Ozge Karadag, C; Kerim Hakan, A
Background Disasters may lead to ethical challenges that are different from usual medical practices. In addition, disaster situations are related with public health ethics more than medical ethics, and accordingly may require stronger effort to achieve a balance between individual and collective rights. This paper aims to review some ethical dilemmas that arise in disasters and mainly focuses on health services. Disasters vary considerably with respect to their time, place and extent; therefore, ethical questions may not always have `one-size-fits-all` answers. On the other hand, embedding ethical values and principles in every aspect of health-care is of vital importance. Reviewing legal and organizational regulations, developing health-care related guidelines, and disaster recovery plans, establishing on-call ethics committees as well as adequate in-service training of health-care workers for ethical competence are among the most critical steps. It is only by making efforts before disasters, that ethical challenges can be minimized in disaster responses. PMID:23285411
Filakovi?, Pavo; Pozgain, Ivan
Ethics in the contemporary psychiatry, as well as in medicine in general, is based on the two core ethical traditions: deontological and theological. Good ethical decision takes into the consideration both traditions, and is preceded with ethical dilemmas to provide the best possible care to the patients in that moment. In the article are presented most recent research results of the literature about ethical dilemmas in psychiatry. Ethical dilemmas in everyday practice as well as compliance with the patients, psychiatric consultations, informed consent, treatment of personality disorders, pharmacological investigations, forensic psychiatry, forced hospitalisation, promotion of mental health, and dealing with the stigma of the mental diseases are showed in the article. The authors emphasize the necessity of constant questioning of ethical dilemmas in the contemporary psychiatry, because of the special status of psychiatry as a potentially risky field in practice, and because of intensive pharmacological investigations in psychiatric patients. PMID:18589640
Dennis, Mary Kate; Washington, Karla T; Koenig, Terry L
Ethical decision making is critically important in hospice social work. Through in-depth interviews, researchers explored ethical dilemmas faced by 14 hospice social workers and the processes they used to move toward resolution. The dilemmas were integrated into a framework focused on the sources of ethical conflict: the client system, the agency, and the profession. Processes involved in resolving ethical dilemmas included consulting with other professionals, weighing the pros and cons of options, and bringing about desired outcomes. Findings suggest that hospice teams should be provided with opportunities to meaningfully discuss ethical decision making. Further, the involvement of social workers in administrative leadership is recommended to increase the likelihood that discipline-specific perspectives are incorporated into formal policies and procedures that shape practice in ethically complex situations. PMID:25397348
Holmes, William D; Whalen, James D
Dermatologic surgery presents a unique set of ethical dilemmas not frequently discussed within the medical literature. This contribution presents a few cases commonly encountered by dermatologic surgeons. The case-based discussion follows a principles-based framework for analysis and seeks to identify the central moral conflict and exemplify the development of sound reasoning for subsequent decision making through the consideration of multiple viewpoints and the weighing of potential consequences. Additional cases are provided in concise format to encourage further analysis and discourse on the distinct ethical dilemmas encountered within dermatologic surgery. PMID:22902217
Steven I. Miller
Full Text Available Within the philosophy of the social sciences, the relationship between evidence, ethics, and social policy is in need of further analysis. The present paper is an attempt to argue that while important social policies can, and perhaps ought to be, grounded in ethical theory, they are seldom articulated in this fashion due to the ambiguity surrounding the "evidence condition." Using a consequentialist-utilitarian framework, and a case study of a policy dilemma, the authors analyze the difficulties associated with resolving policy-based dilemmas which must appeal to evidential support as a justification for an ethical stand. Implication for the relevance of ethics to social policy formulation are discussed in detail.
Steven I. Miller; L. Arthur Safer
Within the philosophy of the social sciences, the relationship between evidence, ethics, and social policy is in need of further analysis. The present paper is an attempt to argue that while important social policies can, and perhaps ought to be, grounded in ethical theory, they are seldom articulated in this fashion due to the ambiguity surrounding the "evidence condition." Using a consequentialist-utilitarian framework, and a case study of a policy dilemma, the authors analyze the difficult...
Ehrich, Lisa Catherine; Kimber, Megan; Millwater, Jan; Cranston, Neil
Over recent decades, the field of ethics has been the focus of increasing attention in teaching. This is not surprising given that teaching is a moral activity that is heavily values-laden. Because of this, teachers face ethical dilemmas in the course of their daily work. This paper presents an ethical decision-making model that helps to explain…
Nurses are increasingly realising that they can offer relevant information and participate in decision-making involving ethical issues. However, inter-professional communications are frequently inadequate, and do not permit exchange of opinions. The consequences are often frustrating and upsetting for nurses whose care is affected by others' policies. This paper explores these issues using some clinical examples.
This resource is a PDF that provides teachers with an outline of "The Lifeboat," a classical ethics dilemma. The resource includes student handouts and a group discussion activity. Also included are four other classical ethical dilemmas for students to discuss before and after learning about the classic ethical perspectives.
Joan K. Pierson
Full Text Available Because most organizations depend on computer systems that electronically store important data to perform crucial business functions, the integrity of these information systems is paramount. Securing company systems, however, is not always an easy task. More sophisticated systems often provide widespread access to computer resources and increased user knowledge, which may lead to added difficulties in maintaining security. This paper explores whistleblowing employees' exposing illegal or unethical computer practices taking place in the organization as a method of computer security and the support for whistleblowing found in codes of ethical conduct formulated by professional societies.
Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to support the idea of institutionalizing business ethics education at all business schools. Further, the article stresses the importance of using ethical-economic dilemmas in business ethics education. It argues that business students should learn that managerial work is too complex to make do with expertise and experience and help them to acquire the skill of ethical reflection of economic activity. Solving ethical-economic dilemmas in business ethics courses helps to develop cognitive skills in considering economic or managerial problems on the basis of ethical and economic interaction. In order to support the main purpose stated above, we aimed at getting a picture of how respondents assess and solve an ethical-economic dilemma. Hence, this article presents results of an empirical investigation of the ethical decision-making (EDM process on a sample of Slovak students of Management.
Kraft, M R
When a patient with a new spinal cord injury (SCI) refuses all care, the treatment team struggles with an ethical dilemma. The issues of patients' rights and autonomy are in conflict with the concepts of beneficence and nonmaleficence. Thomasma (1978) recommended a model useful in addressing situations in which values are in conflict. This model for an ethical workup is applied retrospectively to review a specific clinical case. The need to recognize and respect as many ethical principles as possible is identified as useful in reaching some acceptable resolution of an ethical dilemma. PMID:10347538
Full Text Available As the main interest of health professionals is for the well-being of patients/clients, ethical decision making is one of the prominent elements of his/her professionalism. Aim: The present study aims to illustrate the role of ethical judgment and the so-called "moral imagination" in health professions. Method and material: Review of theoretical and research literature, including both classic and recent sources about ethical dilemmas that health professionals may anticipate, as well as the suggested ways to manage these dilemmas. Results: Health professionals often have to act in complicated situations. Review of relevant literature indicates that the professionals' ethical decisions are structured not only through the codes of ethics, but also through other collective practices, such as organizational culture and cultural schemas about the role of health professional. Resorting to schematic thinking may temporarily release the professional from his/her concerns, but in the long run, it may devoid him/her of the sense of satisfaction from work and of the ability to offer clients the optimal care. The development of the so-called "moral imagination" permits the professional to advance from the typical application of the rules to actual ethical judgment. Conclusions: Ethical decision making presupposes not only a thorough knowledge of ethical guidelines, but also the development of the ability to openly reflect upon the ethical dimensions of an issue (moral imagination that allows health professionals to overcome schematic thinking and investigate comprehensive solutions to ethical dilemmas.
Dunn, Earl V.
Ethical dilemmas in family practice have increased in frequency and complexity as both the potential benefit and the potential harm of medical treatments have increased. All physicians must be aware of moral issues relating to medicine. Family physicians commonly face ethical problems concerning the patient with diminished autonomy; the right to refuse treatment; allocation of resources; informed consent; surrogate consent (for children, for the incompetent, and for those with diminished auto...
Paulins, V. Ann; Lombardy, Lisa
Ethical dilemmas observed by students in retailing internships were the basis for a survey in which students indicated their perceptions as to whether case situations involved unethical behavior. Expanded case situations were offered to students for further exploration. The specific questions posed in this study included the following: (1) In what…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe the kinds of ethical dilemmas surgeons face during practice. Methods Five male and five female surgeons at a University hospital in Norway were interviewed as part of a comprehensive investigation into the narratives of physicians and nurses about ethically difficult situations in surgical units. The transcribed interview texts were subjected to a phenomenological-hermeneutic interpretation. Results No gender differences were found in the kinds of ethical dilemmas identified among male and female surgeons. The main finding was that surgeons experienced ethical dilemmas in deciding the right treatment in different situations. The dilemmas included starting or withholding treatment, continuing or withdrawing treatment, overtreatment, respecting the patients and meeting patients' expectations. The main focus in the narratives was on ethical dilemmas concerning the patients' well-being, treatment and care. The surgeons narrated about whether they should act according to their own convictions or according to the opinions of principal colleagues or colleagues from other departments. Handling incompetent colleagues was also seen as an ethical dilemma. Prioritization of limited resources and following social laws and regulations represented ethical dilemmas when they contradicted what the surgeons considered was in the patients' best interests. Conclusion The surgeons seemed confident in their professional role although the many ethical dilemmas they experienced in trying to meet the expectations of patients, colleagues and society also made them professionally and personally vulnerable.
Most moral dilemmas in medicine are analysed using the four principles with some consideration of consequentialism but these frameworks have limitations. It is not always clear how to judge which consequences are best. When principles conflict it is not always easy to decide which should dominate. They also do not take account of the importance of the emotional element of human experience. Virtue ethics is a framework that focuses on the character of the moral agent rather than the rightness ...
Firuleasa, Ingrid-Laura; Florescu, Silvia; Mona MOLDOVAN
The article reviews the issues of in vitro fertilization and the ethical dilemmas that rise from the impact of the medical, social, moral and legal framework of this method of assisted human reproduction, starting with the origin of gametes, the status of embryos and of biological or shedding parents, the maternal age, the sexual orientation of parents, the fate of embryos, the experimentation on embryo, taking into account the legislative framework, but also the moral and religious ones.The ...
Mullikin, Arwen; Rahman, M
USA Government wiretapping activities is a very controversial issue. Undoubtedly this technology can assist law enforced authority to detect / identify unlawful or hostile activities; however, this task raises severe privacy concerns. In this paper, we have discussed this complex information technology issue of governmental wiretapping and how it effects both public and private liberties. Legislation has had a major impact on the uses and the stigma of wiretapping for the war on terrorism. This paper also analyzes the ethical and legal concerns inherent when discussing the benefits and concerns of wiretapping. The analysis has concluded with the effects of wiretapping laws as they relate to future government actions in their fight against terrorists.
Full Text Available Nurses are increasingly confronted with situations of moral difficulty, such as not to feed terminally ill patients, whistle blowing, or participation in termination of pregnancy. Most of these moral dilemmas are often analyzed using the principle-based approach which applies the four moral principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence, and nonmalificence. In some instances, consequentialism is considered, but these frameworks have their limitations. Their limitations has to do with a consideration for the interpersonal nature of clinical nursing practice on the one hand, and is not always clear on how to judge which consequences are best on the other hand. When principles are in conflict it is not always easy to decide which principle should dominate. Furthermore, these frameworks do not take into account the importance of the interpersonal and emotional element of human experience. On the contrary, decision making about moral issues in healthcare demands that nurses exercise rational control over emotions. This clearly focuses the attention on the nurse as moral agent and in particular their character. In this article I argue that virtue ethics as an approach, which focus of the character of a person, might provide a more holistic analysis of moral dilemmas in nursing and might facilitate more flexible and creative solutions when combined with other theories of moral decision-making. Advancing this argument, firstly, I provide the central features of virtue ethics. Secondly I describe a story in which a moral dilemma is evident. Lastly I apply virtue ethics as an approach to this moral dilemma and in particular focusing on the virtues inherent in the nurse as moral agent in the story.
Nurses are increasingly confronted with situations of moral difficulty, such as not to feed terminally ill patients, whistle blowing, or participation in termination of pregnancy. Most of these moral dilemmas are often analyzed using the principle-based approach which applies the four moral principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence, and non-malificence. In some instances, consequentialism is considered, but these frameworks have their limitations. Their limitations has to do with a consideration for the interpersonal nature of clinical nursing practice on the one hand, and is not always clear on how to judge which consequences are best on the other hand. When principles are in conflict it is not always easy to decide which principle should dominate. Furthermore, these frameworks do not take into account the importance of the interpersonal and emotional element of human experience. On the contrary, decision-making about moral issues in healthcare demands that nurses exercise rational control over emotions. This clearly focuses the attention on the nurse as moral agent and in particular their character. In this article I argue that virtue ethics as an approach, which focus of the character of a person, might provide a more holistic analysis of moral dilemmas in nursing and might facilitate more flexible and creative solutions when combined with other theories of moral decision-making. Advancing this argument, firstly, I provide the central features of virtue ethics. Secondly I describe a story in which a moral dilemma is evident. Lastly I apply virtue ethics as an approach to this moral dilemma and in particular focusing on the virtues inherent in the nurse as moral agent in the story. PMID:16245481
Full Text Available The article reviews the issues of in vitro fertilization and the ethical dilemmas that rise from the impact of the medical, social, moral and legal framework of this method of assisted human reproduction, starting with the origin of gametes, the status of embryos and of biological or shedding parents, the maternal age, the sexual orientation of parents, the fate of embryos, the experimentation on embryo, taking into account the legislative framework, but also the moral and religious ones.The dilemmas are all under review, seeking to highlight the positive and negative aspects of the process, considering fairly the need of these techniques and the benefits of their use and the benefit they would bring to society.
Full Text Available One of the main characteristics of the new millennium is the affirmation of human rights in all aspects of human existence, with the intention of turning declarative statements into reality. Development of up-to-date assisted reproductive technologies (ART and their application in infertility treatment have raised numerous ethical, legal, religious, social and other questions. In vitro fertilization, donation of gametes, embryos and pre-embryos, cryopreservation of gametes, embryos, ovarian and testicular tissues, embryo transfer, genetic reproductive techniques, cloning and other sophisticated methods used in infertility treatment require cooperation between the medical and legal professions. Ethical aspects of human reproduction and assisted fertilization are based on full respect of the life of an individual even before conception, from pre-embryo stage, via embryo stage and fetus stage to a newborn infant. Regarding investigative and clinical projects, this standpoint implies the legalization of all ART procedures, unencumbered exchange of information and consensus about their application, and adherence to the basic ethical principles of autonomy benefit, justice and common welfare. Ethical postulates provide unequivocal directions in the creation of new life and resolve all possible ethical dilemmas, protecting the rights of doctors and participant in relevant procedures alike and reasserting the crucial principle - respect of human dignity.
Allegrante, J P; Sloan, R P
In less than a decade, workplace health promotion programs designed to promote employee health and help reduce the high cost of health insurance premiums paid by business and industry have proliferated. Notwithstanding the latent benefits and cost savings that corporate management expects to gain from the investment in such programs, it is argued that workplace health promotion is not without potential misuse and that its goals and methods ought not to be above ethical scrutiny. Drawing on earlier work, we discuss how workplace health promotion may pose ethical problems related to social justice, protection of privacy, and social control. The attendant moral dilemmas for the professional whose responsibility it is to develop and implement such programs are also presented. PMID:3749011
Abolaji Joachim Abiodun
Full Text Available The modern workplace is composed of people with diverse backgrounds in terms of nationality, culture, religion, age, education and socioeconomic status. Each of these people enters the work with different values, goals, and perceptions of acceptable behaviours. The diverse background creates ethical challenges for individuals as well as managers. There are issues and decisions that are to be made by workers in the organization that have implications for their job security and salary, and success of the organization. Pressure may be on the workers to protect their own interests, sometimes at the risk of losing personal and corporate integrity. This paper attempts to evaluate ethical dilemmas and conflicts from an Africa perspective, bearing in mind different value systems between western and African nations.
Kenny, Belinda; Lincoln, Michelle; Balandin, Susan
Purpose: To investigate the approaches of experienced speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to ethical reasoning and the processes they use to resolve ethical dilemmas. Method: Ten experienced SLPs participated in in-depth interviews. A narrative approach was used to guide participants' descriptions of how they resolved ethical dilemmas. Individual…
Ethical dilemmas can be challenging for the nutrition support clinician who is accustomed to evidence-based practice. The emotional and personal nature of ethical decision making can present difficulties, and conflict can arise when people have different ethical perspectives. An understanding of ethical terms and ethical theories can be helpful in clarifying the source of this conflict. These may include prominent ethical theories such as moral relativism, utilitarianism, Kantian absolutism, Aristotle's virtue ethics and ethics of care, as well as the key ethical principles in healthcare (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice). Adopting a step-by-step approach can simplify the process of resolving ethical problems. PMID:16556920
Full Text Available Abstract Background Professional health care practice should be based on ethical decisions and actions. When there are competing ethical standards or principles, one must choose between two or more competing options. This study explores ethical dilemmas experienced by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants. Methods The investigator interviewed seven International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and analyzed the interviews using qualitative research methods. Results "Staying Mother-Centred" emerged as the overall theme. It encompassed six categories that emerged as steps in managing ethical dilemmas: 1 recognizing the dilemma; 2 identifying context; 3 determining choices; 4 strategies used; 5 results and choices the mother made; and 6 follow-up. The category, "Strategies used", was further analyzed and six sub-themes emerged: building trust; diffusing situations; empowering mothers; finding balance; providing information; and setting priorities. Conclusions This study provides a framework for understanding how International Board Certified Lactation Consultants manage ethical dilemmas. Although the details of their stories changed, the essence of the experience remained quite constant with the participants making choices and acting to support the mothers. The framework could be the used for further research or to develop tools to support IBCLCs as they manage ethical dilemmas and to strengthen the profession with a firm ethics foundation.
Levinas's ethics has in the last decades exerted a significant influence on Nursing and Caring Science. The core of Levinas's ethics - his analyses of how our subjectivity is established in the ethical encounter with our neighbour or the?Other - is applied both to healthcare practice and in the project of building an identity of Nursing and Caring Science. Levinas's analyses are highly abstract and metaphysical, and also non-normative. Thus, his analyses cannot be applied directly to practical problems and questions. Theorists in Nursing and Caring Science are generally aware of this. Nevertheless, many of them use Levinas's analyses to explore and solve questions of practical and normative character. This article focuses on the challenges and dilemmas of using Levinas in this manner. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents some central ideas of Levinas's ethics based on the latter part of his authorship. The main focus is on the radicalism of Levinas's critique of the symbolic order (which includes concepts, categories, knowledge, etc.) - or as he puts it 'the said' - as a basis for subjectivity and responsibility. Levinas's notions of saying, anarchy, and singularity accentuate this point of view. These notions refer to conditions in the language, which counteract the symbolic order in the ethical encounter to such an extent that it becomes an incomprehensible. Levinas gives the argumentation a metaphysical frame: The encounter with the incomprehensible is an encounter with the Holy, which is not the ontological God, but a metaphysical desire. It is a mystery as to what this means, and herein lies possibly the main challenge when using Levinas's ethics in science and research: How to maintain the radicalism of his critique of the symbolic order when this is to be communicated in a scientific context that expects clarification of statements and ideas? The second part of the article explores this question by examining how some theorists use Levinas's ethics on questions and problems in the area of healthcare and Nursing and Caring Science. The focus is especially on the theorists' reception and use of the just mentioned notions. The study reveals that these theorists to a large extent transform Levinas's ethics according to their own approaches, with the result that his ethics loses its critical radicalism. Thus, I question the reason why they use Levinas. PMID:25413564
Zydziunaite, V; Suominen, T
Abstract Background: Understanding the reasons and consequences of leadership styles in ethical dilemmas is fundamental to exploring nurse managers' abilities to influence outcomes for patients and nursing personnel. Purpose: To explain the associations between different leadership styles, reasons for their application and its consequences when nurse managers make decisions in ethical dilemmas. Methods: The data were collected between 15 October 2011 and 30 April 2012 by statistically validated questionnaire. The respondents (n=278) were nurse managers. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0, calculating Spearman's correlations, the Stepwise Regression and ANOVA. Results: The reasons for applying different leadership styles in ethical dilemmas include personal characteristics, years in work position, institutional factors, and the professional authority of nurse managers. The applied leadership styles in ethical dilemmas are associated with the consequences regarding the satisfaction of patients', relatives' and nurse managers' needs. Conclusions: Nurse managers exhibited leadership styles oriented to maintenance, focusing more on the "doing the job" than on managing the decision-making in ethical dilemmas. PMID:25242639
Denardin, Daniela; Telles, Jorge Alberto B.; Betat, Rosilene da Silveira; Fell, Paulo Renato K.; da Cunha, André Campos; Targa, Luciano Vieira; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.
OBJECTIVE To review the history, epidemiology, etiology, gestational aspects, diagnosis and prognosis of imperfect twinning. DATA SOURCES Scientific articles were searched in PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases, using the descriptors "conjoined twins", "multiple pregnancy", "ultrasound", "magnetic resonance imaging" and "prognosis". The research was not delimited to a specific period of time and was supplemented with bibliographic data from books. DATA SYNTHESIS: The description of conjoined twins is legendary. The estimated frequency is 1/45,000-200,000 births. These twins are monozygotic, monochorionic and usually monoamniotic. They can be classified by the most prominent fusion site, by the symmetry between the conjoined twins or by the sharing structure. The diagnosis can be performed in the prenatal period or after birth by different techniques, such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography. These tests are of paramount importance for understanding the anatomy of both fetuses/children, as well as for prognosis and surgical plan determination. CONCLUSIONS Although imperfect twinning is a rare condition, the prenatal diagnosis is very important in order to evaluate the fusion site and its complexity. Hence, the evaluation of these children should be multidisciplinary, involving mainly obstetricians, pediatricians and pediatric surgeons. However, some decisions may constitute real ethical dilemmas, in which different points should be discussed and analyzed with the health team and the family. PMID:24142323
Paulson, Steve; Comfort, Christopher P; Lee, Barbara Coombs; Shemie, Sam; Solomon, Mildred Z
The ability of modern medicine to prolong life has raised a variety of difficult legal, ethical, and social issues on which reasonable minds can differ. Among these are the morality of euthanasia in cases of deep coma or irreversible injury, as well as the Dead Donor Rule with respect to organ harvesting and transplants. As science continues to refine and develop lifesaving technologies, questions remain as to how much medical effort and financial resources should be expended to prolong the lives of patients suspended between life and death. At what point should death be considered irreversible? What criteria should be used to determine when to withhold or withdraw life-prolonging treatments in cases of severe brain damage and terminal illness? To explore these complex dilemmas, Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion panel. Pediatrician Sam Shemie, hospice medical director Christopher P. Comfort, bioethicist Mildred Z. Solomon, and attorney Barbara Coombs Lee examined the underlying assumptions and considerations that ultimately shape individual and societal decisions surrounding these issues. The following is an edited transcript of the discussion that occurred November 12, 2013, 7:00-8:30 PM, at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City. PMID:25079490
Thomas E. Doyle
Full Text Available This article advances a critical analysis of John Rawls's justification of liberal democratic nuclear deterrence in the post-Cold War era as found in The Law of Peoples. Rawls's justification overlooked how nuclear-armed liberal democracies are ensnared in two intransigent ethical dilemmas: one in which the mandate to secure liberal constitutionalism requires both the preservation and violation of important constitutional provisions in domestic affairs, and the other in which this same mandate requires both the preservation and violation of the liberal commitment to international legal arrangements and to the rule of law generally. On this view, the choice to violate constitutional provisions and international legal arrangements is evidence of nuclear despotism. Moreover, this choice does not imply that the ethical foreign policy dilemmas were resolved. Instead, it implies that the dilemmas force liberal democratic governments into implementing ethically paradoxical policy outcomes.
