States that, although studies of ethics in technical communication focus on behavior analysis and offer heuristics for deciding ethical dilemmas, interviews with 48 technical communicators reveal little exercise of such analytical processes. Finds that the majority make moral choices on the job through feelings, intuition, and conscience. Opines that ethics might be taught more effectively through a narrative perspective. (PA)
Background: Speech pathologists are confronted by ethical issues when they need to make decisions about client care, address team conflict, and fulfil the range of duties and responsibilities required of health professionals. However, there has been little research into the specific nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech pathologists and whether the nature of ethical conflict changes as they acquire experience in the professional workforce. Speech pathologists' perceptions of ethical issues provide insight into factors impacting upon quality of care in contemporary healthcare settings. Aims: To describe, compare, and contrast the nature of ethical dilemmas identified by new graduate and experienced speech pathologists. Methods & Procedures: A narrative methodology was used to explore the ethical dilemmas that participants experienced in the professional work place. Primary data were collected through in-depth interviews with ten new graduate and ten experienced speech pathologists in their work settings. During these interviews, participants were asked to "tell the story" of ethical dilemmas they identified at work. Outcomes & Results: An ethical story was constructed for each participant based upon keywords and concepts from interview transcripts. These keywords and concepts were coded into group themes that reflected the nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by new graduate versus experienced speech pathologists. Comparing the results of thematic analysis for both groups of participant revealed similarities and differences in ethical dilemmas identified by new graduate and experienced health professionals. Conclusions & Implications: Participants identified ethical dilemmas in the professional practice areas of client management, professional relationships, service delivery, and personal/professional identity. Themes from new graduates' ethical dilemmas included: making safe choices; avoiding conflict, following service delivery rules, and building professional identity. Experienced speech pathologists' themes included: life choices, adapting policies, and professional status. Supporting client autonomy, managing risk taking, adopting fair service delivery policies, and supporting health professionals' ethical practice are part of ethical quality care. The results support the need for an increased focus on ethical practice in the workplace and further support for speech pathologists experiencing ethical conflict in response to service delivery policies. (Contains 3 tables and 1 note.)
Optometrists face ethical dilemmas daily in the practice of their profession. Students training to become optometrists also face ethical dilemmas, some of which are unique in their role as students. The focus on ethical practice has been heightened by the increasing scope of optometric practice, the greater demand of society for professional accountability, the greater diversity of membership and viewpoints, the decrease in available dollars for health care delivery, and the conflicting roles of ophthalmology and opticianry with optometry. These factors have led to the addition or expansion of professional ethics courses in optometry programs. This paper examines the difficulties inherent in defining professional ethics and designing ethics courses. Curricular issues are examined, including course objectives, instructors, content, evaluation, timetabling, teaching strategies, student assessment, and resource implications. Much of the research in this area has been done in medical education. Although the content of ethical dilemmas encountered by medical students and physicians may not be applicable to optometry, the process by which they learn to approach the dilemmas is the same. PMID:8570164
If those teaching advertising courses with significant ethics components are concerned about having a genuine--as opposed to cosmetic--impact on how their students translate what is taught in the classroom to the "real world," they must focus on the idea of "oughtness." The question is: what can instructors in advertising courses do--if anything--to motivate students to act more ethically once they move beyond the confines of the classroom, to do what ethically ought to be done when faced with a particular ethical dilemma? The first task for the instructor may well be to demonstrate to students the relevancy of ethics to their "everyday" lives. Students must understand that ethics deals with relationships with others. Students will never appreciate the "marriage" of ethics and advertising if they fail to view consumers and the general public as persons to whom they have obligations. It is essential that students recognize that ethical behavior in advertising does not occur in a vacuum--ethical advertisers are first ethical people generally and the only way to motivate the will to act ethically is to develop the will to act ethically habitually and generally. Raising advertisers' and students' ethical consciousness is not sufficient--in the end, advertising and advertising people will be judged on their conduct. (Contains 56 notes.) (RS)
Ethics education based upon everyday ethical dilemmas can help trainees place themselves within the situation and encourage them to reflect on their role and responsibility in reaching its resolution.• Three elements can help augment the bioethics teaching experience: (a) identifying the ethical dilemma, (b) employing methods of ethical analysis, and(c) having knowledge of additional bioethics resources.An increasing number of bioethics resources are available to clinicians, including clinical ethics consultation (CEC) and print and Web-based resources. PMID:22855929
The purpose of this paper is to show that the consideration of value is necessary to understand moral dilemmas in engineering ethics. First, the author shows that moral dilemmas are not fully understood in engineering ethics and argues that it is due to the lack of understanding of value. Second, the author considers the concept of value from the viewpoint of ‘desirability’ . Finally, three suggestions for improving engineering ethics in the understanding of moral dilemmas are made.
This article examines the impact of discoveries and methods of neuroscience on marketing practices as they relate to the exercise of individual free will. Thus, our focus centers on ethical questions involving consumers' awareness, consent, and understanding to what may be viewed as invasion of their privacy rights. After a brief introduction, the article turns to scientific literature on the brain, followed by discussion of marketing persuasion models. Ethical dilemmas within the free will paradigm and Rawlsian justice developed in moral philosophy are delineated next. The article closes with policy implications and a revised consideration of consumer privacy.
There is no school administrators' pre-service training in the CIS (Former USSR) countries. As for the in-service training, it has been traditionally focused on educational management. As a result, schools in the CIS countries are run as well-oiled machines but there is a big question mark over whether these machines are running in the right directions. Doing things right implies certain beliefs by school administrators about what is "good and bad" in education. However while in their everyday lives educational decision makers are confronted by ethical dilemmas, there is little or no attention at all to these issues in the system of their training. There is an assumption that it is an impossible goal to influence and change their values and attitudes. After some 30 years of continuous attempts to challenge this assumption one should admit that it is indeed a very difficult goal to achieve. Through research, this author has identified seven ethical dilemmas faced by school administrators in the region. Responding to these ethical dilemmas is still the key challenge of democratic educational leadership in the CIS countries.
Learning to navigate ethical dilemmas is important in counseling students' training. According to the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2009 standards, counseling students must receive ethics education. A common goal for counselor educators is to assist students in translating ethical theory into practice. One method traditionally used within counselor education is case examples. A creative way to apply case examples to ethics education is adapting well-known fairy tales into ethical dilemmas. We adapted six fairy tales to address typical ethical and legal dilemmas counseling students may face once in practice. Following each case example is a brief analysis, including corresponding ethical standards from the American Counseling Association Code of Ethics,viewed from a relational-cultural perspective.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to introduce the practices and findings of a visual inquiry developed by the co-authors with students in a Business School in the south west of England. The authors are interested in how students engaged with the visual as a practice of inquiry and how this contributed to their development of a critical approach to the concept of ethics in business organisations. Design/methodology/approach - Students visited an exhibition shown as part of the 100 days countdown to the COP15 UN climate change conference, and constructed visual representation of questions and dilemmas related to ethical business practice. The analysis focuses on student presentations, and the discussions that these provoked on the relationship between "business" and "ethical practice"....
Toker A, Salzer L. Pediatric liver transplantation - Ethical dilemmas in a disabled patient. -Pediatr Transplantation 2011. 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract:- Allocation of medical resources, especially resources with absolute scarcity such as organs for transplant, is a difficult task. Medical, surgical, and ethical considerations should be evaluated. In solid organ transplantation, ethics committees are the gate keepers that deal with moral philosophy when moral values are in conflict. Often, no good solution to a dilemma in these medical ethics exists. Our case presents split living liver donation for retransplantation in a mentally disabled girl, with few medical ethics principles at stake.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss some ethical issues in the internet encounter between customer and bank. Empirical data related to the difficulties that customers have when they deal with the bank through internet technology and electronic banking. The authors discuss the difficulties that customers expressed from an ethical standpoint. Design/methodology/approach – The key problem of the paper is “how does research handle the user's lack of competence in a web-based commercial environment?” The authors illustrate this ethical dilemma with data from a Danish Bank collected in 2002. The data have been structured by an advanced text analytic method, Pertex (by generation of intentionality of verbal actors from text). Findings – The authors can conclude that the experience of lack of competency in internet banking implies a severe damage on the experience of the ethics of the good life and of the respect for the basic ethical principles of customer autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability. However, increased experience of competency may imply experience of increased feeling of ethical superiority and of the good life among customers. Research limitations/implications – The important implication for managerial research of this study would be for banks to focus on customer competency with an ethical concern instead of only being concerned with technical solutions for effective internet operations. Practical implications – Since more and more businesses are digitally based, the authors can foresee a potential generic problem of lack of competence for certain age groups and also of people from different social groups. Originality/value – The paper provides an analysis of the ethics of on-line banking on the basis of Pertex methodology and with the use of basic ethical principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability.
The needs of today`s advanced societies have moved well beyond the requirements for food and shelter, etc., and now are focused on such concerns as international peace and domestic security, affordable health care, the swift and secure transmission of information, the conservation of resources, and a clean environment. Progress in materials science and engineering is impacting each of these concerns. This paper will present some examples of how this is occurring, and then comment on ethical dilemmas that can arise as a consequence of technological advances. The need for engineers to participate more fully in the development of public policies that help resolve such dilemmas, and so promote the benefits of advancing technology to society, will be discussed.
Teachers at eight elementary schools in a large metropolitan school district participated in a multi-year program of professional ethical dilemma discussions that took place at monthly school meetings over a two-year or three-year period and focused on real-life situations faced by elementary school teachers. Discussions were structured using the Four Component Model of Moral Judgment. The DIT-2 served as a measure of moral judgment. Results proved to be counterintuitive; teacher moral judgment did not improve over time. We discuss the implications of promoting moral and democratic sensibilities at a time when American classrooms are tightly controlled and teachers held accountable for student performance on high stakes tests.
Animal biotechnology raises moral dilemmas that require collective decisions concerning permitted use of technology. The technological and ethical complexity of biotechnology makes such collective decisions difficult and the lack of shared understanding of the moral implications demands social learn...
Review: Marlene de Laine (2000). Fieldwork, Participation and Practice: Ethics and Dilemmas in Qualitative Research Review: Marlene de Laine (2000). Fieldwork, Participation and Practice: Ethics and Dilemmas in Qualitative Research Reseña: Marlene de Laine (2000). Fieldwork, Participation and Practice: Ethics and Dilemmas in Qualitative Research
In ihrem Buch Fieldwork, Participation and Practice: Ethics and Dilemmas in Qualitative Research präsentiert DE LAINE theoretische Diskussionen und Fallbeispiele zur Feldarbeit, um an ihnen die Komplexität ethischer Fragen – bezogen auf den ethnographischen Prozess und dessen Produkte – zu diskutier...
The aim of this study was to assess nurses' and physicians' ethical dilemmas in clinical practice. Nurses and physicians of the Clinical Hospital Centre Rijeka were surveyed (N=364). A questionnaire was used to identify recent ethical dilemma, primary ethical issue in the situation, satisfaction with the resolution, perceived usefulness of help, and usage of clinical ethics consultations in practice. Recent ethical dilemmas include professional conduct for nurses (8%), and near-the-end-of-life decisions for physicians (27%). The main ethical issue is limiting life-sustaining therapy (nurses 15%, physicians 24%) and euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (nurses 16%, physicians 9%). The types of help available are similar for nurses and physicians: obtaining complete information about the patient (37% vs. 50%) and clarifying ethical issues (31% vs. 39%). Nurses and physicians experience similar ethical dilemmas in clinical practice. The usage of clinical ethics consultations is low. It is recommended that the individual and team consultations should be introduced in Croatian clinical ethics consultations services. PMID:21558110
Allocation of medical resources, especially resources with absolute scarcity such as organs for transplant, is a difficult task. Medical, surgical, and ethical considerations should be evaluated. In solid organ transplantation, ethics committees are the gate keepers that deal with moral philosophy when moral values are in conflict. Often, no good solution to a dilemma in these medical ethics exists. Our case presents split living liver donation for retransplantation in a mentally disabled girl, with few medical ethics principles at stake. PMID:22081968
The American Anthropological Association has recently added number 23 to its series of special online publications. Edited by Joan Cassell and Sue-Ellen Jacobs, this collection of six essays is presented to "stimulate discussion and reflection on ethical issues" among anthropologists. Offerings include a background essay and annotated bibliography, two essays containing fictional ethical dilemmas and proposed solutions, an essay on introducing issues of ethical responsibility into the classroom, and guidelines on holding a workshop on ethical problems in fieldwork.
Educators will face a variety of ethical and moral dilemmas throughout their teaching careers; however, they do not have a common board that governs its members' ethical behavior. Instead, there are numerous educational organizations that have written their own specific codes for ethical behavior. The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) has developed a code of ethics for educators who work with persons with exceptionalities. Additionally, the National Education Association (NEA) has developed a code of ethics for educators with various roles in the profession. Resolving ethical dilemmas requires difficult educational decisions that do not always have a clear-cut "right" answer. In this article, the authors present several short vignettes of ethical dilemmas that both veteran and novice teachers have faced. The authors then ask readers to consider the possible solutions for these examples and ask them what they would do if faced with similar situation. Finally, the authors analyze each vignette using either the NEA's and CEC's code of ethics, identify ethical indicators that cover the situation, and propose a solution for each dilemma based on the code. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)
Much of the discourse on 'beyond the laboratory door' biosecurity to date has focused on the need to raise awareness among the scientific community of the risks posed by the rapid advancement of biotechnology in recent decades. While education is undoubtedly important, a growing body of evidence suggests that ethics education does not necessarily translate into ethical behaviour. This trend has already been reported in clinical settings, where research has highlighted doctors' own reports of ethically dubious practices and challenges when confronted with moral dilemmas in their everyday work. The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the practical value of ethics education and show why it is an essential, although insufficient, measure for promoting a culture of responsible conduct of research. We conclude by highlighting the importance of continuing professional development as a way of maintaining life scientists' engagement with biosecurity issues and supporting them in active roles in the effective implementation of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC). PMID:22606762
Assisting or hastening death is a dilemma with many ethical as well as practical issues facing healthcare practitioners in many countries worldwide now. Various arguments for and against assisted dying have been made over time but the call from the public for legalisation of euthanasia or assisted suicide has never been stronger. While many studies have documented the reluctance of medical and other health professionals to be involved in the practice of assisted dying or euthanasia, there is still much open debate in the public domain. Those who have the most experience of palliative care are strongest in their opposition to assisted death or euthanasia. This paper explores salient practical and ethical considerations for healthcare practitioners associated with assisted death, with a focus on examining the concepts of autonomy for patients and healthcare practitioners. The role of the healthcare practitioner has clearly and undoubtedly changed over time with advances in healthcare practices but the duty of care has not changed. The dilemmas for healthcare practitioners thus who have competent patients requesting hastened death extends far beyond acting within a country's laws as they go to the very heart of the relationship between the practitioner and patient. PMID:23121745
Children's voices have not often found their way into research. Concerns about their powers of communication, cognitive abilities and the ethical difficulties inherent when working with children have restricted their participation. Objective, empirical evidence suggests that if one engages children in research appropriately they are able to make a significant contribution. However, methodologies that require researchers to adopt a role of passive observer potentially pose ethical dilemmas. When working with children ethical dilemmas can be minimised by taking on the role of a participant adult. The participant adult role for the researcher is entirely congruent with the cognitive and social needs of children to participate meaningfully in research.
This paper develops a theory of consumer boycotts. To affect a firm's ethical behavior, moral consumers refuse to buy from an unethical firm. Consumers who do not care about ethical behavior may join the boycott to (falsely) signal that they do care, increasing the disciplinary power of consumer boycotts. In the firm's choice between ethical and unethical behavior, the optimality of mixed and pure strategies depends on the cost of producing ethically. In particular, when the cost is (relatively) low, ethical behavior arises from a prisoners' dilemma as the firm's optimal strategy.
Sales career opportunities are growing, and the number of women in sales is increasing. Educators must adequately prepare both men and women for today's ethical sales dilemmas. Using the Personal Selling Ethics Scale, the current study analyzes the impact of idealism and relativism on the sales ethics evaluations of men and women. Results indicate that women evaluate sales ethics scenarios as less ethical than males and that varying positions on these ethical frameworks partially explain the divergence. Results also imply that today's sales educators should primarily emphasize moral idealism when teaching sales ethics. Ethical codes and situation-based frameworks can aid this effort. When teaching relativistic individuals, educators can supplement idealistic methods via the use of cognitive moral development frameworks. (Contains 6 tables.)
Talisman Energy Inc. is a large independent Canadian oil and gas producer with operations worldwide, including operations in Sudan, Malaysia, Trinidad and Colombia. This report includes a discussion on seismic exploration in the Acevedo block in Colombia, but most of the report focuses on operations in Sudan because that is the primary concern of many stakeholders, particularly the impact of the long-running civil war in that country and the way in which oil revenues will be used. The report describes Talisman Energy's compliance with the International Code of Ethics for Canadian Business which Talisman adopted in December 1999. The report evaluates Talisman's progress towards achieving objectives in the areas of human rights, community participation, employee rights, ethical business conduct, health, safety and the environment. Talisman will continue to advocate peace and the fair distribution of oil revenues. It was noted that the funding provided by the Sudan oil project consortium Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company (GNPOC) for community development was increased for 2002. Talisman and GNPOC funding helps in community development initiatives such as the provision of water wells, health clinics and schools in Sudan. PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) was asked by Talisman to gather comments on the company's operations in Sudan from a range of stakeholder groups. This report presents audit statements by PwC regarding Talisman's social responsibility. The report also included an independent opinion regarding the challenge of facing ethical dilemmas in business. tabs., figs.
Bioethics laws in France have just undergone a revision process. The bioethics debate is often cast in terms of ethical principles and norms resisting emerging social and technological practices. This leads to the expression of confrontational attitudes based on widely differing interpretations of the same principles and values, and ultimately results in a deadlock. In this paper I would like to argue that focusing on values, as opposed to norms and principles, provides an interesting perspective on the evolution of norms. As Joseph Raz has convincingly argued, "life-building" values and practices are closely intertwined. Precisely because values have a more indeterminate meaning than norms, they can be cited as reasons for action by concerned stakeholders, and thus can help us understand how controversial practices, e.g. surrogate motherhood, can be justified. Finally, norms evolve when the interpretations of the relevant values shift and cause a change in the presumptions implicit in the norms. Thus, norms are not a prerequisite of the ethical solution of practical dilemmas, but rather the outcome of the decision-making process itself. Struggling to reach the right decision in controversial clinical ethics situations indirectly causes social and moral values to change and principles to be understood differently. PMID:22477038
Research on ethical dilemmas in health care has become increasingly salient during the last two decades resulting in confusion about the concept of moral distress. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview and a comparative analysis of the theoretical understandings of moral distress and related concepts. The focus is on five concepts: moral distress, moral stress, stress of conscience, moral sensitivity and ethical climate. It is suggested that moral distress connects mainly to a psychological perspective; stress of conscience more to a theological-philosophical standpoint; and moral stress mostly to a physiological perspective. Further analysis indicates that these thoughts can be linked to the concepts of moral sensitivity and ethical climate through a relationship to moral agency. Moral agency comprises a moral awareness of moral problems and moral responsibility for others. It is suggested that moral distress may serve as a positive catalyst in exercising moral agency. An interdisciplinary approach in research and practice broadens our understanding of moral distress and its impact on health care personnel and patient care. PMID:22454155
The notorious intensification and digitalization of surveillance technologies and practices in today’s society has brought about numerous changes. These changes have been widely noticed, described and discussed across many academic disciplines. However, the contexts of entertainment, play and leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance as portrayed in the movies Rear Window (1954) and The Conversation (1974). I argue that such research as well as studies of the experience of surveillance contributes to our theoretical insights into the ambiguous and ubiquitous phenomenon of surveillance.
Publishing research is imperative to both counselor educators and students in counseling programs. Furthermore, faculty-student publication collaborations can often be a mutually beneficial professional endeavor. However, determining order of authorship can be a complex ethical issue. The authors review prior research to illustrate the complexities of authorship and suggest a decision-making model and considerations for preventing and resolving these ethical dilemmas. Implications for counselors include future research studies on complex issues regarding authorship of faculty-student collaborations, future incidence studies investigating occurrence of ethics violations, and incorporation of publication ethics into course work in counselor education programs. (Contains 1 figure.)
This paper derives from a grounded theory study of how Medical Directors working within the UK National Health Service manage the moral quandaries that they encounter as leaders of health care organizations. The reason health care organizations exist is to provide better care for individuals through providing shared resources for groups of people. This creates a paradox at the heart of health care organization, because serving the interests of groups sometimes runs counter to serving the needs of individuals. The paradox presents ethical dilemmas at every level of the organization, from the boardroom to the bedside. Medical Directors experience these organizational ethical dilemmas most acutely by virtue of their position in the organization. As doctors, their professional ethic obliges them to put the interests of individual patients first. As executive directors, their role is to help secure the delivery of services that meet the needs of the whole patient population. What should they do when the interests of groups of patients, and of individual patients, appear to conflict? The first task of an ethical healthcare organization is to secure the trust of patients, and two examples of medical ethical leadership are discussed against this background. These examples suggest that conflict between individual and population needs is integral to health care organization, so dilemmas addressed at one level of the organization inevitably re-emerge in altered form at other levels. Finally, analysis of the ethical activity that Medical Directors have described affords insight into the interpersonal components of ethical skill and knowledge.
holmstrom i &hoglund at (2007) Journal of Clinical Nursing16, 1865-1871The faceless encounter: ethical dilemmas in telephone nursing Aim. This paper aims to present the findings of a study designed to describe ethical dilemmas, in the form of conflicting values, norms and interests, which telenurses experience in their work. Background. Telephone nursing is an expanding part of health care. Telephone nurses in Sweden assess care needs, provide advice, support and information, and recommend and coordinate healthcare resources. Lately, ethical demands on healthcare professionals in general have increased. The reasons include new biomedical competence, an ageing population and constrained resources which have made priority setting a primary concern for doctors and nurses. When ethical problem...
This book introduces key issues in program planning as practiced in business and educational settings. Two chapters in part 1 introduce two foundational models--Lifelong Education Program Planning (LEPP) model and Contingency-Based Program Planning--and provide background on models designed by Houle, Knowles, Boyle, and Nadler. Parts 2-5 focus on the Quadrants of the LEPP model: exercising professional responsibility, engaging relevant contexts, designing the program, and managing administrative aspects. Four chapters in part 2 discuss the following: how program planners can work effectively; planners' roles; articulation of a working philosophy; and ethical dilemmas faced in program planning. Four chapters in part 3 address these topics: how to appraise an organization's external and internal environments; how to seek information about targeted populations; assessment of learning needs; and negotiation of stakeholder interests. Four chapters in part 4 focus on the following: goal setting; program evaluation; models for guiding instructional design; and possible learning formats. Four chapters in part 5 examine the following administrative aspects: recruitment and retention; program promotion and marketing; budgeting; and instructor selection, supervision, evaluation, and development. Appendixes contain a tool for assessing competencies using the LEPP model; a code of ethics for adult educators and program planners; and an index. Contains 152 references. (YLB)
BACKGROUND:: Oncology nurses routinely encounter ethical dilemmas when caring for advanced cancer patients, particularly concerning prognosis-related communications. Nurses experience uncertainty and barriers to providing quality end-of-life care; thus, more information is needed about recognizing and managing these dilemmas and to clarify their role in these situations. OBJECTIVE:: The purposes of this study were to (1) describe the frequency and types of ethical dilemmas experienced by oncology nurses caring for advanced cancer patients and (2) to summarize their written comments about prognosis-related communications. METHODS:: This was a content analysis of narrative comments provided by 137 oncology nurses who completed a mailed national survey of members of the Oncology Nursing Society. RESULTS:: The most frequently reported ethical dilemmas encompassed uncertainties and barriers to truth telling, familial and cultural conflict, and futility. Physician-nurse teams were considered optimal for delivering prognosis-related information. Nurses offered strategies for facilitating these communications. They also expressed the need for more education about how to engage in prognosis-related discussions and for better methods for relaying this information among team members to avoid "working in the dark." CONCLUSIONS:: Oncology nurses routinely experience ethical dilemmas, and there is a need for clarification of their role in these circumstances. Healthcare providers would benefit from interdisciplinary education about prognosis-related discussions. Attention to managing familial conflict and understanding cultural variations associated with illness, death, and dying is also needed. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:: Findings reveal new information about ethical dilemmas encountered by nurses and strategies for improving end-of-life communications with advanced cancer patients. PMID:22728951
Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development and curricular materials on the ability of high school students to analyze a bioethical case study and develop a strong position. We focused on student ability to identify an ethical question, consider stakeholders and their values, incorporate relevant scientific facts and content, address ethical principles, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternate solutions. 431 students and 12 teachers participated in a research study using teacher cohorts for comparison purposes. The first cohort received professional development and used the curriculum with their students; the second did not receive professional development until after their participation in the study and did not use the curriculum. In order to assess the acquisition of higher-order justification skills, students were asked to analyze a case study and develop a well-reasoned written position. We evaluated statements using a scoring rubric and found highly significant differences (p<0.001) between students exposed to the curriculum strategies and those who were not. Students also showed highly significant gains (p<0.001) in self-reported interest in science content, ability to analyze socio-scientific issues, awareness of ethical issues, ability to listen to and discuss viewpoints different from their own, and understanding of the relationship between science and society. Our results demonstrate that incorporating ethical dilemmas into the classroom is one strategy for increasing student motivation and engagement with science content, while promoting reasoning and justification skills that help prepare an informed citizenry. PMID:22615814
Abstract in spanish Desde el siglo XX la humanidad está asediada por violencia, crisis del estado de derecho e impunidad, circunstancias que se extendieron al profesional de la salud: crisis de la ética moral médica. Objetivo: Aparte del registro de casos clínicos y dilemas ético-morales en el siglo XIX, investigar testimonios histórico médicos y de ética, moral, etiqueta y educación médicas en la literatura decimonónica, considerándola también resguardo fidedigno de ellos. Proc (more) edimiento histórico-analítico: Casos de autonomía, beneficencia, justicia, no maleficencia y solidaridad en 122 obras literarias (84 autores, 20 países) decimonónicas, elegidas -según analistas reconocidos- porque muestran coincidencia y trascendencia de objetos de la vida real con objetos representados literariamente, tomándose para este artículo Axel Munthe y su Historia de San Michele. Hallazgos: Se identificaron -agrupándose en cuadros analítico estadísticos- fragmentos literarios sobre impronta científica técnica, ejercicio profesional, relación galeno paciente, casos clínicos, dilemas ético morales, etiqueta y educación médicas, confirmándose que la dimensión médica más valiosa tiene raíces, tronco y fronda humanistas. Conclusiones: Innovación aportada: enfocada histórica, médica y bioéticamente, la obra literaria pudiera ser otra vía analítica reflexiva para que el médico lector esteta del siglo XXI, recuperando los objetos reales representados, escogiera la senda de su superación e hiciera crecer su éthos y su contribución al bien común. Abstract in english Since the last century, humanity has been besieged by violence, crisis of the state of law and impunity, everything extended to crisis of medical ethics moral. Objective: In addition to clinic cases and ethics and moral dilemmas in the nineteenth century, to investigate for testimonies of the history of medicine and medical ethics, moral, etiquette and education in the nineteenth century literature, considering this a trustworthy archive of them. Analytic-historical proce (more) eding: Cases of autonomy, beneficence, justice, nonmaleficence and solidarity in 122 nineteenth century literary masterpieces (84 authors, 20 countries), selected -according to prestigious scholars-because they show coincidence and transcendence of real life objects with literary represented objects, taking for this article just Axel Munthe s Story of San Michele. Finds: Grouped in statistical analytic tables literary paragraphs about technical scientific matters, professional exercise, medical patient relation, clinic cases, moral ethics dilemmas and medical etiquette and education were identified corroborating that the more worthy medical dimension has humanistic roots. Conclusions: Innovating contribution: focused through the lens of the medicine history and bioethics, literary masterpieces might be the reflexive analytical way for the twenty-first century physician/reader, to recover the real objects represented, to choose his excelling path and to increase his éthos and contribution to the common welfare.
The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught. This paper examines a teaching technique that could be used in any business class to incorporate ethics education with a significant advantage over current methods. Students learn to recognize ethical dilemmas without prompts and by making bad decisions and suffering the consequences (in class). The results of pre- and posttest measures are reported as well as several advantages of the technique. (Contains 1 table.)
Teamwork, communication, critical incident debriefing, and grief counseling surrounding the events of an unexpected maternal death are important continuing education and practice topics for health care employees working with pregnant women. Social technologies have impacted health care institutions and systems. Ethical dilemmas have been created in hospitals as they develop policies and procedures regarding electronic communications and social networking Web sites.
Street has argued that the meta-ethical realist is faced with a dilemma. Either evolutionary forces have had a distorting influenced on our ability to track moral properties or evolutionary forces influenced our beliefs in the direction of tracking moral properties. Street argues that if the realist accepts the first horn of the dilemma, the realist must accept implausible skepticism regarding moral beliefs. If the realist accepts the second horn of the dilemma, the realist owes an explanation of the fitness producing nature of moral beliefs. As Street establishes the dialectic, the anti-realist?s explanation is better. I will argue that Street?s first horn is question begging then I will grasp the second horn of the dilemma and argue that only the realist can explain the role of moral bel...
Despite some arguments to the contrary, I argue that because ethics benefit, rather than harm, the intelligence profession they should be considered an inherent part of intelligence studies. The literature largely presents intelligence ethics as a two-sided debate between teleologists and deontologists. I propose that ethical justifications should instead be considered along a progressive spectrum drawn from the work of moral psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg. Such a spectrum has numerous applications for gauging the moral arguments of individual practitioners of intelligence. I illustrate this using the dilemma of targeted political assassination - first in a hypothetical context, and finally using examples from the investigations of the 1975 Church Committee.
Abstract in spanish En esta ponencia se examinan algunas especificidades de la investigación antropológica en instituciones hospitalarias, a partir de la experiencia de trabajo de campo en hospitales de Ciudad de Buenos Aires y conurbano bonaerense. Focalizamos por un lado, en los requisitos institucionales que posibilitan el acceso al hospital como lugar de estudio y, por otro, en el compromiso emocional y ético del investigador. En cuanto a lo primero, analizamos los problemas que deriv (more) an del enfrentamiento de dos lenguajes y marcos epistémicos de índole diversa - el antropológico y el biomédico- en el proceso de autorización a cargo de los Comité de Ética y de Docencia e Investigación. Respecto a lo segundo, reflexionamos sobre algunas situaciones en las cuales el trabajador de campo se enfrenta a problemas éticos, aparentemente, dilemáticos. Indagamos acerca de las implicancias y consecuencias metodológicas y por ende teóricas de ambos problemas. Abstract in english In this paper we examine some particularities of anthropological research in hospitality institutions, on the basis of fieldwork carries out in hospitals of the Metropolitan and suburban areas of Buenos Aires. On one side, we focus on the institutional requirements for allowing access to the hospital and, on the other side, on the emotional and ethical commitments of researchers. In what concern to the former, we discuss the problematic arising from procuring authorizatio (more) n from the ethical research Committee of the hospital to conduct a research in these premises. On the other hand, we discuss some ethic problems and dilemmas and we analyze the methodological and theoretical implications of such issues.
This paper presents perspectives on ethical dimensions and social dilemmas encountered in the professional work of social welfare practitioners in Denmark. The paper draws on examples from an ethnographic study of the subjective experiences of professionals with practice and the educational setting. On basis of the empirical findings the author argues that it is the interplay between the students’ personal narrative, practice experience and theoretical reflection with teachers and co-workers, which constitute the social workers’ ethical perception. When the social welfare practitioners experience the other subjects ‘being in existence’ a transformation of the personality takes place and a deeper understanding and compassion for ‘the other’ is integrated. Ethical judgment is a demanding and inescapable aspect of social work; hence, the educational institutions are compelled to prioritise questions on how the students are enabled to skillfully confront ethical reality, in order to develop concrete ethical perception and judgment based on wisdom, i.e. a pedagogical phronesis.
Objective: Professionalism, an Accreditation Commission for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competency, embraces the concept of adherence to ethical principles. Despite this, most surgical residencies do not currently include ethics as part of their core curriculum. Further, expertise in effectively managing ethical dilemmas is frequently obtained via modeling after the attending physician. This study evaluated surgical faculty (SF) and residents (SR) on their understanding of basic ethical principles and their overall confidence in translation of these principles into clinical practice. The objective was to determine if there are any differences in the overall levels of knowledge and confidence in ethics between SR and SF. Design and Setting: Immediately before the first session of a K...
Information ethics codes play a vital role in clarifying the responsibilities of MIS (management information systems) professionals and providing them with a point of reference when dealing with ethical issues. In view of the important 21st Century role played by China, particularly Mainland China, which represents a hugely significant market to all global enterprises, it is hoped that this study will assist the business world in understanding the culture in which Chinese business is conducted, and will facilitate the building of a suitable information ethics code in the future. Academically, this paper aims to explain how Confucian ethics and the guanxi culture perspective affect MIS professionals' ethical dilemmas and reactive processes. Specifically, it examines the reactive processes o...
Ethics spans all of the medical specialties and is constantly evolving as new medical technologies develop. As PAs become involved in Institutional Ethics Committees (IEC) and related settings, ethics instruction becomes an increasingly important component of their education. Students need the tools to face ethical dilemmas in order to provide the best possible care to their patients across the life span. Furthermore, PAs have a clear role and responsibility in end-of-life and palliative care. Ethics education can be most effective when incorporated into both the preclinical and clinical phases of instruction. There are many ways in which this can be accomplished so that future PAs are equipped with the necessary tools, skills, and information. PMID:22827150
In the context of the growing popularity of the ethical consumer movement and the appearance of different types of ethical collective communities, the current article explores the meanings drawn from the participation in Responsible Consumption Cooperatives. In existing research, the overriding focus has been on examining individual ethical consumer behaviour at the expense of advancing our understanding of how ethical consumers behave collectively. Hence, this article examines the meanings derived from participating in ethical consumer groups. A qualitative multi-method approach is adopted to increase the validity of findings. This includes focus groups, in-depth interviews, observation and document analysis. Results show that ethical consumption in a group project offers a greater sense ...
Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Describir situaciones que plantean dilemas éticos propios del ejercicio de la enfermería que influyen en los significados otorgados por los pacientes al cuidado. Metodología: se revisaron los datos obtenidos en entrevistas en profundidad de dos estudios fenomenológicos realizados con 21 participantes adultos que habían estado hospitalizados. Los datos se analizaron según el esquema propuesto por Cohen, Kahan y Steeves. Resultados y discusión: Situaciones (more) de cuidado descritas por los participantes muestran como en decisiones tomadas por los enfermeros desplazan a los pacientes del papel protagónico en el cuidado y cusan rechazo y malestar. Conclusiones: Enfoques de práctica de enfermería basada en decisiones erróneas que no responden a las expectativas de los pacientes requieran de la identificación de dilemas para resolverlos en beneficio de los pacientes y contribuir a la humanización y calidad. Abstract in english Objective: To describe situations involving typical ethical dilemmas in nursing practice that influence patients' meanings about nursing care. Methodology: Data obtained from two phenomenological studies with 21 adults participants who were hospitalized and were interviewed in depth. The analysis was carried out according to the outline proposed by Cohen, Kahan and Steeves. Outcomes and discussion: Participants described situations in which nurses deprived them the protag (more) onist role as they should have in nursing care. This aspect contributed to patient's rejection toward care. Conclusion: Nursing practice focuses based on erroneous decisions that don't comply to patients expectations required identification of dilemmas which must had been solved in a benefical way to patients in order to contribute to humanization and quality.
In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity. Taking ethical decisions can often be a dilemma - one that requires recognition and proper representation of multiple pieces of complex information, as well as an intuitive judgment about potential consequences. Pressure is particularly placed on organizational leaders, who are tasked with projects, partnerships and individuals. Constraining forces - be they personal, situational or environmental - can negatively influence any decision by decreasing ethical awareness, ethical sensitivity and ethical judgment. By creating mental compensatory models, the Sensemaking* technique serves to counteract these constraining forces that narrow the search and evaluation of&nbs...
School art therapists face numerous ethical dilemmas, from referrals to therapy, through privacy, safety and predictability in the art therapy room, to the need to balance cooperation with the educational staff and its expectations of shared information with loyalty to the patient. Breach of confidentiality also has legal implications. The ownership and exposure of treatment records and artwork likewise involve ethical considerations. System and patient needs sometimes conflict. The handling of ethical issues--often resolved technically or according to facility tradition--greatly impacts the therapy process. The author encourages art therapists in schools to plan and implement systematic work procedures; nevertheless, they should also make sure their methods comply with their moral and ethical standards.
Congress, Black, and Strom-Gottfried cover the gamut of values and ethics issues affecting social work curricula at the BSW and MSW degree levels, as well as those complying with CSWE's 2008 Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards. This book's course outlines, interactive learning techniques, technological resources, and extensive bibliography can be applied to virtually any social work course. Its bibliography also features specialty areas new to social work ethics, such as international and rural social work. Resources included account for potential ethical dilemmas concerning practice, law, philosophy, research, conflict resolution, policy advocacy, and work/life balance. Experiential learning opportunities presented in exercises allow students to witness important ethical concepts first-hand, leaving a lasting impression when they become professionals. Regardless of specialization, this book applies to all students' career aspirations--particularly those interested in child welfare, gerontology, health care, and school social work.
Ethical issues: Caring for cancer patients presents many ethical issues for veterinarians and other veterinary health workers. The issues that most veterinarians think of relate to management of the patient when the owners' preferences for treatment do not appear to be in the animal's best interest, as well as concerns about toxicities and about costs of veterinary services (advanced imaging, surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy). While not limited to the veterinary profession, we are more often faced with dilemmas about the appropriateness of palliative care and decisions about euthanasia than our medical colleagues. Equally important are the ethics of not treating patients, and the integration of unproven and alternative strategies into conventional care. A separate ethical issue ...
This article describes a dilemma based on Muller's experiences working with young children, their teachers, and families. This dilemma will provide the opportunity to apply the NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct, with a special emphasis on the impact of culture and beliefs on teaching practice. The 2011 reaffirmation and update of the Code stresses the importance of ensuring cultural consistency between children's homes and early care and education programs. This case highlights circumstances that make maintaining this consistency a challenge due to a conflict between individual children's home beliefs and the beliefs on which the program is based. It calls for consideration of center policies and the best interests of children. Steps for resolving the dilemma are offered.
Ethical questions have long been the impetus for philosophical inquiry around the world. When ethical questions arise in the classroom, during advising or in other academic settings, university and college instructors may appeal to the ethical codes within their own discipline for guidance. The materials presented in this article review teaching-related sections of the professional codes of conduct from five fields of scholarship (history, physics, engineering, nursing, and psychology) and seek common themes that may guide university and college instructors in general approaches to ethical dilemmas as well as specific situations. Despite a breadth of topical areas, the selected ethics codes share common ground, and each addresses appropriate education and training within a discipline. The materials address differences in the approaches of the chosen ethics codes and then explore similarities, particularly those that translate into tangible classroom behaviors for university and college teachers. The article closes with appeals for explicit graduate education in ethics and for instructors to recognize the larger ethical context in which they teach. (Contains 2 notes.)
ETHICAL ISSUES: Caring for cancer patients presents many ethical issues for veterinarians and other veterinary health workers. The issues that most veterinarians think of relate to management of the patient when the owners' preferences for treatment do not appear to be in the animal's best interest, as well as concerns about toxicities and about costs of veterinary services (advanced imaging, surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy). While not limited to the veterinary profession, we are more often faced with dilemmas about the appropriateness of palliative care and decisions about euthanasia than our medical colleagues. Equally important are the ethics of not treating patients, and the integration of unproven and alternative strategies into conventional care. A separate ethical issue arises from investigational therapies and research. Less often considered, but nonetheless relevant, are the ethics of suboptimal evaluation (staging) of patients prior to treatment, or of not informing owners about all the options available. CLIENT COMMUNICATION: Ethical veterinary care is intertwined with good client communication. Without good communication, it is impossible, for example, to gain informed consent; and without informed consent, the ethics of cancer treatment are uncertain. GOAL: This article, which draws in part on published research, where stated, and otherwise on the author's personal experiences/opinions and those of veterinary colleagues, is intended to provoke further thought and discussion on the ethics of caring for our cancer patients. PMID:21872793
ABSTRACT The inevitable need for rationing of healthcare has apparently presented the medical profession with the dilemma of choosing the lesser of two evils. Physicians appear to be obliged to adopt either an implausible version of traditional professional ethics or an equally problematic ethics of bedside rationing. The former requires unrestricted advocacy of patients but prompts distrust, moral hazard and unfairness. The latter commits physicians to rationing at the bedside; but it is bound to introduce unfair inequalities among patients and lack of political accountability towards citizens. In this paper I shall argue that this dilemma is false, since a third intermediate alternative exists. This alternative, which I term `administrative gatekeeping', makes it possible for physicians ...
Genetic testing is increasingly applied for diagnosis and clinical treatment. In some countries, genetic counseling services are provided by professionals with specific training in this discipline, whereas other countries have no teaching programs and counseling is offered by physicians, nurses, pharmacists or biochemists. This counseling raises more and more ethical dilemmas for health professionals at their clinics. The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of Spanish professionals devoted to providing genetic counseling services and to investigate the frequency of the ethical dilemmas they face. Results from 72 survey respondents revealed this counseling is provided by an almost even number of male and female professionals, mostly physicians with many years of profess...
The American Physical Society (APS) Task Force on Ethics was charged with looking at the state of Ethics education in Physics. Through surveys of and discussions with the physics community, a number of concerns regarding Ethics came to light. I will focus on issues in the practice of physics which were raised particularly by junior members of the APS.
Electronic health records (EHRs) facilitate several innovations capable of reforming health care. Despite their promise, many currently unanswered legal, ethical, and financial questions threaten the widespread adoption and use of EHRs. Key legal dilemmas that must be addressed in the near-term pertain to the extent of clinicians' responsibilities for reviewing the entire computer-accessible clinical synopsis from multiple clinicians and institutions, the liabilities posed by overriding clinical decision support warnings and alerts, and mechanisms for clinicians to publically report potential EHR safety issues. Ethical dilemmas that need additional discussion relate to opt-out provisions that exclude patients from electronic record storage, sale of deidentified patient data by EHR vendors, adolescent control of access to their data, and use of electronic data repositories to redesign the nation's health care delivery and payment mechanisms on the basis of statistical analyses. Finally, one overwhelming financial question is who should pay for EHR implementation because most users and current owners of these systems will not receive the majority of benefits. The authors recommend that key stakeholders begin discussing these issues in a national forum. These actions can help identify and prioritize solutions to the key legal, ethical, and financial dilemmas discussed, so that widespread, safe, effective, interoperable EHRs can help transform health care.
