implementation of euthanasia, taking as a basis a historical analysis covering from Platon up to the present times. It is really important that man, as a rational being capable of permanently revolutionizing science and technique and transforming nature for the benefit of the species, should also die with dignity.

Mabel, Creagh Peña.

2012-03-01

54

Pain medicine versus pain management: ethical dilemmas created by contemporary medicine and business.  

Science.gov (United States)

The world of health care and the world of business have fundamentally different ethical standards. In the past decades, business principles have progressively invaded medical territories, leading to often unanticipated consequences for both patients and providers. Multidisciplinary pain management has been shown to be more effective than all other forms of health care for chronic pain patients; yet, fewer and fewer multidisciplinary pain management facilities are available in the United States. The amazing increase in interventional procedures and opioid prescriptions has not led to a lessening of the burden of chronic pain patients. Ethical dilemmas abound in the treatment of chronic pain patients: many are not even thought about by providers, administrators, insurance companies, or patients. We call for increased pain educational experiences for all types of health care providers and the separation of business concepts from pain-related health care. PMID:23462285

Loeser, John D; Cahana, Alex

2013-04-01

55

The problem of choice in major dilemmas of obstetrics- actors, roles, ethical arguments and influences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article discusses the principle of autonomy of patientss choice in a highly sensitive area, the obstetrics, regarding two issues which arise many dilemmas and debates, the induced abortion and the elective cesarean section..It brings up many pro and cons ethical arguments, reviews the various points of view and historical, legal, religious and humanist influences.Article stresses the need to adapt the old ethic principles to the realities of the actual complex society and the necessity of fully respect for the fundamental rights of the patient, including autonomy. Article leaves still open the problem of the influence of various factors on patients choice, and the need for the physician to assure the observance of this right.

Ingrid-Laura FIRULEASA

2010-12-01

56

The referee’s dilemma. The ethics of scientific communities and game theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article argues that various deviations from the basic principles of the scientific ethos – primarily the appearance of pseudoscience in scientific communities – can be formulated and explained using specific models of game theory, such as the prisoner’s dilemma and the iterated prisoner’s dilemma. The article indirectly tackles the deontology of scientific work as well, in which it is assumed that there is no room for moral skepticism, let alone moral anti-realism, in the ethics of scientific communities. Namely, on the basis of the generally accepted dictum of scientific endeavor as the pursuit of knowledge exclusively for knowledge’s sake, scientifically »right« behavior is seen to be clearly defined and distinguishable from scientifically »wrong« behavior. After elucidating the basic principles of game theory, the article illustrates – by using imaginary and real cases, as well as some views from the philosophyof biology (the units of selection debate – how this sort of reasoning could be applied in an analysis of the functioning of science.

Tomislav Bracanovic

2002-06-01

57

Evolving Friendships and Shifting Ethical Dilemmas: Fieldworkers' Experiences in a Short Term Community Based Study in Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fieldworkers (FWs) are community members employed by research teams to support access to participants, address language barriers, and advise on culturally appropriate research conduct. The critical role that FWs play in studies, and the range of practical and ethical dilemmas associated with their involvement, is increasingly recognised. In this paper, we draw on qualitative observation and interview data collected alongside a six month basic science study which involved a team of FWs regular...

Kamuya, Dm; Theobald, Sj; Munywoki, Pk; Koech, D.; Geissler, Wp; Molyneux, Sc

2013-01-01

58

Developing Ethical Knowledge in the Spirit of Judaism  

Science.gov (United States)

This study attempts to describe Jewish teachers' perceptions about their ethical dilemmas based on stories derived from the Bible. Sixty teachers were asked to submit descriptions of their ethical dilemmas to the study website; submissions were then discussed in focus groups. The findings were grouped by the ATLAS.ti into five categories: Telling…

Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

2012-01-01

59

76 FR 72955 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: “Ethical Dilemmas in Surgery and Utilization of Hospital...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Utilization of Hospital Ethics Consultation Service: A Survey...the utility of institution ethics consultations services for...of this study can be used by medical professionals, hospitals...barriers to surgeons' use of ethics consultation services...

2011-11-28

60

Behavioral Ethics: Toward a Deeper Understanding of Moral Judgment and Dishonesty  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Early research and teaching on ethics focused on either a moral development perspective or philosophical approaches, and used a normative approach by focusing on the question of how people should act when resolving ethical dilemmas. In this paper, we briefly describe the traditional approach to ethics and then present a (biased) review on the behavioral approach to ethics. We define behavioral ethics as the study of systematic and predictable ways in which individuals make ethical decisions a...

Bazerman, Max H.; Gino, Francesca

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Economics, health and development: some ethical dilemmas facing the World Bank and the international community  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The World Bank is committed to "work[ing] with countries to improve the health, nutrition and population outcomes of the world's poor, and to protect[ing] the population from the impoverishing effects of illness, malnutrition and high fertility".1 Ethical issues arise in the interpretation of these objectives and in helping countries formulate strategies and policies. It is these ethical issues—which are often not acknowledged by commentators—that are the subject of this paper. It asks wh...

Wagstaff, A.

2001-01-01

62

Ethical downsizing. Managers must focus on justice and human dignity.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is vital that leaders and managers focus on justice and human dignity in the workplace when faced with the possible need to downsize. First, administrators should clearly identify the goals of work force reduction, evaluate their importance, and consider whether they could be achieved through other means. Once they have made the decision to downsize, top managers must clearly communicate the reasons and the goals to those responsible for identifying the employees affected. Employees selected for layoff should be identified on the basis of the articulated goals for work force reduction, whenever possible. When this is not clear, the tough decisions can be based on a variety of factors: "across-the-board" reductions; employee abilities, qualifications, and performance; diversity goals; seniority; or multiple criteria. It is also important to respect human dignity in the layoff process. Affected employees should be informed in advance and given an honest explanation for the layoff. Ordinarily, they should be encouraged to work until the effective date. All employees need a clear and honest explanation of the reasons for and the expected effects of the layoff. There should be a stress on the free flow of information, without an effort to control it. How downsizing is handled says a lot about the nature of an organization and its leadership. Ethical downsizing is, first of all, a refusal to deny the complexity of the issues and evidence of the organization's commitment to justice and human dignity. PMID:10135164

Weber, L J

1994-01-01

63

The Mole's Dilemma: Ethical Aspects of Public Internet Access in Academic Libraries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses ethical issues concerning public Internet access in academic libraries. Highlights include intellectual freedom, censorship, technical aspects of limiting or restricting use, legal liability for public use of computers for illegal purposes such as child pornography, and the importance of priority use of terminals by the primary academic…

Still, Julie; Kassabian, Vibiana

1999-01-01

64

Managerji HRM in njihove eti?ne dileme = Human Resource Managers and Their Ethical Dilemma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Douglas Renwick (2003 said that the personnel function plays therole of guardian of employees’ wellbeing, but on the other hand, hesaid that personnel managers also tamper with the wellbeing of employees.Looking at Renwick’s theory through Ulrich’s model of personnelmanagers as guardians of employees’ wellbeing, they play therole of strategic partners, managers of the changes and the role of theemployees representatives. Gantz and Hayes (in Payne and Wayland,1999 explicated a few fields where we can talk of ethical conflict whileperforming these roles: discrimination, psychological tests, anti-unionbehaviour, design of work flow, job insecurity, discipline, confidentiality,privacy, and firing because of technological redundancy. In this paperwe explore the field of potential and real ethical conflicts of humanresource managers.What are the most important values of humanresources managers? In which areas do ethical conflicts occur?And how do they solve these conflicts on an everyday basis? We usedquestionnaires to gather data on these issues. We found out that managerswho are in leading positions suffer the most, next are those whohave had long tenure. In this situation ethical codes don’t help much.

Mateja Primoži?

2011-09-01

65

Sustainable and responsible preventive medicine :Conceptualising ethical dilemmas arising from clinical implementation of advancing medical technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and setting Health care has become one of the most expansive activities in contemporary societies, and technology is one of its most influential factors. The modern medical-technological enterprise is however facing unprecedented practical, ethical and epistemic challenges. This thesis arises from a well-founded concern that medicine in general, and individually targeted preventive medicine in particular, may be about to become technified and dehumanised to an extent where its inte...

Getz, Linn

2006-01-01

66

Stakeholder Analysis: Using the Jigsaw Method for Ethical Dilemmas in Business  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stakeholder analysis is an essential part of business education as students develop awareness of the different perspectives that influence business and the difficult decisions made by business, government and communities. An important aspect of learning is to think critically about who is presenting the viewpoint and the conclusions they have drawn. We have found that the Jigsaw Method is a powerful way to learn the importance of different viewpoints in the teaching of ethical practice and sustainability.

Leigh N Wood

2011-03-01

67

Dilemas Éticos y Modelos Deontológicos para el Periodista Usuario de Medios Sociales / Ethical Dilemmas and Deontological Models for Journalist User of Social Media  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo se propone identificar los principales dilemas éticos emergentes en el uso de medios sociales por parte de los periodistas. Para ello, recorre experiencias recientes que dieron lugar a reflexiones sobre la necesidad de establecer pautas específicas para la publicación de contenidos en es [...] tos medios, y analiza las características y la pertinencia de las respuestas deontológicas a esos dilemas, ensayadas en los últimos dos años por distintas organizaciones periodísticas de proyección internacional. Finalmente, se clasifican y describen los modelos deontológicos de acuerdo con el grado de autonomía que las organizaciones conceden al periodista para que se exprese libremente en los medios sociales, y se plantea la necesidad de la autorregulación individual y de fortalecer el compromiso del periodista con la excelencia profesional. Abstract in english This paper aims to identify key emerging ethical dilemmas when journalists use social media. To this end, it goes over recent experiences that led to reflections on the need for specific guidelines for publishing content in social media, and analyzes the characteristics and relevance of ethical resp [...] onses to these dilemmas, that were stated in the last two years by different international news organizations. Lastly, it classifies and describes ethical models according to the degree of autonomy granted by organizations to their journalists to express themselvesfreely in social media, and raises the needfor individual self-regulation and for strengthen journalist's commitment with professional excellence.

Mariano, Ure.

2013-06-01

68

Ethical issues, dilemmas and controversies in 'cosmetic' or aesthetic dentistry. A personal opinion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stephen Hancocks' elegant editorial of 11 December 2011 raises interesting questions which deserve discussion. Most experienced dentists would agree that the less that is done to teeth for cosmetic reasons, the lesser are the risks of disappointment, failure of expectation, or threat of litigation. Yet there is an increasing number of cases where aesthetics are the primary concern for dentists and patients alike and some patients are consenting to treatment without being properly informed of the destructive nature of the procedures to their sound tooth tissue and structures to achieve the desired 'cosmetic' outcome. This raises ethical issues, as much of this overtreatment is unnecessarily destructive and goes against the healing and caring principles of the dental profession. PMID:22538895

Kelleher, M

2012-04-01

69

Dilemmas in Medicine, 2nd Edition 1977. CEM Probe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Published for secondary school youth in England, the PROBE series presents provocative information and discussion questions on topical themes. The focus of this issue is on aspects of medicine which raise moral dilemmas for doctors, patients, and society in general. This issue contains case studies which illustrate ethical questions raised by the…

Undy, Harry, Ed.

70

Microethics: the ethics of everyday clinical practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past several decades, medical ethics has gained a solid foothold in medical education and is now a required course in most medical schools. Although the field of medical ethics is by nature eclectic, moral philosophy has played a dominant role in defining both the content of what is taught and the methodology for reasoning about ethical dilemmas. Most educators largely rely on the case-based method for teaching ethics, grounding the ethical reasoning in an amalgam of theories drawn from moral philosophy, including consequentialism, deontology, and principlism. In this article we hope to make a case for augmenting the focus of education in medical ethics. We propose complementing the traditional approach to medical ethics with a more embedded approach, one that has been described by others as "microethics," the ethics of everyday clinical practice. PMID:25600383

Truog, Robert D; Brown, Stephen D; Browning, David; Hundert, Edward M; Rider, Elizabeth A; Bell, Sigall K; Meyer, Elaine C

2015-01-01

71

Ethical Issues in Physiatrist Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Editorial on Ethical Issues. Medical ethics is at the centre of medical practice. It isrightly gaining much needed renewed focus and attentionin the evolving scenario. The impetus for it may beattributed to the revelations that arose through Nurembergtrials, the framework elements that define research andpublications related compulsions, and indeed the contextand state of affairs of present day medical jurisprudence.The physiatrist’s practice cannot remain untouched bythe moral and ethical dilemmas faced in today’s world.Although the pillars of the specialty are grounded in the

Hand G

2008-04-01

72

Ethical Dilemmas in Individual and Collective Rights-Based Approaches to Tertiary Education Scholarships: The Cases of Canada and Cuba  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the ongoing debates in Canadian higher education is the dilemma of the brain drain and the seemingly conflicting goals between the strategies and intentions of various government departments. While Citizenship and Immigration Canada aims to recruit the brightest students from across the globe to study in Canada and to enable their long-term…

Lehr, Sabine

2008-01-01

73

Ethical Concerns Raised by the Use of the Internet in Academia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outlines several major ethical and social concerns that face an institution in attempting to integrate "cyberspace" into its academic arena. Focuses on American universities, though the issues are relevant for all levels of education in all geographic areas. Discusses major ethical dilemmas that academic use of cyberspace may present. Identifies…

Peace, A. Graham; Hartzel, Kathleen S.

2002-01-01

74

Ethical and Bioethical Dilemmas in Paediatric Primary Health Care Setting Dilemas éticos y bioéticos de la práctica pediátrica en la Atención Primaria de Salud  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical Ethics gathers a group of principles and standards that rule out the behaviour amongst the health staff and amongst the doctor-patient and doctor-relatives relationship in order to preserve the patient’s health, treatment and rehabilitation. Bioethics has its bases on society in the health-patient team, and decisions can be taken by an Ethics Commission with the patient’s participation in the decision-taking process. The paediatrician in the primary health care setting should give a qualified health attention not only to the children but to their family members too due to the specialists’ commitment with the Cuban public health in general. Therefore, this bibliographical review is carried out to reflect on the main ethical dilemmas at the primary health care setting in the paediatric practice.La ética médica es el conjunto de principios y normas que rigen entre los profesionales de la salud, la relación del médico con sus pacientes, con sus familiares, con otros profesionales de la salud, para lograr la preservación de la salud, el tratamiento y recuperación de los pacientes. La bioética se fundamenta en la sociedad en el equipo salud-paciente, las decisiones pueden ser tomadas por el Comité de Ética y el paciente toma parte en las decisiones. El pediatra de la Atención Primaria de Salud tiene la responsabilidad moral de brindar una atención esmerada, pues su compromiso no es solo con el niño y su familia, es también con la salud pública cubana y el país en general. Para reflexionar sobre los principales dilemas éticos y bioéticos en el ejercicio de la práctica pediátrica en la Atención Primaria de Salud se realizó esta revisión

Maite Piñeiro Barreiro

2011-04-01

75

Internação por ordem judicial: dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeiros Internación por orden judicial: dilemas éticos vividos por enfermeros Hospitalization by court order: ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesquisa qualitativa, cujo objetivo foi descrever as situações vivenciadas e os dilemas éticos dos enfermeiros no percurso de encaminhamento e recebimento, por ordem judicial, de pacientes com indicação de internação em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI. Foi efetivada entrevista parcialmente estruturada com 10 enfermeiros, que atuam em UTI e 10 que atuam em emergência de hospitais públicos e privados da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Os dados foram submetidos à análise temática. Os resultados indicam que os enfermeiros vivenciam dilemas éticos consequentes aos problemas de superlotação das UTI e das emergências, da precária tecnologia especializada, da orientação quanto ao benefício concedido pela lei. Concluiu-se que é fundamental a participação dos enfermeiros em debates que possibilitem mapear as diferentes instâncias que têm promovido esta situação, muitas vezes caótica.Investigación cualitativa cuyo objetivo fue describir las situaciones vividas y los dilemas éticos de los enfermeros en el transcurso del envío y recibimiento por orden judicial de pacientes con indicación de internamiento en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI. Se realizó una entrevista parcialmente estructurada con 10 enfermeros que actuaban en la UCI y 10 que actuaban en Emergencias de hospitales públicos y privados de la región metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Los datos fueron analizados según el Análisis Temático. Los resultados indican que los enfermeros experimentan dilemas éticos consiguientes problemas de hacinamiento en emergencia y UCI, especialista en tecnología pobre, la orientación en cuanto a los beneficios establecidos por la ley. Se concluye que es fundamental la participación de los enfermeros en debates que posibiliten mapear las diferentes instancias que han promovido esta situación muchas veces caótica.A qualitative study aimed at describing the situations experienced and the ethical dilemmas of nurses in the process of referring and receiving hospitalized patients by court order who require admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. A partially structured interview was conducted with 10 nurses who worked in the ICU and 10 who worked in the Emergency Room (ER in public and private hospitals in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The data was analyzed following the Semantic Analysis. The results indicated that nurses experienced ethical dilemmas associated with problems of overcrowding in emergency rooms and ICUs, poor specialized technology and orientation as to the benefits provided by law. We concluded that it is essential for nurses to participate in discussions that allow the planning of the different instances that have been promoting this often chaotic situation.

Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira Vargas

2013-03-01

76

Critical thinking by nurses on ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empat...

Botes, A.

2000-01-01

77

Information Ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focuses on information ethics in scholarly and professional literature. Computer ethics, cyberethics, and the philosophies of information and information technology are also discussed. The recent use of the term global information ethics, suggesting the unification of many concerns common to information ethics, computer ethics, and cyberethics, is…

Smith, Martha Montague

1997-01-01

78

Las posibilidades de la terapia génica y sus dilemas bioéticos / The possibilities of gene therapy and its bio-ethical dilemmas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La terapia génica tiene, de acuerdo con Anderson, cuatro niveles de aplicación: las células somáticas, las células germinales, la terapia perfectiva y la manipulación eugenésica. Se hace un análisis de los dilemas bioéticos en cada nivel de terapia y se plantea el denominado Argumento Evolutivo para [...] cuestionar los deseos de algunos científicos de iniciar terapia génica de células germinales. De igual manera, se advierte de los peligros de iniciar terapia perfectiva y la manipulación eugénica por las implicaciones sociales y políticas de una reactivación de programas de eugenesia positiva. Abstract in english According to Anderson, gene therapy has four levels of application; somatic cells, germinal cells, perfective therapy and eugenic manipulation. An analysis of the bio-ethical dilemma in each therapy level is made and the so called Evolution Concept is stated to question the wish of some scientists t [...] o start gene therapy from germ cells. Likewise, there is a warning about the hazards of starting perfective therapy and eugenic manipulation due to the social and political implications of positive eugenics programs reactivation.

Orlando, Mejía.

2005-06-01

79

Las posibilidades de la terapia génica y sus dilemas bioéticos The possibilities of gene therapy and its bio-ethical dilemmas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La terapia génica tiene, de acuerdo con Anderson, cuatro niveles de aplicación: las células somáticas, las células germinales, la terapia perfectiva y la manipulación eugenésica. Se hace un análisis de los dilemas bioéticos en cada nivel de terapia y se plantea el denominado Argumento Evolutivo para cuestionar los deseos de algunos científicos de iniciar terapia génica de células germinales. De igual manera, se advierte de los peligros de iniciar terapia perfectiva y la manipulación eugénica por las implicaciones sociales y políticas de una reactivación de programas de eugenesia positiva.According to Anderson, gene therapy has four levels of application; somatic cells, germinal cells, perfective therapy and eugenic manipulation. An analysis of the bio-ethical dilemma in each therapy level is made and the so called Evolution Concept is stated to question the wish of some scientists to start gene therapy from germ cells. Likewise, there is a warning about the hazards of starting perfective therapy and eugenic manipulation due to the social and political implications of positive eugenics programs reactivation.

Orlando Mejía

2005-06-01

80

Everyday Ethics: Framing youth participation in organizational practice  

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Much of the literature on ethical issues in child and youth participation has drawn on the episodic experiences of participatory research efforts in which young people’s input has been sought, transcribed and represented. This literature focuses in particular on the power dynamics and ethical dilemmas embedded in time-bound adult/child and outsider/insider relationships. While we agree that these issues are crucial and in need of further examination, it is equally important to examine the e...

Davide Driskell; Neema Kudva

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Deinstitutionalization in Greece: Ethical problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The following paper is based on a Concerted Action which focused on the "Ethical aspects of deistinstutionalisation in mental health care" in 2001. It investigates the development and the ethical dilemmas posed by deinstitutionalization in Greece. This movement has recently undergone a very active phase but the transition from the traditional model of psychiatric care to the community based system unavoidably creates many ethical problems related to the professionals' attitude towards individual liberties, dignity and other fundamental rights of mentally ill persons. These problems exist not only in the level of the therapist-patient relationship but in the level of policy making as well as its implementation. Moreover, the paper deals with specific ethical problems such as stigmatisation and isolation in the community context, as well as the role of the family. PMID:22218080

Ploumpidis, D; Garanis-Papadatos, T; Economou, M

2008-10-01

82

Ethics Training in Psychiatry  

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Full Text Available Although ethics training is one of the core components of psychiatric education, it is not sufficiently addressed in the curricula of many educational institutions. It is shown that many of the psychiatry residents received no ethics training in both residency and medical school. Predictably, over half of the psychiatry residents had faced an ethical dilemma that they felt unprepared to meet, and nearly all of them indicated ethics education would have helped them to solve this dilemma. In addition to learning about the fundamental topics of ethics like confidentiality, boundary violations, justice, benefience and nonmaleficence, psychiatrists must also learn to deal with other hidden ethical dilemmas which are mostly due to the changing world order. It is obvious that residency training should include a well developed ethics curriculum. However, some still believe that ethical principles cannot be taught and are formed in one’s early moral development. Accepting the fact that teaching ethics is difficult, we believe that it is getting easier with the new methods for teaching in medicine. These methods are clinical supervisions, rol-models, case studies, role playing, small group discussions, team based learning and “let’s talking medicine” groups which is a useful methods for discussing ethics dilemmas on daily practice and C.A.R.E (Core Beliefs, Actions, Reasons, Experience which is a special training method for teaching ethics. In this review, the need of ethics training in residency curriculum will be discussed and new methods for teaching ethics will be proposed.

Sinan Guloksuz

2009-09-01

83

'They say Islam has a solution for everything, so why are there no guidelines for this?' Ethical dilemmas associated with the births and deaths of infants with fatal abnormalities from a small sample of Pakistani Muslim couples in Britain.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents ethical dilemmas concerning the termination of pregnancy, the management of childbirth, and the withdrawal of life-support from infants in special care, for a small sample of British Pakistani Muslim parents of babies diagnosed with fatal abnormalities. Case studies illustrating these dilemmas are taken from a qualitative study of 66 families of Pakistani origin referred to a genetics clinic in Southern England. The paper shows how parents negotiated between the authoritative knowledge of their doctors, religious experts, and senior family members in response to the ethical dilemmas they faced. There was little knowledge or open discussion of the view that Islam permits the termination of pregnancy for serious or fatal abnormality within 120 days and there was considerable disquiet over the idea of ending a pregnancy. For some parents, whether their newborn baby would draw breath was a main worry, with implications for the baby's Muslim identity and for the recognition of loss the parents would receive from family and community. This concern sometimes conflicted with doctors' concerns to minimize risk to future pregnancies by not performing a Caesarean delivery if a baby is sure to die. The paper also identifies parents' concerns and feelings of wrong-doing regarding the withdrawal of artificial life-support from infants with multiple abnormalities. The conclusion considers some of the implications of these observations for the counselling and support of Muslim parents following the pre- or neo-natal diagnosis of fatal abnormalities in their children. PMID:21649685

Shaw, Alison

2012-11-01

84

Focus on Ethics and Public Relations Practice in a University Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Public relations action relies on sound decision making about how to inspire cooperation between an organization and its publics. Such thinking must uphold principles for ethical communication. Effectively combining ethics with public relations practice for students is key. A pedagogical approach to public relations ethics, hinging on selected…

Smudde, Peter M.

2011-01-01

85

Dentes como fonte de Células-Tronco: uma alternativa aos dilemas éticos / Teeth as source of Stem Cells: an alternative to ethical dilemmas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As Células-Tronco têm sido objeto principal de estudo no campo científico da Medicina Regenerativa. Estas células, quando obtidas de embriões, podem se diferenciar em todos os tecidos, embora os métodos utilizados para sua obtenção necessitem lidar com dilemas éticos e legais. Em busca de alternativ [...] as às fontes de células-tronco, os dentes vêm ganhando espaço. Estes órgãos apresentam no tecido pulpar e estruturas adjacentes características fundamentais como, multidiferenciação e capacidade de autoduplicação, além de facilidade de acesso e obtenção. Este trabalho apresenta o conhecimento atual e as perspectivas sobre o uso das células-tronco de origem dentária com destaque para as de dentes decíduos esfoliados. Especial atenção foi dada às limitações legais e administrativas para o funcionamento dos Bancos de Dentes Humanos e Biobancos no Brasil, aspecto que se revelado o principal entrave para a difusão do uso de células-tronco de origem dentária. Abstract in english Stem cells have been the main object of study in the Restorative Medicine scientific field. When obtained from embryos, such cells may distinguish in all tissues, although the methods applied to obtain them have to deal with ethical and legal dilemmas. In the search for alternative sources of stem c [...] ells, teeth have gained relevant ground. Those organs present, in their pulp tissue and neighboring structures, fundamental characteristics, such as multilineage differentiation and capacity for self-renewing, besides the fact that they are easy to access and obtain. This work provides the current knowledge and perspectives about the application of stem cells from dental source, with emphasizing those obtained from exfoliated deciduous teeth. Especial attention has been drawn to legal and administrative constraints found in the activities of Human Teeth Banks and Biobanks in Brazil, an aspect that has risen as the main obstacles when communicating the use of stem cells from dental source.

Mariana, Rezende Machado; Rodrigo, Grazinoli Garrido.

86

Resolving Ethical Issues at School  

Science.gov (United States)

Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

Benninga, Jacques S.

2013-01-01

87

Ethical dilemmas in scientific publication: pitfalls and solutions for editors Dilemas éticos na publicação científica: dificuldades e soluções para editores  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Editors of scientific journals need to be conversant with the mechanisms by which scientific misconduct is amplified by publication practices. This paper provides definitions, ways to document the extent of the problem, and examples of editorial attempts to counter fraud. Fabrication, falsification, duplication, ghost authorship, gift authorship, lack of ethics approval, non-disclosure, 'salami' publication, conflicts of interest, auto-citation, duplicate submission, duplicate publications, and plagiarism are common problems. Editorial misconduct includes failure to observe due process, undue delay in reaching decisions and communicating these to authors, inappropriate review procedures, and confounding a journal's content with its advertising or promotional potential. Editors also can be admonished by their peers for failure to investigate suspected misconduct, failure to retract when indicated, and failure to abide voluntarily by the six main sources of relevant international guidelines on research, its reporting and editorial practice. Editors are in a good position to promulgate reasonable standards of practice, and can start by using consensus guidelines on publication ethics to state explicitly how their journals function. Reviewers, editors, authors and readers all then have a better chance to understand, and abide by, the rules of publishing.Editores de revistas científicas precisam estar atentos aos mecanismos de disseminação de condutas inadequadas no processo de publicação. Este artigo fornece definições, formas de documentar a extensão do problema e exemplos de iniciativas para conter fraudes editorias. Fabricação, falsificação, duplicação, autoria-fantasma, autoria concedida, falta de ética na aprovação de manuscritos, não-divulgação desses fatos, publicação "salami", conflitos de interesse, autocitação, submissão e publicação duplicadas, e plágio são problemas comuns. A conduta editorial inadequada inclui: falha em seguir o processo devido, atraso nas decisões e comunicação com os autores, falhas na revisão, e confundir o conteúdo de um periódico com seu potencial promocional e de propaganda. Os editores podem ser advertidos por seus pares por não investigar comportamento científico suspeito, por não se retratar quando indicado ou não obedecer as seis principais fontes internacionais de orientação em pesquisa, publicação e política editorial. Os editores estão em posição privilegiada para promover práticas adequadas, adotando orientações éticas e claras sobre os procedimentos adotados nos periódicos. Assim, revisores, editores, autores e leitores terão condições de compreender e seguir as normas de publicação.

Laragh Gollogly

2006-08-01

88

Advertising Ethics: Student Attitudes and Behavioral Intent  

Science.gov (United States)

A national survey of 1,045 advertising students measured opinions about the ethical nature of advertising and ethical dilemmas in the advertising business. More than nine out of ten students agreed that working for a company with high ethical standards was important. Students rated all twelve workplace dilemmas presented as somewhat unethical. For…

Fullerton, Jami A.; Kendrick, Alice; McKinnon, Lori Melton

2013-01-01

89

Researching from within: external and internal ethical engagement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article examines the superficial and deep ethical and moral dilemmas confronting ‘insider’ researchers which we term external and internal ethical engagement. External ethical engagement refers to the traditional, easily identifiable ethical issues that insider researchers attend to by submitting their application for ethical approval to their institution’s internal review board. Internal ethical engagement relates to the deeper level ethical and moral dilemmas that insider researc...

Floyd, Alan; Arthur, L.

2012-01-01

90

Can we do better? Researchers' experiences with ethical review boards on projects with later life as a focus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this study was to describe researchers' experiences in submitting ethical proposals focused on older adult populations, including studies with persons with dementia, to ethical review boards. Ethical approval was granted for an online survey. Researchers were recruited via listservs and snowballing techniques. Participants included 157 persons (73% female) from Australia and the United States, with a mean age of 46 (±13). Six main issues were encountered by researchers who participated in this survey. In descending order, these included questions regarding: informed consent and information requirements (61.1%), participants' vulnerability, particularly for those with cognitive impairments (58.6%), participant burden (44.6%), data access (29.3%), adverse effects of data collection/intervention (26.8%), and study methodology (25.5%). An inductive content analysis of responses revealed a range of encounters with ethical review panels spanning positive, negative, and neutral experiences. Concerns voiced about ethical review boards included committees being overly focused on legal risk, as well as not always hearing the voice of older research participants, both potential and actual. Respondents noted inability to move forward on studies, as well as loss of researchers and participant groups from gerontological and clinical research as a result of negative interactions with ethics committees. Positive interactions with the committees reinforced researchers' need to carefully construct their research approaches with persons with dementia in particular. Suggested guidelines for committees when dealing with ethics applications involving older adults include self-reflecting on potential biases and stereotypes, and seeking further clarification and information from gerontological researchers before arriving at decisions. PMID:25374104

Pachana, Nancy A; Liddle, Jacki; Peel, Nancye M; Beattie, Elizabeth; Juang, Christine; Knight, Bob G

2015-01-01

91

Denis Goulet and the project of development ethics: choices in methodology, focus and organization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Denis Goulet (1931-2006) was a pioneer of human development theory and the main founder of work on “development ethics” as a self-conscious field that, by his definition, treats the ethical and value questions posed by development theory, planning, and practice. The paper looks at aspects of Goulet’s work in relation to four issues concerning the project of development ethics—[1] scope, [2] methodology, [3] roles, [4] organisational format and identity. It compares h...

Gasper, D. R.

2008-01-01

92

Teaching medical ethics to meet the realities of a changing health care system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The changing context of medical practice--bureaucratic, political, or economic--demands that doctors have the knowledge and skills to face these new realities. Such changes impose obstacles on doctors delivering ethical care to vulnerable patient populations. Modern medical ethics education requires a focus upon the knowledge and skills necessary to close the gap between the theory and practice of ethical care. Physicians and doctors-in-training must learn to be morally sensitive to ethical dilemmas on the wards, learn how to make professionally grounded decisions with their patients and other medical providers, and develop the leadership, dedication, and courage to fulfill ethical values in the face of disincentives and bureaucratic challenges. A new core focus of medical ethics education must turn to learning how to put ethics into practice by teaching physicians to realistically negotiate the new institutional maze of 21st-century medicine. PMID:24802645

Millstone, Michael

2014-06-01

93

Ethics in Economic Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper summarizes the author’s experience of conducting economic scientific research. Economic scientific research is understood as both an analysis of economic phenomena and research purchased on the market of research services. The former are not subject to ethical dilemmas. It is a professional approach backed by sound economic theory that is important. The latter, regardless of who purchases research services, pose a risk of ethical dilemmas and conflicts of interest. ...

Wyz?nikiewicz, Bohdan

2008-01-01

94

Social Media Ethics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the opportunities for anonymity and free expression on the Internet it is it is not inconceivable that moral and ethical dilemmas occur. To give examples of this, we have chosen to analyse two case studies that are concerned with ethical dilemmas. The first case concerns the hacker group “Anonymous” which revealed personal information and accused two men of being paedophiles. The second case deals with the violation of privacy based on the famous meme “Scumbag Steve”. The two dim...

Christoffersen, Mette Buhl; Boukaouit, Dounia; Weeke Hervit, Benjamin Helmer; Winther Brødreskift, Ditte; Makila?, Riia Marette; Pingel Vogel, Klara Elisa; Wolter Strate, Simon

2012-01-01

95

Ethical Issues in Teaching about Research Ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes experiences teaching ethical issues in the conduct of research over several semesters using a simulation of research into obedience by S. Milgram in the early 1960s. Describes students' reactions to the simulation at emotional and intellectual levels and discusses the ethical dilemma these reactions have created for teachers…

Lucas, Keith B.; Lidstone, John G.

2000-01-01

96

ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical dilemmas and regulatory concerns are highly significant in today's cancer research environment. Deep sequencing and bioinformatics technologies that enable identification of molecular signatures of cancer create novel ethical and regulatory challenges, including protecting research participant autonomy and privacy as increasing amounts of data are accumulated. As cancer research becomes more focused on a vision of genetically informed clinical care and precision medicine, decision-making becomes both more complex and more critical.

97

Machine Ethics: Creating an Ethical Intelligent Agent  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The newly emerging field of machine ethics (Anderson and Anderson 2006) is concerned with adding an ethical dimension to machines. Unlike computer ethics -- which has traditionally focused on ethical issues surrounding humans' use of machines -- machine ethics is concerned with ensuring that the behavior of machines toward human users, and perhaps other machines as well, is ethically acceptable. In this article we discuss the importance of machine ethics, the need for machines that represent ...

Anderson, Michael; Anderson, Susan Leigh

2007-01-01

98

ETHICS AND COMMUNICATION IN MANAGEMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Management ethics, the determination at what means “fair”, ”correct” and “just” in decisions and action that affect the others, passes the simple problems like corruption, steal and swindle. It is focused on human interrelations such as between employers and employees, sellers and clients, shareholders, creditors, distributors, community members. The solving of the ethics dilemmas in management do not represent just a delimitation between good and bad, correct and incorrect, but also it is a complex judgement aiming a balance between economical and social performance of the firm, taking into consideration all what could happened. Solving ethics dilemmas by managers is not easy, and the decision will depend all the time of their personality, experience, education, feelings, attitude and personal values. The communication is part of the organization infrastructure. Any effort for the development of an organization should be considered a priority for the human factor. An efficient communication is the only way in which employees can correlate their efforts, whose quality is leading to the organization success.