This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see,' and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (i) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (ii) avoiding responsibility; and (iii) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors. (Author)
This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors
Sen, Piyal; Gordon, Harvey; Adshead, Gwen; Irons, Ashley
One approach to the analysis of ethical dilemmas in medical practice uses the “four principles plus scope” approach. These principles are: respect for autonomy, beneficence, non?maleficence and justice, along with concern for their scope of application. However, conflicts between the different principles are commonplace in psychiatric practice, especially in forensic psychiatry, where duties to patients often conflict with duties to third parties such as the public. This article seeks to high...
Mafunisa, M. J.
This paper addresses the subject of conflict of interest: an ethical dilemma in politics and administration. Conflict of interest denotes a situation in which an employee has a private financial interest sufficient to influence, or appear to influence, the exercise of his or her public duties. A primary reason for concern about conflicts of interest is that they reduce public trust and confidence in the integrity and impartiality of public functionaries. The subject of this article is the cat...
Streba, Irina; Damian, Simona; Ioan, Beatrice
For centuries, death has been defined, medically speaking, as the irreversible cessation of breathing and of nervous and cardiac activity. What radically changed this definition was the introduction of the concept "brain death" in 1968, by the "Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School". According to it, the irreversible coma was associated with brain death and considered to be a criterion for the diagnosis of the deceased individual. The evergrowing need for transplant organs (provided this respects the dead honor rule, stipulating that organs can't be harvested unless someone is deceased) lead to making arbitrary decisions regarding the establishment of the exact time of death during the process of "losing life". What actually triggers the controversy related to the concept of brain death is the dilemma of associating this concept with that of biologic death or death of the person, the difference between the two being made by whether the mental characteristics are accepted or not in defining and individualizing the death of the human being. Given these circumstances, a dilemma appears--that of defining the death of the individual: we define death, as it has been for centuries, as the moment when the cardio-respiratory function no longer exists, which leads to the loss of tens of thousands of lives that might have been saved through transplant. Yet, this may lead to manipulating the border between life and death, with the risk of trespassing each individual's right to life. PMID:23272519
Physicians are in positions to make decisions on which lives depend. The question of who should be making decisions concerning medical research and practice is a moral issue. The problems of medical ethics concern such concepts as autonomy, burden of proof, coercion, informed consent, paternalism, and diminished capacity. (SW)
Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina
'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways to explore the program; for example, they can navigate the program using the 'Assist Me' option, which explains the basis of theethical arguments. Reality text provides details of real events on which the case is based, and a glossary of terminology is available for the students to explore. Selected access to a case template is also available, enabling students and teachers to create their own case studies. Evaluation of the program has been ongoing during its development.
Dragojevi?-Diki? Svetlana; Dragani? Saveta; Diki? Sr?an S.; Pilija Vladimir
One of the main characteristics of the new millennium is the affirmation of human rights in all aspects of human existence, with the intention of turning declarative statements into reality. Development of up-to-date assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and their application in infertility treatment have raised numerous ethical, legal, religious, social and other questions. In vitro fertilization, donation of gametes, embryos and pre-embryos, cryopreservation of gametes, embryos, ovarian ...
Mcinerney, Margie L.; Mader, Deanna D.; Mader, Fred H.
Business leaders are often failing to display ethical behavior in business decisions. This paper examines the gender differences found in undergraduate business students when faced with ethical decision making dilemmas.
Margie L. McInerney
Full Text Available Business leaders are often failing to display ethical behavior in business decisions. This paper examines the gender differences found in undergraduate business students when faced with ethical decision making dilemmas.
Space tourism is an important new venture, however it raises several issues that must be addressed; namely, the medical implications associated with space flight and potential for ethical problems surrounding the safety of such travel. It seems highly likely that businesses involved in space tourism could find themselves liable for any passenger deaths or injuries, if they are found to have been negligent. This paper, therefore, discusses such issues as the medical facilities that need to be made available on board a space facility, and the companies' duty to disclose to potential passengers the risks associated with microgravity and the likelihood of space sickness, loss of bone density, disease, and pregnancy.
Luxardo, Natalia; Colombo, Graciela; Iglesias, Gabriela
The purpose of this article is to examine some obstacles and dilemmas related to methodological strategies and ethical considerations that arose during the fieldwork of research focused on family violence during the stages of pregnancy and childbirth in adolescent females in Buenos Aires during 2007. From this study, we are able to contribute some…
Billiot, Mary Jo; Daniel, David; Glandon, Sid; Glandon, TerryAnn
We examine the effect of different contexts in an educational process on measures of ethical sensitivity and levels of moral reasoning of accounting majors in the first Intermediate Accounting course. The educational process compared a context that centers on ethical issues with one that focuses on technical accounting issues. At the end of the…
Agyapong, V I O
A case is described of a fifty year old single man who made disclosures about criminal sexual practices during a psychiatric assessment. In common practice with other professional men, a doctor is under a duty not to disclose, without the consent of his patient, information which he has gained in his professional capacity other than in exceptional circumstances. We discuss the ethical and legal considerations surrounding issues of medical confidentiality and the dilemma that sometimes face clinicians, when they feel obliged, in the public interest, to disclose information they have gained in confidence. Breach of confidences can have deleterious consequences; particularly for the doctor-patient relationship, but failure to disclose in some situations could have serious implications for the well-being of the wider society. Doctors should be aware of the basic principles of confidentiality and the ethical and legal framework around which they are built.
Flatley, Danielle R; Kenny, Belinda J; Lincoln, Michelle A
Speech-language pathologists experience ethical dilemmas as they fulfil their professional roles and responsibilities. Previous research findings indicated that speech-language pathologists working in publicly funded settings identified ethical dilemmas when they managed complex clients, negotiated professional relationships, and addressed service delivery issues. However, little is known about ethical dilemmas experienced by speech-language pathologists working in private practice settings. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech-language pathologists working in private practice. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 10 speech-language pathologists employed in diverse private practice settings. Participants explained the nature of ethical dilemmas they experienced at work and identified their most challenging and frequently occurring ethical conflicts. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse transcribed data and generate themes. Four themes reflected the nature of speech-language pathologists' ethical dilemmas; balancing benefit and harm, fidelity of business practices, distributing funds, and personal and professional integrity. Findings support the need for professional development activities that are specifically targeted towards facilitating ethical practice for speech-language pathologists in the private sector. PMID:24735456
Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdio?lu; Korhan, Esra Akin; Dizer, Berna; Gümü?, Fatma; Koyuncu, Rukiye
Nurses are more likely to face the dilemma of whether to resort to physical restraints or not and have a hard time making that decision. This is a descriptive study. A total of 55 nurses participated in the research. For data collection, a question form developed by researchers to determine perceptions of ethical dilemmas by nurses in the application of physical restraint was used. A descriptive analysis was made by calculating the mean, standard deviation, and maximum and minimum values. The nurses expressed (36.4%) having difficulty in deciding to use physical restraint. Nurses reported that they experience ethical dilemmas mainly in relation to the ethic principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, and convenience. We have concluded that majority of nurses working in critical care units apply physical restraint to patients, although they are facing ethical dilemmas concerning harm and benefit principles during the application. PMID:24503745
...The comments we received included one request from a survey firm that was interested in possibly administering the survey...services will provide better insight into the perspective and culture of surgery as it relates to ethical dilemmas in their...
Botes, Annatjie; Otto, Marianne
This study's objectives were: (1) to describe and explore the ethical dilemmas surrounding the HIV-positive person in the workplace in South Africa; and (2) to describe the Rational Interaction for Moral Sensitivity (RIMS) approach as a possible mechanism for solving these ethical dilemmas. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research design was used. The target populations were HIV-positive employees and occupational health nurses working for a South African company. Data collected through individual HIV-positive employee interviews and occupational health nurse workgroups were analysed. The ethical dilemmas were conceptualized and described within the theoretical framework of the principles of ethics, namely, autonomy, beneficence, justice and confidentiality. To elicit a solution to the dilemmas, the data were recontextualized using the RIMS approach, a group decision-making strategy designed for the business environment. PMID:12762462
Kenny, Belinda J.; Lincoln, Michelle; Blyth, Katrina; Balandin, Susan
Background: Speech pathologists are confronted by ethical issues when they need to make decisions about client care, address team conflict, and fulfil the range of duties and responsibilities required of health professionals. However, there has been little research into the specific nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech pathologists and…
Kramer, Roderick M; Bazerman, Max H
This book, in honor of David Messick, is about social decisions and the role cooperation plays in social life. Noted contributors who worked with Dave over the years will discuss their work in social judgment, decision making and ethics which was so important to Dave.The book offers a unique and valuable contribution to the fields of social psychology and organizational behavior. Ethical decision making, a central focus of this volume, is highly relevant to current scholarship and research in both disciplines. The volume will be suitable for graduate level courses in organizational behavior, s
Chiu, W; Wilson, D
This paper addresses the nurse manager's role regarding chemically-dependent nurses in the workplace. The manager may intervene by: terminating the contract of the impaired colleague; notifying a disciplinary committee; consulting with a counselling committee; or referring the impaired nurse to an employee assistance programme. A dilemma may arise about which of these interventions is ethically the best. The ethical theories relevant to nursing involve ethical relativism, utilitarianism, Kantian ethics, Kohlberg's justice, and Gilligan's ethic of care. Nurse managers first need to understand these theories in order to clarify their own perceptions and attitudes towards chemical dependency, and then satisfactorily resolve this ethical dilemma. Education and social learning are routes to a better understanding of chemical dependency and to broadening the ethical dimensions of nurse managers. PMID:8998031
Wiegand, Debra L; MacMillan, Julia; Dos Santos, Maiara Rogrigues; Bousso, Regina Szylit
Critical care nurses and advanced practice registered nurses frequently face bioethical dilemmas in clinical practice that are related to palliative and end-of-life care. Many of these dilemmas are associated with decisions made concerning continuing, limiting, or withdrawing life-sustaining treatments. The purpose of this article is to describe common ethical challenges through case study presentations and discuss approaches that critical care nurses and advanced practice registered nurses in collaboration with the interdisciplinary team can use to address these challenges. Resources that may be helpful in managing ethical dilemmas are identified. PMID:25898882
Garcia, Jorge; Froehlic, Robert; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rejiester, Nicole
This study examined which of two training models delivered through the internet led to better cultural competence in resolving ethical dilemmas with a sample of rehabilitation professionals. One type of training involved teaching a transcultural integrative model of ethical decision-making while the other training involved using the same…
Sheather, Julian; Shah, Tejshri
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is an independent medical humanitarian organisation working in over 70 countries. It has provided medical assistance for over 35 years to populations vulnerable through conflict, disease and inadequate health systems. Medical ethics define the starting point of the relationship between medical staff and patients. The ethics of humanitarian interventions and of research in conflict settings are much debated. However, less is known about the ethical dilemmas faced by medical humanitarian staff in their daily work. Ethical dilemmas can be intensified in humanitarian contexts by insecure environments, lack of optimum care, language barriers, potentially heightened power discrepancies between care providers and patients, differing cultural values and perceptions of patients, communities and medical staff. Time constraints, stressful conditions and lack of familiarity with ethical frameworks can prevent reflection on these dilemmas, as can frustration that such reflection does not necessarily provide instant solutions. Lack of reflection, however, can be distressing for medical practitioners and can reduce the quality of care. Ethical reflection has a central role in MSF, and the organisation uses ethical frameworks to help with clinical and programmatic decisions as well as in deliberations over operational research. We illustrate and discuss some real ethical dilemmas facing MSF teams. Only by sharing and seeking guidance can MSF and similar actors make more thoughtful and appropriate decisions. Our aim in sharing these cases is to invite discussion and dialogue in the wider medical community working in crisis, conflict or with severe resource limitations. PMID:21084354
To ensure ethical employee behavior, companies often utilize several forms of mostly one-way communication such as codes of conduct. The extent to which these efforts, in addition to informing about the company stance on ethics, are able to positively influence behavior is disputed. In contrast, research on business ethics communication and behavior indicates a relatively clear, positive link between open workplace dialogue about ethical issues and ethical conduct. In this paper, I therefore address the question: What influences employee attitudes to talking openly about ethical issues? Answers are proposed on the basis of focus group interviews with staff at the Denmark and Brazil affiliates of the global healthcare company Novo Nordisk. It was found that interest in discussing ethical issues was influenced by two main factors: employee conceptualizations of business ethics, and the level of inter-collegial trust, credibility, and confidence. In this paper, by examining these phenomena, I am at providinginsight that can both inform scholars in these fields as well as help managers in their attempts to promote open workplace dialogue about ethical issues.
Marcus, Brian S; Shank, Gary; Carlson, Jestin N; Venkat, Arvind
Ethics consultation is a commonly applied mechanism to address clinical ethical dilemmas. However, there is little information on the viewpoints of health care providers towards the relevance of ethics committees and appropriate application of ethics consultation in clinical practice. We sought to use qualitative methodology to evaluate free-text responses to a case-based survey to identify thematically the views of health care professionals towards the role of ethics committees in resolving clinical ethical dilemmas. Using an iterative and reflexive model we identified themes that health care providers support a role for ethics committees and hospitals in resolving clinical ethical dilemmas, that the role should be one of mediation, rather than prescription, but that ultimately legal exposure was dispositive compared to ethical theory. The identified theme of legal fears suggests that the mediation role of ethics committees is viewed by health care professionals primarily as a practical means to avoid more worrisome medico-legal conflict. PMID:25475170
Full Text Available Brain death (BD, as the irreversible and permanent loss of cerebral and brainstem function, is relatively uncommon among newborns who need life support. It is considered the result of an acute and irreversible central nervous system insult. Asphyxia, severe intracranial hemorrhage and infection are the most common causes of BD in children. BD diagnosis is usually based on clinical criteria. Dilemmas about life prolonging treatment for severely compromised infants – as brain dead infants are – has become challenging since neonatal intensive care unit (NICU care has developed, quality of life and resource issues are nowadays continuously underlined. Caring for premature babies is expensive and costs have risen especially since an increased number of infants with handicaps survives. Intensivists’ main duty is first to save lives and then to interrupt treatment in certain conditions like detrimental brain damage. The objective of this article is to present ethical decisions regarding brain dead newborns in order to balance between organ donation necessities and withholding/withdrawing treatment, with respect to the important role of infants’ parents in the process.
Full Text Available Digital security governance – the use of digital personal data for threat analysis on the basis of (automated risk profiling – enhances terrorism risk management in Europe. European security strategies emphasise that information and communication technology increasingly play a key role in preventing and anticipating threats such as terrorism and cyber-crime. It enables, for example, the sharing of personal, financial or travellers’ data with third countries. This article focuses on digital security governance in the context of the Passenger Name Record (PNR, the Advance Passenger Information (API and the Terrorist Finance Tracking System (TFTP programmes. Particularly, it considers the ethical dilemmas of using and sharing digital personal data as well as accountability for this type of risk management. Because there are broader socio-political, legal and technological issues connected to the use of information and communication technology for digital security governance, the concept of accountability in this article is holistic.
Berger, Jesper Bull
The delivering of public services to citizens through the internet -- also known as e-government - has gained serious momentum, driven by political ambitions of improved efficiency. E-government, however, is considered complex and e-government failures are well known from media. Research of how e-government is enacted inside government is sparse. Technology mediated public services in real world entail ethical dilemmas. By extracting ethical dilemmas from a qualitative e-government participatory design study, this paper shows how ethical dilemmas may inform future e-government design and design processes. The case, adoption of digital post in a local e-government setting, showed that design flaws, staff's concern for citizens and political fear of citizens' critique had an impact on e-government adoption.
Erde, E L
There are many calls for a definition of personhood, but also many logical and Wittgensteinian reasons to think fulfilling this is unimportant or impossible. I argue that we can consider many contexts as language-games and consider the person as the key player in each. We can then examine the attributes, presuppositions and implications of personhood in those contexts. I use law and therapeutic psychology as two examples of such contexts or language-games. Each correlates with one of the classic "theories" of ethics-deontology and consequentialism. But each is a large enough cluster to consider them as paradigms in a sense related to Thomas Kuhn's notion in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Showing the presuppositions about and "takes" on personhood together with the connections involved in the paradigms deepens the dilemmas we already know to be present. PMID:10450664
Mariño, Tania Cruz; Armiñán, Rubén Reynaldo; Cedeño, Humberto Jorge; Mesa, José Miguel Laffita; Zaldivar, Yanetza González; Rodríguez, Raúl Aguilera; Santos, Miguel Velázquez; Mederos, Luis Enrique Almaguer; Herrera, Milena Paneque; Pérez, Luis Velázquez
Predictive testing protocols are intended to help patients affected with hereditary conditions understand their condition and make informed reproductive choices. However, predictive protocols may expose clinicians and patients to ethical dilemmas that interfere with genetic counseling and the decision making process. This paper describes ethical dilemmas in a series of five cases involving predictive testing for hereditary ataxias in Cuba. The examples herein present evidence of the deeply controversial situations faced by both individuals at risk and professionals in charge of these predictive studies, suggesting a need for expanded guidelines to address such complexities. PMID:21264501
Full Text Available After the emergence of information technology, occurrence of some ethical problems seems to be inevitable. Due to importance of this topic, the present article, adopting a cognitive approach, aimed to debate some ethical challenges relating to information technology so that via identification of such issues, thinking how they can be eradicated or diminished was stimulated. To do this, it discussed theoretical foundations, offered some evidences and highlighted necessity of considering interoperability between ethics and information technology and their related consequences. Moreover, it examined some ethical dilemmas originating from information technology and finally, made a reference to several recommendations.
OBJECTIVES: To identify ethical dilemmas experienced by occupational and physical therapists working in the UK National Health Service (NHS). To compare ethical contexts, themes and principles across the two groups. DESIGN: A structured questionnaire was circulated to the managers of occupational and physical therapy services in England and Wales. SUBJECTS: The questionnaires were given to 238 occupational and 249 physical therapists who conformed to set criteria. RESULTS: Ethical dilemmas ex...
Full Text Available Ethical dilemmas that face heathcare team members referring patients to hospice programs include the ability of clinicians to predict accurately a patient bad prognosis. They affect day-to-day patient management in palliative care programs including healthcare team members concern over the use of morphine because possible respiratory depression in the patient, the question of providing enteral or parenteral nutritional support to patients who refuse to eat and the question of providing parenteral fluids to patients who are unable to take fluids during the terminal phrases of illness. A final ethical dilemma concerns the methodology for quality of life research in palliative care. Understanding and resolving these ethical dilemmas is an important factor determining the quality of the caring for the patient. The ethical dilemmas that are discussed in the article likely to occur in this period can be prevented through his/her participation in the decisions concerning his or her treatment. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 65-79
Pedigo, Kerry; Marshall, Verena
Globalisation has seen diverse cultures becoming increasingly entwined and interdependent as business organisations operate in a borderless world. When organisations operate internationally they often find that countries differ in what is considered wrong or right. The objectives of the research were to identify cross-cultural ethical dilemmas…
This article explores the ethical tensions and dilemmas that arose for 2 U.S. social work students during an 8-month international clinical internship in northern Uganda. These students encountered cultural differences related to issues of confidentiality, autonomy, and self-determination. Student experiences were analyzed using the cultural…
Democratic rule of law has been struggling with the occurring problem of pluralism of values. It is therefore still faced with the dilemma of ordering the relationship of law and ethics, namely with the question whether in the issue of legal solutions the priority is granted to ethics or to law. In the case of dominance of the positivist paradigm, it is all the more important because the ethical issue is marginalized in it. It turns out that the same authority, deciding on similar issues, at ...
Smith, L. F.; Morrissy, J. R.
Possible distributive justice frameworks for providing health care by general practitioners are discussed. The ethical considerations before and after the recent changes to the British National Health Service are contrasted, with particular emphasis on a possible ethical divide that has been produced between fund-holding and non-fund-holding general practitioners. It is argued that general practitioners in non-fund-holding practices can continue as ethical advocates for their patients and dis...
Moon, Bruce L.
This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.
Nurses are increasingly confronted with situations of moral difficulty, such as not to feed terminally ill patients, whistle blowing, or participation in termination of pregnancy. Most of these moral dilemmas are often analyzed using the principle-based approach which applies the four moral principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence, and nonmalificence. In some instances, consequentialism is considered, but these frameworks have their limitations. Their limitations has to do with a consider...
Howard, J; Friedman, L
Physicians who participate in clinical trials are mandated or encouraged to adhere to fundamental conditions than enhance the scientific validity of medical research. In some situations compliance with the study protocol may threaten the delivery of optimal care and raise ethical dilemmas among the staff. Moral conflicts may occur with respect to recruitment, control groups, randomization, blind assignments, patient withdrawals, and the use of supplementary therapies that could weaken statistical power. In designing and managing clinical trials, steps can be taken to reduce the likelihood of conflict between scientific inquiry and medical practice. Special means of protecting patients in the study can be introduced. Recognizing the existence of ethical dilemmas is a necessary prelude to the quest for objective solutions. PMID:7214785
Settle, Peggy Doyle
Nurses working in a newborn intensive care unit report that treatment decision disagreements for infants in their care may lead to ethical dilemmas involving all health-care providers. Applying Rest's Four-Component Model of Moral Action as the theoretical framework, this study examined the responses of 224 newborn intensive care unit nurses to the Nurses Ethical Involvement Survey. The three most frequent actions selected were as follows: talking with other nurses, talking with doctors, and requesting a team meeting. The multiple regression analysis indicates that newborn intensive care unit nurses with greater concern for the ethical aspects of clinical practice (p = .001) and an increased perception of their ability to influence ethical decision making (p = .018) were more likely to display Nurse Activism. Future research is necessary to identify other factors leading to and inhibiting Nurse Activism as these findings explained just 8.5% of the variance. PMID:23454980
Eriksson, Helene; Andersson, Gisela; Olsson, Louise; Milberg, Anna; Friedrichsen, Maria
In Sweden, individuals affected by severe stroke are treated in specialized stroke units. In these units, patients are attended by a multiprofessional team with a focus on care in the acute phase of stroke, rehabilitation phase, and palliative phase. Caring for patients with such a large variety in condition and symptoms might be an extra challenge for the team. Today, there is a lack of knowledge in team experiences of the dilemmas that appear and the consequences that emerge. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to study ethical dilemmas, different approaches, and what consequences they had among healthcare professionals working with the dying patients with stroke in acute stroke units. Forty-one healthcare professionals working in a stroke team were interviewed either in focus groups or individually. The data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using content analysis. The ethical dilemmas that appeared were depending on "nondecisions" about palliative care or discontinuation of treatments. The lack of decision made the team members act based on their own individual skills, because of the absence of common communication tools. When a decision was made, the healthcare professionals had "problems holding to the decision." The devised and applied plans could be revalued, which was described as a setback to nondecisions again. The underlying problem and theme was "communication barriers," a consequence related to the absence of common skills and consensus among the value system. This study highlights the importance of palliative care knowledge and skills, even for patients experiencing severe stroke. To make a decision and to hold on to that is a presupposition in creating a credible care plan. However, implementing a common set of values based on palliative care with symptom control and quality of life might minimize the risk of the communication barrier that may arise and increases the ability to create a healthcare that is meaningful and dignified. PMID:24796473
Litschka, Michael; Suske, Michaela; Brandtweiner, Roman
This paper is the result of an empirical research project analysing the decision behaviour of Austrian managers in ethical dilemma situations. While neoclassical economic theory would suggest a pure economic rational basis for management decisions, the empirical study conducted by the authors put other concepts to a test, thereby analysing their importance for managerial decision making: specific notions of fairness, reciprocal altruism, and commitment. After reviewing some of ...
Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M.; SandØe, Peter
While it has the potential to deliver important human benefits, animal-based pain research raises ethical questions, because it involves inducing pain in sentient beings. Ethical decision-making, connected with this variety of research, requires informed harm-benefit analysis, and the aim of this paper is to provide information for such an analysis. We present an overview of the different models and their consequences for animal welfare, showing that, of the many animal models available, most have a considerable welfare impact on the animal. While the usual approach to pain control through administration of analgesic substances is usually unsuitable in pain research, refinement remains an option, both within the experimental protocol and in general husbandry and handling. Drawing on the overview, we develop a discussion of the ethical acceptability of animal-based pain research against the background of the kinds of harm done to the animals involved, the potential for refinement, and the expected benefits ofthe research.