This article reviews the Dutch societal debate on euthanasia/assisted suicide in dementia cases, specifically Alzheimer's disease. It discusses the ethical and practical dilemmas created by euthanasia requests in advance directives and the related inconsistencies in the Dutch legal regulations regarding euthanasia/assisted suicide. After an initial focus on euthanasia in advanced dementia, the actual debate concentrates on making euthanasia/assisted suicide possible in the very early stages of dementia. A review of the few known cases of assisted suicide of people with so-called early dementia raises the question why requests for euthanasia/assisted suicide from patients in the early stage of (late onset) Alzheimer's disease are virtually non-existent. In response to this question two explanations are offered. It is concluded that, in addition to a moral discussion on the limits of anticipatory choices, there is an urgent need to develop research into the patient's perspective with regard to medical treatment and care-giving in dementia, including end-of-life care. PMID:17454999
Scand J Caring Sci; 2012 The unexpected force of acute stroke leading to patients' sudden death as described by nurses Stroke occurs suddenly and unexpectedly and its consequences can mean the difference between life and death. Research into stroke is extensive but largely focused on patients who survive. The aim of the study was to describe how nurses experience the patient's death and dying, when patients are afflicted by acute stroke and whose lives cannot be saved. The study had a descriptive design with a hermeneutical approach. Interviews were carried out with ten nurses in stroke units at three hospitals. Data were interpreted using hermeneutic textual interpretation based on Gadamer's philosophy. The study shows that sudden death, when unexpected forces intervene in the lives of patients afflicted by acute stroke, was described by the main theme sudden death - the unexpected force and the following three sub-themes: death comes unexpectedly and without warning to the patient; the relatives are at the mercy of the unexpected and the nurses find themselves in demanding situations. The new understanding emphasizes that the unexpected and demanding situations the nurses are put in can be understood as ethical dilemmas and value conflicts because they are not free to give their time to preserving the dying patient's dignity and are not able to give the good care they wish to. A more flexible organization could support the nurses in making use of the creative forces in the unexpected event which an acute stroke that leads to death constitutes. PMID:22612457
Purpose - The overall aim of this research is to increase understanding of consumers' barriers in relation to convenience food. While the motivation for consuming convenience food has been investigated frequently, few studies have investigated the barriers. Design/methodology/approach - Three focus group studies, exploring consumers' ready-to-heat (RTH) meal dilemmas, were conducted in Norway. Findings - The frequency of barriers and four narratives are presented, and the results indicate that consumers face bottom-up dilemmas related to barriers like sensory perception, health, economy, and managing relationships; and/or top-down value dilemmas related to traditions, quality of life and environmental barriers when considering convenience food consumption. Research limitations/implications...
Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is an essential part of public health programmes. Since M&E is the backbone of public health programmes, ethical considerations are important in their conduct. Some of the key ethical considerations are avoiding conflicts of interest, maintaining independence of judgement, maintaining fairness, transparency, full disclosure, privacy and confidentiality, respect, responsibility, accountability, empowerment and sustainability. There are several ethical frameworks in public health, but none focusing on the monitoring and evaluation process. There is a need to institutionalise the ethical review of M&E proposals. A theoretical framework for ethical considerations is proposed in this paper. This proposed theoretical framework can act as the blueprint for building the capacity of ethics committees to review M&E proposals. A case study is discussed in this context. After thorough field testing, this practical and field-based ethical framework can be widely used by donor agencies, M&E teams, institutional review boards and ethics committees. PMID:23112043
Novice researchers must be trained to be ethical practitioners. This means more than just knowing how to gain ethics approval and being familiar with the codes of ethics. Rather, researchers need to develop their ethical awareness, perception, and judgment, and their capabilities to reflect and act when actually in the field, which we refer to as "situated research ethics." We employ the concept of "formation" as a useful pedagogical frame accentuating the importance of integrating knowledge, research skills, and ethical capabilities in research practice. We suggest that a narrative approach is consistent with formation, and is useful in research ethics training. This approach uses storytelling and engaging with stories to enable the development of ethical know-how in research. We conclude the article by focusing on the benefits and limitations of this approach. PMID:22203388
Police surgeons play an important role in the British criminal justice system. Professionally located between the two worlds of medicine and the law, they face ethical dilemmas which derive from the dual nature of their role. The development of the police surgeon service has seen the emergence of three further dualisms within the police surgeon role. These are the forensic-therapeutic divide, the specialist-generalist division, and the issue of dependence or independence with regard to the police. These internal dualisms are discussed and their implications explored. Attention then turns to a consideration of three issues which demonstrate the nature of the ethical dilemmas facing the British police surgeon: the particular articulation of the (police) doctor-patient relationship, the matter of consent, and the subject of confidentiality. Both these ethical issues and the nature of the police surgeon role are explored through the primary analysis of survey and interview data collected from a national sample of police surgeons and police services, and the secondary analysis of key documents on the police surgeon, the paper concludes that specific ethical guidance is needed to address the forensic aspects of the police surgeon role. PMID:8771640
'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways to explore the program; for example, they can navigate the program using the 'Assist Me' option, which explains the basis of theethical arguments. Reality text provides details of real events on which the case is based, and a glossary of terminology is available for the students to explore. Selected access to a case template is also available, enabling students and teachers to create their own case studies. Evaluation of the program has been ongoing during its development.
Nel Noddings'"Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education" (1984) represents a feminist view of the caring teacher-pupil relationship, focusing on the personal and social setting and speaking directly about the relationship. The works of Maurice Merleau-Ponty contribute a phenomenological perspective which is universal and culturally based and, in describing human relationships, implies a point of view on the teacher-pupil relationship. An exploration of the similarities and differences between these two views yields implications for education, the two parties in the teacher-student relationship, and their shared world. Both points of view relate to the existential interpretation of life and the importance of human relationships. In both, individual choice making constructs the solution to moral dilemmas. Both include concreteness and an emphasis on defining values, forming relationships, and signifying the impact of the individual on an experience. In contrast, while Noddings attends to society, its institutions, and their impact on human relationships, with special emphasis on the educational domain, Merleau-Ponty considers the interaction of culture, universal human tendencies, and the socio-political world. Individuality, the significance of decision making, and freedom appear less clear cut, more complex, and enigmatic than in Noddings' narrative. Noddings' focus is on the teacher-pupil relationship, but with many examples of mother-child rearing. Merleau-Ponty's perspective on intersubjectivity--the connection of all persons historically and culturally--provides a sense of universality to his person-centered philosophy. The Noddings version is directly applicable to American education. Merleau-Ponty's message must be sought, but when discovered, the question of relationships, particularly the teacher-pupil relationship, may best be seen in Merleau-Ponty's vision. However, specific characteristics and outcomes lie with each teacher and student linked in the education event. One seeking to identify the caring teacher-pupil relationship would profit by consulting both models--the personal and particular focus as well as the universal and cultural design. (ND)
This study investigates how business leaders dynamically narrate their aspirational ethical leadership identities. In doing so, it furthers understanding of ethical leadership as a process situated in time and place. The analysis focuses on the discursive strategies used to narrate identity and ethics by ethnic Chinese business leaders in Indonesia after their conversion to Pentecostalâ??charismatic Christianity. By exploring the use of metaphor, our study shows how these business leaders discursively deconstruct their â??oldâ?? identities and construct their â??newâ?? aspirational identities as ethical leaders. This leads to the following contributions. First, we show that ethical leadership is constructed in identity talk as the business leaders actively narrate aspirational identities. ...
The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families and with interdisciplinary colleagues. The Code's purpose is to: (1) identify the key principles guiding professional conduct; and (2) provide guidance for practice and personal dilemmas in the conduct of research and practice. The Code is intended to assist professionals in resolving conflicts as they arise in practice with children and families and with other colleagues. The following principles and guidelines for practice include: (I) Professional Practice; (II) Professional Development and Preparation; (III) Responsive Family Practices; and (IV) Ethical and Evidence Based Practices.
Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethical dilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of gender bias, the potential for gender discrimination and oppression, a move toward eugenics, restricted access based on social or economic status, and the discarding of human embryos), the importance of human relationships (for example, threats to the well-being of sex-selected children, parent-child relationships, and couple relationships), and self-determination and the dignity and worth of the individual (for example, the right of individuals or couples to choice and personal desires). Implications are discussed for social work practice, policy articulation and advocacy, research, and education.
As educators, we grapple with a myriad of dilemmas and often have difficulty resolving issues that relate to curriculum and instruction, funding, facilities and supervision, to name a few. Depending on the leader(s), a variety of ethics come in to play when making decisions. The ethic of connectedness refers to community building and welfare as central to moral thought and practice (Bradley, 2007). Responsibility to community building and welfare begins in the schools and must be an acculturated practice within the schools so future generations possess the knowledge, skills and dispositions that ensure a connectedness to their society (Marzano et al., 2005; Barth 2006; Collinson et al., 2006). This article will explore the importance of an ethic of connectedness to effective school leadership and the experience of a Pennsylvania school district in nurturing and building a connectedness within the school community.
Federal initiatives are encouraging the increase of IS graduates to work in the healthcare environment because they possess knowledge of datasets and dataset management that are key to effective management of electronic health records (EHRs) and health information technology (IT). IS graduates will be members of the healthcare team, and as such, they should gain an understanding of bioethics and "level the playing field" so that they may meaningfully contribute to the healthcare team. Moreover, they should be mindful of professional ethical codes and common ground that healthcare and IS professions share, particularly with regard to ethical principles of beneficence, autonomy, fidelity, and justice. The purpose of this paper is to present ways to integrate healthcare ethical issues within IS education. To this end, we discuss the notion of a mutual understanding of bioethics and present professional codes of ethics as an advance organizer. We also offer an example ("Fidelity and The Case of Two Datasets") that may be used in class to illustrate a specific IS healthcare ethical dilemma. Prepared with the knowledge of ethical problems in healthcare organizations, IS professionals can meaningfully contribute to the deliberations and resolutions of the problems that will emerge as more healthcare facilities employ EHRs. (Contains 3 tables.)
Abstract in portuguese O Código de Ética Corporativa, seu modelo e orientação ética, forma de implementação e instrumentos utilizados para apoiá-lo, inseridos no programa de gestão ética, influenciam no comportamento ético dos stakeholders internos e, conseqüentemente, na Tomada de DecisãoÉtica nas atividades da organização. A análise deste estudo dá-se pelo cruzamento das perspectivas do gestor de ética sobre o expresso no código e os instrumentos de apoio; a percepção do (more) Códigode Ética pela área jurídica, responsável por mediar o conflito com o consumidor; e a realidade prática extraída dos processos públicos nos órgãos de defesa do consumidor. Foram pesquisadas quatro grandes organizações do Setor de Planos Privados de Assistência à Saúde, o qual concentra alto número de reclamações e foi montado sobre uma base de conflitos de interesses. O estudo conclui que os valores expressos no documento de ética orientam a tomada de decisão ética na relação com o consumidor apenas nas organizações em que os valores foram construídoscoletivamente com os funcionários e/ou disseminados por meio de Programas de Ética consistentes, e que adotam instrumentos de gestão ética que valorizam e apóiam a discussão aberta de dilemas éticos em todos os níveis da organização, de modo a incorporar os valores na cultura organizacional. Abstract in english The Corporate Code of Ethics, its format and ethical orientation, implementation framework and supporting tools included in the ethics management program, have a strong influence in the internal stakeholder ethical behavior, and, consequently, it reflects on the Ethical Decision Making Process in organizational daily activities. This study evaluates whether the values expressed in the ethics document, in fact, conduct the real practice in generating ethical decisions in t (more) he relationship organization-consumers. The analysis is done crossing three perspectives: from the ethics manager, the code content, values and supporting tools; from the lawyer advisor, the perception about the code of ethics, as the area which mediates the conflicts with consumers; and the practiced reality extracted from the public prosecuting processes opened by consumers. This analysis was carried out in four large companies pertaining to the Sector of Private Health Care System, which concentrates a large number of consumers' complaints. This study concludes that the values expressed in the document of ethics guide the ethical decision-making in those organizations that built the values along with the employees and/or disseminated them through consistent Ethical Programs, and that adopted ethics management tools which support open dilemma discussion.
A vast scientific and economic literature on global warming has emerged in the last two decades. Surprisingly, however, there has been little written on the ethical dimensions of human-induced climate change despite the numerous, obvious, and profoundly important ethical questions raised by human activities that are now clearly threatening human health, the environment, and many things humans value greatly. This paper argues that ethical analysis of global warming issues is practically imperative for two reasons. First, unless ethical analysis is made of global warming issues, ethically dubious decisions about global warming will be made because many of the most important ethical considerations are hidden in what appear to be ethically neutral scientific and economic arguments about global warming policy options. Secondly, unless issues of ethics, justice and equity are expressly dealt with, urgently needed global solutions to global warming will not likely be adopted by many nations. That is, an ethical focus on global warming matters is the key to achieve a globally acceptable solution and to harness political support for action. The paper concludes with a recommendation on how institutions and nations should go about implementing express examination of the ethical dimensions of global warming questions. The paper argues for express identification of ethical issues often hidden in scientific and economic analyses of global warming policy options. (Author)
Objective: This article briefly reviews the history of the relationship between psychiatry and the leadership of ethics committees as a background for examining appropriate educational initiatives to adequately prepare residents and early career psychiatrists to serve as leaders of ethics committees. Method: A Medline review of literature on psychiatry and ethics committees and consultation as well as recent survey data from the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine indicate that psychosomatic medicine psychiatrists are particularly qualified and interested in serving as chairs of ethics committees. The authors compare knowledge and skills obtained in psychiatric training with the Society for Heath and Human Values and the Society for Bioethics Consultation Task Force on standards for ethics consultation proposed as core competencies for ethics committee leadership. Results: Psychiatric residency and fellowship training in psychosomatic medicine can provide the knowledge and skill sets to meet the standards for ethics consultation. Further professional development through pursuit of formal ethics training, advance degrees in bioethics, mentoring, and residency and fellowships focus on ethics and enhance competency, confidence, and the skills required for ethics committee leadership. Conclusions: Academic psychiatrists, particularly those in psychosomatic medicine, have historically made a significant contribution as chairs of ethics committees. Continuation and expansion of this leadership may require interested psychiatrists to obtain additional training in bioethics.
In this book Parfit attempts to develop a rational, non-religious ethics. Instead of asking, “What does God tell us to do?” he asks, “What does reason tell us to do?” Given a set of simple assumptions, he considers whether it is possible to be consistently selfish or consistently good. Analyses of personal dilemmas (problems of self-control) and moral dilemmas (problems of social cooperation) show that neither consistent selfishness nor consistent goodness is logically possible. Instead, a fine balance must be maintained between, on the one hand, our immediate versus long-term good and, on the other, our own good versus that of other people. Ultimately Parfit fails to develop a formula by which such a balance may be struck. Parfit's analysis is consistent with behavioral analysis in its reductionistic view of the self and the parallel it draws between relations with other people and relations with oneself at other times. Parfit's analysis is inconsistent with behaviorism in its view of the mind as internal, available to introspection, and able to cause behavior. His nonfunctional mentalism leads Parfit to inconsistencies and blocks the path to a consistent ethics. Teleological behaviorism's view of the mind in terms of patterns of overt behavior is not hampered by these inconsistencies and may lead to a functional rather than purely rational ethics.
Algunas consideraciones bioéticas en la experimentación en animales, seres humanos y trasplantología/ Some bioethical considerations concerning transplantology and experimentation with animals and human beings
Abstract in spanish Se realizó una reflexión sobre el origen y conceptualización de la Bioética. Se abordo la etica en la experimentacion con animales de laboratorio y seres humanos, asi como en dilemas que aparecen en el curso de la investigacion cientifica en ambos campos. Asimismo, son tratados aspectos que deben tenerse en cuenta en la trasplantologia. Se concluye que el incumplimiento de las normas eticas en la investigacion cientifica genera dilemas bioeticos que deben resolverse en funcion del bienestar humano y animal en contraposicion a los intereses comerciales y politicos. Abstract in english The article revises some of the considerations concerning both the origin and conceptualization of Bioethics. It deals with ethical aspects related to experimentation with laboratory animals and human beings, as well as some of the dilemmas that usually come up during the course of testing. It also considers the ethical aspects of transplantology. As conclusions, it states that breaking ethical standards of scientific research provokes bioethical dilemmas, which must be solved to favor human and animal wellbeing against economical and political interests.
Medical ethics education in residency training is one of the hot topics of continuous medical education debates. Its importance and necessity is constantly stressed in declarations and statements on national and international level. Parallel to the major structural changes in the organization and the finance model of health care system, patient-physician relationship, identity of physicianship, social perception and status of profession are changing. Besides, scientific developments and technological advancements create possibilities that never exists before, and bring new ethical dilemmas along with. To be able to transplant human organs has created two major problems for instance; procurement of organs in sufficient numbers, and allocating them to the patients in need by using some prioritizing criteria. All those new and challenging questions force the health care workers to find authentic and justifiable solutions while keeping the basic professional values. In that sense, proper medical ethics education in undergraduate and postgraduate term that would make physician-to-be's and student-physicians acquire the core professional values and skill to notice, analyze and develop justifiable solutions to ethical problems is paramount. This article aims to express the importance of medical ethics education in residency training, and to propose major topics and educational methods to be implemented into. To this aim, first, undergraduate medical education, physician's working conditions, the exam of selection for residency training, and educational environment were revised, and then, some topics and educational methods, which are oriented to educate physicians regarding the professional values that they should have, were proposed. PMID:19357056
Modelos mentales y sistemas representacionales en la formación de profesores de psicología a través de la práctica de enseñanza/ Mental models and representational systems in psychology teachers modeling through teaching practice
Abstract in spanish El trabajo analiza modelos mentales y sistemas representacionales de intervención sobre problemas de la Práctica de Enseñanza en Estudiantes y Docentes del Profesorado de Psicología en Universidad de Buenos Aires. El objetivo es analizar fortalezas y nudos críticos para el desarrollo de competencias en contextos de práctica situada. Marco teórico: enfoques socioculturales, modelos mentales y cambio educativo, competencias para la enseñanza. Se administraron 34 Cue (more) stionarios sobre Situaciones Problema de Intervención a profesores formadores y 99 a profesores de Psicología en formación, antes y después de las Prácticas de Enseñanza en 2007 y 2008. Con enfoque etnográfico, se realizan análisis cualitativos y cuantitativos de modelos mentales en docentes y de giros entre pre-test y post-test de modelos mentales en estudiantes. Resultados: fortalezas en: complejidad, perspectivismo de problemas, objetivos, multiplicidad, pertinencia y destinatarios de intervenciones y nudos críticos en: hipótesis, historización, conflictos y dilemas éticos, especificidad e interagencialidad; herramientas y atribuciones a resultados. Abstract in english The work analyses mental models and representational systems of intervention in problems of Teaching Practice in students and teachers of Psychology Teaching Apprenticeship at Buenos Aires University. The aim is to analyse strengths and critical knots for development of competences in contexts of situated practice. Theoretic frame: socio-cultural focus, mental models in educational change and competences for teaching. 34 questionnaires about Situated Problems of Intervent (more) ions were administered to modeled teachers and 99 questionnaires were administered to teachers in modeling, before and after Teaching Apprenticeship in 2007 and 2008. From ethnographic perspective, quantitative and qualitative analyses are made of teacher's mental models and of shifts between pre-test and post-test in student's mental models. Results: strengths in: complexity, perspectivism in situated problems; aims, multiplicity, relevance and addressee of interventions; critical knots in: hypothesis, history, conflicts and ethical dilemma, specificity and inter-agency: tools and attributions to results.
Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo de revisão da literatura centra-se na temática dos clientes involuntários. Analisaram-se criticamente os trabalhos de autores que: (1) propõem a sua caracterização, designadamente no que respeita ao posicionamento do cliente na situação de ajuda, concluindo-se pela complexidade da sua identificação; (2) conceptualizam o papel dos profissionais de saúde mental, bem como as singularidades da relação terapêutica, destacando a importância da a (more) liança, dos dilemas éticos e da motivação para a intervenção; (3) apresentam os modelos terapêuticos mais utilizados nestas situações, enfatizando-se as terapias colaborativas, e particularmente as centradas nas soluções, como as que melhor promovem o envolvimento destes clientes. Ao longo da pesquisa manteve-se a preocupação de rever obras abrangentes na área do acompanhamento psicológico que simultaneamente evidenciassem ou favorecessem uma perspectiva crítica e complexa sobre o tema. Na organização do artigo procurou-se seguir uma perspectiva diacrónica que mostrasse a evolução da conceptualização e praxis sobre a problemática. Abstract in english The involuntary clients issue is the core of this literature review article. Critical analysis was carried out over the work of authors who: (1) propose their characterization, namely in what concerns the client's positioning in a help situation, leading to a notion of complexity in its identification; (2) conceptualize the role of mental health technicians, as well as the singularities of the therapeutic relationship, highlighting the importance of the alliance, ethical (more) dilemmas and the motivation towards an intervention; (3) point out the therapeutic models mainly used in these situations, emphasizing collaborative therapies, particularly solution focused therapies, as those who better promote the involvement of clients. Reviewing extensive literature on psychological intervention that simultaneously underlined a critical and complex perspective on the matter was a constant concern throughout the research process. The article's structure is outlined diachronically so that the evolution of both conceptualization and praxis on the subject becomes clear.
Abstract in portuguese O artigo analisa a prática do infanticídio em comunidades indígenas brasileiras. Tomando como referência um caso específico envolvendo duas crianças do povo Zuruahá, focaliza o tema sob uma abordagem mais abrangente e discute como o infanticídio é interpretado em outros povos indígenas. Foram considerados, na discussão, os debates ocorridos durante a Audiência Pública realizada no Congresso Nacional Brasileiro, em dezembro de 2005, que analisou o tema, além (more) de revisão bibliográfica. Diante dos posicionamentos assumidos naquela audiência, procurou-se identificar os problemas éticos e os dilemas morais, contextualizando-os e analisando-os à luz do respeito ao pluralismo cultural. A fim de contribuir com o debate, os autores analisam as possibilidades de intervenção nas práticas tradicionais de infanticídio, recusando qualquer opção que não esteja ancorada numa atitude de profundo respeito pela cultura de outros povos ou que não apresente condição de dialogar com indivíduos ou grupos com diferentes moralidades. Abstract in english This article analyzes the practice of infanticide in indigenous communities in Brazil. Taking as a reference point a specific case involving two children of the Zuruahá people, it takes a broader look at the issue and discusses how infanticide is understood among other indigenous peoples. A debate focusing specifically on this topic that took place during a public hearing held in the Brazilian National Congress in December 2005 has also been taken into consideration in t (more) his discussion. In view of the positions adopted as a result of the hearing, this paper seeks to identify the ethical problems and moral dilemmas relating to the subject, by putting them into context and analyzing them in the light of respect for cultural pluralism. Seeking to contribute to the debate, the authors analyze the possibilities for intervention in the traditional practices of infanticide, while rejecting those positions that are not anchored in an attitude of profound respect for other people's cultures or that do not create conditions for dialogue between individuals or groups with different moralities.
Animal biotechnology raises moral dilemmas that require collective decisions concerning permitted use of technology. The technological and ethical complexity of biotechnology makes such collective decisions difficult and the lack of shared understanding of the moral implications demands social learning. The Minister for Agriculture in the Netherlands has created a legislative arrangement to enable collective learning about animal biotechnology. Has this legislation been successful? We conclude that initially the legislation succeeded in creating an arena for debate and collective learning, but soon learning in this arena was hindered by the legal nature of the arena. Our evaluation demonstrates that little substantive learning has taken place: standpoints have become fixed and antagonists ...
Geographic engagement with Indigenous peoples remains inextricably linked to colonialism. Consequently, studying Indigenous geographies is fraught with ethical and political dilemmas. Participatory and community-based research methods have recently been offered as one solution to address concerns about the politics of gathering, framing, producing, disseminating, and controlling knowledge about Indigenous peoples. In this article, we critically engage with the emergence of participatory and community-based research methods as -best practice- for undertaking research into Indigenous geographies. We articulate four concerns with this form of research: a) dissent may be stifled by non-Indigenous researchers- investments in being -good-; b) claims to overcome difference and distance may actual...
As environmental and conservation efforts increasingly turn towards agricultural landscapes, it is important to understand how land management decisions are made by agricultural producers. While previous studies have explored producer decision-making, many fail to recognize the importance of external structural influences. This paper uses a case study to explore how consolidated markets and increasing corporate power in the food system can constrain producer choice and create ethical dilemmas over land management. Crop growers in the Central Coast region of California face conflicting demands regarding environmental quality and industry imposed food safety standards. A mail survey and personal interviews were used to explore growers? perceptions and actions regarding these demands. Results...
This article develops the concept of biosocial pedagogy in HIV education for this era of expanding biomedical forms of HIV control. With reference to critical pedagogy and teaching and learning materials addressing HIV treatment and prevention, I explain how HIV education can problematize its own role in HIV control. I also discuss how educational practice can be informed by the ethical and political dilemmas that face people affected by HIV. I argue that through biosocially aware HIV pedagogy, individuals and communities can be assisted to act on the opportunities and drawbacks of biomedical HIV control.
This article develops the concept of biosocial pedagogy in HIV education for this era of expanding biomedical forms of HIV control. With reference to critical pedagogy and teaching and learning materials addressing HIV treatment and prevention, I explain how HIV education can problematize its own role in HIV control. I also discuss how educational practice can be informed by the ethical and political dilemmas that face people affected by HIV. I argue that through biosocially aware HIV pedagogy, individuals and communities can be assisted to act on the opportunities and drawbacks of biomedical HIV control.
Dilemas éticos en el trabajo de campo: temas olvidados en la investigación cualitativa en salud en Iberoamérica/ Ethical dilemmas in fieldwork: forgotten issues in qualitative health research in Iberoamerica
Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se exploran algunos dilemas éticos enfrentados durante el trabajo de campo en la investigación cualitativa en salud. La premisa es que los códigos éticos no son suficientes para orientar las relaciones entre los investigadores y los informantes siendo necesaria una práctica reflexiva para enfrentar los mismos. La reflexión se centra en cuatro situaciones del trabajo de campo y sus dilemas. El tiempo social de la vida académica estructura la agenda d (more) e trabajo y el investigador se enfrenta a la disyuntiva de seguir los tiempos y ritmos de la academia o negociar con los informantes una agenda conjunta. El investigador también debe decidir cuál de sus múltiples identidades habrá de utilizar para ser aceptado, y al mismo tiempo decidir si oculta o no quien es realmente. En el establecimiento de una relación de intimidad con los informantes el investigador debe resolver si abre su vida personal. Y al momento de definir las formas de reciprocidad, decidir si lo hará de acuerdo a los valores de la academia o a los de los nativos. Se concluye argumentando la necesidad de crear una práctica reflexiva sobre estos y otros dilemas dirigida a colocar una agenda de temas y formas de descolonización en el debate ético en Iberoamérica. Abstract in english This paper explores some ethical dilemmas faced while doing fieldwork. Ethical norms are not enough to appraise the relationship between researchers and participants; a reflexivity practice is needed to understand the dilemmas aroused during this process. Here four issues faced during fieldwork are presented. The academic social time usually defines the schedule of fieldwork; hence, the researcher may decide to follow the academic schedule or to arrange a different schedu (more) le with informants. Researchers usually decide which part of their identity will be disclosed for introducing themselves to the informants; but may also decide to hide who really he/she is. Researchers may cope with the dilemma to disclose their private life to informants during the fieldwork. Researchers also may decide to behave according to academic cultural norms of reciprocity or according to the cultural norms of participants. Finally, a reflexivity movement should be developed in Iberoamerica to define an agenda on ethical issues and to develop decolonizing strategies to debate these ethical dilemmas.
This article begins an ethical analysis of Eclectic Wicca. It outlines the basic concepts within Wiccan morality as told through current Wiccan writers. The Wiccan morality is based on the belief of interconnectedness between every part of reality and asserts that human beings, as willful beings, have a responsibility to help whenever feasible, while avoiding harm, if possible. Further, this article discusses preliminary problems with the Wiccan moral system, such as its simplicity, ambiguity, subjectivity, and the hyper-responsibility it places on the practitioner. This article also suggests philosophic avenues that could alleviate many of these theoretical dilemmas.
Hazardous workers (HWs) are they who, depending upon their pathologic conditions, ageing or addictive behaviour, may pose at risk the safety and health of their colleagues, customers, and other people. Physicians charged of the medical surveillance of workers (Competent Physicians, CPs) are called to assess fitting for work of HWs. The aim of this paper was to analyze the frequency of debate about HWs in the online forums of the Italian CPs' website. Results show that there is growing attention on the HWs issue. Different stakeholders are involved, and some ethic dilemma are posed. A systematic approach to the problem, and the formulation of guidelines for CPs, is highly desirable. PMID:18409899
In this dissertation I consider the ethical foundations of clinical research and propose a shift towards a new framework. Since the beginning, the ethical foundations of clinical research have been focused on the protection of human subjects, with a strong emphasis of the importance of the informed ...
This chapter focuses on the special obligation researchers have to consider carefully the ethical and moral aspects of their work when undertaking qualitative field research on intimate matters. The chapter argues that the term "justification" is central to a discussion of several dimensions of ethics in the various phases of research, from the conception of a research idea to the dissimination of research results.
There has long been tension between bioethicists whose work focuses on classical philosophical inquiry and those who perform empirical studies on bioethical issues. While many have argued that empirical research merely illuminates current practices and cannot inform normative ethics, others assert that research-based work has significant implications for refining our ethical norms. In this essay, I present a novel construct for classifying empirical research in bioethics into four hierarchical categories: Lay of the Land, Ideal Versus Reality, Improving Care, and Changing Ethical Norms. Through explaining these four categories and providing examples of publications in each stratum, I define how empirical research informs normative ethics. I conclude by demonstrating how philosophical inqui...
All physicians are faced at some time with fundamental challenges while striving to respect the principle canons which define a physician's ethical code. These canons are: 1. Primacy of patient interests, 2. Patient confidentiality, 3, Informed consent, and 4. Maintenance of a high standard of care. Athletes, because of their focus on performance, often present unique situations which lead to ethical challenges not seen in the general patient population. Adherence to the four principle ethical canons guides physicians to make ethical decisions when dealing with these unique patients. PMID:22894696
The Advanced Concepts Group at Sandia National Laboratory and the Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes at Arizona State University convened a workshop in May 2006 to explore the potential policy implications of technologies that might enhance human cognitive abilities. The group's deliberations sought to identify core values and concerns raised by the prospect of cognitive enhancement. The workshop focused on the policy implications of various prospective cognitive enhancements and on the technologies/nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science--that enable them. The prospect of rapidly emerging technological capabilities to enhance human cognition makes urgent a daunting array of questions, tensions, ambitions, and concerns. The workshop elicited dilemmas and concerns in ten overlapping areas: science and democracy; equity and justice; freedom and control; intergenerational issues; ethics and competition; individual and community rights; speed and deliberations; ethical uncertainty; humanness; and sociocultural risk. We identified four different perspectives to encompass the diverse issues related to emergence of cognitive enhancement technologies: (1) Laissez-faire--emphasizes freedom of individuals to seek and employ enhancement technologies based on their own judgment; (2) Managed technological optimism--believes that while these technologies promise great benefits, such benefits cannot emerge without an active government role; (3) Managed technological skepticism--views that the quality of life arises more out of society's institutions than its technologies; and (4) Human Essentialism--starts with the notion of a human essence (whether God-given or evolutionary in origin) that should not be modified. While the perspectives differ significantly about both human nature and the role of government, each encompasses a belief in the value of transparency and reliable information that can allow public discussion and decisions about cognitive enhancement. The practical question is how to foster productive discussions in a society whose attention is notably fragmented and priorities notably diverse. The question of what to talk about remains central, as each of the four perspectives is concerned about different things. Perhaps the key issue for initial clarification as a condition for productive democratic discussion has to do with the intended goals of cognitive enhancement, and the mechanisms for allowing productive deliberation about these goals.
Full text of publication follows: the present paper will be concerned with environmental risk perception, with special emphasis on those environmental risks that pertain to global change phenomena, such as climate change and ozone depletion. Two determinants of risk judgments are investigated that seem particularly relevant to environmental risks: ethical and affective evaluations. It is assumed that the focus of risk evaluation can be on one of two aspects: (a) on an evaluation of potential losses, or (b) on ethical considerations. We assume that both, potential loss and violation of ethical principles elicit emotional evaluations, but that these two judgmental aspects are associated with different specific emotions. Following cognitive emotion theories, we distinguish loss-based emotions, such as worry and fear, from ethical emotions, e.g., guilt and anger. A study is presented that investigates the role of ethical and affective evaluations in risk judgments. Various environmental risks were presented to subjects, e.g., air pollution, ozone depletion, climate change and destruction of ecological balance. For each environmental risk, subjects indicated in free-response format as well as on rating scales the extent to which ethical principles were violated, and the intensity of both loss-based and ethical emotions. The correlational structure of the emotion ratings confirms the distinction between loss-based and ethical emotions. Risk judgments co-vary with the strength of ethical evaluation and with the intensity of loss-based emotions, but are independent of ethical emotions. The implications of these findings for the risk appraisal process are discussed. (authors)
The purpose of this article is to re-examine an ethic of care as the main ethical approach to nursing practice in light of past and present developments in nursing ethics, and to briefly speculate whether or not it will survive within nursing in the future. Overall, it is maintained throughout that the terms 'caring', 'nursing' and an 'ethic of care' are inextricably linked. This is because, it is argued, professionally focused nursing practices are based predominantly on a well-recognised moral commitment to deliver expert care, and that a care-based ethic is the major factor in the construction and maintenance of these practices. Subsequently, the influences and developments of a caring ethic in nursing are firstly re-examined, and the discussion is supported by evidence from more recent...
This paper provides a critique and re-evaluation of the way that ethics is understood and promoted within mainstream Human Resource Management (HRM) discourse. We argue that the ethics located within this discourse focuses on bolstering the relevance of HRM as a key contributor to organizational strategy, enhancing an organization?s sense of moral legitimacy and augmenting organizational control over employee behaviour and subjectivity. We question this discourse in that it subordinates the ethics of the employment relationship to managerial prerogative. In response, we suggest a different model of the relationship between ethics and HRM?one that finds the possibility of ethics in the contestation and destabilization of HRM. Such ethics arises through resistance to moral normalization and ...
Purpose - This article seeks to report on a research inquiry that explored the educational praxis of ethical school leaders in Chile. Behaving ethically is an imperative for school leaders. Being an ethical educational leader is something different. It is not only about behaving according to standards, but also rather involves an ethical way of being that engages the leader holistically in their attempt to do the right thing for students. Design/methodology/approach - A multiple case study design was employed to gain insight into the feelings, beliefs and thoughts of ethical school leaders in Chile regarding their educational experiences. To this end, semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight identified ethical school leaders. The data focused on the commonalities and uniqueness...
Abstract in spanish Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre la ética en pediatría, con el objetivo de corroborar los criterios actuales sobre el tema. Se analizaron algunos dilemas éticos y bioéticos que se deben tener en cuenta en la relación médico-paciente. Se brinda información sobre algunas particularidades del consentimiento informado y se diferencian las formas de comunicación según las edades pediátricas. Abstract in english A bibliographic review was conducted on the Ethics in Pediatrics to corroborate the current criteria on this subject. Some ethical and bioethical dilemmas were analyzed took into account in the physician-patient relation. Authors offer information on some peculiarities of informed consent and the ways of communication according to children ages were distinguished.
Abstract in spanish El artículo muestra las dificultades principales y dilemas éticos más frecuentes asociados a la obligación de respetar la autonomía en la atención de niños y adolescentes con trastornos mentales. Se presentan herramientas éticas y jurídicas de utilidad para psiquiatras y demás profesionales de la salud mental referentes a la obtención del consentimiento informado para procedimientos diagnósticos y terapéuticos en esta área de atención especializada. Abstract in english The paper shows the main difficulties and ethical dilemmas most frequently associated with the obligation to respect autonomy in the care of children and adolescents with mental disorders. We present ethical and legal tools useful for psychiatrists and other mental health professionals concerning the obtaining of informed consent to perform diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in this area of specialized care.
Abstract in english This article represents a review of some of the ethical dilemmas that have arisen as a result of the development and deployment of transgenic crop plants. The potential for transgenic crops to alleviate human hunger and the possible effects on human health are discussed. Risks and benefits to the environment resulting from genetic engineering of crops for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses are considered, in addition to effects on biodiversity. The socio-economic i (more) mpacts and distribution of benefits from transgenic technologies are reviewed. Fundamental issues of man?s relationship with nature and the environment, and theological matters are also addressed. An almost unprecedented amount of discussion has been stimulated on the merits and demerits of genetic engineering of crop plants, and has divided both the public and scientific communities. The arguments for and against transgenics are invariably based on visions of the new technology from widely different ethical perspectives.
This paper is an exploration of methodological and ethical issues in historical geography research. Drawing on the experience of researching the historical geographies of abortion in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Lancashire, the paper discusses some of the ethical and methodological questions that historical research on sensitive topics raises. This paper investigates the politics of the archive and the forms of censorship researchers may encounter. It also explores the possibility of a conflict of interest between researcher and participant, including the dilemmas researchers face when research participants are dead, but remain important figures in the community. Moreover, the paper argues that the recent burgeoning interest in family and local history makes questions of me...
The New Zealand Curriculum Framework, 1993, is the official document for teaching, learning and assessment in New Zealand schools. It consists of a set of curriculum statements, which define the learning principles, achievement aims and essential skills for seven learning areas. It also indicates the place of attitudes and values in the school curriculum. This paper investigates the requirements for teaching attitudes, values and ethics in the curriculum statements for Science, Biology and Technology. The question is raised whether the teaching of skills for resolving moral and ethical dilemmas are required by the official education standards in New Zealand, and internationally. The paper reports on a survey done on pre-service teacher trainees of their understanding of these requirements. Implications for courses that might need to be provided in future pre-service teacher education programmes are briefly discussed.
This case is designed to help students analyze decision making from various ethical perspectives and to use stakeholder analysis. The case perspective is that of the CEO of Degussa AG, a multispecialty chemical company, headquartered in D?sseldorf, Germany. Degussa is considering whether to submit a bid to supply its anti-graffiti coating, Protectosil?, for a new Memorial to the Murdered Jews in Europe being planned for Berlin. Degussa?s ethical dilemma is that a former Degussa subsidiary, Degesch, manufactured and supplied the Zyklon B nerve gas used by the Nazis to kill Jews in the concentration camps during World War II. Although Degussa has made attempts both to acknowledge and to atone for its war-time Nazi collaboration, public disclosure of its bid has the potential to engulf Deguss...
This case is designed to help students analyze decision making from various ethical perspectives and to use stakeholder analysis. The case perspective is that of the CEO of Degussa AG, a multispecialty chemical company, headquartered in Düsseldorf, Germany. Degussa is considering whether to submit a bid to supply its anti-graffiti coating, Protectosil®, for a new Memorial to the Murdered Jews in Europe being planned for Berlin. Degussa?s ethical dilemma is that a former Degussa subsidiary, Degesch, manufactured and supplied the Zyklon B nerve gas used by the Nazis to kill Jews in the concentration camps during World War II. Although Degussa has made attempts both to acknowledge and to atone for its war-time Nazi collaboration, public disclosure of its bid has the potential to engulf Deguss...
The study of bioethics at the undergraduate and high school level continues to grow exponentially, and a number of online resources help educators who seek to incorporate this subject into their courses. This collection contains over 100 syllabi that relate broadly to ethics and genetics, and the materials come from seminars and short-term continuing education classes. Visitors to the syllabus database can browse by subject (like eugenics and sociobiology) or educational level. Some of the more notable syllabi here include "Genetics and the Law", "Biomedical Ethics", and "Bioethical Dilemmas". Educators in this field are also encouraged to send along their own syllabi for potential inclusion in the database. Finally, the site also contains links to additional curriculum development resources.
Aspectos éticos do uso de produtos fluorados no Brasil: uma visão dos formuladores de políticas públicas de saúde/ Ethical aspects of the use of fluoride products in Brazil: a view of public health policy formulators
Abstract in portuguese O flúor tem sido empregado para prevenir cárie dentária, principalmente em águas de abastecimento e dentifrícios. Um efeito indesejável, a fluorose dentária leve, tem suscitado preocupações entre especialistas. Neste trabalho identificam-se, na literatura, aspectos éticos decorrentes do emprego de flúor em saúde pública relacionados à contradição "prevenção da cárie versus ocorrência de fluorose leve" e investiga-se a ocorrência de dilemas éticos ent (more) re profissionais envolvidos em decisões sobre o uso desses produtos. Foram identificadas publicações em bases de dados empregando-se os termos de busca ética, bioética, "ethics" e derivações do radical "fluor". O material subsidiou a construção de um questionário aplicado a pesquisadores e autoridades sanitárias, e os dados gerados submetidos à análise de conteúdo. O dilema ético emergente da análise pode ser sintetizado: "Empregar produto com flúor para prevenir cárie dentária tem o inconveniente de produzir graus leves de fluorose dentária, mas não utilizá-lo em saúde pública tem o inconveniente de não impedir o aparecimento de uma doença (cárie) evitável com o seu uso." Tal dilema tem sido resolvido admitindo-se que haveria justiça no emprego do flúor e que seu benefício seria maior do que o malefício sendo este mínimo. Alguns entrevistados reconheceram que há violação do princípio ético da autonomia. Abstract in english Fluoride has been used to prevent dental caries. It is used in supply water and toothpastes. One undesirable effect has been found: mild dental fluorosis. Such stains have aroused concern among specialists. This paper examines, in the literature, ethical aspects resulting from the use of fluoride in public health associated with the "caries prevention versus mild fluorosis occurrence" contradiction and investigates the occurrence of any ethical dilemma among the professio (more) nals involved in decision on the use of such products. Databases were assessed to identify papers through terms such as ética, bioética, ethics and fluor. The material contributed to the drawing up of a questionnaire answered by researchers and health authorities. The data provided by the interviews underwent content analysis. The ethics dilemma may be stated as: "The use of fluoride products to prevent dental caries has in public health the inconvenience of producing mild dental fluorosis in the population, however, the non-use of fluoride has the inconvenience of not preventing the appearance of a disease (caries) that can be prevented if such product is used." The dilemma has shown to be solved, by admitting that the use of such products would be fair and that its benefit would exceed its damages. Nevertheless, some of the respondents admitted a violation of the principle of autonomy.
The rules and principles approach for developing educators' ethical judgment may be less effective than a centered approach. A centered approach being one that focuses solely on the elementary and junior high teachers. Educators understand the moral and ethical convolution of their role; possess expertise in interpreting their behavior and penetrating its influence on students, and act ethically within the context of professional responsibility. It's importance of programs focusing on addressing the ethics. "Ethics are rules of conduct that are recognized in recognized in respect to a particular class" (Webster online, 2009). As ethics are rules of conduct the principles are the acceptance of the ethics. When developing educators; we must know that the educator will in return be recognized as a leader. They are leaders amongst students, in the schools and most importantly a leader working for Christ. What are leaders for Christ? What do they look like and/or what traits do they posses? The focus of this paper will identify professional principles and ethics for teachers that are mandated by Christ.
Qualitative researchers cannot rely on research ethics to be a static practice. In this article we discuss how observation of guidelines for inquiry and international agreements on the dignity of health care research are not sufficient on their own to ensure that the challenges inherent in the everyday management of a project are regulated. We focus in particular on ethics in accessing participants and the construction of informed consent. During our study, important contrasts emerged between the ideal presented for the standard ethics review process and practical ethics. As a result, we focused on building open communication with the participants through rigorous project management. We analyzed the data and wrote this article collaboratively to represent the empirical reality of a team of researchers aiming to take ethical challenges seriously while collecting data in three National Health Service Trusts in the United Kingdom. PMID:23034775
Purpose - Ethics is an inherent concept for any profession. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ethical perspective of librarianship. The focus of the discussion is to identify whether it is ethics or law which should supercede in changing the legal and social environment, with special reference to India. Design/methodology/approach - The state of a right to privacy in India is elaborated. The discussion is focused around library ethics and user privacy, which is a much less talked about matter in Indian librarianship than in the developed world. Findings - Professional ethics should be given equal consideration while framing law and policies for non-profit organizations like libraries. The issue of privacy has been given very little credence in terms of library rules and regulatio...
Understanding how cooperative behaviour evolves in network communities, where the individual members interact via social dilemma games, is an on-going challenge. In this paper, we introduce a social network based model to investigate the evolution of cooperation in the N-player Prisoner's Dilemma game. As such, this work complements previous studies focused on multi-player social dilemma games and endogenous networks. Agents in our model, employ different game-playing strategies reflecting varying cognitive capacities. When an agent plays cooperatively, a social link is formed with each of the other N-1 group members. Subsequent cooperative actions reinforce this link. However, when an agent defects, the links in the social network are broken. Computational simulations across a range of pa...