Reta CONDEI

2014-10-01

99

Dilemma An Instant Lexicographer  

CERN Document Server

Dilemma is intended to enhance quality and increase productivity of expert human translators by presenting to the writer relevant lexical information mechanically extracted from comparable existing translations, thus replacing - or compensating for the absence of - a lexicographer and stand-by terminologist rather than the translator. Using statistics and crude surface analysis and a minimum of prior information, Dilemma identifies instances and suggests their counterparts in parallel source and target texts, on all levels down to individual words. Dilemma forms part of a tool kit for translation where focus is on text structure and over-all consistency in large text volumes rather than on framing sentences, on interaction between many actors in a large project rather than on retrieval of machine-stored data and on decision making rather than on application of given rules. In particular, the system has been tuned to the needs of the ongoing translation of European Community legislation into the languages of c...

Karlgren, H; Nordström, M; Pettersson, P E; Wahrolen, B; Karlgren, Hans; Karlgren, Jussi; Nordstr\\"om, Magnus; Pettersson, Paul; Wahrol\\'en, Bengt

1994-01-01

100

Technology / Society Interaction and Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

Technology is something present in our everyday lives. From the computer we type our e-mails on to the plasma television where we watch our favorite shows, technology is an integral part of how we live. This website, created by Engineering Technology Pathways, presents the interaction of technology with society and the ethical issues associated with that interplay. Focusing mostly on the role of engineers in the creation of technology, the website provides examples of responsible practices employed by the profession. The website introduces the reader to different case studies that are examples of these ethical dilemmas. In the end, this is a good overview as it introduces students to issues not typically associated with the field of engineering.

Heitkamp, Greg

 
 
 
 
101

Researching from within: External and Internal Ethical Engagement  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the superficial and deep ethical and moral dilemmas confronting "insider" researchers, which we term external and internal ethical engagement. External ethical engagement refers to the traditional, easily identifiable ethical issues that insider researchers attend to by submitting their application for ethical approval to…

Floyd, Alan; Arthur, Linet

2012-01-01

102

‘Utilitarian’ judgments in sacrificial moral dilemmas do not reflect impartial concern for the greater good  

Science.gov (United States)

A growing body of research has focused on so-called ‘utilitarian’ judgments in moral dilemmas in which participants have to choose whether to sacrifice one person in order to save the lives of a greater number. However, the relation between such ‘utilitarian’ judgments and genuine utilitarian impartial concern for the greater good remains unclear. Across four studies, we investigated the relationship between ‘utilitarian’ judgment in such sacrificial dilemmas and a range of traits, attitudes, judgments and behaviors that either reflect or reject an impartial concern for the greater good of all. In Study 1, we found that rates of ‘utilitarian’ judgment were associated with a broadly immoral outlook concerning clear ethical transgressions in a business context, as well as with sub-clinical psychopathy. In Study 2, we found that ‘utilitarian’ judgment was associated with greater endorsement of rational egoism, less donation of money to a charity, and less identification with the whole of humanity, a core feature of classical utilitarianism. In Studies 3 and 4, we found no association between ‘utilitarian’ judgments in sacrificial dilemmas and characteristic utilitarian judgments relating to assistance to distant people in need, self-sacrifice and impartiality, even when the utilitarian justification for these judgments was made explicit and unequivocal. This lack of association remained even when we controlled for the antisocial element in ‘utilitarian’ judgment. Taken together, these results suggest that there is very little relation between sacrificial judgments in the hypothetical dilemmas that dominate current research, and a genuine utilitarian approach to ethics. PMID:25460392

Kahane, Guy; Everett, Jim A.C.; Earp, Brian D.; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian

2015-01-01

103

Payment of research participants: current practice and policies of Irish research ethics committees.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Payment of research participants helps to increase recruitment for research studies, but can pose ethical dilemmas. Research ethics committees (RECs) have a centrally important role in guiding this practice, but standardisation of the ethical approval process in Ireland is lacking.

Roche, Eric

2013-09-01

104

Do Teachers Leave Their Ethics at the School Gate? Social Practice Research in a Danish Primary School  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study addresses teachers' ethical dilemmas in everyday participation in school structures in a Danish Primary School. It focuses in particular on their relations with 'disturbing children'. The author and four first grade teachers work in a research team, documenting and analysing the teachers’ interactions in the classroom. This paper focuses on the interactions between two of the teachers and one of the students. The research team focuses on the teachers’ struggles with stress and ...

Karen-Lis Kristensen

2013-01-01

105

Ethics of prenatal ultrasound.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenatal ultrasound has opened new opportunities to examine, diagnose and treat the fetus, but these advances bring with them ethical dilemmas. In this chapter, I address the ethical principles that need to be considered when treating both mother and fetus as patients, and how these can be applied in practice. In particular, ultrasound practitioners have an ethical duty to maintain their theoretical knowledge and practical skills to ensure they advise parents correctly. I also discuss the ethical issues in carrying out intrauterine therapy, ultrasound-related research, and termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality. PMID:24374013

Howe, David

2014-04-01

106

New Innovative Ethical Principles in Increasing Road Safety  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Future managers are faced daily with a variety of ethical dilemmas in traffic that need to be balanced by the interests of all participants. The question is whether a new innovative model of ethical principles could be developed that would increase road safety.Purpose: The a im is to raise the level of social responsibility and relationship of participants in traffic as well as warn all participants on the importance of safety. In addition, the purpose is to share suggestions to other researchers for further research studies in the area of increasing traffic safety.Method: We carried out a quantitative study (survey among first year post-graduate students studying at a higher education school focused on quality management in south-eastern Slovenia. The article presents five different ethical scenarios.Results: The participants have very similar views on judging individual ethical dilemmas. The desire to increase road safety, have led to new useful suggestions for further study of innovative new ethical principles in the field of safety, such as: no death victims annually, adequate road infrastructure, improved vehicle technology, video surveillance systems, and so on.Organization: Relevant authorities should promote models of ethical thinking and the introduction of codes of conduct at an early age. As such, the state, police, rescuers, fire departments, hospitals, and so on, would have fewer deaths due to serious traffic accidents.Society: By taking these results and further research suggestions into account, society would gain a new model that would be based on zero accidents annually.Originality: Research in the field of ethics and innovative ethical principles of traffic safety is limited. The article presents practical examples of ethical and moral decision-making that we encounter in daily traffic. But nothing much is done to make it better ("every day the same story".Limitations/Future Research: The research study was conducted on a small sample of 13 students.

Igor Mileti?

2013-06-01

107

Brief report : ethical problems in research practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most accounts of the ethical problems facing researchers across a broad spectrum of research fields come from ethicists, ethics committees, and specialists committed to the study of ethics in human research. In contrast, this study reports on the ethical questions that researchers, themselves, report facing in their everyday practice. Fifty-five Swedish researchers contributed 109 examples of ethical dilemmas, conflicts, and problems in research. They were all researchers at the postdoctoral ...

Colnerud, Gunnel

2013-01-01

108

Ethical Considerations in Prenatal Sex Selection  

Science.gov (United States)

Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethical dilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…

Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty

2005-01-01

109

Dilemas éticos / Ehtical dilemma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen Son múltiples los dilemas éticos que enfrentan los profesionales de enfermería en el cumplimiento de su labor y que sugieren una toma de decisión fundamentada en los conocimientos, habilidades y en la experiencia, pero donde la ética y la moral es la que posibilita que esta se soporte en val [...] ores, principios y argumentos éticos. Aplicar la Bioética y cumplir con los Derechos Humanos requiere una profunda modificación en toda la cultura sanitaria; ya sea en los propios profesionales, en sus relaciones inter- e intraprofesionales, ya en la organización y gestión de los servicios. No basta con tener normativas, hay que realizar cambios y aportaciones delimitando el quehacer y estableciendo la corresponsabilización que permita la contribución de cada grupo profesional. En este artículo se realiza una reflexión sobre algunos dilemas éticos en el ámbito hospitalario, planteando situaciones dilemáticas que nos sirvan para tomar conciencia sobre la importancia de cuestiones tan relevantes como el respeto a la autonomía del paciente, el consentimiento informado, la justicia distributiva de los recursos sanitarios, entre otros. Abstract in english Abstract There are many ethical dilemmas that nursing professionals have to face in fulfilling their work and that suggest decision making should be based on knowledge, ability, skills and experience, but where ethics and morality are the ones that enable this work to be supported on values, princip [...] les and ethical arguments. Applying Bioethics and Human Rights requires a radical change in the whole culture of health; whether professionals themselves, in their personal and intraprofessional relations, and in the organization and management of services. It is not enough to have rules, you have to make changes and contributions delineating the work and establishing joint responsibility, that allows the contribution of each professional group. This article is a reflection on ethical dilemmas taking place in hospitals, raising controversial situations that serve as awareness on the importance of such relevant issues as respect for patient autonomy, informed consent, and distributive justice of health resources, among others.

Elizabeth, Villarreal Cantillo; Gloria, Visbal Illera.

2013-01-01

110

Managers’ Views on Ethics Education in Business Schools : An Empirical Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

More and more scholars are expressing their apprehensions regarding the current state of management education. The increased number of corporate scandals has fueled their concerns that training students to have sound business ethics upon graduation has failed. Consequently, research is emerging that focuses on the lack of impact that business ethics teaching has had on students in recent years. Remarkably, the voice of managers has barely been heard in this area, even though they are the ones who are among those best suited to evaluate graduates’ capabilities to solve ethical dilemmas. This research presents the managers’ view on the role of business schools in training students in business ethics, and the managers’ evaluation of business schools’ success in that area. The findings reveal that managers are quite disappointed with the lack of improvement in the ethics of graduating students. Managers nonetheless provide a range of ideas for business schools to work on, and particularly, call for closer collaboration between industry and business schools.

Sigurjonsson, Throstur Olaf; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

2014-01-01

111

Skyview Foods: Eric's Real Dilemma with Channel Partners  

Science.gov (United States)

As a marketing analyst, Eric is faced with several ethical dilemmas. When asked to engage in unethical and illegal behavior, Eric must decide whether to obey his boss and fudge the numbers (the counts of product purchased in order to get reimbursed more from the manufacturer during special sales) or take the ethical route. The case consists of two…

Castleberry, Stephen B.

2011-01-01

112

Workplace Literacy: Ethical Issues through the Lens of Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

Even though principles to guide practice are crucial, there are no hard-and-fast rules for resolving ethical issues--dilemmas that are not easily resolvable because they present opposing values and outcomes that may harm to certain groups of people if not properly considered. This article describes a number of ethical dilemmas faced as a workplace…

Folinsbee, Sue

2009-01-01

113

The Ethical Problems of Reserach : An empirical study of ethics in research practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most accounts of the ethical problems facing researchers across a broad spectrum of research fields come from ethicists, ethics committees and specialists committed to the study of ethics in human research. In contrast, this study reports on the ethical questions that researchers, themselves, report facing in their everyday practice. Fifty-five Swedish researchers contributed 109 examples of ethical dilemmas, conflicts and problems in research. They were all researchers at the post-doctoral l...

Colnerud, Gunnel

2013-01-01

114

Dilemmas in intimate partner violence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intimate partner violence (IPV), usually men's violence against women, appears universal. It may be associated with pregnancy, but this may be because pregnant women receive more medical attention. Violence may cause bruises, abrasions, and cuts, but its extremes include hospitalization, death, and suicide. IPV is often disclosed when women are asked why they feel in poor health or depressed. A legal dilemma arises when healthcare providers consider that intervention such as law-enforcement is appropriate, but patients refuse approval. Patients may fatalistically accept violence, or fear loss of support for their children and themselves if their partners are held in custody. Legal reforms, such as punishing spousal rape, may provide some protection of women's autonomy. Ethical dilemmas concern intervention without patients' approval, and whether treating violent injuries without taking preventive action breaches the principle to Do No Harm. Professional advocacy and social action have been urged to expose and reduce IPV. PMID:19368921

Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M

2009-07-01

115

Essentials of research ethics for healthcare professionals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whether conducted in a university or the healthcare field, research with human subjects gives rise to a multitude of ethical questions for healthcare professionals. While engaging in ongoing professional development on how to conduct research ethically, both clinicians and scientists need to expand their knowledge to provide answers to the following questions: Which ethical theories serve as a foundation for ethical principles in research ethics? What ethical principles should a researcher respect when conducting research with human subjects? What does it mean to conduct research ethically? What ethical dilemmas are encountered by a researcher in conducting research? This paper provides a review of ethical theories, and the ethical basis of guidelines developed and used to guide human subject research. Ethical behaviors and the personal responsibility of the researcher conducting research with human subjects are discussed along with the ethical considerations in research designs and methods. PMID:15877688

Aita, Marilyn; Richer, Marie-Claire

2005-06-01

116

Ethical challenges related to elder care. High level decision-makers' experiences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Few empirical studies have been found that explore ethical challenges among persons in high public positions that are responsible for elder care. The aim of this paper was to illuminate the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care as experienced by high level decision-makers. Methods A phenomenological-hermeneutic method was used to analyse the eighteen interviews conducted with political and civil servant high level decision-makers at the municipality and county council level from two counties in Sweden. The participants worked at a planning and control as well as executive level and had both budget and quality of elder care responsibilities. Results Both ethical dilemmas and the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care were revealed. No differences were seen between the politicians and the civil servants. The ethical dilemmas mostly concerned dealings with extensive care needs and working with a limited budget. The dilemmas were associated with a lack of good care and a lack of agreement concerning care such as vulnerable patients in inappropriate care settings, weaknesses in medical support, dissimilar focuses between the caring systems, justness in the distribution of care and deficient information. Being in ethically difficult situations was challenging. Associated with them were experiences of being exposed, having to be strategic and living with feelings such as aloneness and loneliness, uncertainty, lack of confirmation, the risk of being threatened or becoming a scapegoat and difficult decision avoidance. Conclusion Our paper provides further insight into the ethical dilemmas and ethical challenges met by high level decision-makers', which is important since the overall responsibility for elder care that is also ethically defensible rests with them. They have power and their decisions affect many stakeholders in elder care. Our results can be used to stimulate discussions between high level decision-makers and health care professionals concerning ways of dealing with ethical issues and the necessity of structures that facilitate dealing with them. Even if the high level decision-makers have learned to live with the ethical challenges that confronted them, it was obvious that they were not free from feelings of uncertainty, frustration and loneliness. Vulnerability was revealed regarding themselves and others. Their feelings of failure indicated that they felt something was at stake for the older adults in elder care and for themselves as well, in that there was the risk that important needs would go unmet.

Kihlgren Mona

2007-04-01

117

Handbook on Ethical Issues in Anthropology  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Anthropological Association has recently added number 23 to its series of special online publications. Edited by Joan Cassell and Sue-Ellen Jacobs, this collection of six essays is presented to "stimulate discussion and reflection on ethical issues" among anthropologists. Offerings include a background essay and annotated bibliography, two essays containing fictional ethical dilemmas and proposed solutions, an essay on introducing issues of ethical responsibility into the classroom, and guidelines on holding a workshop on ethical problems in fieldwork.

1996-01-01

118

Ethical issues and Huntington's disease  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's [...] disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethical dilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper.

J G R, Kromberg; T-M, Wessels.

1023-10-01

119

IS ETHICAL HACKING ETHICAL?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.

MUHAMMAD NUMAN ALI KHAN; DANISH JAMIL,

2011-01-01

120

Anthropology Ethics: Online Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Studying humankind can give us great insight into the complexities of society and culture. However, any research involving human subjects comes with a thorny set of ethical considerations. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln's Ethics Center has curated this collection of online resources related to ethical dilemmas and situations in anthropology. The materials are divided into four areas: Case Studies, About, Additional Teaching Resources, and Codes of Ethics. The Case Studies area is quite well-developed, containing 20 rigorously vetted case studies from SUNY-Buffalo, the Society for Economic Botany, and the Smithsonian Institution. For those just entering the field, the Codes of Ethics area might be quite useful. It offers up professional codes from organizations like the American Anthropological Association, the American Association of Museums, and the American Folklore Society.

 
 
 
 
121

Ethics and Nanotechnology  

Science.gov (United States)

This page from the Understanding Nano website introduces concepts of nanotechnology-related ethics. In addition to the reading materials, the page provides a list of websites and organizations that focus on ethics and nanotechnology.

122

Ethical issues and accountability in pressure ulcer prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pressure ulcers represent a considerable cost, both in terms of healthcare spending and quality of life. They are increasingly viewed in terms of patient harm. For clinicians involved in pressure ulcer prevention, ethical issues surrounding accountability may arise from both policy and practice perspectives. It may be useful for clinicians to refer to ethical theories and principles to create frameworks when addressing ethical dilemmas. However, such theories and principles have been criticised for their simplicity and over-generalisation. Alternative theories, for example, virtue ethics and experiential learning, can provide more comprehensive guidance and promote a pluralistic approach to tackling ethical dilemmas. PMID:25335632

Welsh, Lynn

2014-10-28

123

Health Ethics Education for Health Administration Chaplains  

Science.gov (United States)

It is imperative for divinity and health administration programs to improve their level of ethics education for their graduates who work as health administration chaplains. With an initial presentation of the variation of ethical dilemmas presented in health care facilities covering social, organizational, and patient levels, we indicate the need…

Porter, Russell; Broussard, Amelia; Duckett, Todd

2008-01-01

124

Ethically Challenging Situations Encountered by School Psychologists.  

Science.gov (United States)

Study provides a description of the kinds of situations school psychology practitioners find ethically challenging. Frequencies of various kinds of dilemmas are reported along with illustrative incidents. Most incidents described by respondents concerned difficult situations rather than violations of professional codes of ethics. Implications for…

Jacob-Timm, Susan

1999-01-01

125

Evaluation Team Dynamics: Intragroup Ethical Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical challenges associated with the relationships among members of an evaluative team/organization receive less attention. Examples of the kinds of ethical dilemmas that could occur within an evaluation team include an individual taking undeserved credit, transferring blame, making false promises, withholding information, breaching…

Urias, David

2009-01-01

126

Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics

Sikes, Pat

2010-01-01

127

Ethics in the bank internet encounter : an explorative study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss some ethical issues in the internet encounter between customer and bank. Empirical data related to the difficulties that customers have when they deal with the bank through internet technology and electronic banking. The authors discuss the difficulties that customers expressed from an ethical standpoint. Design/methodology/approach – The key problem of the paper is “how does research handle the user's lack of competence in a web-based commercial environment?” The authors illustrate this ethical dilemma with data from a Danish Bank collected in 2002. The data have been structured by an advanced text analytic method, Pertex (by generation of intentionality of verbal actors from text). Findings – The authors can conclude that the experience of lack of competency in internet banking implies a severe damage on the experience of the ethics of the good life and of the respect for the basic ethical principles of customer autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability. However, increased experience of competency may imply experience of increased feeling of ethical superiority and of the good life among customers. Research limitations/implications – The important implication for managerial research of this study would be for banks to focus on customer competency with an ethical concern instead of only being concerned with technical solutions for effective internet operations. Practical implications – Since more and more businesses are digitally based, the authors can foresee a potential generic problem of lack of competence for certain age groups and also of people from different social groups. Originality/value – The paper provides an analysis of the ethics of on-line banking on the basis of Pertex methodology and with the use of basic ethical principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability.

Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl; Mattsson, Jan

2012-01-01

128

IS ETHICAL HACKING ETHICAL?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.

MUHAMMAD NUMAN ALI KHAN

2011-05-01

129

Gender Differences in Personal Selling Ethics Evaluations: Do They Exist and What Does Their Existence Mean for Teaching Sales Ethics?  

Science.gov (United States)

Sales career opportunities are growing, and the number of women in sales is increasing. Educators must adequately prepare both men and women for today's ethical sales dilemmas. Using the Personal Selling Ethics Scale, the current study analyzes the impact of idealism and relativism on the sales ethics evaluations of men and women. Results indicate…

Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy; Kondo, Christopher

2012-01-01

130

An Ethics Primer: A Few Short Ethics Cases  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource is a PDF that provides teachers with several short ethics case studies: Two Tales of Rice (genetically modified food), Talk About Short (growth hormone for short stature -- fictionalized), and One Family's Dilemma (a family considers what to do about excess IVF embryos).

2008-01-01

131

The Ethics of Biowarfare  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue-focused, reviewed, student article alarms that nations need to take preventative measures to curb the development and proliferation of biological and chemical weapons, such as: adopting a scientific code of ethics, incorporating ethics into graduate science courses, formulating accountability mechanisms for research, and raising academic, industry, and public awareness of ethical issues.

Daniel Reyes (Santa Clara University, California;)

2003-02-01

132

THE RULE OF ETHICAL CODE IN BUSSINES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In graduate seminar I discuss the business code of ethics on the basis of theoretical knowledge, which I tried to present on cases. I want to prove that ethical code is a competitive factor that can ensure a long-term successful existence in the business market. I am aware that code of ethics is difficult to achieve because of many conflicts and ethical dilemmas in practical work. Outwards a company can be ethical regarding to the business code of managers or leading business people. L...

Danijel, Gas?per

2011-01-01

133

Rattling the Cage: Moving beyond Ethical Standards to Ethical Praxis in Self-Study Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The ethical practice underpinning self-study research has been addressed extensively in the literature of self-study of teacher education practices. Less attention has been paid to how researchers deal with ethical tensions and dilemmas when they arise unexpectedly during self-study research. In this article, we examine how the extrapolation and…

Brandenburg, Robyn; Gervasoni, Ann

2012-01-01

134

Ethical dilemmas concerning human reproduction. Gestational surrogacy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Los avances científicos en el campo de la genética y de la biología han obligado al legislador a adoptar soluciones jurídicas concretas, generalmente partiendo de determinados criterios éticos que, en ocasiones, entran en conflicto con la ética individual o libertad de conciencia. Pues bien, una de estas cuestiones es la llamada «gestación de sustitución». La gestación de sustitución ha suscitado un intenso debate en el ámbito social, ético y jurídico, que con...

Souto Galva?n, Beatriz

2006-01-01

135

Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evide...

Haines, A.; B White, C.; Gleisner, J.

1983-01-01

136

Vulnerable participants in health research : methodological and ethical challenges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki Declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and health care research, in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research. The guidelines appear to be instrumental and over simplistic representations of the often “messy” realities surrounding the research process that is often guided by relational and local negotiations of ethical solutions. Vulnerable participants, for instance, challenge both professional and research ethics, leaving both professionals and researchers in ethical and moral dilemmas. In this article, we specifically focus on the methodological challenges of obtaining informed consent from drug users and terminally ill cancer patients in our PhD research. The question is how you can illuminate the needs and problems of vulnerable patients and - at the same time - respect their integrity without exposing them unnecessarily. The article illuminates the interactional construction of roles and relationships and how they affect the contextual construction of vulnerability. In this respect, we demonstrate that both patients and researchers are at risk of being vulnerable. In conclusion, we outline and advocate for a more contextualized approach and empirically-informed ethics to informed consent in research with potentially vulnerable participants.

Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Nanna, Kappel

2011-01-01

137

Understanding and Applying the Professional Code of Ethics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Professional Ethics Committee sponsored a professional development workshop, “Understanding and Applying the Professional Code of Ethics” at the 2007 AECT convention in Anaheim. This interactive workshop helped convention attendees learn how to use AECT’s Code of Ethics (2001) by examining situations containing ethical dilemmas. The three sections of the Code were addressed by Committee members Nick Eastmond, Andrew Yeaman, and Rebecca Butler. They presented cases from a variety of...

Belland, Brian Robert

2008-01-01

138

Ethical dilemmas in blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses: a legal-bioethical analysis Dilemas éticos en la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeová: un análisis jurídico-bioético Dilemas éticos na hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová: uma análise jurídico-bioética  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify knowledge production by healthcare professionals about blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses (JW, listing the therapeutic alternatives for blood transfusion in these individuals and citing the legal, ethical and bioethical standards regarding blood transfusion in JWs. METHODS: Data were collected in the LILACS and SciELO databases, Nursing journals and on http://www.google.com.br. Articles focusing on blood transfusion in JWs were included, and texts that were repeated or did not approach this theme were excluded. Content analysis was used. RESULTS: The thematic categories show that the JWs accept self-transfusion and are opposed to the medical practice of blood transfusion, even if it represents the continuity of life. CONCLUSION: Healthcare professionals experience ethical dilemmas when they need to perform blood transfusion in JWs due to the fact that religious freedom is not an absolute value, and the apparent collision of fundamental rights demands that a decision be made, centered on legal standards and bioethical principles.OBJETIVO: Identificar la producción de conocimiento por los profesionales de salud respecto a la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeova (TJ, listar las alternativas terapéuticas de la transfusión sanguínea en esos individuos y citar la ordenanza jurídica, ética y bioética en lo que concierne a la transfusión sanguínea en TJ. MÉTODOS: Se recolectaron datos en las bases de datos LILACS y SciELO, periódicos de Enfermería y en el http://www.google.com.br. Se incluyeron artículos enfocando la transfusión sanguínea en TJ, y se excluyeron a los que no abordaban esa temática o estaban repetidos. Se utilizó el análisis de contenido. RESULTADOS: Las categorías temáticas señalan que los TJ acatan la auto-transfusión y se contraponen a la práctica médica de la transfusión sanguínea, aunque ella represente la continuidad de la vida. CONCLUSIÓN: Los profesionales de salud vivencian dilemas éticos cuando precisan realizar transfusiones sanguíneas en TJ debido a que la libertad religiosa no es un valor absoluto y la aparente colisión de derechos fundamentales les exige una toma de decisión centrada en la ordenanza jurídica y en los principios bioéticos.OBJETIVO: Identificar a produção de conhecimento pelos profissionais de saúde acerca da hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová (TJ, listar as alternativas terapêuticas para a hemotransfusão nesses indivíduos e citar o ordenamento jurídico, ético e bioético no concernente a hemotransfusão em TJ. MÉTODOS: Coletaram-se dados nas bases de dados LILACS e SciELO, periódicos de Enfermagem e no http://www.google.com.br. Incluiram-se artigos enfocando hemotransfusão em TJ, e excluíram-se os que não abordassem essa temática ou estivessem repetidos. Utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: As categorias temáticas sinalizam que as TJ acatam a auto-transfusão e se contrapõem à prática médica da hemotransfusão, mesmo que ela represente a continuidade da vida. CONCLUSÃO: Os profissionais de saúde vivenciam dilemas éticos quando precisam administrar hemotransfusão em TJ devido a liberdade religiosa não ser um valor absoluto e a aparente colisão de direitos fundamentais exigir uma tomada de decisão centrada no ordenamento jurídico e nos princípios bioéticos.

Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França

2008-01-01

139

Ethical dilemmas in blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses: a legal-bioethical analysis / Dilemas éticos en la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeová: un análisis jurídico-bioético / Dilemas éticos na hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová: uma análise jurídico-bioética  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Identificar a produção de conhecimento pelos profissionais de saúde acerca da hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová (TJ), listar as alternativas terapêuticas para a hemotransfusão nesses indivíduos e citar o ordenamento jurídico, ético e bioético no concernente a hemotransfusão em TJ. MÉT [...] ODOS: Coletaram-se dados nas bases de dados LILACS e SciELO, periódicos de Enfermagem e no http://www.google.com.br. Incluiram-se artigos enfocando hemotransfusão em TJ, e excluíram-se os que não abordassem essa temática ou estivessem repetidos. Utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: As categorias temáticas sinalizam que as TJ acatam a auto-transfusão e se contrapõem à prática médica da hemotransfusão, mesmo que ela represente a continuidade da vida. CONCLUSÃO: Os profissionais de saúde vivenciam dilemas éticos quando precisam administrar hemotransfusão em TJ devido a liberdade religiosa não ser um valor absoluto e a aparente colisão de direitos fundamentais exigir uma tomada de decisão centrada no ordenamento jurídico e nos princípios bioéticos. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Identificar la producción de conocimiento por los profesionales de salud respecto a la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeova (TJ), listar las alternativas terapéuticas de la transfusión sanguínea en esos individuos y citar la ordenanza jurídica, ética y bioética en lo que concierne a [...] la transfusión sanguínea en TJ. MÉTODOS: Se recolectaron datos en las bases de datos LILACS y SciELO, periódicos de Enfermería y en el http://www.google.com.br. Se incluyeron artículos enfocando la transfusión sanguínea en TJ, y se excluyeron a los que no abordaban esa temática o estaban repetidos. Se utilizó el análisis de contenido. RESULTADOS: Las categorías temáticas señalan que los TJ acatan la auto-transfusión y se contraponen a la práctica médica de la transfusión sanguínea, aunque ella represente la continuidad de la vida. CONCLUSIÓN: Los profesionales de salud vivencian dilemas éticos cuando precisan realizar transfusiones sanguíneas en TJ debido a que la libertad religiosa no es un valor absoluto y la aparente colisión de derechos fundamentales les exige una toma de decisión centrada en la ordenanza jurídica y en los principios bioéticos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify knowledge production by healthcare professionals about blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses (JW), listing the therapeutic alternatives for blood transfusion in these individuals and citing the legal, ethical and bioethical standards regarding blood transfusion in JWs. METH [...] ODS: Data were collected in the LILACS and SciELO databases, Nursing journals and on http://www.google.com.br. Articles focusing on blood transfusion in JWs were included, and texts that were repeated or did not approach this theme were excluded. Content analysis was used. RESULTS: The thematic categories show that the JWs accept self-transfusion and are opposed to the medical practice of blood transfusion, even if it represents the continuity of life. CONCLUSION: Healthcare professionals experience ethical dilemmas when they need to perform blood transfusion in JWs due to the fact that religious freedom is not an absolute value, and the apparent collision of fundamental rights demands that a decision be made, centered on legal standards and bioethical principles.

Inacia Sátiro Xavier de, França; Rosilene Santos, Baptista; Virgínia Rosana de Sousa, Brito.

140

ETHICAL PERSPECTIVES IN OPEN AND DISTANCE EDUATION SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, e-learning and various online education applications are used in many countries and educational institutions than ever before. Ethics deals with the principle governing ideal or good behavior, it focuses on what is right or what is wrong. Although in education, the ethical issues that they may be facing are not about of life and death issues. An ethical dilemma will take place when the educator faced with a decision that maybe incongruent with the organization’s values and policies. There are several examples of ethical issues in education. In this reason, the educator must be guided with the appropriate decision-making strategies. With the increasing use of new communication technologies, adoption of distance education by traditional educational institutes and owing to growing demand on the part of learners, it becomes more important to discuss the ethical issues. This important title provides academicians, students, and professionals with ethical insight into the world of e-learning through fascinating case studies that elucidate the issues through real-world examples. Pioneer’s experience in the field of distance education indicates that the profile of distance learners varies, cutting across barriers of gender, class and caste. The distance learner may be suffering from a sense of isolation as he/she makes a return to study after a gap of time or while working. It is there that the distance educator makes a positive, ethical and interventionist role by helping the student to learn beyond the stereotypical classroom situation and can act effectively as the friend, philosopher and guide of the learner. However, the industry of education is a serious one, requiring well defined ethics and values, well bound in visible legal outlines to regulate its exchange and distribution. Because as the industry grows, so do the issues of ethical concern such as plagiarism, electronic voyeurism, and licensing. The objective of this paper is to raise awareness of additional ethical issues in order to encourage further debate and consideration of these importance issues. The present paper will focus on the ethical values to be followed and implemented in the open distance education system

C. ANITHA (Corresponding Author,

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

When Research and Mandates Collide: The Challenges and Dilemmas of Teacher Education in the Era of NCLB  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the authors first describe their research, then discuss the ethical and professional dilemmas they face as teacher educators as a consequence of NCLB. Here, they offer some possible approaches to coping with these dilemmas in the context of university undergraduate and graduate teacher education programs. Their study examined the…

Altwerger, Bess; Arya, Poonam; Jin, Lijun; Jordan, Nancy L.; Laster, Barbara; Martens, Prisca; Wilson, G. Patricia; Wiltz, Nancy

2004-01-01

142

Ethical Issues in the End of Life Care for Cancer Patients in Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: In the recent years, advances in medical technologies for end stage cancer patients’ care have affected the end-of-life decision-making in clinical practice and exposed oncologists to serious ethical dilemmas. But little is known about oncologists' viewpoints in our country regarding their ethical problems in this mention. We aimed to clarify the ethical dilemmas which Iranian oncologists may face in our health care setting and to determine factors influencing decision-making pr...

Mina Mobasher; Nouzar Nakhaee; Mamak Tahmasebi; Farzaneh ZaHedi; "Bagher Larijani

2013-01-01

143

Informed recruitment in partner studies of HIV transmission: an ethical issue in couples research  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Much attention has been devoted to ethical issues related to randomized controlled trials for HIV treatment and prevention. However, there has been less discussion of ethical issues surrounding families involved in observational studies of HIV transmission. This paper describes the process of ethical deliberation about how best to obtain informed consent from sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs) tested for HIV, within a recent HIV study in Eastern Europe. The study aimed to assess the amount of HIV serodiscordance among IDUs and their sexual partners, identify barriers to harm reduction, and explore ways to optimize intervention programs. Including IDUs, either HIV-positive or at high risk for HIV, and their sexual partners would help to gain a more complete understanding of barriers to and opportunities for intervention. Discussion This paper focuses on the ethical dilemma regarding informed recruitment: whether researchers should disclose to sexual partners of IDUs that they were recruited because their partner injects drugs (i.e., their heightened risk for HIV). Disclosing risks to partners upholds the ethical value of respect for persons through informed consent. However, disclosure compromises the IDU's confidentiality, and potentially, the scientific validity of the research. Following a brief literature review, we summarize the researchers' systematic evaluation of this issue from ethical, scientific, and logistical perspectives. While the cultural context may be somewhat unique to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the issues raised and solutions proposed here inform epidemiological research designs and their underlying ethical tensions. Summary We present ethical arguments in favor of disclosure, discuss how cultural context shapes the ethical issues, and recommend refinement of guidance for couples research of communicable diseases to assist investigators encountering these ethical issues in the future. PMID:19709442

McNutt, Louise-Anne; Gordon, Elisa J; Uusküla, Anneli

2009-01-01

144

Informed recruitment in partner studies of HIV transmission: an ethical issue in couples research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been devoted to ethical issues related to randomized controlled trials for HIV treatment and prevention. However, there has been less discussion of ethical issues surrounding families involved in observational studies of HIV transmission. This paper describes the process of ethical deliberation about how best to obtain informed consent from sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs tested for HIV, within a recent HIV study in Eastern Europe. The study aimed to assess the amount of HIV serodiscordance among IDUs and their sexual partners, identify barriers to harm reduction, and explore ways to optimize intervention programs. Including IDUs, either HIV-positive or at high risk for HIV, and their sexual partners would help to gain a more complete understanding of barriers to and opportunities for intervention. Discussion This paper focuses on the ethical dilemma regarding informed recruitment: whether researchers should disclose to sexual partners of IDUs that they were recruited because their partner injects drugs (i.e., their heightened risk for HIV. Disclosing risks to partners upholds the ethical value of respect for persons through informed consent. However, disclosure compromises the IDU's confidentiality, and potentially, the scientific validity of the research. Following a brief literature review, we summarize the researchers' systematic evaluation of this issue from ethical, scientific, and logistical perspectives. While the cultural context may be somewhat unique to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the issues raised and solutions proposed here inform epidemiological research designs and their underlying ethical tensions. Summary We present ethical arguments in favor of disclosure, discuss how cultural context shapes the ethical issues, and recommend refinement of guidance for couples research of communicable diseases to assist investigators encountering these ethical issues in the future.