This is a lesson dealing with a new subdivision of bioethics called neuroethics. As our knowledge of the brain and nervous system expands, so do the ethical issues that result from this knowledge. This new area of study results from our increasing research in the field of neurobiology. In the first part of this activity, students will discuss the stigma associated with psychological illness. They will then be introduced to Dr. Kay Jamison who discusses some of the ethical implications of bipolar disorder. The class will take part in an activity called a Topical Barometer where they will have to choose a position regarding an ethical decision. In Part 2 of the activity, they will write a position paper after exploring the topic of drug enhancement, another controversial issue in the world of neuroscience. From the original handout text by Caren Gough
We should recognize that we have a responsibility to people who live outside our own borders, and view ourselves as part of the global community. Looking at China we are faced with ethical dilemmas which require consideration. First, there is the ethical dilemma of business versus health. The opening and development of the tobacco business in China, which includes vigorous marketing, is considered against the health consequences of tobacco use which is estimated to cost 600,000 lives annually in China, rising to 2 million by 2,025 without effective tobacco control programmes. A second ethical dilemma is employment versus impoverishment, in which the opportunities for work in the tobacco industry are considered against a background of malnutrition caused in part by a proportion of household budgets used to buy tobacco, and the erosion of the land, as trees are used to produce tobacco. Gains have already been made in tobacco control in China, with the way open for much development in the future. PMID:9374011
Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to develop an ethical dilemma scale for nurses faced with the use of physical restraint when caring for elderly patients with dementia. Methods: We used a previously established 20-item dilemma scale. The objective and method of the study were explained to the head of nursing at 17 selected hospitals, and 121 nurses working in the general wards of 14 hospitals (excluding emergency department wards of psychiatry, pediatrics, obstetrics, outpatients, operating rooms and intensive care units who agreed to participate were enrolled in 2000. Seventy-six nurses from one of the hospitals were selected after eight years (2008 to provide a comparison. Ethical considerations: The study was conducted with the approval of the ethics committee at Meiji University of Integrative Medicine. Results and discussion: Four factors were compared between 2000 and 2008: “execution of treatment and security”, “characteristic features in nursing of elderly patients with dementia”, “cooperative relationship in nursing”, and “priorities in nursing”. The cumulative contribution ratio was 65.3% (KMO = 0.77, p = 0.000 in 2000 and 72.5% (KMO = 0.78, p = 0.000 in 2008. Therefore, the scale dilemma nurse faced physical restraints to elderly patients with dementia in Japan was developed 4 facoters from 17-delremmas items of 20 items.
This book is written with the aim to stimulate discussion and studies on ethical aspects of nuclear waste management. It does not penetrate the technical details of the different stages of waste handling, but concentrates on questions such as our responsibility towards future generations etc
Albright, Dianne E.; Hazler, Richard J.
Euthanasia is considered an important social issue of the 1990s. Mental health professionals should understand the differences between voluntary, involuntary, passive, and active euthanasia; mercy killing, and assisted suicide. Encourages counselors to ethically formulate client-supportive positions to help clients face life-and-death decisions.…
Karmakar, Nitya L.
The Internet remains as a wonder for the 21st century and its growth is phenomenon. According to a recent survey, the online population is now about 500 million globally and if this trend continues, it should reach 700 million by the end of 2002. This exponential growth of the Internet has given rise to several security, privacy and ethical…
Ahmad Bello, Dogarawa
Banks in the modern day society, almost everywhere, play a multifarious role, which includes unifying and intermediary roles between the fund-supplying and fund-demanding sides of the society, executing savings and investment functions. Considering the requirements for protection of the rights and interests of innumerable depositors, establishment of stability and confidence in financial markets along with requirements for economic development, banks are expected to ethically pursue their ope...
Nadroo, Ali M.
The survival rate for extremely preterm infants has improved over the last two decades. Although the incidence of such births is about 2%, the impact of preterm birth on these infants, their families, health-care providers, and society is profound. The birth of an extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and early gestational age infant poses complex medical, social, and ethical challenges to the family and health-care professionals. Survivors have an increased risk of chronic medical problems and d...
Rosin, A.; Dijk, Y.
Routine management of geriatric problems often raises ethical problems, particularly regarding autonomy of the old person. The carers or children may be unaware of the sensitivity of role reversal in dealing with the financial affairs; the need for a residential carer may compromise the old person's privacy. Attending a day centre confers much benefit, but one must understand the old person's resistance to change in the proposal of a new daily regimen. Similarly his or her autonomy must be th...
Verdu-Pascual, F.; Castello-Ponce, A
Advances in medicine are closely linked to clinical research, but certain study procedures may be in conflict with the fundamental principles of ethics and codes of conduct in medicine. Following an analysis of two studies involving treatments for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the admissibility of continuing a study was questioned after the initial results for two types of treatment showed that one was significantly better than the other. Also considered doubtful was the information prov...
Manzar, Nabeel; Manzar, Bushra; Hussain, Nuzhat; Hussain, M Fawwad Ahmed; Raza, Sajjad
To determine the knowledge, attitude, and ethical concerns of medical students and graduates with regard to Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC) research. This questionnaire based descriptive study was conducted at the Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), Pakistan from February to July 2008. A well structured questionnaire was administered to medical students and graduate doctors, which included their demographic profile as well as questions in line with the study objective. Informed consent was taken and full confidentiality was assured to the participants. Data were entered in a Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version.12) and analyzed. A total of 204 male and 216 female medical students and doctors were administered questionnaires out of which 105 males (51.4%) and 108 females (50%) were aware of the embryonic stem cell research and its ethical implications. Forty percent males and 47% of females were of the opinion that life begins at conception. Forty-six percent males and 39% females were in favor of stem cell research while only 31% males and 28% females supported the ESC research. Less than 1/3 of students supported using frozen embryos for research purposes while more than 2/3 indicated that they were unlikely to support abortion for stem cell research purposes. The majority of the students were in favor of stem cell research with some reservations regarding ESC research. A sizeable number of students withheld their views, reflecting their poor understanding of medical ethics. The result of the study indicates a need for incorporating bioethics into the medical curriculum. PMID:22038063
Full Text Available USA Government wiretapping activities is a very controversial issue. Undoubtedly this technology canassist law enforced authority to detect / identify unlawful or hostile activities; however, this task raisessevere privacy concerns. In this paper, we have discussed this complex information technology issue ofgovernmental wiretapping and how it effects both public and private liberties. Legislation has had amajor impact on the uses and the stigma of wiretapping for the war on terrorism. This paper alsoanalyzes the ethical and legal concerns inherent when discussing the benefits and concerns ofwiretapping. The analysis has concluded with the effects of wiretapping laws as they relate to futuregovernment actions in their fight against terrorists.
Marlise Silva Barros, Rose Mary Costa Rosa Andrade Silva, Eliane Ramos Pereira, Marcos Andrade Silva
Full Text Available Objective: this study intends reflect philosophically about the ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses from the Intensive Care Center at University Hospital Antonio Pedro, from the Theory of Value of Max Scheler. Methods: this is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. The population shall be defined by the technique of saturation, consisting of nurses of the sector, to be interviewed after the signing of the Free Informed Consent forms, if they wish participate spontaneously in the study. The information will be transcribed, categorized in order of significance and analyzed from the theoretical framework of Max Scheler who looks on the objectivity of values and the process of seizure of emotional character. The project has received approval from the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine / University Hospital Antonio Pedro. Expected results: through the analysis of data, based on theoretical referential, the study intends to contribute to the decision making process of nurses, in front of the possible ethical dilemmas experienced with regard to practical work and, moreover, with the quality of care provided by nurses in the Intensive Care Center.
Filipe João Bera de Azevedo, Sobral.
Full Text Available Os processos cognitivos da tomada de decisão ética têm sido objeto de estudo de diversas pesquisas interessadas em compreender o que motiva os executivos a tomar as decisões eticamente questionáveis. A negociação é uma das práticas empresariais mais interessantes para estudar a honestidade e a ética [...] , uma vez que é central a todas as interações humanas e rica em dilemas éticos. Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo analisar em que medida diferenças individuais em termos de prioridades do sistema de valores condicionam o julgamento moral de práticas negociais eticamente ambíguas. Usando um modelo de equações estruturais, as relações entre os sistemas de valores, a ideologia ética e o julgamento moral são avaliadas. Os resultados sugerem que as dimensões da individualidade humana analisadas exercem uma influência significativa na forma como os gestores avaliam a moralidade de práticas negociais eticamente ambíguas. Os resultados podem ainda contribuir significativamente para melhorar a compreensão do processo de tomada de decisão ética. Abstract in english The cognitive processes underlying ethical decision making have been object of several studies interested in understanding what motivates executives to make ethically questionable decisions. Negotiation is one of the most interesting activities to study honesty and ethics, since it is central to all [...] human interactions and it poses several ethical dilemmas to the negotiators. This study has the objective to analyze how individual differences in values systems' priorities influence the moral judgment of ethically ambiguous negotiation practices. Using structural equations modeling, the relationships among an individual's personal values, ethical ideology and moral judgment are investigated. The empirical results suggest that the aforementioned dimensions of human individuality influence the moral judgment of ethically ambiguous negotiation tactics. These findings may significantly contribute to the theoretical understanding of ethical decision making processes.
Grant, Scott B; Modi, Parth K; Singer, Eric A
Futility has been a contentious topic in medicine for several decades. Surgery in critical or end-of-life situations often raises difficult questions about futility. In this article, we discuss the definition of futility, methods for resolving futility disputes, and some ways to reframe the futility debate to a more fruitful discussion about the goals of care, better communication between surgeon and patient/surrogate, and palliative surgical care. Many definitions of futile therapy have been discussed. The most controversial of these is "qualitative futility" which describes a situation in which the treatment provided is likely to result in an unacceptable quality of life. This is an area of continued controversy because it has been impossible to identify universally held beliefs about acceptable quality of life. Many authors have described methods for resolving futility disputes, including community standards and legalistic multi-step due process protocols. Others, however, have abandoned the concept of futility altogether as an unhelpful term. Reframing the issue of futility as one of inadequate physician-patient communication, these authors have advocated for methods of improving communication and strengthening the patient-physician relationship. Finally, we discuss the utilization of consultants who may be of use in resolving futility disputes: ethics committees, palliative care specialists, pastoral care teams, and dedicated patient advocates. Involving these specialists in a futility conflict can help improve communication and provide invaluable assistance in arriving at the appropriate treatment decision. PMID:24849199
Mabel, Creagh Peña.
Full Text Available La eutanasia significa una muerte buena. Desde el punto de vista jurídico, es la muerte sin sufrimiento físico provocada por propia voluntad de un enfermo incurable. En la práctica consiste en administrar drogas, fármacos u otras sustancias que alivien el dolor aunque con ello se acorte la vida. La [...] decisión de la aplicación de la eutanasia ha sido un problema persistente en la historia de la humanidad, ideologías diversas se enfrentan defendiendo sus argumentos de si debe o no practicarse. El objetivo de este trabajo, es exponer las consideraciones éticas, científicas y religiosas, sobre la práctica de la eutanasia a partir de un análisis histórico desde los tiempos de Platón hasta la actualidad. Lo verdaderamente importante es que el hombre, como ser racional, capaz de revolucionar constantemente la ciencia y la técnica y de transformar la naturaleza en beneficio de la especie, debe también morir con dignidad. Abstract in english Euthanasia means nice death. From the legal viewpoint, it means physical suffering-free provoked death willingly accepted by a terminally-ill patient. In practice, it means to administer drugs, pharmaceuticals or other substances that release pain even though they may reduce lifetime. The decision f [...] or euthanasia has been a persistent controversy in the history of mankind; thus various ideologies clash in support of arguments in favour or against this practice. The objective of this paper is to present ethical, scientific and religious considerations on the implementation of euthanasia, taking as a basis a historical analysis covering from Platon up to the present times. It is really important that man, as a rational being capable of permanently revolutionizing science and technique and transforming nature for the benefit of the species, should also die with dignity.
Full Text Available The article discusses the principle of autonomy of patientss choice in a highly sensitive area, the obstetrics, regarding two issues which arise many dilemmas and debates, the induced abortion and the elective cesarean section..It brings up many pro and cons ethical arguments, reviews the various points of view and historical, legal, religious and humanist influences.Article stresses the need to adapt the old ethic principles to the realities of the actual complex society and the necessity of fully respect for the fundamental rights of the patient, including autonomy. Article leaves still open the problem of the influence of various factors on patients choice, and the need for the physician to assure the observance of this right.
Ka?lvemark Sporrong, Sofia
Ongoing structural and financial changes in the health care sector have resulted in increased risks for ethical dilemmas and moral distress. It is purported that increased ethical competence will help staff manage ethical dilemmas and hence decrease moral distress. To enhance ethical competence several approaches may be used – theoretical education, and methods focusing on reflection and decision-making abilities. Ethics rounds are a widespread systematic method hypothesized to improve ethi...
Rolando Montero Díaz
Full Text Available A review on the ethical dilemmas in the diagnosis of hypertension and some elements in the emergence of the bioethics concept was performed. Ethical conflicts that appear at each stage of diagnosis of hypertension: at the time of providing the information, at the point of indication and performance of diagnostic tests, when communicating the diagnosis and during subsequent decision making were identified. We conclude that technological development will introduce new ethical decisions in the diagnosis of hypertension that will increasingly involve the interests of society and create, in one way or another, ethical and moral conflict in the decision making process.Se realizó una revisión sobre los dilemas éticos en el diagnóstico de la hipertensión arterial, así como de algunos elementos en el surgimiento del concepto de bioética. Se identificaron los conflictos éticos que aparecen en cada etapa del diagnóstico de la hipertensión arterial: en el momento de suministrar la información, en el instante de la indicación y realización de las pruebas diagnósticas, en la comunicación del diagnóstico y en la toma de decisiones posteriores. Se concluye que el desarrollo tecnológico va a introducir nuevas decisiones éticas en el diagnóstico de la hipertensión arterial que van a involucrar cada vez más los intereses de la sociedad y crear de una manera u otra conflictos éticos y morales en la toma de decisiones.
The commonest practical model used in contemporary medical ethics is Principlism. Yet, while Principlism is a widely accepted consensus statement for ethics, the moral theory that underpins it faces serious challenges in its attempt to provide a coherent and accepted system of moral analysis. This inevitably challenges the stability of such a consensus statement and makes it vulnerable to attack by competitors such as preference consequentialism. This two-part paper proposes an inclusive version of virtue theory as a more grounded system of moral analysis. PMID:25721113
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is part of a major study about difficulties in communicating ethical problems within and among professional groups working in hemodialysis care. Describing experiences of ethically difficult situations that induce a troubled conscience may raise consciousness about ethical problems and thereby open the way to further reflection. The aim of this study was to illuminate the meanings of being in ethically difficult situations that led to the burden of a troubled conscience, as narrated by physicians working in dialysis care. Method A phenomenological hermeneutic method was used to analyze the transcribed narrative interviews with five physicians who had varying lengths of experience in nephrology. Results The analysis shows that physicians working in hemodialysis care suffered from a troubled conscience when they felt torn by conflicting demands and trapped in irresolution. They faced ethical dilemmas where they were forced to make crucial decisions about life or death, or to prioritize when squeezed between time restraints and professional and personal demands. In these ethical dilemmas the physicians avoided arousing conflicts, were afraid of using their authority, were burdened by moral responsibility and felt devalued and questioned about their way of handling the situation. The findings point to another way of encountering ethical dilemmas, being guided by their conscience. This mean sharing the agony of deciding how to act, being brave enough to bring up the crucial problem, feeling certain that better ways of acting have not been overlooked, being respected and confirmed regarding decisions made. Conclusion The meanings of being in ethically difficult situations that led to the burden of a troubled conscience in those working in hemodialysis care, indicate the importance of increasing the level of communication within and among various professional groups - to transform being burdened by a troubled conscience into using conscience as a guide - in situations where no way of solving the problem seems to be good.
Ortiz Noguera, Guadalupe
Full Text Available There exists a wide consensus among governance theorists about the need of broadening the level of active engagement of the public in the processes of local planning and decision making. However, the praxis of public participation still arise many doubts and uncertainties that have not been solved by the academia yet. This paper examines the problems and difficulties faced during the design and im-plementation of a public participation process on the alternatives and future of several local development projects of residential tourism in two municipalities in the South-East of Spain. The objective of this paper is to show the main epistemological and ethical dilemmas (legitimacy, representation and utility challenged during this project, as well as some of the answers given to these questions
Three controversial ethical issues, among others, stir the debate in health care institutions, in medical associations, and in the whole society: the care of patients in persistent vegetative state, the regulation of artificial procreation, some individual requests for reshaping an healthy body. Dealing with these dilemmas, typical of advanced medical science and technological practice, implies not only balancing carefully the burdens and benefits for suffering persons, families, equipes, hospitals, cultural and religious communities, but also imaging and realizing new visions of a just society, of a beneficent (without paternalism) medicine and generally of a good life, where each moral agent could write in front of all and in worthy, convincing ways, the next chapter of the book of his/her own life. PMID:21560776
Eberholst, Mads Kæmsgaard; Hartley, Jannie MØller
This article looks at journalism student’s experiences in a simulated online newsroom. On the basis of a quantitative survey and more qualitative reflections from the students we explore what dilemmas that students experience working as online journalists and how these are or are not related to broader issues of journalistic ethics. Some of these problems are, combined with the technological mechanisms, much embodied in online journalism and to journalistic practice in general: for example allowing sources to request for review of quotes and requiring rewrites of quotes and/or articles although the article is published. The survey shows that some students also publish wrong facts and articles without relevant sources partly because of the demands for fast news production. The survey indicates that the problems amplify the discrepancy between the student’s expectation of good journalism and the perceived practice of online journalism. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of providing such a course, which simulates a real newsroom and what it means for the learning outcome in terms of both journalistic practice and ethics.
Dietary guidelines for health promotion and disease prevention in the USA recommend a consumption pattern based largely on grains, fruit and vegetables, with smaller amounts of meat and dairy foods, and even smaller amounts of foods high in fat and sugar. Such diets are demonstrably health promoting, but following them raises ethical issues related to the role of nutritionists in advising the public about healthful dietary choices, as well as to the role of the food industry in food production and marketing. In the USA a shift towards a more plant-based diet would affect the economic interests of producers of food commodities, food products and meals prepared outside the home; it would also affect the environment, food prices, trade with other countries (developing as well as industrialized) and relationships among the food industry, government agencies (domestic and international) and food and nutrition professionals. In a free-market economy any dietary choice has consequences for food producers. Thus, considerations of ethical dilemmas in choosing healthful diets suggest that food choices are political acts that offer opportunities for all parties concerned to examine the consequences of such choices and 'vote with forks'. PMID:11115798
A study examined news coverage by "The Saint Petersburg Times" of a local double teen suicide in August 1993. Focusing on how the story was covered, the study explored the newspaper's decision-making process, analyzing the process in relation to standard philosophical methods in ethics and recognized journalistic principles. As background,…
Newman, Anne; Glass, Ronald David
This essay examines several ethical and epistemological issues that arise when philosophers conduct empirical research focused on, or in collaboration with, community groups seeking to bring about systemic change. This type of research can yield important policy lessons about effective community-driven reform and how to incorporate the voices of…
Fresneau, Brice; Brugières, Laurence; Caron, Olivier; Moutel, Grégoire
In 2001, a French expert panel recommended that presymptomatic tests should not be carried out on minors in families affected by Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), flying in the face of possible parental demands for such testing. We decided to investigate the legitimacy of such a recommendation. We conducted a national multicenter survey using self-administered questionnaires mailed to French oncogeneticists in 33 regional centers in France. We aimed to (1) determine the extent to which these doctors were confronted with parental requests for TP53 testing, (2) study how they responded to these requests and the arguments used and (3) assess the attitude of oncogeneticists concerning the normative framework regulating the prescription of tests for minors. Twenty oncogeneticists stated that they had managed at least one LFS family. Eleven of these doctors had been confronted with parental requests for testing and three had prescribed such tests on at least one occasion. The oncogeneticists gave balanced medical, psychological and ethical arguments, highlighting the dilemma they face in the decision-making process. This dilemma is due to the lack of a consensus concerning this recommendation, which aims to protect the minor by limiting presymptomatic tests to cases in which a clear medical benefit can be demonstrated but which prevents the unique situation of particular families from being taken into account. In conclusion, the recommendation has a normative status but first, from a clinical stance, it is difficult to dissociate it from the evaluation of individual family situations, and second, the benefit of a specific medical follow-up for TP53 mutation carriers is currently being investigated. PMID:23233110
Greene, C. H.; Kammen, D. M.
For over 200 years, fossil fuels have been the basis for an industrial revolution that has delivered a level of prosperity to modern society unimaginable during the previous 5000 years of human civilization. However, society's dependence on fossil fuels is coming to an end for two reasons. The first reason is because our fossil fuel reserves are running out, oil in this century, natural gas during the next century, and coal a few centuries later. The second reason is because fossil fuels are having a devastating impact on the habitability of our planet, disrupting our climate system and acidifying our oceans. So the question is not whether we will discontinue using fossil fuels, but rather whether we will stop using them before they do irreparable damage to the Earth's life-support systems. Within our geoscience community, climate scientists have determined that a majority of existing fossil fuel reserves must remain unburned if dangerous climate change and ocean acidification are to be avoided. In contrast, Exxon-Mobil, Shell, and other members of the fossil fuel industry are pursuing a business model that assumes all of their reserves will be burned and will not become stranded assets. Since the geosciences have had a long and mutually beneficial relationship with the fossil fuel industry, this inherent conflict between climate science and industrial interests presents an ethical dilemma for many geoscientists. This conflict is further heightened by the fossil fuel divestment movement, which is underway at over 400 college and university campuses around the world. This presentation will explore some of the ethical and financial issues being raised by the divestment movement from a geoscientist's perspective.
Foye, Sarah Jajesnica; Kirschner, Kristi L; Brady Wagner, Lynne C; Stocking, Carol; Siegler, Mark
Little available research exists to address the range of ethical issues encountered by occupational therapists (OTs) in their daily clinical work. The few articles in the literature have tended to be case-based or anecdotal or have focused on professional issues rather than clinical issues. To characterize the array of clinical ethical issues in occupational therapy, we asked OTs in a free-standing academic rehabilitation hospital to describe in some detail up to three scenarios or situations from their clinical practice that raised morally troubling questions. A coding system was developed to preserve the richness of the detail but to allow for some categorization of the topics. A second section of the survey asked the therapists to rate whether various traditional ethics topics were of high, medium, or low interest to them. A third section asked that they identify the formats that would be most appealing to them for future educational interventions. Of the 56 therapists surveyed, 38 (or 68%) responded. The three self-generated topics mentioned most frequently by the therapists were (in decreasing order of frequency): reimbursement pressures, conflicts around goal setting, and patient/family refusal of team recommendations. The respondents were particularly interested in knowing more about patient-centered ethics topics, such as conflict resolution between teams and patients and the patient's role in decision making. Furthermore, they indicated a strong preference for interdisciplinary and interactive educational formats. PMID:14523711
The World Bank is committed to "work[ing] with countries to improve the health, nutrition and population outcomes of the world's poor, and to protect[ing] the population from the impoverishing effects of illness, malnutrition and high fertility".1 Ethical issues arise in the interpretation of these objectives and in helping countries formulate strategies and policies. It is these ethical issues—which are often not acknowledged by commentators—that are the subject of this paper. It asks why there should be a focus on the poor, and explores the link between improving the health of the poor, and reducing health inequalities between the poor and better-off. It discusses difficult ethical issues at both the global level (including debt relief and the link between country ownership and donor commitment) and the country level (including user fees and whether providing assistance to the non-poor may in the long run be a way of helping the poor). Key Words: World Bank • poverty • health • population • health economics • global ethics PMID:11479358
LaMontagne, Ramona Marie
This qualitative study examined the perceptions of human resource managers who had faced ethical dilemmas in the workplace, to gain an understanding of how they felt their life experiences shaped their values in making ethical decisions. The experiences of ten human resource managers who believed they chose a right course of action when faced with…
Francisco José Castilhos Karam
Full Text Available This work intends to locate and to explore the complexities of
some classical moral dilemmas in human history considering two
paradigms as references: Antigone’s, created by Sophocles; and
Gacel Sayah’s, created by Vázquez-Figueroa. The work situates
both historical and contemporary dilemmas of journalism and
points out examples furnished by professionals in activity and
academic experts. At the same time, it relates immediate conflicts to particularities of journalistic activity – from the historical perspective of consolidation of values to the present scenario of professional journalism in both Cyberspace and the Information Society (in which ethics, techniques and aesthetics try to structure the perspective of moral convergence in order to support the activity and its social credibility and legitimacy.