Abstract The difficult birth process of humans, often described as the -obstetric dilemma,- is commonly assumed to reflect antagonistic selective pressures favoring neonatal encephalization and maternal bipedal locomotion. However, cephalo-pelvic disproportion is not exclusive to humans, and is present in some primate species of smaller body size. The fossil record indicates mosaic evolution of the obstetric dilemma, involving a number of different evolutionary processes, and it appears to have shifted in magnitude between Australopithecus, Pleistocene Homo, and recent human populations. Most attention to date has focused on its generic nature, rather than on its variability between populations. We re-evaluate the nature of the human obstetric dilemma using updated hominin and primate lite...
The widely cited, though highly contested, idea that "the world is flat" (Friedman, 2004) carries with it a call for education to provide a leveling effect across continents and cultures Students in Skokie or in Skopje, as the theory goes, are expected to experience a school curriculum that shares certain common elements, goals, and purposes. Such a globalized view is not, however, without its complications. This book addresses some of the issues that arise when the transmigration of educational ideas occurs, with a particular eye toward the ethical dilemmas that curriculum workers face in international contexts. The authors who have contributed to this volume explore, through case examples and critical reflection, what happens when ideas that are drawn from one set of cultural norms and experiences is introduced into other cultural contexts. In many cases these are the stories of "donors" and "hosts," of structured inequities of power and influence, of disparities in material resources, and, as expressed in one of the cases, the dynamics of the "colonizer" and the "colonized." A recurrent theme concerns the challenges faced by educators working internationally to reconcile their own ethical predispositions toward equity and cultural responsiveness with certain tacit assumptions about the appropriateness or value of curriculum practices brought from the "developed" world for teachers and students in the "developing" world. How these dilemmas are navigated forms the content of this collection of reports from the field written by those who engage in this complex and important work. While the content of this volume is situated at the intersection between the field of curriculum studies and comparative education, it is fundamentally a book about curriculum. Most of the authors come from various disciplinary backgrounds with specializations in curriculum development in content areas such as social studies, geography, or mathematics. As "outsiders looking in" on the field of international education and with thoughtful reflections grounded in practice, the authors provide a new set of insights into the challenges of international curriculum work. Finally, since many of the questions raised by the work included here are ethical in nature, the book begins and ends with analyses that link the practical realities presented in the cases with contemporary philosophical thought. This, then, can be seen as the primary contribution of the book to the educational literature as it offers a careful and well-articulated synthesis of theory and practice in the field of international curriculum work. This publication would make an important contribution to courses in curriculum theory and practice, comparative and international education, and international development outside of the field of education. This book is divided into three sections. Section I, Curriculum for Democratic Citizenship, contains the following: (1) Ethics and Democracy Education across Borders: The Case of Civitas International (Terrence C. Mason); (2) Deliberating Across Ethical Terrain (Patricia Avery and Carolyn Pereira); (3) From Transmission and Influence to Dialogue and Understanding: Rooting International Curriculum Work in Democratic Ethics (Doyle Stevick); and (4) Curriculum Development Collaboration between Colonizer and Colonized: Contradictions and Possibilities for Democratic Education (Steven Camicia and Alfredo Bayon). Section II, Ethics, Teaching, and Teacher Education, contains the following: (5) A New Set of Questions: The Ethics of Taking Space Seriously in Macedonia (Robert Helfenbein); and (6) Ethics, Dissensus, and Traveling Without Moving: Using Videoconferencing to Facilitate Dialogue between Preservice Teachers in Two Nations (Walter Gershon and Nikoletta Cristodoulou). Section III, Transnational Curriculum Theory and Practice, contains the following: (7) From Text to Pretext: An Ethical Turn in Curriculum Work (Jean-Francois Maheux, Dalene Swanson and Steven Khan); (8) Ethical Dimensions of a Global Curriculum and Professional Development Program: Reflections on a Project in India (William Gaudelli); and (9) "I Saw It With My Own Eyes": The Knowledge-Construction Process in International Educator Exchanges (Anatoli Rapoport). The preface: "Mutuality or Monopoly: Reflections on the Ethics of International Curriculum Work" was written by J. Gregory Keller.
Today, French public debate and bioethics research reflect an ongoing controversy about eugenics. The field of reproductive medicine is often targeted as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), prenatal diagnosis, and prenatal detection are accused of drifting towards eugenics or being driven by eugenics considerations. This article aims at understanding why the charge against eugenics came at the forefront of the ethical debate. Above all, it aims at showing that the charge against prenatal diagnosis is groundless. The point of view presented in this article has been elaborated jointly by a geneticist and a philosopher. Besides a survey of the medical, bioethical, philosophical and social sciences literature on the topic, the methodology is founded on a joint analysis of geneticist's various consults. Evidence from office visits demonstrated that prenatal diagnosis leads to case-by-case decisions. As we have suggested, this conclusion does not mean that prenatal diagnosis is devoid of ethical issues, and we have identified at least two. The first is related to the evaluation of a decision to abort. The second line of ethical questions arises from the fact that the claim for "normality" hardly hides normative and ambiguous views about disability. As a conclusion, ethical dilemmas keep being noticeable in the field of reproductive medicine and genetic counselling, but an enquiry about eugenic tendencies probably does not allow us to understand them in the proper way. PMID:22814726
This article reports on a case that resulted in a published court decision which illustrates a dilemma at the intersection of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). On first impression, the finding that teachers were operating based on professional principle seems to validate their actions. However, as the court's analysis makes clear, ethical norms and legal requirements do not always square with each other and when they point in different directions, the choice of the ethically higher road may entail adverse legal consequences. Moreover, upon closer examination, it is not clear that the principle of the best interest of the children--even if the state representative was incorrect in her implicit contention that administering the test was ultimately in the children's best interest--is the controlling ethical consideration in this case. This standard is indisputably the primary consideration in domestic relations, such as child custody cases, but its role in K-12 education is less pronounced and prominent. The professional personnel who face the potential conflict of this confluence include not only special education teachers but also school psychologists. The author concludes that professional personnel in schools should think twice before overrelying on principle. In cases like this one, school psychologists can, in accordance with the NASP ethical code, foster a school climate respectful of all persons, seeking and advocating a rational resolution among the teachers, the principal, and the parents for the benefit of students and other concerned parties.
Abstract in english Background: Since about 1970 biomedical ethics crystallized into a full-fledged discipline. The so called «ethical turn» is a fundamental conceptual challenge for the field of medicine and has generated heated controversy. Today, the ancient psychotherapeutic framework is under the severest strain in its long history. Aim: To review the relationship between psychotherapy and the conceptual shift in moral theory. Material and method: To forge a new model for the patient- (more) physician relationship, speech acts and nature of man derived from a «pragmatic turn» of bioethics. Results: Research findings suggest that behavior, cognitive and psychodinamic psychotherapies are speech-acts constituted by a hierarchy of subordinate acts distributed on three levels: the level of the locutionary act, the act of saying; the level of the illocutionary act (or force), what we do in saying; and the level of the perlocutionary act, what we provoke by the fact that we speak. Conclusions: Advances in linguistic research have led to a more sophisticated understanding of how psychotherapy affect ethical issues. These developments point towards a new era of psychotherapeutical theory and practice in which specific modes of psychotherapy can be designed to target specific dilemmas of medical ethics (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 243-52)
Abstract in portuguese A crescente incorporação de tecnologia médica e as novas demandas sociais, inclusive de saúde, que tiveram início nos anos 60, impuseram importantes transformações na prática médica. Tal situação tem estimulado crescente debate filosófico em torno de problemas de ética prática que não mais encontram respostas no âmbito do modelo ético hipocrático. Para os autores, a crise da ética hipocrática poderia ser caracterizada como um período de transição pa (more) radigmática em que se estaria formando um novo conjunto de valores. A partir do movimento da bioética, os autores apresentam as diferentes teorias éticas aplicadas à prática médica, concluindo que a abordagem principialista seria mais adequada à resolução dos novos dilemas morais postos à prática clínica. Abstract in english Both the increasing incorporation of medical technology and new social demands (including those for health care) beginning in the 1960s have brought about significant changes in medical practice. This situation has in turn sparked a growth in the philosophical debate over problems pertaining to ethical practice. These issues no longer find answers in the Hippocratic ethical model. The authors believe that the crisis in Hippocratic ethics could be described as a period of (more) paradigm shift in which a new set of values appears to be emerging. Beginning with the bioethics movement, the authors expound on the different ethical theories applied to medical practice and conclude that principlism is the most appropriate approach for solving the new moral dilemma imposed on clinical practice.
Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta as idéias sobre a ética do biofísico e filósofo spinozista francês contemporâneo Henri Atlan, a partir de sua posição epistemológica singular, em constante trânsito entre a filosofia naturalista (em aliança com as ciências cognitivas) e a recusa aos fundamentos naturais da ética. Sublinha a defesa atlaniana da casuística em relação aos dilemas bioéticos e relaciona-a com sua proposta de diferentes níveis da ética. O texto introduz (more) uma reflexão acerca de uma passagem possível entre os terceiro e quarto níveis de ética, assinalando seu impacto positivo na qualidade de vida de indivíduos e grupos sociais. Abstract in english This article presents the ideas on ethics by the contemporary French biophysicist and Spinozist philosopher Henri Atlan, based on his singular epistemological position, in constant transit between naturalistic philosophy (in alliance with cognitive sciences) and his refusal to a natural foundations of ethics. It underlines Atlan's defense of casuistry towards bioethics dilemmas and associates it to his proposal of different levels of ethics. The text introduces a reflecti (more) on concerning Atlan's ideas about the possible passage between the third and the fourth levels of ethics, stressing its positive impact in individuals and social groups' life quality.
To ensure ethical employee behavior, companies often utilize several forms of mostly one-way communication such as codes of conduct. The extent to which these efforts, in addition to informing about the company stance on ethics, are able to positively influence behavior is disputed. In contrast, research on business ethics communication and behavior indicates a relatively clear, positive link between open workplace dialogue about ethical issues and ethical conduct. In this paper, I therefore address the question: What influences employee attitudes to talking openly about ethical issues? Answers are proposed on the basis of focus group interviews with staff at the Denmark and Brazil affiliates of the global healthcare company Novo Nordisk. It was found that interest in discussing ethical issues was influenced by two main factors: employee conceptualizations of business ethics, and the level of inter-collegial trust, credibility, and confidence. In this paper, by examining these phenomena, I am at providinginsight that can both inform scholars in these fields as well as help managers in their attempts to promote open workplace dialogue about ethical issues.
Abstract in spanish En este artículo hacemos una reflexión sobre los miedos, las angustias y los dilemas éticos que enfrentamos como estudiantes en la práctica de enfermería, ante una mujer con cáncer avanzado, en pobreza absoluta y aferrada a la vida. Resaltamos entre los constructos éticos de la praxis de enfermería, la responsabilidad, la compasión y la solidaridad en la práctica cuidante. En esta experiencia encontramos una brecha entre la preparación científico-técnica y la (more) práctica del cuidar. Nuestro aprendizaje en el cuidado nos plantea muchos dilemas, sobre todo en nuestro contexto, caracterizado por profundos problemas sociales y económicos. Abstract in english In this article we reflect about fears, anxieties and the ethical dilemmas we face as practising nursing students in relation to an advanced cancer female patient in absolute poverty but willing to live. We emphasize some ethical principles in nursing practice like responsibility, compassion and solidarity. In this experience we found a gap between scientific-technical preparation and nursing practice. Our nursing training creates many dilemmas for us when we consider the economic and social problems in our environment.
As the diversity of students on college campuses continues to increase, the racial and ethnic diversity among faculty members continues to lag (Jayakumar, Howard, Allen, & Han, 2009; Turner, Myers, & Creswell, 1999). An often overlooked segment of this problem is the 2-year-college setting. With increasing numbers of students of color achieving baccalaureate and graduate degrees and aspiring to teach, why do many 2-year colleges continue to struggle to increase the racial diversity of their teaching ranks? What is a reasonable expectation for diversity in a community college faculty; that is, what proportion of faculty members should one expect will be individuals of color? What are some of the ethical dilemmas that affect decision making in efforts to increase the hiring of people of color into 2-year college faculties? This article responds to these questions in a case study of a 2-year college in a midsized Midwestern city. Through interrogating hiring procedures and identifying reasonable expectations for diversity within a college faculty, ethical dilemmas and practical implications of efforts to increase the hiring of faculty members of color emerge. (Contains 2 tables and 6 notes.)
Orthodox Jewish patients who seek genetic counseling are often placed in a difficult position of having to choose between their desire to follow Jewish religious instruction (halacha) and following the advice of the genetic counselor. In this article we will present the work of the Puah Institute based in Jerusalem that is dedicated to assisting and guiding such couples to navigate through the medical system and medical recommendations and create a harmony between modern genetic counseling and the Orthodox Jewish tradition. In light of the expanding use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for a variety of medical and non-medical conditions, this dilemma is even more poignant. There is an ethical debate regarding PGD and the correct parameters for its use. Here we present the Orthodox Jewish view of the use and abuse of PGD. We present three case studies that sought the assistance and guidance of the Puah Institute. Each of these cases raises ethical dilemmas for the genetic counselor and for the rabbinic counselor. We discuss; the status of the embryo, the status of a carrier of a genetic abnormality and whether PGD is an obligation or good practice. In addition we deal with whether PGD and the search for the desired traits can be defined as eugenics or not. PMID:22532276
As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency and the regularity of such a phenomenon is both hard to verify and, if true, difficult to explain, it seems fair to say that since the Enlightenment, an approaching fin-de-siecle has brought an increased interest in matters concerning morality and ethics.1 The present peak has in public-political discourse and some parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What is the value of value for morality and ethics?To make things a bit more precise, we can make use of the common distinction between ethics and morality, i.e. that morality is the immediate, collective and unconscious employment of morals, whereas ethics is the systematic, individual and conscious reflections of morals and morality.2 The main question is then, what the use of `value' as the key-term in moral discourses means to morality as such. Accepting ethics as a part of morality - since one cannot be moral without sometimes reflecting on the validity of the morality employed andexperienced - I have attempted to answer this question by investigating what the use of the term `value' leads to in ethical discourses, i.e., what moral implications it has for ethics to focus on the concept of value.
Purpose – Snacking has been characterized as normatively unrestricted and identified as one of the main causes of adolescent obesity. The purpose of this paper is not to question the relation between obesity and snacking, but to ask to which extent adolescent snacking is socially unrestricted and to explore adolescent perceptions of the potential conventions and dilemmas involved in snacking. Design/methodology/approach – Referring to previous research in food choice dilemmas and conventions, the paper starts out by discussing potential implications for adolescent snacking in different social contexts. Following this, the design, implementation and results of three focus groups, aiming at an exploration of adolescent snacking perceptions is described. Findings – By identifying two distinct forms of adolescent snacking, i.e. “in-between meals” and “fun snacks”, the results of the focus groups falsify the perception of snacking as socially unrestricted and offer some interesting insights into the conventions, personal dilemmas and intergenerational conflicts which characterize adolescent snacking. Social implications – The classification of snacking as unrestricted of social norms is both unwarranted and counterproductive to the understanding – and subsequently the mitigation – of the relation between snacking and obesity. Originality/value – Apart from falsifying the classification of snacking as unrestricted of social norms, the study contributes by devising a focus group design for elicitation of social norms and dilemmas. Recognizing that the study is just a first step towards a comprehensive understanding of adolescent snacking and that facilitation of healthier snacking behaviors requires such an understanding, recommendations for further research are given.
Abstract in spanish En este artículo se define primero la explotación sexual comercial infantil (ESCI) como un ejercicio de poder que mercantiliza el abuso sexual de niñas, niños y adolescentes, con el fin de que los explotadores, casi siempre hombres adultos, obtengan alguna ganancia financiera o alguna satisfacción social, psicológica o de cualquiera otra especie. Las víctimas de la ESCI son niñas y, en menor medida, niños. En cualquier caso se trata de personas menores de 18 año (more) s de edad, usurpadas de su derecho a ser respetadas y protegidas contra la esclavitud y el abuso sexual, la discriminación, las enfermedades, la delincuencia, entre otros. Esta usurpación de derechos ocurre en algunos negocios de la industria sexual (la prostitución en bares, cantinas, fondas, casas de cita, hoteles y en las revistas/videos/sitios de la WEB de pornografía, pederastas, etc.) y del mercado callejero del sexo (la prostitución en las calles, plazas, playas, jardines, etc.). El propósito del artículo es analizar algunos problemas derivados del incumplimiento de los principios de la ética de la investigación al estudiar la explotación sexual comercial infantil (ESCI) en la industria sexual y el mercado callejero del sexo en México. De esta manera se hace un rápido análisis de los problemas derivados del incumplimiento de los estándares éticos en las primeras investigaciones encubiertas sobre la ESCI en México. Se reporta que este tipo de investigaciones privilegia la protección del investigador sin obtener el consentimiento informado, sin respetar la dignidad, la confidencialidad ni el anonimato de las víctimas y sin brindarles algún tipo de protección contra cualquier tipo de daño producido por su participación en la investigación. La mayoría de las investigaciones se centra en la detección de víctimas en la industria sexual y en el mercado callejero del sexo de diferentes ciudades del país. Para tal efecto se han ocupado métodos y técnicas que exigen el cumplimiento de estándares éticos básicos en la relación de los investigadores con los informantes clave y en el reporte de los investigadores responsables. Asimismo se discute que la aplicación descontextualizada de los principios de la ética de la investigación a los estudios de la ESCI no es suficiente para resolver los problemas anteriores y que puede generar dilemas éticos en la investigación de la ESCI. De manera específica se expone uno de los dilemas enfrentados en el propio trabajo de investigación de los autores. Es innegable que se podría asumir que cierto porcentaje de investigaciones relacionadas con el tema pasa por la revisión y aprobación de un comité de ética que da cuenta implícitamente de ese cumplimiento. Sin embargo, aun así persiste un número considerable de estudios que no tiene ningún respaldo ético manifiesto. Los investigadores responsables de la detección y las entrevistas a las víctimas de la ESCI también buscan salvaguardarse sin proteger a ninguna de ellas. Por ejemplo, muchos investigadores actúan como clientes para pasar desapercibidos ante los explotadores y registrar la presencia de adolescentes en bares, cantinas y figones sin ofrecer a ellas algún tipo de protección. Los investigadores nunca reportan que las víctimas entrevistadas hayan sido enteradas de que tenían derecho a negarse a contestar o a retirarse cuando lo decidieran. Finalmente se exponen las lecciones aprendidas en dicho trabajo, las cuales recomiendan proteger el bienestar físico, social y psicológico de las personas a las que se estudia y con las que se trabaja; conocer el contexto social donde uno hace su trabajo de campo; adoptar un enfoque de derechos y de género; evitar las investigaciones que persigan como único fin detectar a víctimas sin ofrecerles protección; realizar la detección de victimas en el contexto de programas de coordinación interinstitucional (ministerios públicos, sistemas estatales y municipales DIF; organismos asistenciales de la sociedad civil), de rescate y de protección que garanticen la restitución de sus derechos, y proteger el bienestar del equipo de investigación. Por lo menos debe quedar claro al investigador que su propia seguridad debe estar en todo momento por encima de la realización de las tareas de investigación. Abstract in english The article begins by defining commercial sexual explotation of children (CSEC) as an exercise of power that commercializes the sexual abuse of children and adolescents so that the exploiters, nearly always adult men, will obtain financial profit or some type of social, psychological or other satisfaction. Victims of CSEC are girls and, to a lesser extent, boys. In any case, they are persons under the age of 18, who have been stripped of their right to be respected and pr (more) otected from slavery and sexual abuse, discrimination, sickness and crime. This usurpation of rights occurs in certain businesses in the sexual industry (such as prostitution in bars, saloon bars, eateries, brothels, hotels and in the journals, videos and websites on the Internet run by pornographers and child molesters) and the street sex market (including prostitution in streets, squares, beaches, and parks). The main thrust of this article is to analyze some of the problems derived from the failure to comply with the principles of research ethics when studying commercial sexual exploitation (CSEC) in the sex industry and street sex market in Mexico. Research about CSEC started during the 90's focusing on the sex industry and street market in Mexico City and Guadalajara, Jalisco. By the end of that decade the National System for the Integral Development of Families (NSIDF) created a program against CSEC, with social research being one of its core objectives. A brief analysis is conducted of the problems derived from the failure to comply with ethical standards in the early covert research on CSEC in Mexico. It reports that this type of research encourages protection of the researcher without obtaining informed consent, respecting the dignity, confidentiality or anonymity of victims or providing any type of protection for the victims from any type of damage caused by their participation in the research. Most of the research projects focus on detecting victims in the sex industry and the stress sex market in various cities throughout the country. To this end, various methods and techniques have been used that require compliance with basic ethical standards in the relationship between researchers and key informants and in the reports by responsible researchers. Although it might be said that projects review and approval by an ethics committees implicitly assume compliance, there is still a considerable amount of studies without manifest ethic support. This article also discusses the fact that the de-contextualized application of the principles of research ethics to CSEC studies does not suffice to solve the previous problems, and may create ethical dilemmas in CSEC research. It also specifically describes one of the dilemmas faced in the authors' own research. Although a certain percentage of the research related to the issue is obviously reviewed and approved by an ethics committee that implicitly acknowledges this compliance, there continues to be a considerable number of studies with no manifest ethical support. Researchers responsible for the detection of and interviews with victims of CSEC also seek to defend themselves without protecting any of the latter. For example, many researchers act as clients in order to go unnoticed by exploiters and record the presence of teenagers in bars, saloon bars and diners without offering them any form of protection. These researchers never report that the victims interviewed have been informed of their right to refuse to answer or to leave whenever they wish. Ten years ago one researcher decided to penetrate a network that exploited adolescents. He managed to know the procedures followed to contact, enroll and coerce victims, as well as the commercial sex activities. Some authors consider that the violation of informant's rights in social research can be avoided by applying the universal principles of ethics in scientific research. However, the application of such principles seems to be insufficient to solve the wide range of ethical problems that raise in frequent and deep social relationships to informants. Applying the universal principles out of context would also obstruct the development of ethical validated social sciences such as participant observation, and generate other problems. For instance, the application of the principle of anonymity to protect the informant's identity when the participants wish to have their real names used on research reports, can make participants feel disappointed and stolen when reading their own experiences being reported under somebody else's name. This might persuade them to participate in other research projects. The article ends by describing the lessons learned during this work. Recommendations include protecting the physical, social and psychological welfare of the persons studied and those with whom one works, finding out about the social context where one's fieldwork is conducted; adopting a rights and gender approach; avoiding research solely designed to detect victims without offering them protection; detecting victims within the context of inter-institutional coordination (State Prosecutor's offices, Municipal and State DIF Systems and welfare organizations run by civilians), and rescue and protection programs that will guarantee the restoration of their rights and ensure the research team's welfare. At the very least, they should be quite clear that their own safety should always take precedence over their research.
In this conceptual paper, we aim to develop a much needed ethical research agenda for international Human Resource Management (HRM), given that the changing geopolitical dynamics interrogate the political role of multinational companies and the ethical stance they take in their HRM practices. To theoretically ground this agenda, we turn to cosmopolitanism and distinguish three main perspectives?political, cultural, and social?each of which implies a different understanding of the self?other relation in the context of the global world. We translate the core and ethical stance of each perspective to the field of international HRM, presenting three different foci of an ethical research agenda in terms of the ethical implications for multinational companies, research focus, methodological sugg...
Abstract in spanish A pesar de que la bioética surge en la década de 1970, bajo el imperativo del discurso biomédico, su desarrollo como disciplina que reflexiona sobre el comportamiento humano en torno a la salud ha permitido la reunión de varios saberes, entre ellos, la aportación de las ciencias sociales en dicho campo. De esta forma, la bioética se ocupa de los dilemas que pueden presentarse en los estudios sociales sobre salud (adicciones, violencia, migraciones), incluso en aquel (more) los que, por cuestiones de interés común, son de tipo binacional o multicéntrico. Los objetivos de este artículo son sistematizar y exponer algunas implicaciones de la pertinencia y adecuación del consentimiento informado (CI) en un estudio binacional México-Estados Unidos sobre salud mental y migración. Además, se aportan elementos de análisis para la detección de dilemas éticos en estas intervenciones comunitarias en salud mental en México. De esta forma, se intenta responder a las siguientes preguntas: En el contexto de una investigación binacional, ¿cómo encarar el principio de autonomía y la noción de "voluntariedad", insertos en el requerimiento de un consentimiento informado, en intervenciones de salud mental pública en comunidades rurales mexicanas? ¿Es posible respetar la manera en que los participantes del país anfitrión toman decisiones y cubrir, al mismo tiempo, las exigencias del comité de ética del país patrocinador? Para allegarse los elementos de análisis, se expone someramente la conceptualización de los vocablos ética y bioética, y se abordan algunos postulados planteados tanto de la bioética norteamericana como de la europea, además de aproximarnos a otras posturas bioéticas. Por otro lado, se revisan los principales aportes de los diversos códigos, declaraciones e informes internacionales, incluidas las recomendaciones de la Comisión Nacional de Bioética de México, que norman el proceso del consentimiento informado (CI) en investigación social. El CI es un "proceso social que, a través de un intercambio activo y respetuoso, brinda información sobre la investigación en forma comprensible para el sujeto, permite cerciorarse de que la entienda y tenga opción de preguntar y recibir respuestas a sus dudas, brinde oportunidad para negarse a participar o manifestar voluntad de colaborar y pueda expresarla oralmente o firmar un formulario, sin haber sido sometido a coerción, intimidación ni a influencias o incentivos indebidos". En este sentido, el proceso de consentimiento informado (PCI) protege la libertad de elección del individuo y el respeto de su autonomía. Por ello, también se debe considerar el contexto de desarrollo de grupos culturales diversos al del investigador, sus tradiciones en cuanto a comunicación y decisión, y se deben respetar estos procedimientos. En la investigación social, como en ninguna otra, la puesta en práctica de la normatividad del PCI es muy variada, debido a que se trabaja con sectores dispuestos a participar (prostitutas, usuarios de drogas, primo-delincuentes, etc.) a condición de no firmar ningún consentimiento escrito, lo que otorga prioridad a la calidad de la relación establecida y no sólo al formato. Este documento expone la reflexión sobre algunos dilemas éticos que se presentaron durante una investigación social cuyo objetivo fue identificar los malestares emocionales asociados a la migración internacional México-EUA y la utilización de servicios de salud mental. Específicamente, el análisis ético se centra en la información recabada en el trabajo de campo por medio de la técnica observación participante, en una comunidad rural en el estado de Michoacán. Abstract in english Ethics, understood as the study of moral norms in terms of its assumptions, origins, and changes over time, systematizes similarities and differences between various moral codes. It therefore serves as a meeting point between different perspectives, through dialogue, a fundamental characteristic of this discipline. One of its derivations, as applied ethics, is bioethics, defined by Van Rensselaer Potter as "New knowledge that provides knowledge on how to use knowledge for (more) the good of society". Although bioethics emerged in the 1970s under the imperative of medical discourse, its development as a discipline reflecting human behavior surrounding health has permitted the combination of various types of knowledge, including the contribution of social sciences in this field. Thus bioethics deals with the dilemmas that may arise in social studies on health (such as addictions, violence and migrations). The aims of this manuscript are to systematize and explain some of the implications of the pertinence and adaptation of informed consent (IC) in a bi-national Mexico-United States study on mental health and migration. It also provides elements of analysis for the detection of ethical dilemmas in these community interventions in mental health in Mexico. It therefore attempts to answer the following questions: Within the context of bi-national research, how does one deal with the principle of autonomy and the notion of "voluntariness" included in the requirement of informed consent, in public mental health interventions in Mexican rural communities? Is it possible to respect the way participants in the host country make decisions while at the same time, meeting the demands of the ethics committee of the sponsor country? In order to arrive at the elements of analysis, the authors briefly explain the conceptualization of the terms ethics and bioethics, and explore some of the postulates put forward in both North American (principalism and casuism) and European bioethics (communitarianism), in addition to approaching other bioethical positions (ethics of responsibility and protection), by highlighting certain cultural elements that particularize the world views that give rise to the aforementioned ethical approaches. At the same time, the authors review the principal contributions of the various international codes, declarations and reports, including recommendations by the National Commission of Bioethics of Mexico that regulate the process of Informed Consent (IC) in Social Research. IC is a social process which, through active, respectful exchange provides information on research in a comprehensible way for the subject, in such a way that he is aware of the risks, benefits, consequences or problems that may occur during research. The researcher must ensure that the participant has properly understood all the information related to the project, has the opportunity to ask and be given answers to his doubts and is aware of his right to dissent (not adjust to someone's feeling or opinion) or express his will to collaborate by consenting (to allow or agree to something being done) without having been subjected to coercion, intimidation or undue influences of incentives. The process of informed consent (IC) is essentially verbal, and without underestimating this fact, given the importance of the decision about to be taken, as happens when one agrees to take part in a research project, it is sometimes necessary to leave a written record of this. In this respect, the process of informed consent consists of three elements: information, understanding and voluntariness. In itself, it involves the protection of the individual's freedom of choice and respect for his autonomy. One should therefore consider the context of development of different cultural groups from that of the researcher and his traditions regarding communication and decision and these procedures must be respected. The study also includes aspects that have rarely been discussed in the process of informed consent (PIC) such as the need to clarify the type of relationship and exercise of power that may occur between the researcher and the person being researched, the lack of questioning about whether the commitment acquired by the researcher to respect the participants' autonomy during the PIC helps or prevents people from regarding themselves as rights-holders. Finally, the study highlights the fact that, although social research is considered of "minimum risk", the information provided in the PIC may cause emotional distress classified as "psychological risks" such as stress anxiety, fear or lack of tranquility. In social research, as in no other, the implementation of PIC normative approach is extremely varied, due to the fact that one works with sectors prepared to participate (prostitutes, drug users, first-time offenders, etc.) on the condition that they will not sign any informed consent, thereby giving priority to the quality of the relationship established, rather than the format. This manuscript explains the reflection on certain ethical dilemmas that arose during a social research project, the aim of which was to identify the emotional distress associated with Mexico-United States international migration and the use of mental health services. The ethical analysis specifically focuses on the information obtained during the field work through the participatory observation technique, in a rural community in the state of Michoacan. The main conflictive situations experienced due to the notion of voluntariness and the principle of autonomy underpinning PIC include: • The fact that for some residents, discussing certain issues related to public mental health such as alcohol and drug consumption may be interpreted as "disloyalty" to their community and constitutes sufficient grounds for not participating. • Understanding that some researchers suffer the consequences of their colleagues' mistakes, as borne out by another of the arguments given for not participating: " We are fed up of fly-by-night researchers, who just come in, obtain their data and are never seen in the community again". It is also worth reflecting on whether this argument reflects a questioning of the researcher's authority and/or a loss of faith in social progress through science, but how can one speak of social progress with the residents of communities that lack drainage and electricity?
When highly visible lapses in ethics occur, education gets some of the blame. Principals in the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis and the Enron scandal had been educated at Harvard and other elite business schools, where professional and moral ideals had arguably been replaced by a focus on profits at the expense of ethics. A long-standing tradition in ethics education, however, holds that by college or graduate school it is "too late" to teach ethics. A natural question arises: Can we teach ethics earlier, possibly at the high school level? This article reports on a curricular effort titled "Teaching the Ethical Foundations of Economics by the National Council on Economic Education" (NCEE) with just that goal. After several years of development and assessment, materials for teaching ethics in social studies classrooms have been prepared and tested. The early results suggest that high school students can successfully be taught about ethical issues in economics and other social studies classes. (Contains 1 table and 4 notes.)
Abstract in portuguese O desenvolvimento da Fisioterapia, aliado às mudanças na educação e na saúde, faz com que a autonomia e os dilemas éticos do fisioterapeuta sejam maiores a cada dia, expandindo seu papel no cuidado do paciente. Para além do Código de Ética, as noções de Bioética são centrais no preparo de graduandos para os desafios profissionais. Este estudo verificou a capacidade de tomar decisões éticas de alunos no último ano de Fisioterapia de duas universidades na ci (more) dade de São Paulo, das quais uma oferece no currículo a disciplina Bioética e a outra não. Cinqüenta alunos de cada universidade responderam a um questionário sobre dilemas éticos correspondentes a artigos do Código de Ética; cada questão oferecia três alternativas de resposta: uma bioética, outra referente ao Código e uma não-ética. As respostas foram analisadas estatisticamente. Os resultados mostraram um bom preparo ético em pouco mais de metade dos alunos das duas universidades, sugerindo que ambas oferecem preparo ético similar aos graduandos, independente da diferença curricular. No entanto, os alunos da universidade que oferece Bioética tiveram resultados significantemente melhores nos quesitos referentes à relação com outros profissionais da saúde, sugerindo que essa disciplina oferece melhores condições para o relacionamento interprofissional, fator importante tanto na prática clínica quanto para elevar o status da Fisioterapia. Abstract in english Physical therapy recent expansion, along with changes in education and health, enhance physical therapists' role in patient care, while increasing both their autonomy and the ethical challenges they face in daily clinic. In addition to knowledge of the professional ethical code, notions of Bioethics are thought to be central to students training. This study analysed the ability to make ethical decisions among 100 physical therapy undergraduate students at two universities (more) in São Paulo, of which only one offers the discipline Bioethics. Fifty students of each university answered a questionnaire of dilemmas related to items of the Physical Therapy Code of Ethics; for each question there was a choice between three answers, bioethical, in accordance with the ethical code, or non-ethical. Answers were statistically analysed. About half the students of both universities seemed to be satisfactorily prepared to act ethically, thus suggesting that both offer similar ethical training, regardless of curricula differences. However, students from the university that offers Bioethics had significantly better results in questions concerning the relationship with other health providers, thereby suggesting that this discipline may provide better student training for inter-professional relationship, which is important both to clinical practice and to raise physical therapy status.
A number of recent discussions about ethical issues in climate change, as engaged in by economists, have focused on the value of the parameter representing the rate of time preference within models of optimal growth. This essay examines many economists' antipathy to serious discussion of ethical matters, and suggests that the avoidance of questions of intergenerational equity is related to another set of value judgments concerning the quality and objectivity of economic practice. Using insights from feminist philosophy of science and research on high reliability organizations, this essay argues that a more ethically transparent, real-world-oriented, and flexible economic practice would lead to more reliable and useful knowledge. (author)
Introduction The debate over use of artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) in terminal illness, including advanced dementia, remains contentious despite extensive ethical and empirical investigation. Methods For this narrative review we undertook a focused, selective review of literature reflecting ethical analysis, empirical assessment of outcomes, legal responses, and thinking within the Roman Catholic religious tradition. Results The history of the debate over the past 60 years results from a complex interplay of ethical concerns, a growing empirical database, legal changes, public opinion, and financial as well as institutional concerns. Discussions of ANH today are often conducted without any understanding of this historical context. Discussion Patients? interests could be better pr...
The development of the Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists has sparked debate about its applicability to cultural groups around the globe. Focusing on the principle of respect espoused in the Declaration, this article uses examples largely drawn from the indigenous Maori culture of Aotearoa/New Zealand, to highlight how the ethical imperatives espoused by the Declaration may conflict with the perspectives of Maori. A discussion of actions denoting respect is given from a Maori perspective. Distinctions between the ethical expectations the discipline of psychology and Maori have of psychological practitioners are also addressed.
Ethical issues of urban planning in Turkey are understudied. This article briefly examines eight possible sources of unethical behavior, decision and policy in Turkish urban planning. This analysis of ethical problems and sources of physical urban planning focuses on the local government level. This study focuses on harmonizing Turkish and international literature on local politics, urban planning, urbanization, planning profession and planning ethics literature with the perceptions, attitudes and conditions of planning actors based on interviews and survey conducted in selected Turkish municipalities and SPAs in 2008-09 as part of a major EU-funded public sector ethics project in Turkey. The roles of interest groups, conditions of planners and decision-makers on urban planning and plannin...
The paper addresses issues of scientific conduct regarding relations between science and the media, relations between scientists and journalists, and attitudes towards the public at large. In the large and increasing body of literature on scientific conduct and misconduct, these issues seem underexposed as ethical challenges. Consequently, individual scientists here tend to be left alone with problems and dilemmas, with no guidance for good conduct. Ideas are presented about how to make up for this omission. Using a practical, ethical approach, the paper attempts to identify ways scientists might deal with ethical public relations issues, guided by a norm or maxim of openness. Drawing on and rethinking the CUDOS codification of the scientific ethos, as it was worked out by Robert K. Merton in 1942, we propose that this, which is echoed in current codifications of norms for good scientific conduct, contains a tacit maxim of openness which may naturally be extended to cover the public relations of science. Discussing openness as access, accountability, transparency and receptiveness, the argumentation concentrates on the possible prevention of misconduct with respect to, on the one hand, sins of omission—withholding important information from the public—and, on the other hand, abuses of the authority of science in order to gain publicity. Statements from interviews with scientists are used to illustrate how scientists might view the relevance of the issues raised.
OBJECTIVES:: To describe how members of the older general public deliberate with one another in finding solutions to the dilemma of involving persons with decisional incapacity in dementia research. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:: One hundred sixty persons age 50 years and older who participated in an all-day deliberative democracy session on the ethics of surrogate consent for dementia research. The deliberative democracy day consisted of both extensive, interactive education with experts in clinical research and ethics, as well as small group deliberations. MEASUREMENTS:: Audiotaped small group deliberations were transcribed and analyzed and the main thematic elements were coded. RESULTS:: During deliberation, participants acknowledged the limitations of advanced research directives and discussed ways to improve their use. Although there was consensus about the necessity of surrogate consent, the participants recognized potential pitfalls and looked for ways to safeguard the process. Participants supporting surrogate consent for research emphasized societal and individual benefits, the importance of assent, and trust in surrogates and the oversight system. Other participants felt that the high risk of some research scenarios was not sufficiently offset by benefits to patients or society. CONCLUSIONS:: Members of the older general public are able to make use of in-depth education and peer deliberation to provide reasoned and informed opinions on the ethical use of surrogate consent for dementia research. The public's approach to surrogate consent is one of cautious pragmatism: an overall trust in science and future surrogates with awareness of the potential pitfalls, suggesting that their trust cannot be taken for granted. PMID:22337147
Since the 1970s, countries have protected the environment by means of various legal instruments, including environmental approvals and licensing. An environmental task force created under the Hydropower Agreement was appointed by the lEA to compare and determine the efficiency and effectiveness of such mechanisms, as they apply to each phase of hydropower development (policy level, project planning, project implementation, plant operation and plant upgrading, relicensing and decommissioning). It also examined whether legal mechanisms respected ethical principles as well as the protection of the environment, human rights and the right to economic development. This paper reports on the essential findings outlined by the task force. It discusses common deficiencies in national legal mechanisms relating to hydropower development and also proposes practical solutions and potential improvements. The main conclusion of this study is that environmental approval and licensing processes have become excessively rigid and cumbersome in many countries and that governments need to rethink the approval process and reform the legal and regulatory frameworks. Governments should consider a mechanism such as a strategic environmental assessment implemented at the policy level and processes that systematically integrate information gathered by previous monitoring studies. And since hydropower development raises ethical dilemmas that are difficult to reconcile, some decisions should be made by the legislative branch and not by the executive branch or other decision-making body. Moreover, proponents should adopt a code of conduct based on ethics and principles of international environmental law. (Author)
To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at least in part, diverging results. This study investigates how students explain and understand their argumentation about dilemmas concerning gene testing for the purpose to reduce hereditary diseases. Thirteen students were interviewed about their views on this issue. Qualitative analysis was done primarily by relating students’ argumentation to their movements between ethics and morals as opposing poles. Students used either objective or subjective knowledge but had difficulties to integrate them. They tried to negotiate ethic arguments using utilitarian motives and medical knowledge with sympathy or irrational and personal arguments. They discussed the embryo’s moral status to decide if it was replaceable in a social group or not. The educational implications of the students’ use of knowledge in personal arguments are discussed.
Abstract in spanish Introducción: Investigar el desplazamiento forzado deja en evidencia la necesidad de poner en tensión el interés por la construcción del conocimiento con reflexiones éticas. Objetivo: Discutir algunos condicionamientos contextuales y dilemas éticos que enfrentan los investigadores al estudiar el desplazamiento forzado. Método: Revisión teórica, reflexión y experiencia en trabajo de campo en un proceso investigativo. Conclusiones: Un contexto de violencia sociopo (more) lítica afecta la construcción del conocimiento; su comprensión debe ser un pilar de la discusión de criterios éticos en investigaciones sociales. Abstract in english Introduction: Investigating forced displacement shows clearly the need to tauten the interest in the construction of knowledge with ethical considerations. Objective: To discuss some contextual constraints and ethical dilemmas that researchers face when studying forced displacement. Method: Theoretical review, reflection and experience in field work in a research process. Conclusion: A sociopolitical violence context affects the construction of knowledge. Its understanding should be established as a pillar in the discussion of ethical standards in social research.
Psicoterapia e bioética: aproximando conceitos, aperfeiçoando práticas/ Psychotherapy and bioethics: linking concepts, improving practices/ Psicoterapia y bioetica: aproximando conceptos, perfeccionando prácticas
Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo traz alguns questionamentos sobre a aproximação entre Psicologia, psicoterapia, formação e Bioética. Esta discussão surge por esta última disciplina estar em evidência nos tempos atuais, em virtude dos avanços tecnológicos da ciência como um todo. Desta forma, considera-se pertinente falar em Bioética em todas as especialidades que, de algum forma, têm o ser humano como centro. A Psicologia, por trabalhar com pessoas, representa uma especial (more) idade capaz de concorrer grandemente para a solução dos dilemas encontrados na Bioética e contribuir com essa área do saber. A partir daí, da mesma forma, procura-se entender como os princípios bioéticos podem ser transpostos para o processo psicoterapêutico. O artigo propõe reflexões sobre questões como dilemas éticos que podem surgir no trabalho do psicólogo, o uso do Termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (TCLE) no processo psicoterápico, a formação profissional e outras. Pretende-se, no artigo, tornar presentes alguns questionamentos pouco trabalhados, fazendo uma contribuição reflexiva, mas não determinante. Abstract in spanish Este artículo trae algunos cuestionamientos sobre la aproximación entre psicología, psicoterapia, formación y bioética. Esta discusión surge debido a esta última disciplina estar en evidencia actualmente, en virtud de los avances tecnológicos de la ciencia en su totalidad. De este modo, se considera pertinente hablar de bioética en todas las especialidades que, de alguna forma, tiene el ser humano en su centro. La psicología, por trabajar con personas, represent (more) a una especialidad de gran contribución para los dilemas encontrados en la bioética, lo que puede contribuir para esa área del saber. Desde ese lugar, se busca entender como los principios bioéticos pueden ser transpuestos para el proceso psicoterapéutico. El artículo propone reflexiones como: dilemas éticos que pueden surgir en el trabajo del psicólogo, el uso del Término de Consentimiento Libre y Aclarado (TCLA) en el proceso psicoterápico, la formación profesional y otros. Se pretende, con este artículo, presentar algunos cuestionamientos poco trabajados, haciendo una contribución reflexiva, pero no determinante. Abstract in english Issues on the link between Psychology, therapy, training and Bioethics are provided and discussed. Current discussion is justified due to the fact that Bioethics has become an important subject in the context of contemporary technological and scientific improvements as a whole. It is thus essential to discuss Bioethics in all its specialties, taking the human being as its focus and center. Since Psychology deals with human beings, it may be highly contribute towards the s (more) olution of dilemmas in Bioethics and its importance may be highlighted within this area. Consequently, the manner bioethical principles may be transposed to the psychotherapeutic process is of paramount importance. Current essay reflects on the ethical dilemmas that the psychologist may face, on the use of the Term of Free and Clear Consent (TCLE) in the psychotherapeutic process, professional training, among others. It shall also shed some light on less discussed issues for reflective, albeit not determinant, contributions.