Gordon Elisa J

2009-08-01

145

Neonatal ethics in ELBW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The delivery of extremely low gestational age newborns and extremely low birth weight infants presents challenging ethical issues for caregivers and parents. Major concerns regard the high mortality and morbidity resulting in long term sequelae, the limit of viability as well as the conflict and difficulty in judgement involving “quality of life” and “sanctity of life” issues. Other paramount ethical concepts include the newborn’s best interest, the decision to initiate or withhold treatment at birth and the decision to withdraw treatment with the consequence that the infant will die. On the basis of the ethical principles of beneficence, autonomy, justice and nonmaleficence we will discuss the best interest standards, the standard for the decision making process and treatment decisions, which should always be governed by the prospect for the individual infant. In this paper we propose that ethical questions should not be regulated by law and the legal system should not interfere in the patient-physician relationship. Continuous improvement in medicine over the last decades led to increased treatment possibilities, which on the other hand also resulted in more ethical dilemmas. Therefore, today more than ever, it is essential that the neonatologist becomes familiar with basic ethical concepts and their application to clinical reality.  Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

Hubert Messner

2014-06-01

146

Viewpoint discrimination and contestation of ideas on its merits, leadership and organizational ethics: expanding the African bioethics agenda.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 3rd Pan-African Ethics Human Rights and Medical Law (3rd EHRML) conference was held in Johannesburg on July 7, 2013, as part of the Africa Health Congress. The conference brought together bioethicists, researchers and scholars from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Kenya and Nigeria working in the field of bioethics as well as students and healthcare workers interested in learning about ethical issues confronting the African continent. The conference which ran with a theme of "Bioethical and legal perspectives in biomedical research and medical practice in Africa with a focus on: Informed consent, HIV-AIDS & Tuberculosis, leadership & organizational ethics, patients and healthcare workers rights," was designed to expand the dialogue on African bioethics beyond the traditional focus on research ethics and the ethical dilemmas surrounding the conduct of biomedical research in developing countries. This introductory article highlights some of areas of focus at the conference including issues of leadership, organizational ethics and patients and healthcare workers rights in Africa. We analyze the importance of free speech, public debate of issues, argumentation and the need to introduce the teaching and learning of ethics to students in Africa in accordance with UNESCO guidelines. This article also focuses on other challenges confronting Africa today from an ethical standpoint, including the issues of poor leadership and organizational ethics which are main contributors to the problems prevalent in African countries, such as poverty, poor education and healthcare delivery systems, terrorism, social inequities, infrastructural deficits and other forms of 'structural violence' confronting vulnerable African communities. We believe that each of the eight articles included in this supplement, which have been rigorously peer-reviewed are a good example of current research on bioethics in Africa, and explore some new directions towards broadening the African bioethics agenda as we move forward to a new dawn for Africa in the 21st century. PMID:24564890

Chima, Sylvester C; Mduluza, Takafira; Kipkemboi, Julius

2013-01-01

147

Diabetes Diagnosis Dilemma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Diabetes Diagnosis Dilemma HealthDay November 18, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Diabetes Health Screening Transcript Approximately three out of every ...

148

An Ethics Primer: Ethical Questions  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource is a PDF that provides a short introduction to ethical questions and strategies having to do with Ethics instruction. The PDF describes an overview of ethical questions and develops student understanding of ethical questions through three different worksheets.

2008-01-01

149

In the name of research : Essays on the ethical treatment of human research subjects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Essay 1: Traffic research shares a fundamental dilemma with other areas of empirical research in which humans are potentially put at risk. Research is justified because it can improve safety in the long run. Nevertheless, people can be harmed in the research situation. Hence, we need to balance short-term risks against long-term safety improvements, much as in other areas of research with human subjects. In this paper we focus on ethical issues that arise when human beings are directly affect...

Belfrage, Sara

2014-01-01

150

Ethics of Administration – Towards Sustainability and Cosmopolitanism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the publication of my book Ethics for Psychologists, one reviewer asked the question about whether and when I would write an ethics of public administration.With this suggestion in mind, I proposed a new book to the publisher (DJØF’s forlag – Danish Lawyer’s and Economist’s publishing company and the publisher accepted. So now the problem is how to formulate an ethics of administration. Indeed, facing the present global crisis and the need for global principles of sustainability and cosmopolitanism it could be argued that public administration ethics should be redefined according to these ethical ideals. As such I would argue that a book about ethics of administration should deal with ethical theories and principles and dilemmas of public administration in public organizations and institutions, i.e. state, regional and municipal administrations and bureaucracies, including ethical dimensions of the work of courts, police and military. A presentation of ethics of administration should also look at problems and dilemmas in different types of more or less public organizations and institutions.

Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

2013-11-01

151

Teaching a Course on Psychology Ethics to Undergraduates: An Experiential Model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Details a course for teaching ethics to undergraduates. Argues that participation in service-learning experiences teaches students about moral philosophy and ethical principles for psychologists, and helps them become more sensitive to complex ethical dilemmas involved in psychology and related fields. Reports that students' course evaluations are…

Plante, Thomas G.

1998-01-01

152

Information Ethics: The Duty, Privilege, and Challenge of Educating Information Professionals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the history and evolution of information ethics at the University of Pittsburgh and describes a course that was developed in the School of Information Sciences that includes the need for moral instruction and ethical reflection, resolving moral dilemmas, and ethical issues in librarianship, information technology, and management.…

Carbo, Toni; Almagno, Stephen

2001-01-01

153

Virtue Ethics in School Counseling: A Framework for Decision Making  

Science.gov (United States)

Virtue ethics focus on the motives that guide ethical decision making and action, and as such, are critical to the competent application of the counseling profession's ethical codes. Knowledge of virtue ethics deepens understanding of moral responsibilities and ethical reasoning in professional practice. This paper is an overview of virtue ethics

Wilczenski, Felicia L.; Cook, Amy L.

2011-01-01

154

Chimeras: an ethical consideration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scientists have started with experimentation that raises difficult ethical questions. It comprises taking material from the human blueprint (DNA and inserting this in various test animals. The purpose of such research is noble, namely the alleviation of hu- man suffering. Yet the ethical ramifications of blending the hu- man and animal genome are significant, especially for Chris- tians. The creation of all living entities after their kind and the image-bearing dignity attributed to man both come under se- vere ethical stress for those who presuppose divine order in God’s ecology.  For non-Christians the philosophical dilemma ought not to exist in the ethical sense if applied at the purest level. If the human is merely a kind of animal, along with and ontologically not diffe- rent from other animals, there is little logical reason to object to chimeric research apart from a concern about what such re- search and application might do to the order of life pragmati- cally. However, many non-Christian do object. Man is made in God’s image and the concept of human dignity and a universal sense of right and wrong still binds Christians and non-Chris- tians when considering ethics in the field of chimeric research. As the mixing of human stem cells with embryonic animals takes place, certain non-Christian authors protest that human dignity is being diminished and the animal essence is being vio- lated.

H.J.G. Zandman

2011-07-01

155

Dilemmas in end-stage heart failure  

Science.gov (United States)

Heart failure (HF), a complex clinical syndrome due to structural or functional disorder of the heart, is a major global health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA alone, and over 23 million worldwide. As a leading cause of hospitalizations among patients aged 65 years or older, HF is a major consumer of healthcare resources, creating a substantial strain on the healthcare system. This paper discusses the epidemiology of HF, financial impact, and multifaceted predicaments in end-stage HF care. A search was conducted on the U.S. National Library of Medicine website (www.pubmed.gov) using keywords such as end-stage heart failure, palliative care, ethical dilemmas. Despite the poor prognosis of HF (worse than that for many cancers), many HF patients, caregivers, and clinicians are unaware of the poor prognosis. In addition, the unpredictable clinical trajectory of HF complicates the planning of end-of-life care, such as palliative care and hospice, leading to underutilization of such resources. In conclusion, ethical dilemmas in end-stage HF are numerous, embroiling not only the patient, but also the caregiver, healthcare team, and society.

Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Saravolatz, Louis; Hirsh, Benjamin; Agrawal, Pratik; Scarabelli, Tiziano M.

2015-01-01

156

A Pedagogical Model for Ethical Inquiry into Socioscientific Issues In Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Internationally there is concern that many science teachers do not address socioscientific issues (SSI) in their classrooms, particularly those that are controversial. However with increasingly complex, science-based dilemmas being presented to society, such as cloning, genetic screening, alternative fuels, reproductive technologies and vaccination, there is a growing call for students to be more scientifically literate and to be able to make informed decisions on issues related to these dilemmas. There have been shifts in science curricula internationally towards a focus on scientific literacy, but research indicates that many secondary science teachers lack the support and confidence to address SSI in their classrooms. This paper reports on a project that developed a pedagogical model that scaffolded teachers through a series of stages in exploring a controversial socioscientific issue with students and supported them in the use of pedagogical strategies and facilitated ways of ethical thinking. The study builds on existing frameworks of ethical thinking. It presents an argument that in today's increasingly pluralistic society, these traditional frameworks need to be extended to acknowledge other worldviews and identities. Pluralism is proposed as an additional framework of ethical thinking in the pedagogical model, from which multiple identities, including cultural, ethnic, religious and gender perspectives, can be explored.

Saunders, Kathryn J.; Rennie, Léonie J.

2013-02-01

157

Environmental Studies and Utilitarian Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a…

Wolff, Brian G.

2009-01-01

158

Alternrtivas de comprension y diálogo frente al dilema ético que ofrece Ia bioética. ¿Cómo enfrentar el uso de cultivos genéticamente modificados? / ALTERNATIVES OF UNDERSTANDING AND DIALOGUE IN FRONT OF THE lETHICAL DILEMMA THAT OFFERS BIOETHICS, FACING THE USE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CULTURES / ALTERNATIVAS DE COMPREENSÃO E DIÁLOGO OFERECIDAS PELA BIOÉTICA FRENTE AO DILEMA ÉTICO DERIVADO DA UTILIZAÇÃO DE CULTIVOS GENETICAMENTE MODIFICADOS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese No primeiro lugar se examinarão de forma sistemática e reflexiva as virtudes e benefícios possíveis dos cultivos geneticamente modificados, assim como alguns dos argumentos acadêmicos e científicos que os apóiam. No segundo lugar, será abordada uma segunda posição a partir de seus próprios argumento [...] s e pesquisa, um pouco mais incisiva e informada contra o uso e a manipulação desta classe de cultivos geneticamente modificados. Por último, mesmo que a intenção deste artigo está na análise de alternativas de compreensão e diálogo do dilema ético que surge de utilizar organismos geneticamente modificados para a bioética, também está na necessidade urgente de criar uma hermenêutica bioética fundada nos princípios essenciais da precaução, da justiça e não-maleficência. Estes devem ser padrões dialógicos de encontro e discussão com o respeito e a tolerância que exige esse dilema ético e biotecnológico. Abstract in spanish En un primer momento, se hará un acercamiento sistemático y reflexivo a las posibles virtudes y beneficios de los cultivos genéticamente modificados. Así también, en un segundo momento, se abordará una postura más inquieta y prevenida con respecto al uso y manipulación de esta clase de cultivos gené [...] ticamente modificados. Finalmente, la reflexión gira en torno al análisis de las alternativas de comprensión y diálogo frente al dilema ético que ofrece el uso de cultivos genéticamente modificados para la Bioética, la reflexión también depende de la urgente necesidad de una hermenéutica bioética emplazada en los principios esenciales de precaución y justicia y no maleficencia como pautas dialógicas de encuentro y discusión solícitas del respeto y tolerancia que requiere dicho dilema ético y biotecnológico. Abstract in english At initially addressed a systematic and thoughtful approach facing possible virtues and benefits of crops genetically modified, together with some of the academic and scientific arguments employees for the benefit of the sustainability of many of their performances. As well also, and in a second tim [...] e, will be addressed from its own arguments and research, what we have chosen to draw a second position somewhat more restless and prevented regarding the use of handling of this class of crops genetically modified. Finally as well as understood that this monograph written intentionally revolves around the analysis of the understanding and dialogue with the ethical dilemma that offers the use of alternatives genetically modified for Bioethics crops, it is also the urgent need a hermeneutic located bioethics it on the essential caution, justice and not harm as dialogic principles guidelines and discussion of respect and tolerance meeting and discussion requires that ethical dilemma and biotechnological.

Santiago Eliécer, Arango Diago.

2010-06-01

159

Ethical Issues in School Art Therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

School art therapists face numerous ethical dilemmas, from referrals to therapy, through privacy, safety and predictability in the art therapy room, to the need to balance cooperation with the educational staff and its expectations of shared information with loyalty to the patient. Breach of confidentiality also has legal implications. The…

Moriya, Dafna

2006-01-01

160

Ethical assessment of research protocols: the experience of the Research Ethics Committee of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a review article on the origin of the ethical analysis ofresearch protocols, the Brazilian and International legislation,including the Research Ethics Committee of Hospital IsraelitaAlbert Einstein. Since 1997, when the Committee was validatedits role has been recognized as that of a consultant and educator,participating on local and national scientific events andcollaborating with researchers in order to improve their projectsand learn to recognize ethical dilemmas in their protocols.

Sonia Maria Oliveira de Barros

2005-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

Acting on a living will: a physician's dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The implementation of a living will can give rise to ethical dilemmas for the patient's family and the health care professionals involved. The case reported here raises questions about the right of patients to self-determination, the importance of quality-of-life considerations in treatment decisions and physicians' obligations with respect to the implementation of living wills. Physicians should ensure in advance that the instructions set out in a living will are unambiguous and should bring to the patient's attention any ethical difficulties that they foresee in carrying out those instructions. PMID:8837536

Gordon, M; Levitt, D

1996-10-01

162

Dilemmas in sustainable agriculture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, I argue that agriculture and food production processes are subject to what I refer to as 'dilemmatic situations'. These dilemmatic situations are rather new, and require a new orientation in ethics to account for them. Ethics has to give up long-cherished ideals, such as: (a) the identification of ethics with a set of obligations that require people to do certain actions; (b) the idea that there is only one good solution to an ethical problem; (c) the idea that compromises ar...

Korthals, M.

2001-01-01

163

Medical Ethics Education: Past, Present, and Future.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the 25-year history of undergraduate medical ethics education. Alternatives to the traditional model that focus more directly on students' personal values, attitudes, and behavior, are discussed. Three incipient trends are identified: everyday ethics, student ethics, and macro-ethics. Specific course and curricula are used as…

Fox, Ellen; And Others

1995-01-01

164

Theories of normative ethics - an overview  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction: The presentation is a general introduction to the main schools in applied ethics, their implications and problems, and their relationship to the notion of equity. Background: Dilemmas and tensions between ethical principles and the practices of the maritime industry will be discussed at an empirical level in the workshop Ethics and Equity. This opening theoretical presentation is an attempt to frame and qualify the following discussion. Summary: The interest of normative ethics' is the content of our moral behaviour. Normative ethical theories seek to provide action-guides - procedures for answering practical questions ("What ought I to do?"). That is, in practice, normative ethics cannot be pursued in isolation from applied ethics. Four main theories will be introduced: Utilitarism: An action is right if and only if, in the situation, there was no alternative to it which would have resulted in a larger sum of total of welfare in the world Egoism: We ought always to act so as to maximize the sum total of our own welfare. Duty ethics: There are universal duties and prohibition we always should follow, irrespective of the consequences of following them. Virtue ethics:  The most basic question is not what we ought to do, but what kind of persons we ought to be. Besides, the ethics of right, the ethics of care and theories of justice will be mentioned. The theories' advantages and problems will be actualised by relevant examples. Conclusion at discretion

Knudsen, Fabienne

2007-01-01

165

Diabetes Diagnosis Dilemma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the player. Diabetes Diagnosis Dilemma HealthDay November 18, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Diabetes Health Screening Transcript Approximately ... each stage of diagnosis, referral, and treatment. The results showed that an estimated 28.4 million adults ...

166

Diabetes Diagnosis Dilemma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of the player. Diabetes Diagnosis Dilemma HealthDay November 18, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Diabetes Health Screening Transcript ... Examination surveys from 2007 to 2012, including adults 18 years and older who were not pregnant. They ...

167

Diabetes Diagnosis Dilemma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Supplements Videos & Cool Tools To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. For closed captioning, click the CC button on the lower right-hand corner of the player. Diabetes Diagnosis Dilemma HealthDay November 18, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages ...

168

Diabetes Diagnosis Dilemma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... lower right-hand corner of the player. Diabetes Diagnosis Dilemma HealthDay November 18, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages ... lost to follow-up at each stage of diagnosis, referral, and treatment. The results showed that an ...

169

Croatian employee’s behavior and attitudes with respect to ethical norms for business practices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ethical norms for business practices differ by intensity and variety across countries so managers from multinational corporations (MNCs) entering transitional economies must be able to staff subsidiaries understanding this dilemma. The aim of this article is to get a better understanding of workers’ behavior and attitudes with respect to business ethics in Croatia. We explored four ethics issues: (1) attitude to ethical issues in general, (2) information manipulation, (3) environmental issu...

Marina Dabi?

2009-01-01

170

Surveillance Pleasures : Existentialism and Ethics as Represented in Cinematic Art  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The notorious intensification and digitalization of surveillance technologies and practices in today’s society has brought about numerous changes. These changes have been widely noticed, described and discussed across many academic disciplines. However, the contexts of entertainment, play and leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance as portrayed in the movies Rear Window (1954) and The Conversation (1974). I argue that such research as well as studies of the experience of surveillance contributes to our theoretical insights into the ambiguous and ubiquitous phenomenon of surveillance.

Albrechtslund, Anders

171

The Ethical Role of Information in Sustainable Communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussion of sustainable communities, or sustainable development, focuses on the ethical role of information in fostering sustainable environmental development. Topics include background information, developments in information technology, permaculture in the area of horticulture and information ethics, information ethics models, hardware…

Lockway, Larry

1995-01-01

172

Gene therapy: ethical issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

To discern the ethical issues involved in current gene therapy research, to explore the problems inherent in possible future gene therapies, and to encourage debate within the scientific community about ethical questions relevant to both, we surveyed American Society of Human Genetics scientists who engage in human genetics research. This study of the opinions of U.S. scientific experts about the ethical issues discussed in the literature on gene therapy contributes systematic data on the attitudes of those working in the field as well as elaborative comments. Our survey finds that respondents are highly supportive of the potential use of somatic cell gene therapy to cure serious diseases in adults and children as well as prospective offspring. A clear majority, however, believe that using such genetic techniques for enhancement purposes is unacceptable. Delineating the line between disease/disorder and improvement/enhancement poses a problem not easily resolved and one conducive to the growth of slippery-slope apprehensions. The majority of respondents also advocate germ-line therapy, in theory at least, and under similar restrictions, but they recognize the roadblock that the existence of unanticipated negative consequences currently presents. Another complex matter involves trying to determine appropriate reasons for choosing target diseases for research, for which the dichotomy between rare single-gene and common multifactorial diseases reveals an ongoing dilemma. PMID:12735489

Rabino, Isaac

2003-01-01

173

ETHICS IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIAL AND HEALTH POLICY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today modern society pays great attention to the development of ethical guidelines for each profession and their implementation in the form of codes of ethics to individual policies. In particular, the Ministry of Health and Welfare is faced in meeting the ethical codes of the current economic and political developments in society. Optimization of standards for health and social care that are implemented through normative no systematic evaluation of the impact on each target group significantly reduces their quality of life. The paper draws attention to the dilemmas of social work and health care in relation to ethics.

Liedermanová Ivana

2013-12-01

174

Ethics Column: "Ethical Challenges in the Care of Elderly Persons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ethical issues are central to any discussion or reflection on aging and health care. The authors of the OJIN topic, Health Care and the Aging Population: What Are Today's Challenges?, address a variety of topics including quality of life, long-term care planning, geriatric education, frail elder care, and successful aging behaviors. Imbedded in these topics are ethical issues that are relevant to nursing and/or health care. Thus, the focus of this column is to examine select ethical issues in...

Ludwick, R.

2003-01-01

175

BUSINESS ETHICS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ethics contain a set of principles of personal and professional conduct .The concept of Business ethics relates itself to the norms and the ideals businessman and business groups adopt in course of their activities in business .Business ethics is an assertion of “be good” and “do good” in business. Ethical business practices has been a blessing to the enterprises as it ensures faith in society ,government trust ,business partners trust .on the other hand unethical busi...

Raman Arora

2014-01-01

176

Project ethics  

CERN Document Server

How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.

Jonasson, Haukur Ingi

2013-01-01

177

Library Ethics: An Aspirational and Culturally Sensitive Alternative to Its Commandments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cultural diversity raises dilemmas for the library profession, some of which are difficult to resolve on the basis of its absolutist ethical prescriptions. Psychological studies of class, cultural, and gender differences in moral reasoning support a professional ethics based upon care and cultural sensitivity, instead of universal and obligatory…

Spivey, Mark A.

178

An Ethic of Connectedness: Enacting Moral School Leadership through People and Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

As educators, we grapple with a myriad of dilemmas and often have difficulty resolving issues that relate to curriculum and instruction, funding, facilities and supervision, to name a few. Depending on the leader(s), a variety of ethics come in to play when making decisions. The ethic of connectedness refers to community building and welfare as…

Frick, J. Edward; Frick, William C.

2010-01-01

179

Maurice Hamington and Maureen Sander-Staudt (eds.) Applying care ethics to business (Dordrecht: Springer, 2011)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Care ethics is a relatively recent development in ethics, originating in Carol Gilligan´s book In a Different Voice, published in 1982 and pointing out flaws in Kohlberg´s theory of moral development, specifically in choosing only boys for the experiments, in using moral dilemmas to measure moral development, and in his idea that morality only consisted in universal rules.

Guðmundur Heiðar Frímannsson 1952

2012-01-01

180

Gift Giving and Receiving in Child-Centered Play Therapy: An Ethical Response  

Science.gov (United States)

Child-centered play therapists are often confronted with the challenge of receiving gifts from clients. This article highlights recommended strategies when faced with gift receiving, exemplified by actual ethical dilemmas encountered by child-centered play therapists. Ethical and therapeutic considerations of therapist gift giving to child clients…

Blanco, Pedro J.; Sheely-Moore, Angela I.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Messy Ethics: Conducting Moral Participatory Action Research in the Crucible of University-School Relations  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we argue that when university researchers engage in democratic participatory action research with schools the process requires a special type of attention to the ethical difficulties which can arise. We note how current professional standards of ethics are inadequate to fully address many of the dilemmas faced in collaborative…

Kuriloff, Peter J.; Andrus, Shannon H.; Ravitch, Sharon M.

2011-01-01

182

Charity ethical investment in Norway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The charity and voluntary sector in Norway is substantial (Sivesind, 2007). Yet we know of no academic research which focuses on charity ethical investment in Norway. We have examined charity ethical investment policies and how these policies relate to the aims of charitable organisations. We survey large Norwegian charities using a postal questionnaire and semi structured interviews. The findings show that few charities publish an ethical investment policy, and it is often lim...

Kreander, Niklas; Beattie, Vivien; Mcphail, Ken

2010-01-01

183

Ethical Issues in Physiatrist Practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Editorial on Ethical Issues. Medical ethics is at the centre of medical practice. It isrightly gaining much needed renewed focus and attentionin the evolving scenario. The impetus for it may beattributed to the revelations that arose through Nurembergtrials, the framework elements that define research andpublications related compulsions, and indeed the contextand state of affairs of present day medical jurisprudence.The physiatrist’s practice cannot remain untouched bythe moral and ethical...

Hand G

2008-01-01

184

Making ethical deliberations public: Some provisional resources for youth research ethics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The focus of this special edition of Youth Studies Australia is on questions, issues, challenges and (tentative) solutions in relation to ensuring that research with young people is conducted ethically. This introductory paper by the guest editors of this edition draws on ethical principles as outlined in the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans and in the Fairbridge Code of Ethics for youth work. The authors explain how these principles can inform ethical youth ...

Te Riele, K.; Brooks, R.

2012-01-01

185

Ethical conflicts in home care. Patient autonomy and physician advocacy.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To identify whether and how family physicians practising home care resolve ethical dilemmas in clinical management of homebound patients and to examine whether the self-reported, theoretical ethical positions of these physicians match their actual patient management. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Quebec community-based home care program. PARTICIPANTS: Quebec family physicians actively involved in community-based home care: 85 men and 65 women. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Phys...

Boillat, M. E.; Gee, D.; Bellavance, F.

1997-01-01

186

Ethical Issues in Irregular Migration Research in Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is concerned with the ethical issues arising for researchers engaged in the study of irregular migration. Based on the authors' research experiences, the paper goes beyond analysis of ethical dilemmas and aims to provide some guidance to researchers in this field. Irregular migration is by definition an elusive phenomenon as it takes place in violation of the law and at the margins of society. The very nature of this phenomenon raises important issues, including the sensitivity and...

Du?vell, Franck; Triandafyllidou, Anna; Vollmer, Bastian

2010-01-01

187

Jehovah's Witness parents' refusal of blood transfusions: Ethical considerations for psychologists.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychologists in medical settings may be confronted with Jehovah's Witness parents refusing blood transfusions for their children as an ethical dilemma. The purpose of this discussion is to help psychologists provide informed, ethical consultations and support by investigating the values of the Jehovah's Witness community and the origin of the blood transfusion taboo, how medical and legal professionals have approached this dilemma, exploring relevant ethical principles and standards for psychologists, and suggestions for how to move toward a better understanding of harm with Jehovah's Witness families. PMID:25476572

Hoffman, Anna

2014-12-01

188

Ethics Updates  

Science.gov (United States)

Created in 1994 by Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego, the Ethics Updates site is designed primarily to be used to ethics instructors and their students. However, the site is rather interesting, so members of the general public may find themselves making a few return visits. Visitors can use the drop-down tabs on the top of the homepage to make their way through sections that cover some of the basic theories of ethics and also learn more about applied ethics in relation to such issues as animal rights, torture, and world hunger. Moving on, the "Resources" area includes case studies for discussion, a glossary of terms, classic texts in ethics, and ethics surveys. The site is rounded out by a search engine and a selection of videos that deal with various topics in ethics.

Hinman, Lawrence M.

189

A study in animal ethics in New Brunswick.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Society uses animals in ever-increasing numbers and ways, providing ethical challenges. Decisions about animal use are guided by the social consensus ethic towards animals. Because there is no clear social consensus ethic, these decisions are difficult. Society's ethic is changing and a "new ethic" towards animals is emerging. This study addressed the need to better understand society's ethics towards animals. Qualitative research methodology (focus groups) was used to study 7 different anima...

Schneider, B. J.

2001-01-01

190

Ethical issues in health workforce development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing the numbers of health workers and improving their skills requires that countries confront a number of ethical dilemmas. The ethical considerations in answering five important questions on enabling health workers to deal appropriately with the circumstances in which they must work are described. These include the problems of the standards of training and practice required in countries with differing levels of socioeconomic development and different priority diseases; how a society can be assured that health practitioners are properly trained; how a health system can support its workers; diversion of health workers and training institutions; and the teaching of ethical principles to student health workers. The ethics of setting standards for the skills and care provided by traditional health-care practitioners are also discussed.

Cash Richard

2005-01-01

191

The Ethics/ Skills Interface in Image Manipulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image manipulation using computer technology has become a basic skill required in various graphics dependent industries such as advertising, and the print and electronic media, and for specialist use in institutions for in-house and on-line publishing and the creation of Web pages. The 'seamless' alteration of photographs and other visual images made possible by computer technology has allowed misrepresentation with intent to deceive, and difficulty in establishing copyright of original images. The dilemma in teaching techniques of image manipulation is to create a basis for ethical practice HCI in this paper refers to the ethics/skills interface in the education and work of multimedia practitioners.

Jenny Webber

2000-05-01

192

The Problem of Whistleblowing in Engineering Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the features of whistleblowing by considering the arguments about whistleblowing in engineering ethics. First, I analyze the concept of ‘whistleblowing’ by defining the word as clearly as possible. Second, I examine the standard justification theory of whistleblowing by showing the problems of the theory. Finally, I analyze the dilemma about whistleblowing by revealing a prospective whistleblower?s struggle to choose moral value or non-moral value.

Ohishi, Toshihiro

193

Emotion Interference Solves Social Dilemma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Roles of emotion in decision-making have been attracting attention in neuroeconomics and behavioral game theory. We mathematically demonstrate that “emotion interference”, a recently-discovered psychological phenomenon [1] helps to solve social dilemma in a one-shot prisoner’s dilemma game. Furthermore, the present theory also accounts for the violation of Savage’s sure-thing principle in the prisoner’s dilemma [2]. Furthermore, it is also explained that why people in the society with higher social mobility are more cooperative. Relations of the present work to recently evolving fields of neuroeconomics and quantum decision theory are discussed.

Taiki Takahashi

2012-12-01

194

The low-level radioactive waste dilemma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dilemma of disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) is an issue faced by radiopharmaceutical companies and biomedical research and health care institutions as well as the nuclear industry itself. This chapter focuses on the programs and methods employed by one such research and educational institution as it strives to minimize the impact on the research community it serves and yet maintain a resonable, practical, and cost-effective LLRW disposal program. The type of program and the methods used may not be suitable for all applications, and the authors stress that each institution must determine which specific aspects and techniques best meet the goals and objectives of that organization

195

Ethics of compassion in education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main challenges currently facing education is the incorporation of the ethics of compassion at the theoretical level as well as in educational practice. This article outlines the main arguments that permit us to introduce a sentiment of compassion in the pedagogical proposals for moral education. Emphasis is placed on the complementary nature of ethics and moral development which, under various denominations, consider similar aspects: ethics of moral sentiments; ethics of care and responsibility; ethics of otherness; and ethics of hospitality among others. Finally, we arrive at two features that should be considered when implementing the teaching of compassion in the moral realm: the relationship between students and teachers, and the narrative focus in moral development.

M. Rosa BUXARRAIS ESTRADA

2009-11-01

196

Ethics in Crimes and Misdemeanors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper I employ Goodenough´s distinction between films that illustrate, are about and do philosophy to answer the question how we can identify the ethical content of movies. Crimes and Misdemeanors by Woody Allen is taken as an example but Mary L. Litch has argued that this movie illustrates ethical problems and is about ethics. On Litch´s reading the film reveals inherent flaws in utilitarianism and illustrates a Kantian insight as well as other ethical and religious theses. I argue, however, that Litch has relied on a too narrow method when identifying the ethics of Crimes and Misdemeanors. She focuses almost exclusively on dialogue and the general storyline. If we broaden our method to include sensitivity to filming, editing, camera angulation etc., we will not only realize a rather different ethical content in Crimes and Misdemeanors but also see how the movie stirkes close to home for most viewers of Hollywood movies.

Róbert Haraldsson

2014-03-01

197

Ethics in the Hospitality Industry: Review and Research Agenda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Practitioners in the hospitality sector rate ethics as one of the most important issues faced by the industry. Manyscholars argue that the hospitality sector is open to frequent unethical practices. Managers and employees, due tointensive face-to-face interactions with clients, confront many ethical dilemmas in their day-to-day operations.Previous research confirms that a positive ethical climate nurtures a healthy organization by increasing managerand employee job satisfaction, enhancing customer experience, and increasing the organization’s profit. Despiteits crucial role, studies on ethics in the hospitality industry are limited compared to those undertaken in the moregeneral business area. This manuscript reviews the literature on ethical perceptions and practices amonghospitality managers, employees and students (future professionals, and proposes a research agenda. This criticreview intends to increase awareness and knowledge on the importance of this issue and give some orientationsfor scholars towards several important topics for future research in the area of hospitality ethics.

Mouna Knani

2014-02-01

198

Cogeneration – Investment dilemma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy companies face several crucial investment dilemmas in the liberalized energy market. These are: the availability of energy sources, feed-in tariffs, market positioning and consumer satisfaction. Research analyzes profitability of the Cogeneration (Combined Heat and Power, CHP) project in the city of Rijeka. The CHP is designed to provide district heating for the University campus, the Hospital and active private consumers of district heating, and bring about further sales of electricity. Revitalization of the CHP project comprises necessary adaptive actions in the distribution power system but also real time monitoring, which enables the CHP island operation, with uninterrupted electric and thermal energy supply of critical consumers (e.g. hospital) in case of a serious disturbance. Results indicate the project profitability under several conditions: non-government regulation for heating price, feed-in tariffs and guaranteed sale of electricity together with added value from automatic control system (ACS)–island operation.

199

The population dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Technology and population rely on each other for sustenance and growth. Technology has helped produce more food, provide better health care, better communication, faster modes of travel, better consumer durables, greater amenities, and increased the quality of life for millions of people. There has been a price in terms of the widening gap between the technology of the developed and developing countries. There has also been rapid population growth that has resulted in a host of ills. Further, technology itself has produced toxic wastes and consumed a large amount of natural resources. This situation is easily seen as a dilemma between the limitless promises of technology and the limited resources created by large populations. The solution to the dilemma is sustainable development, a concept often talked about but seldom realized. The 90s will be a crucial decade for sustainable development as population is growing by 90 million/annum. 90% of the increase is occurring in developing countries. Within each country there is a trend towards urbanization. By 2000, 75% of Latin Americans, 42% of Africans, and 37% of Asians will live in urban environments. By 2050 there should be 100s of millions of migrants running from the slowly rising sea. The survival equation is sustainability S equals resources R time ingenuity 1 over population P. This is a conceptual equation, but it does illustrate that the impact of human ingenuity is just as important as resources. World commitment must come before any meaningful change will occur. The almost universal acceptance of human rights and fundamental freedoms exceeds the will to change in decision makers and expert consultants. PMID:12283486

Kunugi, T

1990-06-01

200

Ethical considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed

 
 
 
 
201

Asceticism as an eclectic ethics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The methodological divisions in ethics result in fundamental consequences both on the conceptual level and in the practical applicability of such ethics. These divisions arise from broader theoretical positions, however they are also the work of individual moral sensibilities or 'moral instincts', as they are called at least in the Hegelian tradition. The deontological, consequentialist, vrtue-, developmental and other methodological models of ethics have facilitated a miltiplication of standards of ethical argument. This process has been intellectually productive, however at the same time it has created significant problems for practical philosophy, especially for applied philosophical areas which require a clearly defined and specific referential relationship between the key values formative of the respective ethical models on the one hand, and the concrete moral challenges encountered by the proponents of such ethics, on the other. The contemporary, value- and methodologically transformative age, requires ethics to go beyond the methodological and conceptual reductionism and adopt a synthetic and eclectic approach to moral argument. The first question to be asked in this context is what types of already available normative ethical models might be reinterpreted and further developed into synthetic ethics. This paper discusses the ethics of asceticism, primarily in the form of Christian ethics, as a good candidate for a comprehensive and synthetic ethics. The paper purports to elucidate, on various levels, the potential of ascetic ethics to integrate elements of eudaimonistic ethics, duty ethics, virtue-ethics, consequentialist and deontological ethical methodologies. To do so the paper focuses two key and, at least by my lights, provocative questions: (1 To what extent the ethics of asceticism is 'negative' and based solely on the principles of self-denial, and to what extent is it able to incorporate a positive dynamic content? In other words, can the ascetic Christian ethics be interpreted so that it is able to integrate the concept of pleasure in the meaning of 'eudaimonia'? (2 Is an ascetic ethics able to generate specific moral questions instrumental to a moral justification of asctions, which would meaningfully integrate the various methods of ethical argument (minimally the deontological, consequentialist and virtue-ethics? If this consideration is able to show that ascetic ethics can achieve both goals, one could reasonably conclude that it is a good candidate for a general eclectic ethics. Of course, this would not automatically mean that the asectic ethics is the only potentially synthetic ethics, however it would facilitate a broader conceptualisation of asceticism as a practical way of moral thinking geared towards achieving a 'good life'. At the same time, such a consideration might open an additional inroad into the formulation of general criteria which practical philosophy, and especially ethics, would need to fulfil in order to address the composite and synthetic issues that life in a transformative age presents.