...and Utilization of Hospital Ethics Consultation Service: A Survey...the utility of institution ethics consultations services for...of this study can be used by medical professionals, hospitals...barriers to surgeons' use of ethics consultation services...
Fabián, Vásquez V; Jairo, Vanegas L.
Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Obesity is an important public health problem. Dietetic supplements are commonly used by obese patients who are not aware of the effectiveness or potential harms of these products. The aim of this paper is to discuss the ethical dilemma associated with the use of these supplements. The principles of [...] autonomy, beneficence and justice are involved. Obesity as a chronic disease, requires qualified medical care. Obese individuals should be aware of their disease and voluntarily agree to receive professional care.
Mack, Tamar Salmon; Shaham, Dorith; Marcus, Esther-Lee
Real-life ethical issues that concern those engaged in medical practice existed and were discussed in earlier ages. It seems that many of the same dilemmas that we face today occupied our ancestors as well. An investigation of historical sources may be useful in showing earlier methods of coping with the dilemmas relating to health and illness. In this article we will present several such topics taken from the sources of Jewish society in pre-modern Europe. These sources served as the basis for a course given to medical students as part of the Medical Humanities track. The "raw materials" are historical, written Hebrew and Yiddish sources from Jewish society. Genres include Minute books, the huge corpus of Responsa, historical elegies written about epidemics, memoirs, and instruction books written by Jewish physicians. Profound bio-ethical issues can be found in historical sources. Main issues discussed are: physician's fees, obligations, and rights; personal characteristics expected of physicians; physician's obligations when his/her own life is endangered; medicalization of certain human conditions; and ideological questions regarding the relationship between traditional folk medicine and modern, academic medicine. The historical distance facilitates a freer discussion about distant people, while getting in touch with our own attitudes. PMID:24340482
While Principlism is a widely accepted consensus statement for ethics, the moral theory that underpins it faces serious challenges. This two-part paper proposes a version of virtue theory as a more grounded system of moral analysis. Part 2 examines the role of basic moral theory as the foundation to ethics and suggests how virtue theory can be used as a central framework for ethics while being inclusive of insights from deontology and consequentialism. PMID:25792615
Murray, C G
The type of dental restorations taken into old age may have an adverse effect on the quality of life of the elderly. Root caries and dry mouth increase in prevalence with age and may precipitate the breakdown of remaining natural and restored teeth. At present the availability of dental personnel and facilities in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) is limited, often non-existent, and the elderly living at home may be unable to easily gain access to dental care. Thus, the provision of appropriate and timely dental treatment may not occur, resulting in prolonged pain and suffering. It is important that, as our elderly population increasingly retain natural teeth into advanced old age, appropriate funds are made available to ensure their dental health is maintained. A lack of early intervention to arrest dental disease may result in life-threatening medical consequences in the elderly, such as ventilator assisted pneumonia or the need for a general anaesthetic and possible associated medical risks. Significant local disease, such as osteonecrosis, may also result from a lack of appropriate dental intervention. The necessity to remove questionable teeth prior to irradiation for neoplastic disease or bisphosphonate prescription for neoplastic disease or severe osteoporosis emphasizes the need for regular dental care. In contrast, extensive dental restorative treatment for younger people may have benefits, such as optimal dental aesthetics and oral function, but in older individuals careful consideration should be given to select the most appropriate treatment modality so that adverse situations can be avoided or their resolution simplified should they occur later when the individual is compromised or in a RACF. This may mean the use of conservative dental restorative materials and an avoidance of complex restorative options which may be difficult for the individual or RACF staff to maintain. Some years after receipt of their complex restorations they may be unable to cope with the operative demands and financial burden of resolving their deteriorating dental situation and so complex implant-born structures and precision removable prostheses should probably be avoided for those individuals contemplating entering a care situation. Therefore, the timing of the provision of complex dentistry poses an ethical dilemma. PMID:25762047
This article proposes that Julia Kristeva’s semiotic view of language supports the mother/child paradigm as a model for ethical discourse. Her defense of motherhood, particularly her discussion of the sacredness of maternal love and the mother tongue, strengthens the argument that motherhood is a primary means of preserving language acquisition and ethical development. It focuses on motherhood’s ability to ensure, protect and preserve the possibility of productive ethical discourse throug...
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to illuminate the connotation of “dilemma” regarding the use of physical restraint on elderly patients as represented by female nurses working in general wards at community hospitals who also live with elderly adults at home. Method: The study used the questionnaire method with an independently prepared questionnaire. Participants: The objective of the study was explained to the persons in charge of nursing in the selected 17 hospitals, and 1929. Finally, this study of participants were 524 female nurses working in general 54 wards (excluding the emergency wards of psychiatry, pediatrics, obstetrics, outpatients, operating rooms, and intensive care units at community hospitals who also live with elderly adults at home. Results and conclusions: Cronbach’s overall coefficient for the 20 items of dilemma was high (0.78 and the factor analysis extracted four dilemma factors as having a characteristic value of 1 (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure value = 0.81 with a cumulative contribution ratio of 64.5%. The high Cronbach’s for these items (0.86, 0.88, 0.87 and 0.81 confirmed the internal consistencies. With respect to the dilemma where nurses working in general wards at community hospitals who also live with elderly adults at home are faced with the physical restraint of elderly persons, four factors in the clarification of the dilemma were extracted: accomplishment of medical-treatment and accident prevention, characteristic features in nursing for elderly patients with dementia, healthcare professional relationship in nursing for elderly patients with dementia, and priorities on the accident prevention for elderly patients with dementia. Therefore, the construction of four systems to cope with these dilemmas is suggested. These systems would enable practising nurses to: (i institution of policies to encourage discussion between nurses and other medical staff to reach consensus on treatment; (ii allocating elderly care specialists to wards to promote alternatives to restraints; (iii establishment of safety standards to define nurses’ responsibilities; and (iv institution of continuous ethical education for nurses.
Full Text Available In the 1960s and 1970s, study on applied ethics rose in the West. However, study of applied ethics in China started since the reform and opening up and it has gone through three different stages of development: the start from the end of 1970s to the end of 1980s, the development in the 1990s and the deepening in early 21st century. In the course of nearly three decades of development, research of applied ethics in China has made certain achievements, but it is not complete and has some prominent issues. This paper focuses on design ethics, has a brief review of the research of applied ethics in China in the last three decades, reflects the research results of applied ethics, and looks to its future development direction.
Carlos Daniel Mayor Igarza
Full Text Available The bioethical formulation is based on three (or four principles: beneficence (and no maleficence, after some authors, justice and autonomy. In spite of multiple received criticisms this proposal have been enriched and strengthened. From this point, sanitary activity and the medical practice as well, can be considered as activities with a clear social insertion, thus susceptible of an ethical analysis which goes beyond of the narrow margins of the professional ethics. Population aging as a worldwide phenomenon will bring about a major demand of the assistance and social services. New ethic dilemmas could emerge from the demographic changes, related to the intergenerational, family and health services relationship overall. General practitioners and particularly gerontologist should be prepared to face this medical an ethical challenges. La formulación bioética está basada en la definición de tres (o cuatro principios: beneficencia (y no maleficencia según algunos autores, justicia y autonomía. A pesar de las múltiples críticas recibidas, dicha propuesta no ha hecho sino enriquecerse y consolidarse. De ahí que la actividad sanitaria, y, dentro de ella, la práctica médica, puedan ser consideradas como actividades con una clara inserción social, susceptible, por tanto, de un análisis ético que vaya más allá de los estrechos márgenes de la ética profesional. El envejecimiento poblacional como fenómeno mundial, traerá consigo una mayor demanda de los servicios asistenciales y sociales. Nuevos dilemas éticos se producen a la luz de los cambios demográficos, sobre todos los relacionados con la relación intergeneracional, la familia y los servicios de salud en general. Los médicos generales y los gerontólogos en particular deben estar preparados para enfrentar estos desafíos médicos y éticos en general.
Mishara, Brian L.; Weisstub, David N.
The ethical basis of suicide prevention is illustrated by contrasting helpline emergency rescue policies of the Samaritans and the AAS and the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline network. We contrast moralist, relativist, and libertarian ethical premises and question whether suicide can be rational. Samaritans respect a caller's right to…
Full Text Available This article proposes that Julia Kristeva’s semiotic view of language supports the mother/child paradigm as a model for ethical discourse. Her defense of motherhood, particularly her discussion of the sacredness of maternal love and the mother tongue, strengthens the argument that motherhood is a primary means of preserving language acquisition and ethical development. It focuses on motherhood’s ability to ensure, protect and preserve the possibility of productive ethical discourse through verbal and non-verbal means of communication. This article discusses the constraints of language, and its effects on the actualization of self.
Ethical debate on the killing of kangaroos has polarised conservation and animal welfare science, yet at the heart of these scientific disciplines is the unifying aim of reducing harm to non-human animals. This aim provides the foundation for common ground, culminating in the development of compassionate conservation principles that seek to provide mechanisms for achieving both conservation and welfare goals. However, environmental decision-making is not devoid of human interests, and conservation strategies are commonly employed that suit entrenched positions and commercial gain, rather than valuing the needs of the non-human animals in need of protection. The case study on the wild kangaroo harvest presents just such a dilemma, whereby a conservation strategy is put forward that can only be rationalised by ignoring difficulties in the potential for realising conservation benefits and the considerable welfare cost to kangaroos. Rather than an open debate on the ethics of killing game over livestock, in this response I argue that efforts to bring transparency and objectivity to the public debate have to date been obfuscated by those seeking to maintain entrenched interests. Only by putting aside these interests will debate about the exploitation of wildlife result in humane, compassionate, and substantive conservation benefits. PMID:23595959
The World Bank is committed to "work[ing] with countries to improve the health, nutrition and population outcomes of the world's poor, and to protect[ing] the population from the impoverishing effects of illness, malnutrition and high fertility".1 Ethical issues arise in the interpretation of these objectives and in helping countries formulate strategies and policies. It is these ethical issues—which are often not acknowledged by commentators—that are the subject of this paper. It asks wh...
Full Text Available Abstract The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter.
Lathrop, Breanna L; Cheney, Teresa B; Hayman, Annette B
The Making Ethical Decisions about Surgical Intervention (MEDSI) tool is designed to guide health care professionals, patients, and families faced with ethically charged decisions regarding surgical interventions for pediatric patients. MEDSI is built on the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and patient autonomy and created to promote truth-telling, compassion, respect for patient cultural and religious preferences, and appropriate follow up in the clinical setting. Following an overview of the 8 steps that compose MEDSI, the tool is applied to the management of intersex infants. The birth of a child with a disorder of sexual development (DSD) and ambiguous genitalia presents an ethically challenging situation for the family and health care team. The use of the MEDSI model is demonstrated in a case study involving the decision of surgical intervention in the management of an intersex child. PMID:24251985
The emergence of moral dilemmas in health care practices, in view of the rapid demographic transition in developing countries, and skyrocketing public health care costs, is discussed. The focus is on two aspects of health care that have occupied an important place in the generation of these dilemmas. On the one hand, the tension between commercial strategies involving the health products market and the expansion of access to them and, on the other, the growth of techno-sciences in health care practices. In conclusion, the importance of the political, social and juridical arbitration on the ethical codifi cation of those dilemmas and the role of a Democratic State of Law in that arbitration is discussed. PMID:24037370
Mitchell, Jennifer M.; Yordy, Eric D.
This article describes a model that aims to create a greater ability to recognize the negative aspects of making unethical decisions. To this end, the authors developed an ethical decision-making model to aid students through the process of analyzing these situations--a model that is easy to remember and apply. Through this model, the COVER model,…
Still, Julie; Kassabian, Vibiana
Discusses ethical issues concerning public Internet access in academic libraries. Highlights include intellectual freedom, censorship, technical aspects of limiting or restricting use, legal liability for public use of computers for illegal purposes such as child pornography, and the importance of priority use of terminals by the primary academic…
The Alexandra District Ambulance Service is the only volunteer-based ambulance service in Victoria, Australia. It provides an opportunity to reflect on the ethical issues surrounding the delivery of ambulance service by volunteers, and its impact on the community. PMID:18827097
Rao, Mahendra; Condic, Maureen L
Stem cell researchers in the United States have faced a quagmire of uncertainty due to multiple factors: the ethical divide over the use of embryos for research, the lack of clarity in federal guidelines governing this research, the restrictive patent situation surrounding the generation of new human embryonic stem (HES) cell lines; and the limits on types of research eligible for federal funding. In this commentary, we describe how recent advances in derivation of hES cell-like lines may allow at least some of these uncertainties to be resolved. More importantly, we suggest that the derivation of hES cell-like lines by morally acceptable methods would not only avoid the corrosive effects of a protracted ethical debate over stem cell research, but would also allow U.S. researchers to access federal funds and compete on a more level international playing field. PMID:18271697
Wertz, D. C.; Fletcher, J. C.; Mulvihill, J. J.
To provide a basis for international discussion of ethical problems, we studied responses of medical geneticists in 18 countries to questionnaires about 14 clinical cases and five screening situations. Of 1,053 asked to participate, 677 (64%) responded. There was greater than or equal to 75% consensus on five cases involving (1) disclosure of (1) conflicting diagnostic findings, (2) disclosure of ambiguous results, (3) disclosure of controversial interpretations, (4) protection of mother's co...
Leigh N Wood; Peter Dixon
Stakeholder analysis is an essential part of business education as students develop awareness of the different perspectives that influence business and the difficult decisions made by business, government and communities. An important aspect of learning is to think critically about who is presenting the viewpoint and the conclusions they have drawn. We have found that the Jigsaw Method is a powerful way to learn the importance of different viewpoints in the teaching of ethical practice and su...
Background and setting Health care has become one of the most expansive activities in contemporary societies, and technology is one of its most influential factors. The modern medical-technological enterprise is however facing unprecedented practical, ethical and epistemic challenges. This thesis arises from a well-founded concern that medicine in general, and individually targeted preventive medicine in particular, may be about to become technified and dehumanised to an extent where its inte...
Crawshaw, Marilyn A; Glaser, Adam W; Pacey, Allan A
Increased awareness of the importance of fertility concerns to teenage cancer survivors is leading to growing numbers of male teenagers being offered sperm banking at the time of diagnosis. This is now extending to males diagnosed with other conditions where gonadotoxic agents are used in treatment. The storage of sperm in these circumstances is a challenging aspect of health care, given the complex issues and timescale involved. UK law has been enacted to protect legal minors from the potentially harmful effects of exposure to pornographic materials, yet there is reason to suppose that their use in this context could have therapeutic benefit in aiding successful masturbation. This paper uses material gained through consultation with the eleven largest UK sperm banks and 94 male teenage cancer survivors, to discuss the associated legal and ethical dilemmas, including those around the role of parents/carers. Findings suggest that there is variable practice in sperm banks, that almost a quarter of teenage males wanted access to soft porn when banking sperm, and half wanted to bring in their own materials. It concludes that there is an urgent need for any legal barriers to the therapeutic use of pornographic materials to be understood and examined. PMID:17786648
Immense scientific and technological progress in perinatal medicine during the 1990s enabled to save extremely immature newborns. The fact faced doctors with new challenges and ethical problems regarding especially infants born at the limit of viability (22-26 weeks of gestation). The aim of this study is an attempt to answer the question concerning the mode of operation in the delivery room and/or NICU towards this group of infants. Decisions may concern undertaking resuscitation, limiting medical procedures and the use of palliative care. Materials for preparation of this paper included international recommendations developed by teams of specialists (part 1), as well as Polish recommendations (part 2). The first part presents world epidemiological data regarding survival rate and long-term developmental assessment of extremely low gestational age infants, indicating difficulties in interpretation of some of the research. We also emphasized the discrepancies in precise evaluation of gestational age, which is of great significance for qualifying the newborn into the group unable to survive or at the limit of viability. For better assessment of the research, recommendations developed by FIGO Committee in 1994 are presented: "Ethical aspects in management of newborn infants at the threshold of viability." In the discussion part we presented differences between world recommendations regarding newborns at the limit of viability, emphasizing the need to define the "grey zone" (gestational age at which there is doubt about the newborns' viability and development and, as a result, the possibility of making "good" therapeutic decisions is limited). In summary it has been emphasized that at the current state of knowledge decisions cannot be based solely on gestational age and estimated body weight, but other factors improving or worsening the prognosis should be taken into consideration as well. Finally the situation in Poland is discussed, indicating problems regarding this group of newborns. It is also emphasized that a Team for Ethical Recommendations in Perinatology, appointed in 2009, developed recommendations which are discussed in the second part of the paper. PMID:22253120
Zhang, Chun; Shi, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Ping
Due to the different goals of current glaucoma treatments, various treatment methods have their pros and cons. Therefore, their applications are affected by factors inside and outside medical category, thus prone to a series of problems.In clinical practice, in addition to following the related clinical guidelines and standards, medical ethics problems must be considered. And besides, based on the principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, respect and justice in medical ethics, the treatments should be carefully selected to weigh the advantages and disadvantages to the patients.Only in this way, the efficacy and safety of glaucoma treatment can be improved, and the medical and social missions of glaucoma specialists can be more reasonably completed. PMID:25907998
Edmunds, Bill; Mulford, Bill; Kendall, Diana; Kendall, Lawrie
Results from the Tasmanian Successful School Principal Project (SSPP) survey concur with the four major leadership tensions and dilemmas identified in a background literature review. These tensions and dilemmas relate to internal/external control, ethic of care/responsibility, and an emphasis on professional/personal as well as…
Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W
Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged. PMID:24481888
Full Text Available El artículo se propone identificar los principales dilemas éticos emergentes en el uso de medios sociales por parte de los periodistas. Para ello, recorre experiencias recientes que dieron lugar a reflexiones sobre la necesidad de establecer pautas específicas para la publicación de contenidos en es [...] tos medios, y analiza las características y la pertinencia de las respuestas deontológicas a esos dilemas, ensayadas en los últimos dos años por distintas organizaciones periodísticas de proyección internacional. Finalmente, se clasifican y describen los modelos deontológicos de acuerdo con el grado de autonomía que las organizaciones conceden al periodista para que se exprese libremente en los medios sociales, y se plantea la necesidad de la autorregulación individual y de fortalecer el compromiso del periodista con la excelencia profesional. Abstract in english This paper aims to identify key emerging ethical dilemmas when journalists use social media. To this end, it goes over recent experiences that led to reflections on the need for specific guidelines for publishing content in social media, and analyzes the characteristics and relevance of ethical resp [...] onses to these dilemmas, that were stated in the last two years by different international news organizations. Lastly, it classifies and describes ethical models according to the degree of autonomy granted by organizations to their journalists to express themselvesfreely in social media, and raises the needfor individual self-regulation and for strengthen journalist's commitment with professional excellence.
Bromage, D I; McLauchlan, D J; Nightingale, A K
Ethical dilemmas are commonplace in clinical cardiology. There has been a recent focus on ethical behaviour of cardiologists and debate about resource allocation and cost-effectiveness of new technologies. The case of an intravenous drug addict, with native aortic valve endocarditis complicated by a cerebral abscess and severe aortic regurgitation, is presented to illustrate some common ethical and moral dilemmas. The predominant theories in medical ethics, including the "Four-Principles Approach," is discussed, and a model to translate these ethical theories into a clinical decision-making tool is presented. PMID:19168473
Maria Christina Anna, Grieger.
Full Text Available CONTEXTO AND OBJETIVO: Com o avanço científico e tecnológico ocorrido a partir dos anos 60, surgiu um crescente aumento do número de pesquisas científicas e uma inflação de co-autorias. Ao longo do tempo, observou-se que numerosas publicações mostravam autores ou co-autores cuja participação na pesq [...] uisa publicada havia sido mínima ou até mesmo inexistente. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar, através da literatura, as situações de má-conduta em autoria: tipos, principais causas, conseqüências e normas éticas; e estabelecer propostas para que as publicações científicas apresentem um maior comprometimento ético. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Revisão narrativa realizada na Faculdade de Medicina de Itajubá, Minas Gerais, Brasil. MÉTODO: Análise de publicações sobre autoria, através das bases de dados Medline, Lilacs e SciELO. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Freqüentes tipos de má conduta são autoria "presenteada", fragmentação e duplicação em publicações. As causas que mais induzem a essas situações parecem ser a pressão exercida pela academia e o desejo de ascensão social e profissional. Esse viés na ciência, acrescido de outras formas de autoria antiética, continua até hoje, apesar dos critérios definidos pelo Comitê Internacional de Editores de Periódicos Médicos, o Grupo de Vancouver. RECOMENDAÇÕES: São propostas várias ações juntoàs instituições de ensino, agências de fomento à pesquisa, órgãos reguladores e associações de classe, para que se institua uma política de avaliação que priorize a qualidade das publicações, bem como o estabelecimento de preceitos éticos em pesquisa e produção científica. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The scientific and technological progress that has taken place since the 1960s has brought an ever-growing volume of scientific research, and inflation in co-authorship. Over this period, it has been observed that an increasing number of publications have listed authors or co- [...] authors whose participation in the published research was minimal or even nonexistent. The objective of this work was to analyze reports in the literature regarding misconduct in authorship: its types, chief causes, consequences and ethical guidelines; and to outline proposals for greater ethical commitment in scientific publication. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review undertaken at Faculdade de Medicina de Itajubá, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Analysis of publications about authorship using the Medline, Lilacs and SciELO databases. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Frequent types of misconduct were gift authorship and divided and redundant publications. The chief causes of these practices seem to be the pressure exerted by academia and the desire for social and professional development. Such factors have brought an increase in unethical behavior. This bias in science continues despite the criteria defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the Vancouver group. RECOMMENDATIONS: Various actions are proposed for educational institutions, research development agencies, regulatory agencies and professional associations. The aim is to establish an evaluation policy that gives primacy to the quality of publications and sets ethical principles for scientific research.
Devor, Marshall; Rappaport, Isabelle; Rappaport, Z Harry
Pain has variously been used as a means of punishment, extracting information, or testing commitment, as a tool for education and social control, as a commodity for sacrifice, and as a draw for sport and entertainment. Attitudes concerning these uses have undergone major changes in the modern era. Normative convictions on what is right and wrong are generally attributed to religious tradition or to secular-humanist reasoning. Here, we elaborate the perspective that ethical choices concerning pain have much earlier roots that are based on instincts and brain-seated empathetic responses. They are fundamentally a function of brain circuitry shaped by processes of Darwinian evolution. Social convention and other environmental influences, with their idiosyncrasies, are a more recent, ever-changing overlay. We close with an example in which details on the neurobiology of pain processing, specifically the question of where in the brain the experience of pain is generated, affect decision making in end-of-life situations. By separating innate biological substrates from culturally imposed attitudes (memes), we may arrive at a more reasoned approach to a morality of pain prevention. PMID:24766620
Ahmed, H M A; Cohen, S; Lévy, G; Steier, L; Bukiet, F
Proper isolation is an essential prerequisite for successful endodontic treatment. This article aims to provide an update on the prevalence of rubber dam (RD) use, and the role of education along with attitudes of general dental practitioners (GDPs) and patients towards the application of RD in endodontics. Critical ethical issues are also highlighted. Using certain keywords, an electronic search was conducted spanning the period from January 1983 to April 2013 to identify the available related investigations, and the pooled data were then analysed. The results show that although RD is the Standard of Care in endodontic practice, there is a clear discrepancy in what GDPs are taught in dental school and what they practice after graduation. There is little scientific evidence to support the application of RD; however, patient safety and clinical practice guidelines indicate that it is unnecessary and unethical to consider a cohort study to prove what is already universally agreed upon. A few clinical situations may require special management which should be highlighted in the current guidelines. This would pave the way for clear and straightforward universal guidelines. PMID:25091028
Our perception of the mechanism by which single genes can cause disease is evolving. This has led to the understanding of the pathophysiological basis of common diseases. Genomic Medicine continues to contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of disease. Medicine has strived to achieve the goal of tailoring interventions to individual variations in risk and treatment response and advances in medical genomics will facilitate this process. Relevant to present-day practice is the use of genomic information to classify individuals according to disease susceptibility or expected responsiveness to a pharmacologic treatment and to provide targeted interventions. By investigating the genetic profile of individuals, medical professionals are able to select patients and use the information obtained to plan out a course of treatment that is much more in step with the way their body works. However, society is concerned about the effect genetic knowledge will have on ethnic or racial groups. Currently, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act prohibits discrimination based on genetics. There is a need to increase the understanding of the social and ethical challenges that genomics information may pose to clinicians and scientists. This review is not meant to be exhaustive; rather, clinically relevant examples are used to illustrate how genomic medicine can facilitate the provision of molecular diagnostic methods that improve drug therapy. Finally, the rapid pace of change in genomics may likely make my conclusions today obsolete tomorrow. PMID:22713532
Undy, Harry, Ed.