Abstract in portuguese Este artigo discute os dilemas ético-políticos do psicanalista e do intelectual diante dos problemas contemporâneos e da crise de paradigmas em vários aspectos da vida cultural, científica e política. Discute também alguns conceitos e preconceitos presentes no meio psicanalítico, e fora dele, com relação à participação da psicanálise nesse debate, bem como a simultânea assimilação da psicanálise por importantes pensadores sociais do século XX. This (more) paper discusses the ethical-political dilemmas of the psychoanalyst and the intellectual when are faced with contemporary problems and the paradigm crisis of various aspects of cultural, scientific and political life. Some of the concepts and prejudices inside and outside the field of psychoanalysis are also discussed in relation to the participation of psychoanalysis in this debate. Another factor discussed is the simultaneous assimilation of psychoanalysis by important twentieth-century social thinkers.
Research has shown that HIV-positive patients sometimes refuse to take precautionary measures against sexual transmission as well as to notify their sexual partner(s) of their status. Faced with such a situation, physicians find themselves in a dilemma as they are forced to choose between honouring their duty of professional confidentiality and protecting their patients’ partner(s). Recent advice from the Belgian Medical Council (BMC) for the first time accepts that physicians can exceptionally, and under certain conditions, invoke necessity to breach confidentiality and inform usual and occasional sexual partners of HIV-infected patients who refuse to take precautions against transmission. This article sketches the ethical evolution of this position from 1987 up to now in Belgium, ...
There are ethical dilemmas in managing head and neck cancers during pregnancy. Diagnostic and treatment modalities need to be carefully determined. We herein describe 3 cases of tongue cancer during pregnancy. The details of the management would contribute to the daily practices for head and neck cancers. All three patients were Japanese female patients, two of them were 29 years old and one was 26 years old. All patients were admitted to the Nippon Medical School Hospital during pregnancy, complaining of oral pain and/or discomfort. Case 1 was diagnosed as tongue cancer stage T3N0M0, however, the tumor was superficial and controllable by partial glossectomy. Case 2 was stage T2N0M0 with deep invasion with ulcer, and the hemi-glossectomy with neck dissection and the reconstruction was thou...
This paper explores a confluence of Fair Trade and organic initiatives under the prevalence of Bt cotton in India, using as an interpretative framework Guthman's conventionalization thesis for organic farming in the Northern context. In a case study conducted in Andhra Pradesh, the confluence of the two initiatives, contrary to their ethical standards, contributed to the spread of genetically modified (GM) seed. The Fair Trade initiative, lacking a scheme for compensating for the decrease in income that producers have to endure during the conversion period, tends to take a more relaxed attitude toward GM crops in order to assist small farmers. Fair Trade's dilemma between helping poor farmers and promoting organic farming may have indirectly allowed Fair Trade producers to tend towards con...
This article examines the reflexive, biosocial nature of genomic meaning making around race, drawing on discourse analysis of 732 articles on genomics and race published from the years 1986-2010, in-depth interviews with 36 of the world’s most elite genomics researchers, interviews with 15 critics, policymakers, and trainees involved in debates over race, and participant observation at a core genotyping facility that specializes in ancestry estimation. I reveal how biomedical researchers identify with, value, and make sense of the taxonomies they construct. My analysis goes beyond a consideration of instrumental rationales to analyze the experiential and political motivations that shape how researchers get involved in racial ethical dilemmas. I theorize taxonomic practice as a refle...
Because of their physical size and physiological immaturity, resuscitation of extremely very low birth weight premature infants is a big dilemma for neonatologists in any hospital. The resuscitation may present an additional challenge to the caregiver if it is undertaken in a remote community hospital with limited technical facilities and health personnel. We present the case of successful resuscitation of a 23-week-old premature infant, with a birth weight of 650 g, at Delma Island Community Hospital, United Arab Emirates. Despite the comparatively limited facilities for such a resuscitation, the rapid ethical decisions made when considering the resuscitation of such a borderline viable fetus, were key in avoiding long term neurological and pulmonary problems and contributed to the outcome of a healthy infant.
Abstract in english The death of Freud raises the ethical dilemma about euthanasia. It can be characterized as indirect active euthanasia according to the rule of double effect, or terminal sedation, or palliated death. The primacy of the principle of autonomy over non maleficence, conditioned the physician?s attitude toward his patient Freud. The physician assisted death was and remains punishable in western medicine. Therefore, a fundamental tradition was infringed. In contrast, the prese (more) nt study attempts to characterize the final position of Freud himself to his death and called it appropriation of his finitude; he assumes his being-unto-death, that is, he now projects his being not as a being-at-his-end but as a being-unto-end, indicating thereby that he understood that the end always penetrated his whole existence.
Biobanks as collections of population level genetic and health data will be central to the innovation of new drugs and drug targets. The UK Biobank, funded by massive public and charitable investment, was created to store and manage the genetic and health data of over 500,000 people in the UK. The UK Biobank will be available to researchers from both private and public sectors, and is intended to support innovation and serve the public good. We argue that the UK Biobank faces a dilemma in that the knowledge generated is potentially commercialisable and patentable. As knowledge resulting it is transformed into excludable or private goods by scarcity and patenting, it is subject to the tragedies of commons and anti-commons. We question whether the current ethics and governance framework can ...
Abstract-- Museums are mirrors of national, regional, and local identities, functioning as self portraits of nations, regions, and cities. But to what extent do city museums, for instance, actively and consciously reflect the ethical, political, or social dilemmas, contradictions, and conflicts that drive and impact the cities they serve? As concepts of democracy expand in the twenty-first century, can museums be platforms for dialogue and solution-building? What hinders museums in facilitating equal access to culture for everyone and encouraging a plurality of voices to speak? Like many other city museums, the Museum of Copenhagen is forced, enticed, and lured by the complexity, richness, and challenges of contemporary urban cultures to re-examine its vision and methods, seeking a new rel...
Wiki "communities" based on the open access ideology allow any visitor to easily add, remove or edit content. However, there are a slew of ethics and policy challenges inherent in their use. Open source software developers are faced with the dilemma of openly sharing their intellectual property and prevent others from claiming proprietary rights from the code they freely shared to the public? Intellectual Property rights licensing, ironically, is the route by which open software developers have chosen to regulate their free code in cyberspace. Open source code is generally free on the surface; but in reality, it comes with obligations which are enforceable by law. Aside from the potential liability for intellectual property infringement, the use of open software raises competition law and ...
There are positive views towards use of science and technology in all Asian countries, and positive views towards use of enhancement in China, India and Thailand. After considering of the widespread use of cosmetic surgery and other body enhancements in Asian countries, and the generally positive views towards letting individuals make choices about improvement of themselves, the paper concludes that we can expect other enhancements to also be adopted rapidly in Asia. There will be future ethical dilemmas emerging from this with concepts of preservation of nature, flow with nature, and definitions of human-ness, along with concepts of harmony and social justice. Japan is less willing to engage in genetic enhancement compared to China, India and Thailand, despite widespread cosmetic surgery across Asia. PMID:23076344
A total of 1,186 proposals of clinical trials have been studied by the National Committee for Clinical Trials (NCCT) in 1995, with an annual increase of 15-20% since 1991. Of those, 61.4% dealt with drugs, the others-with medical instruments and techniques. As many proposals were part of multi-center studies, altogether 524 different drug-trials were studied, the leading fields being cardiovascular, nephrology, neurology, oncology, and infectious diseases in this order of importance. Forty two different proposals (8%) were discussed in depth in the NCCT while 92% were approved by hospital-committees and representatives of the national committee. Out of the 44 problematic proposals, discussed by the NCCT, .5 proposals were totally rejected, while 9 were approved following changes suggested by the committee. The ethical, moral and legal dilemmas presented by the proposals will be discussed. PMID:9114707
Mario Bunge is one of the most prolific philosophers of our time. Over the past sixty years he has written extensively about semantics, ontology, epistemology, philosophy of science and ethics. Bunge has been interested in the philosophical and methodological implications of modern psychology and more specifically in the philosophies of the relation between the neural and psychological realms. According to Bunge, functionalism, the philosophical stand of current psychology, has limited explanatory power in that neural processes are not explicitly acknowledged as components or factors of psychological phenomena. In Matter and Mind (2010), Bunge has elaborated in great detail the philosophies of the mind-brain dilemma and the basis of the psychoneural identity hypothesis, which suggests that all psychological processes can be analysed in terms of neural and physical phenomena. This article is the result of a long interview with Dr. Bunge on psychoneural identity and brain-behaviour relations.
There are positive views towards use of science and technology in all Asian countries, and positive views towards use of enhancement in China, India and Thailand. After considering of the widespread use of cosmetic surgery and other body enhancements in Asian countries, and the generally positive views towards letting individuals make choices about improvement of themselves, the paper concludes that we can expect other enhancements to also be adopted rapidly in Asia. There will be future ethical dilemmas emerging from this with concepts of preservation of nature, flow with nature, and definitions of human-ness, along with concepts of harmony and social justice. Japan is less willing to engage in genetic enhancement compared to China, India and Thailand, despite widespread cosmetic surgery ...
This article is a review of the international scientific literature on informed consent and its use in some of the constituent organizations of the International Psychoanalytical Association (IPA). Because psychoanalysis comprises a theory based on practice, the dearth of clinical material for study, training and research purposes is a serious problem for analysts. Supervisions, presentations at scientific societies and congresses, publications and teaching material involve patients to an extent that goes beyond the work done in their sessions. Should consent be requested in these cases? This contribution addresses controversial and long-standing issues such as informed consent and confidentiality, audio recording of treatments, knowledge production, the ambivalence of participating subjects over time and the perspective of analysts and patients respectively. The authors consider the various alternative approaches available for the handling of these ethical dilemmas without losing sight of the patient's dignity and personal rights, while also taking account of the position of the analyst. PMID:22900558
To meet the demands required for safe and effective care, nurses must be able to integrate theoretical knowledge with clinical practice (Kohen and Lehman, 2008; Polit and Beck, 2008; Shirey, 2006). This should include the ability to adapt research in response to changing clinical environments and the changing needs of service users. It is through reflective practice that students develop their clinical reasoning and evaluation skills to engage in this process. This paper aims to describe the development, implementation and evaluation of a project designed to provide a structural approach to the recognition and resolution of clinical, theoretical and ethical dilemmas identified by 3rd year undergraduate mental health nursing students. This is the first paper to describe the iterative proces...
Orthodox Jewish patients who seek genetic counseling are often placed in a difficult position of having to choose between their desire to follow Jewish religious instruction (halacha) and following the advice of the genetic counselor. In this article we will present the work of the Puah Institute based in Jerusalem that is dedicated to assisting and guiding such couples to navigate through the medical system and medical recommendations and create a harmony between modern genetic counseling and the Orthodox Jewish tradition. In light of the expanding use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for a variety of medical and non-medical conditions, this dilemma is even more poignant. There is an ethical debate regarding PGD and the correct parameters for its use. Here we present the Orthodo...
The Uniform Accident and Sickness Policy Provision Law (UPPL) is a statute existing in 26 states that permits health insurance companies to deny payment for claims made by individuals who have sustained injuries as a result of drug or alcohol use. This law presents a series of complicated clinical and ethical dilemmas for social workers and other medical personnel. The majority of contributions to the national discussion regarding the UPPL have been produced by the medical, nursing, and policy/legal disciplines. Social work has, however, remained silent. It is paramount that social workers add their perspective and insight to this debate. This article discusses the first survey, to the authors' knowledge, of social workers practicing in health care settings regarding their knowledge and beliefs about the UPPL.
Increasingly, mental health social workers in the United Kingdom and elsewhere in the world are employing coercive interventions with clients. This paper explores this trend in the context of community-based settings, using national and international research literature on this subject. It begins with a discussion about the complex, contested nature of ideas on coercion. The authors then explore debates about how coercion is perceived and applied in practice. They choose two forms of coercion—informal types of leverage, and the legally mandated use of Community Treatment Orders—to highlight the range of ethical problems and dilemmas that confront practitioners in this field. The authors conclude by developing a tentative, explanatory model to explain how and why mental health...
Catholic theology?s traditional understanding of the spiritual nature of the human person begins with the idea of a rational soul and human mind that is made manifest in free will?the spiritual experience of the act of consciousness and cause of all human arts. The rationale for this religion-based idea of personhood is key to understanding ethical dilemmas posed by modern research that applies a more empirical methodology in its interpretations about the cause of human consciousness. Applications of these beliefs about the body/soul composite to the theory of evolution and to discoveries in neuroscience, paleoanthropology, as well as to recent animal intelligence studies, can be interpreted from this religious and philosophical perspective, which argues for the human soul as the unifying ...
This paper compares and contrasts the impact and the interface of different sets of values held by social care practitioners in their decision-making process with regard to ethical dilemmas. Specifically, it explores some of the fundamental distinctions between self-directed groupworkers and other qualified social workers practising in both statutory and voluntary sectors. The methodology is qualitative and draws upon a Grounded Theory process. In contrasting the contribution of different sets of values in decision making, we found that participants, regardless of their approach to work, showed an overall fit between their personal and professional values. However, when we explored the influence of participants' agencies on their decision-making processes, participants tended to prioritise...
Retos de la Bioética en el siglo XXI: "evolución para la evolución" La Ciencia Genómica, como caso biotecnológico paradigmático/ THE BIOETHICS CHALLENGES IN THE XXI CENTURY: "EVOLUTION FOR THE EVOLUTION". THE GENOMIC SCIENCE AS A PARADIGMATIC BIOTECHNOLOGY CASE
Abstract in spanish La ciencia genómica cambió la evolución de la vida en el planeta, planteando una serie de dilemas éticos, que requieren de la transformación de la bioética para responder a los retos que enfrentara en el Siglo XXI. Este artículo manejará cuatro temas : Tecnociencia, biotecnología y ciencia genómica; bioética; bioética y ciencia genómica; y las relaciones entre la bioética, la ciencia genómica y el bioderecho. Abstract in english The genomic science changed the evolution of life in the planet, established seldom ethical dilemmas, that require bioethics transformation in order to response to the challengers that the XXI century has. This article will explain four themes: Techno-science, biotechnology, and genomic science; bioethics; bioethics and genomic science; and the relations between bioethics, genomic science and biolaw.
This collection contains seven case studies about ethical issues faced by scholars of teaching and learning, each with commentary from individuals who bring different perspectives to bear on the issues. This case-plus-commentaries format enacts a central theme of the volume, which is that there is no single right way to resolve the ethical dilemmas that arise when investigating classroom practice. The cases are: (1) "The Ethics of Comparison: A Statistician Wrestles with the Orthodoxy of a Control Group" (John P. Holcomb, with commentary by Roberto L. Corrada, Joan B. Garfield, and Caroline Hodges Powell); (2) "Using Student Work as Evidence" (David Takacs, with commentary by Amy Driscoll, Kevin Miller, and Cynthia Scheinberg); (3) "Refining Questions and Renegotiating Consent" (Suzanne Burgoyne, with commentary by Richard Gal, Peter J. Markjle, and Helen A. Neville); (4) "Balancing Pedagogic Needs with the Needs of a Classroom Experiment" (Charles McDowell, with commentary by Peter Alexander, Heather E. Bullock, and Eileen M. Tanner); (5) "Too Close for Comfort and/or Validity" (Tomas Galguera, with commentary by Camille Calica, David M. Donahue, and Judith Haymore Sandholtz); (6) "From Private to Public Classrooms: 'Inadequate' Student Texts in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning" (James E. Seitz, with commentary by Christie Raney, Mariolina Rizzi Salvatore); and (7) "Giving Public Students' Work: The Movie" (Sherry Linkon, with commentary by Randy Bass, Thomas Hatch, and John Stern). A discussion of "Questions To Shape Practice" makes up the eighth chapter. An annotated bibliography of 52 items is attached, titled "Research Ethics and the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning" by James Bequette and Chris Bjork. (SLD)
Abstract in portuguese Este artigo pretende refletir sobre a pesquisa qualitativa e seu uso na área da saúde. A partir de considerações sobre os "modos somáticos de atenção" e exemplos de pesquisas realizadas, proponho, primeiramente, um questionamento sobre dicotomias como teoria-metodologia, sujeito-objeto e racionalidade-técnica. Sugiro que essas dicotomias possam estar na base daquelas que são consideradas dificuldades na utilização da metodologia qualitativa em projetos de pesqu (more) isa da área da saúde, como (1) o problema da escolha das técnicas de pesquisa; (2) o dilema do número de casos; (3) a participação do contexto da pesquisa; e (4) os procedimentos de análise ou interpretação dos dados. Num segundo momento, busco mostrar como essas dicotomias também podem estar implicadas na ética das pesquisas qualitativas. Finalmente, observo que esses questionamentos, quando projetados para os Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa, apresentam o grande desafio de avaliar a adequação metodológica em conjunto com os procedimentos éticos de cada projeto, respeitando as especificidades da pesquisa qualitativa. Abstract in english This article approaches the use of qualitative methods in health research. Following the concept of "somatic modes of attention" and examples of previous ethnographic research, I discuss the dichotomies theory-methodology, subject-object, rationale-techniques to suggest that they may be responsible for what has been pointed out as important constraints of qualitative research: (1) the problem of choosing the right research techniques; (2) the dilemma of the number of case (more) s to be studied; (3) the role of the context; and (4) data analysis/interpretation procedures. I argue that these separations can affect research ethics. Ethics needs to be incorporated in methodology as a whole and inform the choice of techniques, sampling procedures, the context and data analysis/interpretation. Finally, this paper points out that the specificity of qualitative research needs to be acknowledged by Research Ethics Committees and suggests they should look, more than anything, at each project's methodological adequacy together with ethical procedures.
At its February 2011 meeting, the AERA Council adopted unanimously a new Code of Ethics. The Code articulates a set of standards for education researchers in education and provides principles and guidance by which they can build ethical practices in professional, scholarly, and scientific activities. The Code reflects the Association's strong commitment to provide standards for research, teaching, and service that are ethically sound and informative. The newly revised Code is the result of almost three years of background research and study by the members of the inaugural committee, focusing on the ethical conduct of education researchers in their professional roles. In addition to its own deliberations, the committee engaged in an extensive outreach project to elicit comments and feedback from the AERA membership. To that end, an open forum to discuss a draft version of the Code was held at the May 2010 Annual Meeting.
The idea of radical pedagogy is connected to the ideals of social justice and democracy and also to the ethical demands of love, care and human flourishing, an emotional context that is sometimes forgotten in discussions of power and inequality. Both this emotional context and also the emphasis on politics can be found in the writings of Paolo Freire, someone who has provided much inspiration for radical pedagogy over the years. However, Freire did not create any explicit ethical foundation for radical pedagogy. This paper argues that, when constructing normative grounds for radical pedagogy, Habermas's discourse ethics can be an important source, with the caveat that discourse ethics on its own is not sufficient grounding enough where radical pedagogy is concerned. Habermasian critical theory should be supplemented with Axel Honneth's theory of recognition, as Freire's focus on love and human flourishing corresponds well with Honneth's theory's three modes of recognition: love, rights and respect (solidarity stemming from mutual relations of respect).
Summary Efforts to counter the rise in overweight and obesity, such as taxes on certain foods and beverages, limits to commercial advertising, a ban on chocolate drink at schools or compulsory physical exercise for obese employees, sometimes raise questions about what is considered ethically acceptable. There are obvious ethical incentives to these initiatives, such as improving individual and public health, enabling informed choice and diminishing societal costs. Whereas we consider these positive arguments to put considerable effort in the prevention of overweight indisputable, we focus on potential ethical objections against such an effort. Our intention is to structure the ethical issues that may occur in programmes to prevent overweight and/or obesity in order to encourage further deb...
The recruitment of the next generation of workers is of central concern to contemporary HRM. This paper focuses on university campuses as a major site of this process, and particularly as a new domain in which HRM?s ethical claims are configured, in which it sets and answers a range of ethical questions as it outlines the ?ethos? of the ideal future worker. At the heart of this ethos lies what we call the ?principle of potentiality?. This principle is explored through a sample of graduate recruitment programmes from the Times Top 100 Graduate Employers, interpreted as ethical exhortations in HRM?s attempt to shape the character of future workers. The paper brings the work of Georg Simmel to the study of HRM?s ethics and raises the uncomfortable question that, within discourses of endless p...
The tales we tell here focus on the ethical issues arising from our research practice with vulnerable young participants and those for whom research has been inextricably linked with European imperialism and colonialism. The importance of relational obligations, temporality and potential for a continuing narrative approach to ethical research cannot be underestimated, and accordingly we recount our experiences in order to highlight these obligations as well as ethical tensions that we encountered. Importantly, our tales and the underpinning theorization suggest that Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs) "perform" their duties and make decisions to a pre-ordained set of prescriptive standards that do not necessarily take into account the agency of vulnerable young people or Indigenous women.
In Nigeria, medical education remains focused on the traditional clinical and basic medical science components, leaving students to develop moral attitudes passively through observation and intuition. In order to ascertain the adequacy of this method of moral formations, we studied the opinions of medical students in a Nigerian university towards medical ethics training. Self administered semi-structured questionnaires were completed by final year medical students of the College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. There were 82 (64.1%) male and 44 (34.4%) female respondents. The median age was 26?years. Most students (80.5%) responded that they did not receive enough training in medical ethics. The ethics instructions they received did not sufficiently prepare them for the ethical ...
Abstract. Human altruistic behavior has received a great deal of scientific attention over the past forty years. Altruistic-like behaviors found among insects and animals have illumined certain human behaviors, and the revival of interest in group selection has focused attention on how sacrificial altruism, although not adaptive for individuals, can be adaptive for groups. Curiously, at the same time that sociobiology has placed greater emphasis on the value of sacrificial altruism, Protestant ethics in America has moved away from it. While Roman Catholic ethics has a longstanding tradition emphasizing an ordering of love, placing love of self second only to love for God, Protestant ethics in America has adopted a similar stance only recently, replacing a strong sacrificial ethic with one ...
Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste artigo é discutir os principais dilemas e dificuldades nas decisões de final de vida de crianças com doença irreversível em fase terminal, assim como, propor uma sequência racional para a instituição de cuidados paliativos nesse grupo pediátrico. Foi realizada busca na base de dados Medline e Lilacs dos artigos publicados nos últimos anos tendo como palavras chaves "final de vida", "cuidados paliativos", "morte" e "doença terminal". Foram selec (more) ionados os mais relevantes e aqueles envolvendo crianças, os quais foram analisados em conjunto com publicações prévias dos próprios autores sobre o assunto. O atual código de ética médica brasileiro (2010) é analisado em relação às práticas de final de vida e cuidados paliativos ofertados a pacientes com doença fase terminal e irreversível. A falta de conhecimento e treinamento aliado a receios legais são os principais motivos para que as decisões de final de vida em crianças com doença em fase terminal sejam centradas na opinião médica e com escassa participação da família. O atual código de ética médica dá pleno suporte para essas decisões desde que tomadas de forma consensual com participação da família. O diálogo franco com familiares em relação ao diagnóstico, prognóstico, terapêutica e cuidados paliativos devem ser estabelecidos gradualmente, para definir a melhor estratégia que atenda às necessidades da criança em fase final de vida. O tratamento centrado no bem estar da criança com pleno envolvimento da família é a base para o sucesso do tratamento paliativo em crianças em final de vida. Abstract in english This review discusses the main dilemmas and difficulties related to end-of-life decision's in children with terminal and irreversible diseases and propose a rational sequence for delivering palliative care to this patients' group. The Medline and Lilacs databases were searched using the terms 'end of life', 'palliative care', 'death' and 'terminal disease' for articles published in recent years. The most relevant articles and those enrolling pediatric patients were select (more) ed and compared to previous authors' studies in this field. The current Brazilian Medical Ethics Code (2010) was analyzed regarding end-oflife practices and palliative care for terminal patients. Lack of knowledge, insufficient specific training, and legal concerns are the main reasons why end-of-life decisions in terminal children are based on medical opinion with scarce family participation. The current Brazilian Medical Ethics Code (2010) fully supports end-of-life decisions made consensually with active family participation. Honest dialogue with the family regarding diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic and palliative care measures should be established gradually to identify the best strategy to meet the child's end-of-life needs. Treatment focused on the child's welfare combined with the family's participation is the basis for successful palliative care of children with terminal diseases.
This paper describes findings from an ethics education project funded by the Canadian Stem Cell Network (SCN). The project is part of a larger research initiative entitled ?The Stem Cell Research Environment: Drawing the Evidence and Experience Together??. The ethics education study began with a series of focus groups with SCN researchers and trainees as part of a ?needs assessment?? effort. The purpose of these discussions was to identify the main ethical issues associated with stem cell (SC) research from the perspective of the stem cell community. This paper will focus on five prominent themes that emerged from the focus group data including: (1) the source of stem cells; (2) the power of stem cells; (3) working within a charged research environment; (4) the regulatory context; and (5) ...
Abstract in spanish La futura Directiva Marco de Suelos europea tratará de minimizar el impacto de los efectos de la erosión del suelo sobre la adopción de prácticas de conservación del suelo en explotaciones agrícolas desde una triple dimensión: económica, agroambiental y ética. Por tanto, en este artículo se realiza una aproximación bajo la perspectiva de la Teoría de Juegos al dilema social al que se enfrentan los agricultores y la sociedad ante la conservación del recurso su (more) elo desde dos puntos de vista: el de la adopción de prácticas de conservación del suelo y el de la dimensión ética intergeneracional, dado que la teoría económica neoclásica trata de forma deficiente las cuestiones que están fuera del mercado, especialmente las relacionadas con aspectos éticos y medioambientales. Así, partiendo de este dilema social, caracterizado como una situación paradójica donde el comportamiento racional del individuo cuando intenta maximizar su beneficio provoca un comportamiento social irracional, se descubrirán otras paradojas relativas al principio de no-redistribuibilidad de costes (intransferibles) y beneficios (cautivos), las cuales se fundamentan en una concepción incompleta de la racionalidad del agente económico, en general, y del agricultor, en particular. Abstract in english The next European Soil Framework Law will try to minimize the soil erosion impact on soil conservation practices in European farms from three dimensions: economic, environmental and ethic. In this framework, this paper is an approximation to this problem since Game Theory scope, particularly, the social dilemma of farmers and society related to soil conservation from two points of view: adoption of soil conservation practices and intergenerational equity, because of neocl (more) assical theory is deficient for analyze topics out of market, specifically, ethics and environmental items. This social dilemma is a paradoxical situation where individual rational behavior, when maximize profits, imply social irrational solution. This paper develops new paradoxes related to non-transferable costs, as well as captive profits. These are concepts of an incomplete rationality of economic agent, in general, and of farmer, in particular.
"Leading on Inclusion: Dilemmas, debates and new perspectives" critically examines the current theory and legislative context of special educational needs and disability, and explores the enduring issues and opportunities that will affect future practice in all schools. The central theme throughout the book asks the inevitable question "What happens next?" and the expert team of contributors, drawn from a pool of teachers, academics and researchers, consider wide-ranging issues such as: (1) the voice of young people; (2) whole school development and planning for inclusion; (3) educational change within the context of inclusion; (4) the pros and cons of multi-professional working; (5) inclusive and ethical research; (6) international perspectives on inclusion, SEN and disability; and (7) the development of teacher education and the notion of "joined up" thinking. This forward-thinking and rigorously researched book will be essential reading for students, teachers undertaking school-based training, SENCOs, inclusion managers, higher education tutors and anyone with a professional interest in the future for inclusive education. Contents of this book include: (1) Introduction; (2) How Did We Get Here? A Brief History of Inclusion and Special Educational Needs (Lynne Graham-Matheson); (3) Perspectives of Special Educational Needs and Inclusive Practice: Whose Views Count? (Gill Richards); (4) Theorising Educational Change within the Context of Inclusion (Anastasia Liasidou And Cathy Svensson); (5) Whole School Development, Inclusion and Special Education Needs: Acknowledging Wider Debates (David Thompson); (6) The Importance of a Whole School Culture of Inclusion (Alison Ekins); (7) Learning and Teaching in Inclusive Classrooms (Bridget Middlemas); (8) Multi-Professional Working: The Way Forward? (Sue Soan); (9) Dilemmas of Enablement: Inclusive and Special Technologies (Mike Blamires); (10) Inclusive and Ethical Research (Fiona Hallett and Graham Hallett); (11) Developing Inclusive Schools: An International Case Study (Peter Grimes); and (12) Leading on Inclusion: The Sum of the Parts Is Not the Whole Story... (John Cornwall). [Foreword by Brahm Norwich.
This paper discusses the feasibility and dilemmas in stimulating high-tech clusters in peripheral regions. In recent years innovation and cluster policy to a large extend has been focused upon stimulating collective learning processes and building social capital. This has in turn accentuated a need to focus on the carriers of the cluster policy. Despite this importance of the role of policy actors, research in cluster development and even cluster policy has generally not emphasized a more precise specification of this role. This paper contributes to this debate by substantiating the concept of “clusterpreneurs” defined as important actors in cluster formation. We illustrate the role of clusterpreneurs by the example of a biomedical technology cluster initiative in North Jutland, Denmark and point to the presence of different types of dilemmas connected with cluster policy. We show how the presence of clusterpreneurs can make this initiative more legitimised and embedded in the regional context, although dilemmas and challenges in the policy making still prevail. We furthermore find the mental and social proximity and agreements on common objectives among clusterpreneurs facilitated the support of the evolution of the cluster.
This paper discusses the feasibility and dilemmas in stimulating high-tech clusters in peripheral regions. In recent years innovation and cluster policy to a large extend has been focused upon stimulating collective learning processes and building social capital. This has in turn accentuated a need to focus on the carriers of the cluster policy. Despite this importance of the role of policy actors, research in cluster development and even cluster policy has generally not emphasized a more precise specification of this role. This paper contributes to this debate by substantiating the concept of “clusterpreneurs” defined as important actors in cluster formation. We illustrate the role of clusterpreneurs by the example of a biomedical technology cluster initiative in North Jutland, Denmark and point to the presence of different types of dilemmas connected with cluster policy. We show how the presence of clusterpreneurs can make this initiative more legitimised and embedded in the regional context, although dilemmas and challenges in the policy making still prevail. We furthermore find the mental and social proximity and agreements on common objectives among clusterpreneurs facilitated the support of the evolution of the cluster.
This article sets out the Dutch approach to the multicultural question. It focuses on how national policies, schools, teachers and teacher educators are addressing and making sense of questions of cultural and religious diversity. The article shows how the Netherlands has partly accommodated itself to greater cultural diversity through compulsory reforms like intercultural education and citizenship education and through its long-established structure of public funding for pedagogically and religiously diverse schools. It also shows the double standards applied to Christian and Islamic schools in the media and public debate. Drawing on interview data with teachers and case study material on teacher educators, the article describes their daily dilemmas with regard to diversity and commonality in contemporary classrooms and concludes that these teachers do not have the professional expertise needed to respond effectively to such dilemmas.
Rapid diagnosis and treatment of acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis reduces mortality and neurological sequelae, but can be delayed by atypical presentation, assessment of lumbar puncture safety, and poor sensitivity of standard diagnostic microbiology. Thus, diagnostic dilemmas are common in patients with suspected acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis. History and physical examination alone are sometimes not sufficient to confirm or exclude the diagnosis. Lumbar puncture is an essential investigation, but can be delayed by brain imaging. Results of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination should be interpreted carefully, because CSF abnormalities vary according to the cause, patient's age and immune status, and previous treatment. Diagnostic prediction models that use a combination of clinical findings, with or without test results, can help to distinguish acute bacterial meningitis from other causes, but these models are not infallible. We review the dilemmas in the diagnosis of acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis, and focus on the roles of clinical assessment and CSF examination. PMID:23141617
In many social dilemmas, individuals tend to generate a situation with low payoffs instead of a system optimum ("tragedy of the commons"). Is the routing of traffic a similar problem? In order to address this question, we present experimental results on humans playing a route choice game in a computer laboratory, which allow one to study decision behavior in repeated games beyond the Prisoner's Dilemma. We will focus on whether individuals manage to find a cooperative and fair solution compatible with the system-optimal road usage. We find that individuals tend towards a user equilibrium with equal travel times in the beginning. However, after many iterations, they often establish a coherent oscillatory behavior, as taking turns performs better than applying pure or mixed strategies. The resulting behavior is fair and compatible with system-optimal road usage. In spite of the complex dynamics leading to coordinated oscillations, we have identified mathematical relationships quantifying the observed transition...
In this article, we discuss a dilemma consisting of the market-oriented perspective of users of medical technology versus the long-term technology foresight perspective. The context of medical technology is interesting, because we have to cope with complex future-oriented multi-level and multi-actor strategic decision making. In order to deal with this dilemma we suggest combining the results of a (group) expert opinion forecasting approach with a more market-oriented scenario-approach. More specifically, we use the results of the Delphi-technique as the main input for the development of various capacity (Market-based) scenarios. We exemplify this approach by a real life example directed at the future of imaging techniques for cancer care in The Netherlands and focus on a set of scenarios ...
Most professionals have the arduous task of managing their own dual loyalty: in one contextual relationship, they are members of a profession while simultaneously they are employed as members of a locally established organisation. This sense of a dual loyalty has to be taken into account when professional bureaucracies develop ethics programmes. This article focuses on universities. Accounting for the dual loyalty of academic professionals, it is the objective of the study to contribute to the most appropriate ethics programmes in such an academic context. Based on a review of the literature, we identify which ethical issues commonly emerge in educational and research activities. Then we offer a conceptual analysis of the conditions required for each different strategy of ethics management. We argue that none of the four theoretically derived strategies is applicable solely on its own. For universities it is most promising to design ethics programmes based on the guiding values of the academic community, including integrity measures for universities and corrective measures for students. The argument developed in this article is assumed to be widely applicable in assessing the appropriateness of ethics management strategies in other professional settings. (Contains 1 figure and 3 tables.)
Building on other models of longitudinal integrated clerkships (LIC), the University of Alberta developed its Integrated Community Clerkship with guiding principles of continuity of care, preceptor and learning environment. Professionalism is an important theme in medical education. Caring is important in professional identity formation and an ethic of caring is a moral framework for caring. This study explored the development of an ethic of caring in an LIC using empathy, compassion and taking responsibility as descriptors of caring. Through a hermeneutic phenomenological study, the authors focused on students' accounts of being with patients. Following an iterative process of successive analyses and explorations of the relevant literature, sensitizing concepts related to physician identity, and an ethic of caring were used to make sense of these accounts following the principles of constructivist grounded theory methodology. Continuity afforded by the LIC results in a safe environment in which students can meaningfully engage with patients and take responsibility for their care under the supervision of a physician teacher. Together these attributes foster an emerging physician identity born at the site of patient-student interaction and grounded in an ethic of caring. A medical student's evolving professional identity in the clerkship includes the emergence of an ethic of caring. Student accounts of being with patients demonstrate that the LIC at the University of Alberta affords opportunities for students be receptive to and responsible for their patients. This ethic of caring is part of an emerging physician identity for the study participants.
The purpose of this book is to provide a basic resource that defines the ethical issues in higher education and to offer a starting point for means of resolution or policy development in regard to them. Part 1 establishes an interpretive framework for the book in the following papers: "Institutional Culture and Ethics" (David Smith and Charles Reynolds); "Academic Principles of Responsibility" (Charles Reynolds and David Smith); "Through Thick and Thin: Two Ways of Talking about the Academy and Moral Responsibility" (James Laney). Part 2, focusing on activities and functions common to most institutions, contains "Academic Planning: Values and Decision Making" (Richard Morrill); "Admission Recruiting and Selection: Some Ethical Concerns" (Alice Cox); "Ethical Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics" (Lonnie Kliever); "Institutional Advancement: Survival with Integrity" (Harlan Stelmach and Mark Holman); "Ethical Issues in Faculty Evaluation" (George LaNoue). In part 3, a number of current and pressing issues are examined in the following papers: "Affirmative Action: Solution or Problem?" (Donna Shavlik); "Cheating and Plagiarism" (Richard Fass); "Legitimate Limits on Free Expression" (Deni Elliott); "Racism on Campus" (Mark Chesler and James Crowfoot); "The Challenge of Diversity" (J. Herman Blake and others); "The Guardians of Heloise? Sexual Harassment in Higher Education" (Mary Jo Small); "Student Social Concerns" (Margaret Barr); "Values and Ethics in the Graduate Education of Scientists" (Jules LaPidus and Barbara Mishkin); "Regulating Proprietary and Classified Research: Some Observations on Current University Policies" (Nicholas Steneck); "When Responsibilities Conflict: Stock Ownership and South Africa" (Raymond Bacchetti); "Ethics and Educational Assessment" (Marjorie Peace Lenn and D. Jeffrey Lenn); "Ethical Challenges of the College and University Presidency" (Daniel Perlman). References accompany each paper. (JDD)
How can we prepare information systems students to face the ethical challenges of a globalized world? This paper describes a three-step approach for addressing these challenges. First, we have designed undergraduate and graduate information ethics courses that expand the range of learning of ethical theories beyond the traditional Western canon to include a wide spectrum of non-Western and feminist theories. Second, we have designed interactive cases for this course that adopt a collaborative learning approach where students work together in small groups by playing different roles that make interdependent decisions. Third, we deliver these cases via an educational simulation, making the approach scalable and transferable to other institutions across the country and around the world. The data for this study includes textual answers from end-of-semester questionnaires completed by 101 undergraduate and graduate students during four information ethics courses that included use of the simulation. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis, focusing on the multicultural and global dimensions of student learning. Five themes emerged from data collected in the four courses: Learning about a Diverse Range of Ethical Theories; Learning about how Ethical Theories are Related to Culture and Values; Relating International and Multicultural Dimensions to Understanding Oneself; Relating International and Multicultural Dimensions to Understanding Others; and Understanding the Role of Ethics and Culture in Information Systems Design and Use. Based on these results, the three-step approach developed in this study can be implemented across the country and around the world to ensure that students are prepared for the ethical challenges of a globalized world. (Contains 2 figures and 2 tables.)
This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering students by addressing real-life ethical problems found in the workplace. The selected LITEE case study, which involves a maintenance worker who experiences an accident during a routine procedure, helps transfer the theory behind ethics into practice, highlights the importance of team work, and prepares the students to evaluate and present an assigned position in the case to a panel of two attorneys. The assignment also helps narrow down the question of where to incorporate ethics into the overcrowded chemical engineering curriculum. Student feedback indicates that the unit operations laboratory course is not the best place to insert the case study. Implications for future research suggest for an engineering ethics course, which can allow for ethics to be taught in an in-depth and more effective manner. Finally, the case study helps educators realize that students should have experiences outside of their comfort zone by learning to communicate technical concepts in a comprehendible manner to a real audience and in a realistic atmosphere. The limitations of this study further strengthen the notion of the magnitude of the challenge it is for educators to teach ethics to engineering students since it may or may not be possible to change a person's ethical values. (Contains 2 figures and 2 tables.)
Catholic theology's traditional understanding of the spiritual nature of the human person begins with the idea of a rational soul and human mind that is made manifest in free will-the spiritual experience of the act of consciousness and cause of all human arts. The rationale for this religion-based idea of personhood is key to understanding ethical dilemmas posed by modern research that applies a more empirical methodology in its interpretations about the cause of human consciousness. Applications of these beliefs about the body/soul composite to the theory of evolution and to discoveries in neuroscience, paleoanthropology, as well as to recent animal intelligence studies, can be interpreted from this religious and philosophical perspective, which argues for the human soul as the unifying cause of the person's unique abilities. Free will and consciousness are at the nexus of the mutual influence of body and soul upon one another in the traditional Catholic view, that argues for a spiritual dimension to personality that is on a par with the physical metabolic processes at play. Therapies that affect consciousness are ethically problematic, because of their implications for free will and human dignity. Studies of resilience, as an example, argue for the greater, albeit limited, role of the soul's conscious choices in healing as opposed to metabolic or physical changes to the brain alone. PMID:22895637
This is a study of the moral and ethical dimensions of political realism in post-World War II America, especially in relation to realist thought on nuclear weapons issues. Emphasis is placed on evolving notions of power and responsibility as they form the basis for a realist philosophy of power in the nuclear age. It is argued that the realists developed a concept of responsible power which was a hybrid of traditional American ideals and European Realpolitik. Included are chapters on the personal and intellectual background of five noteworthy realists, the realist position on some basic dilemmas in political ethics, the problem of usable and unusable force, the realists' view on deterrence and arms control, the question of democracy versus guardianship, and the realists as cultural critics. This study highlights the coherence of realist thought while pointing out the paradoxes upon which it is based. It situates realism in its historical context and reveals realism's relationship to explicit political and cultural values. It concludes that at their core, the realists were moralists; and realism was the entity through which they reconciled morality and power.
Using four case studies, the paper explores whether the philosophical reflections on the meaning of life by older adults constitute a developmental stage as defined by Piaget. Prefacing his analysis with discussions of the Erikson model of ego stages and the Fowler "Faith Interview" methods, Kohlberg hypothesizes hierarchical levels that occur in adulthood. Next, the author draws upon 1979 case studies of faith systems in 40 older adults which determined their feelings about the future; meaning of life; ethical standards; communal identification; intimacy and sexuality; transcendental beauty, evil, and suffering; and death and dying. In his analysis of four of the case studies, Kohlberg theorizes that after attainment of Stage 5 post-conventional morality, two paths of further development are possible. One leads to Stage 6 morality of rational justice; the other to an exemplary ethic of agape (putting the other before the self). This stage, however, cannot be defined by the hypothetical moral dilemmas used to measure preceding stages. The author concludes that the stages do not illustrate strict Piagetian stage-sequential development and that development of advanced stages of faith may depend more upon life crises than on experiences of social and moral conflict. (KC)
Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se discuten los dilemas éticos, médicos y legales que surgen como consecuencia de la decisión del paciente de no aceptar transfusiones de sangre por motivos religiosos o personales. En las situaciones límites, es decir cuando la frontera entre la vida y la muerte es estrecha, la transfusión puede significar la diferencia entre sobrevivir o morir. Se reflexiona acerca de la implicación ética, legal y jurisprudencial en Venezuela, en pacientes quienes (more) por razones personales o religiosas no aceptan las transfusiones sanguíneas, en situaciones cuando la posibilidad de muerte es elevada si el paciente no es transfundido. Abstract in english This paper discusses the ethical, medical and legal dilemmas that arise when a patient decides not to accept blood transfusions for religious and personal reasons. In limit situations, that is, when there is a narrow border between life and death, a transfusion can mean the difference between surviving and dying. The study reflects on the ethical, legal and jurisprudential implications in Venezuela for patients who, for personal or religious reasons, do not accept blood transfusions in situations when the possibility of death is high if the patient is not transfused.
FUNDAMENTOS Y PRINCIPIOS DE BIOÉTICA CLÍNICA, INSTITUCIONAL Y SOCIAL/ FOUNDATIONS AND PRINCIPLES OF CLINICAL, INSTITUTIONAL AND SOCIAL BIOETHICS/ FUNDAMENTOS E PRINCÍPIOS DA BIOÉTICA CLÍNICA, INSTITUCIONAL E SOCIAL
Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo procura fundamentar a necessidade de ampliar o campo da bioética na América Latina a partir da ética clínica para uma bioética social, que aborde os dilemas éticos fundamentais de saúde pública, políticas e reformas dos sistemas de saúde e legislação. A proposta é de um lado, incorporar o debate acadêmico na bioética estes aspectos de sua dimensão institucional e social, e de outro, desenvolver o modelo da bioética dos princípios, funda (more) mentando a partir do personalismo e da ética dialógica dos preceptos complementares que possam ser utilizados nas resoluções de casos e tomada de decisões. Abstract in spanish Se intenta fundamentar la necesidad de ampliar el campo de la bioética en Latinoamérica desde la ética clínica a una bioética social, para abordar los dilemas éticos institucionales, de salud pública, políticas y reformas de los sistemas de salud y legislación. La propuesta es, por una parte, incorporar al debate académico en bioética estos aspectos de su dimensión institucional y social; por otra, desarrollar el sistema de la bioética de principios, fundamen (more) tando desde el personalismo y la ética dialógica los preceptos complementarios que puedan ser utilizados en las resoluciones de casos y toma de decisiones. Abstract in english This article attempts to base the necessity of widening the field of bioethics in Latin America from clinical ethics to a social bioethics, in order to deal with ethical dilemmas in institutions, public health, healthcare policies and reforms, and legislation. The proposal is, on one hand, to incorporate those aspects of its institutional and social dimensions in the academic debate in bioethics. On the other hand, to develop a system of the bioethics of principles, start (more) ing from personalism and dialogical ethics of the complementary precepts that may be utilized in the resolution of cases and in the decision-making process.