Fati? Aleksandar

2014-01-01

202

Business Ethics, Strategy and Organizational Integrity : The Importance of Integrity as a Basic Principle of Business Ethics That Contributes to Better Economic Performance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With focus on the role of integrity in relation to business ethics versus economic strategy the chapter contains following sections: 1. The concept of organizational integrity as a moral notion as it is described in the work of Lynn-Sharp Paine on organizational integrity. 2. The concept of integrity as an economic notion as it is described in the recent work of Michael Jensen. This section will discuss recent efforts in the business economics literature to consider integrity as an important notion of strategy. 3. Paine contra Jensen: A virtue or a workability concept of integrity. Here the authors discuss the basic dilemmas and problems of integrating integrity, economic performance and strategy in the perspective of the two theories of about integrity of Paine and Jensen.

Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

2011-01-01

203

Ethical Issues in Pharmacogenetics  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article illustrates how pharmacogenetics promises drugs specific to an individual's condition. However, it poses some ethical concerns: invasion of medical privacy, unequal distribution of benefits, discrimination because it involves genetic tests, and research/business conflict-of-interest.

Carol Isaacson Barash (Genetics, Ethics & Policy Consulting, Inc.;)

2001-02-01

204

Attending to diversity in group psychotherapy: an ethical imperative.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical issues can arise in dealing with diversity when practicing group psychotherapy. In this paper, a case is presented of a therapist-in-training who is attempting to determine whether a particular psychotherapy group composed exclusively of heterosexual males would be an appropriate and effective treatment venue for a gay male; the clinical vignette is designed to illustrate a process of ethical and culturally competent decision making. The discussion of this vignette articulates the multiple steps through which the group psychotherapist must proceed to successfully resolve ethical dilemmas that are related to diversity. PMID:17266424

Debiak, Dennis

2007-01-01

205

Dilemmas for international mobilization around child abuse and neglect.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this commentary is to articulate some issues and dilemmas raised by various efforts to mobilize international action around child abuse and neglect (CAN). We will start by proposing a typology of international mobilization strategies, noting that initiatives to promote CAN programming in new settings have tended to emphasize one of three vectors: governments, professionals, or international NGOs. There are pros and cons to each emphasis, which we discuss. We also review the debates around some of the following dilemmas: Should low-income countries be a top priority for CAN mobilization? Are there cultural and institutional capacities that need to be present in a country in order for CAN programs to work or be ethical? Are some CAN programs more likely to be internationally transferable than others and why so? Has the field adequately considered whether non-CAN programming (e.g., family planning) might actually be more effective at preventing maltreatment than CAN programming? Does the field give adequate acknowledgment that policies and practices emanating from high-resourced and Western countries may not always be the best to disseminate? Are we relying too much on a model of program transplantation over a model of local cultivation? Should we aim for modest rather than ambitious accomplishments in international mobilization? How much emphasis should be placed on the priority dissemination of evidence-based programming? We conclude with some suggestions in the service of clarifying these dilemmas and making some of these decisions more evidence based. PMID:25087071

Finkelhor, David; Lannen, Patricia

2014-07-30

206

Special Education Leadership: Integrating Professional and Personal Codes of Ethics to Serve the Best Interests of the Child  

Science.gov (United States)

Special education teachers who also serve as case managers for students with disabilities are in unique leadership positions in which they face complex ethical dilemmas and are called on to make decisions that involve multiple competing interests and pressures. The purpose of this study was to explore how special education leaders identify ethical

Bon, Susan C.; Bigbee, Adam J.

2011-01-01

207

e-Government Ethics : a Synergy of Computer Ethics, Information Ethics, and Cyber Ethics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethics has become an important part in the interaction among humans being. This paper specifically discusses applied ethics as one type of ethics. There are three applied ethics that will be reviewed in this paper, i.e. computer ethics, information ethics, and cyber ethics. There are two aspects of the three applied ethics that were reviewed, i.e. their definition and the issues associated with them. The reviewing results of the three applied ethics are then used for defining e-Government ethics and formulating the issues of e-Government ethics. The e-Government ethics position, based on the previous three applied ethics, is also described in this paper. Computer ethics, information ethics and cyber ethics are considered as the foundations of e-Government ethics and several others applied ethics could enrich the e-Government ethics.

Arief Ramadhan

2011-08-01

208

Ethics CORE  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ethics CORE Digital Library, funded by the National Science Foundation, "brings together information on best practices in research, ethics instruction and responding to ethical problems that arise in research and professional life." It's a remarkable site where visitors can make their way through ethics resources for dozens of different professions and activities. The Resources by Discipline area is a great place to start. Here you will find materials related to the biological sciences, business, computer & information science, along with 14 additional disciplines. The Current News area is a great place to learn about the latest updates from the field. Of note, these pieces can easily be used in the classroom or shared with colleagues. The dynamism of the site can be found at the Interact with Ethics CORE area. Active learning exercises can be found here, along with instructional materials and visitors' own lessons learned.

209

Evaluating the Intervention of an Ethics’ Class in Students’ Ethical Decision-Making: A Summative Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This summative evaluation is the result of two years’ of data reflecting the impact of an ethics class in terms of students’ ethical decision-making. The research compares aggregate responses from scenario-based pre- and post-survey open-ended survey questions designed to measure changes in ethical decision-making by comparing students’ cognitive and affective perceptions about ethical workplace behavior. Grounded  in constructivist theory, which explains how individuals “know” and “come to know something (Reeves, 2003, this intervention of an ethics class encourages students to make better and more informed ethical decisions in the workplace based on their understanding of their value and belief system. The findings suggest the intervention of an ethics class informed students’ cognitive and affective perceptions based on individual value and belief systems, strengthened student’s ability to remain open-minded and reconsider previous beliefs and actions from a 360 degree perspective, and increased student’s ability to apply new information to ethical dilemmas in the workplace.

Marquita Walker

2013-11-01

210

Critical thinking by nurses on ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169. Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15. 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34 and Strauss and Corbin (1990. The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990. The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985 and Morse (1994 related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based on these findings the researcher concluded that nurses are not thinking critically when making ethical decisions concerning the termination of pregnancies. Recommendations are made as a possible solution for this problem.

A. Botes

2000-09-01

211

Ethical and epidemiological dilemmas in the treatment of dogs for visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America / Dilema ético y epidemiológico sobre el tratamiento de perros para la leishmaniasis visceral en América Latina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish En las Américas hay entre 4.500 y 6.800 casos anuales de leishmaniasis visceral grave y se estima que la mortalidad varía entre 7 y 10 %. Sin embargo, el subregistro y las infecciones subclínicas enmascaran la importancia epidemiológica real de la leishmaniasis visceral. Los esfuerzos de control que [...] típicamente se han enfocado en la aspersión de insecticidas contra los flebotomíneos vectores y el sacrificio de perros, han arrojado resultados dispares. No obstante, miles de perros se sacrifican cada año en países endémicos para leishmaniasis visceral. Además, los lineamientos actuales de los programas de control de la leishmaniasis han prohibido el tratamiento de perros con medicamentos de uso humano, mientras que otras drogas resultan en altas tasas de recaída. La sociedad requiere que los programas de control tengan un manejo más humanitario enfocado a limitar el sacrificio canino. Hay una necesidad urgente de promover la tenencia responsable de los perros y apoyar la investigación en: a) terapias veterinarias novedosas, b) diagnósticos moleculares de bajo costo y c) determinación de los umbrales de capacidad infecciosa canina para el manejo adecuado del reservorio. Abstract in english In the Americas there are between 4,500 and 6,800 annual cases of severe visceral leishmaniasis, and mortality is estimated to range between 7 and 10%. However, underreporting and subclinical infections mask the real epidemiological importance of visceral leishmaniasis. Control efforts, which have t [...] ypically focused on insecticide spraying of sand fly vectors and dog culling, have yielded disparate results. Nevertheless, thousands of dogs are sacrificed each year in countries endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. Additionally, current guidelines of leishmaniasis control programs have banned dog treatment with drugs of human use while therapy with other drugs resulted in high rates of relapses. Society requires that control programs take a more humanitarian approach aimed at limiting dog culling. There is an urgent need to promote responsible dog-ownership and support research on: a) novel veterinary therapies, b) low-cost molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis, and c) determination of dog infectivity threshold for proper reservoir management.

Bruno L, Travi.

2014-03-01

212

Teaching Business Ethics after the Financial Meltdown: Is It Time for Ethics with a Sermon?  

Science.gov (United States)

Our country is faced with a financial crisis of mammoth proportions: a crisis rooted in ethics, or rather, the lack of ethics. Critics are increasingly complaining that business schools focus too much teaching effort on maximizing shareholder value, with only a limited understanding of ethical and social aspects of business leadership. Business…

Cavaliere, Frank J.; Mulvaney, Toni P.; Swerdlow, Marleen R.

2010-01-01

213

Overview on business ethics and human resources management ethics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the contemporary business world ethics represents one of the most exciting challenges,precisely because there is still no universally valid modality for solving a problem of this kind. Adopting anethic personal behavior does not always ensure winning in the problems regarding the actual business, norin the organizational behavior itself. The personal values, either native or gained by an individual throughouthis socializing do not represent a support or advantage in the attitude towards the economic life. What is it that actually concerns the managers:to succeed in their activity or to have an ethic activity? A successful business is necessarily an ethic one, or one lacking ethics? In particular, should the human resources manager choose the human factor of solid moral and ethic grounds, or the one exclusively focused on money quantifiable performance?

Prof. Ph.D. Cãtãlina Bonciu

2008-05-01

214

What is good medical ethics? A clinician's perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Speaking from the perspective of a clinician and teacher, good medical ethics needs to make medicine better. Over the past 50?years medical ethics has helped shape the culture in medicine and medical practice for the better. However, recent healthcare scandals in the UK suggest more needs to be done to translate ethical reasoning into ethical practice. Focusing on clinical practice and individual patient care, I will argue that, to be good, medical ethics needs to become integral to the activities of health professionals and healthcare organisations. Ethics is like a language which brings a way of thinking and responding to the world. For ethics to become embedded in clinical practice, health professionals need to progress from classroom learners to fluent social speakers through ethical dialogue, ethical reflection and ethical actions. I will end by discussing three areas that need to be addressed to enable medical ethics to flourish and bring about change in everyday clinical care. PMID:25516942

Kong, Wing May

2015-01-01

215

Evolutionary Stability in the Traveler's Dilemma  

Science.gov (United States)

The traveler's dilemma is a generalization of the prisoner's dilemma which shows clearly a paradox of game theory. In the traveler's dilemma, the strategy chosen by analysis and theory seems obviously wrong intuitively. Here we develop a measure of evolutionary stability and show that the evolutionarily stable equilibrium is in some sense not very…

Barker, Andrew T.

2009-01-01

216

Crelier: sobre Kant y los dilemas morales / Crelier: on Kant and moral dilemmas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo plantea dudas sobre la interpretación que Crelier hace de la ética kantiana en relación con los conflictos de deberes o dilemas. Argumentamos que, a pesar de las declaraciones de Crelier en sentido contrario, él no logra articular una interpretación de la ética de Kant en la que los dile [...] mas morales sean admisibles. En la interpretación de Crelier, sostenemos, los dilemas que son admisibles son sólo aparentes o epistémicos. Pero no queda cabida para aquellos dilemas en los que ninguno de los deberes es, objetivamente, superior a otro deber en conflicto Abstract in english The article raises questions about the interpretation that Crelier makes of the Kantian ethics regarding conflicts of duties or moral dilemmas. We argue that, despite Crelier's conflicting statements, he fails to articulate an interpretation of Kant's ethics in which moral dilemmas are admissible. I [...] n Crelier's interpretation, we contend, the dilemmas that are eligible are only apparent or epistemic. But there is no room for those dilemmas in which none of the duties is objectively superior to another duty in conflict

Gabriel Eduardo, Vargas; Pablo R., Arango.

2013-06-01

217

ADVERTISING ETHICS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the theoretical part of the paper we describe the ethics of advertising. We explain the concepts of both in order to clarify the meaning of the words and to point out the significance they bear. We have mostly covered advertising, also dealt with criticisms, media advertising, and explained some general and basic rules. Besides that, we highlight ethical and unethical ads, why they occur and how to recognize them. Nowadays both, ethical and unethical, ads can be seen every day, in all envi...

Jels?ek, Alen

2012-01-01

218

Research Workshop 6: Research Ethics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nObjectives: The first part of this workshop aims to identify current ethical aspects of research publication that are relevant for authors, explain the reason for current requirements, and explain how compliance can facilitate publication. Plagiarism, good citation practices, simultaneous or secondary publication in more than one language, and good publication practices will be covered. "nThe second part will focus on relevant ethical issues with respect to clinical trials. Issues to be covered are the importance of ethics for good clinical practice (GCP, the informed consent process, and the structure of ethical committees. A practical experience with emphasis on ethical issues in conducting clinical trails in a resource-limited setting will be shared with participants.  

Karen Shashok

2009-01-01

219

Islamic medical ethics: a primer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern medical practice is becoming increasingly pluralistic and diverse. Hence, cultural competency and awareness are given more focus in physician training seminars and within medical school curricula. A renewed interest in describing the varied ethical constructs of specific populations has taken place within medical literature. This paper aims to provide an overview of Islamic Medical Ethics. Beginning with a definition of Islamic Medical Ethics, the reader will be introduced to the scope of Islamic Medical Ethics literature, from that aimed at developing moral character to writings grounded in Islamic law. In the latter form, there is an attempt to derive an Islamic perspective on bioethical issues such as abortion, gender relations within the patient-doctor relationship, end-of-life care and euthanasia. It is hoped that the insights gained will aid both clinicians and ethicists to better understand the Islamic paradigm of medical ethics and thereby positively affect patient care. PMID:17845488

Padela, Aasim I

2007-03-01

220

Applied Ethics and eHealth: Principles, Identity, and RFID  

Science.gov (United States)

The social and ethical implications of contemporary technologies are becoming an issue of steadily growing importance. This paper offers an overview in terms of identity and the field of ethics, and explores how these apply to eHealth in both theory and practice. The paper selects a specific circumstance in which these ethical issues can be explored. It focuses particularly on radio-frequency identifiers (RFID). It ends by discussing ethical issues more generally, and the practice of ethical consideration.

Whitehouse, Diane; Duquenoy, Penny

 
 
 
 
221

Ethics Column: "Ethical Challenges in the Care of Elderly Persons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethical issues are central to any discussion or reflection on aging and health care. The authors of the OJIN topic, Health Care and the Aging Population: What Are Today's Challenges?, address a variety of topics including quality of life, long-term care planning, geriatric education, frail elder care, and successful aging behaviors. Imbedded in these topics are ethical issues that are relevant to nursing and/or health care. Thus, the focus of this column is to examine select ethical issues in these five articles on aging. To frame our discussion, we will use the provisions of the 2001 American Nurses Association (ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements (referred hereafter as the Code. The Code represents the nursing profession’s public declaration of ethical duties and obligations and, as such, it serves as a basis for any discussion of ethics that involves nurses. Thus, the Code is applicable to us as we work with the aged, whether we make a home visit, administer a medication, answer a call light, develop a policy, or supervise a student. We begin the column with an overview of some of the ethical issues that are explicitly and implicitly discussed in each of the five articles and then examine how the ANA Code can inform and guide us with the ethical issues outlined.

Ludwick, R., Silva, M

2003-12-01

222

Doubts and Dilemmas with Double Degree Programs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The number and types of international joint, double and consecutive degree programs have sky-rocketed in the last five years, demonstrating that they clearly have a role in the current landscape of higher education. For many academics and policy makers, double and joint degree programs are welcomed as a natural extension of exchange and mobility programs. For others, they are perceived as a troublesome development leading to double counting of academic work and the thin edge of academic fraud. A broad range of reactions exist due to the diversity of program models; the involvement of new (bona fide and rogue and traditional providers; the uncertainty related to quality assurance and qualifications recognition; and finally, the ethics involved in deciding what academic workload or new competencies are required for the granting of joint, double, multiple or consecutive degrees. This article aims to clarify the confusion about the differences between a joint, a double and a consecutive degree program by providing a conceptual framework of definitions. It provides highlights from recent research surveys and studies, and looks at new developments and innovations in establishing these types of collaborative programs. Finally, it examines the factors that challenge the operationalization of the programs and explores those issues that raise doubts and dilemmas and require further debate and analysis.

Jane Knight

2011-07-01

223

The ethical dilemma of seeking appropriate CME sessions in February  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wet West Coast winter syndrome caused Dr. John Anderson to seek a continuing medical education (CME) conference in sunnier climes, and he found one that was not quite within his field of family medicine. He offers this litany of epiphany, confession and redemption to anyone else considering sacrificing CME content on the altar of CME location.

Anderson, John F.

1996-01-01

224

A Draft Ethics Curriculum Based on Ethical Issues Experienced by Family Doctors in Düzce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To determine ethical issues experienced by family doctors in Düzce, the pilot province for implementation of the primary health care reform 'Transformation in Health' in Turkey in 2005.Method: We conducted this study between May and June 2007 in Düzce. A self-administered-questionnaire prepared by the researchers included 13 ethical issues inquiring about physicians' frequency of encounter, difficulty in managing the problem, and learning needs in ethical topics. Results: Fifty-seven percent of family doctors who were practicing in Düzce (56/98 took part in the study. Most of them (89.3% were in practice over a year, had more than 3000 registered patients (80.4% with homogenous distribution (67.9%. Physicians reported to encounter ethical dilemmas related to informed consent (72.7%, conflict of self-interest and altruism (44.6%, determining competency (41.8%, claims of alternative therapy (41.0%, relationship with representatives of drug companies (39.2%, truth-telling (28.6%, and resource allocation (27.3% at least once a month. Participants were experienced difficulties when solving dilemmas related to determining competency in patients, reporting incompetency of a colleague, informed consent, best interest of the child, truth-telling, conflict of self-interest and altruism, respectively. Best interest of the child, truth-telling, determining competency in patients, protecting others' interest and gaining informed consent were prioritized topics for education. Conclusion: Our results implied that family doctors experienced difficulties in ethical conduct during daily clinical practice. The most frequently mentioned ethical issues were evaluated with respect to expressed learning needs which served to develop a draft ethics curriculum.

Akp?nar A et al.

2013-03-01

225

Retrievability, ethics and democracy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethics is always a social concern, an integrated part of laws and regulations. Treatment of ethics as a separate part in the decision making process is therefore always debatable. It cannot be introduced as an extraneous component to compensate for, or to improve, a morally flawed practice, and the margin for unethical practices is strongly circumscribed by regulation in the nuclear field, internationally. However, a discussion on different stakeholders and their different ethical concerns should always be welcome. One example is the implementer's views on ethics. Even if they are in complete parity with existing legal and regulatory goals, the goals may still represent the implementer's own motives and choices. Also, stakeholders may view the laws or regulations as unfair. In making the critique, the stakeholder simply formulates a separate political standpoint. Finally, an alternative discussion is to place existing regulations into an ethical perspective - adding a new dimension to the issues. Retrievability for high level waste repositories is often in focus in ethical discussions. Unfortunately, it is used in many ways and has become an unclear term. It may cover anything from planned recuperation to the property of waste being retrievable in years or tens of years, or in the distant time range of hundreds or thousands of years. The term retrievability is often proposed to cover mainly positive qualities such as the option of later changes to the repository or a new disposal concept. However, as ICRP and others have pointed out, it also implies the possibility of: i) operational exposures, ii) continuing risks of accidental releases, iii) financial provisions to cover operating costs and iv) continuing reliance on institutional control, thus imposing some burdens to future generations. In a certain sense, anything can be retrieved from any repository. There is therefore a need for a clear and operable definition of retrievability requirements, including the definition of the corresponding legal consequences. (author)

226

TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER TRAINING. CURRICULUM DESIGN. NEW PROSPECTS AND DILEMMAS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Institutional changes within universities and the challenge of EU enlargement present translator and interpreter trainers with both new opportunities and dilemmas. The major potential tension areas that must be addressed in the curricula include the status of retour translation and interpreting, the role of liaison interpreting in the curriculum, the separation of interpreter and translator training, and the focus on skills and techniques vs. background knowledge. The article suggests t...

Kwiecin?ski, Piotr; Feder, Marcin

2005-01-01

227

Rethinking research ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary research ethics policies started with reflection on the atrocities perpetrated upon concentration camp inmates by Nazi doctors. Apparently, as a consequence of that experience, the policies that now guide human subject research focus on the protection of human subjects by making informed consent the centerpiece of regulatory attention. I take the choice of context for policy design, the initial prioritization of informed consent, and several associated conceptual missteps, to have set research ethics off in the wrong direction. The aim of this paper is to sort out these confusions and their implications and to offer instead a straightforward framework for considering the ethical conduct of human subject research. In the course of this discussion I clarify different senses of autonomy that have been confounded and present more intelligible justifications for informed consent. I also take issue with several of the now accepted dogmas that govern research ethics. These include: the primacy of informed consent, the protection of the vulnerable, the substitution of beneficence for research's social purpose, and the introduction of an untenable distinction between innovation and research. PMID:20945264

Rhodes, Rosamond

2010-10-01

228

Ethics in Clinical Research: The Indian Perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ethics in clinical research focuses largely on identifying and implementing the acceptable conditions for exposure of some individuals to risks and burdens for the benefit of society at large. Ethical guidelines for clinical research were formulated only after discovery of inhumane behaviour with participants during research experiments. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code laying ethical principles for clinical research. With increasing research all over, World Health Organiza...

Sanmukhani, J.; Tripathi, C. B.

2011-01-01

229

Environmental Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

Dr. Ron Epstein of San Francisco State University has compiled this comprehensive online source of information on environmental ethics. The site is simply presented, consisting of a straightforward menu of topics that link mostly to related external Web pages. Topics covered include environmental effects of war, genetic engineering, cloning, indigenous peoples, and much more. While some of the provided links appear to be duds, anyone interested in exploring the field of environmental ethics should find this convenient and well-organized collection of links useful.

230

Disciplinary supervision following ethics complaints: goals, tasks, and ethical dimensions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical supervision is considered an integral component of the training of psychologists, and most of the professional literature is focused on this type of supervision. But psychologists also may supervise fully credentialed colleagues in other circumstances. One such context occurs when licensing boards mandate supervision as part of a disciplinary order. When supervision is provided in disciplinary cases, there are significant implications for the ethical dimensions of the supervisory relationship and concomitant ethical challenges for supervisors. Not only are the goals, objectives, and supervisory tasks of disciplinary supervision distinct from other types of supervision, but the supervisor's ethical responsibilities also encompass unique dimensions. Competence, informed consent, boundaries, confidentiality, and documentation are examined. Recommendations for reports to licensing boards include a statement of the clinical or ethical problems instigating discipline, description of how these problems have been addressed, and an assessment of the supervisee's current practices and ability to perform competently. PMID:25220953

Thomas, Janet T

2014-11-01

231

Maurice Hamington and Maureen Sander-Staudt (eds. Applying Care Ethics to Business (Dordrecht: Springer, 2011  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Care ethics is a relatively recent development in ethics, originating in Carol Gilligan´s book In a Different Voice, published in 1982 and pointing out flaws in Kohlberg´s theory of moral development, specifically in choosing only boys for the experiments, in using moral dilemmas to measure moral development, and in his idea that morality only consisted in universal rules.

Guðmundur Heiðar Frímannsson

2012-03-01

232

Considerations in Dealing with Ethical Conflict Encountered in Healthcare Reform: Perceptions of Nurse Leaders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the nursing profession continuing to face an array of ethical issues, the article reports the findings of a survey of members of the American Organization of Nurse Executives conducted in 2012 to determine the extent to which nurse leaders at different organization levels perceive various factors in their personal, professional and organizational environments to be helpful in resolving ethical dilemmas. After their personal values, nurse leaders perceive factors related to their organiza...

Robert Cooper; Garry Frank; Cherry Shogren

2014-01-01

233

Education confronts the energy dilemma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conference was convened to present a role that America's schools could play in solving or coping with the energy crisis. Eleven sessions were conducted to fulfill this concern: Our Energy Crisis and Education: A Critical Assessment; The Energy Agenda at the Office of Education; Energy Resources: Scenarios for the Future; The Moral Dilemma of Energy Education; Constraints Influencing Education's Role; Energy Education: What's Been Done to Date; Practitioners Discuss Their Future Roles, Responsibilities; Politics of Energy Education; Confronting the Energy Dilemma; The Meaning of Scarcity; and The Impact of the Carter Energy Program on American Schools. Summary reports and reactions to the conference conclude the proceedings. (MCW)

None

1977-01-01

234

Publication ethics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the past six months, this Journal has received several manuscripts that violated publication ethics. One paper was submitted to another journal concurrently (duplicate submission while another reported data that overlapped substantially with a paper published by the same author previously (redundant publication.

Ng CJ

2013-05-01

235

Ethics fundamentals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethics is about studying the right and the good; morality is about acting as one should. Although there are differences among what is legal, charitable, professional, ethical, and moral, these desirable characteristics tend to cluster and are treasured in dentistry. The traditional approach to professionalism in dentistry is based on a theory of biomedical ethics advanced 30 years ago. Known as the principles approach, general ideals such as respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity, are offered as guides. Growth in professionalism consists in learning to interpret the application of these principles as one's peers do. Moral behavior is conceived as a continuous cycle of sensitivity to situations requiring moral response, moral reasoning, the moral courage to take action when necessary, and integration of habits of moral behavior into one's character. This essay is the first of two papers that provide the backbone for the IDEA Project of the College--an online, multiformat, interactive "textbook" of ethics for the profession. PMID:22263371

Chambers, David W

2011-01-01

236

Engineering ethics challenges and opportunities  

CERN Document Server

Engineering Ethics: Challenges and Opportunities aims to set a new agenda for the engineering profession by developing a key challenge: can the great technical innovation of engineering be matched by a corresponding innovation in the acceptance and expression of ethical responsibility?  Central features of this stimulating text include:   ·         An analysis of engineering as a technical and ethical practice providing great opportunities for promoting the wellbeing and agency of individuals and communities. ·         Elucidation of the ethical opportunities of engineering in three key areas:             - Engineering for Peace, emphasising practical amelioration of the root causes of    conflict rather than military solutions.             - Engineering for Health, focusing on close collaboration with healthcare professionals      for both the promotion and restoration of health.             - Engineering for Development, providing effective solution...

Bowen, W Richard

2014-01-01

237

Everyday Ethics: Framing youth participation in organizational practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Much of the literature on ethical issues in child and youth participation has drawn on the episodic experiences of participatory research efforts in which young people’s input has been sought, transcribed and represented. This literature focuses in particular on the power dynamics and ethical dilemmas embedded in time-bound adult/child and outsider/insider relationships. While we agree that these issues are crucial and in need of further examination, it is equally important to examine the ethical issues embedded within the “everyday” practices of the organizations in and through which young people’s participation in community research and development often occurs (e.g., community-based organizations, schools and municipal agencies. Drawing on experience from three summers of work in promoting youth participation in adult-led organizations of varying purpose, scale and structure, a framework is postulated that presents participation as a spatial practice shaped by five overlapping dimensions. The framework is offered as a point of discussion and a potential tool for analysis in examining ethical issues for young people’s participation in relation to organizational practice. Une grande partie de la littérature sur les questions éthiques de la participation des jeunes et des enfants s’appuie sur des expériences sporadiques de recherche participative lors desquelles la vision des jeunes a été examinée, transcrite et représentée. Cette littérature se concentre notamment sur la dynamique de pouvoir et les dilemmes éthiques motivés par des rapports temporaires de type adulte/enfant, externe/interne. Ces sujets sont cruciaux et méritent plus d’étude ; toutefois, il est aussi important d’examiner les problèmes éthiques qui émergent dans la pratique « quotidienne » des organisations dans et à travers lesquelles a lieu généralement la participation des jeunes dans la recherche et le développement communautaire (e.g. organisations communautaires, écoles, agences municipales. Sur l’expérience de trois étés de travail dans la promotion de la participation au sein d’organisations dirigées par des adultes et ayant des missions, des tailles et des structures différentes, on propose un cadre dans lequel la participation est présentée en tant que pratique spatiale façonnée par cinq dimensions qui se chevauchent. Ce cadre est proposé afin de susciter la discussion et en tant qu’outil potentiel d’analyse dans l’examen des problèmes éthiques liés à la participation des jeunes et la pratique organisationnelle.

Davide Driskell

2009-06-01

238

Fundamental Dilemmas in Theoretical Physics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we argue that there are foundational dilemmas in theoretical physics related to the concept of reality and the nature of mathematics in physics. Physical theory is treated as a conceptual organism which develops under the weight of its internal contradictions. The paper discusses in depth the problem of objective reality in physics and its relation to scientific practice. Then, it explores the problematic relation between physical meaning and mathematics in mo...

Ghassib, Hisham

2014-01-01

239

Electronic Commerce: A Taxing Dilemma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the last five years, remote selling-led by online organizations - has surged. The resulting growth has created concern among both traditional and remote sellers as they jockey for improved competitive position and governmental entities, in particular US states, over the erosion of their tax revenues as sales are diverted to remote sellers. This paper explores the issues and potential solutions surrounding the e-commerce tax dilemma. It provides a current assessment of the taxation environm...

Steven John Simon

2002-01-01

240

Thoracic melioidosis: A diagnostic dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diagnosis of melioidosis can be difficult, and it is frequently described as "the great mimicker". We report a case of thoracic melioidosis presenting as a mediastinal mass with impending superior vena cava obstruction. With the presumptive diagnosis of mediastinal tumor, the patient underwent surgery for tissue sampling, and a purulent collection was found. The clinical syndromes of melioidosis and the diagnostic dilemma are discussed. PMID:24585290

Ashraf, Omer; Iyer, Anand; Krishnan, Ramya; Yadav, Sumit

2015-02-01

 
 
 
 
241

Prisoner's Dilemma on community networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce a community network model which exhibits scale-free property and study the evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma game (PDG) on this network model. It is found that the frequency of cooperators decreases with the increment of the average degree $\\bar{k}$ from the simulation results. And reducing inter-community links can promote cooperation when we keep the total links (including inner-community and inter-community links) unchanged. It is also shown that the heterogene...

Chen, Xiaojie; Fu, Feng; Wang, Long

2006-01-01

242

Ethics and the electronic health record in dental school clinics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic health records (EHRs) are a major development in the practice of dentistry, and dental schools and dental curricula have benefitted from this technology. Patient data entry, storage, retrieval, transmission, and archiving have been streamlined, and the potential for teledentistry and improvement in epidemiological research is beginning to be realized. However, maintaining patient health information in an electronic form has also changed the environment in dental education, setting up potential ethical dilemmas for students and faculty members. The purpose of this article is to explore some of the ethical issues related to EHRs, the advantages and concerns related to the use of computers in the dental operatory, the impact of the EHR on the doctor-patient relationship, the introduction of web-based EHRs, the link between technology and ethics, and potential solutions for the management of ethical concerns related to EHRs in dental schools. PMID:22550104

Cederberg, Robert A; Valenza, John A

2012-05-01

243

Ombud's corner: Use of sensemaking* in ethical decisions  

CERN Multimedia

In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   Taking ethical decisions can often be a dilemma - one that requires recognition and proper representation of multiple pieces of complex information, as well as an intuitive judgment about potential consequences. Pressure is particularly placed on organizational leaders, who are tasked with projects, partnerships and individuals. Constraining forces - be they personal, situational or environmental - can negatively influence any decision by decreasing ethical awareness, ethical sensitivity and ethical judgment. By creating mental compensatory models, the Sensemaking* technique serves to counteract these constraining forces that narrow the search and evaluation of&nbs...

Vincent Vuillemin

2012-01-01

244

Ethical and legal aspects in teaching students of medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the rapid advances in medical technology, medical students are now being faced with increasingly complex and unparalleled ethical and practical dilemmas during their training. The new and future challenges of high-tech medicine demand improvements in current medical education, not only by meeting the needs of students through humanized training programs, but also by involving them in finding solutions to the ethical and legal quandaries they encounter. Today's students of medical universities must acquire knowledge and understanding of the ethical and legal issues relevant to the practice of medicine, and we have to do everything possible to introduce these students to the current discussions on more or less controversial ethical and legal topics. Although final answers may not be found, the very discussion, argumentation, and awakening of students' interest should become an essential part of the core curriculum of every doctor. PMID:15727002

Wlasienko, Pawel

2005-01-01

245

Selecting the Perfect Baby The Ethics of "Embryo Design"  

Science.gov (United States)

This dilemma case is based on the true story of Jack and Lisa Nash, whose daughter Molly was born with a rare genetic disorder, Fanconi anemia. By having another child with specific genetic markers, the Nashes hoped to cure Molly using stem cells from the new baby’s umbilical cord blood. Students learn about developmental disorders and consider the ethical issues of genetic manipulation and fertility treatments. Although the case was written for beginning developmental psychology students, the issues raised involving genetic manipulation, advances in medical technology, and scientific ethics would be relevant in many other science courses.

Omarzu, Julia

2002-01-01

246

Tragedy and delight: the ethics of decelerated ageing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biogerontology is sometimes viewed as similar to other forms of biomedical research in that it seeks to understand and treat a pathological process. Yet the prospect of treating ageing is extraordinary in terms of the profound changes to the human condition that would result. Recent advances in biogerontology allow a clearer view of the ethical issues and dilemmas that confront humanity with respect to treating ageing. For example, they imply that organismal senescence is a disease process wi...

Gems, David

2011-01-01

247

Science, culture and (eco-)ethics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

EE Book 16 focuses on achievements and shortcomings of modern marine ecology. It also analysis the crux of all science: human capabilities and limitations of conducting research - of critically perceiving the world in and around us. Louis Legendre further examines the relationships between science and culture and underlines the significance of ethics, especially eco-ethics.

Louis Legendre

2004-01-01

248

The Baylor Experience in Teaching Medical Ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The activities of the Center for Ethics, Medicine, and Public Issues (Texas) are described. The center focuses on the clinical teaching of medical ethics, collaborative teaching and research involving ethicists and clinicians, and the training of future practitioners. Problems and achievements are highlighted. (Author/MSE)

Brody, Baruch A.

1989-01-01

249

The Ethics of Academic Book Reviewing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussion of ethical quandaries in academe focuses on the ethics of book reviewing. Topics include difficulties in getting published; exploitation of examination copies; reviewing books to get free copies; using book reviews as personal pulpits; inadequate rewards for reviewing books; and qualifications for reviewers. (LRW)

Ashley, Leonard R. N.

2002-01-01

250

Further Discussion on the Construction of Ethics of Professional Accountants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Any country is facing the problem of ethics of professional accountants, which also has been a focus of accounting theories for many years. Especially since the financial crisis in 2008 and the recession of world economy, business has been difficult, which makes the ethics of professional accountants more important. In perspective of business ethics, the author discusses the characteristics and the structure of ethics of professional accountants, locating the barriers for the construction of ethics of professional accountants and relevant reasons, and proposing the way for establishing the system of ethics of professional accountants.