Published for secondary school youth in England, the PROBE series presents provocative information and discussion questions on topical themes. The focus of this issue is on aspects of medicine which raise moral dilemmas for doctors, patients, and society in general. This issue contains case studies which illustrate ethical questions raised by the…
Digital security governance – the use of digital personal data for threat analysis on the basis of (automated) risk profiling – enhances terrorism risk management in Europe. European security strategies emphasise that information and communication technology increasingly play a key role in preventing and anticipating threats such as terrorism and cyber-crime. It enables, for example, the sharing of personal, financial or travellers’ data with third countries. This article focuses on dig...
Michael J, Selgelid.
Full Text Available La posibilidad de usar los resultados de investigaciones científicas bienintencionadas con fines beneficiosos o con ánimo de causar daño da lugar a lo que hoy día se conoce en general como el dilema del «doble uso». Más concretamente, ha cobrado intensidad el debate sobre el doble uso de las investi [...] gaciones en ciencias de la vida que puedan facilitar la producción de armas biológicas. En este artículo se examinan varias publicaciones que han generado bastante polémica en ese campo y se analizan críticamente algunas novedades de interés en materia de políticas, sobre todo en los Estados Unidos de América. Aunque el problema del doble uso constituye en lo fundamental un dilema ético, en la mayoría de los debates sobre las investigaciones de doble uso han participado principalmente científicos y expertos en seguridad más que especialistas en ética. Es importante que haya más aportaciones desde el campo de la ética en los debates sobre la gobernanza de las investigaciones de doble uso. Abstract in english Scenarios where the results of well-intentioned scientific research can be used for both good and harmful purposes give rise to what is now widely known as the "dual-use dilemma". There has been growing debate about the dual-use nature of life science research with implications for making biological [...] weapons. This paper reviews several controversial publications that have been the focus of debates about dual-use life science research and critically examines relevant policy developments, particularly in the United States of America. Though the dual-use dilemma is inherently ethical in nature, the majority of debates about dual-use research have primarily involved science and security experts rather than ethicists. It is important that there is more ethical input into debates about the governance of dual-use research.
Truog, Robert D; Brown, Stephen D; Browning, David; Hundert, Edward M; Rider, Elizabeth A; Bell, Sigall K; Meyer, Elaine C
Over the past several decades, medical ethics has gained a solid foothold in medical education and is now a required course in most medical schools. Although the field of medical ethics is by nature eclectic, moral philosophy has played a dominant role in defining both the content of what is taught and the methodology for reasoning about ethical dilemmas. Most educators largely rely on the case-based method for teaching ethics, grounding the ethical reasoning in an amalgam of theories drawn from moral philosophy, including consequentialism, deontology, and principlism. In this article we hope to make a case for augmenting the focus of education in medical ethics. We propose complementing the traditional approach to medical ethics with a more embedded approach, one that has been described by others as "microethics," the ethics of everyday clinical practice. PMID:25600383
Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, C. Bret
Among counselors, ethical dilemmas occur often. Although ethical dilemmas are challenging, they can be solved by implementing a code of ethics and/or an ethical decision-making model. Using case studies, the authors illustrate how counselors can make informed, accurate decisions that are made to protect the welfare of the client. It also helps…
Full Text Available Editorial on Ethical Issues. Medical ethics is at the centre of medical practice. It isrightly gaining much needed renewed focus and attentionin the evolving scenario. The impetus for it may beattributed to the revelations that arose through Nurembergtrials, the framework elements that define research andpublications related compulsions, and indeed the contextand state of affairs of present day medical jurisprudence.The physiatrist’s practice cannot remain untouched bythe moral and ethical dilemmas faced in today’s world.Although the pillars of the specialty are grounded in the
Ever since it emerged on a widespread basis in the 1990s, electronic performance monitoring of employees has received significant scrutiny in the literature. Call centers have been the focus of many of these studies. This particular study addresses the issue of electronic performance monitoring in call centers from an ethical perspective. The following ethical dilemma is offered: "Is it ethical for a call center manager to evaluate the performance of a call center employee using electronic pe...
C. ANITHA (Corresponding Author),; T. S. HARSHA,
Today, e-learning and various online education applications are used in many countries and educational institutions than ever before. Ethics deals with the principle governing ideal or good behavior, it focuses on what is right or what is wrong. Although in education, the ethical issues that they may be facing are not about of life and death issues. An ethical dilemma will take place when the educator faced with a decision that maybe incongruent with the organization’s values and policies. ...
Full Text Available El diagnóstico de preimplantación genética (DPG es la prueba más reciente entre las técnicas de diagnóstico genético. En este trabajo se analiza su desarrollo, sus indicaciones médicas y los dilemas bioéticos que se pueden llegar a presentar con su uso indiscriminado. Se propone, además, unas preguntas que guíen la toma de decisiones para implantar o no un embrión con algún defecto genético. Por último, se analizan algunos argumentos filosóficos a favor y en contra del PDG.The diagnosis of genetic pre-implantation (PGD is the most recent test amongst the genetic diagnostic techniques. This works analyses its development, medical indications and bio-ethical dilemma that may occur with indiscriminate use. It has been proposed as well that some questions guiding the physicians in the decision making process to implant or not an embryo with some genetic defect. And last, some philosophical issues are also analyzed in pro or against PGD.
Full Text Available El diagnóstico de preimplantación genética (DPG) es la prueba más reciente entre las técnicas de diagnóstico genético. En este trabajo se analiza su desarrollo, sus indicaciones médicas y los dilemas bioéticos que se pueden llegar a presentar con su uso indiscriminado. Se propone, además, unas pregu [...] ntas que guíen la toma de decisiones para implantar o no un embrión con algún defecto genético. Por último, se analizan algunos argumentos filosóficos a favor y en contra del PDG. Abstract in english The diagnosis of genetic pre-implantation (PGD) is the most recent test amongst the genetic diagnostic techniques. This works analyses its development, medical indications and bio-ethical dilemma that may occur with indiscriminate use. It has been proposed as well that some questions guiding the phy [...] sicians in the decision making process to implant or not an embryo with some genetic defect. And last, some philosophical issues are also analyzed in pro or against PGD.
C. Wynand, Retief.
Full Text Available The author argues that the majority of modern day translations of Genesis 11:28a, reading "Haran died in the lifetime of Terah, his father" (or wording to that effect) missed the intention of the narrator's actual words "Haran died in the face of (in confrontation with) Terah, his father." His worki [...] ng hypothesis, concluding the exegesis of the text, is that the narrator faced the ethical dilemma of having the task to tell a positive story about the origins of Israel while knowing the dark side which he, as an honest witness, could not negate, and consequently alluded to. This "small voice" of the author/narrator can easily be silenced and is consequently not picked up by strong translation traditions, as indeed happened in this case.
One of the ongoing debates in Canadian higher education is the dilemma of the brain drain and the seemingly conflicting goals between the strategies and intentions of various government departments. While Citizenship and Immigration Canada aims to recruit the brightest students from across the globe to study in Canada and to enable their long-term…
Christopher Clement emphasised how the RP system is based on science, values and experience and that ethics focuses on values, normative statements, while facts as descriptive statements, are more a question of science. Even full and complete knowledge is not sufficient to decide what ought to be since it is not possible to derive statements of values (what ought to be) from statements of facts (what is). In the case of radiation effects where knowledge is far from complete, value judgements are necessary. Different types of values include aesthetics with beauty and harmony, and ethics with good and right, as values. The RP system relates to human conduct, which is about action and focus on right and wrong actions. The presentation briefly reviewed different schools of ethical though (Aristotele, Bentham and Kant) and theories of normative ethics in particular consequentialism /utilitarianism and deontology. These approaches are elegant, but have flaws. A more complex approach was presented on the basis of Ross indicating that obligations must be balanced depending on each circumstance, where ethical decisions are a matter of balancing potentially conflicting responsibilities or values. A pragmatic approach was proposed, seeking a set of values relevant to the RP system, commonly acceptable to the widest possible range of cultures. The challenge with this approach rests in clarifying the values (responsibilities/duties/obligations) related to the system of radiological protection and at the same time in clarifying the objectives in the protection of people and of the environment. A list of thoughts was proposed, in the final part of the presentation, concerning the objective of providing a reasonable level of protection to all people in medical exposures, occupational and public exposures, which includes: the recognition of the special status of children, acceptable to all, but not necessarily equal for all and a separate treatment for the very small segments of society suffering from specific and rare medical conditions
Full Text Available Operating with business ethic we meet, some ethical systems, some of them developed in Antiquity, that still have a great influence upon economics development. One of these is the ethics of virtue. The aim of this paper work is to focus upon the one ethical system virtue ethics and to illustrate his influence in economical field, offering a new coordination in this direction. We understand the importance of the human character for a successful leadership and management. Recent ethical dilemmas illustrate us how a vicious character has an influence not only to the possessor of that type of character but also to the entire community where he develop his activities. For a comprehensive understanding I expose a briefly review on virtue ethics as it was developed by Plato and Aristotle, ant its new coordination and influence upon our contemporaneous economy, illustrated by some examples.
Campbell, Madeleine L.H.
Veterinarians have a key role in providing medical care for sports horses during and between competitions, but the standard client:veterinarian relationship that exists in companion and production animal medicine is distorted by the involvement of third parties in sports medicine, resulting in distinct ethical dilemmas which warrant focused academic attention. By comparing the existing literature on human sports medicine, this article reviews the ethical dilemmas which face veterinarians trea...
Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...
Edwards, Hillary Anne; Hifnawy, Tamer; Silverman, Henry
Recently, training programs in research ethics have been established to enhance individual and institutional capacity in research ethics in the developing world. However, commentators have expressed concern that the efforts of these training programs have placed 'too great an emphasis on guidelines and research ethics review', which will have limited effect on ensuring ethical conduct in research. What is needed instead is a culture of ethical conduct supported by national and institutional commitment to ethical practices that are reinforced by upstream enabling conditions (strong civil society, public accountability, and trust in basic transactional processes), which are in turn influenced by developmental conditions (basic freedoms of political freedoms, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency guarantees, and protective security). Examining this more inclusive understanding of the determinants of ethical conduct enhances at once both an appreciation of the limitations of current efforts of training programs in research ethics and an understanding of what additional training elements are needed to enable trainees to facilitate national and institutional policy changes that enhance research practices. We apply this developmental model to a training program focused in Egypt to describe examples of such additional training activities. PMID:24894063
Masako Aota; Shizue Mizuno; Miwa Yamamoto
Purpose: The aim of this study was to illuminate the connotation of “dilemma” regarding the use of physical restraint on elderly patients as represented by female nurses working in general wards at community hospitals who also live with elderly adults at home. Method: The study used the questionnaire method with an independently prepared questionnaire. Participants: The objective of the study was explained to the persons in charge of nursing in the selected 17 hospitals, and 1929. Finally...
Bruce, Courtenay R.; Brody, Baruch; Majumder, Mary A.
Successful practice of cardiovascular medicine requires familiarity with the complex ethical issues that accompany therapeutic innovation and diffusion. Even as technologies transition from experimental to standard care, challenges remain. Mechanical circulatory support devices, for instance, are increasingly conceptualized as conventional therapies. Despite this, or perhaps because of it, the ethical issues surrounding the use of these devices in patients with end-stage organ dysfunction are...
José, García Mendiola; Gisselle, Chi Gil; Maite, Piñeiro Barreiro; Niurka, Callejas Sánchez.
Full Text Available La ética médica es el conjunto de principios y normas que rigen entre los profesionales de la salud, la relación del médico con sus pacientes, con sus familiares, con otros profesionales de la salud, para lograr la preservación de la salud, el tratamiento y recuperación de los pacientes. La bioética [...] se fundamenta en la sociedad en el equipo salud-paciente, las decisiones pueden ser tomadas por el Comité de Ética y el paciente toma parte en las decisiones. El pediatra de la Atención Primaria de Salud tiene la responsabilidad moral de brindar una atención esmerada, pues su compromiso no es solo con el niño y su familia, es también con la salud pública cubana y el país en general. Para reflexionar sobre los principales dilemas éticos y bioéticos en el ejercicio de la práctica pediátrica en la Atención Primaria de Salud se realizó esta revisión Abstract in english Medical Ethics gathers a group of principles and standards that rule out the behaviour amongst the health staff and amongst the doctor-patient and doctor-relatives relationship in order to preserve the patient?s health, treatment and rehabilitation. Bioethics has its bases on society in the health-p [...] atient team, and decisions can be taken by an Ethics Commission with the patient?s participation in the decision-taking process. The paediatrician in the primary health care setting should give a qualified health attention not only to the children but to their family members too due to the specialists? commitment with the Cuban public health in general. Therefore, this bibliographical review is carried out to reflect on the main ethical dilemmas at the primary health care setting in the paediatric practice.
In this brief comment, the public choice theory aims to distinguish the dilemmas and conflicts in formal and empirical. The hypothesis argues that the reality more complex than the principles of choice of Pareto and Liberalism*. Both the ethics and politics are taking decisions that are not always in line with the requirements of rationality and complete information
This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empat...
Internação por ordem judicial: dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeiros / Hospitalization by court order: ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses / Internación por orden judicial: dilemas éticos vividos por enfermeros
Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira, Vargas; Flávia Regina Souza, Ramos; Dulcinéia Ghizoni, Schneider; Nadir, Schneider; Alessandra Ceci dos, Santos; Sandra Maria Cezar, Leal.
Full Text Available Pesquisa qualitativa, cujo objetivo foi descrever as situações vivenciadas e os dilemas éticos dos enfermeiros no percurso de encaminhamento e recebimento, por ordem judicial, de pacientes com indicação de internação em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Foi efetivada entrevista parcialmente estrut [...] urada com 10 enfermeiros, que atuam em UTI e 10 que atuam em emergência de hospitais públicos e privados da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Os dados foram submetidos à análise temática. Os resultados indicam que os enfermeiros vivenciam dilemas éticos consequentes aos problemas de superlotação das UTI e das emergências, da precária tecnologia especializada, da orientação quanto ao benefício concedido pela lei. Concluiu-se que é fundamental a participação dos enfermeiros em debates que possibilitem mapear as diferentes instâncias que têm promovido esta situação, muitas vezes caótica. Abstract in spanish Investigación cualitativa cuyo objetivo fue describir las situaciones vividas y los dilemas éticos de los enfermeros en el transcurso del envío y recibimiento por orden judicial de pacientes con indicación de internamiento en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI). Se realizó una entrevista parcialm [...] ente estructurada con 10 enfermeros que actuaban en la UCI y 10 que actuaban en Emergencias de hospitales públicos y privados de la región metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Los datos fueron analizados según el Análisis Temático. Los resultados indican que los enfermeros experimentan dilemas éticos consiguientes problemas de hacinamiento en emergencia y UCI, especialista en tecnología pobre, la orientación en cuanto a los beneficios establecidos por la ley. Se concluye que es fundamental la participación de los enfermeros en debates que posibiliten mapear las diferentes instancias que han promovido esta situación muchas veces caótica. Abstract in english A qualitative study aimed at describing the situations experienced and the ethical dilemmas of nurses in the process of referring and receiving hospitalized patients by court order who require admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). A partially structured interview was conducted with 10 nurses w [...] ho worked in the ICU and 10 who worked in the Emergency Room (ER) in public and private hospitals in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The data was analyzed following the Semantic Analysis. The results indicated that nurses experienced ethical dilemmas associated with problems of overcrowding in emergency rooms and ICUs, poor specialized technology and orientation as to the benefits provided by law. We concluded that it is essential for nurses to participate in discussions that allow the planning of the different instances that have been promoting this often chaotic situation.
Internação por ordem judicial: dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeiros Internación por orden judicial: dilemas éticos vividos por enfermeros Hospitalization by court order: ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses
Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira Vargas
Full Text Available Pesquisa qualitativa, cujo objetivo foi descrever as situações vivenciadas e os dilemas éticos dos enfermeiros no percurso de encaminhamento e recebimento, por ordem judicial, de pacientes com indicação de internação em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI. Foi efetivada entrevista parcialmente estruturada com 10 enfermeiros, que atuam em UTI e 10 que atuam em emergência de hospitais públicos e privados da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Os dados foram submetidos à análise temática. Os resultados indicam que os enfermeiros vivenciam dilemas éticos consequentes aos problemas de superlotação das UTI e das emergências, da precária tecnologia especializada, da orientação quanto ao benefício concedido pela lei. Concluiu-se que é fundamental a participação dos enfermeiros em debates que possibilitem mapear as diferentes instâncias que têm promovido esta situação, muitas vezes caótica.Investigación cualitativa cuyo objetivo fue describir las situaciones vividas y los dilemas éticos de los enfermeros en el transcurso del envío y recibimiento por orden judicial de pacientes con indicación de internamiento en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI. Se realizó una entrevista parcialmente estructurada con 10 enfermeros que actuaban en la UCI y 10 que actuaban en Emergencias de hospitales públicos y privados de la región metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Los datos fueron analizados según el Análisis Temático. Los resultados indican que los enfermeros experimentan dilemas éticos consiguientes problemas de hacinamiento en emergencia y UCI, especialista en tecnología pobre, la orientación en cuanto a los beneficios establecidos por la ley. Se concluye que es fundamental la participación de los enfermeros en debates que posibiliten mapear las diferentes instancias que han promovido esta situación muchas veces caótica.A qualitative study aimed at describing the situations experienced and the ethical dilemmas of nurses in the process of referring and receiving hospitalized patients by court order who require admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. A partially structured interview was conducted with 10 nurses who worked in the ICU and 10 who worked in the Emergency Room (ER in public and private hospitals in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The data was analyzed following the Semantic Analysis. The results indicated that nurses experienced ethical dilemmas associated with problems of overcrowding in emergency rooms and ICUs, poor specialized technology and orientation as to the benefits provided by law. We concluded that it is essential for nurses to participate in discussions that allow the planning of the different instances that have been promoting this often chaotic situation.
Ana Isabel, Gómez Córdoba; Ángela Fernanda, Espinosa.
Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo, a través del análisis del evento adverso, resaltar la importancia del acto de cuidado de enfermería en el marco de la prestación ética de los servicios de salud. Para tal fin se revisarán conceptos generales sobre ética, evento adverso y evento adverso en enfermerí [...] a, para finalizar con unas recomendaciones para la garantía de la seguridad en la atención de los pacientes en un proceso específico de atención en enfermería: la administración de medicamentos. Abstract in english This article's purpose, using the adverse event analysis, is to highlight the importance of care nursing activity within rendering an ethical health service framework. Thus, there will be reviewed some general concepts about ethics, as well as the adverse event and the adverse event in nursing, and [...] finally finishing with some recommendations to guarantee the patient's assistance safety in a particular process of nursing assistance: administration of medicines.
Johnson, Kevin W
The case of Brase v Rees was presented before the US Supreme Court to consider the constitutionality of death by lethal injection as practiced in the state of Kentucky. The 3-drug combination of sodium thiopental, pancuronium bromide, and potassium chloride is a key aspect in question. Capital punishment conflicts with medical and nursing code of ethics preventing providers who are skilled at difficult intravenous (IV) access, assessment of appropriate sedation, and involvement without fear of disciplinary action. Therefore, untrained or undertrained personnel from the prison have been delegated these duties. Cases in which failure to establish or maintain IV access has led to executions lasting up to 90 minutes before the execution was complete. Participation by skilled medical personnel has been a debate between the medical and legal communities since the inception of lethal injection. Healthcare should reevaluate the ethical and moral principle of beneficence as the legal system attempts to evaluate the constitutionality of lethal injection. Can a nurse or doctor step out of the role of medical professional, use knowledge and skill to make death by lethal injection more humane, and not violate the ethical principle of "do no harm"? PMID:19090308
Full Text Available La terapia génica tiene, de acuerdo con Anderson, cuatro niveles de aplicación: las células somáticas, las células germinales, la terapia perfectiva y la manipulación eugenésica. Se hace un análisis de los dilemas bioéticos en cada nivel de terapia y se plantea el denominado Argumento Evolutivo para cuestionar los deseos de algunos científicos de iniciar terapia génica de células germinales. De igual manera, se advierte de los peligros de iniciar terapia perfectiva y la manipulación eugénica por las implicaciones sociales y políticas de una reactivación de programas de eugenesia positiva.According to Anderson, gene therapy has four levels of application; somatic cells, germinal cells, perfective therapy and eugenic manipulation. An analysis of the bio-ethical dilemma in each therapy level is made and the so called Evolution Concept is stated to question the wish of some scientists to start gene therapy from germ cells. Likewise, there is a warning about the hazards of starting perfective therapy and eugenic manipulation due to the social and political implications of positive eugenics programs reactivation.
Full Text Available La terapia génica tiene, de acuerdo con Anderson, cuatro niveles de aplicación: las células somáticas, las células germinales, la terapia perfectiva y la manipulación eugenésica. Se hace un análisis de los dilemas bioéticos en cada nivel de terapia y se plantea el denominado Argumento Evolutivo para [...] cuestionar los deseos de algunos científicos de iniciar terapia génica de células germinales. De igual manera, se advierte de los peligros de iniciar terapia perfectiva y la manipulación eugénica por las implicaciones sociales y políticas de una reactivación de programas de eugenesia positiva. Abstract in english According to Anderson, gene therapy has four levels of application; somatic cells, germinal cells, perfective therapy and eugenic manipulation. An analysis of the bio-ethical dilemma in each therapy level is made and the so called Evolution Concept is stated to question the wish of some scientists t [...] o start gene therapy from germ cells. Likewise, there is a warning about the hazards of starting perfective therapy and eugenic manipulation due to the social and political implications of positive eugenics programs reactivation.
Nurse administrators are in a position to encounter ethical dilemmas when evaluating philanthropic proposals. Nurses may have little formal training in ethics, or they may be most experienced with ethical frameworks that apply primarily to clinical patient encounters. Gifts of goods, services, education, or other benefits to nurses may create ethical dilemmas. Philanthropic ethics and potential dilemmas are discussed in nonnursing professions such as medicine and nonprofit administration but rarely explored in the nursing administration context. Nurse administrators in a position to evaluate generous offers of philanthropy should identify key components to fully assess the ethics of their receipt. A survey of several resources is done to provide nurse administrators with the foundation to develop policies related to philanthropy if they are absent, preferably in advance of the offer. Recommendations for assessment and evaluation of philanthropic proposals are provided to aid nurse administrators in their synthesis and application of ethical principles from multiple sources. PMID:25208151
Full Text Available This paper argues that, while the existence of strong moral dilemmas is notoriously controversial, a case can be made for the existence of mild dilemmas. It is common for people to feel that they are caught in some type of moral dilemma. If mild dilemmas are a genuine feature of the moral terrain, perceptions by ordinary people that they are caught in a moral dilemma are to some extent vindicated.