The Global Effect of the Glaxo Case : The Increase of Transfer Pricing Conflicts between the OECD and the US Den globala effekten av Glaxo-fallet : Internprissättningskonflikterna ökar mellan OECD och USA
This master’s thesis compares the OECD transfer pricing recommendations with the transfer pricing rules of the US. The main focus is the ethical pharmaceutical industry and intangible property, in particular marketing intangibles. The Glaxo case is used to illustrate how the US takes advantage of ar...
Recently appointed as a Fellow of the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics at Harvard University, Celia Moore is an Assistant Professor of Organisational Behaviour at London Business School. Her research focuses on the unexpected causes and consequences of corruption and unethical behaviour among individuals, groups and organisations.
In this paper, I analyse talk about ethical and environmental food consumption recorded from four interviews and four focus groups, the majority in Edinburgh. This empirical study was conducted in the light of the increased emphasis by government and NGOs on individual responsibility for tackling g...
This report contains Part 2 of a two-part report to reflect research and progress in the US Department of Energy Human Genome Program from 1994 through 1996, with specified updates made just before publication. Part 2 consists of 1996 research abstracts. Attention is focused on the following: sequencing; mapping; informatics; ethical, legal, and social issues; infrastructure; and small business innovation research.
The complications associated with acquiring and storing whole blood for transfusions have launched substantial efforts to develop a blood substitute. The history of these efforts involves a complicated mixture of science, ethics, and business. This review focuses on clinical trials of the three hemo...
In the discussion about environmental problems, ethical aspects are gaining weight. The evolution of mankind has so far been playing a minor role in this respect. The discussions in the book focus on the fact that man in his racial history has developed certain behavioural dispositions, and on the origin of patterns to interpret life. Insight into the racial history embodied in man contributes to sober understanding of the way he deals with nature; at the same time, it opens up new questions and answers to environmental ethics. The theoretical discussion makes use of examples from every-day life. (orig./HSCH).
Current technology provides counseling center clinicians regular and immediate access to the students they work with via social networking. Focusing on Facebook in particular, this article discusses the opportunities and challenges this access creates and specifically explores how utilization of ethical, clinical, and cultural lenses might affect decisions about Facebook use, with particular emphasis on consideration of appropriate ethical principles and standards. The authors encourage counseling center staff members and trainees to consult with one another regarding use of Facebook and offer specific scenarios for engaging in discussions about this topic. The article concludes with guidelines for making decisions related to social networking.
Abstract in english Two interrelated universal practices, humanitarian medicine and immunization, pose certain ethical problems. To shed light on the matter, we present some historical reference points indispensable to an understanding of contemporary vaccination programs, focusing especially on certain anthropological issues posed by this practice as far as representations of the body and of health within populations. Two examples of humanitarian vaccination practices, one used among an aut (more) ochthonous population and the other among young people on the street, serve to illustrate some thoughts on management of the body and on the resistance displayed by these groups. We then propose paths to follow in re-examining the ethics of vaccination.
As the demographic transformation of the U.S. population continues, the challenges of multicultural and diversity-based considerations remain a central focus, as does the need to incorporate cultural competencies into the practice of rehabilitation. The Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's 2010 "Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors" offers guidance for the practice of professional conduct and ethical decision making when one is working with individuals from culturally diverse groups and backgrounds. The revised code sets the expectation that the culturally competent rehabilitation counselor will develop interventions and services that are congruent with the client's values and cultural context. (Contains 1 table.)
Ambient Intelligence provides the potential for vast and varied applications, bringing with it both promise and peril. The development of Ambient Intelligence applications poses a number of ethical and legal concerns. Mobile devices are increasingly evolving into tools to orientate in and interact with the environment, thus introducing a user-centric approach to Ambient Intelligence. The MINAmI (Micro-Nano integrated platform for transverse Ambient Intelligence applications) FP6 research project aims at creating core technologies for mobile device based Ambient Intelligence services. In this paper we assess five scenarios that demonstrate forthcoming MINAmI-based applications focusing on healthcare, assistive technology, homecare, and everyday life in general. A legal and ethical analysis ...
Abstract Psychologists working in Russia's cities have found it both desirable and profitable to offer -psychological education- to the children of the elite. I examine two characterizations of this work-as a form of neoliberal subjectivation and as a post-Soviet project focused on progressive sociopolitical reform. Exploring the tensions between them illuminates the historical specificity of self-work in Russia, its relation to commerce and biopolitics, and its political ambiguity. I conclude that studies of governmentality that attend to both subjectivation as an ethical practice and social history can effectively render capitalist complicity and ordinary ethics in the same frame.
This conceptual paper revisits the concept of equality as a base of distributive justice and contends that it is underspecified, both theoretically and in terms of its ethical and pragmatic application to human resource management (HRM) within organizations. Prior organizational literature focuses primarily upon distributive equality of remunerative outcomes within small groups and implicitly employs an equity-based conception of inputs to define equality. In contrast, through exposition of the philosophical roots of equality principles, we reconceptualize inputs as de facto equal and consider the systemic application of distributive equality in the form of status leveling practices. Ethical ramifications of distributive equality so viewed are explored. We conclude by arguing that, to impl...
Building on other models of longitudinal integrated clerkships (LIC), the University of Alberta developed its Integrated Community Clerkship with guiding principles of continuity of care, preceptor and learning environment. Professionalism is an important theme in medical education. Caring is important in professional identity formation and an ethic of caring is a moral framework for caring. This study explored the development of an ethic of caring in an LIC using empathy, compassion and taking responsibility as descriptors of caring. Through a hermeneutic phenomenological study, the authors focused on students? accounts of being with patients. Following an iterative process of successive analyses and explorations of the relevant literature, sensitizing concepts related to physician identi...
Some of the first images rapidly circulated globally in news media of the London Bombings on 7 July 2005 were taken by non-journalists using mobile camera phones. This paper explores some of the ethical issues raised by mobile phone witnessing in the 'war on terror'. The article uses a performative approach to witnessing in which mobile testimony is seen in terms of performances and speech acts between different parties, including mute witnesses, the survivor witness and the witness(es) to the survivor (s). The approach enables us to see the significance of global mobilities and mobilizations in relation to ethics and mobile witnessing, rather than focusing only the ethics associated with the discrete mobile witness image itself. The article examines some of the global virtual traces and d...
Weather, climate, and flood predictions are incorporated into human decisions in a wide variety of situations, including decisions related to hazardous hydrometeorological events. This article examines ethical aspects of such predictions and decisions, focusing on the case of the 1997 Red River flood in Grand Forks, North Dakota and East Grand Forks, Minnesota (US). The analysis employs a formal ethical framework and analytical method derived from medical and business ethics. The results of the analysis highlight issues related to forecast generation, communication of forecast meaning and uncertainty, responsibility for the use of forecasts in decision making, and trade-offs between the desire for forecast certainty and the risk of missed events. Implications of the analysis for the broade...
Ambient Intelligence provides the potential for vast and varied applications, bringing with it both promise and peril. The development of Ambient Intelligence applications poses a number of ethical and legal concerns. Mobile devices are increasingly evolving into tools to orientate in and interact with the environment, thus introducing a user-centric approach to Ambient Intelligence. The MINAmI (Micro-Nano integrated platform for transverse Ambient Intelligence applications) FP6 research project aims at creating core technologies for mobile device based Ambient Intelligence services. In this paper we assess five scenarios that demonstrate forthcoming MINAmI-based applications focusing on healthcare, assistive technology, homecare, and everyday life in general. A legal and ethical analysis of the scenarios is conducted, which reveals various conflicting interests. The paper concludes with some thoughts on drafting ethical guidelines for Ambient Intelligence applications. PMID:19597967
As scientists and practitioners, behavior analysts must make frequent decisions that affect many lives. Scientific principles have been our guide as we work to promote effective action across a broad spectrum of cultural practices. Yet scientific principles alone may not be sufficient to guide our decision making in cases with potentially conflicting outcomes. In such cases, values function as guides to work through ethical conflicts. We will examine two ethical systems, radical behaviorism and functional contextualism, from which to consider the role of values in behavior analysis, and discuss potential concerns. Finally, we propose philosophical pragmatism, focusing on John Dewey's notions of community and dialogue, as a tradition that can help behavior analysts to integrate talk about values and scientific practices in ethical decision making. PMID:22478484
As scientists and practitioners, behavior analysts must make frequent decisions that affect many lives. Scientific principles have been our guide as we work to promote effective action across a broad spectrum of cultural practices. Yet scientific principles alone may not be sufficient to guide our decision making in cases with potentially conflicting outcomes. In such cases, values function as guides to work through ethical conflicts. We will examine two ethical systems, radical behaviorism and functional contextualism, from which to consider the role of values in behavior analysis, and discuss potential concerns. Finally, we propose philosophical pragmatism, focusing on John Dewey's notions of community and dialogue, as a tradition that can help behavior analysts to integrate talk about values and scientific practices in ethical decision making.
Introduction: More than any other allograft, the allotransplantation of the face has a symbolic character, which raises a large number of questions. The objective of this article is to make an analysis through a survey carried out among French surgeons. Methods: A file of 909 e-mail addresses of surgeons was created so as to send out a questionnaire regarding 10 ethical issues. Results: Beyond the technical prowess, the surgeons ethical reflection initially focused on the notion of consent to donation and care. They attached equal importance to all ethical questions. They spontaneously raised the issue of over-mediatization of these first transplants and the place of the transplant surgeons and their patients in the medical information. Conclusion: Over two thirds of the surgeons attached ...
Following a discussion of some historical roots of conscience, we offer a systematized version of reflective equilibrium. Aiming at a comprehensive methodology for bioethical deliberation, we develop an expanded variant of reflective equilibrium, which we call 'triangular reflective equilibrium' and which incorporates insights from hermeneutics, critical theory and narrative ethics. We focus on a few distinctions, mainly between methods of justification in ethics and the social practice of bioethical deliberation, between coherence in ethical reasoning, personal integrity and consensus formation, and between political and moral deliberation. The ideal of deliberation is explicated as a sharing of conscience within a special commitment to sincerity and openness to persuasion. Personal growth in wisdom is an indirect by-product of the continuous practice of moral deliberation. This is explicated in the light of Sternberg's balance theory of wisdom and in the context of medicine as a profession embodying altruistic responsibilities of care in democratic and pluralistic societies. PMID:20132193
This article focuses on tracing and extending Michel Foucault?s contributions to the philosophy of technology. At first sight his work on power seems the most relevant. In his later work on subjectivation and ethics technology is absent. However, notably by recombining Foucault?s work on power with his work on subjectivation, does his work contribute to solving pertinent problems in current approaches to the ethics of technology. First, Foucault?s position is compared to critical theory and Heidegger, and associated with the approach of ?technical mediation? (Latour, Ihde, Verbeek). Next, a detailed study of Discipline and Punish, results in the identification of two distinct ?figures of technical mediation?. Finally, Foucault?s later work on ethics and subjectivation is employed to elabor...
Commercial food health branding is a challenging branch of marketing because it might, at the same time, promote healthy living and be commercially viable. However, the power to influence individuals’ health behavior and overall health status makes it crucial for marketing professionals to take into account the ethical dimensions of health branding: this article presents a conceptual analysis of potential ethical problems in health branding. The analysis focuses on ethical concerns related to the application of three health brand elements (functional claims, process claims, and health symbols) as well as a number of general concerns that apply to health branding as such. Being a pioneering analysis, this article advances the academic understanding of health branding and provides practitioners with knowledge of important concerns to take into account when marketing health brands.
Worldwide, there is a growing expectation that teachers will act in a "professional" manner. Professionalism, in this regard, includes identification of a unique body of occupational knowledge, adherence to desirable standards of behaviour, processes to hold members to account and commitment to what the profession regards as morally right or good. In other words, as ethical conduct. Teaching ethically involves making reasoned decisions about what to do in order to achieve the most good for learners. Often, this involves a complex interplay between current context, past experience and personal beliefs and values. However, teacher education and accountability frameworks typically give priority to the "practical rationality" of planning, delivery and assessment of the official curriculum, not the "value rationality" involved in exploring the ethics of teaching in difficult practical circumstances. An aspirational code of ethics for teachers was recently developed by the New Zealand Teachers Council. The authors were part of a group commissioned to design and deliver a single professional development workshop for teachers to raise awareness about the code. This article focuses on the challenges of developing a workshop that both informs and educates teachers about ethics.
Although animal experiments play an important role in biomedical research, their use is ethically challenging. Primarily in Europe, North America and Australasia ethics committees are set up to control the animal use in science. Project approval is usually decided on a case-by-case basis with focus on ensuring that the animals are caused a minimum of harm relative to the possibility of achieving beneficial results. Even though rules in this area are reasonably uniform there seems to be significant room for differences, individual and culturally based, between ethics committees concerning how the rules are applied. Our aim was to conduct a review of empirical studies of the different kinds of animal ethics committees in order to clarify what is known about their operation and highlight information which is missing in their evaluation. Our main findings are that there is a significant variation in process and outcomes of decision-making at individual and group levels which cause inconsistency between decisions.Different approaches have been suggested to improve the reliability of ethical review but no evidence to support any of them. More empirical studies are needed.
The recent debate about justice and responsibility increasingly tries to accommodate a new type of agentive situation where local short-term actions have global long-term consequences, due to the action’s embedding in complex interaction networks. Currently the debate is shifting focus from the spatial to the temporal dimension of such wide-scope results of individual actions. This shift from ‘global ethics’ to ‘intergenerational ethics’ and, in particular, ‘climate ethics’ requires some new analytical concepts, however. In this paper we provide a definition of wide-scope responsibility geared to articulate our moral concerns about emergent effects in complex systems, such as climate change. Working from Iris Marion Young’s “social connection model of responsibility”, we present a notion of shared ecological responsibility with global and intergenerational scope. We show that our account is not affected by the so-called non-identity objection to intergenerational ethics. Since we work from an action-theoretic rather than normative perspective, our account is ‘ethically parametrized’ in the sense that it can be combined with different conceptions of structural and intergenerational justice. In conclusion we illustrate this point and show how the account may be used to support a concrete climate policy proposal: the “Greenhouse Development Rights Framework.”
The complexities of professional ethics are best understood and interpreted within their sociohistorical context. This paper focuses on the experience of 20 rural psychologists from across Canada, a context rife with demographic and practice characteristics that may instigate ethical issues. Employing hermeneutic phenomenology, these qualitative research results are indicative of professional struggles that impacted the participants' experience of professional ethics and raised key questions about policy and practise. Concerns regarding competition highlight potential professional vulnerability, beget the idea of fostering general psychological practice, and question the role of professional bodies in addressing rural shortages. Dependency on government funding models and decisions highlights the benefits and medical cost-offset effect of psychological services' role in funded medical care. The controversial prescriptive authority debate for psychologists raises myriad concerns that are particularly salient to rural practitioners. These include changes to training and practice, with risks of psychopharmacology gaining prominence over behavioural health interventions. National inconsistencies in level of registration add to the growing shortage of practitioners. Finally, the results illuminate the need for advocacy to move beyond the literature and into public policy to increase public awareness, decrease the stigma of mental illness, and develop rural Canadian psychology. Although limited to this study, these results allowed for a fuller and more robust understanding of rural practice in consideration of professional ethics, which may inform policy, science, or ethical clinical practice. PMID:23188406
INTRODUCTION: Prenatal counselling in case of fetal obstructive uropathies still represents a clinical dilemma, despite ultrasound detection of lower urinary tract obstruction has greatly advanced during recent years as well as fetal intervention techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the relevant literature on the topic was performed, with a special focus on the role of antenatal ultrasound, in utero treatment and prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: A clinico-diagnostic flow chart was developed, with the specific aim of aiding health care givers in the clinical management and the parental decision-making process. PMID:23138754
An American geographer and specialist on energy and environmental policies in developing countries assesses the challenge to sustainable development posed by Asia's rapid economic growth and the concurrent need to reduce the environmental impacts of energy production and use. A particular focus is on China and India, as rapidly growing energy consumers and greenhouse gas emitters, and on Russia as a potentially important supplier of natural gas and liquid alternatives to coal use. The author suggests some elements of a strategy to resolve the dilemma of reducing global environmental impacts without penalizing Asia's economic development, although a significant energy transition over the next several decades appears quite difficult.
The authors assume that it is necessary to find a set of solutions to the crucial issues concerning the relation between the global environment and the sustainable human society. Based on the assumption, the authors have been developing man-environment-society system models to simulate the characteristic phenomena related to the issue. This paper describes one of the models focusing on a social dilemma that actions rationally performed to make individual's indoor thermal environment better bring about worse environment against the rational decision. Some results of the case study simulations with the purpose to find some crews to deal with the issues are also shown.
Background Migration is increasing worldwide. In previous research into people with cancer from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, interpreter accuracy, professionalism and continuity have emerged as key concerns for patients. Little is known about interpreters? perceptions of their role and the challenges they face. This study aimed to obtain their perspective. Methods Thirty interpreters (Greek n?=?7, Chinese n?=?11, and Arabic n?=?12) participated in four focus groups which were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed for themes using N-Vivo software. Results Skills as an interpreter were broadly perceived as conveying information accurately, being confidential and impartial. Three broad dilemmas faced by interpreters emerged: accuracy versus understanding; translating onl...
This paper examines decline in cocoa production at three historical moments: Trinidad in the early 18th century, Brazil in the first half of the 20th century, and Ghana in the recent transition from colonialism to independence. In each, decline followed promising expansion. Conventional explanations have been based on biological, agronomic, and market factors. Following a commodity systems approach, we use the extant literature to focus in addition on labor control dilemmas and the consequences of state action and inaction. Throughout, use of the cocoa commodity system as the unit of analysis exposes important commonalities related to power, constraint, and motivation.
Important factors that determine the emergence of new start-ups are the existence of the individuals??? entrepreneurial motivation, knowledge and skills. Entrepreneurship education (EE) seems to play an important role in developing these attributes. However, a fundamental question still remains: is entrepreneurship really teachable? The article, conceptual in nature, offers a survey about the scientific discussion on the teachability of entrepreneurship and comes out with a phenomenon, which we call ???Teachability Dilemma???. The insights lead us to claim that future EE should desist from simply teaching knowledge on business creation and rather focus on experiencing entrepreneurship.
Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo discute questões acerca das intersecções entre a psicologia e a bioética. Muitos dos dilemas envolvendo a psicologia já são enfrentados por profissionais que atuam na saúde. Porém há aspectos teóricos importantes a serem considerados no estudo da psicologia hoje, como os dilemas morais comuns ao desenvolvimento humano em meio aos avanços tecnológicos tais como reprodução assistida, seleção de sexo, terminalidade, mas não somente estes. C (more) onsideraremos também como pertencentes ao campo da ética e da bioética as tarefas evolutivas do ser humano como a opção ou não pela maternidade/paternidade e as condições psíquicas e ambientais para esta decisão, entre outras. Dessa forma, propomos o diálogo entre bioética e psicologia no sentido de aproximar dois conhecimentos no intuito de repensar posturas e visões de mundo do profissional que atua diretamente com o humano. Abstract in english This article presents a discussion about questions surrounding the intersections between psychology and bioethics. Many dilemmas involving psychology are already being faced by professionals working with health. Although there are important theoretical aspects to be considered in the study of psychology today, such as the moral dilemmas common to human development in the middle of technological advances, like assisted reproduction, gender selection, terminality and others (more) , but not only those. We also consider as pertaining to the fields of ethics and bioethics the evolutionary tasks of human beings, such as the option for maternity/paternity, and the mental and environmental conditions to these decisions, among others. That said, we suggest the dialogue between bioethics and psychology hoping to approach two areas of knowledge by aiming to reconsider the attitudes and the world views of professionals working directly with the humane.
Purpose - Quality improvement (QI) processes in family medicine are becoming increasingly complex. Their influence on the organisation of the sector and on the daily work processes is profound and increasing. The literature indicates that many ethical issues are arising from QI work. Therefore this paper aims to identify the experiences of professionals involved in planning and performing QI programmes in European family medicine on the ethical implications involved in those processes. Design/methodology/approach - Four focus groups were carried out with 29 general practitioners (GPs) and administrators of general practice quality work in Europe. Two focus groups comprised EQuiP members and two focus groups comprised attendees to an invitational conference on QI in family medicine held by ...
Abstract in spanish La investigación genética ha tenido una enorme expansión en recientes décadas, con repercusiones terapéuticas aún inciertas. El análisis bioético tradicional de las complejas prácticas genéticas ha sido insuficiente por sostenerse en la ética de la investigación y en la bioética de corte principialista. Los problemas éticos más importantes de la genética son de orden colectivo y deben ser abordados por una reflexión ético-social cuyo enfoque es más ampl (more) io que la agenda interpersonal del principialismo. Temas como exploraciones genéticas, cuestiones patrimoniales, manipulación génica y asignación de recursos, deben todos ser sometidos a un pensamiento inspirado en los requerimientos de la ciudadanía, en el bien común y en la definición del rol del Estado en fiscalizar actividades genéticas y en proteger a la población. El objetivo del estudio es mostrar cómo el amplio campo de la ética y de la genética tiene una mayor relevancia en el campo social que en el clínico. El objetivo del trabajo es señalar que la bioética principialista ha enfatizado los problemas éticos individuales que nacen con la intervención genética, a costa de marginar sus importantes repercusiones sociales. Abstract in english Genetics research has shown enormous developments in recent decades, although as yet with only limited clinical application. Bioethical analysis has been unable to deal with the vast problems of genetics because emphasis has been put on the principlism applied to both clinical and research bioethics. Genetics nevertheless poses its most complex moral dilemmas at the public level, where a social brand of ethics ought to supersede the essentially interpersonal perspective o (more) f principlism. A more social understanding of ethics in genetics is required to unravel issues such as research and clinical explorations, ownership and patents, genetic manipulation, and allocation of resources. All these issues require reflection based on the requirements of citizenry, consideration of common assets, and definition of public policies in regulating genetic endeavors and protecting the society as a whole Bioethics has privileged the approach to insdividual ethical issues derived from genetic intervention, thereby neglecting the more salient aspects of genetics and social ethics.
Abstract in portuguese O desenvolvimento moral de formandos de um curso de odontologia foi analisado a partir de um modelo construtivista. Foi apresentado aos alunos um dilema de fundo moral a ser resolvido. Por meio de entrevistas, estabeleceu-se a qualificação dos alunos em um dos cinco níveis de desenvolvimento moral. Os resultados mostram que: a) 66% dos formandos estão nos dois primeiros estágios de desenvolvimento moral, onde não há capacidade de relativizar situações e dilemas m (more) orais, ou estes são resolvidos na lógica de interesse pessoal; b) o reconhecimento de que normas e valores morais podem ser relativizados e devem ser orientados para o bem comum foi atingido por menos de 10% dos entrevistados; c) os valores de lei prevaleceram aos de vida para a maioria; d) o conjunto de valores que orientou a escolha do dilema foi majoritariamente definido pela busca de recompensa e a preocupação com a própria reputação. Foram discutidas as potenciais conseqüências deste perfil de desenvolvimento moral sobre a odontologia, as relações éticas do cotidiano da prática profissional, e a incapacidade dos cursos em resolver este problema, considerado fundamental para uma reorientação do perfil de recursos humanos necessário ao País: o de um dentista com boa capacidade técnica e responsabilidade social. Abstract in english A debate is conducted on the moral development of graduates from an odontology course, based on a constructivist model. A problem was offered to the students, asking for the solution of a morally based dilemma. By means of interviews, it was possible to qualify the students in one of the five levels of moral development. Main results showed that: a) about 66% of graduates fit the first two stages of moral development. At this level, there is no capacity to make situations (more) and moral dilemmas relative, or solution is found within a logic of personal interest; b) just a little less than 10% of the subjects acknowledged that moral norms and values can be made relative, to be oriented towards attaining a common good; c) law values were preferred to those of life, for the majority of subjects; d) the ensemble of values by which the choice of dilemma was guided was in greater part defined by utilitarian and individualistic consequences, and by the search for rewards and the concern with one's reputation. Discussed next are the potential consequences this moral development profile has upon dentistry, the ethic relations of the quotidian upon professional practice, and the little capacity courses have to solve this problem, seen as fundamental to rearrange the profile of human resources necessary to the country: dentists with good technical capacity and social responsibility.
Abstract in portuguese Tentamos fundamentar a necessidade de ampliar o campo de visão da Bioética na América Latina, desde a ética clínica a uma bioética social, que aborde os dilemas éticos institucionais, da saúde pública, políticas e reformas dos sistemas de saúde, e legislação. Para isso, é necessário dar conteúdo aos princípios da bioética, e completar com a visão da ética do cuidado, do personalismo e o comunitarismo, a interpretação mais estrita do principialismo ba (more) seada na ética dialógica. A proposta é tripla. Por uma parte, incorporar ao debate acadêmico em Bioética estes aspectos de sua dimensão institucional, com a ética das organizações de saúde, e social. Por outra, desenvolver o sistema da Bioética de princípios, com princípios que se completem, que possam ser utilizados nas resoluções de casos e toma de decisões, de forma que incorporem también os aspetos pessoais, institucionais e sociais. Em terceiro lugar, utilizar os meios que já estão explícitos nas legislações de muitos dos países e que formam parte dos objetivos de promover a ética institucional e social, propostos para os Comitês Assistenciais de Ética, os Comitês de Ética de Pesquisa, e as Comissões Nacionais de Bioética. Abstract in spanish Se intenta fundamentar la necesidad de ampliar el campo de visión de la Bioética en Latinoamérica, desde la ética clínica a una bioética social, que aborde los dilemas éticos institucionales, de la salud pública, políticas y reformas de los sistemas de salud, y legislación. Para ello, es necesario dar contenido a los principios de la bioética, y complementar con la visión de la ética del cuidado, del personalismo y el comunitarismo, la interpretación más es (more) tricta del principialismo basada en la ética dialógica. La propuesta es triple. Por una parte, incorporar al debate académico en Bioética estos aspectos de su dimensión institucional, con la ética de las organizaciones de salud, y social. Por otra, desarrollar el sistema de la Bioética de principios, con preceptos complementarios que puedan ser utilizados en las resoluciones de casos y toma de decisiones, de forma que incorporen también los aspectos personales, institucionales y sociales. En tercer lugar, utilizar los medios que ya están explicitados en las legislaciones de muchos de los países y que forman parte de los objetivos de promover la ética institucional y social, propuestos para los Comités Asistenciales de Ética, los Comités de Ética de Investigación, y las Comisiones Nacionales de Bioética. Abstract in english An attempt is made to back up the need to extend the scope of Bioethics in Spain and Latin America, from clinical ethics to social bioethics, comprising the institutional ethical dilemmas, as well as those of public health, policies and reforms of health systems, and legislation. For this purpose, it is necessary to provide the principles of bioethics with content, and supplement it with the vision of the ethics of care, personalism and communitarism, the strictest interp (more) retation of principialism based upon dialogic ethics. The proposal is three-fold. First, incorporate these social dimension aspects in the academic debate of Bioethics. Second, develop the Bioethics system of principles, with supplementary principles that may be used in resolving cases and decision-making processes, so that they can also incorporate the personal, institutional and social aspects. Third, use the means clearly stated in the legal regulations of many countries, which are part of the goals of promoting institutional and social ethics, proposed for the Ethics Assistance Committees, Research Ethics Committees, and National Bioethics Commissions.
Alternrtivas de comprension y diálogo frente al dilema ético que ofrece Ia bioética. ¿Cómo enfrentar el uso de cultivos genéticamente modificados?/ ALTERNATIVES OF UNDERSTANDING AND DIALOGUE IN FRONT OF THE lETHICAL DILEMMA THAT OFFERS BIOETHICS, FACING THE USE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CULTURES/ ALTERNATIVAS DE COMPREENSÃO E DIÁLOGO OFERECIDAS PELA BIOÉTICA FRENTE AO DILEMA ÉTICO DERIVADO DA UTILIZAÇÃO DE CULTIVOS GENETICAMENTE MODIFICADOS
Abstract in portuguese No primeiro lugar se examinarão de forma sistemática e reflexiva as virtudes e benefícios possíveis dos cultivos geneticamente modificados, assim como alguns dos argumentos acadêmicos e científicos que os apóiam. No segundo lugar, será abordada uma segunda posição a partir de seus próprios argumentos e pesquisa, um pouco mais incisiva e informada contra o uso e a manipulação desta classe de cultivos geneticamente modificados. Por último, mesmo que a intenç? (more) ?o deste artigo está na análise de alternativas de compreensão e diálogo do dilema ético que surge de utilizar organismos geneticamente modificados para a bioética, também está na necessidade urgente de criar uma hermenêutica bioética fundada nos princípios essenciais da precaução, da justiça e não-maleficência. Estes devem ser padrões dialógicos de encontro e discussão com o respeito e a tolerância que exige esse dilema ético e biotecnológico. Abstract in spanish En un primer momento, se hará un acercamiento sistemático y reflexivo a las posibles virtudes y beneficios de los cultivos genéticamente modificados. Así también, en un segundo momento, se abordará una postura más inquieta y prevenida con respecto al uso y manipulación de esta clase de cultivos genéticamente modificados. Finalmente, la reflexión gira en torno al análisis de las alternativas de comprensión y diálogo frente al dilema ético que ofrece el uso de (more) cultivos genéticamente modificados para la Bioética, la reflexión también depende de la urgente necesidad de una hermenéutica bioética emplazada en los principios esenciales de precaución y justicia y no maleficencia como pautas dialógicas de encuentro y discusión solícitas del respeto y tolerancia que requiere dicho dilema ético y biotecnológico. Abstract in english At initially addressed a systematic and thoughtful approach facing possible virtues and benefits of crops genetically modified, together with some of the academic and scientific arguments employees for the benefit of the sustainability of many of their performances. As well also, and in a second time, will be addressed from its own arguments and research, what we have chosen to draw a second position somewhat more restless and prevented regarding the use of handling of th (more) is class of crops genetically modified. Finally as well as understood that this monograph written intentionally revolves around the analysis of the understanding and dialogue with the ethical dilemma that offers the use of alternatives genetically modified for Bioethics crops, it is also the urgent need a hermeneutic located bioethics it on the essential caution, justice and not harm as dialogic principles guidelines and discussion of respect and tolerance meeting and discussion requires that ethical dilemma and biotechnological.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Continued advances in human microbiome research and technologies raise a number of ethical, legal, and social challenges. These challenges are associated not only with the conduct of the research, but also with broader implications, such as the production and distribution of commercial products promising maintenance or restoration of good physical health and disease prevention. In this article, we document several ethical, legal, and social challenges associated with the commercialization of human microbiome research, focusing particularly on how this research is mobilized within economic markets for new public health uses. METHODS: We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews (2009--2010) with 63 scientists, researchers, and National Institutes of Health project leaders ("investigators") involved with human microbiome research. Interviews explored a range of ethical, legal, and social dimensions of human microbiome research, including investigators' perspectives on commercialization. Using thematic content analysis, we identified and analyzed emergent themes and patterns. RESULTS: Investigators discussed the commercialization of human microbiome research in terms of (1) commercialization, probiotics, and issues of safety, (2) public awareness of the benefits and risks of dietary supplements, and (3) regulation. CONCLUSION: The prevailing theme of ethical, legal, social concern focused on the need to find a balance between the marketplace, scientific research, and the public's health. The themes we identified are intended to serve as points for discussions about the relationship between scientific research and the manufacture and distribution of over-the-counter dietary supplements in the United States. PMID:23110633
Spivak's 'Can the Subaltern Speak?' emerged in and helped shape a specific moment in the development of literary theory in the US, and it continues to challenge Native American studies in significant ways. Spivak captures in Gramscian terms the dilemma that scholars and intellectuals from the colonized world face in positing their work as engaging in meaningful change of the conditions of colonization. Her reflexive approach becomes most meaningful for Native studies when the indigenous world is understood as featuring two forms of subalternity, one focused on economic depravation, the other more focused on the maintenance of the social and cultural forms of traditional cultural practitioners. The conclusion focuses on one place where intellectuals meet up with both these forms of subalter...
Abstract in spanish En el presente artículo se realiza una revisión crítica de los principales documentos de la ética de la investigación ?el Código de Nüremberg (1947), la Declaración de Helsinki (1964), el Informe Belmont-Principios éticos y guías para la protección de sujetos de investigación (1979), las Pautas éticas internacionales para la investigación biomédica en seres humanos (1982) y la Declaración Universal sobre Bioética y Derechos Humanos de UNESCO (2005)& (more) #9472; centrados en el resguardo y la protección de la autonomía de los sujetos. Asimismo, se analizarán algunas perspectivas críticas del campo de la filosofía y la ética que ponen en cuestión la hegemonía de esta concepción de la ética. Por último, se considerará, a partir del análisis del caso de los yanomami en Brasil, cómo la investigación social con comunidades indígenas desafía la presente visión autonomista y permite esbozar visiones comunitarias de la ética. Abstract in english A critical analysis of the main documents of ethics of research is carried out ?Nüremberg Code (1947), Helsinki Declaration (1964), Belmont Report Ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects in research (1979), International ethical guidelines for biomedical research involving human subject CIOMSOMS, (1982) and UNESCO Declaration on bioethics and human rights (2005)?. Those documents focus on the protection of individual autonomy. A (more) lso, some critical philosophy and ethics views that challenge the hegemony of this ethics conception are analyzed. Finally, through the Indigenous yanomami community from Brazil as a case analysis, it will be considered how social research with indigenous communities challenges the autonomous perspective and allows presenting a communitarian view on ethics.
Abstract in portuguese A análise clínica do comportamento enfoca a transformação (e não a representação), a interação (e não a causalidade), a ação (e não o ser). Por estas escolhas, a análise clínica precisa de uma ética da relação entre pessoas (e não de uma ética da profissão como entidade). Este ensaio sugere a viabilidade de uma ética behaviorista radical para a atuação clínica. Explora-se esta possibilidade a partir dos primórdios da filosofia nominalista, das id (more) éias de Buridan e das reflexões de autores behavioristas radicais. A leitura das interações sociais pelo conceito de contingência tem implicações para a compreensão do sentimento e do seu papel de referência na ética. É uma visão necessariamente complexa porque a relação terapêutica se constrói no seio de múltiplos contextos, como o da cultura, o da política de saúde, o da economia, o do universo restrito da vida pessoal do cliente e do terapeuta. Abstract in english Clinical behavior analysis, in opting for radical behaviorism, focuses on transformation (and not on representation), on interaction (and not on causality), on action (and not on being). Because of these choices, clinical behavior analysis needs an ethic of relating (and not an ethic of the profession as an entity). This essay suggests that a radical behaviorist ethic for clinical practice is possible. The possibility of such an ethic is explored from the beginnings of no (more) minalist philosophy, the ideas of Buridan and the reflections of radical behaviorist authors. An analysis of social interactions through the concept of contingency has implications for the understanding of feelings and their role of reference in ethics. This behavioristic ethic will necessarily be complex because the therapeutic relation is constructed within multiple contexts, like that of culture, health politics, economy, the restricted universe of the client's life and that of the therapist.
Influential parts of the veterinary profession, and notably the American Veterinary Medicine Association, are promoting the routine neutering of cats and dogs that will not be used for breeding purposes. However, this view is not universally held, even among representatives of the veterinary profession. In particular, som veterinary associations in Europe defend the view that when reproduction is not an issue, the neutering, particularly of dogs, should be decided on a case-by-case basis. However, even in Europe the American view is gaining ground. In light of this situation, this paper considers whether or not routine neutering of cats and dogs, in cases where uncontrolled reproduction is not an issue, can be ethically defended. The starting point of this consideration is a review of the veterinary literature on the effects of neutering on companion animals. The focus is both on the welfare of neutered animals themselves, and on behavioral and other effects that may not directly affect the animals' welfare, but that may be motivating factors for owners to neuter their companion animals. Here it becomes clear that justification for routine neutering, particularly of confined male dogs, does not follow from claims about the dogs' own welfare. The costs of neutering male dogs, in terms of increased risk of very serious diseases, may well outweigh the benefits. Then, building on this veterinary material, but including some other, additional considerations, the paper goes through some possible ethical approaches to routine animal neutering. These ethical approaches offer different degrees of concern about, or opposition to, routine neutering. Finally, based on this ethical exploration, it is argued that routine neutering, at least in the case of non-free-ranging companion animals, raises significant ethical questions, and from some ethical perspectives, looks highly problematic.
Uncertainty about ethics has been a major factor in societal rejection of biotechnology. Six factors help create a societal "perfect storm" regarding ethics and biotechnology: Social demand for ethical discussion; societal scientific illiteracy; poor social understanding of ethics; a "Gresham's Law for Ethics;" Scientific Ideology; vested interests dominating ethical discussion. How this can be remedied is discussed.
This paper provides a nursing perspective on ethical, legal, professional and practical issues faced by nurses working in HIV/AIDS care in relation to euthanasia/assisted suicide. Nurses who care for PLWHA (People Living with HIV/AIDS) have been conspicuously silent in the recent debates about euthanasia in Australia. Many factors prevent nurses from openly acknowledging their participation in assisted suicide/euthanasia and contributing to important debates about this topic. Their commitment to client confidentiality and the illegality of the practices are clearly significant factors which inhibit nurses from speaking freely. In addition, however, nurses' well-documented precarious legal position (Johnstone, 1994-alpha) and their subordinate status within the health care system make their public silence almost inevitable. Naming and challenging the factors which contribute to nurses silence, this paper draws on the experiences of nurses who have cared for PLWHA who have requested assistance in dying. It identifies practical, ethical and legal issues and dilemmas which can arise for nurses who may be involved in these practices, highlighting their special skills, relationships with clients, responsibilities and the complexity of their role; it also elucidates, however, the serious professional and personal risks nurses face given the legal and legislative status quo. This paper suggests that nurses may play a central, though covert, role in assisted suicide/euthanasia in HIV/AIDS care, rendering it imperative that their perspectives be included in the debates about the legalization of assisted suicide/euthanasia. Moreover, the paper identifies and challenges some severe impediments nurses must confront and address if they are to be able to contribute fully to this debate and to those which may arise in the future. PMID:9743735
Psychiatric genetic research may eventually render possible psychiatric genetic testing. Whereas all genetic knowledge has certain characteristics raising ethical, legal, and social issues, psychiatric genetic knowledge adds more controversial issues. Ethical principles have been proposed as a guide in this field, but the optimal utilization of genetic testing has also been recognized to depend on knowledge of the potential consumers' attitudes. To provide knowledge to inform the public debate on mental illness and genetics, and the future conducting of psychiatric genetic testing and counseling, we surveyed attitudes toward psychiatric genetic testing among 397 patients with a psychiatric diagnosis, 164 of their relatives and 100 medical and psychology students. The results showed widespread interest in psychiatric genetic testing of self and child, but less support for prenatal testing. Psychiatric and somatic genetic testing attracted the same amounts of accept. General attitudes toward access to psychiatric genetic testing and information revealed substantial support for bioethical principles of autonomy and privacy. However, questions describing more specific situations revealed contradictions mirroring the bioethical dilemmas recognized in the field and variations in attitudes between groups with different levels of knowledge of genetics, different kinds of experience with mental illness, and different motives and preconceptions regarding psychiatric genetics. The contradictions and differences in attitudes among possible future users and providers of psychiatric genetic testing and counseling indicate ambivalence, insecurity, and perceived lack of knowledge in relation to psychiatric genetics. These results should inform further research and the future integration of psychiatric genetics into practice. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Apr-05
El diagnóstico de preimplantación genética, el caso Nash y las indicaciones no médicas: De la transgresión del imperativo kantiano a las advertencias de Habermas/ Diagnosis of genetic pre-implantations. The Nash case and non-medical indications: From the transgression of Kant's mandate to Habermas' warnings
Abstract in spanish El diagnóstico de preimplantación genética (DPG) ha extendido sus usos e indicaciones más allá de los limites de la detección de anomalías genéticas. Con el caso Nash se ha dado el primer paso hacia la denominada "construcción de embriones" y por primera vez se ha manipulado un embrión para beneficio de un tercero existente. En este trabajo se analizan los aspectos científicos y bioéticos de este caso. Interpretando las implicaciones de la transgresión del im (more) perativo kantiano, que refiere que todo ser racional debe ser un fin en sí mismo y no un medio al servicio de otros. De igual manera, se exponen las advertencias que ha hecho el filósofo Jurgen Habermas de utilizar el DPG como una técnica de eugenesia positiva. Por último, se muestran otras indicaciones no médicas del DPG y sus dilemas bioéticos. Abstract in english The diagnosis of genetic pre-implantation (GPD) has extended its use and indications beyond the limits of genetic abnormalities detection. With the Nash case, the first step to the so called, embryos' constructions has been taken, and for the first time, an embryo has been manipulated to benefit a third party alive. This work analyses the scientific and bio ethical aspects of this case. Interpretation of the implications of Kant's mandate transgression, that says that eve (more) ry rational being must be an end by itself and not a means to serve others. Likewise, the warnings made by the philosopher Jurgen Habermas are exposed; the use of GPD as a positive eugenics technique. And last, other non medical indications of GPD and the bio-ethical dilemma are shown.
Abstract in portuguese Este artigo propõe um "método" fenomenológico de compreensão hermenêutica, que parte de um paradigma antropológico e ético e permite sistematizar e interpretar diversas situações em três fazes: fundamentação, valorização ( social, técnica, jurídica e bioética) e conclusões e implicações do dilema. O esquema constitui um caminho racional que facilita a todos os atores chegar ao objeto próprio de sua disciplina desde uma pluralidade de posturas de forma (more) integral e objetiva. Estuda e deduz por meio de um processo lógico de concatenação sistêmica de idéias, formas e experiências, respeitando as crenças e culturas presentes e estabelecendo os mínimos éticos. Abstract in spanish Este artículo propone un "método" fenomenológico con comprensión hermenéutica, que parte de un paradigma antropológico y ético y permite sistematizar e interpretar diversas situaciones en tres estadios: planteamiento, valoración (social, técnica, jurídica y bioética) y conclusiones e implicaciones del dilema. El esquema constituye un camino racional que facilita a todos los actores llegar al objeto propio de su disciplina desde una pluralidad de posturas y en f (more) orma integral y objetiva. Estudia y deduce por medio de un proceso lógico de concatenación sistémica de ideas, formas y experiencias, respetando las creencias y culturas presentes y estableciendo los mínimos éticos. Abstract in english The author of this report offers a phenomenological method together with an hermeneutic comprehension which stems from an anthropological and ethic paradigm that allows to systematize and interpret different situations in three stadiums: planning, appraisal (social, technique, juridical and bioethics') and the dilemma's conclusions and implications. The scheme constitutes a rational way that helps all actors to arrive at the proper object of their discipline starting from (more) a plurality of positions and in an integral and objective manner. It studies and derives, by means of a logical process of a systemic concatenation of ideas, forms and experiences, respecting the beliefs and cultures that are present and establishing the minimum ethics.