Yong Cheng

2012-05-01

251

Do Ethics Classes Teach Ethics?  

Science.gov (United States)

The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe…

Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle

2014-01-01

252

Awareness and Practice of Professional Ethics amongst Librarians in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is focused on the awareness and practicability of Librarianship ethics amongst librarians. Survey questionnaire was designed to identify the degree of awareness of librarianship ethics amongst librarians in Nigeria, whether the ethics are feasible and being utilized by librarians in their day to day library management, and to find out…

Igbeka, J. U.; Okoroma, F. N.

2013-01-01

253

Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, focusing on introduction and applicability; preamble; general principles; and ethical standards (resolving ethical issues, competence, human relations, privacy and confidentiality, advertising and other public statements, record keeping and…

American Psychologist, 2002

2002-01-01

254

e-Government Ethics : a Synergy of Computer Ethics, Information Ethics, and Cyber Ethics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ethics has become an important part in the interaction among humans being. This paper specifically discusses applied ethics as one type of ethics. There are three applied ethics that will be reviewed in this paper, i.e. computer ethics, information ethics, and cyber ethics. There are two aspects of the three applied ethics that were reviewed, i.e. their definition and the issues associated with them. The reviewing results of the three applied ethics are then used for defining e-Government eth...

Arief Ramadhan; Dana Indra Sensuse; Aniati Murni Arymurthy

2011-01-01

255

AIDS-Related Ethical and Legal Issues for Mental Health Professionals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the ethical and legal dilemmas faced by mental health professionals who deal with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Concentrates on professional responsibility, competence, and confidentiality. Special attention is paid to court cases that have implications for counselors working with clients who…

Hughes, Rosemary B.; Friedman, Ann Lorentson

1994-01-01

256

The Application of Kohlberg's Moral Development Model to College Students' Technology Ethics Decisions  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined undergraduate university students' (n=121) responses to six ethical dilemmas within the realm of information technology (IT). Using a framework based on Kohlberg's stages of moral development, the study evaluated the level of moral development as demonstrated in these responses. An apriori coding system was used to analyze the…

Kiser, Angelina I. T.; Morrison, Eileen E.; Craven, Annette

2009-01-01

257

The Nazi Origins of Eduard Pernkopf's "Topographische Anatomie des Menschen:" The Biomedical Ethical Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery of the Nazi origins of the classic Pernkopf anatomy atlas is one example of scientific information obtained by doctors who violated the Hippocratic Oath. The ethical dilemmas that doctors and medical centers face as a result of this and other potentially tainted data is reviewed. (Author/AEF)

Israel, Howard A.

1998-01-01

258

Is an ethical economy possible: new forms of value in the information society?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent decades managerial discourse and actual business practice has paid increasing attention to ethics. What was chiefly an academic discussion about business ethics has grown into a virtual 'ethics industry' (Hyatt, 2005), and has been supplanted by a growing focus on corporate social responsibility and a booming consumer demand for ethical or 'fair' goods. Critical observers, myself included, have tended to dismiss this focus on ethics as little more than a cynical response...

Arvidsson, Adam Erik

2010-01-01

259

Ethical consideration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The twofold distinction between interventions into the germ line and interventions into somatic cells on the one hand and between the treatment of diseases and enhancement on the other hand resulted in the concept of somatic gene therapy. There is a nearly unanimous agreement that somatic gene therapy has a high-ranking moral objective and uses methods that extend current techniques for treating diseases in a morally acceptable way. In its experimental phase principles of research ethics as the autonomy and the informed consent of the patient or the test person, a fair selection of test persons and a careful weighing of risks and benefits have to be taken into account and several specific points have to be considered. Experimental somatic gene therapy requires a positive vote of a competent and independent ethics committee. PMID:21590407

Fuchs, Michael

2011-01-01

260

Animal ethics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possibl...

Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Corporate Governance Debate on Professional Ethics in Accounting Profession  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Paper focuses on the particular case of professional ethics in the context of the accounting profession. After briefly discussing recent events that made us reconsider our understanding of corporate governance, accountancy and ethics, we try to delimit the state of the art by looking at ethics from the accounting professions’ perspective. When aiming to clarify professional ethics, we closely analyze integrity based on the latest developments undertaken by European professional bodies. Find...

Carmen Giorgiana Bonaci; Ji?í Strouhal; Müllerová Libuše; Jaroslava Roubí?ková

2013-01-01

262

Further Discussion on the Construction of Ethics of Professional Accountants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Any country is facing the problem of ethics of professional accountants, which also has been a focus of accounting theories for many years. Especially since the financial crisis in 2008 and the recession of world economy, business has been difficult, which makes the ethics of professional accountants more important. In perspective of business ethics, the author discusses the characteristics and the structure of ethics of professional accountants, locating the barriers for the construction of ...

Yong Cheng

2012-01-01

263

Is nanotechnology giving rise to new ethical problems?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper I focus on the question of whether nanotechnology is giving rise to new ethical problems rather than merely to new instances of old ethical problems. Firstly, I demonstrate how important it is to make a general distinction between new ethical problems and new instances of old problems. Secondly, I propose one possible way of interpreting the distinction and offer a definition of a “new ethical problem”. Thirdly, I examine whether there is good reason to claim that nanotechno...

Bacchini, Fabio

2013-01-01

264

The Ethics Connection  

Science.gov (United States)

Created and maintained by the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University, the Ethics Connection demonstrates the power of the Web as an interactive information and communication medium. This site combines excellent content, form, and function to provide teachers, researchers, community leaders, and the public "with strategies to heighten ethical awareness and improve ethical decision making." The rich information resources at the Ethics Connection include an interactive forum for the discussion of ethical issues; an extensive collection of the latest news and publications on ethics, featuring the Markkula Center's own quarterly, Issues in Ethics; a collection of several case studies on ethics, which include message boards for visitors' comments; a Practicing Ethics section, offering numerous resources for day-to-day ethical decision making; and a compilation of 900 ethical links, all of which are categorized, rated, and reviewed.

265

The ethical junior: a typology of ethical problems faced by house officers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although many studies have explored the experiences of doctors in their first postgraduate year, few have focused on the ethical issues encountered by this group. Based on an extensive literature review of research involving house officers, we argue that these doctors encounter a broad range of ‘everyday’ ethical challenges, from truth-telling to working in non-ideal conditions. We propose a typology of house officers' ethical issues and advocate prioritizing these issues in undergraduate...

Mcdougall, Rosalind; Sokol, Daniel K.

2008-01-01

266

Prisoner's Dilemma on community networks  

CERN Document Server

We introduce a community network model which exhibits scale-free property and study the evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma game (PDG) on this network model. It is found that the frequency of cooperators decreases with the increment of the average degree from the simulation results. And reducing inter-community links can promote cooperation when we keep the total links (including inner-community and inter-community links) unchanged. It is also shown that the heterogeneity of networks does not always enhance cooperation and the pattern of links among all the vertices under a given degree-distribution plays a crucial role in the dominance of cooperation in the network model.

Chen, X; Wang, L; Chen, Xiaojie; Fu, Feng; Wang, Long

2006-01-01

267

Delusion or obsession: Clinical dilemma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A 52-year old lady presented for admission with severe depression characterised by suicidal ideation and delusional belief. Case presentation Her treatment regime was reviewed and modified. The dilemma was whether she suffered from a psychotic depression with delusion or an obsessional disorder. She responded well to change of antipsychotic medication. Conclusions Her depression went in remission and her delusional belief decreased in intensity. She also gained reasonable insight into her problem. She is currently being followed up in the psychiatric outpatient clinic.

Gandhi Priya

2012-07-01

268

Ancient Ethics and Contemporary Ethics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to examine a few doctrines in the history of ancient ethics which can still be considered valuable and even perhaps valid today. Moral motivation for the Stoics and for Socratesis based on self-interest with the further assumption that the moral virtues are the true goods. But the Stoic and Socratic justification strategies are different. Attention is then called to the Protagorean brand ofrelativism underlying contemporary libertarian claims. The paper end swith the ...

Alfonso Gómez Lobo

1998-01-01

269

The founder's dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Why do people start businesses? For the money and the chance to control their own companies, certainly. But new research from Harvard Business School professor Wasserman shows that those goals are largely incompatible. The author's studies indicate that a founder who gives up more equity to attract cofounders, new hires, and investors builds a more valuable company than one who parts with less equity. More often than not, however, those superior returns come from replacing the founder with a professional CEO more experienced with the needs of a growing company. This fundamental tension requires founders to make "rich" versus "king" trade-offs to maximize either their wealth or their control over the company. Founders seeking to remain in control (as John Gabbert of the furniture retailer Room & Board has done) would do well to restrict themselves to businesses where large amounts of capital aren't required and where they already have the skills and contacts they need. They may also want to wait until late in their careers, after they have developed broader management skills, before setting up shop. Entrepreneurs who focus on wealth, such as Jim Triandiflou, who founded Ockham Technologies, can make the leap sooner because they won't mind taking money from investors or depending on executives to manage their ventures. Such founders will often bring in new CEOs themselves and be more likely to work with their boards to develop new, post-succession roles for themselves. Choosing between money and power allows entrepreneurs to come to grips with what success means to them. Founders who want to manage empires will not believe they are successes if they lose control, even if they end up rich. Conversely, founders who understand that their goal is to amass wealth will not view themselves as failures when they step down from the top job. PMID:18314638

Wasserman, Noam

2008-02-01

270

How individuals learn to take turns: Emergence of alternating cooperation in a congestion game and the prisoner's dilemma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In many social dilemmas, individuals tend to generate a situation with low payoffs instead of a system optimum ("tragedy of the commons"). Is the routing of traffic a similar problem? In order to address this question, we present experimental results on humans playing a route choice game in a computer laboratory, which allow one to study decision behavior in repeated games beyond the Prisoner's Dilemma. We will focus on whether individuals manage to find a cooperative and fa...

Helbing, Dirk; Schonhof, Martin; Stark, Hans-ulrich; Holyst, Janusz A.

2005-01-01

271

Organizational Commitment and Corporate Ethical Values: Exploring the Nexus between Employees' Psychological Contract and Firms' Ethical Behaviour in the Nigerian Insurance Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Commitment of employees to their organisations has been one of the central research themes in organisational study. Though, many predictors of organisational commitment abound in the literature, much is however not known on how ethical behaviour in the organisation affects employees’ commitment. Considering the nature of insurance services, and high potentials for ethical dilemma in the industry, this study contributes to organisational commitment literature by providing further understanding on the impact of corporate ethical values on organisational commitment in Nigeria. Underpinned by cognitive dissonance theory, the study proposes a significant relationship between the two constructs. While controlling for some demographic factors, corporate ethical values was hypothesized as a significant determinant of organisational commitment. With data from 415 managers, collected through Hunt’s et al (1989 Corporate Ethical Value and Hunt’s et al (1985 organisational commitment scales, the results of the multivariate analysis were presented, and discussed with managerial implications.

Musa Obalola

2012-02-01

272

Animal ethics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind.

Palmer, Clare; SandØe, Peter

2011-01-01

273

Code of Ethics: Principles for Ethical Leadership  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the la...

Flite, Cathy A.; Harman, Laurinda B.

2013-01-01

274

Implementation Mechanism of Ethics in Business Organizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethics and ethical behavior are issues which are increasingly being focused on the business community today. People are becoming more concerned about what is actually happening in business organizations in the name of competition, growth, and profitability. Organizations are crossing the red zone of ethics and ethical behaviors. A growing number of organizations are constantly surveying and evaluating the unethical practice in business organizations worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of ethical practices and how to implement those ethical practices in business organizations. It is empirically proved that ethical practices in business organizations help to create favorable relationships with other organizations and can also establish long-term positive relationships with existing and potential future customers. Descriptive and analytical research methodology is applied in this research paper. The findings of this paper is that it is very essential to have a code of business ethics in every business organization and this code of business ethics must be implemented in the organization in objective and effective way.

Md. Abdul Jalil

2010-09-01

275

Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?  

Science.gov (United States)

Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

Stablein, Ralph

2003-01-01

276

A intervenção com clientes involuntários: complexidade e dilemas Involuntary clients intervention: complexity and dilemmas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente artigo de revisão da literatura centra-se na temática dos clientes involuntários. Analisaram-se criticamente os trabalhos de autores que: (1 propõem a sua caracterização, designadamente no que respeita ao posicionamento do cliente na situação de ajuda, concluindo-se pela complexidade da sua identificação; (2 conceptualizam o papel dos profissionais de saúde mental, bem como as singularidades da relação terapêutica, destacando a importância da aliança, dos dilemas éticos e da motivação para a intervenção; (3 apresentam os modelos terapêuticos mais utilizados nestas situações, enfatizando-se as terapias colaborativas, e particularmente as centradas nas soluções, como as que melhor promovem o envolvimento destes clientes. Ao longo da pesquisa manteve-se a preocupação de rever obras abrangentes na área do acompanhamento psicológico que simultaneamente evidenciassem ou favorecessem uma perspectiva crítica e complexa sobre o tema. Na organização do artigo procurou-se seguir uma perspectiva diacrónica que mostrasse a evolução da conceptualização e praxis sobre a problemática.The involuntary clients issue is the core of this literature review article. Critical analysis was carried out over the work of authors who: (1 propose their characterization, namely in what concerns the client's positioning in a help situation, leading to a notion of complexity in its identification; (2 conceptualize the role of mental health technicians, as well as the singularities of the therapeutic relationship, highlighting the importance of the alliance, ethical dilemmas and the motivation towards an intervention; (3 point out the therapeutic models mainly used in these situations, emphasizing collaborative therapies, particularly solution focused therapies, as those who better promote the involvement of clients. Reviewing extensive literature on psychological intervention that simultaneously underlined a critical and complex perspective on the matter was a constant concern throughout the research process. The article's structure is outlined diachronically so that the evolution of both conceptualization and praxis on the subject becomes clear.

Luciana Sotero

2012-04-01

277

Faced with a dilemma : Danish midwives' experiences with and attitudes towards late termination of pregnancy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: The introduction of prenatal screening for all pregnant women in Denmark in 2004 has lead to an increase in the number of late terminations of pregnancy after the 12th week of pregnancy. Midwives' experiences with late termination of pregnancy (TOP) are still poorly described in the scientific literature. AIM: To explore Danish midwives' experiences with and attitudes towards late TOP. Focus was on how midwives perceive their own role in late TOP, and how their professional identity is influenced by working with late TOP in a time where prenatal screening is rapidly developing. METHOD: A qualitative study consisting of ten individual interviews with Danish midwives, all of whom had taken part in late TOP. RESULTS: Current practice of late TOP resembles the practice of normal deliveries and is influenced by a growing personalisation of the aborted foetus. The midwives strongly supported women's legal right to choose TOP and considerations about the foetus' right to live were suppressed. Midwivesexperienced a dilemma when faced with aborted foetuses that looked like newborns and when aborted foetuses showed signs of life after a termination. Furthermore, they were critical of how physicians counsel women/couples after prenatal diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The midwives' practice in relation to late TOP was characterised by an acknowledgement of the growing ethical status of the foetus and the emotional reactions of the women/couples going through late TOP. Other professions as well as structural factors at the hospital highly influenced the midwives' ability to organize their work with late terminations. There is a need for more thorough investigation of how to secure the best possible working conditions for midwives, and how to optimise the care for women/couples going through late TOP.

Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Christiansen, Anne HjØllund

2013-01-01

278

A intervenção com clientes involuntários: complexidade e dilemas / Involuntary clients intervention: complexity and dilemmas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo de revisão da literatura centra-se na temática dos clientes involuntários. Analisaram-se criticamente os trabalhos de autores que: (1) propõem a sua caracterização, designadamente no que respeita ao posicionamento do cliente na situação de ajuda, concluindo-se pela complexidade da [...] sua identificação; (2) conceptualizam o papel dos profissionais de saúde mental, bem como as singularidades da relação terapêutica, destacando a importância da aliança, dos dilemas éticos e da motivação para a intervenção; (3) apresentam os modelos terapêuticos mais utilizados nestas situações, enfatizando-se as terapias colaborativas, e particularmente as centradas nas soluções, como as que melhor promovem o envolvimento destes clientes. Ao longo da pesquisa manteve-se a preocupação de rever obras abrangentes na área do acompanhamento psicológico que simultaneamente evidenciassem ou favorecessem uma perspectiva crítica e complexa sobre o tema. Na organização do artigo procurou-se seguir uma perspectiva diacrónica que mostrasse a evolução da conceptualização e praxis sobre a problemática. Abstract in english The involuntary clients issue is the core of this literature review article. Critical analysis was carried out over the work of authors who: (1) propose their characterization, namely in what concerns the client's positioning in a help situation, leading to a notion of complexity in its identificati [...] on; (2) conceptualize the role of mental health technicians, as well as the singularities of the therapeutic relationship, highlighting the importance of the alliance, ethical dilemmas and the motivation towards an intervention; (3) point out the therapeutic models mainly used in these situations, emphasizing collaborative therapies, particularly solution focused therapies, as those who better promote the involvement of clients. Reviewing extensive literature on psychological intervention that simultaneously underlined a critical and complex perspective on the matter was a constant concern throughout the research process. The article's structure is outlined diachronically so that the evolution of both conceptualization and praxis on the subject becomes clear.

Luciana, Sotero; Ana Paula, Relvas.

2012-04-01

279

Ethical Codes of Nursing and the Practical Necessity in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nNursing is a universal health care necessity. Nursing profession, similar to the other medical professions, is responsible to maintain public health promotion, prevent diseases, and also care and rehabilitate client, family and the soci¬ety. The inher-ent nature of nursing is respect for moral values and human rights. However, clinical ethical dilem¬mas occur for nurses at all levels, not always concerning patients. Although this is the primary area of concern, it is relevant to all areas of nursing practice and every aspect of their professional roles including research activity, education and management. The ethical codes of nursing, which set out the ethical behaviors expected of registered nurses, are considered indisputable with regard to nursing practice. There are some national codes in the world but the international code of ethics for nurses was first adopted by the International Council of Nurses. The current paper gives an overview of nursing ethics history, which will be followed by the study on the promotion and dissemination of the nursing ethical codes and guidelines. The concepts, topics and strategies of some codes will be stated in this paper. The present study also aims to emphasize nursing ethics in Iran. Despite the compiling of general and specific guidelines of biomedical research in Iran during recent decade, there have been limited activities on the issue of nursing codes of ethics. Iranian nurses should be educated and fully prepared to en-gage with ethical is¬sues in the field of nursing. Given the importance of sociocultural issues, it is necessary to compile nurs-ing codes of ethics according to Islamic culture of Iran

M Sanjari

2008-06-01

280

The Investigation of the Opinions of Teacher Candidates about Current Ethical Issues in Terms of Various Variables  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research is planned for determining teacher candidates’ opinions about some bioethics issues which include ethical dilemmas. In this research in which quantitative research techniques was used, a study group consisted of 238 teacher candidates from eight different departments at Gazi University in 2011-2012 academic year. Bioethical Values Inventory including scenarios located in the center of ethical issues, such as genetic screening tests, reproductive technologies and euthanasia use...

Kurt, I?smet; Keski?n Samanci, Nilay; O?zer Keski?n, Melike

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Ancient Ethics and Contemporary Ethics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine a few doctrines in the history of ancient ethics which can still be considered valuable and even perhaps valid today. Moral motivation for the Stoics and for Socratesis based on self-interest with the further assumption that the moral virtues are the true goods. But the Stoic and Socratic justification strategies are different. Attention is then called to the Protagorean brand ofrelativism underlying contemporary libertarian claims. The paper end swith the suggestion that only a theory of objective human goods can resolve the problem of moral motivation and of the indeterminacy of the harm principie in modern liberalism.

Alfonso Gómez Lobo

1998-12-01

282

Water ethics perspectives in the Arab Region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water ethics has only recently emerged in academic and development arenas as an independent field of professional discussion. Concerns over water conservation and adequate access to basic needs of water and sanitation pose a difficult ethical dilemma that should be addressed based on societal and ethical frame works. Issues such as water allocation and pricing, privatization of various water services and efficient water management need to be contested within an ethical framework according to principles of equity and social justice. This paper presents the basic concepts of water ethics, as well as water ethics perspectives and applications within the framework of integrated water resources management (IWRM) in the Arab Region, which suffers from one of the fastest growing water deficits in the world. The deteriorating status of the water resources situation in Arab Region is no longer tolerable due to the high costs in terms of negative environmental consequences and deteriorating livelihoods of poor populations associated with lack of access to clean water and sanitation. Nevertheless, most of the national efforts for IWRM implementation in the Region have been dominated by neo-liberal economic policies stressing privatization of various water services; cost recovery through different pricing and tariffication schemes; as well as sectoral water (re)allocation. However, many negative impacts due to the shift to neo-liberal market-led economies have been surfaced throuket-led economies have been surfaced throughout the developing world in the past decade and a half, especially with respect to the increased levels of poverty and worsening environmental degradation. It is, therefore, critical to adopt IWRM approaches in the region within an ethical framework that takes full consideration of all social implications regarding the poor, and that could be used as a means to achieve water-related international goals of poverty reduction. Finally, the paper also shows that there is no contradiction between Islamic beliefs, which constitute the chief cultural and ethical source of most Arab societies, and worldwide accepted IWRM principles and associated ethical frameworks. (author)

283

Acceptability of offering financial incentives to achieve medication adherence in patients with severe mental illness: a focus group study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Offering financial incentives to achieve medication adherence in patients with severe mental illness is controversial. Aims To explore the views of different stakeholders on the ethical acceptability of the practice. Method Focus group study consisting of 25 groups with different stakeholders. Results Eleven themes dominated the discussions and fell into four categories: (1) ‘wider concerns’, including the value of medication, source of funding, how patients would use the money, and a presumed government agenda behind the idea; (2) ‘problems requiring clear policies’, comprising of practicalities and assurance that incentives are only one part of a tool kit; (3) ‘challenges for research and experience’, including effectiveness, the possibility of perverse incentives, and impact on the therapeutic relationship; (4) ‘inherent dilemmas’ around fairness and potential coercion. Conclusions The use of financial incentives is likely to raise similar concerns in most stakeholders, only some of which can be addressed by empirical research and clear policies. PMID:20581423

Sinclair, Julia; Burton, Alexandra; Marougka, Stamatina; Larsen, John; Firn, Mike; Ashcroft, Richard

2010-01-01

284

Seamless Integration of Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…

Beggs, Jeri Mullins

2011-01-01

285

An Ethics Primer  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource is a PDF that provides engaging, interactive, and classroom-friendly lesson ideas for integrating ethical issues into a science classroom. It also provides a basic background on ethics as a discipline, with straightforward descriptions of major ethical theories. Several decision-making frameworks are included to help students apply reasoned analysis to ethical issues.

2008-01-01

286

Putting Law into Ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of ethics in law is followed from the harshness of caveat emptor to the humanistic ethics of the 1970s, including a renewal of formal ethics in the post-Watergate era. The impact on universities and individual disciplines of legalizing ethical conduct is examined cautiously. (JMF)

Lieberman, Jethro K.

1979-01-01

287

Ethics Primer: Ethics and Bioethics Lessons  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ethics Primer provides engaging, interactive, and classroom-friendly lesson ideas for integrating ethical issues into a science classroom. It also provides basic background on ethics as a discipline, with straightforward descriptions of major ethical theories. Several decision-making frameworks are included to help students apply reasoned analysis to ethical issues. Although the Primer is designed for secondary school science classrooms, it has been used by teachers in a variety of classes and grade levels. The Primer is free for download but the author requests information before accessing the file.

2007-01-01

288

Beyond Ethical Frameworks: Using Moral Experimentation in the Engineering Ethics Classroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although undergraduate engineering ethics courses often include the development of moral sensitivity as a learning objective and the use of active learning techniques, teaching centers on the transmission of cognitive knowledge. This article describes a complementary assignment asking students to perform an ethics "experiment" on themselves that has a potential to enhance affective learning and moral imagination. The article argues that the focus on cognitive learning may not promote, and may even impair, our efforts to foster moral sensitivity. In contrast, the active learning assignments and exercises, like the ethics "experiment" discussed, offer great potential to expand the scope of instruction in engineering ethics to include ethical behavior as well as knowledge. Engineering ethics education needs to extend beyond the narrow range of human action associated with the technical work of the engineer and explore ways to draw on broader lifeworld experiences to enrich professional practice and identity. PMID:25431220

Walling, Olivia

2014-11-28

289

BEYOND THE DILEMMAS OF POWER AND OF THE THERAPIST AS EXPERT IN SYSTEMIC PSYCHOTHERAPY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article briefly analyzes, how three contempory family therapy models explain role of the therapist in the processof change in therapy. The principal referents of analysis, the power relationship inherent to therapy, the therapist’sknowledge, and his/her directive or symmetric with regards respect to the consultants. It proposes that the therapistcould assume a “paramodern” stance to go beyond the dilemmas of his/her social function and accept that his/hertheoretical preferences must be founded on an ethical imperative to generate a context, where the consultants expandtheir margin of freedom, which is limited by the symptoms and the interpersonal conflicts presented as complaints.

ÁNGELA HERNÁNDEZ CÓRDOBA

2007-08-01

290

Business ethics in developing countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Underlying this paper is the conviction that it is of the utmost importance that business ethics should indeed become an integral part of business culture in all, and therefore also in developing countries. It is not to be denied that business ethics has to a much larger extent become pari of the business culture' in developed countries than in developing countries. The primary aim of this paper is to provide an explanation for the fact that business ethics is fighting an uphill battle in becoming pari of the business culture in developing countries. Secondly, a thumbnail sketch is given of the preconditions that have to be fulfilled in order to stimulate the development of a moral business culture in developing countries. In order to achieve these goals I will focus mainly on Africa, and more specifically on South Africa.

G.J. Rossouw

1992-03-01

291

Ethical issues in the qualitative researcher--participant relationship.  

Science.gov (United States)

Qualitative research poses ethical issues and challenges unique to the study of human beings. In developing the interpersonal relationship that is critical to qualitative research, investigator and participant engage in a dialogic process that often evokes stories and memories that are remembered and reconstituted in ways that otherwise would not occur. Ethical issues are raised when this relationship not only provides qualitative research data, but also leads to some degree of therapeutic interaction for the participant. The purpose of this article is to examine some of the controversies inherent in the researcher's dilemma when this occurs, set within the context of a nursing caring theory (Swanson), and the International Council of Nurses Code of ethics for nurses, which provides guidance on global nursing practice. PMID:18272610

Eide, Phyllis; Kahn, David

2008-03-01

292

Engineering Ethical Decisions  

Science.gov (United States)

This webpage showcases a series of engineering ethical decision classes. Manufacturing students and instructors would find the following class and assignment of particular interest: The final class in the breadth sequence, Manufacturing Ergonomics, Safety, and Health (MESH) is different from the courses discussed to this point, in that it has a smaller audience and does not use case studies in the same manner as the other courses. MESH is a course for Manufacturing Engineering Technology majors, although it is sometimes taken by other students as an elective; it is both smaller and more focused toward a specific field. Ethics, starting with both the NSPE and Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) codes of ethics, represent one of the justifications for implementing ergonomic and safety programs in manufacturing facilities. As such, the course starts with a discussion of the basis for implementing ergonomic and safety programs, including ethics, and then these ideas remain underlying concepts throughout the course. Case studies with direct ethical implications are not used consistently in the course as examples, but students are required to complete an accident summary and analysis as one of their assignments. As part of the analysis in this assignment, students are asked to assess behavior relative to both Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) codes and acceptable professional behavior, if engineers were involved in or responsible for the accident. Based on their comments, this assignment makes a strong impression on many students, especially concerning the disregard that some people have for the safety of themselves or their co-workers. Although this topic has been addressed before, the case study approach is interesting, and includes very strong connections to critical thinking, writing and information literacy. It is highly adoptable for many different courses at many different levels. Case studies can be isolated and adopted. There is also plenty of pedagogical supporting information that faculty may find interesting and useful. Reviewer Comments: This resource is of high quality and current. The case study approach is interesting, and has very strong connections to critical thinking, writing and information literacy. Case Studies can be isolated and adopted. Faculty may find the pedagogical supporting information interesting and useful. There are some dead links on the website.

Newcomer, Jeff

2009-08-04

293

Publication: an ethical imperative.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Publication of medical research is both a monitor of the researcher's ethics and an audit of the local or regional ethics committee that approved it. Selectivity of publication or of the intention to publish lessens this audit. Opinions differ about what is ethically allowable in clinical and benchtop medical research. Ethical permission and ethical monitoring of medical research are subject to a hierarchy of pyramidal controls, starting in hospital and ending with the local, institutional, o...

Pearn, J.

1995-01-01

294

Electronic Commerce: A Taxing Dilemma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last five years, remote selling-led by online organizations - has surged. The resulting growth has created concern among both traditional and remote sellers as they jockey for improved competitive position and governmental entities, in particular US states, over the erosion of their tax revenues as sales are diverted to remote sellers. This paper explores the issues and potential solutions surrounding the e-commerce tax dilemma. It provides a current assessment of the taxation environment for individuals and organizations impacted by the tax debate. Those individuals and organizations might include online business customers, remote sellers both traditional (mail order and online, tax equity organizations, and governmental bodies. Current tax obligations are explored based on landmark legal decisions. Potential short and long -term solutions are assessed.

Steven John Simon

2002-01-01

295

The Conceptual Model of Personal Moral Philosophy (PMP and Ethical Decision Making (EDM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual model to examine the two dimensions of personal moral philosophy (Idealism and Relativism and its influences on the Ethical Decision Making. The study use the Forsyth's Taxonomy of Personal Moral Philosophy and the Rest's Ethical Decision Making Model serves as the starting points to develop the conceptual model. Two dimensions of PMP and 4 main components of Ethical Decision Making were used to construct the model from the extensive literature. The developed model will provide the base for assessing the level of Ethical Decision Making by studying the influences of the level of Personal Moral Philosophy. This finding further the insight of the understanding of the philosophical and ethical analysis of managerial dilemmas. The model provides an insightful for the analysis of Personal Moral Philosophy on Ethical Decision Making. The model examines the independent influences of Personal Moral Philosophy on Ethical Decision Making and treats Ethical Decision Making as dependent variables. Given that Ethical Decision Making are often detrimental to organizational functional efficiency, it is appropriate for the management to have better understanding to diagnose effects of the Personal Moral Philosophy on the Ethical Decision Making. For this analysis, this model will prove valuable.

Cynthia Ling Meng Chan

2011-02-01

296

Dynamics of spatial traveler's dilemma games  

Science.gov (United States)

By examining payoff structures, we elucidate the traveler's dilemma (TD) game. It can be said that the TD game as the 2-player & multi-strategy game is a variant of the donor & recipient game, which itself is a subclass of the 2-player & 2-strategy (2 × 2) prisoner's dilemma, in the sense that the Nash equilibrium and fair Pareto optimum appear on mutual defection and mutual cooperation, respectively. Exploring spatial TD games, we observed that the network reciprocity of TD games can be universally scaled with a single dilemma parameter as can be performed in usual 2 × 2 games. Furthermore, we observed a local peak event reflecting a resurging cooperation fraction with increasing dilemma strength after degradation to a low level. We successfully demonstrate that this is caused by the specific dynamics of TD games created by their specific payoff structure.

Tanimoto, Jun

2014-11-01

297

The iterated prisoners' dilemma 20 years on  

CERN Document Server

In 1984, Robert Axelrod published a book, relating the story of two competitions which he ran, where invited academics entered strategies for the Iterated Prisoners' Dilemma. The book, almost 20 years on, is still widely read and cited by academics and the general public. As a celebration of that landmark work, we have recreated those competitions to celebrate its 20th anniversary, by again inviting academics to submit prisoners' dilemma strategies. The first of these new competitions was run in July 2004, and the second in April 2005. Iterated Prisoners' Dilemma: 20 Years On essentially provides an update of the Axelrod's book. Specifically, it. Presents the prisoners' dilemma, its history and variants. Highlights original Axelrod''s work and its impact. Discusses results of new competitions. Showcases selected papers that reflect the latest researches in the area.

Kendall, Graham; Chong, Siang Yew

2007-01-01

298

Didactic and paedagogic priniciples of a teaching concept for case-based seminars in medical ethics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ethics have to be taught to medical students. Teaching aims focusing on ethical reflection and practical skills are an important part in this new subject. This article reports how medical ethics can be taught in a case based, non-frontal way in order to train the ethical competencies and shape the attitudes of our future physicians. Therefore we have compiled curricular aspects, learning targets, paedagogic and didactic principles and technical requirements of 220 seminars on "Ethical Conflic...

Gommel, Michael; Glu?ck, Brigitte; Keller, Frieder

2005-01-01

299

Sustainable Renovation of Residential Buildings and the Landlord/Tenant Dilemma  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The landlord/tenant dilemma arises when the interests of landlords and tenants misalign and is one of the greatest barriers hindering the development of sustainable renovation of residential buildings in Europe. The aim of this research is to investigate how regulatory changes and contractual solutions can help solve the landlord/tenant dilemma in relation to sustainable renovation of residential buildings, and how the general awareness of sustainable renovation can be increased. Particular focus is on whether tools like energy performance contracting and energy labeling can help solve the landlord/tenant dilemma. The research was done in relation to the specific situation in Denmark, but theory, information and experiences from other countries were included. The results show that there are plenty of opportunities to overcome the landlord/tenant dilemma, but principal/agent problems can only be overcome with a package solution. In the Danish national context the package solution must consist of legislative changes, financial incentives and better dissemination of information. Therefore, an array of different tools must be integrated and used in cooperation to overcome the dilemma.

Ástmarsson, Björn; Jensen, Per Anker

2013-01-01

300

The 3Rs principle – mind the ethical gap!  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Over the 50 years since they were first proposed, the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) have made a tremendous impact. These principles seem to unify concerns for better science with causing less harm to animals. The ideas behind the 3Rs are so intuitively compelling that it is tempting to believe that full implementation is merely a matter of time, and once the 3Rs are widely implemented, the public will fully support any continued laboratory animal use that is deemed necessary. In this paper, we argue that these conclusions are unlikely to be correct, in part because the 3Rs are rich in ambiguities, and any implementation requires resolving the dilemma that promoting one R will sometimes directly or indirectly conflict with promoting another. For example, should Reduction be conceived in absolute or in relative numbers? Is it really possible (or desirable) to use relative Replacement (i.e., switching from a “higher” to a “lower” species)? Which of the 3Rs should receive priority? Until now, some scholars have focused on identifying Replacements for the use of live animal experiments in research, while others have focused on Reduction in the number of animals used and Refinements in procedures such that animals experience less harm. Meaningful contact between these camps may be limited, however. In some cases, the goals of Reduction and Refinement actually conflict, as, for example, in the choice to re-use animals (and hence reduce total animal usage) or to avoid re-use (and hence avoid the negative effects of repeated exposure to harmful procedures). We conclude that there is now a need for a more thorough ethical discussion on how to resolve these issues.

Olsson, I. Anna S.; Franco, Nuno H.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Ethics and reproductive health: The issue of HPV vaccination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years, attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the vaccination status.

Mateji? Bojana

2013-01-01

302

Dilemmas of Justification in the Qualitative Study of Intimate Matters : Examples from Namibia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter focuses on the special obligation researchers have to consider carefully the ethical and moral aspects of their work when undertaking qualitative field research on intimate matters. The chapter argues that the term "justification" is central to a discussion of several dimensions of ethics in the various phases of research, from the conception of a research idea to the dissimination of research results.