Full Text Available Although ethics training is one of the core components of psychiatric education, it is not sufficiently addressed in the curricula of many educational institutions. It is shown that many of the psychiatry residents received no ethics training in both residency and medical school. Predictably, over half of the psychiatry residents had faced an ethical dilemma that they felt unprepared to meet, and nearly all of them indicated ethics education would have helped them to solve this dilemma. In addition to learning about the fundamental topics of ethics like confidentiality, boundary violations, justice, benefience and nonmaleficence, psychiatrists must also learn to deal with other hidden ethical dilemmas which are mostly due to the changing world order. It is obvious that residency training should include a well developed ethics curriculum. However, some still believe that ethical principles cannot be taught and are formed in one’s early moral development. Accepting the fact that teaching ethics is difficult, we believe that it is getting easier with the new methods for teaching in medicine. These methods are clinical supervisions, rol-models, case studies, role playing, small group discussions, team based learning and “let’s talking medicine” groups which is a useful methods for discussing ethics dilemmas on daily practice and C.A.R.E (Core Beliefs, Actions, Reasons, Experience which is a special training method for teaching ethics. In this review, the need of ethics training in residency curriculum will be discussed and new methods for teaching ethics will be proposed.
Carter, Mary Whelan
This article represents an effort to formulate an ethical framework for long-term care with the explicit purpose of providing a catalyst to promote further discourse and expand consideration of what an ethic of long-term care might entail. Grounding the discussion, an introduction to traditional ethical philosophy is presented, focusing mainly on the fundamentals of deontological and teleological ethical theories. Attention then shifts to a review of the more frequently cited principles found in the long-term care ethics literature, followed by a critique of the current reliance upon principlism to resolve ethical dilemmas in long-term care. In response to this criticism, an agent-driven ethical framework stressing dignity and respect for personhood, drawn from the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, is advanced. PMID:14598850
Thompson, Faye E
Practitioners' ethical orientation and responses vary between practice settings. Yet, currently, the ethics for midwifery practice that is explicit in the literature and which provides the ideals of socialization into practice, is that of bio(medical)ethics. Traditional bioethics, developed because of World War II atrocities and increased scientific research, is based on moral philosophy, normative theory, abstract universal principles and objective problem solving, all of which focus on right and wrong 'action' for resolving dilemmas. They exclude context and relationship. Personal narratives of mothers and midwives contest the appropriateness of these accepted values and systems for childbirth because they induce conflict between workplace/service provider ethics and personal/professional midwifery ethics. In contrast to the disembedded and disembodied approach of biomedical ethics, an ethically adequate response in midwifery practice resonates more with the ethics of intimates, such as feminist virtue ethics. PMID:14650478
The criteria for allocating organs are one of the most debated ethical issue in the transplantation programs. The article examines some rules and principles followed by "Nord Italia Transplant program", summarized in its Principles' Charter and explained in a recent interdisciplinary book. General theories of justice and their application to individual clinical cases are commented and evaluated, in order to foster a public, democratic, transparent debate among professionals and citizens, scientific associations and customers' organizations. Some specific moral dilemmas are focused regarding the concepts of proportionate treatment, unselfish donation by living persons, promotion of local institutions efficiency. PMID:20677677
Smudde, Peter M.
Public relations action relies on sound decision making about how to inspire cooperation between an organization and its publics. Such thinking must uphold principles for ethical communication. Effectively combining ethics with public relations practice for students is key. A pedagogical approach to public relations ethics, hinging on selected…
Leever, Martin G.; DeCiani, Gina; Mulaney, Ellen; Hasslinger, Heather; Gambrill, Eileen
Noting that child welfare professionals can improve the quality and integrity of the services they provide if they develop ethical decision making skills, this book provides child welfare administrators and caseworkers with a framework for assessing ethical dilemmas, making sound ethical decisions, and delivering services with integrity to…
Suraj, Samtani B; Mariana, Jadue Z; Juan Pablo, Beca I.
Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english It is indispensable for physicians to understand and recognize the fusion of different cultures, to deliver the best possible service to patients with different cultural backgrounds, especially when ethical-medical problems are involved. The Hindu community in Chile differs in significant ways with [...] the western culture. This is especially true for some issues such as the belief in reincarnation or gender inequality, among others. These discrepancies can be relevant for the analysis of several bioethical problems. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the different beliefs, traditions and Hindu visions. We hereby present a review of Hinduism, its relation with medical practice and, as an example, a case of abortion in a Hindu family. Reviewing the traditions, beliefs and methods will help to understand and respect the beliefs of different cultures in contemporary and globalized bioethics.
Suraj Samtani B
Full Text Available It is indispensable for physicians to understand and recognize the fusion of different cultures, to deliver the best possible service to patients with different cultural backgrounds, especially when ethical-medical problems are involved. The Hindu community in Chile differs in significant ways with the western culture. This is especially true for some issues such as the belief in reincarnation or gender inequality, among others. These discrepancies can be relevant for the analysis of several bioethical problems. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the different beliefs, traditions and Hindu visions. We hereby present a review of Hinduism, its relation with medical practice and, as an example, a case of abortion in a Hindu family. Reviewing the traditions, beliefs and methods will help to understand and respect the beliefs of different cultures in contemporary and globalized bioethics.
A., Azulay Tapiero; E., Hortelano Martínez.
Full Text Available La malnutrición es un problema frecuente en la situación de enfermedad terminal. La indicación de un soporte nutricional artificial en estos pacientes crea conflictos éticos de difícil solución. En este trabajo se sugieren líneas de actuación sencillas que puedan servir de orientación clínica, si bi [...] en la toma de decisiones debe ser siempre individualizada, teniendo en cuenta el balance entre riesgos y beneficios de esta modalidad de tratamiento. Se debe dar una máxima prioridad a los deseos del paciente. Abstract in english Malnutrition is a common complication in terminally ill situation. Artificial nutritional support in these patients create a host of ethical conflicts with difficult solutions. In this paper we give simple suggestions that might the help care provider in making a viable clinical decision. However, e [...] ach case should be treated in an individualized manner taking into consideration the ratio between risks and benefits of this treatment. The patient’s wishes should have the highest priority.
Mariana, Rezende Machado; Rodrigo, Grazinoli Garrido.
Full Text Available As Células-Tronco têm sido objeto principal de estudo no campo científico da Medicina Regenerativa. Estas células, quando obtidas de embriões, podem se diferenciar em todos os tecidos, embora os métodos utilizados para sua obtenção necessitem lidar com dilemas éticos e legais. Em busca de alternativ [...] as às fontes de células-tronco, os dentes vêm ganhando espaço. Estes órgãos apresentam no tecido pulpar e estruturas adjacentes características fundamentais como, multidiferenciação e capacidade de autoduplicação, além de facilidade de acesso e obtenção. Este trabalho apresenta o conhecimento atual e as perspectivas sobre o uso das células-tronco de origem dentária com destaque para as de dentes decíduos esfoliados. Especial atenção foi dada às limitações legais e administrativas para o funcionamento dos Bancos de Dentes Humanos e Biobancos no Brasil, aspecto que se revelado o principal entrave para a difusão do uso de células-tronco de origem dentária. Abstract in english Stem cells have been the main object of study in the Restorative Medicine scientific field. When obtained from embryos, such cells may distinguish in all tissues, although the methods applied to obtain them have to deal with ethical and legal dilemmas. In the search for alternative sources of stem c [...] ells, teeth have gained relevant ground. Those organs present, in their pulp tissue and neighboring structures, fundamental characteristics, such as multilineage differentiation and capacity for self-renewing, besides the fact that they are easy to access and obtain. This work provides the current knowledge and perspectives about the application of stem cells from dental source, with emphasizing those obtained from exfoliated deciduous teeth. Especial attention has been drawn to legal and administrative constraints found in the activities of Human Teeth Banks and Biobanks in Brazil, an aspect that has risen as the main obstacles when communicating the use of stem cells from dental source.
Full Text Available Editors of scientific journals need to be conversant with the mechanisms by which scientific misconduct is amplified by publication practices. This paper provides definitions, ways to document the extent of the problem, and examples of editorial attempts to counter fraud. Fabrication, falsification, duplication, ghost authorship, gift authorship, lack of ethics approval, non-disclosure, 'salami' publication, conflicts of interest, auto-citation, duplicate submission, duplicate publications, and plagiarism are common problems. Editorial misconduct includes failure to observe due process, undue delay in reaching decisions and communicating these to authors, inappropriate review procedures, and confounding a journal's content with its advertising or promotional potential. Editors also can be admonished by their peers for failure to investigate suspected misconduct, failure to retract when indicated, and failure to abide voluntarily by the six main sources of relevant international guidelines on research, its reporting and editorial practice. Editors are in a good position to promulgate reasonable standards of practice, and can start by using consensus guidelines on publication ethics to state explicitly how their journals function. Reviewers, editors, authors and readers all then have a better chance to understand, and abide by, the rules of publishing.Editores de revistas científicas precisam estar atentos aos mecanismos de disseminação de condutas inadequadas no processo de publicação. Este artigo fornece definições, formas de documentar a extensão do problema e exemplos de iniciativas para conter fraudes editorias. Fabricação, falsificação, duplicação, autoria-fantasma, autoria concedida, falta de ética na aprovação de manuscritos, não-divulgação desses fatos, publicação "salami", conflitos de interesse, autocitação, submissão e publicação duplicadas, e plágio são problemas comuns. A conduta editorial inadequada inclui: falha em seguir o processo devido, atraso nas decisões e comunicação com os autores, falhas na revisão, e confundir o conteúdo de um periódico com seu potencial promocional e de propaganda. Os editores podem ser advertidos por seus pares por não investigar comportamento científico suspeito, por não se retratar quando indicado ou não obedecer as seis principais fontes internacionais de orientação em pesquisa, publicação e política editorial. Os editores estão em posição privilegiada para promover práticas adequadas, adotando orientações éticas e claras sobre os procedimentos adotados nos periódicos. Assim, revisores, editores, autores e leitores terão condições de compreender e seguir as normas de publicação.
Fullerton, Jami A.; Kendrick, Alice; McKinnon, Lori Melton
A national survey of 1,045 advertising students measured opinions about the ethical nature of advertising and ethical dilemmas in the advertising business. More than nine out of ten students agreed that working for a company with high ethical standards was important. Students rated all twelve workplace dilemmas presented as somewhat unethical. For…
Full Text Available Abstract Psychiatric practice is often faced with complex situations that seem to pose serious moral dilemmas for practitioners. Methods for solving these dilemmas have included the development of more objective rules to guide the practitioner such as utilitarianism and deontology. A more modern variant on this objective model has been 'Principlism' where 4 mid level rules are used to help solve these complex problems. In opposition to this, there has recently been a focus on more subjective criteria for resolving complex moral dilemmas. In particular, virtue ethics has been posited as a more sensitive method for helping doctors to reason their way through difficult ethical issues. Here the focus is on the character traits of the practitioner. Bloch and Green advocated another way whereby more objective methods such as Principlism and virtue ethics are combined to produce what they considered sound moral reasoning in psychiatrists. This paper points out some difficulties with this approach and instead suggests that a better model of ethical judgment could be developed through the use of narratives or stories. This idea puts equal prima facie value on the patient's and the psychiatrist's version of the dilemma they are faced with. It has the potential to lead to a more genuine empathy and reflective decision-making.
The changing context of medical practice--bureaucratic, political, or economic--demands that doctors have the knowledge and skills to face these new realities. Such changes impose obstacles on doctors delivering ethical care to vulnerable patient populations. Modern medical ethics education requires a focus upon the knowledge and skills necessary to close the gap between the theory and practice of ethical care. Physicians and doctors-in-training must learn to be morally sensitive to ethical dilemmas on the wards, learn how to make professionally grounded decisions with their patients and other medical providers, and develop the leadership, dedication, and courage to fulfill ethical values in the face of disincentives and bureaucratic challenges. A new core focus of medical ethics education must turn to learning how to put ethics into practice by teaching physicians to realistically negotiate the new institutional maze of 21st-century medicine. PMID:24802645
Christoffersen, Mette Buhl; Boukaouit, Dounia; Weeke Hervit, Benjamin Helmer; Winther Brødreskift, Ditte; Makila?, Riia Marette; Pingel Vogel, Klara Elisa; Wolter Strate, Simon
With the opportunities for anonymity and free expression on the Internet it is it is not inconceivable that moral and ethical dilemmas occur. To give examples of this, we have chosen to analyse two case studies that are concerned with ethical dilemmas. The first case concerns the hacker group “Anonymous” which revealed personal information and accused two men of being paedophiles. The second case deals with the violation of privacy based on the famous meme “Scumbag Steve”. The two dim...
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Background: The continuing evolution of medical treatments and the loss of neutrality of medicine with respect to morality of human values have represented the major tracking elements towards settings of sharing of choices between society and medicine. Several concerns have been raised upon links between pharmaceutical corporations and researchers. Moreover, being in a learning environment, we must pay even more attention to these items because students appear to be at risk for unrecognized influence by marketing efforts. The aim of this study is to focus on the activities of a local ethics committee (LEC and the characteristics of the protocols discussed in an Italian LEC during a three year period (2001-2003.
Methods: Three years of activity of a LEC were analysed by a questionnaire registering: main sponsorship, setting, technical characteristics of trials, outcome of the submission to the LEC, state of progress. Approved trials were followed-up until April 30th, 2005.
Results: A total of 345 protocols were discussed. 67.8% (n = 198 of approved protocols were submitted by a pharmaceutical corporation. 72.6% (n = 212 of studies approved in 2001 were still in progress in 2005. 91.3% (n = 73 of closed trials had a pharmaceutical corporation as their main sponsor. None of the submitted studies focused on prevention strategies.
Conclusions: These results show how important grants offered by pharmaceutical industries are, the efforts spent on therapy and the lack of investors in prevention.
A distanásia como geradora de dilemas éticos nas Unidades de Terapia Intensiva: considerações sobre a participação dos enfermeiros La distanasia como generadora de dilemas éticos en las Unidades deTerapia Intensiva: algunos aspectos a cerca de lo envolvimiento de los enfermeros Disthanasia as an ethical dilemma at the Intensive Care Units: considerations about nurses involvement
Maria Cecilia Toffoletto
Full Text Available A distanásia apresenta-se como uma das fontes geradoras de dilemas éticos nas Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI. Discute-se o contexto que favorece a prática da distanásia nesse ambiente, com ênfase na utilização excessiva do suporte tecnológico. Tecemos comentários sobre a participação dos familiares e profissionais envolvidos, principalmente médicos e enfermeiros, considerando-se o papel sócio-profissional atribuído a cada um. Pretende-se com as considerações apresentadas, fornecer subsídios para a reflexão do tema, com vistas a uma participação mais ativa dos enfermeiros de UTI nos dilemas éticos relacionados à distanásia.La distanasia se presenta como una de las fuentes generadoras de los dilemas éticos en las Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI Discute el contexto que favorece la práctica de la distanasia en este ambiente, con énfasis en la utilización excesiva del arsenal tecnologico. Además de los comentarios sobre la posición de los familiares y de los profesionales involucrados, principalmente los médicos y enfermeros, se consideró el papel socio-profesional que se atribuye a cada uno. Para finalizar, los profesionales del area son estimulados a refletir sobre el tema y los enfermeros a participar de manera más activa en las discusiones de los dilemas éticos relacionados a la distanasia.Disthanasia is conceptualized and presented as an ethical dilemma in Intensive Care Units (ICU. The context favoring the disthanasia practice on this environment focusing the excessive use of technological devices will be discussed. The study will approach the family, physician and nurse’s participation in the situations, considering the social and professional role of each one. This study aims to provide support for healthcare professionals to reflect on this subject, aiming the nurse’s more effective participation on ethical dilemmas related to disthanasia.
Full Text Available In the process of cancer treatment and care, the ethical duties of the cancer nurses contribute to preventing ethical dilemmas, resolving ethical problems, and most importantly maintaining an ethical cancer care system. The ethical duties of humanistic caregiving, disclosure, honesty, relief of pain and suffering, fair distribution of resources, provision of adequate palliative care, and assistance to patients and families for imminent death, which are the hallmarks of oncology nursing, are justified by the values, professional standards and the contemporary roles of nursing. Therefore, ethical competency of the oncology nurse is an inevitable requirement.
Although ethics committees are well established in the medical sciences for human clinical trials, animal research and scientific integrity, the development of clinical ethics in German hospitals started much later during the first decade of the twenty-first century. Clinical ethics consultation should be pragmatic and problem-centered and can be defined as an ethically qualified and informed conflict management within a given legal framework to deal with and resolve value-driven, normative problems in the care of patients. Clinical ethics consultations enable shared clinical decision-making of all parties (e.g. clinicians, patients, family and surrogates) involved in a particular patient's care. The clinical ethicist does not act as an ethics expert by making independent recommendations or decisions; therefore, the focus is different from other medical consultants. Ethics consultation was first established by healthcare ethics committees (HEC) or clinical ethics consultation (CEC) groups which were called in to respond to an ethically problematic situation. To avoid ethical dilemmas or crises and to act preventively with regard to ethical issues in individual patients, an ethics liaison service is an additional option to ethics case consultations which take place on a regular basis by scheduled ethics rounds during the normal ward rounds. The presence of the ethicist offers some unique advantages: it allows early recognition of even minor ethical problems and accommodates the dynamics of ethical and clinical goal-setting in the course of patient care. Most importantly, regular and non-authoritative participation of the ethicist in normal ward rounds allows continuous ethical education of the staff within the everyday clinical routine. By facilitating clinical ethical decision-making, the ethicist seeks to empower physicians and medical staff to deal appropriately with ethical problems by themselves. Because of this proactive approach, the ethics liaison service can make a significant contribution to preventative ethics in reducing the number of emerging ethical problems to the satisfaction of all parties involved. PMID:24902533
With deeper study of the Game Theory, some conditions of Prisoner's Dilemma is no longer suitable of games in real life. So we try to develop a new model-Villager's Dilemma which has more realistic conditions to stimulate the process of game. It is emphasize that Prisoner's Dilemma is an exception which is lack of universality and the importance of rules in the game. And it puts forward that to let the rule maker take part in the game and specifies game players can stop the game as they like. This essay describes the basic model, the villager's dilemma (VD) and put some extended use of it, and points out the importance of rules and the effect it has on the result of the game. It briefly describes the disadvantage of Prisoner's Dilemma and advantage Villager's Dilemma has. It summarizes the premise and scope of application of Villager's Dilemma, and provides theory foundation for making rules for game and forecast of the future of the game.
Ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses presented in nursing publications Dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeros y presentados en publicaciones de enfermería Dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeiros apresentados em publicações de enfermagem
Maria Adelane Alves Monteiro
Full Text Available This systematic literature review used nursing studies about "ethics" published in the SCIELO database. The objective was to identify the ethical dilemmas of nursing, based on a literature review of nursing publications between 2002 and 2006. Forty publications were found, of which seventeen were selected. The analysis of the articles permitted the organization of the following categories: ethics, the health system and nursing practice; ethics and nursing teaching-learning; ethics and nursing care. We noticed that the authors attributed a multidimensional approach to ethical issues. However, we considered it necessary to pay closer attention to the ethical aspects involved in nursing practice. There is a clear need for further studies, showing new ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses, so that they can contribute to a change in attitude, with outcomes for professional practice.Se trata de una revisión sistemática de la literatura, realizada en artículos del área de la enfermería, contenidos en el banco de datos SCIELO, y que abordaron el tema "ética". El estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los dilemas éticos de la enfermería a partir de una revisión de la literatura en publicaciones sobre esa área, en el período de 2002 a 2006. Se localizaron cuarenta publicaciones, de las cuales fueron seleccionadas diecisiete. El análisis de los artículos permitió la organización de las categorías en: ética, el sistema de salud y la práctica de enfermería, ética y la enseñanza-aprendizaje en la enfermería y, ética y el cuidado de enfermería. Se percibió que los autores realizaron, sobre las cuestiones éticas, un abordaje multidimensional, entretanto, se consideró necesario, en este estudio, dar mayor atención a los aspectos éticos que se encuentran frecuentemente en la práctica de enfermería. Quedó clara la necesidad de realizar otros estudios que pongan en evidencia nuevos dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeros, en el sentido de contribuir para el cambio de actitud, que implicaría en mejorar la calidad de la práctica profesional.Trata-se de revisão sistemática da literatura, realizada em artigos da área da enfermagem, contidos no banco de dados SCIELO, e que abordaram o tema "ética". Teve como objetivo identificar os dilemas éticos da enfermagem a partir de revisão de literatura em publicações da área, no período de 2002 a 2006. Localizou-se quarenta publicações, das quais foram selecionadas dezessete. A análise dos artigos permitiu a organização das categorias: ética, o sistema de saúde e a prática de enfermagem, ética e o ensino-aprendizagem na enfermagem, ética e o cuidado de enfermagem. Percebeu-se que os autores atribuíram às questões éticas abordagem multidimensional, no entanto, considerou-se, aqui, necessária maior atenção a respeito dos aspectos éticos que permeiam a prática de enfermagem. Ficou clara a necessidade de mais estudos que evidenciem novos dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeiros, no sentido de contribuir para mudança de atitude, implicando na qualidade da prática profissional.
Garcia, Jorge, G.; Cartwright, Brenda; Winston, Stacey M.; Borzuchowska, Barbara
The Transcultural Integrative Ethical Decision-Making Model in counseling addresses the need for including cultural factors in the process of ethical dilemma resolution. The proposed model is presented in a step-by-step, linear format that can be used by counselors facing ethical dilemmas in a variety of settings and with different cultural…
Jones, Marc T.; Lok, Peter
Considers the dilemma of teaching ethics and social responsibility in international business courses with either an ethnocentric absolutist or an unengaged relativistic approach. Suggests a strategy that focuses on a grounded understanding of the elements, processes, and properties of capitalism that would serve as a common understanding upon…
Considers ethical questions related to the copying and use of information from World Wide Web sites, especially graphics. Copyright violation, control of distribution, commercial online users, problems of perception, asking permission, and standards of ethical behavior are discussed. (LRW)
Candee, D.; Puka, B.
Education in ethics among practising professionals should provide a systematic procedure for resolving moral problems. A method for such decision-making is outlined using the two classical orientations in moral philosophy, teleology and deontology. Teleological views such as utilitarianism resolve moral dilemmas by calculating the excess of good over harm expected to be produced by each feasible alternative for action. The deontological view focuses on rights, duties, and principles of justic...
Technology is something present in our everyday lives. From the computer we type our e-mails on to the plasma television where we watch our favorite shows, technology is an integral part of how we live. This website, created by Engineering Technology Pathways, presents the interaction of technology with society and the ethical issues associated with that interplay. Focusing mostly on the role of engineers in the creation of technology, the website provides examples of responsible practices employed by the profession. The website introduces the reader to different case studies that are examples of these ethical dilemmas. In the end, this is a good overview as it introduces students to issues not typically associated with the field of engineering.
Elizabeth, Villarreal Cantillo; Gloria, Visbal Illera.
Full Text Available Resumen Son múltiples los dilemas éticos que enfrentan los profesionales de enfermería en el cumplimiento de su labor y que sugieren una toma de decisión fundamentada en los conocimientos, habilidades y en la experiencia, pero donde la ética y la moral es la que posibilita que esta se soporte en val [...] ores, principios y argumentos éticos. Aplicar la Bioética y cumplir con los Derechos Humanos requiere una profunda modificación en toda la cultura sanitaria; ya sea en los propios profesionales, en sus relaciones inter- e intraprofesionales, ya en la organización y gestión de los servicios. No basta con tener normativas, hay que realizar cambios y aportaciones delimitando el quehacer y estableciendo la corresponsabilización que permita la contribución de cada grupo profesional. En este artículo se realiza una reflexión sobre algunos dilemas éticos en el ámbito hospitalario, planteando situaciones dilemáticas que nos sirvan para tomar conciencia sobre la importancia de cuestiones tan relevantes como el respeto a la autonomía del paciente, el consentimiento informado, la justicia distributiva de los recursos sanitarios, entre otros. Abstract in english Abstract There are many ethical dilemmas that nursing professionals have to face in fulfilling their work and that suggest decision making should be based on knowledge, ability, skills and experience, but where ethics and morality are the ones that enable this work to be supported on values, princip [...] les and ethical arguments. Applying Bioethics and Human Rights requires a radical change in the whole culture of health; whether professionals themselves, in their personal and intraprofessional relations, and in the organization and management of services. It is not enough to have rules, you have to make changes and contributions delineating the work and establishing joint responsibility, that allows the contribution of each professional group. This article is a reflection on ethical dilemmas taking place in hospitals, raising controversial situations that serve as awareness on the importance of such relevant issues as respect for patient autonomy, informed consent, and distributive justice of health resources, among others.