Experience has shown that both the assessment and implementation of new technologies in food production are challenged by negative assessments of the technologies by the public. This article seeks to deepen our understanding of the concerns that may underlie negative attitudes to various kinds of risk reduction strategy in meat production, with the aim of distinguishing between forms of risk reduction in terms of their acceptability. The paper reports the result of a focus-group study. Six focus groups with Danish citizens (N: 5–9) were conducted during May 2006. The design of the groups took a bottom-up approach and included elements of meat quality, meat safety and risk reduction strategies. The study shows the dilemma risk reduction presents to members of the public. On the one hand, people want safe meat; on the other, the study showed that with the exception of hygiene practices, people generally have an aversion to risk reduction strategies. Some variation was found, however, in the rejection of the strategies. Thus, more acceptable strategies are characterised by a low degree of technological interference, and by being close to the consumer’s experience in everyday life and/or familiar to the participants’ picture of meat production. It is also important that the strategy does not alter the quality of the end-product (meat) in an unfavourable way. The implications of the results and the inherent dilemma for meat safety policy formation are discussed.
This article serves as a lead-in to the special issue and reflects on the relationship between globalization, ethics, and the 'war on terror'. It argues that while globalization studies have focused substantially on the marketization of life, including the realms of politics and culture, the current 'war on terror' phase has directed focus in theory and practice back to traditional state-centred security concerns and critical investigation of state-citizen relations, notably in the context of multicultural societies. The article discusses three key areas of ethics. First those connected to the terminology of 'war' in this context and the applicability of just war thinking; second, the challenge of such rhetoric to core values of liberal democracies, such as equality and impartiality; and t...
This article proposes the lens of moral economy as a useful ethical framework through which to assess HRM practice, with a particular focus on the strategic use of contingent work (?non-standard? employment practices including temporary, agency and outsourced work). While contingent work practices have a variety of impetuses we focus here on their strategic use in the pursuit of economic and flexibility goals. A review of the contingent work literature conveys mixed messages about its outcomes for individuals, and more opaquely, for organisations: on the one hand transferring risks yet on the other, creating opportunities. A moral economy lens views employment as a relationship rooted in a web of social dependencies, and considers that ?thick? relations produce valuable ethical surpluses t...
Market-based solutions have become an important focus for international strategies to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide. The commodification of carbon through markets, however, raises a number of questions about the ethics and justice implications of these approaches. They are tied up in a calculative, managerial approach to the environment, which looks for cost-effectiveness, just allocations of carbon allowances and equitable international frameworks. In this paper and using an extended case study of personal carbon trading I argue that current debates have insufficiently focused on the ethical assumptions that underlie these solutions. A universal system of carbon monitoring may not offer the kinds of political debates and imaginations of the good life that will be required for a more ...
Changes in public policy have led to increasing numbers of children with disabilities and complex medical needs being cared for in the homes of Canadians. Little work, however, has explored the ethical implications of these policies. This paper focuses on some of the shortcomings of current policy and describes a developing method for policy analysis with an explicit focus on ethics that could be adopted in other nations. Three forms of analyses-descriptive, conceptual and normative-conducted on Canadian homecare policy documents describe various dimensions of Canadian homecare policy. The descriptive analysis demonstrated that the jurisdiction of homecare services is dispersed across numerous programs and ministries with no single structure for policy implementation and accountability. Th...
The effects of genetic knowledge beyond the scientific community depend on processes of social construction of risks and benefits, or perils and possibilities, which are different in different communities. In a globalized world, new developments affect societies not capable of technically replicating them and unaware of the very nature of the scientific process. Moral and legal consequences, however, diffuse rapidly and involve groups and persons with scant or no knowledge about the way scientific concepts are developed or perfected. Leading genomics researchers view their field as developing after a sharp break with that worldwide social movement of the 20´s and 30´s known as eugenics and its most radical expression in the Nazi efforts to destroy life “not worth living”. Manipulation, prejudice and mistrust, however, pervade non-expert accounts of current research. Researchers claim that the new knowledge will have a positive impact on medicine and serve as a foundation for informed social policy. Both types of applications depend on informed communities of non-scientists (physicians, policymakers), whose members may well differ on what constitutes burden and what is benefit, depending upon professional socialization and cultural bias. ELSI projects associated with genomic research are notable for the lack of minorities involved and for the absence of comparative analysis of data reception in different world communities. It may be contended also that the critical potential of philosophical or ethical analyses is reduced by their being situated within the scientific process itself and carried out by members of the expert community, thus reducing independence of judgment. The majority of those involved in such studies, by tradition, experience, and formative influences, share the same worldview about the nature of moral dilemmas or the feasibility of intended applications. The global effects of new knowledge when combined with other cultural or religious traditions are thus unknown. These effects are interesting on two accounts. First, even if underdeveloped countries cannot replicate the technical aspects of research, their influence on social practices is not kept within geographical or language barriers. The way they are handled in developed countries may become part of resistances to “ethical imperialism”. Second, these advances have economic consequences. Their full understanding and the creation of a scientific literacy essential for sound ethical analysis demand the creation of “receptive capacity” in developing countries. The morality of genomics research and its applications can be analyzed from two main vantage points. Some traditions stress the ethics of convictions (in Max Weber´s terms, Gesinnungsethik) while others rely on the ethics of responsibility (Verantwortungsethik). In different forms, the latter deals with the consequences of social action, scientific research in this case, and may or may not be related to utilitarian considerations. It may be hypothesized that convictions, mostly of a religious nature, dominate the argumentative preferences in Latin countries and continental European traditions which rely on virtues while responsibility is associated with a discourse based on rights prevalent in countries following the Anglo-Saxon pattern of thought. This finds expression in different legal systems (common law versus codes) and in the language used for deliberation and moral reasoning. Although results of US-based ELSI research may not be transferable to other cultural and economic contexts, they impact other societies and serve as models. Rarely do they apply completely in other settings. In a globalized world, both appropriate understanding of the scientific enterprise and its ethical or economic sustainability demand empirical analysis of the patterns of thought, main beliefs, and reactions toward the new knowledge and its applications. Anecdotal accounts show that expectations may be misleading and inadequate knowledge prevents appropriate appraisal of burdens and benefits in dif
The effects of genetic knowledge beyond the scientific community depend on processes of social construction of risks and benefits, or perils and possibilities, which are different in different communities. In a globalized world, new developments affect societies not capable of technically replicating them and unaware of the very nature of the scientific process. Moral and legal consequences, however, diffuse rapidly and involve groups and persons with scant or no knowledge about the way scientific concepts are developed or perfected. Leading genomics researchers view their field as developing after a sharp break with that worldwide social movement of the 20´s and 30´s known as eugenics and its most radical expression in the Nazi efforts to destroy life “not worth living”. Manipulation, prejudice and mistrust, however, pervade non-expert accounts of current research. Researchers claim that the new knowledge will have a positive impact on medicine and serve as a foundation for informed social policy. Both types of applications depend on informed communities of non-scientists (physicians, policymakers), whose members may well differ on what constitutes burden and what is benefit, depending upon professional socialization and cultural bias. ELSI projects associated with genomic research are notable for the lack of minorities involved and for the absence of comparative analysis of data reception in different world communities. It may be contended also that the critical potential of philosophical or ethical analyses is reduced by their being situated within the scientific process itself and carried out by members of the expert community, thus reducing independence of judgment. The majority of those involved in such studies, by tradition, experience, and formative influences, share the same worldview about the nature of moral dilemmas or the feasibility of intended applications. The global effects of new knowledge when combined with other cultural or religious traditions are thus unknown. These effects are interesting on two accounts. First, even if underdeveloped countries cannot replicate the technical aspects of research, their influence on social practices is not kept within geographical or language barriers. The way they are handled in developed countries may become part of resistances to “ethical imperialism”. Second, these advances have economic consequences. Their full understanding and the creation of a scientific literacy essential for sound ethical analysis demand the creation of “receptive capacity” in developing countries. The morality of genomics research and its applications can be analyzed from two main vantage points. Some traditions stress the ethics of convictions (in Max Weber´s terms, Gesinnungsethik) while others rely on the ethics of responsibility (Verantwortungsethik). In different forms, the latter deals with the consequences of social action, scientific research in this case, and may or may not be related to utilitarian considerations. It may be hypothesized that convictions, mostly of a religious nature, dominate the argumentative preferences in Latin countries and continental European traditions which rely on virtues while responsibility is associated with a discourse based on rights prevalent in countries following the Anglo-Saxon pattern of thought. This finds expression in different legal systems (common law versus codes) and in the language used for deliberation and moral reasoning. Although results of US-based ELSI research may not be transferable to other cultural and economic contexts, they impact other societies and serve as models. Rarely do they apply completely in other settings. In a globalized world, both appropriate understanding of the scientific enterprise and its ethical or economic sustainability demand empirical analysis of the patterns of thought, main beliefs, and reactions toward the new knowledge and its applications. Anecdotal accounts show that expectations may be misleading and inadequate knowledge prevents appropriate appraisal of burdens and benefits in different societies.
This article focuses on repair or replacement mortars for historical buildings. Both the decision process and questions arising are dealt with, in order to better define and illustrate technical requirements for mortars to be used for the repair or restoration of monuments and historic buildings (masonry mortars, plasters, renders???). The article summarizes a longer document, meant to help professionals in their decisions on the interventions, taking into account aspects, which are ranging from the ethics of restoration to the technical requirements.
Economics at the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) supports both the competition and consumer protection missions of the agency. In this year?s essay we discuss two issues, one from each of the agency?s missions. First, we focus on intellectual property issues in pharmaceuticals. Specifically, we discuss the principal rationale for antitrust concerns about certain patent dispute settlements in the ethical drug industry. Then, we discuss consumer economics, our recent behavioral economics conference, and how behavioral economics influences our thinking about consumer policy.
The possiblity of cloning human beings introduced a lot of issues in our ethical and legal frameworks. In this paper, we will put the focus into the necessary changes in the concept of embryo that our legal systems will have to implement in order to face the new situation. The description of the embryo as a group of cells able to develop into a human being will be defended here as the best way of doing so. PMID:19334406
This paper presents the medical practice according to the occidental philosophy (Platon, Spinoza, Kant). Relationships with the concept of "love" (eros, philia, agape) will be described, and the concept of dignity and autonomy as well. The reflection will focus on the end of life aspects. Although medicine cannot avoid morality, ethic, and deontology, it is also part of philosophy and must warrant the respect of human dignity, especially when a physician helps a patient to die. PMID:20384046
This work seeks to offer a broad perspective and important practical insights into economic institutions, focusing on dynamic issues such as entrepreneurship and ethical leadership, which are crucial to institutional growth. Mark Casson analyzes economic institutions from an integrated social science perspective. This perspective is based on the rational action principle of mainstream economics, modified to allow for endogenous preferences and information costs. Combining plausible assumptions with analytical rigour, it offers insights into a range of issues, including the growth of firms, fam
When assessing North American students' oral participation in classes, should all students be subject to the same evaluation criteria or should teachers make reasonable allowances for Asian students practicing humility? How do we weigh the promotion of "courage" through character education initiatives with traditional Asian dispositions? Viewing Asian humility in Western classrooms and as it rubs up against liberal principles of equality or justice, and a virtue ethic raises a number of philosophical questions around authenticity, polyvalence, and relativity. I approach first through the lens of liberal philosophy as the "dilemma of diversity" meets a boundary with communitarianism, and then through the contextualist lenses of Wittgenstein, Heidegger, and Foucault. Drawing on Tully's political philosophy, I inspect humility as embedded in language-games and then open it to revision through comparative history, inviting participants in the teacher's game of assessment to renegotiate the rules: a process complicated by their reticence to speak up. I also use Medina and Scheman's political reading of Wittgenstein to discuss how teachers can discern humility as "performative" silence within the classroom, distinguishing between genealogical accounts that show how comportments could be otherwise from perspicuous inspection of interconnected language-games in current educational settings. (Contains 8 notes.)
This article examines the reflexive, biosocial nature of genomic meaning making around race, drawing on discourse analysis of 732 articles on genomics and race published from the years 1986-2010, in-depth interviews with 36 of the world's most elite genomics researchers, interviews with 15 critics, policymakers, and trainees involved in debates over race, and participant observation at a core genotyping facility that specializes in ancestry estimation. I reveal how biomedical researchers identify with, value, and make sense of the taxonomies they construct. My analysis goes beyond a consideration of instrumental rationales to analyze the experiential and political motivations that shape how researchers get involved in racial ethical dilemmas. I theorize taxonomic practice as a reflexive form of biosociality, a conscious shaping of social notions about biology and race to produce a future that researchers themselves want to live in. I demonstrate how reflexive biosociality paradoxically leads researchers to advance social explanations for race while investing in genomics as a solution to racial quandaries. PMID:21840637
Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se analizan, en primer lugar, algunos de los dilemas morales asociados a los nuevos modos de morir que han surgido con el desarrollo de la técnica médica en los últimos años. Sin duda que la posibilidad de postergar artificialmente la muerte plantea cuestiones éticas relevantes tanto para quienes desean seguir viviendo como para quienes prefieren, en cambio, morir libres de las ?interferencias? de la medicina moderna. En segundo lugar, este ensayo r (more) evisa los distintos conceptos de eutanasia y los problemas que la actual redacción del Proyecto de Ley de Derechos del Paciente -que ?Regula los Derechos y Deberes que tienen las personas en relación con acciones vinculadas a su atención de Salud?- pudiera generar al momento de su aplicación en determinados casos límite. Abstract in english This essay review, first of all, some of the moral dilemmas usually associated to the new possibilities of dying that have arisen through the development of the medical technique in the last few years. There are important ethical issues related with the possibility of delaying artificially the death. That is true for those who wish to continue living but also for those who choose to die without the ?interferences? of the medical advances. Secondly, this paper discusses (more) some different concepts of euthanasia and the problems associated to the law project of Patient?s Rights, especially in some difficult cases.
Abstract in spanish La práctica de conductas autoritarias y de poder constituye una situación de alerta y de amenaza en la relación médico-paciente. Esta situación se presenta con cierta frecuencia y denuncia diversos dilemas éticos y bioéticos que llaman a la discusión y reflexión. Como una forma de sensibilizar dichas prácticas se realiza la siguiente revisión bibliográfica en pro de una atención humanizada y respetuosa de las personas y su dignidad. Por lo que el objetivo de (more) este trabajo es valorar algunas de las repercusiones de la autoridad y del poder sobre la conducta en salud del paciente en la práctica médica. Abstract in english The practice of authoritarian and power conducts constitutes a threat and alert situation in the relation doctor-patient. This situation occurs with certain frequency and it reflects several ethical and bioethical dilemmas that call to an analysis and discussion. As a way of raising awareness of such practices, the following bibliographic revision is carried out, in favour of a respectful and humanized attention to people and their dignity. Therefore, this work aims at evaluating some of the consequences caused by authority and power on patients in medical practice.
Advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) now permit responsible discussion of therapies that may go beyond relief of cognitive and behavioral symptoms and actually slow progression of disease. The mechanisms of neuronal death and the pathologic role of glia are being elucidated, and epidemiologic studies have suggested potential protective value for anti-inflammatory drugs, estrogen, and free-radical scavengers. However, demonstrating disease-modifying drug effects for progressive conditions such as dementia can be a daunting task, fraught with clinical, statistical, and ethical dilemmas. To evaluate trial designs for demonstrating such effects, the International Working Group on Harmonization of Dementia Drug Guidelines (IWG) conducted a symposium at the Sixth International Congress on Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders, held July 1998 in Amsterdam. The presentations at the IWG symposium covered the two basic designs currently being used in clinical trials, survival analysis and staggered-start/withdrawal, in addition to clinical data generated from the National Institute on Aging Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study vitamin E/selegiline trial in patients with AD and the phase III clinical studies of propentofylline in patients with AD and VaD. It is hoped that this article will open a dialogue among investigators and regulatory authorities regarding appropriate trial designs to support a regulatory claim for disease-modifying effects. PMID:9876956
Implicaciones sociales, tecnológicas y éticas de los resultados insatisfactorios en la cirugía de catarata/ Social, technological and ethical implications of unsatisfactory outcomes in cataract surgery
Abstract in spanish A nivel mundial, la catarata constituye la principal causa de ceguera evitable. Su alta prevalencia como causa de ceguera está muy asociada a la pobreza. La cirugía es el único tratamiento verdaderamente efectivo y constituye el proceder quirúrgico más practicado en países desarrollados, pues presenta una adecuada relación coste-beneficio. Contradictoriamente, los estudios de base poblacional efectuados en los últimos años han revelado que existen resultados insa (more) tisfactorios en el 40 % de las operaciones de catarata efectuadas en países subdesarrollados. Se exponen en este trabajo algunos elementos históricos y tecnológicos relacionados con este tipo de operación. Se analizan las principales causas de los resultados insatisfactorios y los dilemas éticos asociados a los mismos. Se recomienda la necesidad de evaluar los impactos de las operaciones de catarata como tecnologías sanitarias con efectos positivos y negativos tras su aplicación. Abstract in english Worldwide, cataract is the leading cause of avoidable blindness. Its high prevalence as a cause of blindness is associated to poverty. Surgery is the only effective treatment and most performed surgical procedure in developed countries, with an adequate cost-benefit relationship. Contradictorily, recently conducted population-based surveys have revealed unsatisfactory outcomes in 40 % of cataract surgeries practiced in developing countries. Besides dealing with some of th (more) e historical and technological issues related to cataract surgery, the author analyzes the main causes and ethical dilemma associated to those outcomes, and recommends evaluating the impacts of cataract surgery as a technology with positive or negative effects after its application.
Abstract in spanish La terapia génica tiene, de acuerdo con Anderson, cuatro niveles de aplicación: las células somáticas, las células germinales, la terapia perfectiva y la manipulación eugenésica. Se hace un análisis de los dilemas bioéticos en cada nivel de terapia y se plantea el denominado Argumento Evolutivo para cuestionar los deseos de algunos científicos de iniciar terapia génica de células germinales. De igual manera, se advierte de los peligros de iniciar terapia perfe (more) ctiva y la manipulación eugénica por las implicaciones sociales y políticas de una reactivación de programas de eugenesia positiva. Abstract in english According to Anderson, gene therapy has four levels of application; somatic cells, germinal cells, perfective therapy and eugenic manipulation. An analysis of the bio-ethical dilemma in each therapy level is made and the so called Evolution Concept is stated to question the wish of some scientists to start gene therapy from germ cells. Likewise, there is a warning about the hazards of starting perfective therapy and eugenic manipulation due to the social and political implications of positive eugenics programs reactivation.
Ventilação mecânica e obstinação terapêutica ou distanásia, a dialéctica da alta tecnologia em medicina intensiva/ Mechanical ventilation and medical futility or dysthanasia, the dialectic of high technology in intensive medicine
Abstract in portuguese Distanásia ou qualquer um dos seus sinónimos é uma consequência do excesso terapêutico em relação ao prognóstico esperado. A obstinação terapêutica é um dos dilemas éticos mais angustiantes no quotidiano de medicina intensiva, apesar de a sua apreciação encontrar um suporte normativo em várias instituições e organizações. A manutenção ou não suspensão da ventilação mecânica numa determinada circunstância de fim de vida pode ser considerado como (more) um exemplo paradigmático de obstinação terapêutica. A compreensão desta postura passa pela análise e reflexão do acto médico à luz de alguns conceitos ético-filosóficos. Abstract in english Dysthanasia or any of its synonyms is a consequence of excessive technical science, without any reasonable chance of achieving a therapeutic benefit for the patient. Medical futility is a distressing ethical dilemma of intensive care medicine. Its recognition has led to a precept support in various institutions and organizations. Not withdrawing or withholding mechanical ventilation in certain circumstances can be considered as a paradigmatic model of medical futility. The understanding of this posture implies a philosophical approach and reflexion of medical practice.
Approximately 1,500 young immigrant women living in Sweden sought help from various public organisations during 2004 due to problems related to Protection of Family Honour (PFH). Often they seek help from school nurses and counsellors. Information on how the school nurses and counsellors manage this complex PFH phenomenon is limited in Sweden. The aim was to generate a theoretical model that illuminates the experiences of school counsellors and school nurses counselling teenage girls, who worry about problems related to protection of family honour. Data were collected through individual interviews of the school welfare staff. The study subjects included welfare staff from six upper-secondary schools consisting of four nurses and six counsellors. Grounded theory methods were used to generate new knowledge as this is a new field of research. The staff's main goal was to provide the best support and help for the teenage girls. In addition, they wanted to be true to their professional ethics and values. However, this was difficult and created professional dilemmas because some teenage girls prevented them from doing what they thought was needed to support the teenage girls and protect them from violence. As a result, staff sometimes felt hampered, unable to help or able to help only in ways hidden from the teenage girls' families. PMID:21410579
Attachment theory and therapy have established themselves as major constructs in foster care and adoption practice. The depth of the explanatory power of attachment theory and research have done much to both identify the source of developmental difficulties in adopted and fostered children, and of the significant changes that can be made when these children are placed with 'autonomously' classified carers. However, the power of the concept has also led to a proliferation of ideas, particularly therapeutic models that can, in some cases, stray a long way from the core of what is effective, safe and ethical clinical practice. Holding therapy is one of these models. The British Association for Adoption and Fostering developed a position statement on this practice, setting it within a broader framework of assessment and intervention. But like the model, the development of the position statement became controversial in its development. The article charts some of the critical issues and identifies the very significant dilemmas for parents and carers caught up in the maelstrom of challenging behaviours and disturbing feelings. The conclusion turns to one of the key components of an attachment-based idea: The critical importance of finding the space to think and to feel what the child is communicating without resorting to dangerous retaliation. PMID:17533938
Abstract in spanish La realidad histórica de los adelantos biotecnológicos basados en la ciencia ha demostrado que la posibilidad de la supervivencia de la especie humana y de la vida en el planeta depende de la responsabilidad con que la comunidad científica destine el resultado de su labor. En este sentido, en el presente trabajo se exponen algunas reflexiones de lo que conllevaría un enfoque y utilización inadecuada de las técnicas que involucran la manipulación del patrimonio gen? (more) ?tico humano y los mecanismos relacionados con la transmisión y expresión de la información genética. El mismo concluye aportando algunas ideas en aras de responder al dilema de hasta que punto está éticamente justificado todo lo técnicamente posible. Abstract in english The historical reality of the biotechnological advances based on the science has showed that the survival possibility of the human species and life in the planet depends on the responsibility the scientific community assigns to its work's results. In that sense, we expose in the current work some reflections on what it would mean an inadequate approach and usage of the techniques involving manipulation of the human genetic heritage and mechanisms related with transmission (more) and expression of the genetic information. It finishes providing some ideas to answer the dilemma of to what extend it is ethically justified everything that is technically possible.
Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta a importância da biodiversidade, da biotecnologia a da saúde e discute vários aspectos dos problemas biológicos, ambientais e o dilema ético, relacionados com a expansão e a exploração dos recursos naturais em razão das quais espécies de plantas e animais têm sido extintas. Por outro lado, o conhecimento da biodiversidade tem possibilitado a identificação e a utilização de novos recursos naturais para a melhoria da vida do homem neste (more) planeta. É importante que nossos pesquisadores se envolvam na luta pela preservação do ecossistema tropical. Os programas de exploração da biodiversidade devem estar baseados em sólidos conhecimentos científicos e favorecer ecológica e economicamente a sociedade. Abstract in english This article presents the significance of biodiversity, biotechnology and health and discusses many aspects of biological and environmental problems as well as the ethical dilemma related to expansion and exploitation of natural resources, which promoted a decline in biological diversity. In addition, knowledge of biodiversity has allowed for identification and use of new natural resources, useful for improving the quality of human life on Earth. It is important that our (more) researchers engage themselves in the fight for preservation of the tropical ecosystem. Programs to exploit biodiversity must be based on solid scientific knowledge and favour society both ecologically and economically.
As a leading cause of mortality, coronary artery disease is on the focus of genetic research as a complex trait. Although predictive genetic testing for cardiovascular diseases is on the counter, it is still hard to aggregate information from multiple genetic variants, environmental factors and family history into a single score. Every susceptibility allele provides small contribution to disease formation. Biomarkers play a role in various metabolic pathways. Genetic information and data depend heavily on probabilities. This should be clearly explained by genetic counselor to the patient and relatives who are looking for certain answers. Presence of susceptibility alleles can be a source of anxiety and it may result as a reduced self-confidence in ability to change health behavior. Complex diseases set a new stage to study novel techniques that can elucidate interactions among genetic, environmental and ethnic factors. The cookbook approach to treat a complex disease can often be misleading. Future studies may provide personalized information, which can improve the outcome of standardized treatments. As knowing one's own genetic risk is becoming a task for the responsible individual, it surely will add new challenges to ethical framework. Publicly marketing genetic tests for complex diseases raises ethical concerns. To avoid discriminatory use of genetic information; genetic risk scoring, therapeutic process, ethical policies must have a multifaceted progress. In this review, we summarized the attempts to resolve ethical issues related to genetic testing in complex diseases to resolve patient autonomy with individual responsibility and to aim the patient beneficence and confidentiality. PMID:22306571
This paper extends the burgeoning interest in emotion, health and place by investigating the emotionally complex experiences of aging and care in rural settings. Featuring a thematic analysis of 44 semi-structured interviews and two focus groups with older people and their carers in rural Ontario (Canada) we examine the importance and implications of emotions within and across multiple scales at which care relationships, expectations and responsibilities are negotiated. With the aim of broadening the discussion surrounding geographical dimensions of ethical care, our approach draws on feminist care ethics to understand the multifaceted ways in which emotions shape and are shaped by experiences of aging and caring at the interpersonal, household and community scales. The findings reveal how emotions are central, yet often-overlooked and even hidden within care relationships among older rural people and their carers. We argue that ethical care is contingent on recognizing and valuing the situated emotions involved in doing care work, sustaining care relationships and asking for care. In doing so, we demonstrate how qualitative research on the emotional geographies of care can contribute to the development of informed policies that are contextually sensitive and, ultimately, have the potential to build more ethical rural conditions of care. PMID:23102752
Despite the plethora of papers reporting evidence from studies examining aspects of child development, there was until quite recently a dearth of literature on the ethical implications of research involving children and vulnerable groups. To inform the debate, this paper begins by drawing a distinction between ethical and methodological approaches to research. It continues with a discussion of the evolution of recent legislative changes that some attribute to the 22 unethical studies exposed by Beeches in the 1960s. The final section takes as its focus the practical application of these ethical practices to one aspect of a large-scale evaluation of the mobility, independence and life skills training available to children and young people aged 0-19 years of age with a visual impairment in Northern Ireland. The impact of ethical considerations on the design and progress of a research project that crosses disciplinary boundaries, and involves children and vulnerable groups, is discussed. The findings suggest that careful pre-planning with slippage time incorporated at the design stage of a research project may mitigate against delays and frustration. (Contains 2 notes.)
This article offers a discussion of the connection between technology and values and, specifically, I take a closer look at ethically sound design. In order to bring the discussion into a concrete context, the theory of Value Sensitive Design (VSD) will be the focus point. To illustrate my argument concerning design ethics, the discussion involves a case study of an augmented window, designed by the VSD Research Lab, which has turned out to be a potentially surveillance-enabling technology. I call attention to a "positivist problem" that has to do with the connection between the design context and the use context, which VSD seems to presuppose, and I argue that it is necessary to clearly distinguish between the two, since the designers' intentions do not always correspond with the users' practice; in fact, the relation between design and use is very complex and principally unpredictable. Thus, a design theory must accept that foresight is limited to anticipation rather than prediction. To overcome the positivist problem, I suggest a phenomenological approach to technology inspired by Don Ihde's concept of multistability. This argument, which is general in nature and thus applies to any theory of design ethics, is intended as a constructive criticism, which can hopefully contribute to the further development of design ethics.
Within the EU-project NewGeneris human placental perfusion has been used for predicting fetal exposure to food carcinogens. Within the work package of ethical aspects of the research, we studied opinions of the researchers (n = 23) who carried out perfusions of human placenta. Data were collected by focus group interviews (n = 12) and an open-ended questionnaire (n =19 of which 8 were also attending the group session) from scientists representing 9 different nationalities. Both types of data were analysed together thematically and with data triangulation. Studied researchers considered communication between all stakeholders extremely important. Good communication was considered a prerequisite for the recruitment of mothers to donate the placenta, as well as for the process of getting the informed consent. Voluntariness, confidentiality and societal meaning were mentioned as important by all studied researchers. Educating the hospital personnel was regarded as essential in order to provide the best possible information to the mothers. The researchers also pointed out that cultural aspects should be respected, and that in Western thinking placenta is mostly considered as waste. Some researchers suggested that current guidelines and processes for obtaining informed consent should be reviewed also from a cultural perspective. With the development of biobanks, the use of human tissues, including placenta will most probably increase in the future, and the awareness of ethical considerations both in legislation and in practice need support. Thus, continuous effort for better research ethics is essential and requires research on research ethics. PMID:21524791
Concerns regarding literacy levels in the United States are long standing. Debates have existed for decades regarding the most effective ways to teach reading, especially the polarizing dilemma of how much to focus on decoding versus code-emphasis and whole language instruction. Fortunately, as a result of concentrated research efforts and analyses of the extant literature on teaching reading, perhaps spurred by these debates, we know more now than we ever have about how to teach basic reading skills. However, there is still much work to be done in order to determine which instructional practices are the most effective ways in which to teach children to read. The need for more research focusing on best instructional practices is exacerbated by the well-documented gap between research. Lite...
The Institute of Medicine report, To Err is Human, suggests that 98,000 people who enter the U.S. healthcare system die each year due to medical errors. To that extent, patient safety and current healthcare dilemmas have become the focus of lively debate. Although important, the focus of this debate tends to be short sided. More and more occupational health experts are suggesting nursing injuries affect the nursing shortage and therefore threaten all aspects of patient care including safety. In fact, on October 7, 2011, the Governor of California signed into law California Assembly Bill 1136. This cash-strapped state recognized the threat nurse injuries place on the nursing shortage and ultimately patient safety. This article briefly describes current legislative attempts to address nursin...
Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se descrever as dificuldades relacionadas aos primeiros socorros durante uma olimpíada estudantil e correlacionar a experiência vivida com aspectos técnicos, científicos e éticos recomendados para a atuação do enfermeiro quando da prestação de primeiros socorros. O relato tomou por base a produção de dados no contexto da atuação dos socorristas e de uma oficina de consenso para solucionar dilema ético. Descreve-se o processo de tomada de decisão ? (more) ?tica, os recursos materiais disponíveis, os agravos à integridade física dos atletas e as intervenções executadas. Conclui-se que o esporte tem caráter de medicina preventiva e curativa que exige o compromisso moral dos organizadores de prover os recursos materiais necessários às possíveis intervenções médicas por ocasião de algum dano sofrido pelos atletas. Abstract in spanish Este relato tiene como objetivo identificar las dificultades relacionadas a los primeros socorros realizados a atletas durante una olimpíada estudiantil y correlacionar la experiencia vivida con aspectos técnicos, científicos y éticos recomendados para la actuación del enfermero cuando está prestando los primeros socorros. El presente relato tomó por base la producción de datos en el contexto de la actuación de los socorristas y de un taller que buscaba soluciona (more) r dilema ético haciendo un análisis sobre la práctica de los socorristas. Se describe el proceso de tomada de decisión ética, los recursos materiales disponibles, los agravios a la integridad física dos atletas y las intervenciones ejecutadas. Se concluye que el deporte tiene el carácter de medicina preventiva y curativa que exige el compromiso moral de los organizadores de proveer los recursos materiales necesarios a las posibles intervenciones médicas por ocasión de algún daño sufrido por los atletas. Abstract in english This study aimed to identify the difficulties related to the first aids during one students competition and also it correlates the experience learned regarding technician aspects, cientifics and ethical approaches when the performance of the first-aid nurse. The report was taking into account the production basis regarding the performance of the first aids professionals and a workshop of consensus to solve ethical dilemmas. It was described the taking decision ethical, th (more) e material resources available and also the harms which might affected the physical integrity of the athletes and the interventions executed. It was concluded that the sports has a feature of preventive and curative medicine that demands the moral commitment of the organizers to provide the necessary material resources for occasion of some damage suffered for the athletes.
This study investigated pre-service science teachers' (PSTs') moral reasoning patterns and the factors underlying these reasoning patterns. Local and non-local environmental dilemmas were used to examine moral reasoning patterns. An explanatory design was used with the collection and analysis of quantitative data, which was subsequently refined using qualitative interview data. For the quantitative part of the study, PSTs were asked to comment on four local and non-local environmental dilemmas (i.e. deforestation, e-waste, oil spills, and global warming). The responses were categorized as ecocentric, anthropocentric, or non-environmental reasoning. The findings showed that the participants' moral reasoning focused on both ecocentric and anthropocentric perspectives, with a few displaying non-environmental reasoning. Concern for environmental problems was related to perceptions of whether the issue was directly related to nature, and was independent of whether the issues were local or non-local. The Moral Decision Making Interview protocol was used in the qualitative part of the study. Analysis revealed that the participants' moral decisions were based on their resolutions in situational context and their concerns showed variations in their moral reasoning due to different factors like, effect on human life, formal principles, notion of rights, moral emotions, potential harm to others, and popular culture. (Contains 1 figure and 4 tables.)
The tensions between environmental protection and economic growth are critical to future well-being, and it is therefore important to understand how young people conceptualize these tensions. The aim of the present study is to explore students' solutions to the dilemma of economic development and mitigating climate change, with regard to societal responses to the challenge of climate change. The study was conducted in China's Green Schools. Green School is an international long-term programme with the aim of increasing students' knowledge of environmental issues, and transferring this knowledge into positive actions to affect the wider community. The data were obtained through semi-structured pre- and post-interviews with 15-16-year-old students in three groups (12 students) from Green Schools in the Beijing area. The results show that students' discussions focused exclusively on economic growth and social welfare. Students seem to believe that environmental problems are inevitable, nature is a "box" of resources, and economic development is necessary in order to sustain and even improve nature. Therefore, there is no dilemma between economic development and environmental protection. The paper ends with a discussion on research and implications for teaching climate change. (Contains 1 table, 1 figure, and 7 extracts.)
The topic of biodiversity is of high value for education for sustainable development as it reflects the interaction of ecological, economic and social issues particularly well. Especially in so-called biodiversity hotspots, among them Chile, natural resources are often depleted for economic interest which, in many cases, is required income. Therefore, economic and social aspects must be considered in order to fully understand biodiversity loss. Being such an important issue, it is surprising that little is known thus far about learning prerequisites concerning biodiversity. This paper presents a qualitative interview study that investigated 16 to 18-year-old Chilean and German learners' perception of biodiversity and its loss (n = 24). Firstly, the pupils' cognitive frameworks were analysed. Secondly, subjective theories about biodiversity loss due to resource dilemmas were explored. Three subjective theories that emerged from the data reflected the notion that most pupils focused on either ecological or economic aspects of biodiversity loss. Pupils who concentrated on ecological aspects often referred to incorrect ecological facts. Moreover, these pupils showed difficulties in developing empathy and solidarity with impoverished people, who depend economically on plants in a resource dilemma. A smaller group of pupils succeeded in integrating the ecological, economic, and social aspects. Regarding the two samples, Chilean pupils seemed to have greater difficulties in recognising the social aspects of biodiversity loss, while German pupils were largely unaware of biodiversity loss on a local level. Implications for biodiversity education and future research will be outlined and discussed.
Most analyses addressing the subject of why states choose to proliferate focus on external motivations, particularly the security dilemma, facing a country`s leaders. This paper concludes that, other factors, such as prestige, regime type and stability, and economic status, can have impact in determining proliferation outcomes. In the case of Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union (NIS), the domestic problems generated by internal conflicts, arms remaining from the Cold War, excess defense industrial capacity, economic difficulties and the breakdown of central authority resulting in a loss of border control and corruption have all made the NIS an extremely fertile ground for weapons proliferation. A more positive `rollback` situation has emerged in Latin America where both Argentina and Brazil have seemingly decided to forgo the acquisition of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles. The US must understand the `strategic personality` of each potential proliferation. Not all state behavior can be explained in terms of the security dilemma. One must also keep in mind the complexity of possible motivations. Economic and technological assistance and cooperative efforts at institution-building hold great potential to combating proliferation.
These strategic and tactical problems are examined within two basic areas of concern: (1) external public relations and (2) internal membership identify. This study contributes to the resource-mobilization perspective by theoretically reducing the significant variables of concern to external and internal identity maintenance and by stressing the constant dilemma between the structure of the movement and the actual process by which this structure is carried out. It is based on a social psychological analysis in which the dynamics of social movements is viewed both externally and internally in relation to the movement structure and process. The Sunbelt Alliance anti-nuclear group of Oklahoma is used as the empirical example. The research methodology consists of a series of focused personal interviews. The Sunbelt Alliance anti-nuclear organization experienced a dilemma resulting from the tension between external and internal contingencies. The promotion of cooperative interdependence based on member cohesiveness within the group suffered because of the inability of the organization to maintain consistent agreement concerning external targets. The structure of the group, or its goals and ideology, was not consistently reflected in its process. Disagreement over external priorities eventually reduced internal solidarity, and the organization dissolved.
In evolutionary game theory, repeated two-player games are used to study strategy evolution in a population under natural selection. As the evolution greatly depends on the interaction structure, there has been growing interests in studying the games on graphs. In this setting, players occupy the vertices of a graph and play the game only with their immediate neighbours. Various evolutionary dynamics have been studied in this setting for different games. Due to the complexity of the analysis, however, most of the work in this area is experimental. This paper aims to contribute to a more complete understanding, by providing rigorous analysis. We study the imitation dynamics on two classes of graph: cycles and complete graphs. We focus on three well known social dilemmas, namely the Prisoner's Dilemma, the Stag Hunt and the Snowdrift Game. We also consider, for completeness, the so-called Harmony Game. Our analysis shows that, on the cycle, all four games converge fast, either to total cooperation or total defe...
Abstract in spanish Este artículo revela mediante un análisis descriptivo la relación de los principios y valores éticos profesados por las organizaciones bancarias en los procesos de la calidad del servicio y atención al cliente, a través de la identificación de los valores, creencias y actitudes presentes en su cultura organizacional. Se llevó a cabo una investigación descriptiva, transversal y de campo para darle respuestas a los objetivos planteados. Las conclusiones estuvieron (more) orientadas a que los principios éticos no son entendidos en igual orden de importancia y que los valores éticos son determinantes para ofrecer calidad y buena atención en los servicios financieros; sugiriéndose algunos lineamientos gerenciales con la creación e implantación de un código ético del comportamiento laboral para garantizarle la preservación y protección tanto del usuario como los miembros de las instituciones bancarias con un espíritu de servicio bajo un enfoque integral ético. Abstract in english This article reveals the relation between ethical principles and values professed by banking organizations in processes of quality of service and client attention through the identification of values, beliefs and attitudes present in its organizational culture, and through descriptive analysis. Transversal descriptive field research was undertaken to reply to the objectives proposed. The conclusions were oriented towards the ethical principles proposed and are not underst (more) ood in the same order of importance and that ethical values are determining factors in the offer of good quality attention in financial services, suggesting certain managerial lines for the creation and implementation of an ethical code for labor conduct in order to guarantee the preservation and protection of both the users and the members of banking institutions in a spirit of service within a integral ethical focus.
Human rights legislation pertaining to applications of human genetic science is still lacking at an international level. Three international human rights documents now serve as guidelines for countries wishing to develop such legislation. These were drafted and adopted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the Human Genome Organization, and the Council of Europe. It is critically important that the international nursing community makes known its philosophy and practice-based knowledge relating to ethics and human rights, and contributes to the globalization of genetics. Nurses have particular expertise because they serve in a unique role at grass roots level to mediate between genetic science and its application to public health policies and medical interventions. As a result, nurses worldwide need to focus a constant eye on human rights ideals and interpret these within social, cultural, economic and political contexts at national and local levels. The purpose of this article is to clarify and legitimate the need for an international declaration on nursing, human rights, human genetics and public health policy. Because nurses around the world are the professional workforce by which genetic health care services and genetic research protocols will be delivered in the twenty-first century, members of the discipline of nursing need to think globally while acting locally. Above all other disciplines involved in genetics, nursing is in a good position to articulate an expanded theory of ethics beyond the principled approach of biomedical ethics. Nursing is sensitive to cultural diversity and community values; it is sympathetic to and can introduce an ethic of caring and relational ethics that listen to and accommodate the needs of local people and their requirements for public health. PMID:16010919
Background The potential contribution of community engagement to addressing ethical challenges for international biomedical research is well described, but there is relatively little documented experience of community engagement to inform its development in practice. This paper draws on experiences around community engagement and informed consent during a genetic cohort study in Kenya to contribute to understanding the strengths and challenges of community engagement in supporting ethical research practice, focusing on issues of communication, the role of field workers in 'doing ethics' on the ground and the challenges of community consultation. Methods The findings are based on action research methods, including analysis of community engagement documentation and the observations of the authors closely involved in their development and implementation. Qualitative and quantitative content analysis has been used for documentation of staff meetings and trainings, a meeting with 24 community leaders, and 40 large public and 70 small community group meetings. Meeting minutes from a purposive sample of six community representative groups have been analysed using a thematic framework approach. Results Field workers described challenges around misunderstandings about research, perceived pressure for recruitment and challenges in explaining the study. During consultation, leaders expressed support for the study and screening for sickle cell disease. In community meetings, there was a common interpretation of research as medical care. Concerns centred on unfamiliar procedures. After explanations of study procedures to leaders and community members, few questions were asked about export of samples or the archiving of samples for future research. Conclusions Community engagement enabled researchers to take account of staff and community opinions and issues during the study and adapt messages and methods to address emerging ethical challenges. Field workers conducting informed consent faced complex issues and their understanding, attitudes and communication skills were key influences on ethical practice. Community consultation was a challenging concept to put into practice, illustrating the complexity of assessing information needs and levels of deliberation that are appropriate to a given study. PMID:2843362
Business ethics may be defined as "the principles, values and standards that guide behavior in the world of business." The importance of ethical awareness in business transactions and education is widely recognized, and evidence shows that ethics education can influence decision making in the workplace. As a result, colleges of business often integrate ethics into the content of courses. Compelling evidence indicates that the study of ethics in college raises the awareness of undergraduate students to ethical concerns. Whatever approach to teaching ethics is utilized, appropriate learning goals for an ethics course would be to raise student awareness of ethics, assist students in recognizing that all decisions have ethical aspects, and provide a framework for ethical analysis. To that end, this article considers a constructivist approach to teaching ethics to undergraduate students that emphasizes active student involvement and allows for the application of ethical concepts and decision making to matters of concern to students. (Contains 95 footnotes.)
Abstract in spanish En los animales superiores, las células madre pueden ser embrionarias y somáticas o adultas, según su estado evolutivo. En la actualidad se mantiene una extraordinaria polémica sobre qué células madre utilizar: las embrionarias o las adultas, debate en el que se han incluido aspectos científicos, éticos, religiosos, sociales y políticos. Un aspecto del debate científico está relacionado con la capacidad generativa de tumores por las células embrionarias. Tambi (more) én se ha señalado que los beneficios de las células embrionarias se han exagerado y que en su lugar podrían utilizarse células madre adultas, con las que no existen restricciones éticas ni se ha comprobado la generación de tumores. Desde el punto de vista ético, se ha argumentado que el uso de las células madre embrionarias humanas implica la destrucción de embriones y se ha considerado que la vida comienza en el mismo momento de la unión del espermatozoide con el óvulo. Lo que equivaldría a la destrucción de una vida humana, algo no justificable. Otros no están de acuerdo con estos criterios, y plantean que su uso para salvar vidas mediante la investigación o la terapéutica estaría justificado. Recientemente se ha logrado la obtención de células madre embrionarias denominadas “células madre éticas”, pues este nuevo método eliminaría el dilema ético de destruir embriones. Algunos han planteado que estos resultados son preliminares, posiblemente exagerados, y la eficiencia del método es muy baja. Otros señalan que resulta más ético trabajar con embriones que de todas formas se van a destruir. Abstract in english In the superior animals, the stem cells may be embryonary and somatic, or adults, according to their evolutive state. At present, there is an extraordinary polemic about the stem cells that should be used: the embryonary or the adults. Scientific, religious, social and political aspects have been included in this debate. An aspect of the scientific discussion is related to the tumour-producing capacity of the embryonary cells. It has also been stated that the benefits of (more) the embryonary cells have been exaggerated, and that adult stem cells should be used instead, since they do not have ethical restrictions and do not generate tumours. From the ethical point of view, it has been explained that the use of human embryonary stem cells leads to the destruction of embryos and, as it is considered that life begins in the very moment the spermatozoid joins the ovule, it would mean the extermination of a life, which is something intolerable. Others do not agree with this criterion and express that their use to save lives by investigation or biopsy would be justified. Recently, there have been obtained embryonary stem cells so-called “ethical stem cells”. This new method would eradicate the ethical dilemma of destroying embryos. Some have stated that these are preliminary and possibly exaggerated results, and that the efficiency of the method is very low, while others say that it is more ethical to work with embryos that will be destroyed anyway.