TersbØl, Britt Pinkowski

2010-01-01

303

Unethical dilemmas in derivatives practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current global economic crisis and its aftermath resulted of unethical practices of the companies' leaders and their financial management by improper usage of financial derivative, which turned the financial derivatives into a source of gambling, and spread to extremely large volume. Although, the unethical practices from a financial institution observing lack of ethics is made due to self interest that maximizes immediate profit putting shareholder wealth and small investor at risk rat...

Alqatawni, Tahsen

2013-01-01

304

Why There are No Dilemmas in Widerquist’s ‘A Dilemma for Libertarians’  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Karl Widerquist has recently argued that libertarians face two dilemmas. The first dilemma arises because, contrary to what Widerquist takes libertarians to suggest, there is no conceptual link between robust property rights and the libertarian state. Private property rights can legitimately yield non-libertarian states. Libertarians must thus remain committed either to robust property rights or the libertarian state. I call this the “Conceptual Dilemma.”The second dilemma is empirical in nature. Libertarians can try to undermine state property rights by showing that the means by which all present states came to have their property was unjust. However, doing so would presumably undermine almost all the property claims of private individuals. So the dilemma is that libertarians can undermine state property rights only by undermining individual property rights, on the one hand. On the other, libertarians can vindicate private property rights of individuals only by vindicating state property rights. I call this the “Empirical Dilemma.”I attempt to diffuse both of these dilemmas here. I argue that the Conceptual Dilemma relies on a misunderstanding of the libertarian’s commitments. In particular, I show that libertarians need not think robust property rights can yield states more extensive than Nozick’s minimal state. I then argue that Widerquist ignores libertarian scholarship aimed at meeting the Empirical Dilemma. Many libertarians have attempted to demonstrate that there are legitimate private property rights which are illegitimately disregarded by current states. The upshot of this discussion is that there are no genuine dilemmas posed by Widerquist’s “A Dilemma for Libertarians.”

Lamont Rodgers

2009-10-01

305

Political involvement in nursing--politics, ethics, and strategic action.  

Science.gov (United States)

Political apathy in the nursing profession can be attributed to numerous factors, including a perceived ethical conflict between professional values and political involvement, as well as a lack of strategy for political action. Differences in personal and professional ethics, conflicting loyalties, and a negative image of politics create ethical tension for nurses. Political-ethical conflicts can mean choosing between job, patient care, and personal ideals. Many nurses never have considered it their place to challenge the structure of the health care system or the rules guiding that system. Supporting political action that demands change in the system, therefore, can cause tension among nurses. The political-ethical dilemma for nurses is related to outdated images of nursing, repression, fear of power, and lack of knowledge. Many guidelines exist to help nurses understand why they should get involved in the political process. By using these guidelines, nurses can evaluate issues and use a valid method to assess problems, plan for action, and evaluate the effectiveness and benefits of specific strategies. In the second of this two-part series on political involvement in nursing, political-ethical conflict is explored, along with strategies for political action. PMID:11725441

Des Jardin, K

2001-11-01

306

Compassion, ethics, and neuroscience: neuroethics through Buddhist eyes.  

Science.gov (United States)

As scientists advance knowledge of the brain and develop technologies to measure, evaluate, and manipulate brain function, numerous questions arise for religious adherents. If neuroscientists can conclusively establish that there is a functional network between neural impulses and an individual's capacity for moral evaluation of situations, this will naturally lead to questions about the relationship between such a network and constructions of moral value and ethical human behavior. For example, if cognitive neuroscience can show that there is a neurophysiological basis for the moral appraisal of situations, it may be argued that the world's religions, which have traditionally been the keepers and purveyors of ethical values, are rendered either spurious or irrelevant. The questions point up broader dilemmas in the interface between science and religion, and raise concerns about the ethics of neurological research and experimentation. Since human beings will still arbitrate what is "moral" or "ethical," how can religious perspectives enrich the dialogue on neuroethical issues and how can neuroscience enrich dialogue on religion? Buddhist views on the nature of consciousness and methods of practice, especially meditation practice, may contribute to discussions on neuroscience and theories about the interrelationship between consciousness and ethical awareness by exploring the role that karma, intentionality, and compassion play in Buddhist understandings of the interrelationship between consciousness and ethics. PMID:22618161

Tsomo, Karma Lekshe

2012-09-01

307

Nursing students' perceptions of ethical behavior in undergraduate nursing faculty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical dilemmas in clinical nursing practice and areas of nursing research have been reported, but a paucity of current nursing research exists pertaining to ethical concerns between undergraduate nursing students and nurse educators. The study examined students' perceptions of ethical behavior in faculty of undergraduate nursing. Using an exploratory, mixed-methods approach, 101 members of a student nursing organization in the southeastern region of the United States participated in the study by completing the 16-item, anonymous questionnaire. Thirteen participants also submitted narratives describing their personal experiences with nursing faculty as it related to ethical interactions in the learning environment. The majority reported their experiences with nursing instructors to be ethical with no reports of sexual involvement with students. Instructor expectations of gifts from their students were almost non-existent. The narrative analysis yielded the following themes: bias: racial, gender, and other; humiliation, confidentiality, grading, uncaring, and cheating. Faculty-student interactions in nursing education are extremely complex. Instructors' increased awareness of their interaction with students and the adoption of ethical guidelines by schools of nursing are suggested. PMID:19040855

Savage, Jane S; Favret, Jacqueline O

2006-01-01

308

Comparative Analysis of Pharmacists' and Physicians' Attitudes toward the Use of Deception in Resolving Difficult Ethical Problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community pharmacists (n=176) were surveyed concerning their responses to four ethical dilemmas potentially resolvable by deception and their attitudes about deception in general. Results were compared to a similar study of physicians. The professions appear to have similar standards regarding use of deception, using it principally in the…

Jackson, Richard A.; Pirl, Margaret A.

1992-01-01

309

Educating for ethical leadership.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we consider the nature of ethical leadership in nursing. An appreciation of the basis of such leadership requires an understanding of responsibility and of key intellectual and ethical qualities or virtues. We examine some of the educational and practice strategies to promote ethical leadership. We argue that there are different levels of ethical leadership. All members of the nursing workforce are ethical leaders in so far as they demonstrate a commitment to ethical practice in their everyday work and act as ethical role models for others. Nurse managers are responsible for influencing their team and for acting as arbiters between organisational and professional values. Nurse educators are role models and ethical leaders as they ensure that the explicit and hidden curriculum demonstrate a commitment to professional values. Nurses who assume political roles have an obligation to lead on ethical agenda compatible with the values of nursing. PMID:20015579

Gallagher, Ann; Tschudin, Verena

2010-04-01

310

Saving Superman: Ethics and Stem Cell Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This case explores the political and ethical issues associated with stem cell research. Students read the case describing Christopher Reeve’s accident and injuries and his advocacy for stem cell research along with background readings on stem cells and the ethics of stem cell research. They are then assigned to one of four stakeholder groups and asked to develop a position on whether or not the U.S. Senate should expand stem cell research with a focus on the ethics underlying the issue.  They present their positions in class in a simulated public hearing.

Doug M. Post

2006-01-01

311

Ethics and education: reflections about teaching  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This text focuses on the links between ethics and education, especially in relation to teaching practice. It is based on a position which recognizes the need for an ethical-moral reference to reconfigure the human world. It recognizes, though, the historical character of that reference. This position implies the necessity of making decisions in the face of the new configurations which are posed by contemporary life, in which the educational field can assume great relevance, if it allows the p...

Paulo Evaldo Fensterseifer

2009-01-01

312

Ethnic marketing possibilities and its ethics issues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper focuses on the possibilities of ethnic marketing and its ethic connections. The differences found in our face-to-face interviews and analysing questionnaire data will provide opportunities for Hungarian small enterprises. Targeting ethnic groups for marketing purposes results in ethical difficulties. In Hungary, ethnic marketing is yet an inexperienced concept. Based on these ideas the authors examine the ins and outs of using ethnic marketing in case of Germans in Hungary. Consume...

Agota Kozma; Annamaria Sas

2009-01-01

313

Ethical thinking and discrimination in health care  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

RQ: Personal excellence of nursing focusing on self-transcendence and achievements is crucial for achieving excellence in health care. The question is whether there is unequal treatment of patients despite high ethical standards placed in health care.Purpose: Professional nurses code is a guide in assessing their ethical performance. People are different amongst each other, but have the same rights in the health system, which should be provided by health care services. The need to overcome in...

Aleksander Mlinšek

2012-01-01

314

Business Ethics Resources on WWW  

Science.gov (United States)

From the University of British Columbia's Centre for Applied Ethics, this extensive catalog of business ethics resources is divided into eight sections including Public Sector Ethics, Publications, Codes of Ethics, and Ethics Institutions and Organizations. Each section consists of briefly indexed links, organized in alphabetical order. Business Ethics Resources on the WWW also links to a page of applied ethics resources and the Centre for Applied Ethics.

315

Ethical community-engaged research: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health research has relied on ethical principles, such as those of the Belmont Report, to protect the rights and well-being of research participants. Community-based participatory research (CBPR), however, must also consider the rights and well-being of communities. This requires additional ethical considerations that have been extensively discussed but not synthesized in the CBPR literature. We conducted a comprehensive thematic literature review and summarized empirically grounded discussions of ethics in CBPR, with a focus on the value of the Belmont principles in CBPR, additional essential components of ethical CBPR, the ethical challenges CBPR practitioners face, and strategies to ensure that CBPR meets ethical standards. Our study provides a foundation for developing a working definition and a conceptual model of ethical CBPR. PMID:24134352

Mikesell, Lisa; Bromley, Elizabeth; Khodyakov, Dmitry

2013-12-01

316

Ethical and affective evaluation of environmental risks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: the present paper will be concerned with environmental risk perception, with special emphasis on those environmental risks that pertain to global change phenomena, such as climate change and ozone depletion. Two determinants of risk judgments are investigated that seem particularly relevant to environmental risks: ethical and affective evaluations. It is assumed that the focus of risk evaluation can be on one of two aspects: a) on an evaluation of potential losses, or b) on ethical considerations. We assume that both, potential loss and violation of ethical principles elicit emotional evaluations, but that these two judgmental aspects are associated with different specific emotions. Following cognitive emotion theories, we distinguish loss-based emotions, such as worry and fear, from ethical emotions, e.g., guilt and anger. A study is presented that investigates the role of ethical and affective evaluations in risk judgments. Various environmental risks were presented to subjects, e.g., air pollution, ozone depletion, climate change and destruction of ecological balance. For each environmental risk, subjects indicated in free-response format as well as on rating scales the extent to which ethical principles were violated, and the intensity of both loss-based and ethical emotions. The correlational structure of the emotion ratings confirms the distinction between loss-based and ethical emotions. Risk judgments co-vary with the strength. Risk judgments co-vary with the strength of ethical evaluation and with the intensity of loss-based emotions, but are independent of ethical emotions. The implications of these findings for the risk appraisal process are discussed. (authors)

317

Ethical and affective evaluation of environmental risks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text of publication follows: the present paper will be concerned with environmental risk perception, with special emphasis on those environmental risks that pertain to global change phenomena, such as climate change and ozone depletion. Two determinants of risk judgments are investigated that seem particularly relevant to environmental risks: ethical and affective evaluations. It is assumed that the focus of risk evaluation can be on one of two aspects: (a) on an evaluation of potential losses, or (b) on ethical considerations. We assume that both, potential loss and violation of ethical principles elicit emotional evaluations, but that these two judgmental aspects are associated with different specific emotions. Following cognitive emotion theories, we distinguish loss-based emotions, such as worry and fear, from ethical emotions, e.g., guilt and anger. A study is presented that investigates the role of ethical and affective evaluations in risk judgments. Various environmental risks were presented to subjects, e.g., air pollution, ozone depletion, climate change and destruction of ecological balance. For each environmental risk, subjects indicated in free-response format as well as on rating scales the extent to which ethical principles were violated, and the intensity of both loss-based and ethical emotions. The correlational structure of the emotion ratings confirms the distinction between loss-based and ethical emotions. Risk judgments co-vary with the strength of ethical evaluation and with the intensity of loss-based emotions, but are independent of ethical emotions. The implications of these findings for the risk appraisal process are discussed. (authors)

Bohm, G.; Pfister, H.R. [Bremen Univ. (Germany)

1998-07-01

318

Information Ethics in the Twenty First Century  

Science.gov (United States)

The first decade of the twenty first century has seen a growing interest and intellectual debate within the information professions, focusing on issues where an ethical dimension predominates. This paper provides an overview of codes of practice, published literature, conference proceedings and educational programs that focus on information…

Sturges, Paul

2009-01-01

319

Towards a framework for the elicitation of dilemmas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper covers the main findings of the doctoral research that was concerned with seeking to extend aspects of dilemma theory. In professional practice, the Trompenaars Hampden-Turner Dilemma Reconciliation ProcessTM is a vehicle delivering dilemma theory in application. It informs a manager or leader on how to explore the dilemmas they face, how to reconcile the tensions that result, and how to structure the action steps for implementing the reconciled solutions. This vehicle forms the pr...

Burger, Marc J. C.

2007-01-01

320

Ethical issues in kidney transplantation – reflections from Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Joseph Olusesan Fadare1, Babatunde L Salako21Department of Medicine, Kogi State Specialist Hospital, Lokoja; 2Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaAbstract: Organ transplantation has become a life-saving procedure for many disease conditions hitherto considered incurable. Kidney transplantation, now the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, is the commonest solid organ transplantation carried out in the world at the moment and it is the only solid organ transplantation done in Nigeria. This procedure, in addition to prolonging lives, also provides better quality of life and is evaluated as cost-effective, because it makes more resources available to other sectors of the economy. Organ transplantation in general and kidney transplantation in particular are fraught with ethical issues and dilemmas worldwide. Some of the ethical issues arising in the setting of developing countries like Nigeria may differ from those in countries where this procedure is established. Informed consent of the donor and the recipient is a major requirement for both organ donation and transplantation. Regarding donation, the ethical issues may differ depending on the type of organ donation, ie, whether it is living-related, living-unrelated, cadaveric, or from brain-dead individuals. Commodification of organs is identified as an ethical dilemma, and arguments for and against this practice are put forward here. Confidentiality of donor information, fairness and equity in donor selection, and access to kidney transplantation when needed are also discussed. Finally, the issue of safety of organ harvesting for the donor and of the transplantation process itself, and the possible long-term consequences for both parties are investigated.Keywords: kidney transplantation, ethical issues, developing countries, Nigeria

Joseph Olusesan Fadare

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
321

Ethics and Law  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethics are the set of moral rules that govern human conduct. Hegel, for his part, asserted that ethicity implied the full realization of freedom, as well as the suppression of it as arbitrariness. In this paper, we point out that, through the relation between Law and Ethics, we can discover how high are the Ethics of a society, as well as the adherence of its members to it.

Vilacoba Ramos, Andrés

2007-04-01

322

The Ethics and Politics of Ethics Approval  

Science.gov (United States)

The regulatory scope of Human Research Ethics Committees can be problematic for a variety of reasons. Some scholars have argued the ethics approval process, for example, is antithetical to certain disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, while others are willing to give it qualified support. This article uses a case study to cast the…

Battin, Tim; Riley, Dan; Avery, Alan

2014-01-01

323

THE TOURISM INDUSTRY OF ETHICS AND TOURISM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tourism industry is one of the largest industries in the world, and despite recent events that have made its operating environment more complex, the industry continues to grow [Theobald, 2005, Global Tourism, 3rdedn., Butterworth-Heinemann/Elsevier]. Commensurate to the size of the industry is a growth in the number of students pursuing degree courses in tourism around the world. Despite an increasingly sophisticated literature, the relative recency of the industry and its study has meant little attention has been paid in the ethics literature to the dilemmas facing tourism managers and its students. Based on interviews with senior members of the tourism industry six scenarios are developed with pertinence to the challenges faced by industry practitioners today.

Constan?a ENEA

2007-01-01

324

Consumer Ethics Research: Reframing the Debate about Consumption for Good  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Consumer ethics is an underdeveloped specialism of business and marketing ethics, within which most publications have focused on bad rather than on good ethics, and on consumer dishonesty rather than on consumer idealism or consumer responsibility. This conceptual paper explores the latter perspective, and examines how we can seek to understand “consumer social responsibility” from perspectives such as consumer citizenship, political consumerism and consumer decision making. Much of...

Brinkmann, Johannes; Peattle, Ken

2008-01-01

325

Understanding ethically questionable behaviour in consumption: an empirical investigation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is a study formulated under the rubric of understanding ethically questionable behaviour in consumption. It is argued that ethics research in the market place has tended to focus with a perspective of business practice, leaving an understanding of the consumer perspective relatively under-researched. Developed here is a theoretical framework seeking an understanding of how and why consumers engage in ethically questionable behaviour. This is initially based upon the Theory of Plan...

Fukukawa, Kyoko

2002-01-01

326

Ethical Challenges in the Care of Elderly Persons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ethical issues are central to any discussion or reflection on aging and health care. The authors of the OJIN topic, Health Care and the Aging Population: What Are Today's Challenges?, address a variety of topics including quality of life, long-term care planning, geriatric education, frail elder care, and successful aging behaviors. Imbedded in these topics are ethical issues that are relevant to nursing and/or health care. Thus, the focus of this column is to examine select ethical issues in...

Ludwick, R.; Mary Silva

2003-01-01

327

Reengineering Biomedical Translational Research with Engineering Ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is widely accepted that translational research practitioners need to acquire special skills and knowledge that will enable them to anticipate, analyze, and manage a range of ethical issues. While there is a small but growing literature that addresses the ethics of translational research, there is a dearth of scholarship regarding how this might apply to engineers. In this paper we examine engineers as key translators and argue that they are well positioned to ask transformative ethical questions. Asking engineers to both broaden and deepen their consideration of ethics in their work, however, requires a shift in the way ethics is often portrayed and perceived in science and engineering communities. Rather than interpreting ethics as a roadblock to the success of translational research, we suggest that engineers should be encouraged to ask questions about the socio-ethical dimensions of their work. This requires expanding the conceptual framework of engineering beyond its traditional focus on "how" and "what" questions to also include "why" and "who" questions to facilitate the gathering of normative, socially-situated information. Empowering engineers to ask "why" and "who" questions should spur the development of technologies and practices that contribute to improving health outcomes. PMID:24928281

Sunderland, Mary E; Nayak, Rahul Uday

2014-06-14

328

Codes of Ethics and Museum Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to focus on museum codes of ethics and discuss their provisions on museum research. Museum research is an important part of museum work; it is an ethical responsibility of museum professionals to perform this work for society and to encourage this undertaking in their institutions by other stakeholders. But how do codes of ethics in their current form encourage that? Instead of promoting a contemporary idea of research – multi-faceted, complex, open to the participation of many different interested parties, such as different professionals and communities of knowledge – they seem to understand research as a rather single-faceted phenomenon, object-oriented and collections-based. If codes of ethics are the epitome of museum professionalism and museum values, then these ethics should be embodied in new provisions for museum research. Notions like social inclusion, public accountability, and transparency, are central in museum research, and should be included in all codes of ethics as well, reflecting the efforts museums make to embody democratic ideals and share both research and writing of history with their audience, thus creating communities of knowledge. This paper aims to contribute to the debate on museum codes of ethics and to provide some ideas for future revisions.

Alexandra Bounia

2014-05-01

329

Do Teachers Leave Their Ethics at the School Gate? Social Practice Research in a Danish Primary School  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study addresses teachers' ethical dilemmas in everyday participation in school structures in a Danish Primary School. It focuses in particular on their relations with 'disturbing children'. The author and four first grade teachers work in a research team, documenting and analysing the teachers’ interactions in the classroom. This paper focuses on the interactions between two of the teachers and one of the students. The research team focuses on the teachers’ struggles with stress and burnout symptoms that they impute to students’ misbehaviour. Through their work together, documenting what happens in the classroom, and then working together in collective biography workshops, the research team reveals the contradictory conditions of teachers’ work. They find that following current guidelines for good classroom management, and accepting without question current discourses on ADHD, places the teachers in a double-bind, with teachers and children in opposition to each other, and both teachers and children being judged and found wanting.  The paper seeks new ways of thinking/doing classroom interaction that challenges some of the binds of current management practices.

Karen-Lis Kristensen

2013-08-01

330

Chimeras: An ethical consideration / Chimeras: 'n Etiese oorweging  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Scientists have started with experimentation that raises difficult ethical questions. It comprises taking material from the human blueprint (DNA) and inserting this in various test animals. The purpose of such research is noble, namely the alleviation of human suffering. Yet the ethical ramification [...] s of blending the human and animal genome are significant, especially for Christians. The creation of all living entities after their kind and the image-bearing dignity attributed to man both come under severe ethical stress for those who presuppose divine order in God's ecology. For non-Christians the philosophical dilemma ought not to exist in the ethical sense if applied at the purest level. If the human is merely a kind of animal, along with and ontologically not different from other animals, there is little logical reason to object to chimeric research apart from a concern about what such research and application might do to the order of life pragmatically. However, many non-Christian do object. Man is made in God's image and the concept of human dignity and a universal sense of right and wrong still binds Christians and non-Christians when considering ethics in the field of chimeric research. As the mixing of human stem cells with embryonic animals takes place, certain non-Christian authors protest that human dignity is being diminished and the animal essence is being violated.

H.J.G., Zandman.

2011-07-01

331

Aesthetic/Cosmetic surgery and ethical challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Is aesthetic surgery a business guided by market structures aimed primarily at material gain and profit or a surgical intervention intended to benefit patients and an integral part of the health-care system? Is it a frivolous subspecialty or does it provide a real and much needed service to a wide range of patients? At present, cosmetic surgery is passing through an identity crisis as well as an acute ethical dilemma. A closer look from an ethical viewpoint makes clear that the doctor who offers aesthetic interventions faces many serious ethical problems which have to do with the identity of the surgeon as a healer. Aesthetic surgery that works only according to market categories runs the risk of losing the view for the real need of patients and will be nothing else than a part of a beauty industry which has the only aim to sell something, not to help people. Such an aesthetic surgery is losing sight of real values and makes profit from the ideology of a society that serves only vanity, youthfulness, and personal success. Unfortunately, some colleagues brag that they chose the plastic surgery specialty just to become rich aesthetic surgeons, using marketing tactics to promote their practice. This is, at present, the image we project. As rightly proposed, going back a little to Hippocrates, to the basics of being a physician, is urgently warranted! Being a physician is all that a "cosmetic" surgeon should be. In the long run, how one skillfully and ethically practices the art of plastic surgery will always speak louder than any words. PMID:18820963

Atiyeh, Bishara S; Rubeiz, Michel T; Hayek, Shady N

2008-11-01

332

“?? Ahlak?” Cinsiyetler Aras?ndaki Farkl?l?klar Aç?s?ndan Literatür ?ncelemesi(Business Ethics: Literature Survey On Gender Differences)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Business ethics has not yet taken its place among the “defined” and “clear” concepts in the literature despite the numerous researches made in the last two decades. Gender difference is one the main reasons of this ambivalence.The increased participation of women in the work force is an important trend and this trend has generated research interest in "ethical decision making". For the majority of researchers, men and women differ in how they solve moral dilemmas. As a general result,...

Zel, Ug?ur

2006-01-01

333

Ethics, the Illegality of Physician Assisted Suicide in the United States, and the Role and Ordeal of Dr. Jack Kevorkian before His Death  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper tries to argue that physician-assisted suicide (PAS), which is opposed by the AMA and all US states except Oregon, is a moral and ethical dilemma that faces physicians, ethicists, legal experts, and others. To demonstrate this, the various dimensions of the debate are explored. This is accomplished by discussing the legal, ethical, medical and political ordeals of its most infamous practitioner, Dr. Jack Kevorkian of Michigan (1928-2011). As the paper argues, Dr. Kevorkian’s...

Hosseini, Hengameh M.

2012-01-01

334

Sexuality and breastfeeding: woman/mother’s dilemmas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: to describe the influence of breastfeeding on women's sexuality; examine the plight of women to combine breastfeeding and sexuality and to discuss the issue of sexuality and breastfeeding from the perspective of professional nursing practice. Methodology: this is a descriptive study, from qualitative approach, based on the report of twenty mothers over two months postpartum, performed in July 2009 in a Healthcare Center in Rio de Janeiro city. The statements led to empirical categories and were worked from the perspective of thematic analysis. This study was approved by the Ethics in Research of the Municipal Health Department/RJ, registration number 97/09. Results: several changes were present in the sexual life of the mothers: decreased libido, poor vaginal lubrication, dyspareunia and lack of sex appeal of the breasts. Conclusion: the changes to the body with motherhood have sexual intercourse with a dilemma for the woman who can not always reconcile the role of wife and mother in the same body.

Danielle Moreira Marques, Adriana Lemos

2010-04-01

335

Ethical Issues in the End of Life Care for Cancer Patients in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: In the recent years, advances in medical technologies for end stage cancer patients’ care have affected the end-of-life decision-making in clinical practice and exposed oncologists to serious ethical dilemmas. But little is known about oncologists' viewpoints in our country regarding their ethical problems in this mention. We aimed to clarify the ethical dilemmas which Iranian oncologists may face in our health care setting and to determine factors influencing decision-making process.Methods: In this qualitative study, a phenomenological approach was used. We interviewed 8 cancer specialists in teaching hospitals in Iran and used content analysis to identify codes and categorize themes in the data.Results: During the process of analysis, three main themes emerged about ethical dilemmas in end of life care for advanced cancer patients: illness factors, socio-cultural context and patient-physician relationship. Cancer specialists identified ethical problems on several main issues, the most important of which were telling the truth in Iranian cultural context, uncertainty in end stage definition, multidisciplinary team working and cost consideration in Iranian health care system.Conclusion: Health care and insurance system in Iran face to end of life care challenges; therefore, health care providers and policy makers need to allocate appropriate resources and programs to improve quality of care in terminal stages. Appropriate physicians’ communication skills training, multidisciplinary team working and supplementary insurance services that provide essential health care can improve the quality of care of patients with end stages of cancer. The findings of this study can help us to provide ethical policies for decision-making in end-of-life care.

Mina Mobasher

2013-02-01

336

Experiences and Non-experiences of Dilemmas  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pedagogues rarely reported that they experienced dilemmas. What seem contradictory demands for outside observers are conceptualised by pedagogues as “problems” or simply as inevitable unnoticed circumstances. The contradictory demands were especially evident in contexts involving children with special needs and seemed to be intensified by lack of space or small 22 number of staff. Conversely dilemmas seemed to be reduced by outdoor activities or more staff. A significant finding was also, that pedagogues in principle value inclusion and community but in practice seem to choose a paradoxical strategy where individual children are separated from the group in order to include them.

Ellegaard, Tomas

337

Resolving social dilemmas on evolving random networks  

CERN Document Server

We show that strategy independent adaptations of random interaction networks can induce powerful mechanisms, ranging from the Red Queen to group selection, that promote cooperation in evolutionary social dilemmas. These two mechanisms emerge spontaneously as dynamical processes due to deletions and additions of links, which are performed whenever players adopt new strategies and after a certain number of game iterations, respectively. The potency of cooperation promotion, as well as the mechanism responsible for it, can thereby be tuned via a single parameter determining the frequency of link additions. We thus demonstrate that coevolving random networks may evoke an appropriate mechanism for each social dilemma, such that cooperation prevails even by highly unfavorable conditions.

Szolnoki, Attila; 10.1209/0295-5075/86/30007

2009-01-01

338

THE ETHICAL CROSSROADS IN THE AGE OF THE “NEW MEDIA”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The spread of digital technology, which allows anyone (in theory
to disseminate in-formation on the Internet, is the greatest and a
dramatic new ethical question of the modern world. It is especially
true for the principles that traditionally have guided jour-nalism.
This article addresses some of the central dilemmas that journalism faces in this new context, and poses questions regarding possible limits to what should be made pub-lic, in view of the loss of this control historically applied through journalism and the everpresent hypothesis of anonymity on the net.

Sylvia Moretzsohn

2011-02-01

339

Ethical Issues in Financing Health Care in Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The allocation of financial resources in accordance with population health care needs represents a complex task, with practical and ethical dilemmas. The decisions regarding resource allocation are made at macro, mezzo and micro levels. Legislative authorities and government decide how to allocate limited resources based on cost effectiveness criteria. Managing directors of hospitals and research institutes take mezzo decisions, while doctors and researchers in healthcare area are responsible to make micro decisions. The aim of this paper is to assess the use of equity criteria for resource allocation in Romanian public hospitals. We found that resource allocation within the Romanian health system increases the inequalities among individuals and groups.

Cristina GAVRILOVICI

2013-02-01

340

Ethical hegemony  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Drawing upon Peter Ives' book, Gramsci's Politics of Language, this article examines the linguistic origins of Antonio Gramsci's theory of hegemony. This is then compared with Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the habitus, with a particular focus on how the two theories conceptualize social change. Ives shows that Gramsci understood language standardization as either democratic or repressive depending on the nature of the standardization process. Ives uses this to argue that the opposite of repress...

Friedman, P. Kerim

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Dilemmas and Solutions for a Sustainable Green Transition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mitigation of global warming and transitioning to a green and sustainable world are counteracted by a number of barriers and dilemmas. The paper analyses a number of these barriers and dilemmas in order to highlight efficient strategies and solutions for a sustainable development. Most governments in industrial countries do not pay enough attention to concepts as limits to growth in a finite globe and the importance of economic and social equity. They also overlook in practice the need for keeping at least 50% of known fossil reserves under ground in order to avoid a critical increase in global temperature. On the contrary, a number of industrial countries are now promoting exploitation of new fossil sources like shale gas and oil from tar sand. Reversing population growth facilitates sustainable development, but most governments of industrial nations appear to be more concerned about decreases in their population. The central problem is that limits to growth are not taken seriously by finance ministers in most industrial countries. This paper will focus on the consequences of limits to growth and the need for an alternative concept of employment and work.

Meyer, Niels I

2014-01-01

342

Pascal's Wager: health insurance exchanges, Obamacare, and the Republican dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) created a dilemma for Republican policy makers at the state level. States could maximize control over decision making and avoid federal intervention by establishing their own health insurance exchanges. Yet GOP leaders feared that creating exchanges would entrench a law they intensely opposed and undermine legal challenges to the ACA. Republicans' calculations were further complicated by uncertainty over the Supreme Court's ruling on the ACA's constitutionality and the outcome of the November 2012 elections. In the first year of operation, only seventeen states and the District of Columbia chose to design and implement their own exchanges; another six partnered with the federal government, and twenty-seven states ceded control to Washington. Out of thirty states with Republican governors in 2013, only four launched their own exchange. Why did many Republican-led states that initially appeared open to establishing exchanges ultimately reverse course? Drawing on interviews with state policy makers and secondary data, we trace the evolution of Republican responses to the exchange dilemma during 2010-13. We explore how exchanges became controversial and explain why so few Republican-led states opted for their own exchange, focusing on the intensifying resistance to Obamacare amid a rightward shift in state politics, partisan polarization, and uncertainty over the ACA's fate. PMID:24193607

Jones, David K; Bradley, Katharine W V; Oberlander, Jonathan

2014-02-01

343

Improving epistemological beliefs and moral judgment through an STS-based science ethics education program.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study develops a Science-Technology-Society (STS)-based science ethics education program for high school students majoring in or planning to major in science and engineering. Our education program includes the fields of philosophy, history, sociology and ethics of science and technology, and other STS-related theories. We expected our STS-based science ethics education program to promote students' epistemological beliefs and moral judgment development. These psychological constructs are needed to properly solve complicated moral and social dilemmas in the fields of science and engineering. We applied this program to a group of Korean high school science students gifted in science and engineering. To measure the effects of this program, we used an essay-based qualitative measurement. The results indicate that there was significant development in both epistemological beliefs and moral judgment. In closing, we briefly discuss the need to develop epistemological beliefs and moral judgment using an STS-based science ethics education program. PMID:23338794

Han, Hyemin; Jeong, Changwoo

2014-03-01

344

Ethics of biopsy in children with newly diagnosed diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand the ethical dilemmas that beset this issue of biopsy in children with newly diagnosed diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, one must understand both the history behind it and the current dominant interpretation of ethics through the medium of the institutional review boards. It is also important to understand that this article represents the author's personal viewpoint. At a consensus meeting to discuss the issue of biopsies in Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG) at the National institutes of Health held in the fall of 2011, there were a variety of opinions expressed. PMID:24451810

Foreman, Nicholas K

2012-01-01

345

Addiction Research Ethics and the Belmont Principles: Do Drug Users Have a Different Moral Voice?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study used semi-structured interviews and content analysis to examine moral principles that street drug users apply to three hypothetical addiction research ethical dilemmas. Participants (n = 90) were ethnically diverse, economically disadvantaged drug users recruited in New York City in 2009. Participants applied a wide range of contextually sensitive moral precepts, including respect, beneficence, justice, relationality, professional obligations, rules, and pragmatic self-interest. Li...

Fisher, Celia B.

2011-01-01

346

The right to practice medicine without repercussions: ethical issues in times of political strife  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract This commentary examines the incursion on the neutrality of medical personnel now taking place as part of the human rights crises in Bahrain and Syria, and the ethical dilemmas which these incursions place not only in front of physicians practicing in those nations, but in front of the international community as a whole. In Bahrain, physicians have recently received harsh prison terms, apparently for treating demonstrators who clashed with government forces. In Syria...

Hathout Leith

2012-01-01

347

Legal, Ethical & Social Issues in the case of an Intrusive Remote Monitoring Software  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 2008, a laptop was stolen from a high school student in the USA. The laptop was being monitored by remote recovery software. The thief sold the laptop in question to another student who in turn sold it to a teacher. The software continued to monitor the private daily life of this teacher. This paper provides an overview of the resultant lawsuit. We examine the ethical, privacy and legal dilemmas highlighted by this case.

Shaun McBrearty; Nigel McKelvey; Kevin Curran

2012-01-01

348

Six pillars of character [videorecording] : ethics in action  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Produced in conjunction with the Josephson Institute of Ethics, the Six pillars of character focuses on the primary components of building a workforce of integrity and honesty. The tape links the benefits of ethical behavior (competitive edge; credibility; efficiency; morale; loyalty; and personal satisfaction) with the required characteristics of trustworthiness; respect; responsibility; fairness; caring and citizenship. Can be used independently or in a class.