Werth, James L; Hastings, Sarah L; Riding-Malon, Ruth
Mental health professionals practicing in rural areas face ethical dilemmas different from those experienced by their urban counterparts and may find that the existing ethics literature and American Psychological Association (APA, 2002) ethics code not particularly helpful. We highlight parts of five standards from the APA ethics code to illustrate the dilemmas rural practitioners frequently confront and offer suggestions for how to handle them. We discuss competence, human relations, and confidentiality as specific areas and then examine assessment and therapy as broader situations in which dilemmas may occur. We use case examples to highlight complications that may arise in rural areas. PMID:20222121
Investigates the effects of race of news subjects on student journalists' ethical reasoning. Explains that journalism students were presented with four ethical dilemmas that working journalists might encounter. Concludes that the race of the people in the ethical dilemmas presented had a significant impact on ethical reasoning. (PM)
Hambrick, James P.; Pimentel, Sandra; Albano, Anne Marie
Although formal ethics classes provide a basic foundation in managing ethical dilemmas, professionals often point to their experiences on internship as an important training ground for consolidation of their ethical development. Clinical interns face many personal and professional transitions that can lead to a number of ethical dilemmas.…
Hightower, Bynum Blake; Klinker, JoAnn Franklin
This case study explores an ethical dilemma faced by a new junior high school principal. It is appropriate for use in all preparation course work, including the internship. Studies show that novice principal decision making differs from that of experienced principals in moral dilemmas, including following policy versus best interests of the…
Capozzi, James D; Rhodes, Rosamond
Despite our recent attention to ethical issues in orthopedics, we are still faced with multiple conflicts of interest that continue to pose ethical dilemmas to the practicing physician. Using four case scenarios, we review the potential conflicts of interest and the dilemmas posed by these frequently encountered situations. The ethical conflicts confronted in resident training, the introduction of new technology, physician advertising, and the obligations of the sports team physician are reviewed and discussed. The basic principles of medical ethics, including acting for the good of the patients and doing no harm, are discussed in the context of the four case scenarios. PMID:25957262
Medical Officers serving with their national contingents in peacekeeping operations are faced with difficult ethical decisions in regard to their obligations to the local civilian population. Such populations may be under-resourced in regard to medical care, and vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. Though the medical officer may support the local medical services, he/she should never undermine these resources. Adopting a human rights approach and observing the requirements of ethical medicin...
Kahane, Guy; Everett, Jim A C; Earp, Brian D; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian
A growing body of research has focused on so-called 'utilitarian' judgments in moral dilemmas in which participants have to choose whether to sacrifice one person in order to save the lives of a greater number. However, the relation between such 'utilitarian' judgments and genuine utilitarian impartial concern for the greater good remains unclear. Across four studies, we investigated the relationship between 'utilitarian' judgment in such sacrificial dilemmas and a range of traits, attitudes, judgments and behaviors that either reflect or reject an impartial concern for the greater good of all. In Study 1, we found that rates of 'utilitarian' judgment were associated with a broadly immoral outlook concerning clear ethical transgressions in a business context, as well as with sub-clinical psychopathy. In Study 2, we found that 'utilitarian' judgment was associated with greater endorsement of rational egoism, less donation of money to a charity, and less identification with the whole of humanity, a core feature of classical utilitarianism. In Studies 3 and 4, we found no association between 'utilitarian' judgments in sacrificial dilemmas and characteristic utilitarian judgments relating to assistance to distant people in need, self-sacrifice and impartiality, even when the utilitarian justification for these judgments was made explicit and unequivocal. This lack of association remained even when we controlled for the antisocial element in 'utilitarian' judgment. Taken together, these results suggest that there is very little relation between sacrificial judgments in the hypothetical dilemmas that dominate current research, and a genuine utilitarian approach to ethics. PMID:25460392
Therapist's role and dilemmas faced in treating a gender dysphoric client are discussed. Examines ethical and moral issues relating to transsexualism and discusses the appropriateness of art therapy as a treatment for transsexual clients. (SNR)
Payment of research participants helps to increase recruitment for research studies, but can pose ethical dilemmas. Research ethics committees (RECs) have a centrally important role in guiding this practice, but standardisation of the ethical approval process in Ireland is lacking.
Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Future managers are faced daily with a variety of ethical dilemmas in traffic that need to be balanced by the interests of all participants. The question is whether a new innovative model of ethical principles could be developed that would increase road safety.Purpose: The a im is to raise the level of social responsibility and relationship of participants in traffic as well as warn all participants on the importance of safety. In addition, the purpose is to share suggestions to other researchers for further research studies in the area of increasing traffic safety.Method: We carried out a quantitative study (survey among first year post-graduate students studying at a higher education school focused on quality management in south-eastern Slovenia. The article presents five different ethical scenarios.Results: The participants have very similar views on judging individual ethical dilemmas. The desire to increase road safety, have led to new useful suggestions for further study of innovative new ethical principles in the field of safety, such as: no death victims annually, adequate road infrastructure, improved vehicle technology, video surveillance systems, and so on.Organization: Relevant authorities should promote models of ethical thinking and the introduction of codes of conduct at an early age. As such, the state, police, rescuers, fire departments, hospitals, and so on, would have fewer deaths due to serious traffic accidents.Society: By taking these results and further research suggestions into account, society would gain a new model that would be based on zero accidents annually.Originality: Research in the field of ethics and innovative ethical principles of traffic safety is limited. The article presents practical examples of ethical and moral decision-making that we encounter in daily traffic. But nothing much is done to make it better ("every day the same story".Limitations/Future Research: The research study was conducted on a small sample of 13 students.
Most accounts of the ethical problems facing researchers across a broad spectrum of research fields come from ethicists, ethics committees, and specialists committed to the study of ethics in human research. In contrast, this study reports on the ethical questions that researchers, themselves, report facing in their everyday practice. Fifty-five Swedish researchers contributed 109 examples of ethical dilemmas, conflicts, and problems in research. They were all researchers at the postdoctoral ...
Daly, Louise; Fahey-McCarthy, Elizabeth
Ethical nursing practice is an important component of quality dementia care. To be ethically competent, and to acquire the language, knowledge and skills required to explore and resolve ethical dilemmas in practice, the nurse needs an understanding of ethics and of the theory behind ethical decision-making. Traditional theories of ethics and ethical principles are commonly used to explore the dilemmas faced in dementia care practice. While these theories remain influential in healthcare practice, more contemporary ethical theories are equally relevant to the examination of the ordinary and extraordinary ethical dilemmas that present in conditions such as dementia. In this article, the ethical considerations central to effective dementia care nursing will be examined. PMID:24464111
Farah, Martha J
Advances in neurotechnology will raise new ethical dilemmas, to which scientists and the rest of society must respond. Here I present a "toolbox" of concepts to help us analyze these issues and communicate with each other about them across differences of ethical intuition. PMID:25856484
With the aging of the general population and the ability of intensivists to support patients using ventilator support, tracheostomy has become a vital tool in the medical management of critically ill patients. While much of the medical literature on tracheostomy has focused on the optimal timing of and indications for performing this procedure, little is written on the ethical tensions that can revolve around decisions by patients, surrogates, and physicians on its use.This article will elucidate the ethical dilemmas that can arise surrounding the use of tracheostomy in critically ill patients and how ethics consultants and committees can approach these cases to allow resolution. PMID:23923812
Akbulut, Reviewed By Yavuz
233Rapid developments in information andcommunication technologies have created newsecurity threats along with ethical dilemmas. Thesedevelopments have been so fast that appropriatesecurity precautions and ethical codes fail to keeppace with the technological developments. In thisrespect, education of both professionals andordinary citizens regarding information technologyethics carries utmost importance. Encyclopedia ofInformation Ethics and Security serves as anauthentic and comprehensive r...
Shapiro, Johanna; Miller, Ron
A study in which 92 second-year medical students wrote essays on ethical dilemmas found most students were familiar with major ethical theories and principles currently in use and able to apply them appropriately. Gender differences were found in choice of topic, ethical principles used, and level of personal orientation. (Author/MSE)
Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty
Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethical dilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…
Knefelkamp, L. Lee
Four books focusing on ethical issues in collegiate sports are reviewed: "Paterno by the Book,""Personal Fouls,""Never Too Young to Die: The Death of Len Bias," and "Rules of the Game: Ethics in College Sport." The themes of academic standards, student responsibility, the coach's role and responsibilities, the need for reform in college athletics…
Sigurjonsson, Throstur Olaf; Arnardottir, Audur Arna
More and more scholars are expressing their apprehensions regarding the current state of management education. The increased number of corporate scandals has fueled their concerns that training students to have sound business ethics upon graduation has failed. Consequently, research is emerging that focuses on the lack of impact that business ethics teaching has had on students in recent years. Remarkably, the voice of managers has barely been heard in this area, even though they are the ones who are among those best suited to evaluate graduates’ capabilities to solve ethical dilemmas. This research presents the managers’ view on the role of business schools in training students in business ethics, and the managers’ evaluation of business schools’ success in that area. The findings reveal that managers are quite disappointed with the lack of improvement in the ethics of graduating students. Managers nonetheless provide a range of ideas for business schools to work on, and particularly, call for closer collaboration between industry and business schools.
Kidder, Rushworth M.; Born, Patricia L.
Discusses four attributes of a decision-making process to resolve ethical dilemmas successfully: consists of core, shared values; emphasizes right-versus-right rather than right-versus-wrong; provides resolution principles; emphasizes moral courage. Describes characteristics of moral courage. (PKP)
Full Text Available O propósito deste artigo foi descrever a necessidade de proteger os direitos dos sujeitos humanos que participam na pesquisa em enfermagem, e os procedimentos que há para fazê-lo. A rota tomada para realizar esta tarefa consistiu na abordagem do tema desde a discussão dos fundamentos filosóficos da [...] proteção dos sujeitos humanos e a descrição do enfoque empregado para sua participação na investigação. Estes fundamentos são os princípios específicos éticos de respeito pelas pessoas, beneficência e a justiça, e os procedimentos utilizados para a proteção dos direitos dos sujeitos humanos nos Estados Unidos. Discutem-se ademais as considerações a ter em conta para proteger aos grupos especiais mencionados como "vulneráveis". Selecionou-se a experiência de Estados Unidos devido a do que a autora tinha acesso aos documentos deste país e a do que as agências governamentais norte-americanos foram os primeiras que formalizaram normas e regulamentos para a proteção dos sujeitos humanos, vulneráveis ou de outro tipo. Se reconhece que agora há documentos internacionais pertinentes que são sumamente úteis, e que também vários países dispõem de suas próprias diretrizes a seguir, em tais casos, os pesquisadores podem realizar análises comparativas entre sua própria orientação e os processos descritos aqui, e decidir seu caminho em consequência. Abstract in spanish El propósito de este artículo fue describir la necesidad de proteger los derechos de los sujetos humanos que participaron en la investigación en enfermería, y los procedimientos que hay para hacerlo. La ruta tomada para realizar esta tarea consistió en el abordaje del tema desde la discusión de los [...] fundamentos filosóficos de la protección de los sujetos humanos y la descripción del enfoque empleado para su participación en la investigación. Estos fundamentos son los principios específicos éticos de respeto por las personas, beneficencia y la justicia, y los procedimientos utilizados para la protección de los derechos de los sujetos humanos en los Estados Unidos. Se discuten además las consideraciones a tener en cuenta para proteger a los grupos especiales mencionados como "vulnerables". Se seleccionó la experiencia de Estados Unidos debido a que la autora tenía acceso a los documentos de este país y a que las agencias gubernamentales estadounidenses fueron los primeras que formalizaron normas y reglamentos para la protección de los sujetos humanos, vulnerables o de otro tipo. Se reconoce que ahora hay documentos internacionales pertinentes que son sumamente útiles, y que también varios países disponen de sus propias directrices a seguir, en tales casos, los investigadores pueden realizar análisis comparativos entre su propia orientación y los procesos descritos aquí, y decidir, en consecuencia su camino. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper was to describe the need to protect the rights of human subjects participating in nursing research, and procedures for doing so. The path taken to the task at hand was to approach the topic by discussing the philosophical underpinnings of human subject protection and descri [...] bing the approach for doing this in all cases where humans are used as research subjects. These underpinnings include specific ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice, and the procedures used in the U.S. for protecting the rights of human subjects. Once the process was clarified, the considerations necessary to protect the special groups referred to as ''vulnerable'' are discussed. Given the author’s access to U.S. documents and the fact that U.S. government agencies took early steps to formalize rules and regulations for the protection of human subjects, vulnerable or otherwise, the experience of the United States was selected for presentation. It is recognized that there are now relevant international documents that are exceedingly helpful, and also, that various countries may have their own guidelines for investigators to fo
Rod Duncan MacLeod
Full Text Available Assisting or hastening death is a dilemma with many ethical as well as practical issues facing healthcare practitioners in many countries worldwide now. Various arguments for and against assisted dying have been made over time but the call from the public for legalisation of euthanasia or assisted suicide has never been stronger. While many studies have documented the reluctance of medical and other health professionals to be involved in the practice of assisted dying or euthanasia, there is still much open debate in the public domain. Those who have the most experience of palliative care are strongest in their opposition to assisted death or euthanasia. This paper explores salient practical and ethical considerations for healthcare practitioners associated with assisted death, with a focus on examining the concepts of autonomy for patients and healthcare practitioners. The role of the healthcare practitioner has clearly and undoubtedly changed over time with advances in healthcare practices but the duty of care has not changed. The dilemmas for healthcare practitioners thus who have competent patients requesting hastened death extends far beyond acting within a country’s laws as they go to the very heart of the relationship between the practitioner and patient.
The Ethics of Setting Course Expectations to Manipulate Student Evaluations of Teaching Effectiveness in Higher Education: An Examination of the Ethical Dilemmas Created by the Use of SETEs and a Proposal for Further Study and Analysis
Neal, Catherine S.; Elliott, Teressa
Because student evaluations of teaching effectiveness (SETEs) are an important and widely used tool used in the evaluation and reward systems for faculty members in higher education, a discussion and analysis of the ethical problems that may arise as a result of the conflict created by expectations of performance is provided. This discussion…
Pettit, John D., Jr.; And Others
Outlines a theoretical framework of ethics, power, and communication in the workplace, which provides a backdrop for viewing ethical decisions. Explains that business managers are often caught in a dilemma between job pressures and personal ethical codes. Proposes communication as a means of fostering more ethical organizational behavior. (SG)
Herschel, Richard T.; Andrews, Patricia Hayes
Explores ethical issues heightened by use of technology, and examines a means for managing these ethical concerns. Argues that ethical problems are not inherent in technological advances, but rather it is how human beings choose to use these new tools that may lead to ethical dilemmas in business contexts. (SR)
Castleberry, Stephen B.
As a marketing analyst, Eric is faced with several ethical dilemmas. When asked to engage in unethical and illegal behavior, Eric must decide whether to obey his boss and fudge the numbers (the counts of product purchased in order to get reimbursed more from the manufacturer during special sales) or take the ethical route. The case consists of two…
Most accounts of the ethical problems facing researchers across a broad spectrum of research fields come from ethicists, ethics committees and specialists committed to the study of ethics in human research. In contrast, this study reports on the ethical questions that researchers, themselves, report facing in their everyday practice. Fifty-five Swedish researchers contributed 109 examples of ethical dilemmas, conflicts and problems in research. They were all researchers at the post-doctoral l...
Aita, Marilyn; Richer, Marie-Claire
Whether conducted in a university or the healthcare field, research with human subjects gives rise to a multitude of ethical questions for healthcare professionals. While engaging in ongoing professional development on how to conduct research ethically, both clinicians and scientists need to expand their knowledge to provide answers to the following questions: Which ethical theories serve as a foundation for ethical principles in research ethics? What ethical principles should a researcher respect when conducting research with human subjects? What does it mean to conduct research ethically? What ethical dilemmas are encountered by a researcher in conducting research? This paper provides a review of ethical theories, and the ethical basis of guidelines developed and used to guide human subject research. Ethical behaviors and the personal responsibility of the researcher conducting research with human subjects are discussed along with the ethical considerations in research designs and methods. PMID:15877688
Freeman, Stephen J.; Francis, Perry C.
Ethical dilemmas within any system are created when moral/ethical principles, rules, or guidelines can be cited for opposing actions with neither side presenting the obvious, right course to follow. This condition exposes the intricate interrelationship between abstract moral/ethical principles and the description and evaluation of real-life…
Feudtner, Chris; And Others
A survey of 665 fourth-year medical students in 6 schools investigated whether students had encountered ethically problematic situations, their attitudes about them, and their perceptions of their personal ethical development. Results suggest that ethical dilemmas are commonly encountered and often detrimental, warranting attention of physicians,…
Gundersen, David E.; Capozzoli, Ernest A.; Rajamma, Rajasree K.
The authors analyzed the reactions of various academic-level respondent groups to 14 short scenarios reflecting ethical dilemmas in higher education and research. As the authors hypothesized, groups differed in their views of the dilemmas presented. The results did not support a 2nd hypothesis predicting a linear relationship between academic…
MUHAMMAD NUMAN ALI KHAN; DANISH JAMIL,
This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.
J G R, Kromberg; T-M, Wessels.
Full Text Available The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's [...] disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethical dilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper.
Studying humankind can give us great insight into the complexities of society and culture. However, any research involving human subjects comes with a thorny set of ethical considerations. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln's Ethics Center has curated this collection of online resources related to ethical dilemmas and situations in anthropology. The materials are divided into four areas: Case Studies, About, Additional Teaching Resources, and Codes of Ethics. The Case Studies area is quite well-developed, containing 20 rigorously vetted case studies from SUNY-Buffalo, the Society for Economic Botany, and the Smithsonian Institution. For those just entering the field, the Codes of Ethics area might be quite useful. It offers up professional codes from organizations like the American Anthropological Association, the American Association of Museums, and the American Folklore Society.
Prisoners' Dilemma is a "non-zero-sum" game studied by people in a variety of disciplines, including biology, sociology, and public policy. In this game, "how to maximize one's own payoff depends on the strategy adopted by one's partner." This website offers an interactive cyberspace version of the game -- essentially letting you choose to cooperate or compete with cyber partner known as Serendip and then posting the scores. Some references and articles give background information on "what's so important about this game." From this website, visitors can check out Serendip's other interactive exhibits, articles, links to other resources, and a forum area for comments on topics including Brain and Behavior, Complex Systems, Genes and Behavior, Science and Culture, and Science Education.
Carlos Roberto de Castro e Silva
Full Text Available Este artigo trata da dimensão ética na pesquisa em saúde, relacionando-a mais especificamente à abordagem qualitativa, a partir das contribuições das ciências sociais e em particular da etnografia, que pressupõe a construção de uma relação de confiança e respeito entre pesquisador e pesquisado que se configura paulatinamente. Os aspectos éticos permeiam a pesquisa qualitativa desde a escolha do objeto de estudo, as delimitações metodológicas, as análises dos resultados até o compromisso de uma devolutiva das informações obtidas; pressupondo a valorização de uma rela??ão interpessoal em que os diferentes interesses, valores e visões de mundo colocam-se como possibilidade ou não de uma construção conjunta do conhecimento. A escolha de um tema ou objeto de estudo está relacionada a uma trajetória de vida singular, em que a todo o momento o pesquisador deve se perguntar como compatibilizar a constituição da postura ética em relação aos pesquisados com seus desejos, sonhos, curiosidades e expectativas. O artigo tem o intuito de refletir sobre esses impasses vivenciados pelo pesquisador, ressaltando a importância da ética para o seu desenvolvimento pessoal, profissional e sociopolítico, valorizando o desejo pela autonomia do conhecimento, a solidariedade com os grupos sociais e com as pessoas envolvidas na pesquisa. A partir do relato de um processo de pesquisa, pretende-se contribuir para a compreensão de como os aspectos éticos são indissociáveis da pesquisa e do próprio pesquisador, trazendo elementos para a realização de pesquisas qualitativas especialmente no campo da saúde coletiva.This article addresses the ethical dimension in health research, relating it more specifically to the qualitative approach, based on contributions of the social sciences and ethnography in particular, as it presupposes building a relationship of trust and respect between researchers and researched subjects that is gradually configured. The ethical aspects permeate qualitative research from the choice of the subject matter, the methodological outlines, analysis of the results, to the commitment of providing a feedback for the researched subjects regarding the obtained information. The ethical aspects presuppose the value of an interpersonal relationship in which the different interests, values and worldviews stand as a possibility or not of a joint construction of knowledge. The choice of a subject or object of study is related to a particular life trajectory in which the researcher should ask himself, at all times, how to conciliate the constitution of an ethical attitude in relation to the researched subjects with his own desires, dreams, curiosities and expectations. The article aims to discuss such dilemmas experienced by the researcher, highlighting the importance of ethics for his personal, professional and socio-political growth, and emphasizing the desire for knowledge autonomy, solidarity with social groups and with people involved in the research. Based on the report of a research process, the article intends to contribute to the understanding of how ethical aspects are inextricably linked to research, and also to the researcher, bringing elements to the conduction of qualitative research especially in public health.
Carlos Roberto de Castro e, Silva; Rosilda, Mendes; Eunice, Nakamura.
Full Text Available Este artigo trata da dimensão ética na pesquisa em saúde, relacionando-a mais especificamente à abordagem qualitativa, a partir das contribuições das ciências sociais e em particular da etnografia, que pressupõe a construção de uma relação de confiança e respeito entre pesquisador e pesquisado que s [...] e configura paulatinamente. Os aspectos éticos permeiam a pesquisa qualitativa desde a escolha do objeto de estudo, as delimitações metodológicas, as análises dos resultados até o compromisso de uma devolutiva das informações obtidas; pressupondo a valorização de uma relação interpessoal em que os diferentes interesses, valores e visões de mundo colocam-se como possibilidade ou não de uma construção conjunta do conhecimento. A escolha de um tema ou objeto de estudo está relacionada a uma trajetória de vida singular, em que a todo o momento o pesquisador deve se perguntar como compatibilizar a constituição da postura ética em relação aos pesquisados com seus desejos, sonhos, curiosidades e expectativas. O artigo tem o intuito de refletir sobre esses impasses vivenciados pelo pesquisador, ressaltando a importância da ética para o seu desenvolvimento pessoal, profissional e sociopolítico, valorizando o desejo pela autonomia do conhecimento, a solidariedade com os grupos sociais e com as pessoas envolvidas na pesquisa. A partir do relato de um processo de pesquisa, pretende-se contribuir para a compreensão de como os aspectos éticos são indissociáveis da pesquisa e do próprio pesquisador, trazendo elementos para a realização de pesquisas qualitativas especialmente no campo da saúde coletiva. Abstract in english This article addresses the ethical dimension in health research, relating it more specifically to the qualitative approach, based on contributions of the social sciences and ethnography in particular, as it presupposes building a relationship of trust and respect between researchers and researched s [...] ubjects that is gradually configured. The ethical aspects permeate qualitative research from the choice of the subject matter, the methodological outlines, analysis of the results, to the commitment of providing a feedback for the researched subjects regarding the obtained information. The ethical aspects presuppose the value of an interpersonal relationship in which the different interests, values and worldviews stand as a possibility or not of a joint construction of knowledge. The choice of a subject or object of study is related to a particular life trajectory in which the researcher should ask himself, at all times, how to conciliate the constitution of an ethical attitude in relation to the researched subjects with his own desires, dreams, curiosities and expectations. The article aims to discuss such dilemmas experienced by the researcher, highlighting the importance of ethics for his personal, professional and socio-political growth, and emphasizing the desire for knowledge autonomy, solidarity with social groups and with people involved in the research. Based on the report of a research process, the article intends to contribute to the understanding of how ethical aspects are inextricably linked to research, and also to the researcher, bringing elements to the conduction of qualitative research especially in public health.