This lecture focuses on several ethical issues on psychiatry research and psychiatric practice. The most important issue in ethics is informed consent in both the national guidelines on ethics in genomic study and epidemiological studies determined by the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Labor, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology and Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. They recommend researchers to obtain consent from subjects making free voluntary decisions after they are fully provided with the necessary information and explanation. The guidelines on ethics in genomic study strongly recommend organizing an ethical committee committed by several extramural members from the fields of law, social or human sciences. On the other hand, the guidelines on ethics in epidemiological study provide how to obtain informed consent in detail according to how projects are carried out. Strict requirements of informed consent tend to inhibit medical research conduct, in particular a research on post-mortem brain, which is one of the important research areas for elucidation of pathogenesis and pathophysiology of mental disorders. Recently a new trend to organize a brain bank by donation of the patient who has given consent before death. This is a proper way to collect post-mortem brain overcoming the ethical problems and it is our hope that this trend will develop in our country. Disclosure of medical records to patients is one of the most recent and debated issues in psychiatric practices. In 1999, the Ministry of Health and Welfare started investigations on whether medical records should be disclosed to patients. The report of the committee strongly recommends accelerating the disclosure of medical records. Responding to this report, several medical organizations issued a guideline. Recently, we carried out a questionnaire survey on the disclosure rate of medical records in the psychiatric departments of both medical school hospitals and national mental hospitals, where special committees have been organized to determine the disclosure of the medical records when a patient demands it officially. Contrary to our expectation the rate of disclosure demands was very low in both medical schools and national mental hospitals. The average number was only less than one case in medical schools, and less than 0.5 cases in national mental hospitals. It was speculated that patient requests demanding the disclosure of the records are mostly managed by the doctor in charge without consulting the special committee. Looking back the process of debate on the disclosure of medical records, several important issues, such as notice of diagnosis, informed consent, management of records, standardization of medical records, financial support to establish management system of medical records and so on, remain to be further examined thoroughly. PMID:12481440
On the ethical valuation of an anserwable energy supply and the problem of its social acceptance; Energie-Ethik. Zur ethischen Bewertung einer verantwortbaren Energieversorgung und zum Problem ihrer gesellschaftlichen Akzeptanz
The energy issue is long past being a purely technological or economic problem. To speak in an appropriate way about the energy problem today means also to speak about the ethical question of whether the means proposed for its solution are answerable. Genuinely ethical considerations are attaining increasing weight and moving into the focus of the debate. Unfortunately, in this field, too, there are meanwhile tendencies to instrumentalise ethical positions. Such positions are then usually stripped of their context and, depending on their content, are used to support the preconceived opinions of their abusers. Thus ethics is often made to assume the role of a preacher of repentance rebuking the corruptness of our present day, a prophet of a safe future, or simply that of a defendant of the status quo. Such abuse must be resisted in our endeavour to define the role and tasks that befit ethics in the present discourse on an answerable energy supply for the future. One thing must be clear from the start: Ethics as it is understood here has nothing to do with ready-made decisions imposed from above. Ethics should rather offer support to the individual, especially if he or she holds a responsible position, in making justifiable, responsible decisions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Energiefrage stellt sich laengst nicht mehr allein als ein technologisches oder oekologisches Problem dar. Heute in angemessener Weise ueber das Energieproblem sprechen, bedeutet zugleich ueber die ethische Frage der Verantwortbarkeit der fuer seine Loesung eingeschlagenen Wege sprechen. Zunehmend gewinnen Ueberlegungen genuin ethischer Art an Gewicht und ruecken ins Zentrum der Diskussion. Freilich sind mittlerweile auch hier Tendenzen zur Instrumentalisierung gerade von ethischen Aussagen unverkennbar. Diese werden meist aus ihrem Gesamtkontext herausgeloest und je nach Inhalt zur Untermauerung der jeweiligen bereits vorgefassten Meinung herangezogen. Ethik erscheint so nicht selten entweder in der Rolle einer Busspredigerin einer verderbten Gegenwart, als Prophetin einer heilen Zukunft oder schlicht als Verteidigerin des Status Quo. Solchem Missbrauch gilt es zu wehren, wenn man die Rolle und die Aufgabenstellung der Ethik zu bestimmen sucht, die dieser im Diskurs ueber eine verantwortbare Energieversorgung der Zukunft zukommt. Eines gleich vorweg: Ethik - wie sie hier verstanden wird - ist nicht aufgeordnete Vorentscheidung. Ethik bietet vielmehr Hilfestellungen, damit jeder einzelne, aber gerade auch jede besondere Verantwortungstraegerin bzw. jeder besondere Verantwortungstraeger in rechtfertigungsfaehiger und damit verantwortlicher Weise ihre Entscheidungen treffen koennen. (orig.)
A Core Study Text for the ACCA Qualification. The examiner-reviewed P7 Study Text includes everything you need for this paper, including detailed guidance on the exam. The question bank includes questions in the style of the P7 paper, and each chapter contains useful exam focus points and chapter roundups. The Study Text provides an excellent source of the main professional and regulatory aspects of audit and assurance engagements, focusing on ethics and regulation and practice management, before going through the audit and assurance engagement process, and ending with a consideration of curre
Today there is a great variety of methods for evaluating the environmental impact of plans, programs and projects. But which of these methods should planners and managers choose? This theoretical article explores the connection between conflicts, communication and rationality in assessment methods. It focuses on the form (rationality) and substance of communication, i.e. what we should communicate about. The outcome supports the view that environmental assessments should be based on value- and interest-focused thinking, following a teleological ethic, when goals, alternatives and compensations are to be developed and impacts evaluated.
A Core Study Text for the ACCA Qualification. The examiner-reviewed F8 Study Text includes everything you need for this paper including detailed guidance on the exam. The question bank includes questions in the style of the F8 paper, and each chapter contains useful exam focus points. The Study Text provides an excellent introduction to the main professional and regulatory aspects of audit and assurance engagements, focusing on ethics and regulation, before going through the external audit process as an example of a key assurance engagement.
Abstract Whole genomic sequencing (WGS) promises significant personalized health benefits, and its increasingly low cost makes wide clinical use inevitable. However, a core challenge is -incidental findings- (IF). Using focus groups, we explored attitudes about the disclosure of IF in clinical settings from three perspectives: Genetics health-care professionals, the general public, and parents whose children have experienced genetic testing. Analysis was based on a framework approach. All three groups considered practical and ethical considerations. There was consensus that IF presented challenges for disclosure and a pre-test patient-clinician discussion was vital for clarification and agreement. The professionals favored targeted analysis to limit data handling and focus pre-test discuss...
The Code of Ethics for Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educators outlines the ethical principles and standards that are derived from childbirth education's core values to assure quality and ethical practice. This article presents a summary of the history of ethics and medical ethics that informs a value...
Here, I investigate the challenges involved in addressing ethical questions related to food policy, food security, and climate change in a public engagement atmosphere where ?experts? (e.g., scientists and scholars), policy-makers and laypersons interact. My focus is on the intersection between food and climate in the state of Alaska, located in the circumpolar north. The intersection of food security and climate represents a ?wicked problem.? This wicked problem is plagued by ?unruliness,? characterized by disruptive mechanisms that can impede how ethical issues in policy-making are broached. Unruliness is exacerbated by conditions of engagement that can be characterized as occurring in a ?fog.? In this fog, interlocutors encounter both moral and epistemological conundrums. In considering...
This paper focuses on experiences from a case study dealing with the Swiss type of a consensus conference called ?PubliForum?? concerning ?Genetic Technology and Nutrition?? (1999). Societal and ethical aspects of genetically modified food meanwhile can be seen as prototypes of topics depending on the involvement of the public through a participatory process. The important role of the lay perspective in this field seems to be accepted in practice. Nevertheless, there is still some theoretical controversy about the necessity and democratic legitimacy of participatory processes in general, and especially about those dealing with technological or environmental problems (sustainable development) concerning society. From an ethical point of view, a lot of heterogeneous problems concerning conte...
Nanotechnologies are often said to be "converging" with other technologies like biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science. And so-called "NBIC convergence" is thought to enable "enhancement" of human performance. First, I classify various kinds of enhancement. Second, I focus on the "cybernetic enhancement," to which nanotechnologies are supposed to contribute, and analyze the connection and integration of humans with machines, which could lead to the cyborgization of human beings. Third, I examine the portrayal of robot/cyborg technology in Japanese popular media, point out the tendency to empathy or ensoulment concerning robots/cyborgs, and raise the question of "ethical issues of ethical enhancement." Fourth, I compare nanotechnologies with neurotechnology and criticize the hype of "converging technologies." PMID:21850971
Abstract Immense resource allocations have led to great data output in genetic research. Concerning ADHD resources spent on genetic research are less than those spent on clinical research. But there are successful efforts made to increase support for molecular genetics research in ADHD. Concerning genetics no evidence based conclusive results have significant impact on prevention, diagnosis or treatment yet. With regard to ethical aspects like the patients' benefit and limited resources the question arises if it is indicated to think about a new balance of resource allocation between molecular genetics and non-genetics research in ADHD. An ethical reflection was performed focusing on recent genetic studies and reviews based on a selective literature search. There are plausible reasons why ...
Background A project is a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a product or service. Projects are frequently used for the testing and development of new approaches in social work. Projects can receive grants from central, often national or international institutions, and allow for more experimentation than work placed within existing institutions. Discussion For socially marginalized groups who need continuing support and care, receiving help in a project means that the clients will have to be transferred to other services when the project ends. There is also a risk that clients will experience a decline in services, as staff members have to seek new employment towards the end of the project, or begin to focus more on the evaluation than the services. This raises some ethical issues concerning the use of human subjects in projects. Conclusion Project managers should consider ethical issues relating to continuity of services when serving vulnerable patients with a need for continuing care.
Purpose - The aim of this small-scale focus group study is to explore the impact the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has on attitudes towards HPV, cervical cancer and sexual risk taking amongst university students in the UK. Design/methodology/approach - Participants were recruited through advertisements placed on notice boards throughout the campus of the University of Leeds. The study sampled purposively to obtain two groups of ten men and two groups of ten women. A total of 34 people attended the sessions. The missing participants gave no reason for the absence. Those who agreed to take part were aged 19-24 and were from a range of academic courses. Ethical approval was sought and approved by the Medical School Ethics Committee at the University of Leeds. Findings - Participants saw...
The use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research is an important underexposed ethical issue. Several ethical questions may be raised about this use of animals. This article focuses on the possibilities of reducing the number of animals used. Given that there is considerable debate about the adequacy of the current animal models in tissue engineering research, we investigate whether it is possible to reduce the number of laboratory animals by selecting and using only those models that have greatest predictive value for future clinical application of the tissue engineered product. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering is used as a case study. Based on a study of the scientific literature and interviews with leading experts in the field, an overview is provided of th...
Ethical equitation is nowadays coming into sharp focus in equestrian culture. Concerns surround the ethics of sports based on controlling an animals locomotory responses and in using animals such as horses in sport in general. Anthropomorphically labeled misinterpretations of the responses of trained horses, such as the use of terms like "mad," "lazy," "keen," and "stubborn," may be detrimental to optimal equine welfare. Similarly, the concept of the "equine athlete" may imply an ill-informed teleological explanation of the motives of the horse in sport. Despite problems in identifying the happy horse, rewarding optimal welfare and the absence of critical stress responses in performance horses is an important step forward. Horse racing is the source of many welfare concerns because of the ...
Abstract in english In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Fu (more) rther criteria must be applied to protect the fundamental principles of respect for human life. Personalism offers similar advantages to utilitarianism but warrants more protection to the human person. We suggest a possible adaptation of personalism in the specific field of public health by means of four principles: absolute respect for life or principle of inviolability; subsidiarity and the "minimum" mandatory principle; solidarity; justice and non discrimination.
Participant observation is now increasingly used within qualitative health research and has been found to offer opportunities for the collection and synthesis of rich data about health and illness experience. This method, often used over an extended period, enables the researcher to build an in-depth understanding of the research context and can be the basis for the development of relationships between the researcher and the 'researched'. Researcher familiarity in the field, however, can give rise to ethical and practical tensions. This article reports on the ethical and practical challenges of participant observation at a cancer drop-in centre focusing on issues connected to the dual role of the researcher as both volunteer and researcher. It highlights the methodological practice of refl...
Purpose - South Africa is a developing country, and within this context, it is essential to be economically competitive and proactive. Various sources reveal that the national productivity has been traditionally low, and continues to remain low. Within the context of the international arena, this is unacceptable. If South Africa is to become a recognised role player in the international arena, it is imperative to increase productivity like China. This paper aims to focus on the issues involved. Design/methodology/approach - A 65-item inventory which measures seven conceptually and empirically distinct facets of the work ethic construct, i.e. the multi-dimensional work ethic profile (MWEP) was utilised to critically distinguish between the Chinese and South African workforces. The samples a...
Professional organizations regularly review and revise their codes of ethics. The American School Counselor Association (ASCA) completed this task in June 2004. At the 2004 national conference, the leadership team, consisting of state presidents, past presidents, and president elects, voted to adopt the changes. These changes, as outlined in Table 1, and the implications of these changes for practitioners working with families and schools are the focus of this article. The table includes the wording from the 1998 version in the left column and the wording from the 2004 version in the right column. For the purposes of this article, only those changes most relevant to family work are included. School counselors are advised to refer to the entire ASCA code to ensure awareness of other changes. Recent changes to the American School Counselor Association ethical codes relevant to working with families are outlined. Implications for school counselors, counselor educators, and other counselors working with school counselors are also indicated.
"Every Child" is Australia's premier early childhood publication, aimed at anyone involved in the care and education of children from birth to eight years--in particular child care professionals, teachers, child care students and the parents of young children. Published quarterly, it contains informative and entertaining articles on such issues as early childhood curriculum, ethics, health and professional development. This edition of "Every Child" focuses on a range of advocacy, policy and practice issues that promote quality and equity in early childhood services. It also includes the first installment of contemporary research from the National ECA Early Childhood Conference to be held in Brisbane, September 28-October 2, 2005. The main features in this issue are: (1) Toy Libraries; (2) Welfare Reform; (3) National Child Protection Week; (4) Surviving the Bully in Early Childhood; and (5) Code of Ethics Agenda-Special Update. [This document was produced by Early Childhood Australia Inc., formerly known as the Australian Early Childhood Association.
UNESCO is an intergovernmental organization with 193 Member States. It is concerned with a broad range of issues regarding education, science and culture. It is the only UN organisation with a mandate in science. Since 1993 it is addressing ethics of science and technology, with special emphasis on bioethics. One major objective of the ethics programme is the development of international normative standards. This is particularly important since many Member States only have a limited infrastructure in bioethics, lacking expertise, educational programs, bioethics committees and legal frameworks. UNESCO has recently adopted the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. The focus of current activities is now on implementation of this Declaration. Three activities are discussed that ...
Research design and methods in educational neuroscience involve using neuroscientific tools such as brain image technologies to investigate cognitive functions and inform educational practices. The ethical challenges raised by research in social neuroscience have become the focus of neuroethics, a sub-discipline of bioethics. More specifically here, we give an overview of neuroethical issues arising from brain imaging studies and neuropharmacology in education, from neuromyths to potential stigmatization of learners, and discuss the relevance of establishing the field of educational neuroethics. We argue that by integrating ethical positions to research design and methods in educational neuroscience, it would become possible to contextualize results and the diffusion of results, which in turn insure better credibility among the wide variety of stakeholders to new knowledge emerging from educational neuroscience.
Medical Education 2012: 46: 349-356 Objectives- This article explores the concept of resilience and its potential relevance to medicine. It also looks at the dimensions of resilience and its ethical importance for effective professional practice, and considers whether a focus on resilience might be useful in medical training. Methods- An applied literature search was conducted across the domains of education, ethics, psychology and sociology to answer the research question: -What is resilience and what might it mean for professional development in medical education?- This article predominantly considers the findings in relation to training in undergraduate and postgraduate settings, although the literature is wide-ranging and findings may be applicable elsewhere. Results- Resilience is a d...
For a significant number of patients, there exists no, or only little, interest in developing a treatment for their disease or condition. Especially with regard to rare diseases, the lack of commercial interest in drug development is a burning issue. Several interventions have been made in the regulatory field in order to address the commercial disinterest in these conditions. However, existing regulations mainly focus on the provision of incentives to the sponsors of clinical trials of orphan drugs, and leave unanswered the overarching question about the rightful place of orphan drugs in resource allocation systems. In this article, we analyse the ethical aspects of funding research and development in the field of rare diseases. We then propose an ethical framework that can help health policy makers move forward in the difficult matter of fairly allocating resources for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of rare diseases. PMID:21947805
Video games, as technological and cultural artifacts of considerable influence in the contemporary society, play an important role in the construction of identities, just as other artifacts (e.g., books, newspapers, television) played for a long time. In this paper, we discuss this role by considering video games under two concepts, othering and technopoly, and focus on how these concepts demand that we deepen our understanding of the ethics of video games. We address here how the construction of identities within video games involves othering process, that is, processes through which, when signifying and identifying `Ourselves', we create and marginalize `Others'. Moreover, we discuss how video games can play an important role in the legitimation of the technopoly, understood as a totalitarian regime related to science, technology and their place in our societies. Under these two concepts, understanding the ethics of video games goes beyond the controversy about their violence. The main focus of discussion should lie in how the ethics of video games is related to their part in the formation of the players' citizenship. Examining several examples of electronic games, we consider how video games provide a rich experience in which the player has the opportunity to develop a practical wisdom (phronesis), which can lead her to be a virtuous being. However, they can be also harmful to the moral experiences of the subjects when they show unethical contents related to othering processes that are not so clearly and openly condemned as violence, as in the cases of sexism, racism or xenophobia. Rather than leading us to conclude that video games needed to be banned or censored, this argument makes us highlight their role in the (science) education of critical, socially responsible, ethical, and politically active citizens, precisely because they encompass othering processes and science, technology, and society relationships.
Da ética kantiana à ética habermasiana: implicações sociojurídicas da reconfiguração discursiva do imperativo categórico/ From Kantian to habersmanian ethics: socio-juridical implications of the discursive reconfiguration of the categorical imperative
Abstract in portuguese Este artigo aborda a reconstrução do imperativo categórico de Kant pela ética do discurso de Habermas. O procedimento metodológico adotado combinou vários métodos científicos: o dedutivo, ao se partir de teoria geral acerca do tema proposto para chegar a conclusões sobre situações particulares; o tipológico, no estudo de um tipo ideal para a criação desse mesmo modelo na realidade; o analítico, referindo-se à análise conceitual e à busca pelo emprego rig (more) oroso de conceitos; o hermenêutico-fenomenológico, no qual a categoria epistemológica fundamental é a compreensão e a meta, a interpretação dos fatos. Na primeira seção, o texto trata da formulação do imperativo categórico, suas consequências para a ação humana e fórmulas derivadas. A seguir, é apresentada a proposta habermasiana de sua ética do discurso, o princípio da universalização e a redução do agir ético à ação monológica. Por derradeiro, estabelece-se uma relação entre as duas posturas teórico-filosóficas e as consequências sociojurídicas da ética habermasiana para uma Teoria da Sociedade. Abstract in english This article analyzes the reconstruction of Kant's categoric imperative by Habermas' discourse ethics. Various scientific methodologies were combined including deductive, typological, analytical and hermeneutic-phenomenological approaches. The deductive approach begins from the general theory about the issue to seek conclusions about particular situations. The typology approach focuses on the study of an ideal type used to create a model in reality. The analytical approac (more) h focuses on conceptual analysis and strives for a rigorous use of concepts. In the hermeneutic-phenomenological approach the fundamental epistemological category is comprehension and the goal is an interpretation of the facts. The text first presents a formulation of the categorical imperative and its consequences for human action and derived formulas. It then presents the Habermasian proposal for a discourse ethics, the principle of universalization and the reduction of ethical action to monological action. Finally, it establishes a relation between the two theoretical-philosophical positions and the socio-juridical consequences of Habermasian ethics for a Theory of Society.
Assessment of ethical aspects and authorization by ethics committees have become a major constraint for health research including human subjects. Ethical reference values often are extrapolated from clinical settings, where emphasis lies on decisional autonomy and protection of individual's privacy....
This paper analyzes the interplay of policy dilemma in the areas of food security, agricultural subsidies, energy consumption, and the environment in the 'glocalization' process of Sri Lanka. It demonstrates that the domestic agricultural and food sector is intricately interconnected with the global economy and world market forces. While this paper gives a primary focus on domestic rice production and wheat import policies, it further examines the environmental consequences and public health issues that are associated with the process of 'glocalization' as part of globalization. This 'glocalization' has led to a series of intended and unintended externalities for Sri Lanka whose economic integration is irreversibly linked to agricultural and subsidy policies of other food exporting and producing countries of Asia and the United States. (author)
This guide is Unit 3 of the four-part series, Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to identify the key elements of the United States' nuclear waste dilemma and introduce the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the role of the public in the development of a high-level waste management program. Particular attention is focused on activities to enable students to develop insight into the difficult task of siting, storing, transporting, and disposing of high-level nuclear waste. The first section of Unit 3 includes five lesson plans about risk assessment and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The second section provides a lesson plan about probability. Activity sheets for students and transparencies for the lesson plans and background notes are included in the third section followed by the unit test. Answers keys and a glossary are also included. Contains 12 references. (DDR)
On the basis of qualitative interviews on 'Energibyen Frederikshavn' (Energy City Frederikshavn), the article reveals various rationales underlying modern consumers' often contradictory opinions and attitudes to climate change and energy consumption. It may seem hard to decide whether the interest in sustainable, alternative sources of energy is conditioned by the soaring price of oil or present threats of climate change. And does it really matter what the motivations are as long as behaviour is changed? The article will discuss the energy discourses produced by the people in the participating focus group in the light of three rather different, theoretical positions. And, finally, we will contextualize the findings with respect to risk society and media including political dilemmas in the case of Denmark.
The empirical data analysed in this essay will focus on several Greenlanders who were invited to the COP15 parallel event Klimaforum09, held in Copenhagen in December 2009, as well as their experiences with the venue and the dilemmas they confronted as both local and global witnesses. This essay challenges the use of climate testimonies in the international climatechange debate. Specifically, what is drawn upon in these personal experiences with the environment, and how is it useful in a public, political, or scientific context? In the conclusion of this article, it is argued that dominant climate-crisis narratives have framed ‘‘the Greenlandic case’’ in a certain way, which consequently freezes arguments and possible agency. However, at the same time as there is a global framing of climate change and a specific position in this narrative for ‘‘local witnesses’’, there is also room for an alternative empowerment and ways of engaging in and talking about global and local natures.
In Evolutionary Dynamics the understanding of cooperative phenomena in natural and social systems has been the subject of intense research during decades. We focus attention here on the so-called "Lattice Reciprocity" mechanisms that enhance evolutionary survival of the cooperative phenotype in the Prisoner's Dilemma game when the population of darwinian replicators interact through a fixed network of social contacts. Exact results on a "Dipole Model" are presented, along with a mean-field analysis as well as results from extensive numerical Monte Carlo simulations. The theoretical framework used is that of standard Statistical Mechanics of macroscopic systems, but with no energy considerations. We illustrate the power of this perspective on social modeling, by consistently interpreting the onset of lattice reciprocity as a thermodynamical phase transition that, moreover, cannot be captured by a purely mean-field approach.
Abstract Drawing from four case studies of dialogue groups between Turkish American and Armenian American communities organized over the past decade, this article examines the political value of grassroots diplomacy. In particular, it questions the emphasis on the transfer-up paradigm prevalent in the literature of conflict resolution, which is premised on the ultimate importance of governmental structures in brokering a resolution. Instead, the article focuses on the role that grassroots communities can play in civil society development between two communities as an alternate pathway toward conflict resolution and reconciliation. The article also takes up the dilemma that dialogue groups face: to promote a resolution to a conflict versus advancing social justice and human rights. The arti...
When someone is criticized for some failure or deficiency, he or she is faced with a dilemma about whether or how to respond. To date, most research on responses to criticism has adopted a communication approach and has focused on general social complaints. The present study instead adopted the perspective of stress and coping and aimed to delineate possible responses to criticism pertaining to one's physical appearance. We investigated the efficacy of three coping styles, namely acceptance, avoidance, and retaliation in explaining emotional reactions towards such criticism, and we additionally controlled for personality characteristics, in particular assertion and harmony beliefs. A sample of Taiwanese university students (N = 300) was surveyed for their coping styles and psycho...
The study of asteroids is traditionally performed by means of large Earth based telescopes, by means of which orbital elements and spectral properties are acquired. Space borne research, has so far been limited to a few occasional flybys and a couple of dedicated flights to a single selected target. Although the telescope based research offers precise orbital information, it is limited to the brighter, larger objects, and taxonomy as well as morphology resolution is limited. Conversely, dedicated missions offer detailed surface mapping in radar, visual, and prompt gamma, but only for a few selected targets. The dilemma obviously being the resolution versus distance and the statistics versus DeltaV requirements. Using advanced instrumentation and onboard autonomy, we have developed a space mission concept whose goal is to map the flux, size, and taxonomy distributions of asteroids. The main focus is on main belt objects, but the mission profile will enable mapping of objects inside the Earth orbit as well.
We study the stochastic dynamics of evolutionary games, and focus on the so-called `stochastic slowdown' effect, previously observed in (Altrock et. al, 2010) for simple evolutionary dynamics. Slowdown here refers to the fact that a beneficial mutation may take longer to fixate than a neutral one. More precisely, the fixation time conditioned on the mutant taking over can show a maximum at intermediate selection strength. We show that this phenomenon is present in the prisoner's dilemma, and also discuss counterintuitive slowdown and speedup in coexistence games. In order to establish the microscopic origins of these phenomena, we calculate the average sojourn times. This allows us to identify the transient states which contribute most to the slowdown effect, and enables us to provide an understanding of slowdown in the takeover of a small group of cooperators by defectors: Defection spreads quickly initially, but the final steps to takeover can be delayed significantly. The analysis of coexistence games reve...
This article reports and reflects on the learning achievements and the educational experiences in connection with the first years of the curriculum in Architecture atAalborg University?s Civil Engineer Education in Architecture & Design. In the article I will focus on the learning activity and the method that are developed during the semester when working with an Integrated Design Process combining architecture, design, functional aspects, energy consumption, indoor environment, technology, and construction. I will emphasize the importance of working with different tools in the design process, e.g. the computer as a tool for designing and optimising the building. I will also consider the dilemma of the Integrated Design Process in Problem Based Learning that emerges when the number of courses in the learning model, as is often the case, clashes with the demand for time and scope for reflection which the students need in order to concentrate, mobilize creativity and find the personal design language which is aprecondition for making good architecture.
The progressive politics of social work is threatened as social workers confront the widening gulf between professional ideals and the realities of their practice within the morally conservative context of neo-liberal risk society. Identifying how to subvert the despondency and despair that such a climate evokes, and being able to connect to an increased sense of professional agency, is urgently needed. This paper provides insight into how this can be achieved by considering how social workers, who participated in an Australian study, determined a moral response that was ‘other’-focused when faced with the dilemma of whether to respond to their clients' or their own sense of being ‘at risk’ within their respective practice contexts. The significance of th...
Considering the inertia of individuals in real life, we propose a modified Fermi updating rule, where the inertia of players is introduced into evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) on square lattices. We mainly focus on how the inertia affects the cooperative behavior of the system. Interestingly, we find that the cooperation level has a nonmonotonic dependence on the inertia: with small inertia, cooperators will soon be invaded by defectors; with large inertia, players are unwilling to change their strategies and the cooperation level remains the same as the initial state; while a moderate inertia can induce the highest cooperation level. Moreover, effects of environmental noise and individual inertia are studied. Our work may be helpful in understanding the emergence and persistence of cooperation in nature and society.
The study aimed to explore whether evidence-based elementary social-emotional learning (SEL) curricula [Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS)] focused on social problem-solving skills combined with sexual risk prevention lessons would have an impact on preventing the early onset of sexual intercourse. A 4-year longitudinal, randomized, controlled design was employed in which 24 elementary schools were assigned to receive the already in place SEL curriculum (control) or the enhanced PATHS curriculum (intervention) combined with sexual risk prevention lessons during grades 3?6. Social problem-solving skills were assessed in grade 6 through the use of a social problem-solving dilemma and sexual behavior was assessed in grades 6 and 7. Sexual activity rates were 9.1% and 21.1% in t...
Pure methods generally perform excellently in either recommendation accuracy or diversity, whereas hybrid methods generally outperform pure cases in both recommendation accuracy and diversity, but encounter the dilemma of optimal hybridization parameter selection for different recommendation focuses. In this article, based on a user-item bipartite network, we propose a data characteristic based algorithm, by relating the hybridization parameter to the data characteristic. Different from previous hybrid methods, the present algorithm adaptively assign the optimal parameter specifically for each individual items according to the correlation between the algorithm and the item degrees. Compared with a highly accurate pure method, and a hybrid method which is outstanding in both the recommendation accuracy and the diversity, our method shows a remarkably promotional effect on the long-standing challenging problem of the cold start, as well as the recommendation diversity, while simultaneously keeps a high overall ...
This article explores the key normative and strategic pillars of the EU's member-statebuilding in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a specific focus on the issue of responsibility. By looking at the attitude of EU policy makers vis-a-vis the reform of the Bosnian constitution, it sheds light on the peculiar 'EU hands-up statebuilding' approach. The ambiguity apparent in the EU officials' tendency to throw their hands up in a denying gesture when called upon to take direct responsibility for political reconciliation and constitutional reform reveals the inherent difficulties for Brussels in resolving the crucial operational dilemmas of statebuilding. Given a certain predisposition of the EU-27 to distance itself from political processes and 'technify' its relationship with the target state, Brus...
This paper is a study of the accounting academic labour market and workplace conditions. Its particular focus is on the pressures, contradictions and dilemmas experienced by junior (Levels A and B) accounting academics at Australian universities. It is argued that, due to work, personal and family pressures, many junior staff members may struggle to complete their PhD within a prescribed time frame. The reasons for this are discussed, as well as the likely effects. The Marxist concept of "alienation" is explored in detail to explain how a junior staff members work "product" may take on a life of its own which stands up in opposition to her/him, to accuse her/him. The writings of the first-generation critical theorist, Herbert Marcuse, are used to suggest a radical path forward for the juni...
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2012;14:787-791. 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. During the past decades, blood pressure (BP) measurement technique has evolved rapidly from the traditionally manual measuring to fully automatic monitoring. In terms of management of BP, there have been tremendous changes from the controlling of daytime BP, nondipping pattern to nocturnal BP (NBP). Since the focus has turned to NBP, a number of dilemmas of NBP measurement have gradually emerged in clinical practice and research settings, including methods for monitoring NBP, different period definition of nocturnal time, different diagnostic thresholds of abnormal NBP, whether to control abnormal NBP, and how to manage abnormal NBP. Currently, these issues have hindered progress in the appropriate management of hy...
Spatial games are crucial for understanding patterns of cooperation in nature (and to some extent society). They are known to be more sensitive to local symmetries than e.g. spin models. This paper concerns the evolution of the prisoner's dilemma game on regular lattices with three different types of neighborhoods -- the von Neumann-, Moore-, and kagome types. We investigate two kinds of dynamics for the players to update their strategies (that can be unconditional cooperator or defector). Depending on the payoff difference, an individual can adopt the strategy of a random neighbor (a voter-model-like dynamics, VMLD), or impose its strategy on a random neighbor, i.e., invasion-like dynamics (IPLD). In particular, we focus on the effects of noise, in combination with the strategy dynamics, on the evolution of cooperation. We find that VMLD, compared to IPLD, better supports the spreading and sustaining of cooperation. We see that noise has nontrivial effects on the evolution of cooperation: maximum cooperation...
In the beginning was - not the word - but the experience. This phenomenological approach provides the basis for this book, which focuses on how a person-in-situation experiences and constructs meaning from a variety of cultural visual events. This book presents video-based processual methods for researching experiences in a variety of settings ranging from the museum, to news photography, and interactive media. The research led to the development of a set of methodological tools and approaches we term the reflexivity lab. The interaction in the experimental situation between the media and body, dialogue, moods, values and narratives have been investigated qualitatively with more than sixty informants in a range of projects. The processual methodological insights are put into a theoretical perspective and also presented as pragmatic dilemmas. Researching Experiences is relevant not only for students and researchers in media and communication studies but also for practitioners within the fields of media, communication and experience design.
Inspired by the realistic process of taking decisions in social life, we have proposed a repeated thinking mechanism in the evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game where players are denoted by the vertices and play games with their direct neighbors. Under our mechanism, a player i will randomly select a neighbor j and then deliberate for M times before strategy updating. It will remain unchanged if not all M considerations suggest it to learn the strategy of j. We mainly focus on the evolution of cooperation in the systems. Interestingly, we find that the cooperation level fC is remarkably promoted and fC has a monotonic dependence on the caution parameter M, indicating that being cautious facilitates the emergence and persistence of cooperation. We give a simple but clear explanation for this cooperation promotion via detecting the cooperator-defector transition process. Moreover, the robustness of this mechanism is also examined on different noise levels and game models.
Abstract: Conservation biologists often face the trade-off that increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes to reduce extinction risk of native species can foster invasion by non-native species that enter via the corridors created, which can then increase extinction risk. This dilemma is acute for stream fishes, especially native salmonids, because their populations are frequently relegated to fragments of headwater habitat threatened by invasion from downstream by 3 cosmopolitan non-native salmonids. Managers often block these upstream invasions with movement barriers, but isolation of native salmonids in small headwater streams can increase the threat of local extinction. We propose a conceptual framework to address this worldwide problem that focuses on 4 main questions. First, are...
In recent years advances in the construction of mathematical models of biological systems have yielded an array of valuable constructs. The authors seek to provide a 'leading practice' method for implementing modularised kinetic mass-action models in order to obtain a number of advantages in model construction, validation and derived insights. The authors advocate the consideration of 'accounting cycles' or 'chains' to define 'functional' components and the separate consideration of 'messenger' components for mobile or diffusive molecular species. From a conceptual modularisation the authors illustrate, with an example drawn from signal transduction, a component-based formulation in the model exchange format cellular modelling markup language (CellML) 1.1 - demonstrating loose coupling between functionally-focused reusable components. Finally, the authors discuss the dilemmas associated with modelling protein-to-protein interactions, and the vision for using future CellML enhancements to resolve potential duplications when combining independently developed models. PMID:18397118
ABSTRACT The gestational surrogate - and her economic and educational vulnerability in particular - is the focus of many of the most persistent worries about paid surrogacy. Those who employ her, and those who broker and organize her services, usually have an advantage over her in resources and information. That asymmetry exposes her to the possibility of exploitation and abuse. Accordingly, some argue for banning paid surrogacy. Others defend legal permission on grounds of surrogate autonomy, but often retain concerns about the surrogate. In response to the dilemma of a ban versus bald permission, we propose a `soft law' approach: states should require several hours of education of surrogates - education aimed at informing and enhancing surrogate autonomy.
It is my intention, in this article, to present an analytic exploration, through clinical material, of a patient's fantasies about her infertility, including what she thought had caused it, what she imagined was happening in her body as she tried to conceive, and how these fantasies about her infertility were seen to be vitally linked to difficulties in her functioning in other areas of her life. Even though the patient conceived with the help of assisted reproductive technology (ART), my focus in this article will not be extensively on the challenges and dilemmas that ART often brings up, but rather more on what we learned about how my patient experienced herself in her struggle with infertility. I also hope to demonstrate that an evolving understanding of these fantasies helped her under...
The ongoing and unfolding relocation of activities is one of the major trends, that calls for attention in the domain of operations management. In particular, prescriptive models outlining: stages of the process, where to locate, and how to establish the new facilities have been studied, while the question of how knowledge to be transferred is captured, deployed and developed has largely been ignored. This is the topic of this paper which focuses particularly on the shop floor activities. Three case studies form the empirical basis for the paper representing different situations with respect to degree of complexity, absorptive capacity and corporate culture. Especially the interaction between the sending and the receiving organizational units and their respective capacities for accomplishing the transfer will be studied. The case studies have given rise to identification of a number of issues and dilemmas to be addressed when transferring manufacturing units.
As e-commerce revenues have mounted in recent years, so have losses from security breaches and legal problems. The present study conceptualized e-commerce activities focused on gains versus loss prevention in terms of regulatory focus theory. Professional preparation provided in 163 e-commerce master's programs worldwide was investigated using propositions derived from the theory. Data were collected using extensive Web searches of master's program curricula. Results suggested that a majority of the programs lacked courses in the prevention-focused topics of law, security, or ethics. As e-businesses increasingly face the threat of costly legal and security incidents, it appears necessary for e-commerce education programs to place greater emphasis on prevention-focused topics.
Across four studies, we explored why a gender gap emerges in negotiator ethics, such that men set lower ethical standards than women. The male pragmatism hypothesis suggests men, more than women, are motivationally biased in setting ethical standards. Experiment 1 demonstrated how negotiations' masculinity implications underlie this gender gap in ethics. Experiment 2 demonstrated that, by viewing ethics from a self-interested perspective, men were more egocentric in their ethical reasoning than women. Experiment 3 demonstrated that, by granting themselves more leniency in ethics than others, men exhibited more moral hypocrisy than women. Experiment 4 examined how implicit negotiation beliefs affect the relation between gender and ethical standards. As hypothesized, fixed beliefs predicted ...
One graduation requirement of the University of Hawaii at Manoa is that students must take an “Ethics Focus” class at the Junior/Senior level. It is to the advantage of departments to offer such classes to majors. I designed and taught a class entitled “Natural Disasters: Geoethics and the Layman” in the Spring of ‘09. The prerequisite was an introductory Geology class. The objectives were: (1) To define ethics, from philosophical points of view and as a personal framework for making decisions about issues related to natural disasters. The Chair of the Philosophy Department assisted in the initial classes to teach the basic principles of ethical thinking. (2) To define what constitutes a “natural” disaster vs what constitutes a disaster brought about by the imposition of human imperatives on the natural world (e.g., to build seawalls or not in efforts to mitigate against beach erosion). (3) To explore a variety of controversial issues at the intersections of two or more of the following: natural processes, human society, and the environment (e.g., forecasting the potential for violent volcanic eruption and understanding the effects of such forecasts on the safety of proximal human populations vs economic disaster caused by evacuation or loss of revenue affected by "false alarms"). (4) To improve the students’ oral communication skills, both as individuals and as members of cooperating groups. (5) To develop and practice using ethically- and scientifically-valid frameworks for reaching decisions about controversial science-based issues. (6) To learn about local organizations, businesses, government agencies, the media and individuals in society who are involved with reacting to and developing solutions for response to these events and their related ethical issues. Students wrote 1- to 2-page journal essays on the issues discussed in class each week and a term paper on issues related to a “natural disaster” of their choice. The 3-credit class brought individuals from academia, private industry, the military, and from civic, state, and federal government agencies into the classroom each week to present information about their experiences, to present reality checks on aspects of actual disaster situations, and to answer student questions. The difficulty was working around guest speakers’ schedules. Student feedback to the class was generally positive, reactions included: “Best part? Getting to talk to real scientists.” ; “You can’t “teach“ ethics, either you have them or you don’t.” ; “I really liked the “student panel” there should be more of them and less lecturing.” ; “This should be a “writing-intensive” class.”
Abstract in portuguese Os dilemas éticos suscitados pelas etnias praticantes do infanticídio cultural exemplificam situações interculturais conflitivas que o ensino de uma bioética pragmática baseada na casuística não capacita para lidar com elas. Para estabelecer uma comunicação interétnica, é proposto que o profissional sanitário deveria ser habilitado em cinco eixos de deliberação, três deles substantivos e dois formais: a) Rejeitar práticas globalmente inaceitáveis ou, alt (more) ernativamente, reconhecê-las como válidas em uma cultura local; b) Reconhecer valores universais ou aceitar o relativismo ético cultural; c) Defender uma moral comum vinculante dentro de um território nacional ou aceitar a coexistência de pluralismos discrepantes; d) Deliberar o infanticídio como una prática comparável ao aborto procurado ou entender que ele é baseado em visões do mundo não interpretáveis como análogas aos argumentos da bioética tradicional; e) Esclarecer se as dissidências culturais são problemas a solucionar ou práticas discrepantes a tolerar. Os dilemas interculturais requerem, cada vez mais, de um ensino da bioética ampliada para capacitar o estudante no desenvolvimento de competências de reflexão, de acordo com esses eixos de deliberação, em prol da comunicação intercultural respeitosa e de um pluralismo efetivo. Abstract in spanish Los dilemas éticos suscitados por etnias practicantes del infanticidio cultural ejemplifican situaciones interculturales conflictivas que la enseñanza de una bioética pragmática basada en casuística no capacita para enfrentar. Para entablar una comunicación interétnica, se propone que el profesional sanitario debiera habilitarse en cinco ejes de deliberación, tres de ellos sustantivos y dos formales: a) Rechazar prácticas globalmente inaceptables o, alternativame (more) nte, reconocerlas como válidas en una cultura local; b) Reconocer valores universales o aceptar el relativismo ético cultural; c) Defender una moral común vinculante dentro de un territorio nacional o aceptar la coexistencia de pluralismos discrepantes; d) Deliberar el infanticidio como una práctica comparable al aborto procurado o entender que se basa en visiones de mundo no interpretables como análogas a argumentos de la bioética tradicional; e) Esclarecer acaso las disidencias culturales son problemas a solucionar o prácticas foráneas a tolerar. Cada vez más los dilemas interculturales requieren una enseñanza de bioética ampliada para habilitar al educando a desarrollar competencias de reflexión, de acuerdo a estos ejes de deliberación, en fomento de la comunicación intercultural respetuosa y un pluralismo efectivo. Abstract in english The ethical dilemmas raised by infanticide, as practiced by certain ethnic groups, exemplify conflicting intercultural situations for which the teaching of pragmatic bioethics based on case analysis fails to prepare students. To establish interethnic communication, health professionals should be skilled in five lines of decision-making, three of which are substantive and two formal: a) to either reject universally unacceptable practices or to recognize them as valid in a (more) specific local culture; b) to recognize universal values or accept cultural ethical relativism; c) to defend binding common morals within a national territory or accept the coexistence of discrepant pluralisms; d) to deliberate on infanticide as a practice comparable to induced abortion or to understand that it is based on worldviews that are not interpretable as analogous to the arguments of traditional bioethics; and e) to clarify where cultural dissidences are problems to be solved or discrepant practices to be tolerated. Intercultural dilemmas increasingly require teaching an expanded bioethics in order to train students in the development of reflexive competencies according to these lines of decision-making, in favor of respectful intercultural communication and effective pluralism.