349

Becoming-Other: Developing the Ethics of Integration  

Science.gov (United States)

This article analyzes the philosophy of French post-structuralist Gilles Deleuze in the context of post-formal education. The article specifically focuses on Deleuze's unorthodox approach to epistemology and ethics as future-oriented and creative, and lays down the foundations for a new ethics of integration in education derived from Deleuze's…

Semetsky, Inna

2011-01-01

350

Do organizational and clinical ethics in a hospital setting need different venues?  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure of ethics work in a hospital is complex. Professional ethics, research ethics and clinical ethics committees (CECs) are important parts of this structure, in addition to laws and national and institutional codes of ethics. In Norway all hospital trusts have a CEC, most of these discuss cases by means of a method which seeks to include relevant guidelines and laws into the discussion. In recent years many committees have received more cases which have concerned questions of principle. According to Ellen Fox and co-authors the traditional CEC model suffers from a number of weaknesses. Therefore, in their organization a separate body deals with organizational matters. In this paper, we discuss what is gained and what is lost by creating two separate bodies doing ethics consultation. We do this through an analysis of detailed minutes of CEC discussions in one CEC during a 6-year period. 30 % of all referrals concerned matters of principle. Some of these discussions originated in a dilemma related to a particular patient. Most of the discussions had some consequences within the hospital organization, for clinical practice, for adjustment of guidelines, or may have influenced national policy. We conclude that a multiprofessional CEC with law and ethics competency and patient representation may be well suited also for discussion of general ethical principles. A CEC is a forum which can help bridge the gap between clinicians and management by increasing understanding for each others' perspectives. PMID:24647554

Førde, Reidun; Hansen, Thor Willy Ruud

2014-06-01

351

Relevance of the rationalist-intuitionist debate for ethics and professionalism in medical education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite widespread pedagogical efforts to modify discrete behaviors in developing physicians, the professionalism movement has generally shied away from essential questions such as what virtues characterize the good physician, and how are those virtues formed? Although there is widespread adoption of medical ethics curricula, there is still no consensus about the primary goals of ethics education. Two prevailing perspectives dominate the literature, constituting what is sometimes referred to as the "virtue/skill dichotomy". The first perspective argues that teaching ethics is a means of providing physicians with a skill set for analyzing and resolving ethical dilemmas. The second perspective suggests that teaching ethics is a means of creating virtuous physicians. The authors argue that this debate about medical ethics education mirrors the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate in contemporary moral psychology. In the following essay, the authors sketch the relevance of the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate to medical ethics and professionalism. They then outline a moral intuitionist model of virtuous caring that derives from but also extends the "social intuitionist model" of moral action and virtue. This moral intuitionist model suggests several practical implications specifically for medical character education but also for health science education in general. This approach proposes that character development is best accomplished by tuning-up (activating) moral intuitions, amplifying (intensifying) moral emotions related to intuitions, and strengthening (expanding) intuition-expressive, emotion-related moral virtues, more than by "learning" explicit ethical rules or principles. PMID:25319836

Leffel, G Michael; Oakes Mueller, Ross A; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D

2014-10-16

352

Corporate Governance Debate on Professional Ethics in Accounting Profession  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paper focuses on the particular case of professional ethics in the context of the accounting profession. After briefly discussing recent events that made us reconsider our understanding of corporate governance, accountancy and ethics, we try to delimit the state of the art by looking at ethics from the accounting professions’ perspective. When aiming to clarify professional ethics, we closely analyze integrity based on the latest developments undertaken by European professional bodies. Findings are used in identifying ways to contribute to the endeavor of aligning the profession’s performance with society’s reasonable expectations.

Carmen Giorgiana Bonaci

2013-09-01

353

Ethics and Social Justice within the New DEEL: Addressing the Paradox of Control/Democracy  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper addresses the ethical and social justice implications of an educational movement called, The New DEEL (Democratic Ethical Educational Leadership). In particular, this paper emphasizes the ethical underpinnings of this movement by focusing on the paradox in the form of the dyad of control/democracy. This important paradox is developed…

Shapiro, Joan Poliner

2006-01-01

354

Ethics in Neuroscience Graduate Training Programs: Views and Models from Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Consideration of the ethical, social, and policy implications of research has become increasingly important to scientists and scholars whose work focuses on brain and mind, but limited empirical data exist on the education in ethics available to them. We examined the current landscape of ethics training in neuroscience programs, beginning with the…

Lombera, Sofia; Fine, Alan; Grunau, Ruth E.; Illes, Judy

2010-01-01

355

Borges Dilemma, Fundamental Laws, and Systems Biology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I reason here that the known folk law in biology that there is no general law in biology because of exceptions is false. The (quantitative) systems biology offers the potential to solve the Borges Dilemma, by transcending it. There have already a plenty of indications on this trend.

Ping Ao

2008-01-01

356

PILONIDAL SINUS OF NOSE – A DIAGNOSTIC DILEMMA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report an unusual case of pilonidal sinus of the nose, which presented to us as a diagnostic dilemma. Our initial differential diagnosis of a nasal dermoid was overruled by histopathology of the surgical specimen. We discuss the etiological possibilities, the pathogenesis and the histopathological characteristics of a pilonidal sinus occurring over the nasal dorsum.

S. Sreedharan

2010-08-01

357

Dilemma and quantum battle of sexes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analysed quantum version of the game battle of sexes using a general initial quantum state. For a particular choice of initial entangled quantum state it is shown that the classical dilemma of the battle of sexes can be resolved and a unique solution of the game can be obtained

358

Ethical Guidelines for Computer Security Researchers: "Be Reasonable"  

Science.gov (United States)

For most of its existence, the field of computer science has been lucky enough to avoid ethical dilemmas by virtue of its relatively benign nature. The subdisciplines of programming methodology research, microprocessor design, and so forth have little room for the greater questions of human harm. Other, more recently developed sub-disciplines, such as data mining, social network analysis, behavioral profiling, and general computer security, however, open the door to abuse of users by practitioners and researchers. It is therefore the duty of the men and women who chart the course of these fields to set rules for themselves regarding what sorts of actions on their part are to be considered acceptable and what should be avoided or handled with caution out of ethical concerns. This paper deals solely with the issues faced by computer security researchers, be they vulnerability analysts, privacy system designers, malware experts, or reverse engineers.

Sassaman, Len

359

Teaching Ethics in Medical School.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews the literature regarding the teaching of ethics in medical schools. Defines medical ethics and attempts to determine the scope of medical ethics teaching. Discusses ways medical ethics could be taught and how that teaching can be assessed. Calls for increased attention into the teaching of medical ethics. (TW)

Ewan, Christine

1986-01-01

360

The Drama in School Leadership: An Arts-Based Approach to Understanding the Ethical Dimensions of Decision Making for Educational Leaders  

Science.gov (United States)

This article considers the implications and effectiveness of a performing arts-based pedagogy in the professional development of school leaders. It reports on the findings from a study that exposed educational leaders to methods of dramatic analysis as a means of reflecting on the ethical dilemmas found in personnel management. Through the dynamic…

Cranston, Jerome A.; Kusanovich, Kristin A.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

THE ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF AN ETHICS MANAGEMENT TOOL - CANADIAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION’S CODE OF ETHICS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The object of this study is the Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice of the Canadian Marketing Association (CMA). The focus is on the structure, contents and the role of this tool. The developing, upgrading and implementing assigned to this code are compared to the standards proposed by Institute of Business Ethics (London).The fact that the CMA is an organization built upon a professional criteria places all its ethical rules in the area of professional business ethics, but being an asso...

IBRIAN C?R?MIDARU; SABINA IRIMIE

2007-01-01

362

The meta-ethics of normative ethics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is an attempt to answer the following question: Do our moral commitments commit us to constraints on what meta-ethical theories we find attractive? In order to answer this question, I first demonstrate that meta-ethical theories can be criticised on moral grounds. I then argue that correctness conditions for moral claims imply the thesis of explanatory moral realism. I do not claim that this is an argument for the truth of explanatory moral realism. Rather, I claim that ...

Scorzo, Greg

2011-01-01

363

 Getting It Right in Ethical Experience: John McDowell and Virtue Ethics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Most forms of virtue ethics are characterized by two attractive features. The first is that proponents of virtue ethics acknowledge the need to describe how moral agents acquire or develop the traits and abilities necessary to become morally able agents. The second attractive feature of most forms of virtue ethics is that they are forms of moral realism. The two features come together in the attempt to describe virtue as a personal ability to distinguish morally good reasons for action. It follows from the general picture of virtue ethics presented here that we cannot evaluate ethical judgment independently of the viewpoint of the ideal of a virtuous person. We will examine how this ideal unfolds in the realistic form of virtue ethics advanced by John McDowell. McDowell offers a compelling description of virtue as a natural ability grounded in human nature, while at the same time insisting that we cannot understand the judgment resulting from virtue without drawing on that very perspective. However, McDowell's focus on the passive taking in of reasons in ethical experience and his idea of the silencing of wrong reasons lead us to three related problems. The first is that he cannot account for certain features of the phenomenology of such experience; the second is that he cannot provide any relevant epistemological criteria for correct moral judgment; and the third is that he gives a morally objectionable characterization of the ideal of being a virtuous person. All of these problems arise because McDowell does not take into account the particular nature of ethical experience. If we try to resolve this problem by dropping McDowell's idea of silencing, we then have to offer another substantial description of our ideal of a virtuous person that includes active and interpersonal ways of evaluating concrete judgments. Proponents of virtue ethics still have to lift this task and develop a position that does not limit ethical experience to the passive intake of reasons.

Christensen, Anne-Marie SØndergaard

2009-01-01

364

[Occupational medicine: practice and ethical requirements of the new law on health and safety in the workplace (legislative decree 81/2008)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Decisions in occupational health may involve ethical conflicts arising from conflicts between stakeholders' interests. Codes of ethics can provide a practical guide to solve dilemmas. The new law on health and safety in the workplace in Italy (decree 81/2008) states that occupational health practice must comply with the code of ethics of the International Commission on Occupational Health. The universally acknowledged ethical principles of beneficience/nonmaleficience, autonomy and justice, which are the basis of the Charter of fundamental rights of the European Union, inspired this code. Although the code is not a systematic textbook of occupational health ethics and does not cover all possible aspects arising from the practice, making decisions based on it will assure their effectiveness and compliance with ethical principles, besides the formal respect of the law. PMID:19776459

Franco, Giuliano; Mora, Erika

2009-01-01

365

Health Care Cost Containment: Dilemmas and Solutions. Midwest Alliance in Nursing Fall Workshop (Dearborn, Michigan, September 1983).  

Science.gov (United States)

Focusing on various issues related to rapidly rising health care costs, and the dilemmas these pose for health care professionals these proceedings include the following papers: (1) "A Federal Perspective: Nursing under Prospective Payment," by Carolyne K. Davis; (2) "Providers' Panel: Facing the Issues," by Connie Curran, Jeptha Dalston, David…

Minckley, Barbara B., Ed.; Walters, Mary Dale, Ed.

366

“I Can't Afford That!”: Dilemmas in the Care of the Uninsured and Underinsured  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When patients lack sufficient health care insurance, financial matters become integrally intertwined with biomedical considerations in the process of clinical decision making. With a growing medically indigent population, clinicians may be compelled to bend billing or reimbursement rules, lower standards, or turn patients away when they cannot afford the costs of care. This article focuses on 3 types of dilemmas that clinicians face when patients cannot pay for needed medical services: (1) wh...

Weiner, Saul

2001-01-01

367

Fieldwork and ethics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Slovak Association of Social Anthropologists initiated recently a discussion about the ethics in the ethnology, social and cultural anthropology. In January 2009 the association organized the seminar “Ethics in ethnology/social anthropology which brought vivid response in the academic community in Slovakia. The paper will deal with the question which are the most frequent ethic problems in field work such as for example the selection of research topic from the ethic point of view, ethic regulations during the conducting of field work, the protection of respondent’s personal data during the elaboration of data and archiving, the publication of research data etc. The author will inform about approaches and react to the current discussion about the possibilities how to solve the ethic questions in the field work.

Kilianova Gabriela

2010-01-01

368

Managing ethics in higher education : implementing a code or embedding virtue ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews a publication entitled 'Ethics Matters. Managing Ethical Issues in Higher Education', which was distributed to all UK universities and equivalent (HEIs) in October 2005. The publication proposed that HEIs should put in place an institution-wide ethical policy framework, well beyond the customary focus on research ethics, together with the mechanisms necessary to ensure its implementation. Having summarised the processes that led to the publication and the publication itself...

Moore, G.

2006-01-01

369

Ethics and Transgenic Crops: a Review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This article represents a review of some of the ethical dilemmas that have arisen as a result of the development and deployment of transgenic crop plants. The potential for transgenic crops to alleviate human hunger and the possible effects on human health are discussed. Risks and benefits to the en [...] vironment resulting from genetic engineering of crops for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses are considered, in addition to effects on biodiversity. The socio-economic impacts and distribution of benefits from transgenic technologies are reviewed. Fundamental issues of man’s relationship with nature and the environment, and theological matters are also addressed. An almost unprecedented amount of discussion has been stimulated on the merits and demerits of genetic engineering of crop plants, and has divided both the public and scientific communities. The arguments for and against transgenics are invariably based on visions of the new technology from widely different ethical perspectives.

Jonathan, Robinson.

1999-08-15

370

(The Ethics of) Teaching Science and Ethics: A Collaborative Proposal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I offer a normative argument for a collaborative approach to teaching ethical issues in the sciences. Teaching science ethics requires expertise in at least two knowledge domains—the relevant science(s) and philosophical ethics. Accomplishing the aims of ethics education, while ensuring that science ethics discussions remain grounded in the best empirical science, can generally best be done through collaboration between a scientist and an ethicist. Ethics as a discipline is in danger of bei...

Kabasenche, William P.

2014-01-01

371

Revisiting eco-ethics and econ-ethics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Modern humanity can survive only if traditional ethics are extended to include eco-ethics and econ-ethics. Success or failure in developing and implementing these new ethical constructs will affect the fate of our species Homo sapiens and that of millions of other forms of life. In the long run failure to accept and apply eco-ethics and econ-ethics would reduce the capacities of Planet Earth to support life.

Otto Kinne

2002-01-01

372

Revisiting eco-ethics and econ-ethics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modern humanity can survive only if traditional ethics are extended to include eco-ethics and econ-ethics. Success or failure in developing and implementing these new ethical constructs will affect the fate of our species Homo sapiens and that of millions of other forms of life. In the long run failure to accept and apply eco-ethics and econ-ethics would reduce the capacities of Planet Earth to support life.

Otto Kinne

2002-11-01

373

Dilemma of Empowerment: Responsibility Attribution in Prison Counseling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prison counseling as a new intervening tool to reform inmates in China has provided a site in which inmates could have more rights to confidentiality or equality and be motivated towards positive change. In actual practice, however, there are occasions in which the police counselors do not seem to act as facilitators and helpers as they are supposed to. This paper, drawing on discursive psychology, looks into how the police counselors attribute responsibility for the problems that drive the inmate clients to the counseling by focusing on variant cases. Analysis reveals that two main discursive devices, tag questions and reformulation, are employed by the police counselors in an attempt to deflect responsibility for the problems of the inmate clients and the solution to these problems from the prison and stakeholders within the prison. Prison counseling is caught in a dilemma of empowerment.

Guo Jing-ying

2014-01-01

374

Gender, trust and cooperation in environmental social dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research addresses gender differences in environmental protection efforts. Recent work indicates that, across a variety of domains, women are more generous, charitable, and prosocial than men. Despite above-average levels of these motivators for cooperation, considerable experimental research points to no difference in cooperation between genders. What can explain women's lower-than-expected cooperation levels? Prior research indicates that, compared to men, women are less trusting and respond to fear incentives in social dilemmas - they are concerned about being exploited. We test these arguments in the context of environmental behaviors and argue that lower trust and greater responses to fear incentives mean that women's cooperation is predicated on trust. For men, trust does not predict environmental cooperation. The current research represents the first empirical test of these arguments. Using data from the General Social Survey we focus on private sphere behaviors and political participation and predict an interaction between gender and trust on cooperation. Results support this prediction. PMID:25592940

Irwin, Kyle; Edwards, Kimberly; Tamburello, Jeffrey A

2015-03-01

375

Boosting cooperation by involving extortion in spatial Prisoner's dilemma  

CERN Document Server

We study the evolution of cooperation in spatial Prisoner's dilemma games with and without extortion by adopting aspiration-driven strategy updating rule. We focus explicitly on how the strategy updating manner (whether synchronous or asynchronous) and also the introduction of extortion strategy affect the collective outcome of the games. By means of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations as well as dynamical cluster techniques, we find that the involvement of extortioners facilitates the boom of cooperators in the population (and whom can always dominate the population if the temptation to defect is not too large) for both synchronous and asynchronous strategy updating, in stark contrast to the otherwise case, where cooperation is promoted for intermediate aspiration level with synchronous strategy updating, but is remarkably inhibited if the strategy updating is implemented asynchronously. We explain the results by configurational analysis and find that the presence of extortion leads to the checkerboard-like orderin...

Wu, Zhi-Xi

2014-01-01

376

Elementary science education: Dilemmas facing preservice teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

Prospective teachers are involved in a process of induction into a culture of teaching that has rules, or codes of conduct for engaging in teaching practice. This same culture of teaching exists within a larger culture of schooling that also has values and norms for behaviors, that over time have become institutionalized. Teacher educators are faced with the challenging task of preparing preservice teachers to resolve dilemmas that arise from conflicts between the pressure to adopt traditional teaching practices of schooling, or to adopt inquiry-based teaching practices from their university methods classes. One task for researchers in teacher education is to define with greater precision what factors within the culture of schooling hinder or facilitate implementation of inquiry-based methods of science teaching in schools. That task is the focus of this study. A qualitative study was undertaken using a naturalistic research paradigm introduced by Lincoln and Guba in 1985. Participant observation, interviews, discourse analysis of videotapes of lessons from the methods classroom and written artifacts produced by prospective teachers during the semester formed the basis of a grounded theory based on inductive analysis and emergent design. Unstructured interviews were used to negotiate outcomes with participants. Brief case reports of key participants were also written. This study identified three factors that facilitated or hindered the prospective teachers in this research success in implementing inquiry-based science teaching in their field placement classrooms: (a) the culture of teaching/teacher role-socialization, (b) the culture of schooling and its resistance to change, and (c) the culture of teacher education, especially in regards to grades and academic standing. Some recommendations for overcoming these persistent obstacles to best practice in elementary science teaching include: (a) preparing prospective teachers to understand and cope with change processes, (b) to understand the nature of teaching and schooling, and (c) to understand the nature of teacher education itself through explicit discourse about these topics. In addition, development of greater partnerships among university faculty and schools though Partnership School models and other community-building efforts can afford prospective teachers more opportunities to enter the discourse; perhaps even as change agents.

Sullivan, Sherry Elaine

377

Codes of Ethics Online  

Science.gov (United States)

The Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions at the Illinois Institute of Technology maintains the Codes of Ethics Online Web site. The Center writes: "With the advent of the Internet, it seemed clear that digitizing the codes and making them accessible over the World-Wide Web would benefit researchers, students, and professionals alike." The science page contains links to over fifty organizations' ethical codes, including the American Institute of Chemists, the American Physical Society, the Water Quality Association, etc.

378

Ethics and Information Technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The versatility and adaptability of information technology (IT) offer many potential benefits to society, its organisations and its citizens, but there are also associated risks. The social and ethical implications of this technology warrant special attention and have resulted in the creation of information ethics as a discrete area of study. The overall goal of information ethics is to integrate IT and human values in such a way that IT advances and protects human values rather than doing da...

Simon Rogerson

1997-01-01

379

Leadership ethics : an introduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Are leaders morally special? Is there something ethically distinctive about the relationship between leaders and followers? Should leaders do whatever it takes to achieve group goals?" "Leadership Ethics draws on both moral theory and empirical research in psychology to evaluate the reasons everyday leaders give to justify breaking the rules. Written for people without a background in philosophy, it introduces readers to the moral theories that are relevant to leadership ethics: relativism, ...

Price, Terry L.

2012-01-01

380

Population, ethics, and equity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Demography is impregnated, more or less explicitly, with ethical contents. This is apparent in the words used to support data, which change over time (e.g., the term "illegitimate child" is no longer used). Ethical principles must be analyzed because demography concerns both public policies and individual choice. There is a conflict in this area between the idea of the ethical state, dictating personal behaviors to citizens, and that of decisions based on freedom, supported by three shared va...

Berlinguer Giovanni

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Contemporary Varieties of Ethical Leadership in Organizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Classical ethics perspectives are generally sorted into the virtue, deontological, or teleological approaches, also known as the character, means (duty, and ends (greatest good schools of ethical thought. In recent decades, the catalog of literature extolling the various types of ethical leadership has proliferated. Analysis of the six major contemporary ethical leadership perspectives that follow reveals that they can be grouped into “scientific” articulations of three dominant classical distinctions. That is, the personal integrity and authentic/positive leadership models can be seen as classic virtue approaches, looking to the individual as the primary locus of ethical action. Moral management and professionally-grounded leadership can be seen as classic deontological approaches, focusing on society’s rules and roles, as spelled out through compliance or professional education. Finally, variants of the socially responsible leader and transforming leadership models can be seen as classic teleological approaches, emphasizing broad shareholder inclusiveness with “greatest-good” assumptions. Critique of each of the various varieties of ethical leadership is also reviewed.

Montgomery Van Wart

2014-08-01

382

Ethics in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethics is a branch of philosophy. Its object is the study of both moral and immoral behaviour in order to make well founded judgements and to arrive at adequate recommendations. The Collins English Dictionary provides the following definitions of the word ethic: Ethic: a moral principle or set of moral values held by an individual or group; Ethics(singular): the philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct and of the rules and principles that ought to govern it; Ethics(pleural): a social, religious or civil code of behaviour considered correct, especially that of a particular group, profession or individual; Ethics(pleural): the moral fitness of a decision, course of action, etc. Ethics has a two-fold objective: Firstly it evaluates human practices by calling upon moral standards; it may give prescriptive advice on how to act morally in a specific kind of situation. This implies analysis and evaluation. Sometimes this is known as Normative ethics. The second is to provide therapeutic advice, suggesting solutions and policies. It must be based on well-informed opinions and requires a clear understanding of the vital issues. In the medical world, we are governed by the Hippocratic Oath. Essentially this requires medical practitioners (doctors) to do good, not harm. There is great interest and even furore regarding ethics in radiation protection

383

Evidence and Ethics (Editorial)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Welcome to the December issue of EBLIP, the final issue of my first year as Editor-in-Chief. A year which I have thoroughly enjoyed and one where the fears over what to write in my editorials haven’t materialised. This quarter, ethics has featured quite heavily in my working life so I decided to make this the topic of the editorial, sharing some of my thoughts regarding evidence, ethics and how ethical principles are implemented within the EBLIP journal.Ethics are “principles of conduct o...

Alison Brettle

2012-01-01

384

The Integration of the Ethical Dimension into Business Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organisations are marked by the complexity of interdependences and non-linear feed-back whose synergetic character has a strong impact on the dynamics, de-structuring and restructuring of the socio-economic systems that these are included in, in a continuous process characterised mainly by instability and rapid changes. In this context, the necessity to focus on ethics as a prerequisite in regular decision-making at the level of these organisations represents a major challenge for higher education, in particular for the business administration field, which has to ensure the comprehensibility of these phenomena. The research is divided into three main sections that focus on the ethical dimension of human activities in the economy, starting from the need to integrate ethics into business education: problems and objectives of the curriculum regarding ethics, requirements for elaborating the curriculum, as well as students’ perception of the introduction of “Business Ethics” in the curriculum. Based on the specialised literature review, the observations at the level of organisations, the analysis and structuring of structural-phenomenological information, we disseminated the objectives and requirements of a curriculum focused on business ethics. The quantitative analysis of students` perception of the discussed issue was made by means of a survey carried out among students enrolled in Master`s programmes, based on a questionnaire. The relevant elements were identified to validate the research hypotheses: relevant business factors (profit, risk, financial viability, the need for ethics and the involvement in community problems, the explanatory variables of ethical behaviour (the education, the mission and the value system, the existence of a code of ethics and of a person responsible for ethics-related issues, the requirements of the business environment in education (focus on practical aspects of Business Ethics courses, combining theoretical sessions with practical ones, cooperation with the business environment, the use of case studies as a didactic tool and updating the content of Business Ethics courses, as well as the competitive advantages gained by introducing “Business Ethics” in the curriculum (high degree of comprehension, more opportunities, competitiveness, efficiency in fulfilling responsibilities. The use of statistical instruments made it possible to reach conclusions regarding the necessity to include ethics in business education and its formative impact, as well as regarding the existing correlations between ethical behaviour and education

Monica Petcu

2014-08-01

385

The ethics of energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sustainable development, by which we mean the use of the planet's resources for the common good of its present and future inhabitants, has become a concept capable of guiding every level of individual and collective action, as well as national and international policies. UNESCO today is perhaps the body of the United Nations which best embodies this principle in terms of education and culture. One of the most urgent problems humankind as a whole must face is that of the production and use of different forms of energy. After recalling various principles concerning the dependence of energy issues on space and, above all, time (Chapter 1), in Chapter 2 this report describes each energy sector, namely fossil fuels, nuclear power and the so-called renewable sources of energy of all kinds, underlining in each case their benefits, their drawbacks and the possibilities for their further development, taking into account the foreseeable advances in research and technological progress. The third section then reviews in terms of their resources and levels of energy consumption, the nine regions of the globe defined by the World Energy Council. Chapter 4 focuses on a certain number of scenarios designed to forecast potential developments in energy supply and demand throughout the 21st century, including the main risks created and incurred by producers and consumers of the various forms of energy, with particular reference to the risks which threaten health or the environment. The short- and medium-term prospects for energy as a whole are also reviewed. The report contains the ethical considerations which were guided by a number of principles. The most important of these is the principle of equity. The principle of 'precaution' (or anticipation) is equally crucial. This approach applies to all the issues surrounding the atmospheric emission of greenhouse gases produced by the fossil fuels. The principle of precaution is closely linked to that of the principle of feedback from experience. The report also underlines the importance of the research effort and stresses the dissemination of innovative technologies in the field of energy generation. Considerations of an ethical nature cannot be dictated by progress in science and technology alone. The examination of everything which conditions the acquisition and use of energies must also be done in a global manner. It would appear therefore that energy-related problems are intimately linked to a large number of other concerns, such as developments in population growth and economies the globalization of markets, the upholding of cultural diversity, and the pursuit of efforts towards peace. Finally, there can be no ethics without the organization of democratic debate, which must take place at every level, local, regional, national and international, and must be preceded by the dissemination and provision of the relevant information. UNESCO has assumed its responsibilities by proposing the creation of a World Commission on the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and Technology, which is destined to play an essential role in organizing and leading these discussions. For the energy problem implies that every country be correctly informed of the issues at stake, so that they can take the right decisions at their own level and will agree to discuss and, it is to be hoped, adopt the appropriate measures at the supranational level. As a conclusion to this report, it is suggested that UNESCO make use of the esteem every in which it is held by the community of nations to set up, organize and ultimately operate, on the most democratic and open basis possible, the institutions that are likely to help the international community make energy a factor for progress, and not a persistent cause of inequality, imbalance, tension and conflict. (author)

386

Focus on bibliometrics and altmetrics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This presentation guides young and novice researchers in writing great research papers and the following topics are covered: How to get your article published before you start; How can I ensure I am using proper manuscript language?; How do I build up my article properly?; What not to do: publishing ethics; The peer review process. The second presentation focuses on bibliometrics and altmetrics.

Lamine, Monique

2013-01-01

387

Ethical Issues in Expert Opinions and Testimony.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of ethical issues in private for-profit practice, with particular focus on expert testimony, using examples from a sample of claims filed with the National Association of Rehabilitation Professionals in the Private Sector and malpractice insurance companies. Complaints most frequently involve issues related to…

Weed, Roger O.

2000-01-01

388

Information Ethics for Librarians and Librarianship.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on ethics for librarians and library science in the age of electronic information. First outlined is the "public relations nightmare" that the Internet is creating for the administrators and the library staff. It is suggested that libraries pick a common sense approach that involves the library staff and community and that an…

Murgai, Sarla

389

Journal Impact Factor and Academic Ethics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article provides an overview of cases wherein the journal Impact Factor was manipulated; and attempts explaining the possible causes thereof. The discussion is focused on the Lithuanian scientific community with some parallels drawn to a similar situation in China. The article argues that certain science administration practices may undercut the self-governance of science based on academic ethics.

Rimas Norvaiša

2011-12-01

390

La ética en la práctica pediátrica / Ethics in pediatric practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Disímiles son los problemas éticos de la práctica médica que en la especialidad de Pediatría tienen la peculiaridad de involucrar a la madre y a otros familiares, pero que trasciende al compromiso con la salud cubana y el país. Se abordan algunos dilemas éticos como el manejo del niño con anorexia, [...] la atención al paciente con afecciones crónicas, aspectos del diagnóstico prenatal y las creencias religiosas. Como dificultades se señala la falta de información al paciente y sus familiares y el uso inadecuado de medicamentos e investigaciones. Finalmente se enfatiza en que la aplicación del método clínico debe ir acompañada de los aspectos éticos y en el buen funcionamiento de los comités de ética en los servicios de salud. Abstract in english There are different ethical problems in Pediatrics that have the peculiarity of involving the mother and other relatives, and that go beyond to the commitment with the Cuban health and the country. Some ethical dilemmas as the management of the child with anorexia, the attention to the patient with [...] chronic affections, aspects of the prenatal diagnosis and religious believes are dealt with. The deficient information given to the patients and his relatives and the inadequate use of drugs and investigations are stressed as difficulties. Finally, emphasis is given to the fact that the application of the clinical method should be accompanied by the ethical aspects and the good functioning of the ethic committees in the health services.

Martha, Ortiz García; Orietta, Portuondo Alacán; Lilia, Ahuar López; Isis, Rodríguez Rivalta.

2004-09-01

391

La ética en la práctica pediátrica Ethics in pediatric practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Disímiles son los problemas éticos de la práctica médica que en la especialidad de Pediatría tienen la peculiaridad de involucrar a la madre y a otros familiares, pero que trasciende al compromiso con la salud cubana y el país. Se abordan algunos dilemas éticos como el manejo del niño con anorexia, la atención al paciente con afecciones crónicas, aspectos del diagnóstico prenatal y las creencias religiosas. Como dificultades se señala la falta de información al paciente y sus familiares y el uso inadecuado de medicamentos e investigaciones. Finalmente se enfatiza en que la aplicación del método clínico debe ir acompañada de los aspectos éticos y en el buen funcionamiento de los comités de ética en los servicios de salud.There are different ethical problems in Pediatrics that have the peculiarity of involving the mother and other relatives, and that go beyond to the commitment with the Cuban health and the country. Some ethical dilemmas as the management of the child with anorexia, the attention to the patient with chronic affections, aspects of the prenatal diagnosis and religious believes are dealt with. The deficient information given to the patients and his relatives and the inadequate use of drugs and investigations are stressed as difficulties. Finally, emphasis is given to the fact that the application of the clinical method should be accompanied by the ethical aspects and the good functioning of the ethic committees in the health services.

Martha Ortiz García

2004-09-01

392

Ethics, Ethical Human Research and Human Research Ethics Committees  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-medical research involves the same issues of justice, beneficence, and respect for persons that apply to non-medical research. It also may involve risk of harm to participants, and conflicts of interest for researchers. It is therefore not possible to argue that such research should be exempt from ethical review. This paper argues that…

Lindorff, Margaret

2010-01-01

393

Group size effect on cooperation in social dilemmas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Social dilemmas are central to human society. Depletion of natural resources, climate protection, security of energy supply, and workplace collaborations are all issues that give rise to social dilemmas. Since cooperative behaviour in a social dilemma is individually costly, Nash equilibrium predicts that humans should not cooperate. Yet experimental studies show that people do cooperate even in anonymous one shot situations. However, in spite of the large number of particip...

Barcelo, Helene; Capraro, Valerio

2014-01-01

394

To Help or not to Help: The Samaritan's Dilemma Revisited  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Jemandem Hilfe zukommen zu lassen verwässert seine Arbeitsanreize. Was Buchanan vor über 25 Jahren als Samariter-Dilemma identifiziert hat, ist im Grunde ein Zeit-Inkonsistenz-Problem. Der Beitrag diskutiert mögliche Auswege aus dem Dilemma, etwa Bestrafungen innerhalb eines wiederholten Spiels, Änderung der Spielstruktur in Richtung eines dynamischen Einmal-Spiels und die Delegierung der Entscheidungsmacht an einen Agenten. Es wird gezeigt, dass nur die letztere Möglichkeit das Dilemma ...

Schmidtchen, Dieter

1999-01-01

395

Evolutionary prisoner's dilemma on evolving random networks  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we investigate the evolution of cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game by incorporating partner choice into the framework of evolutionary game theory. Our research shows that the introduction of partner choice can notably promote the cooperative behavior in the prisoner's dilemma game. All the players are more likely to play the game with cooperators, which makes it easier for cooperators to form alliances. In particular, the system will be dominated completely by cooperators in a comfortable environment (i.e., with lower survival cost) because the cooperators can get more benefits than the defectors in this case due to their good reputation. In addition, we have found that the sustenance of cooperators improves notably as well in the snowdrift game and the stag-hunt game due to this introduction.

Xu, Zhaojin; Le, Yun; Zhang, Lianzhong

2014-04-01

396

Evolutionary prisoner's dilemma on evolving random networks.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we investigate the evolution of cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game by incorporating partner choice into the framework of evolutionary game theory. Our research shows that the introduction of partner choice can notably promote the cooperative behavior in the prisoner's dilemma game. All the players are more likely to play the game with cooperators, which makes it easier for cooperators to form alliances. In particular, the system will be dominated completely by cooperators in a comfortable environment (i.e., with lower survival cost) because the cooperators can get more benefits than the defectors in this case due to their good reputation. In addition, we have found that the sustenance of cooperators improves notably as well in the snowdrift game and the stag-hunt game due to this introduction. PMID:24827227

Xu, Zhaojin; Le, Yun; Zhang, Lianzhong

2014-04-01

397

Ethics Education Library  

Science.gov (United States)

Based at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), the Ethics Education Library seeks "to connect people interested in developing new and interesting ethics training methods and programs, to disseminate best practices and tools that have already been developed, and to ultimately foster the creation of new methods and programs for teaching students about ethical issues inherent in research and practice." Visitors to the site can take advantage of the Browse feature to look for online tutorials, syllabi, teaching modules, and case studies. The case studies section has over 5,500 items, some of which are available in full and all of which have an abstract for perusal. Additionally, visitors can use the Publications area to find books, journal articles and other published materials relating to all areas of ethics education. These materials are arranged topically into sections that include bioethics, business ethics, and media ethics. Finally, visitors can scroll through the Ethics News on the right-hand side of the page for more information about current appearances of ethics in the daily news.

2012-05-11

398

Sociobiology, Dogma, and Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes ways in which sociobiology can throw some light on the study of ethics, including recognition of the fact that human behavior, culture, and ethics do not exist in a biological vacuum. Topics discussed are sociobiology as ideology, culture and genes, and enlightened self interest. For journal availability, see SO 505 653. (Author/DB)

van den Berghe, Pierre L.

1977-01-01

399

Research Ethics Module  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aimed at postgraduate students, the Research Ethics module is run as a Strategic Innovation Fund (SIF) project by TCD's Irish School of Ecumenics and School of Religions and Theology in collaboration with UCC and NUIG. The course offers an opportunity to investigate the ethical aspects and obligations of various fields of research.

Junker-kenny, Maureen; Trinity College Dublin. Irish School of Ecumenics; Trinity College Dublin. School of Religions and Theology

2008-01-01

400

The Ethical Employee.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.…

2002

 
 
 
 
401

Modular Approach for Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…

Wyne, Mudasser F.

2010-01-01

402

Hempel's dilemma and the physics of computation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Carl Gustav Hempel (1905-1997) formulated the dilemma that carries his name in an attempt to determine the boundaries of physics. Where does physics go over into metaphysics? The purpose of this contribution is to indicate how a recently developed field of research, the physics of computation, might offer a new answer to that old question: The boundary between physics and metaphysics is the boundary between what can and what cannot be computed in the age of the universe.

Beenakker, C. W. J.

2007-01-01

403

Small bowel neoplasm - a diagnostic dilemma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although uncommon, small bowel tumors often present as a diagnostic dilemma for the clinicians. This important clinical entity requires various diagnostic steps and quite often these steps have to be repeated to reach a firm diagnosis. We present here our experience with three such cases and a brief review of the literature regarding the presentation and the diagnostic steps found helpful in arriving at a diagnosis. (author)

404

Etyka troski i etyka sprawiedliwo?ci. Czy moralno?? zale?y od p?ci? (ETHICS OF CARE AND ETHICS OF JUSTICE. DOES MORALITY DEPEND ON GENDER?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the ethics of care by Carol Gilligan in controversy with Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Gilligan discovered that women turned to be deficient in moral development when measured by Kohlberg's scale (usually on the third stage of his six stages. She rejected the scale as derived from the study of men. Her own studies suggest that autonomy and moral rights are not so important for women as care and responsibility for persons in relationships; moral problems arise from conflicting responsibilities rather than from competing rights and rules; women have different moral priorities; morality of rights and noninterference are frightening to women because presuppose indifference; women's ethics is not the ethics of justice but the ethics of care (three stages of moral development: care for myself, care for others, the balance between the care for myself and the care for others. Later research showed that the two moral orientations are not divided between biological sexes but rather cultural genders (cultural constructions of masculinity and femininity. The ethics of care has its own problems (the care for evil. The authoress claims that both perspectives converge and are next dilemma in ethics. Moral maturity must encompass both justice and care.

Renata Ziemi?ska

2008-12-01

405

The ethics of information  

CERN Document Server

Luciano Floridi develops an original ethical framework for dealing with the new challenges posed by Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). ICTs have profoundly changed many aspects of life, including the nature of entertainment, work, communication, education, health care, industrial production and business, social relations, and conflicts. They have had a radical and widespread impact on our moral lives and on contemporary ethical debates. Privacy, ownership, freedom of speech, responsibility, technological determinism, the digital divide, and pornography online are only some of the pressing issues that characterise the ethical discourse in the information society. They are the subject of Information Ethics (IE), the new philosophical area of research that investigates the ethical impact of ICTs on human life and society. Since the seventies, IE has been a standard topic in many curricula. In recent years, there has been a flourishing of new university courses, international conferences, workshop...

Floridi, Luciano

2013-01-01

406

Assessing the TARES as an ethical model for antismoking ads.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the ethical dimensions of public health communication, with a focus on antismoking public service announcements (PSAs). The content analysis of 826 television ads from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Media Campaign Resource Center is an empirical testing of Baker and Martinson's (2001) TARES Test that directly examines persuasive messages for truthfulness, authenticity, respect, equity, and social responsibility. In general, the antismoking ads score highly on ethicality. There are significant relationships between ethicality and message attributes (thematic frame, emotion appeal, source, and target audience). Ads that portrayed smoking as damaging to health and socially unacceptable score lower in ethicality than ads that focus on tobacco industry manipulation, addiction, dangers of secondhand smoke, and cessation. Emotion appeals of anger and sadness are associated with higher ethicality than shame and humor appeals. Ads targeting teen/youth audiences score lower on ethicality than ads targeting adult and general audiences. There are significant differences in ethicality based on source; ads produced by the CDC rate higher in ethicality than other sources. Theoretical implications and practical recommendations are discussed. PMID:20390977

Lee, Seow Ting; Cheng, I-Huei

2010-01-01

407

The Teaching of Ethics and the Ethics of Teaching.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the relationship between psychological ethics and the teaching of psychology. Reviews the manner in which ethics is presented in college psychology instruction through textbooks and specific ethics courses. Analyzes ethical psychology instruction principles set forth by the American Psychological Association and how these principles…

Matthews, Janet R.

1991-01-01

408

Ethics and education: reflections about teaching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This text focuses on the links between ethics and education, especially in relation to teaching practice. It is based on a position which recognizes the need for an ethical-moral reference to reconfigure the human world. It recognizes, though, the historical character of that reference. This position implies the necessity of making decisions in the face of the new configurations which are posed by contemporary life, in which the educational field can assume great relevance, if it allows the practice of criticism within the limits of school’s republican character.

Paulo Evaldo Fensterseifer

2009-12-01

409

Justification and radiology: Some ethical considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper, which seeks to address the issue of justification in radiology, intends firstly to comment on the current discussion of the ethical foundation of radiological practice that focuses on the move from utilitarianism to the rights-centred criterion. Secondly, and this constitutes the bulk of the paper, it aims to offer a philosophical perspective, which is hoped will lead to a consideration of certain specific areas in ethical decision-making in the attempts here to deal with the main issue of justification in radiology. (authors)

410

Scaling ethics up and down: moral craft in clinical genetics and in global health research.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper engages with the question of what it is to 'do good medical ethics' in two ways. It begins with an exploration of what it might mean to say that health professionals practise good medical ethics as part of practising good ethical medicine. Using the example of the Genethics Club, a well-established national ethics forum for genetics professionals in the UK, the paper develops an account of moral craftsmanship grounded in the concepts of shared moral commitments and practices, moral work, ethics and living morality. In the light of this discussion, the paper goes on to consider what it might mean for a specialist in medical ethics, a bioethicist, to do good medical ethics. Finally, a research agenda focusing on the challenges of thinking about good medical ethics in a global context and a proposal for an innovative approach to bioethics methodology is outlined. PMID:25516955

Parker, Michael

2015-01-01

411

Business ethics and corporate governance in the Second King Report: Farsighted or futile?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship between corporate governance and business ethics has always been ambiguous. Does corporate governance per definition have an ethical nature or is it merely self-interested? Is business ethics an integral part of corporate governance or is it marginalised or even excluded by the debate on corporate governance? Does corporate governance also include the governance of ethics? This article will focus on the relationship between corporate governance and business ethics from the perspective of a developing country. More specifically, it will look at a recent development in South Africa where the Second Report on Corporate Governance for South Africa (IOD, 2002, also known as the Second King Report, gave particular prominence to business ethics. The motivation for its emphasis on business ethics as well as its guidelines for the corporate governance of ethics will be explored and, in conclusion, critically reviewed.

G.J. Rossouw

2002-08-01

412

[Respect for self-determination and use of coercion in the treatment of mentally ill persons : An ethical position statement of the DGPPN].  

Science.gov (United States)

Respect for patient self-determination is a central ethical principle of medical care. Every person has the right to make decisions regarding his or her health autonomously, even if these decisions appear irrational to third parties. Free and informed consent is the necessary prerequisite for every diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. A patient's ability for self-determination is one requirement for valid consent. In illness, the ability for self-determination may be limited or absent in individual cases. An ethical dilemma arises if severely ill patients who are unable to make autonomous decisions put their health at significant risk and refuse medical procedures in this situation. While non-treatment can be severely detrimental to health, forced procedures can result in traumatization and can damage the relationship of trust between the doctor and patient. The dilemma is intensified in cases of danger to others. In these difficult situations doctors, therapists and nursing staff require ethical guidance for the professional conduct. The primary objective thereby is to avoid coercion. For this purpose recommendations for medical practice are formulated that can reduce the use of forced procedures (e.g. de-escalation procedures, communication competency, clinical ethics counseling, treatment agreements and patient living wills) or if they are unavoidable, that allow them to be conducted in an ethically and legally appropriate way. Further and continued education must pay greater attention to this ethical objective; therefore, for ethical reasons adequate personnel, spatial and structural are vital in hospitals. PMID:25388831

2014-11-01

413

[Expansion of undergraduate courses in nursing: dilemmas and contradictions facing the labor market].  

Science.gov (United States)

We sought to analyze, from the perspective of professors and students, the reasons and consequences of the expansion of undergraduate courses in nursing, discussing the dilemmas and the contradictions confronting the labor market. It was a qualitative study with data obtained from focus groups, conducted in 18 undergraduate nursing courses in the state of Minas Gerais, during the period of February to October of 2011. The narratives were submitted to critical discourse analysis. The results indicated that the education of the nurse was permeated by insecurity as to the future integration into the labor market. The insecurity translates into dilemmas that referred to employability and the precariousness of the working conditions. In this context, employment in the family health strategy emerges as a mirage. One glimpses the need for a political agenda with the purpose of discussion about education, the labor market and the determinants of these processes. PMID:24346464

Silva, Kênia Lara; de Sena, Roseni Rosângela; Grillo, Maria José Cabral; Gandra, Elen Cristiane; da Silveira, Marília Rezende

2013-10-01

414

A comparative analysis of spatial Prisoner's Dilemma experiments: Conditional cooperation and payoff irrelevance  

Science.gov (United States)

We have carried out a comparative analysis of data collected in three experiments on Prisoner's Dilemmas on lattices available in the literature. We focus on the different ways in which the behavior of human subjects can be interpreted, in order to empirically narrow down the possibilities for behavioral rules. Among the proposed update dynamics, we find that the experiments do not provide significant evidence for non-innovative game dynamics such as imitate-the-best or pairwise comparison rules, whereas moody conditional cooperation is supported by the data from all three experiments. This conclusion questions the applicability of many theoretical models that have been proposed to understand human behavior in spatial Prisoner's Dilemmas. A rule compatible with all our experiments, moody conditional cooperation, suggests that there is no detectable influence of interaction networks on the emergence of cooperation in behavioral experiments.

Gruji?, Jelena; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Milinski, Manfred; Semmann, Dirk; Traulsen, Arne; Cuesta, José A.; Moreno, Yamir; Sánchez, Angel

2014-04-01

415

Costly hide and seek pays: Unexpected consequences of deceit in a social dilemma  

CERN Document Server

Deliberate deceptiveness intended to gain an advantage is commonplace in human and animal societies. In a social dilemma, an individual may only pretend to be a cooperator to elicit cooperation from others, while in reality he is a defector. With this as motivation, we study a simple variant of the evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game entailing deceitful defectors and conditional cooperators that lifts the veil on the impact of such two-faced behavior. Defectors are able to hide their true intentions at a personal cost, while conditional cooperators are probabilistically successful at identifying defectors and act accordingly. By focusing on the evolutionary outcomes in structured populations, we observe a number of unexpected and counterintuitive phenomena. We show that deceitful behavior may fare better if it is costly, and that a higher success rate of identifying defectors does not necessarily favor cooperative behavior. These results are rooted in the spontaneous emergence of cycling dominance and spatia...

Szolnoki, Attila

2014-01-01

416

Studies in the History of Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

Started in 2005, Studies in the History of Ethics is a peer-reviewed electronic journal and research portal focused on publishing articles and reviews which deal with the history of ethics. First-time visitors can use the homepage to look over more recent works, such as a symposium on the ethics of John Stuart Mill which includes pieces from scholars at the University of Utah and the National University of Singapore. Further down the page, users can also read up on the journal's calls for works to be included in future symposia. Moving on, visitors can click on the "Archives" section to read past pieces published online and they can also use an embedded search engine to look for specific works. The site is rounded out by an RSS feed and contact information for the journal's editors.

417

Radioactive waste management: socio-ethical dimensions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the public domain, much of the controversy associated with the management of nuclear wastes centres on its socio-ethical dimensions. In common with most debates of this type, the discussion often loses focus for lack of a practical set of ethical criteria. Previous analyses based on the concepts of justice, participation and sustainability, have not secured clarity or consensus. The Canadian Nuclear Association's Social Issues Committee has attempted to identify and classify social and ethical concerns related to nuclear waste management. This paper presents these concerns in question format under five headings: 1) Rights and Responsibilities, 2) Equity, 3) Trust, 4) Values, and 5) Proper Action. Although the paper does not attempt to provide answers to each of the concerns, it is hoped that the classification and listing of concerns will be useful in analyzing issues related to any waste management process

418

The ethics and economics of pharmaceutical pricing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cost of drugs is a major and rapidly rising component of health-care expenditures. We survey recent literature on the ethics and economics of skyrocketing pharmaceutical prices and find that advances in economic research have increased the sharpness and focus of the ethically based calls to increase access by modifying patent protection and reducing prices. In some cases, research supports ethical arguments for broader access. Other research suggests that efforts to broaden access result in unintended consequences for innovation and the medical needs of patients. Both ethicists and economists need to be more cognizant of the real clinical settings in which physicians practice medicine with real patients. Greater cross-disciplinary interaction among economists, ethicists, and physicians can help reduce the disjunction between innovation and access and improve access and patient care. This dialogue will impact private industry and may spur new multistakeholder paradigms for drug discovery, development, and pricing. PMID:25149920

Parker-Lue, Sara; Santoro, Michael; Koski, Greg

2015-01-01

419

[Ethical and communicative significance of "personalised medicine"].  

Science.gov (United States)

The first aim of the paper is to analyse in a culture-theoretical perspective those characteristic semantic markers that permit "personalized" medicine (PM) to figure as a prestigious seminal trend of future medicine. In fact, there is evidence that the ambiguity of the favourite semantic markers of PM engenders a conception of PM that is analogous to the tailoring of services to customers. There is an air of paradox: while patients are supposed to be the key beneficiaries of PM, their genuine preferences, at present, are seriously underarticulated. The second aim of the paper is to focus attention on some highlights within the multifarious ethical discourse that accompanies the development of PM. As a result, valuable methodological options are outlined that support a consistently ethical analysis of ethical value-conflicts pertaining to the rise of PM. PMID:25462619

Kettner, Matthias

2014-11-01

420

Ethics in systematic reviews.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since its introduction by the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki, the place held by ethics in biomedical research has been continuously increasing in importance. The past 30 years have also seen exponential growth in the number of biomedical articles published. A systematic review of the literature is the scientific way of synthesising a plethora of information, by exhaustively searching out and objectively analysing the studies dealing with a given issue. However, the question of ethics in systematic reviews is rarely touched upon. This could lead to some drawbacks, as systematic reviews may contain studies with ethical insufficiencies, may be a possible way to publish unethical research and may also be prone to conflict of interest. Finally, informed consent given for an original study is not necessarily still valid at the systematic review level. There is no doubt that routine ethical assessment in systematic reviews would help to improve the ethical and methodological quality of studies in general. However, ethical issues change so much with time and location, and are so broad in scope and in context that it appears illusory to search for a universal, internationally accepted standard for ethical assessment in systematic reviews. Some simple suggestions could nevertheless be drawn from the present reflection and are discussed in the paper. PMID:20952493

Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Marchal-Sixou, Christine; Nabet, Cathy; Maret, Delphine; Hamel, Olivier

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
421

Medical Ethics in Radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the recent developments in radiological techniques, the role of radiology in the clinical management of patients is ever increasing and in turn, so is the importance of radiology in patient management. Thus far, there have been few open discussions about medical ethics related to radiology in Korea. Hence, concern about medical ethics as an essential field of radiology should be part of an improved resident training program and patient management. The categories of medical ethics related with radiology are ethics in the radiological management of patient, the relationship of radiologists with other medical professionals or companies, the hazard level of radiation for patients and radiologists, quality assurance of image products and modalities, research ethics, and other ethics issues related to teleradiology and fusion imaging. In order to achieve the goal of respectful progress in radiology as well as minimizing any adverse reaction from other medical professions or society, we should establish a strong basis of medical ethics through the continuous concern and self education

422

Problems with prioritization: exploring ethical solutions to inequalities in HIV care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enormous gaps between HIV burden and health care availability in low-income countries raise severe ethical problems. This article analyzes four HIV-priority dilemmas with interest across contexts and health systems. We explore principled distributive conflicts and use the Atkinson index to make explicit trade-offs between health maximization and equality in health. We find that societies need a relatively low aversion to inequality to favor treatment for children, even with large weights assigned to extending the lives of adults: higher inequality aversion is needed to share resources equally between high-cost and low-cost treatment; higher inequality aversion is needed to favor treatment rather than prevention, and the highest inequality aversion is needed to favor sharing treatment between urban and rural regions rather than urban provision of treatment. This type of ethical sensitivity analysis may clarify the ethics of health policy choice. PMID:22146029

Johansson, Kjell Arne; Norheim, Ole Frithjof

2011-12-01

423

Clinical supervision of psychotherapy: essential ethics issues for supervisors and supervisees.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical supervision is an essential aspect of every mental health professional's training. The importance of ensuring that supervision is provided competently, ethically, and legally is explained. The elements of the ethical practice of supervision are described and explained. Specific issues addressed include informed consent and the supervision contract, supervisor and supervisee competence, attention to issues of diversity and multicultural competence, boundaries and multiple relationships in the supervision relationship, documentation and record keeping by both supervisor and supervisee, evaluation and feedback, self-care and the ongoing promotion of wellness, emergency coverage, and the ending of the supervision relationship. Additionally, the role of clinical supervisor as mentor, professional role model, and gatekeeper for the profession are discussed. Specific recommendations are provided for ethically and effectively conducting the supervision relationship and for addressing commonly arising dilemmas that supervisors and supervisees may confront. PMID:25220636

Barnett, Jeffrey E; Molzon, Corey H

2014-11-01

424

Práticas integrativas e complementares no cuidado de enfermagem: um enfoque ético / Complementary and integrative therapies in nursing care: an ethical focus / Prácticas complementarias y de integración en el cuidado de enfermería: un enfoque ético  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste estudo foram caracterizar a participação de usuários na opção e no cuidado de enfermagem por meio de práticas integrativas e complementares de saúde (PICS); e analisar esta participação sob o enfoque ético do cuidado de enfermagem. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa qualitativa, desenvolvida com [...] usuários de PICS, em instituições públicas de saúde onde há enfermeiros que as aplicam; foi aprovada pelos Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa das instituições envolvidas. Utilizaram-se o Método Criativo Sensível e análise de discurso. RESULTADOS: Ao considerar a autonomia e a participação dos sujeitos como questão cidadã, retoma-se a discussão sobre o seu direito de opção face aos serviços ofertados. Este direito como condição ética implica ter acesso adequado às informações sobre diferentes possibilidades terapêuticas; depende da ampliação da capacidade dos sujeitos de compreender e agir sobre o mundo e si mesmo. CONCLUSÃO: Há de se ter atenção para que seja preservada a essência da integralidade das PICS, seus princípios e finalidades. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: El estudio objetivó caracterizar la participación de los usuarios en la opción y en el cuidado de la enfermería a través de las Prácticas Integrativas y Complementarias de Salud (PICS) y examinar esta participación bajo el enfoque ético del cuidado. La investigación cualitativa fue reali [...] zada con usuarios de terapias aplicadas por enfermeras en las instituciones de salud pública; aprobados por los Comités de Ética. MÉTODOS: Se utilizó el método creativo, sensible y el análisis del discurso. RESULTADOS: Por considerar la independencia y la participación de los sujetos como cuestión de la ciudadanía, se retoma la discusión sobre los derechos frente a los servicios ofrecidos. La condición ética implica tener acceso adecuado a la información y depende de la expansión de la capacidad del sujeto para comprender y actuar sobre el mundo y consigo mismo. CONCLUSIÓN: Hay que tener atención para que sea conservada la esencia de la totalidad de las PICS, sus principios y propósitos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The study's objectives were to characterize the participation of patients in nursing care and in choosing integrative and complementary therapies, and then to analyze this participation from the perspective of nursing care ethics. METHOD: Qualitative research conducted with patients [...] receiving ICT in public health facilities where there are nurses to apply these therapies. Approved by the Institutional Review Boards of the facilities involved. The sensitive creative method and discourse analysis were used. RESULTS: When the autonomy and participation of subjects were considered as citizenship issues, the discussion concerning their right to choose among services provided is resumed. The right as an ethical condition implies having appropriate access to information regarding different therapeutic possibilities; this depends on broadening the subjects' understanding and how they act upon the world and themselves. CONCLUSION: It is important not to lose sight of the ICT essence of integrality, its principles and purposes.

Mariana Gonzalez Martins de, Magalhães; Neide Aparecida Titonelli, Alvim.

2013-09-01

425

(Bio Ethical and Social Reconstructions in Transmodernity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transmodern ethics establishes moral norms on liberal, pluralist and pragmatic principles. We see a comeback of the negation morals, however not of ontology-anchored morals, as is the case of the God who picks favourites or of the jealous God paradigm, and not even of morals anchored in a contractualist perspective, as is the case in the modern period. The preferred focus is on the value of positivism, of cooperation as a source of efficiency, of personal enrichment, be it cultural, spiritual, or moral, derived from the access to alterity. Tolerance as an ethical value is legitimised by a new, utilitarian humanism. The ethical construction of identity revolves around the value of loyalty to a tradition, a dogma, a mentality, and by extension to any coherent system liable to generate a sense of belonging. Postindustrial ethics uses for instance the value of loyalty as a strategy in marketing, organisational development, political propaganda etc. The policies used in order to increase the loyalty of a shop's customers, the employee's loyalty for the company she works for, the supporter's loyalty to his team, are the translation in layman terms of the loyalty ethics that in spiritual terms was one of the foundations of orthodoxy as loyalty to the tradition of the holy fathers. The values of equality, liberty and fraternity have been more than that, as they have laid the foundations of the modern society.

Daniela Cojocaru

2011-11-01

426

Ethics and sustainability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It could be said that the concept of sustainability is based on ethic postulates, because it claims to bear in mind the set of necessities of future generations as a control variable for human development models and for consumption patterns. Ethics, in its own, mainly in the spinozist line of thinking, is a philosophical proposal directed to empowering the operations of expression of the beings (not only of the human being). This ethics outlines multiple developments and conceive future generations not as undifferentiated, passive and impotent collectives, but as active and joyful communities, who are sensitive to the possibilities of their own devenir

427

Ethical factors influencing decisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethics are determined by weighing risks against benefits, pros against cons, but also by evasion. Whenever decisions are taken, the side effects and risks to be accepted must be weighed. In law, this is called the principle of commensurability implying that ethical compromises are made. Too much emphasis on ethical principles leads to an evasion of realistic action. In consensus discussions it is often seen that the positions adopted by science and technology are incommensurable with those of philosophy, psychology, and theology. Any decision requires that the risk be evaluated in a spirit of responsibility. (orig.)

428

Ethics and Information Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The versatility and adaptability of information technology (IT offer many potential benefits to society, its organisations and its citizens, but there are also associated risks. The social and ethical implications of this technology warrant special attention and have resulted in the creation of information ethics as a discrete area of study. The overall goal of information ethics is to integrate IT and human values in such a way that IT advances and protects human values rather than doing damage to them.

Simon Rogerson

1997-05-01

429

Broadening ethics teaching in engineering: beyond the individualistic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a widespread approach to the teaching of ethics to engineering students in which the exclusive focus is on engineers as individual agents and the broader context in which they do their work is ignored. Although this approach has frequently been criticised in the literature, it persists on a wide scale, as can be inferred from accounts in the educational literature and from the contents of widely used textbooks in engineering ethics. In this contribution we intend to: (1) Restate why the individualistic approach to the teaching of ethics to engineering students is inadequate in view of preparing them for ethical, professional and social responsibility; (2) Examine the existing literature regarding the possible contribution of Science, Technology and Society (STS) scholarship in addressing the inadequacies of the individualistic approach; and (3) Assess this possible contribution of STS in order to realise desired learning outcomes regarding the preparation of students for ethical and social responsibility. PMID:20467842

Conlon, Eddie; Zandvoort, Henk

2011-06-01

430

Do consumers care about ethics? A cross-cultural study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Discussion towards an understanding about ethical and social responsible corporate behaviours has increased over last two decades. Both marketers and academicians emphasize the interest of the topic. Developed research has been focusing the understanding of a few organizational practices, but consumer’s dyad of the problem calls for further investigation. This work presents some of the main theoretical contributions about consumer ethics, emphasizing the way how purchase attitude may be influenced by consumers’ perceptions about firms’ behaviour. The study aims to fill two important gaps in the burgeoning literature on marketing ethics: by looking at the consumer side of the marketing exchange dyad, and comparing consumer perspectives on ethics across cultures. As such, levels of consumer ethical awareness and expectations, and their impact on purchasing behaviours are measured in the contexts of Portugal and Cape Verde, one of its former colonies in Africa. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were developed.

Alexandra Malheiro

2010-08-01

431

Juan's Dilemma: A New Twist on the Old Lemon Battery  

Science.gov (United States)

When life hands you lemons, make a battery! In this article, the authors describe an activity they refer to as "Juan's Dilemma," an extension of the familiar lemon-battery activity (Goodisman 2001). Juan's Dilemma integrates oxidation and reduction chemistry with circuit theory in a fun, real-world exercise. The authors designed this activity for…

Hunt, Vanessa; Sorey, Timothy; Balandova, Evguenia; Palmquist, Bruce

2010-01-01

432

Dilemas éticos en torno al cuidado de personas en estado vegetativo / Ethical dylemas regarding the care of people in vegetative state  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Antecedentes: El Estado Vegetativo (EV) corresponde a un diagnóstico clínico en el cual las personas mantienen espontáneamente las funciones vitales , el ritmo sueño-vigilia y carecen de actividad voluntaria. El propósito de este artículo es presentar un dilema ético sobre mantener o no la hidrataci [...] ón y alimentación de las personas en EV, al cual se ven enfrentados familiares y equipo de salud durante el cuidado de estos pacientes. Metodología: Se realizó una búsqueda en la base de datos disponibles en el Sistema de Bibliotecas de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Scielo y Elsevier, entre los meses de abril y mayo 2012. Resultados: Se hace referencia a algunos casos representativos descritos en la literatura internacional, como el de Terry Schiavo, Nancy Cruzat y Anthony Bland, los cuales fueron resueltos en tribunales. Los principales argumentos se encuentran centrados en determinar si la alimentación e hidratación corresponden a un tratamiento desproporcionado y a la importancia de las voluntades anticipadas o testamento en vida. Luego, se analizan los conceptos de dignidad humana, ser persona y muerte digna en torno al dilema ético. Conclusiones: Desde el enfoque legal y considerando los aspectos éticos que emergen en torno al cuidado de estos enfermos, se concluye que es un dilema complejo y que es necesario analizar cada caso en particular y desde varias perspectivas para entregar el mejor cuidado a las personas con EV y sus familias, de manera de tener una postura ética al respecto. Abstract in english Background: The vegetative state (EV) corresponds to a clinical diagnosis in which people spontaneously maintain vital functions, the sleep-wake rhythm but lack voluntary activity. The purpose of this article is to present an ethical dilemma to maintain, or not, the hydration and nutrition of people [...] in EV, which are faced with family and team of health during the care of these patients. Methods: We conducted a search in the data base available in the system of libraries of the Pontifical University Catholic of Chile, Scielo and Elsevier, between the months of April and May 2012. Results: They refer to some representative cases described in the sources, like Terry Schiavo, Nancy Cruzat and Anthony Bland, which were resolved in courts. The main arguments are focused to determine if food and hydration correspond to a disproportionate treatment and the importance of the advance directives or living will. They then discuss the concepts of human dignity, personhood and dignified death around the ethical dilemma. Conclusions: From the legal approach and considering ethical issues that emerge in the environment of the care of these patients, it can be concluded that it is a complex dilemma and it is necessary to analyze each case in particular and from various perspectives to deliver the best care to people in EV and their families, in order to have an ethical thereon stance.

Claudia, Soto Núñez; Miriam, Rubio Acuña; Mª Fernanda, Córdova Herrera.

2013-01-01

433

Memory does not necessarily promote cooperation in dilemma games  

Science.gov (United States)

Evolutionary games can model dilemmas for which cooperation can exist in rational populations. According to intuition, memory of the history can help individuals to overcome the dilemma and increase cooperation. However, here we show that no such general predictions can be made for dilemma games with memory. Agents play repeated prisoner’s dilemma, snowdrift, or stag hunt games in well-mixed populations or on a lattice. We compare the cooperation ratio and fitness for systems with or without memory. An interesting result is that cooperation is demoted in snowdrift and stag hunt games with memory when cost-to-benefit ratio is low, while system fitness still increases with memory in the snowdrift game. To illustrate this interesting phenomenon, two further experiments were performed to study R, ST, and P reciprocity and investigate 16 agent strategies for one-step memory. The results show that memory plays different roles in different dilemma games.

Wang, Tao; Chen, Zhigang; Li, Kenli; Deng, Xiaoheng; Li, Deng

2014-02-01

434

Towards a Democratic Liberatory Ethics: A restatement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, I will try, first, to critically assess the approaches to liberatory ethics particularly those developed in early modernity, which aimed at deriving an "objectively" grounded liberatory ethics, second, to explore the reasons why today's liberatory ethics should avoid both the Scylla of "objective" ethics as well as the Charybdis of irrationalist ethics or unbounded moral relativism and, finally, to show that a democratic liberatory ethics, which could only be derived through a process of democratic rationalism, should necessarily express those moral values which are intrinsically compatible to the democratic institutions themselves. CHAPTERS: Introduction: What is liberatory ethics?; 1. "Objective" approaches to liberatory ethics; The Marxist approach to liberatory ethics: one-dimensional ethical relativism; The libertarian approach to liberatory ethics; The myth of Progress; The crisis of "objective" ethics; 2. The postmodern critique of "objective" ethics; 3. The Castoriadian critique of the separation of ethics from politics; 4. Towards a democratic ethics; Incompatible ethics; Compatible ethics;

Takis Fotopoulos

2010-01-01

435

Ethics and scientific publication  

Science.gov (United States)

Description of ethical problems seen in scientific publications Other authors: Jessica P. Gutierrez, Kristin Hennessy, David Kosek, Joo Hyoung Lee, Dragos Olteanu, Tara Russell, Faheem Shaikh and Kai Wang

PhD Dale J. Benos (University of Alabama at Birmingham Dept. of Physiology and Biophysics)

2005-06-01

436

BBC: Religion & Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

Religion and ethics are some of the most debated areas of the human experience around the world, so it is fitting that the BBC has created this online clearinghouse of relevant information and news coverage about these two complex topics. The site contains a number of general interest sections that provide rich discussion of various world religions and a number of subjects in the field of ethics, such as the ethics of war, euthanasia, human cloning, and genetic engineering. Visitors can also listen to broadcasts of the BBC's many programs devoted to exploring various religions, such as Missionaries, which looks at the legacy of missionary work around the world. Equally compelling are the fractious message boards where visitors can opine about various religious topics and ethical debates. The site is rounded out by an interactive multi faith calendar, which shows the religious festivals and celebrations of eight world faiths.

437

Machine medical ethics  

CERN Document Server

The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and sciences, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine in medical settings. Medical machines are in close proximity with human beings, and getting closer: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. In such contexts, machines are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for e...

Pontier, Matthijs

2015-01-01

438

Ethics in Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to reflect on some ethical improprieties which I had committed during the data collection phase of an information systems research study, I conducted an heuristic and psychologically-oriented self-study. As part of this heuristic reflection, I engaged in a number of self dialogues in the form of a conversation between various characters. Reported in this paper is one of these dialogues, concerning broad issues of ethics and research and discussing the notion of wisdom, maturity, meaning, and virtue. Ethical considerations are always of primary importance, and I would assert that this is even more so when considering research investigating and using new media, such as the world wide web, in which acceptable ethical practices have yet to be established and consolidated.

Mark Williams

2001-05-01

439

Publication Ethics for Researchers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The community of researchers unanimously agrees that a code of ethics must be followed when engaging in research and consenting to publication of research findings in academic journals. However, unethical research practice continues to cause concern. In an effort to address the concern, several researchers have prescribed remedial action. Publishers and members of the research community have also tried to raise awareness of this malady plaguing the research community. For example, Ethics in Research & Publication, a website created by Elsevier, a trusted publisher of science and health information, aims to raise awareness in this regard by providing examples of scientific misconduct and breach of publications ethics, including plagiarism. Similarly, the iThenticate blog discusses plagiarism and other scholarly misconduct issues in a bid to promote integrity and ethical writing practices.

Probir K. Banerjee

2013-03-01

440

Ethics in global surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global surgery, while historically a small niche, is becoming a larger part of the global health enterprise. This article discusses the burden of global surgery, emphasizing the importance of addressing surgical needs in low- and middle-income countries. It describes the barriers to surgical care in the developing world, the ethical challenges that these barriers create, and strategies to overcome these barriers. It emphasizes the crucial role of preparation for global surgical interventions as a way to maximize benefits as well as minimize harms and ethical challenges. It ends with the cautionary statement that preparation does not eliminate ethical problems, so surgical volunteers must be prepared not only for the technical challenges of global surgery but also for the ethical challenges. PMID:24789014

Wall, Anji E

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
441

Ethical aspects in tissue research: thematic analysis of ethical statements to the research ethics committee  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Many studies have been published about ethics committees and the clarifications requested about the submitted applications. In Finland, ethics committees require a separate statement on ethical aspects of the research in applications to the ethics committee. However, little is known about how researchers consider the ethical aspects of their own studies. Methods The data were collected from all the applications received by the official region...

Halkoaho Arja; Pietilä Anna-Maija; Vesalainen Mari; Vähäkangas Kirsi

2012-01-01

442

Capitalizing on the human-animal bond to teach ethics to youth.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a livestock ethics curriculum developed for high school students in agricultural education classes. The curriculum was developed in response to numerous unethical occurrences at major livestock shows in recent years. These have included drug violations, physical alteration of animals, and excessive involvement of professional livestock handlers. The curriculum was taught to 305 students enrolled in eight Indiana high school agriculture programs. Data were collected using a pretest and posttest. Eighty-six percent of participants improved their score from the pretest to the posttest. Participants increased their awareness and knowledge of the overall principles involved in making ethical choices when faced with decisions in youth livestock programs. Students improved their understanding of the consequences associated with making unethical choices when faced with decisions in the youth livestock program. Participants were more likely to make an ethical choice when faced with a scenario featuring an ethical dilemma. Participants who had previously been enrolled in 4-H, Future Farmers of America, or an animal project had higher scores than those who had not been previously enrolled, but the amount of change from pre- to posttest was similar for those with and without such prior exposure. Future research should examine whether mastery of this kind of ethics curriculum will lead to better ethical choices in real-life situations. PMID:16570877

Rusk, Clinton P; Brubaker, Keli M; Balschweid, Mark A; Pajor, Edmond A

2005-01-01

443

Moral Dilemma Judgment Revisited: A Loreta Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Recent neuroscience investigations on moral judgment have provided useful information about how brain processes such complex decision making. All these studies carried out so far were fMRI investigations and therefore were constrained by the poor temporal resolution of this technique. Recent advances in electroencephalography (EEG analysis provided by Low Resolution Tomogray (Loreta, Principal Component (PCA, Correlation and Regression Analysis improved EEG spatial resolution and made EEG a very useful technique in decision-making studies. Methods: Here, we reinvestigate previous fMRI study of personal (PD and impersonal (ID moral dilemma judgment, taking profit of these new EEG analysis improvements. Results: PCA analysis disclosed three different patterns of brain activity associated with dilemma judgment. These patterns are proposed to disclose the neural circuits involved in benefit and risk evaluation, calculating intention to act and controlling decision-making. Regression analysis showed that activity at some cortical areas favors action implementation by increasing intention to act, while activity at some other areas opposes it by decreasing intention to act. Comparison with Existing Methods: Compared to the previous fMRI results, Loreta and PCA revealed a much greater number of cortical areas involved in dilemma judgment, whose temporal and spatial distribution were different for ID compared to PD. The present paper suggests that whenever final temporal details of the decision making process are desired, EEG becomes the tool of choice as compared with fMRI. Conclusions: The presented results are discussed from the utilitarian point of view that proposes adequacy of human action being dependent upon how much pleasure and fear/pain they are associated.

Armando Freitas da Rocha

2013-12-01