In response to changes in society and thus the marketplace, we need a vision for the future of our animal industries, including both on-farm and off-farm activities, that is "clean, green and ethical". Using small ruminants as a case study, we describe three "clean, green and ethical" strategies that farmers could use to improve reproductive performance. The first allows control of the timing of reproductive events by using socio-sexual signals (the "male effect") to induce synchronised ovulation in females. The second strategy, "focus feeding", is based on using short periods of nutritional supplements that are precisely timed and specifically designed for each event in the reproductive process (eg, gamete production, embryo survival, fetal programming, colostrum production). The third strategy aims to maximize offspring survival by a combination of management, nutrition and genetic selection for behaviour (temperament). All of these approaches involve non-pharmacological manipulation of the endogenous control systems of the animals and complement the detailed information from ultrasound that is now becoming available. Importantly, these approaches all have a solid foundation in reproductive biology. In several cases, they are currently used in commercial practice, but there is still room for improvement through both basic and applied research. Ultimately, these "clean, green and ethical" tools can be cost-effective, increase productivity and, at the same time, greatly improve the image of meat and milk industries in society and the marketplace.
This article gives an overview of the ethical thinking about donor insemination among Chinese ethicists. We analysed the ethical arguments dedicated to the use of donor spermatozoa published in the important bioethics journals of China of the last 15 years. On the one hand, the general Confucian values strongly favour the genetic link as it fits with the traditional importance attached to the continuation of the family line. Therefore, artificial insemination by donor (AID) is highly controversial in China because the involvement of a third party (the donor) severs the genetic link between the husband and his family. On the other hand, procreation is regarded as an important aspect of Confucian filial piety and it is a basic right of every human being to enjoy a family life. AID should be thought of as a means to help infertile couples to overcome infertility. Nowadays, Chinese bioethicists are trying to reinterpret Confucianism in order to adapt it to modernity. One such reinterpretation focuses on the affectionate rather than the genetic tie between parents and child. As the application is still new in China, more discussion and open debate on ethical aspects is needed. PMID:20400375
Abstract in spanish Se presenta una investigación basada en los principios filosóficos de la ética. Se examina la función que desempeña el estudiante egresado de Bibliotecología y Ciencia de la Información. Se reflexiona acerca del código de ética determinado por diversas instituciones, que centran su trabajo en la esfera de la actividad de información científico investigativa. Se establece una valoración crítica acerca de la conducta ética que desarrolla actualmente el profesi (more) onal de la información, así como la influencia de sus actitudes frente a la sociedad del conocimiento emergida por los paradigmáticos procesos tecnológicos. Abstract in english A research based on the philosophical principles of ethics is presented. The role developed by the graduated from Library and Information Sciences is studied. Reflections on the ethics code determined by different institutions, which focus their work on the sphere of the scientific-research information activity, are included. A critical assessment about the ethical behaviour developed at present by the information professional is established, as well as the influence of his attitudes on the knowledge society emerged through the paradigmatic technological processes.
What does it take to increase the consumption of meat substitutes and attract new consumers? We identified main barriers and drivers by a consumer survey (n=553) in the U.K. and the Netherlands. Person-related factors (food neophobia and food choice motives) and product-related attitudes and beliefs towards meat and meat substitutes were compared between non-users (n=324), light/medium-users (n=133) and heavy-users of meat substitutes (n=96). Consumer acceptance was largely determined by the attitudes and beliefs towards meat substitutes and food neophobia. Key barriers for non-users and light/medium-users were the unfamiliarity with meat substitutes and the lower sensory attractiveness compared to meat. In addition, non-users had a higher tendency to avoid new foods. Hence, the less consumers were using meat substitutes, the more they wanted these products to be similar to meat. Although non-users and light/medium-users did recognize the ethical and weight-control aspects of meat substitutes, this was obviously less relevant to them. Actually, only heavy-users had high motivations to choose ethical foods, which explains their choice for meat substitutes. In order to make meat substitutes more attractive to meat consumers, we would not recommend to focus on communication of ethical arguments, but to significantly improve the sensory quality and resemblance to meat. PMID:21315123
Abstract in portuguese Este artigo focaliza o papel da psicopedagogia no desenvolvimento ético da criança e pretende analisar como a filosofia da educação pode ser o fundamento desta atividade. Psicopedagogia é entendida como uma ação que é fornecida juntamente com o currículo escolar para ajudar o processo total da educação. Educação moral é também relacionada ao trabalho da psicopedagogia. Desenvolvimento ético deverá ser o objetivo central para todas as crianças e aprender (more) virtudes é considerado o núcleo do processo educacional. Finalmente pergunta-se como a psicopedagogia pode ajudar a família e a escola a melhorar a educação moral e a aquisição de valores para permitir que as crianças alcancem a maturidade ética. Abstract in english This article focuses the role of psycho pedagogy in the ethical development of children and it aims to analyze how philosophy of education can be the foundation of this activity. Psycho pedagogy is understood as an action which is provided together with school curriculum in order to help the whole process of education. Moral education is also related to the work of psycho pedagogy. Ethical development should be the central objective for all children and learning virtues i (more) s considered the core of educational process. Finally it is asked how psycho pedagogy can help family and school to improve moral education and values acquisition to allow children to reach ethical maturity.
Using examples of major accidents caused by technical technology are effective when teaching engineering ethics in undergraduate courses because almost all students have had no actual experience in technical problems or accidents in their lives. The typical accidents that have been selected in the past for this purpose by lecturers are limited in Japanese colleges or in textbooks. Some examples are the Minamata disease, the Kanemi oil PCB contamination, the space shuttle “Challenger” accident, the Ford “Pinto” design problem, Mitsubishi Motor's scandal and the unclear power plant accident at Tokai. However, it is difficult to decide whether or not these typical accidents are suitable for the teaching of engineering ethics. The responsibility of an engineer in Japan is strictly limited because he has no authority to finally decide upon the problem of ethics even if the item is purely technical and he is the best person to make the decision. The reason is discussed focusing on 1) the concept of the “profession” of medical doctors and engineers and 2) the relationships between the treatment, position, honor and responsibility of engineers in Japanese society.
Human uterus transplantation (UTx) is currently under investigation as a treatment for uterine infertility. Without a uterus transplant, the options available to women with uterine infertility are adoption or surrogacy; only the latter has the potential for a genetically related child. UTx will offer recipients the chance of having their own pregnancy. This procedure occurs at the intersection of two ethically contentious areas: assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and organ transplantation. In relation to organ transplantation, UTx lies with composite tissue transplants such as face and limb grafts, and shares some of the ethical concerns raised by these non-life saving procedures. In relation to ART, UTx represents one more avenue by which a woman may seek to meet her reproductive goals, and as with other ART procedures, raises questions about the limits of reproductive autonomy. This paper explores the ethical issues raised by UTx with a focus on the potential gap between women's desires and aspirations about pregnancy and the likely functional outcomes of successful UTx. PMID:21726265
The current generation of community protection laws represents a shift in priorities that may see the individual rights of sex offenders compromised for the goal of public safety. At the center of many judicial decisions under these laws are the risk assessment reports provided by mental health practitioners. The widespread enactment of laws allowing for additional sanctions for sex offenders, and a burgeoning research literature regarding the methods used to assess risk have served to heighten rather than resolve the ethical concerns associated with professional practice in this area. This article examines ethical issues inherent in the use of two assessment methods commonly used with sex offenders in the correctional context, focusing on actuarial measures and polygraph tests. Properly conducted and adequately reported actuarial findings are considered to provide useful information of sufficient accuracy to inform rather than mislead judicial decision makers, although careful consideration must be given to the limitations of current measures in each individual case. Despite its increasing use, polygraph testing is considered controversial, with little consensus regarding its accuracy or appropriate applications. On the basis of the current state of the professional literature regarding the polygraph, its use with sex offenders raises unresolved ethical concerns. PMID:20944058
In this essay several virtues are discussed that are needed in people who work in participatory design (PD). The term PD is used here to refer specifically to an approach in designing information systems with its roots in Scandinavia in the 1970s and 1980s. Through the lens of virtue ethics and based on key texts in PD, the virtues of cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity are discussed. Cooperation helps people in PD projects to engage in cooperative curiosity and cooperative creativity. Curiosity helps them to empathize with others and their experiences, and to engage in joint learning. Creativity helps them to envision, try out and materialize ideas, and to jointly create new products and services. Empowerment helps them to share power and to enable other people to flourish. Moreover, reflexivity helps them to perceive and to modify their own thoughts, feelings and actions. In the spirit of virtue ethics-which focuses on specific people in concrete situations-several examples from one PD project are provided. Virtue ethics is likely to appeal to people in PD projects because it is practice-oriented, provides room for exploration and experimentation, and promotes professional and personal development. In closing, some ideas for practical application, for education and for further research are discussed. PMID:22806218
Policy-making concerned with animals often includes human interests, such as economy, trade, environmental protection, disease control, species conservation etc. When it comes to the interests of the animals, such policy-making often makes use of the results of animal welfare science to provide assessments of ethically relevant concerns for animals. This has provided a scientific rigour that has helped to overcome controversies and allowed debates to move forward according to generally agreed methodologies. However, this focus can lead to policies leaving out other important issues relevant to animals. This can be considered as a problem of what is included in welfare science, or of what is included in policy. This suggests two possible solutions: expanding animal welfare science to address all ethical concerns about animals’ interests or widening the perspective considered in policy-making to encompass other important ethical concerns about animals than welfare. The latter appears the better option. This requires both a ‘philosophy of animal welfare science’, a ‘philosophy of decision-making about animals’, and greater transparency about what is included or excluded from both animal welfare science and the politics of animal policy.
Informed consent is indispensable in contemporary medicine, especially in cases where the risks are high or there is true clinical equipoise, as in much invasive cardiology and cardiothoracic surgery practice. In this article we illustrate the principle of informed consent and describe how consent requirements have become more exacting in response to the rise of autonomy as the dominant principle in biomedical ethics. We outline some criticisms of informed consent, discuss why current requirements may never be achievable, and describe some of the vast literature aimed at "solving" the problem. We argue that respect for autonomy is just one of the principles of biomedical ethics and that the implementation of this principle must be weighed in the clinical context against the other principles, namely beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. The way we implement informed consent should be based on an ethical assessment of the clinical situation, including the invasiveness of the procedure, equipoise and the importance of patient values, and not on practical issues. We conclude that focusing on the whole decision-making process, effective communication, and a proportionate and individualised approach to consent could go some way to improve the experience of many patients in cardiology. PMID:22580258
When the Advisory Committee began work in April 1994 we were charged with determining whether the radiation experiments design and administration adequately met the ethical and scientific standards, including standards of informed consent, that prevailed at the time of the experiments and that exist today and also to determine the ethical and scientific standards and criteria by which it shall evaluate human radiation experiments. Although this charge seems straightforward, it is in fact difficult to determine what the appropriate standards should be for evaluating the conduct and policies of thirty or fifty years ago. First, we needed to determine the extent to which the standards of that time are similar to the standards of today. To the extent that there were differences we needed to determine the relative roles of each in making moral evaluations. In Chapter 1 we report what we have been able to reconstruct about government rules and policies in the 1940s and 1950s regarding human experiments. We focus primarily on the Atomic Energy Commission and the Department of Defense. In Chapter 2 we turn from a consideration of government standards to an exploration of the norms and practices of physicians and medical scientists who conducted research with human subjects during this period. Using the results of our Ethics Oral History Project, and other sources, we also examine how scientists of the time viewed their moral responsibilities to human subjects as well as how this translated into the manner in which they conducted their research.
Pfizer, Inc. (hereinafter Pfizer), a U.S.-based pharmaceutical company, states that it is committed to being an "exemplary corporate citizen" that is "dedicated to discovering and developing innovative medicines and making them available to people all around the world." Pfizer boasts about its philanthropic focus, yet, like any for-profit organization, Pfizer has a responsibility to its shareholders to be profitable. Pfizer must balance its obligations to its shareholders with its stated philanthropic vision, while also being mindful of the public relations ramifications of its decisions. This article presents a business case developed to encourage business students to consider the legal and ethical ramifications of Pfizer's handling of three drugs in the international context. Part I of this article consists of a case study involving actual issues confronting Pfizer. The case is structured around key events regarding the use of three of Pfizer's pharmaceutical products which involve different legal and ethical considerations. The assignment at the end of the case is designed to prompt students to identify legal and ethical issues confronting the company, analyze the issues, and then propose solutions for Pfizer. Part II of this article is a teaching note, which includes learning objectives, potential uses of the case, a discussion about each of the assigned case questions, and suggestions regarding evaluation of the assignment. (Contains 115 footnotes.)
Abstract in spanish La insuficiencia renal crónica se considera una de las enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles de mayor incidencia (1 / 1000), por lo que constituye un problema de salud en el mundo. En la actualidad es el transplante renal el tratamiento de elección, el cual representa una innovación tecnológica en el contexto de la Revolución Científico técnica, que ha alcanzado niveles altos de eficacia. Uno de los factores que intervienen en el éxito es la selección inmunológ (more) ica de la pareja donante-receptor en base a los antígenos principales de histocompatibilidad (HLA). Esto asegura la supervivencia del injerto y el paciente a largo plazo. Los dilemas éticos son frecuentes en la donación de órganos tanto en el caso del donante vivo, como en el del cadáver. En la práctica diaria se realizan preguntas tales como: ¿En qué formas distribuir los órganos de donantes cadáver?, ó ¿El xenotrasplante y el trasplante de donante vivo no relacionado son alternativas válidas? Por tanto se pueden hacer ante la escasez de órganos?. Se han diseñado normas para resolver situaciones que exijan la toma de decisiones. Una correcta selección inmunológica sobre bases científicas y éticas asegura la calidad de vida del trasplantado y soluciona su problema de salud Abstract in english Chronic renal failure is considered one of the non-transmissible chronic illnesses of higher incidence (1 / 1000), constituting a health problem all over the world. Nowadays, it is renal transplantation the treatment of choice, which represents a technological innovation in the context of the Scientific-Technological Revolution that has reached high levels of effectiveness. One of the factors that intervene in the success is the immunologic selection of the donor-receiver (more) couple based on the main antigens of histocompatibility (HLA). This assures the implant and patient's long term survival. The ethical dilemmas are frequent in the donation of organs either in the case of alive or death donors. Daily practice arises questions such as: How can organs from death donors be distributed?, or are xenotransplant and non-related live donor's transplants a valid alternative? Can they be made to face organs shortage? Norms have been designed to solve situations that demand decision taking. A correct immunologic selection on scientific and ethical bases assures the quality of life of the patient transplanted and solves his health problem
Abstract in portuguese O desenvolvimento de tecnologias aplicadas à saúde traz dilemas morais inesperados aos profissionais de pesquisa, em relação às práticas que envolvem seres humanos. Devido à relevância deste assunto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o ensino de bioética na educação de estudantes de programas de pós-graduação em Odontologia do Brasil. Oitenta e sete programas de pós-graduação em Odontologia, avaliados pela CAPES (2001-2003), foram estudados. Os dados fo (more) ram extraídos, de maneira independente, por 2 avaliadores, por meio de consulta ao sítio da CAPES e aos sítios eletrônicos dos programas, diretamente ou via links dos programas disponíveis no sítio da CAPES. Dos 87 programas, 48 apresentaram disciplina de Ética/Bioética. Trinta e oito porcento dos programas com conceitos 5, 6 e 7 da CAPES mantêm disciplinas de Bioética, enquanto 62% dos programas com conceitos 3 e 4 apresentaram conteúdos de Bioética. Desta forma, os resultados deste estudo representam um alerta para os educadores envolvidos em ensino da pesquisa odontológica. Estes resultados também mostraram que a instrução em bioética ainda é incipiente nos programas de pós-graduação em Odontologia no Brasil, ainda que a resolução 196/96 do Conselho Nacional de Saúde tenha sido publicada há dez anos. Por este motivo, seria necessário assegurar uma pedagogia ética na formação do jovem pesquisador. Abstract in english In the field of human research, researchers are faced with unexpected moral dilemmas, as a result of the development of technologies applied to health. Due to the great importance of this issue, our objective was to evaluate bioethics instruction in the education of researchers in Brazilian graduate programs in dentistry. Eighty-seven graduate programs in dentistry, recognized by CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) were evaluated in this (more) study. Data were extracted independently by two researchers from the CAPES website, and from the websites of the graduate programs, directly or via links to the programs available at the CAPES website. Forty-eight out of 87 programs had an ethics/bioethics course as part of their curricula. Of the graduation programs graded 5, 6 or 7 by CAPES, 38% included bioethics courses, while 62% of the programs graded 3 or 4 by CAPES had bioethics courses as part of their curricula. These findings are an alert to those involved in dental research education, as they showed that, although resolution 196/96 by the National Council of Health regulating human research in Brazil was published ten years ago, bioethics instruction in Brazilian graduate programs in dentistry is still at an incipient stage. This situation indicates a need for ethics pedagogy in the education of young researchers.
Presença do tema ética profissional nos periódicos brasileiros de Ciência da Informação e Biblioteconomia/ Presence of professional ethics issue in Brazilian journals of Information Science and Librarianship
Abstract in portuguese A presença de discussões acerca de temas relativos à Ética na produção científica brasileira de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação é o enfoque principal deste texto, que advém da análise de periódicos desses campos de conhecimento e da prática profissional. Para isso, selecionou-se um título por cada região político-administrativa brasileira, Sul, Sudeste, Centro-Oeste e Nordeste, dentre os existentes, cuja edição tivesse se mantido regular no per (more) íodo de 1997 a 2006. Em cada um desses títulos, a partir de palavras-chave previamente definidas, foram identificados os artigos e ensaios que trataram do tema. Com isso, buscava-se conhecer os fundamentos filosóficos e doutrinários, as temáticas e abordagens, e as tendências da discussão Ética na produção periódica brasileira de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação. Metodologicamente, o trabalho envolve a identificação dos periódicos e dos textos publicados sobre a temática; a leitura e a descrição dos mesmos; a identificação dos aspectos apontados nos objetivos pretendidos; a análise dos discursos utilizando a técnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo; e a organização das idéias contidas visando chegar a uma síntese. Foram localizados 10 textos produzidos por 16 autores, sendo dois de 1997, quatro de 2005, quatro distribuídos de 1998 a 2004; nenhum foi encontrado referente ao ano de 2006. Foram identificadas como fundamentos éticos as Doutrinas da Ética do Discurso, da Ética da Alteridade e da Teoria Ético-política da Justiça; e foram também identificadas as temáticas, abordagens e tendências da discussão sobre a Ética, que revelaram a questão da postura profissional determinada pelo quadro atual da sociedade e das tecnologias. Conclui-se que apesar de existir preocupação com o tema Ética por parte de alguns profissionais da informação que escrevem e publicam sobre o assunto, o mesmo ainda é pouco explorado na literatura e está mais dirigido para questões gerais. Abstract in english The presence of discussions on issues relating to ethics in Brazilian scientific production of Librarianship and Information Science is the main focus of this text, which comes from the periodic review of these fields of knowledge and professional practice. For this reason, picked up a scientific periodical title for each brazilian administrative region, whose editing had been maintained regularly over the period 1997 to 2006. In each of these periodical titles, from keyw (more) ords previously defined, have been identified articles and essays which addressed the theme. With this, trying to be informed of the reasons for philosophical and doctrinal, the themes and approaches and trends of the discussion Ethics in regular production of Brazilian Librarianship and Information Science. Methodologically, the work involved identification of journals and texts published on the subject, reading and description of them; identification of the aspects highlighted in the objectives pursued, analysis of speech using the technique of Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo collective subject of discourse) - DSC; organization of the ideas contained, aiming to reach a synthesis. We found 10 texts produced by 16 authors, 2 of 1997, 4 in 2005, 4 distributed from 1998 to 2004 and none was found regarding the year 2006. They were identified as ethical foundations, the doctrines of Ethics of Speech, the Ethics of Otherness and Ethical-Political Theory of Justice, in addition to the issues, approaches and trends of the discussion Ethics, which show the issue of professional attitude determined by the current picture of society and current technologies. We conclude that although there is concern about the ethics issue by some of the professionals who write and publish information on the subject, it is still little explored in literature and is more focused on general issues.
Although most patients report wanting their physicians to address the religious aspects of their lives, most physicians do not initiate questions concerning religion with their patients. Although religion plays a major role in every aspect of the life of a Muslim, most of the data on the role of religion in health have been conducted in populations that are predominantly non-Muslim. The objectives of this study were to assess Muslim physicians' beliefs and behaviours regarding religious discussions in clinical practice and to understand the factors that facilitate or impede discussion of religion in clinical settings. The study is based on a cross-sectional survey. Muslim physicians working in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia were invited to complete a questionnaire that included demographic data; intrinsic level of religiosity; beliefs about the impact of religion on health; and observations, attitudes, behaviours, and barriers to attending to patients' religious needs. Out of 225 physicians, 91% agreed that religion had a positive influence on health, but 62.2% thought that religion could lead to the refusal of medically indicated therapy. Over half of the physicians queried never asked about religious issues. Family physicians were more likely to initiate religious discussions, and physicians with high intrinsic religiosity were more likely to share their own religious views. Residents and staff physicians tended to avoid such discussions. The study results highlight the fact that many physicians do not address patients' religious issues and that there is a need to clarify ethically sound means by which to address such needs in Islamic countries. Medical institutions should work to improve the capacity of medical personnel to appropriately address religious issues. The training of clinical religious advisors is a promising solution to this dilemma. PMID:22395747
Meio ambiente urbano e questão social: habitação popular em áreas de preservação ambiental/ Environnement urbain et question sociale: les habitations populaires dans des aires de préservation environnementale/ Urban environment and social issue: popular housing in environmental protection areas
Abstract in portuguese O artigo discute a relação entre cidade e meio ambiente como questão pública, face à multiplicação das ocupações de áreas de preservação ambiental por moradias de baixa renda. Embora o meio ambiente seja parte integrante, e não mero "cenário" da vida social, é recente o reconhecimento da dimensão ecológica da questão urbana. A discussão é feita à luz do caso de uma favela de Fortaleza, localizada em área de preservação permanente. Um projeto da Pre (more) feitura para remover seus moradores para um conjunto nas proximidades atraiu novos ocupantes, cuja retirada imediata da área foi exigida pelo Ministério Público. Face à insuficiência de recursos para garantir habitação aos "invasores", sua remoção engendrou um dilema ético e social, contrapondo o direito à habitação ao direito ao meio ambiente saudável. Abstract in english The article discusses the relationship between the city and the environment as a public matter, given the proliferation of low-income housing within environmental protection areas. Although the environment is not just an "ornament", but a vital part of social life, the ecological dimension of urban settlements has only recently been acknowledged. The current analysis is based on the example of a slum in Fortaleza, located in an area of permanent protection. A City Hall pr (more) oject to remove the illegal residents to a housing complex nearby ended up attracting new occupiers, whose eviction was immediately determined by the Court of Justice. Due to a lack of funds to provide housing for the new "squatters", their eviction turned into an ethical and social dilemma, by weighing the right to housing against the right to a healthy environment.
Scand J Caring Sci; 2012; Life-sharing experiences of relatives of persons with severe mental illness - a phenomenographic study Relatives of those suffering from severe mental illness experience multiple challenges and a complex life situation. The aim of this study was to describe life-sharing experiences from the perspective of relatives of someone with severe mental illness. A qualitative, descriptive study was performed, and interviews were carried out with eighteen relatives of persons with severe mental illness. A phenomenographic analysis, according to the steps described by Dahlgren and Fallsberg, was used to describe the relatives' conceptions of their situation. The findings show that the experiences of these relatives can be summarized in one main category: 'The art of balancing between multiple concerns'. Two descriptive categories emerged: 'Making choices on behalf of others and oneself' and 'Constantly struggling between opposing feelings and between reflections'. Relatives report that they have to manoeuvre between different ways to act and to prioritize between different wishes and needs. In addition, they face a wide range of strong feelings and they search for hope and meaning. Relatives of someone with severe mental illness have to balance multiple concerns, which induce ethical dilemmas. They felt love, compassion or sense of duty towards the mentally ill person. The changeable situation made it difficult for the relatives to establish a balance in their lives. To be able to prioritize some private time was important. Relatives need own support and sufficient follow-up of the mentally ill next of kin from the mental health services. PMID:22583154
Anatomical corrosion casts of human specimens are useful teaching aids. However, their use is limited due to ethical dilemmas associated with their production, their lack of perfect reproducibility, and their consumption of original specimens in the process of casting. In this study, new approaches with modern distribution of complex anatomical spatial information were explored to overcome these limitations through the digitalization of anatomical casts of human specimens through three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, rapid prototype production, and Web-based 3D atlas construction. The corrosion cast of a lung, along with its associated arteries, veins, trachea, and bronchial tree was CT-scanned, and the data was then processed by Mimics software. Data from the lung casts were then reconstructed into 3D models using a hybrid method, utilizing both "image threshold" and "region growing." The fine structures of the bronchial tree, arterial, and venous network of the lung were clearly displayed and demonstrated their distinct relationships. The multiple divisions of bronchi and bronchopulmonary segments were identified. The 3D models were then uploaded into a rapid prototype 3D printer to physically duplicate the cast. The physically duplicated model of the lung was rescanned by CT and reconstructed to detect its production accuracy. Gross observation and accuracy detection were used to evaluate the duplication and few differences were found. Finally, Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) was used to edit the 3D casting models to construct a Web-based 3D atlas accessible through Internet Explorer with 3D display and annotation functions. Anat Sci Educ. © 2012 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:22653786
Abstract in spanish La implantología dental ha tenido una gran popularidad en las últimas décadas .Hoy las técnicas quirúrgicas, los avances tecnológicos y la disposición de materiales han logrado que los pacientes recuperen sus piezas dentarias y disfruten de su poder de masticación y estética para aumentar así su calidad de vida. Desde el punto de vista ético, se presenta un gran dilema en la mayoría de los países del mundo con los adelantos tecnológicos en la implantologia d (more) e carácter diagnóstico y terapéutico. Una trágica ironía se esconde tras esta situación. En nuestra sociedad, se hacen grandes esfuerzos para brindar un servicio de salud con calidad, basada en los adelantos científicos de la implantología dentaria. Por tales motivos, podemos plantear que la utilización adecuada de la técnica está llamada a proveer al Hombre de nuevos y más amplios espacios de libertad para su desarrollo integral y libre de ataduras tecnológicas. El valor del progreso tecnológico, puede ser juzgado solamente por su contribución a mejorar la vida de cada ser humano. Abstract in english Implantology dental suffered great popularization in latest decades. Today techniques surgical technological and willingness materials succeeded patients recover their teeth and enjoy power mastication, aesthetics and enhancing as life. From the ethical point of view presents a major dilemma in most countries of the world with the technological advances in diagnostic and therapeutic nature. A tragic irony behind this situation. In our society is making great efforts to pr (more) ovide a health service quality. For these reasons we suggest that the proper use of this technique known to man to provide new and larger spaces for freedom and free development of ties tecnológicas. The value of technological progress can be judged only by their contribution to improve the lives of every human being.
Medical Education 2012: 46: 1028-1041 Context Longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs) have been widely implemented in both rural and urban contexts, as is now evident in the wealth of studies published internationally. This narrative literature review aims to summarise current evidence regarding the outcomes of LICs for student, clinician and community stakeholders. Methods Recent literature was examined for original research articles pertaining to outcomes of LICs. Results Students in LICs achieve academic results equivalent to and in some cases better than those of their counterparts who receive clinical education in block rotations. Students in LICs are reported to have well-developed patient-centred communication skills, demonstrate understanding of the psychosocial contributions to medicine, and report more preparedness in higher-order clinical and cognitive skills in comparison with students in traditional block rotations (TBRs). Students in LICs take on increased responsibility with patients and describe having more confidence in dealing with ethical dilemmas. Continuity of supervision reportedly facilitates incremental knowledge acquisition, and supervisors provide incrementally progressive feedback. Despite early disorientation regarding the organising of their learning, students feel well supported by the continuity of student-preceptor relationships and value the contributions made by these. Students in LICs living and working in rural areas are positively influenced towards primary care and rural career choices. Discussion A sound body of knowledge in the field of LIC research suggests it is time to move beyond descriptive or exploratory research that is designed to justify this new educational approach by comparing academic results. As the attributes of LIC alumni are better understood, it is important to conduct explanatory research to develop a more complete understanding of these findings and a foundation for new theoretical frameworks that underpin educational change. Conclusions Longitudinal integrated clerkships are now recognised as representing credible and effective pedagogical alternatives to TBRs in medical education. PMID:23078680
In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits, and opportunities exist to increase the inclusion of behaviour in breeding indices. On a technical level, breeding for behaviour presents a number of particular challenges compared to physical traits. It is much more difficult and time-consuming to directly measure behaviour in a consistent and reliable manner in order to evaluate the large numbers of animals necessary for a breeding programme. For this reason, the development and validation of proxy measures of key behavioural traits is often required. Despite these difficulties, behavioural traits have been introduced by certain breeders. For example, ease of handling is now included in some beef cattle breeding programmes. While breeding for behaviour is potentially beneficial, ethical concerns have been raised. Since animals are adapted to the environment rather than the other way around, there may be a loss of 'naturalness' and/or animal integrity. Some examples, such as breeding for good maternal behaviour, could enhance welfare, production and naturalness, although dilemmas emerge where improved welfare could result from breeding away from natural behaviour. Selection against certain behaviours may carry a risk of creating animals which are generally unreactive ('zombies'), although such broad effects could be measured and controlled. Finally, breeding against behavioural measures of welfare could inadvertently result in resilient animals ('stoics') that do not show behavioural signs of low welfare yet may still be suffering. To prevent this, other measures of the underlying problem should be used, although cases where this is not possible remain troubling.
In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits, and opportunities exist to increase the inclusion of behaviour in breeding indices. On a technical level, breeding for behaviour presents a number of particular challenges compared to physical traits. It is much more difficult and time-consuming to directly measure behaviour in a consistent and reliable manner in order to evaluate the large numbers of animals necessary for a breeding programme. For this reason, the development and validation of proxy measures of key behavioural traits is often required. Despite these difficulties, behavioural traits have been introduced by certain breeders. For example, ease of handling is now included in some beef cattle breeding programmes. While breeding for behaviour is potentially beneficial, ethical concerns have been raised. Since animals are adapted to the environment rather than the other way around, there may be a loss of 'naturalness' and/or animal integrity. Some examples, such as breeding for good maternal behaviour, could enhance welfare, production and naturalness, although dilemmas emerge where improved welfare could result from breeding away from natural behaviour. Selection against certain behaviours may carry a risk of creating animals which are generally unreactive ('zombies'), although such broad effects could be measured and controlled. Finally, breeding against behavioural measures of welfare could inadvertently result in resilient animals ('stoics') that do not show behavioural signs of low welfare yet may still be suffering. To prevent this, other measures of the underlying problem should be used, although cases where this is not possible remain troubling.
Humanismo, liberdade e necessidade: compreensão dos hiatos cognitivos entre ciências da natureza e ética/ Humanism, freedom and need: an understanding of the cognitive gaps between the natural sciences and ethics
Abstract in portuguese Com freqüência opõe-se a constatação crescente, norteada pelas ciências naturais, do determinismo que rege o funcionamento dos organismos vivos a um humanismo de fundamentação kantiana: está em questão a real condição da autonomia humana que repercute naquela de sua responsabilidade individual e social. Com base na filosofia espinosista, Henri Atlan endossa os postulados deterministas das investigações científicas, conciliando com eles, entretanto, a afirma (more) ção da plena liberdade e responsabilidade do ser humano. Num primeiro momento, tendo como pano de fundo estratégico distinções nas concepções de "natureza humana", revisaremos as diferentes abordagens da ética e da ciência às teses da autonomia e do determinismo. A seguir, focalizaremos a discussão do dilema por Atlan, em seu ensaio de 2002, La Science est-elle inhumaine? Essai sur la libre nécessité. Concluímos ressignificando "humanismo" nos termos das novas exigências conceituais do século 21. Abstract in english The growing ascertainment, guided by the natural sciences, of the determinism that rules how living organisms work is often contrasted with a humanism of Kantian foundation. At issue here is the actual condition of human autonomy, reverberating on that of human responsibility both at the social and at the individual levels. Based on Spinozist philosophy, Atlan endorses the deterministic postulates of scientific investigations, though he reconciles them to the statement of (more) the human being?s full freedom and responsibility. Initially, with the strategic background of distinctions in conceptions of human nature, we will review the different approaches of autonomy and determinism on the part of ethics and science. We will then concentrate on the discussion of the dilemma by Atlan, in his essay of 2002, La Science est-elle Inhumaine: essai sur la libre nécessité. Our conclusion redefines the meaning of "humanism" pursuant to the new conceptual demands of the 21st century.
Parents asked to consent to a child's randomization in a pediatric cancer clinical trial are often unprepared to grasp the implications of this scientifically crucial but seemingly unfair process. Physicians must adopt specific communication skills to engage families in open dialogue from the outset in order to elicit truly shared informed consent. Starting from the case of a family with an only child affected by disseminated neuroblastoma, we wish to comment on the problems surfacing in the informed consent process for treatment and research in pediatric oncology that implicate an understanding of bioethical issues and psychological principles. Although the outcome of childhood cancer has improved dramatically over the last 30 years, with overall survival rates now exceeding 70%, there are regretfully still types and stages of cancer carrying a very high risk of death that urgently require new clinical strategies. The response to this need has been the design of experimental protocols that often entail randomized controlled trials (RCT). A large number of these trials concern stage IV neuroblastoma, acute leukemia, rhabdomyosarcoma, and other types of childhood cancers presenting great heterogeneity both in terms of localization and responsiveness to therapy. Most trials for disease relapses also include one or more randomizations. The scientific motivation justifying an RCT is the need to compare and evaluate an innovative protocol (or part thereof) with reference treatment modalities. Nevertheless, the process brings to bear the ethical dilemma of having to weigh the needs of the single afflicted child against the benefit which may ensue for a much larger patient community. PMID:16396746
Abstract in spanish La autoría compartida de las publicaciones científicas es la consecuencia necesaria de la investigación compleja y multidisciplinar. El gran número de colaboradores que se requiere para el cumplimiento de una tarea de investigación genera al momento de publicar, una disyuntiva entre créditos y responsabilidades por lo presentado, que la normatividad editorial aún no ha podido conciliar. A esta dificultad se suma la presión sobre el investigador por parte del siste (more) ma académico-investigativo actual por aumentar el número de publicaciones a su haber, lo que en ocasiones lo lleva a realizar conductas inapropiadas para atribuirse una autoría inmerecida. Las propuestas para disipar la tensión de la autoría (créditos versus responsabilidad) no son inspiradoras. Más que políticas de grupo o institucionales o normas restrictivas internacionales, la autoría científica implica valores éticos fundacionales: honestidad, confiabilidad, equidad. Abstract in english Complex and multidisciplinary investigation is a cause of multiple co-authorships. Actually, it is necessary a great number of collaborators to accomplish a scientific work. When it is time to publish the article, it is difficult to resolve the dilemma between credits and responsibility, neither applying editorial standards. More difficulties are added when researchers are pressed by academic and research institutions to growth up the number of their publications, which m (more) ay impel them to improper conducts in order to get undeserved authorships. Alternatives to dissipate the authorship tension (credits vs. responsibility) do not inspire solutions. More than group or institutional politics or international restrictive norms, which scientific authorship needs are foundational ethics values: honesty, trustworthy and fairness.
Scand J Caring Sci; 2012 The substance of love when encountering suffering: an interpretative research synthesis with an abductive approach Aim:? This study presents the results of an interpretative research synthesis undertaken to explore the essence of love when encountering suffering. The idea of caring as an expression of love and compassion belongs with ideas that have shaped caring for hundreds of years. Love and suffering are the core concepts in caring science and thus demand a basic research approach. Methods:? The synthesis was undertaken by the interpretation of 15 articles focusing on love in different aspects, but within a caring science perspective. The research process was guided by a hermeneutical perspective with an abductive approach. Results:? The substance of love, when encountering suffering, reveals itself in three themes: love as a holy power, love as fundamental for being and love as an ethical act, which are to be found, respectively, within three dimensions: love as holiness, love as a communion and love as an art. Love is a holy power and encompasses everything; it is the well of strength that heals. No human can exist without love: this points to the ethical responsibility one has as a neighbour. In the ethical act, love is evident in concrete caring actions. Conclusions:? The core of the substance of love within the three dimensions can be understood as agape. Agape connects and mirrors the dimensions, while at the same time it is clear that agape stems from and moves towards holiness, enabling love to be the ethical foundation when encountering suffering. Through the dimensions of love as communion and love as an art agape intertwine with eros forming caritas enabling the human being to move towards the dimension of holiness, which signifies becoming through suffering. PMID:22834650
Demographic and health surveillance: longitudinal ethical considerations/ Surveillance démographique et sanitaire: considérations éthiques longitudinales/ Consideraciones éticas en los sistemas longitudinales de vigilancia demográfica y sanitaria
Abstract in spanish Los datos longitudinales aportados por la vigilancia sanitaria, cuando se combinan con datos demográficos detallados, pueden ofrecer una información inestimable sobre la evolución de las enfermedades. En el mundo en desarrollo, sobre todo en Asia y el África subsahariana, hay muchos sitios de vigilancia centrados en enfermedades como el VIH/SIDA, el cólera, la malaria y la tuberculosis. La función poco definida de esos sistemas de vigilancia, en los que se solapan c (more) on frecuencia la investigación, el tratamiento y la vigilancia sanitaria de la población, lleva parejo un dudoso reconocimiento de la necesidad de una labor de supervisión ética y de la responsabilidad de tal labor. Ese vacío normativo se ve agravado por la indiferencia mostrada hacia los sistemas de vigilancia longitudinal en las publicaciones sobre ética. En el presente artículo se analizan algunas cuestiones éticas relevantes que plantean la vigilancia demográfica y sanitaria en relación con los principios éticos de beneficencia, respeto a las personas y justicia: prestación de atención sanitaria, consentimiento informado y sostenibilidad de los estudios. Abstract in english Longitudinal data gathered from health surveillance, when combined with detailed demographic information, can provide invaluable insight into disease outcomes. Many such surveillance sites exist in the developing world, particularly in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, and focus on diseases such as HIV/AIDS, cholera, malaria and tuberculosis. The indistinct positions of such surveillance systems, often inhabiting an area between research, treatment and population health monito (more) ring, means that the necessity of and responsibility for ethical oversight is unclear. This regulatory vacuum is further compounded by a lack of attention to longitudinal surveillance systems in ethics literature. In this paper, we explore some key ethical questions that arise during demographic and health surveillance in relation to ethical principles of beneficence, respect for persons and justice: health-care provision, informed consent and study sustainability.
Abstract With the recognition of an increasing potential for discovery of extraterrestrial life, a diverse set of researchers have noted a need to examine the foundational ethical principles that should frame our collective space activities as we explore outer space. A COSPAR Workshop on Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration was convened at Princeton University on June 8-10, 2010, to examine whether planetary protection measures and practices should be extended to protect planetary environments within an ethical framework that goes beyond "science protection" per se. The workshop had been in development prior to a 2006 NRC report on preventing the forward contamination of Mars, although it responded directly to one of the recommendations of that report and to several peer-reviewed papers as well. The workshop focused on the implications and responsibilities engendered when exploring outer space while avoiding harmful impacts on planetary bodies. Over 3 days, workshop participants developed a set of recommendations addressing the need for a revised policy framework to address "harmful contamination" beyond biological contamination, noting that it is important to maintain the current COSPAR planetary protection policy for scientific exploration and activities. The attendees agreed that there is need for further study of the ethical considerations used on Earth and the examination of management options and governmental mechanisms useful for establishing an environmental stewardship framework that incorporates both scientific input and enforcement. Scientists need to undertake public dialogue to communicate widely about these future policy deliberations and to ensure public involvement in decision making. A number of incremental steps have been taken since the workshop to implement some of these recommendations. Key Words: Planetary protection-Extraterrestrial life-Life in extreme environments-Environment-Habitability. Astrobiology 12, xxx-xxx. PMID:23095097
Abstract in spanish La respuesta a los conflictos éticos a los que nos enfrentamos los profesionales de la enfermería diariamente están mediados por el marco de referencia adoptado por el profesional, por su base conceptual de los fenómenos de la profesión en dependencia de nuestra concepción sobre la salud, entorno. Persona y cuidado como centro de interés de la enfermería, así será nuestro modelo de responsabilidad ética. En este trabajo se realizó una identificación sobre la (more) dimensión ética de los cuidados de enfermería según los valores profesionales del modelo de D.E.Orem. La teoría de Orem nos orienta cómo deben ser las relaciones entre el profesional de enfermería y el individuo, demostrando valores éticos como son el respeto a la autonomía, derecho de la salud y la vida, y la responsabilidad de los profesionales a brindar atención de enfermería. Abstract in english The response to ethical problems faced by nursing professionals in their everyday practice are medaled by the reference framework assumed by the professional, and also by the conceptual background of the phenomena related to the profession, defending upon our ideas about health and environment. Our model of ethical responsibility is devoted to persons and care as focus of interest of nursing. In this paper, we made the identification of the ethical dimension of nursing ca (more) re according to the professional values stated by the model of D.E.Orem. The Orem's theory orients us about how must be the relations hips between nursing staff and persons, showing ethical values such as the respect to autonomy, the right to health care, to life; as well as the responsibility of nursing professionals providing a proper assistance.
Abstract in spanish El objetivo de esta investigación es exponer una reflexión teórica sobre la dimensión ética del desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura. En el plano epistemológico, este estudio se fundamentó en la concepción compleja de la realidad agrícola venezolana y aceptando el carácter multidimensional del desarrollo sostenible. Además, se argumentó en torno a las implicaciones de la ética para lograr la sostenibilidad de la agricultura y se asumió el compromiso socia (more) l de la ciencia. Esta reflexión teórica permitió apuntar hacia la necesidad de incorporar el tema ético dentro del debate del desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura. La ética debe constituir el punto de partida para plantear un desarrollo que perdure en el tiempo, dadas sus implicaciones en las dimensiones de la sostenibilidad (social, política-institucional, económica y ambiental) y poder construir una actividad económica que resulte justa desde el punto de vista social, factible en términos económicos, y sana para la conservación del medio ambiente. Abstract in english The objective of this research is to carry out a theoretical reflection on the ethical dimension of sustainable development in agriculture. On the epistemological level, this study was based on the reality of Venezuelan agriculture and adopted the multi-dimensional character of sustainable development. Also, the ethical implications in order to achieve sustainability in agriculture were debated, and the social commitment of science adopted. This theoretical reflection per (more) mitted a focus on the necessity of incorporating ethics in the debate of sustainable development of agriculture. Ethics should constitute a starting point from which to propose development that lasts over time, given its implications in the dimensions of sustainability (social, political, economic and environmental) in order to construct an economic activity that is just from the social point of view, feasible in and economic sense, and healthy in terms of the conservation of the environment.
Changes in public policy have led to increasing numbers of children with disabilities and complex medical needs being cared for in the homes of Canadians. Little work, however, has explored the ethical implications of these policies. This paper focuses on some of the shortcomings of current policy and describes a developing method for policy analysis with an explicit focus on ethics that could be adopted in other nations. Three forms of analyses - descriptive, conceptual and normative - conducted on Canadian homecare policy documents describe various dimensions of Canadian homecare policy. The descriptive analysis demonstrated that the jurisdiction of homecare services is dispersed across numerous programs and ministries with no single structure for policy implementation and accountability. The needs of children and youth are rarely mentioned in home healthcare policies, but instead are addressed under broader social policies that are focused upon children and family. The conceptual analysis revealed four over-arching themes that represent the predominant elements of a value-structure that underlie homecare policy. They include: (1) home and community care as ideal; (2) the importance of independence and self-care of citizens; (3) family as primary care provider; and (4) citizenship as entitlement to rights and justice. Overall, these themes tend to reflect a neoliberal ideology that shifts the responsibility of care from the state to the individual and his/her family. A normative framework based on critical healthcare ethics is used in the paper to make recommendations to redress the current imbalance between state and family support. For example, including homecare services within the Canada Health Act (CHA) or the development of separate legislation consistent with the principles of the CHA would make it possible to ensure that the principles of universality, accessibility, portability and public administration, as opposed to principles that reinforce competitive individualism, direct the provision of homecare services in Canada. PMID:17240503