This page from the Understanding Nano website introduces concepts of nanotechnology-related ethics. In addition to the reading materials, the page provides a list of websites and organizations that focus on ethics and nanotechnology.
Reinus, William R; Reinus, John F
The nature of the medical profession puts physicians in an unusual position. Patients seek out physicians' help because of their expertise in dealing with illnesses, possibly even life-threatening ones. The asymmetry of knowledge in this relationship, the expert physician and the inexpert patient, creates an ethical dilemma for physicians regarding the delivery of care. Physicians determine how much care to offer while receiving remuneration for this care. Here, acting as patients' agents, physicians have immense discretionary power not only with patients' health but also with their pocketbooks. Known as the principal-agency problem, this type of relationship is part and parcel of what business scholars refer to as moral hazard. This article explains the problem of moral hazard and how it affects radiologists and places it in the context of professional and ethical behavior. Its causes and relationship to human nature are explored. The consequences of falling prey to moral hazard in the practice of radiology are discussed. PMID:17411903
Corvol, Aline; Moutel, Grégoire; Gagnon, Dominique; Nugue, Mathilde; Saint-Jean, Olivier; Somme, Dominique
As case management is under development in France for elderly people, this study sets out to identify and analyse key situations responsible for ethical dilemmas for French case managers. We based our study on the analyses of individual interviews made with case managers and focus-group discussions, bringing together all case managers working in local organisations running for at least a year. We identified three situations giving rise to ethical dilemmas: in the order of importance, the refusals of care, the practicalities of collecting and sharing personal data and the allocation of resources. These three situations can lead to conflict between the principle of beneficence and those of respect for autonomy, non-maleficence and justice. We describe here how French case managers practically deal with these situations. PMID:22918055
Reanimación cardiopulmonar en el paciente oncológico terminal: Dilemas éticos y bioéticos en Enfermería Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in terminal oncologic patient: Ethical and bioethical dilemmas in Nursing
Evaldo Sardiñas Llerenas
Full Text Available La vida empieza a tener sentido cuando ayudas a otro, a ponerse de pie y a andar sabiendo que su camino llega al final. Con tal propósito se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal en el contexto hospitalario del Hospital Universitario Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau de la provincia de Villa Clara en el período de octubre de 2005 a abril de 2006. Con el objetivo de determinar el nivel de conocimiento teórico práctico del personal de enfermería en el manejo de la Reanimación Cardiopulmonar (RCP en el paciente oncológico terminal en urgencias. Se tomó una muestra de 115 enfermeros, que constituyó el 65 % de los que laboran en las diferentes salas del centro hospitalario a partir de un muestreo probabilístico intencional, se incluyeron enfermeros licenciados así como técnicos que laboran en estos servicios, se excluyeron enfermeros en maestrías, licencias y certificados prolongados. Las variables estudiadas fueron nivel de actualización en RCP oncológica, conducta en la reanimación, valores en enfermería, criterio de eutanasia, manejo psicológico del paciente oncológico, principios éticos en enfermería. Se aplicaron encuestas, entrevistas a profundidad, formulario, criterio de expertos y revisión actualizada del tema. Se confeccionaron tablas y gráficos estadísticos con los resultados de los diferentes procederes en las etapas incluidas en el estudio. Se determinó que existe una relación psicoafectiva positiva paciente-enfermero, así como criterio adecuado de enfermería con respecto a la muerte digna y actualización científica sobre el manejo de la reanimación cardiopulmonar oncológica terminalLife starts to have sense when you help somebody else to stand up and to walk, knowing that they are going to die. A longitudinal and descriptive study was undertaken in the hospital context of "Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau" Hospital of Villa Clara Province from October 2005 to April 2006 to determine the level of theoretical and practical knowledge of the Nursing staff in the management of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (PCR in terminal oncologic patients in the emergency service. A sample of 115 nurses (65% was taken from those working in different wards of the hospital, starting from an intentional probabilistic sampling. Nursing licentiates, as well as technicians working in these services were included. Nurses who were taking Master's degree courses, and those with leaves of absence and prolonged medical certificates were excluded. The studied variables were: updating level in oncologic CPR, resuscitation behaviour, Nursing values, euthanasia criterion, psychological management of the oncologic patient and Nursing ethical principles. Surveys, in-depth interviews, questionnaires, expert's criteria and updated reviews of the topic were used. Statistical tables and graphics with the results of the different procedures in the stages included in the study were made. It was concluded that there was a positive psychoaffective patient-nurse relation, as well as a Nursing proper criterion regarding a dignified death, and an adequate scientific updating on the management of terminal oncologic cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Reanimación cardiopulmonar en el paciente oncológico terminal: Dilemas éticos y bioéticos en Enfermería / Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in terminal oncologic patient: Ethical and bioethical dilemmas in Nursing
Evaldo, Sardiñas Llerenas; Vivian M, Alvarez Pérez; Armando, Núñez Machado.
Full Text Available La vida empieza a tener sentido cuando ayudas a otro, a ponerse de pie y a andar sabiendo que su camino llega al final. Con tal propósito se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal en el contexto hospitalario del Hospital Universitario Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau de la provincia de Villa Clara [...] en el período de octubre de 2005 a abril de 2006. Con el objetivo de determinar el nivel de conocimiento teórico práctico del personal de enfermería en el manejo de la Reanimación Cardiopulmonar (RCP) en el paciente oncológico terminal en urgencias. Se tomó una muestra de 115 enfermeros, que constituyó el 65 % de los que laboran en las diferentes salas del centro hospitalario a partir de un muestreo probabilístico intencional, se incluyeron enfermeros licenciados así como técnicos que laboran en estos servicios, se excluyeron enfermeros en maestrías, licencias y certificados prolongados. Las variables estudiadas fueron nivel de actualización en RCP oncológica, conducta en la reanimación, valores en enfermería, criterio de eutanasia, manejo psicológico del paciente oncológico, principios éticos en enfermería. Se aplicaron encuestas, entrevistas a profundidad, formulario, criterio de expertos y revisión actualizada del tema. Se confeccionaron tablas y gráficos estadísticos con los resultados de los diferentes procederes en las etapas incluidas en el estudio. Se determinó que existe una relación psicoafectiva positiva paciente-enfermero, así como criterio adecuado de enfermería con respecto a la muerte digna y actualización científica sobre el manejo de la reanimación cardiopulmonar oncológica terminal Abstract in english Life starts to have sense when you help somebody else to stand up and to walk, knowing that they are going to die. A longitudinal and descriptive study was undertaken in the hospital context of "Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau" Hospital of Villa Clara Province from October 2005 to April 2006 to determ [...] ine the level of theoretical and practical knowledge of the Nursing staff in the management of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (PCR) in terminal oncologic patients in the emergency service. A sample of 115 nurses (65%) was taken from those working in different wards of the hospital, starting from an intentional probabilistic sampling. Nursing licentiates, as well as technicians working in these services were included. Nurses who were taking Master's degree courses, and those with leaves of absence and prolonged medical certificates were excluded. The studied variables were: updating level in oncologic CPR, resuscitation behaviour, Nursing values, euthanasia criterion, psychological management of the oncologic patient and Nursing ethical principles. Surveys, in-depth interviews, questionnaires, expert's criteria and updated reviews of the topic were used. Statistical tables and graphics with the results of the different procedures in the stages included in the study were made. It was concluded that there was a positive psychoaffective patient-nurse relation, as well as a Nursing proper criterion regarding a dignified death, and an adequate scientific updating on the management of terminal oncologic cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Pressure ulcers represent a considerable cost, both in terms of healthcare spending and quality of life. They are increasingly viewed in terms of patient harm. For clinicians involved in pressure ulcer prevention, ethical issues surrounding accountability may arise from both policy and practice perspectives. It may be useful for clinicians to refer to ethical theories and principles to create frameworks when addressing ethical dilemmas. However, such theories and principles have been criticised for their simplicity and over-generalisation. Alternative theories, for example, virtue ethics and experiential learning, can provide more comprehensive guidance and promote a pluralistic approach to tackling ethical dilemmas. PMID:25335632
Roberts, Laura Weiss; Geppert, Cynthia; Connor, Renee; Nguyen, Khanh; Warner, Teddy D.
Reviewed medical education research reports published in 1988 and 1989 and in 1998 and 1999 in two major medical education journals for documentation of six ethically important safeguards and features (e.g., informed consent). Rates of reporting were low and did not increase substantially after 10 years, raising implications for faculty, training…
MUHAMMAD NUMAN ALI KHAN
Full Text Available This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.
Lasser, Jon; Klose, Laurie McGarry; Robillard, Rachel
Ethical codes and licensing rules provide foundational guidance for practicing school psychologists, but these sources fall short in their capacity to facilitate effective decision-making. When faced with ethical dilemmas, school psychologists can turn to decision-making models, but step-wise decision trees frequently lack the situation…
Porter, Russell; Broussard, Amelia; Duckett, Todd
It is imperative for divinity and health administration programs to improve their level of ethics education for their graduates who work as health administration chaplains. With an initial presentation of the variation of ethical dilemmas presented in health care facilities covering social, organizational, and patient levels, we indicate the need…
Argues for development of a code of ethics for college faculty by answering common objectives to such codes; proposing ethical theories, principles, and rules to guide the formulation of a impartial, well-crafted code; and identifying benefits, including providing guidelines for resolving moral dilemmas, of such codes. (DB)
Maddock, James W.
Notes that working with marital and family problems complicates the concept of therapeutic responsibility. Discusses several societal contributors to ethical dilemmas in contemporary family therapy and summarizes an ecological framework for therapy on the basis of which a profile of the ethical family therapist is derived. (Author/NB)
Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl; Mattsson, Jan
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss some ethical issues in the internet encounter between customer and bank. Empirical data related to the difficulties that customers have when they deal with the bank through internet technology and electronic banking. The authors discuss the difficulties that customers expressed from an ethical standpoint. Design/methodology/approach – The key problem of the paper is “how does research handle the user's lack of competence in a web-based commercial environment?” The authors illustrate this ethical dilemma with data from a Danish Bank collected in 2002. The data have been structured by an advanced text analytic method, Pertex (by generation of intentionality of verbal actors from text). Findings – The authors can conclude that the experience of lack of competency in internet banking implies a severe damage on the experience of the ethics of the good life and of the respect for the basic ethical principles of customer autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability. However, increased experience of competency may imply experience of increased feeling of ethical superiority and of the good life among customers. Research limitations/implications – The important implication for managerial research of this study would be for banks to focus on customer competency with an ethical concern instead of only being concerned with technical solutions for effective internet operations. Practical implications – Since more and more businesses are digitally based, the authors can foresee a potential generic problem of lack of competence for certain age groups and also of people from different social groups. Originality/value – The paper provides an analysis of the ethics of on-line banking on the basis of Pertex methodology and with the use of basic ethical principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability.
Offering support and guidance throughout the research process – from designing research proposals and submitting them for ethical scrutiny to anticipating ethical dilemmas that might arise whilst research is being planned, conducted, and reported – Ron Iphofen’s book is an accessible and thoughtful companion for professional researchers navigating the growing demands for ethical practice, finds Cole Armstrong.
Percepção de enfermeiros sobre dilemas éticos relacionados a pacientes terminais em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Percepción de enfermeros sobre dilemas éticos relacionados a pacientes terminales en unidades de terapia intensiva Perception of nurses about ethical dilemmas related to terminal patients in intensive care units
Adriano Aparecido Bezerra Chaves
Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivos conhecer a percepção de enfermeiros sobre dilemas éticos existentes na assistência de enfermagem a pacientes terminais, no contexto da UTI de um hospital geral do município de São Paulo e o que é considerado para a tomada de decisão. O estudo foi realizado através de entrevistas com dez enfermeiros atuantes na UTI, utilizando uma abordagem qualitativa, conforme a análise de conteúdo. Foram encontrados dilemas éticos ligados a: diversidade de valores; presença dos pacientes terminais na UTI; incertezas sobre a terminalidade e limites de intervenção para prolongar a vida dos pacientes; discordância de tomadas de decisão; não aceitação do processo de morte pela família do paciente e a falta de esclarecimento da família e do paciente. Além disso, para tomar decisão frente aos dilemas éticos, ele considera os seus valores, a ética profissional, a empatia e o diálogo com os colegas.El presente estudio tuvo como objetivos conocer la percepción de enfermeros sobre dilemas éticos existentes en la asistencia de enfermería a pacientes terminales en el contexto de la UTI de un hospital de São Paulo y lo que se considera como la toma de decisiones. El estudio fue realizado desde una perspectiva cualitativa, utilizando el análisis de contenidos. Fueron entrevistados diez enfermeros actuantes en la UTI. El estudio mostró que los enfermeros encuentran dilemas éticos generados por diversos factores: diversidad de valores; presencia dem los pacientes terminales en la UTI; incertidumbre generada a raíz de la condición terminal; los límites de intervención para prolongar la vida; discordancia en la toma de decisiones; resistencia para aceptar el proceso de muerte por parte de la familia y la falta de esclarecimiento de la família y de los pacientes. Además, sus valores, la ética profesional, la empatía y el diálogo son tenidos en cuenta para tomar decisiones.The purpose of this study was to learn about nurses' perception about ethical dilemmas in nursing care for terminal patients in the context of a general hospital ICU in the city of São Paulo, and what they take into account when making decisions. The study was performed through interviews with ten nurses working at the ICU, using a qualitative approach based on content analysis. Ethical dilemmas were found to be linked to: diversity of values; presence of terminal patients at the ICU; uncertainties about terminality and the limits of intervention to prolong the patients' lives; disagreements in decision-making; non-acceptance of the process of dying by the patients' families and the lack of clarifications for the patient and the family. In addition, the nurses consider their values, the professional ethics, empathy and dialogue with co-workers to make decisions in view of such ethical dilemmas.
The role of individual life accounts has been promoted--largely through what has come to be described as narrative ethics-as important to the practice of medical ethics for a number of years. Beyond this the apparent incompatibility of personal stories with scientific procedure has limited their use. In this article I will argue that this represents a serious under-utilisation of a valuable method for researching ethical dilemmas and the settings in which these dilemmas are played out. Life s...
Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy; Kondo, Christopher
Sales career opportunities are growing, and the number of women in sales is increasing. Educators must adequately prepare both men and women for today's ethical sales dilemmas. Using the Personal Selling Ethics Scale, the current study analyzes the impact of idealism and relativism on the sales ethics evaluations of men and women. Results indicate…
Lystbæk, Christian Tang
For the last decades, business ethics have spread from a new brand of a few socially and environmentally benevolent companies to the corporate mainstream. Thus, today, business ethics have become a central concern for both business managers and researchers in order to manage the cultural value base of the organization, stakeholder relations, etc.. Throughout the history of business ethics, though, and especially in the last decade, a series of studies have criticized the dominant view of business ethics for being instrumental and reductive. This critique often dismisses business ethics altogether. This paper addresses these “movements” or approaches to business ethics. It argues that business ethics is caught between two conceptions of what it is for. The first movement promotes the idea that it can be a reassuring and satisfying set of ideas that reminds us how to do the right thing in order to manage the cultural value base of the organization, stakeholder relations, etc.. The second movement promotes the idea that ethics is something that threatens us by exposing us to dilemmas and differences. The paper concludes that business ethics is both a source of solutions and questions. This acknowledgement allows us to engage with business ethics in a theoretical fruitful and ethically engaged manner that challenges us to see business ethics as a involving both practical solutions and critical questions.
Betzabeth, Cárdenas Aldana; Beatriz Valles, González.
Full Text Available La adaptación de los implantes cocleares (IC) amerita una selección cuidadosa de los posibles candidatos y del respeto pleno de su autonomía. El propósito se centró en promover la autonomía con respecto al uso de los IC en personas sordas, sus padres y representantes legales, con base al desarrollo [...] de un programa educativo. El diseño surgió de un diagnóstico que se obtuvo en una investigación cualitativa realizada en una escuela de sordos. Como técnica para la recolección de datos se utilizaron encuestas y conversaciones con padres de niños sordos receptores de IC y de niños sordos candidatos a recibirlos. La evaluación se elaboró a partir del análisis de conversaciones, testimonios y producciones escritas aportadas por los participantes. Los resultados muestran que los padres no recibieron información oportuna y suficiente por el equipo médico. Representa un aporte significativo e innovador para conformar un espacio para la obtención de información y para tomar decisiones responsables y autónomas. Abstract in english The use of Cochlear Implants (CI) requires a thorough selection of possible candidates as well as the respect of their autonomy. The purpose was focused on promoting autonomy regarding the use of Cochlear Implants in deaf people, their parents and legal guardians, towards an educational program abou [...] t CI. The design of the study was obtained from diagnosis performed during a qualitative research in a deaf school. As techniques for the collection of data, there were surveys and conversation exchange with the parents of deaf children recipients of CI, as well as deaf children candidates to receive them. The assessment was elaborated using as basis the analysis of conversations, testimonies and written productions provided by the participants. The results show that most of the parents did not receive appropriate and sufficient information from the medical team. Represents a significant and innovative contribution to create a space to obtain essential information for responsible and autonomous decision making.
Prinsloo, Johan; South African Society for Greek Philosophy and the Humanities; Kingshott, Brian
A number of ethical issues and dilemmas are to be found in policing. Police officers do engage in unethical behaviour which often originates from the norms of the organisational culture. However, working in the world of policing provides officers with the ability to rationalise, excuse and justify unethical behaviour, while maintaining a moral self image. Culture, values and norms as unconscious and conscious feelings are terms which have different, though not unrelated meanings and manifest ...
This resource is a PDF that provides teachers with several short ethics case studies: Two Tales of Rice (genetically modified food), Talk About Short (growth hormone for short stature -- fictionalized), and One Family's Dilemma (a family considers what to do about excess IVF embryos).
This paper suggests that medical ethics is often based on assumptions, commonly shared in modern medicine, which can cause problems and which need to be questioned. Two contrasting yet complementary ways of thinking about ethical dilemmas in neonatal care are described as the 'separation' and the 'attachment' approaches. The contribution of medical ethics to the substance and quality of discussions between doctors and parents is considered.
Minnis, Joan Quinn
There has been a renewed interest in the inclusion of ethics as part of educators' training and interest in understanding the moral and ethical dimensions of educational practice. This research was designed to study the types of dilemmas school level leaders face, the characteristics of typical dilemmas, and the implications for leader…
Ethical dilemmas concerning faculty compensation are considered by a university president who served as a nonadministrative professor of law for 10 years. It is suggested that trustees, administrators, and board members have as much to be concerned about as do faculty members when compensation and ethical dilemmas are addressed. The fact that…
Swann, Stephanie; Herbert, Sarah E.
Examines ethical dilemmas arising when treating adolescents with gender dysphoria, discussing ethical and legal issues pertinent to treating any adolescent and highlighting gender dysphoric adolescents. Reviews legal decisions, existing data on adolescent decision making, and ethical principles for resolving complex situations. Illustrates ethical…
Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Nanna, Kappel
Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki Declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and health care research, in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research. The guidelines appear to be instrumental and over simplistic representations of the often “messy” realities surrounding the research process that is often guided by relational and local negotiations of ethical solutions. Vulnerable participants, for instance, challenge both professional and research ethics, leaving both professionals and researchers in ethical and moral dilemmas. In this article, we specifically focus on the methodological challenges of obtaining informed consent from drug users and terminally ill cancer patients in our PhD research. The question is how you can illuminate the needs and problems of vulnerable patients and - at the same time - respect their integrity without exposing them unnecessarily. The article illuminates the interactional construction of roles and relationships and how they affect the contextual construction of vulnerability. In this respect, we demonstrate that both patients and researchers are at risk of being vulnerable. In conclusion, we outline and advocate for a more contextualized approach and empirically-informed ethics to informed consent in research with potentially vulnerable participants.
Medina Bustos, Ayeray Mirta
The meaning that Justice has after a conflict in a society might vary regarding the political development and cultural and shared values of a certain society. Rawls, in his Theory of Justice gives his idea of what justice is and presents two principles of justice that he argues are required to live in a good society: a first principle that secures equal rights and liberties for all individuals and a second egalitarian principle that restrains the consequences of economic inequalities within s...
Haines, A.; de B. White, C.; Gleisner, J
The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evide...
Orr, R D; Marshall, P A; Osborn, J
Cross-cultural encounters between patients and physicians are now commonplace. Although increasing attention has been given to cultural issues in clinical medicine, there has been little discussion of cultural differences presenting as ethical dilemmas. We report four cases in which such differences led to requests for ethics consultations. In analyzing these cases, we identify four elements that are essential for successful resolution of such dilemmas: (1) an ability to communicate effectively with patients and their families; (2) a sufficient understanding of the patient's cultural background; (3) identification of culturally relevant value conflicts; and (4) a willingness to pursue discussion of the ethical dilemma until a compromise is reached or an otherwise satisfactory resolution of the problem is achieved. We conclude with several practical guidelines for clinicians facing ethical dilemmas in cross-cultural interactions with patients. PMID:7842154
Rakowski, Cathy A.
Contends that sociologists confront criticism of the nature and ends of sociological research and ethical dilemmas in the study of social problems and people. Provides suggestions for ending neocolonial attitudes among social science researchers. (CFR)
In western societies where the principle of autonomy is jealously guarded, perhaps active euthanasia is more often the focus of public concern and debates rather than any other forms of euthanasia. However due to the advance in technology and its corresponding ability in prolonging life, in Malaysia passive euthanasia presents more of a dilemma. For those concerned and involved with end of life decision-making, it is generally agreed that this is an area fraught with not only medical but legal and ethical issues. In Malaysia where the society is not homogenous but is multi-cultural and multi-religious, in addition to medical, legal and ethical issues, religious principles and cultural norms further impact and play significant roles in end of life decision-making. This paper seeks to identify the issues surrounding the practice of passive euthanasia in Malaysia. It will be shown that despite applicable legal provisions, current practice of the medical profession combined with religious and cultural values together affect decision-making which involves the withholding and/or withdrawing of life-saving treatment. PMID:16229394
In this brief comment, the public choice theory aims to distinguish the dilemmas and conflicts in formal and empirical. The hypothesis argues that the reality more complex than the principles of choice of Pareto and Liberalism*. Both the ethics and politics are taking decisions that are not always in line with the requirements of rationality and complete information.
Deborah Oughton started with a view of the work in progress by the ICRP TG 94 on ethics, from the historical context and the principles-based ethics in RP, to continue with an overview of the ethical theories and with the main area of elaboration which concerns the common values, to conclude with considerations about the implementation in different area such as biomedicine, nuclear safety and workers, ecological aspects, and environmental health and society. By reading again the ICRP and IAEA publications on the ethical aspects in the protection of environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, the presentation covers the various and different cultures within the history of environmental ethics, the perception of Nature and the theories of environmental ethics, in particular by focusing on anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as philosophical worldwide views, and on conservation, biodiversity, sustainability, environmental justice and human dignity, as primary principles of environmental protection. The influence of western Christianity, with a view of man dominating over every creeping thing on earth, and of the non-western ideas, the human perception of Nature has been analyzed and discussed to conclude that, in reality then, the anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as reflected in many cultures and religions, they all support the need to protect the environment and to recognise and preserve the diversity. Three challenges were then discussed in the presentation: the ecosystem approach and ecological economics, for example in the case of Fukushima by asking what is the economic cost of marine contamination; the ecosystem changes with attention to what harms, as in the case of the environment in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl; and the environmental consequences of remediation, which can be considered a source of controversy for environmental ethics and policy
Bhutta Zulfiqar Ahmed
Full Text Available Health research plays a pivotal role in addressing inequities in health and human development, but to achieve these objectives the research must be based on sound scientific and ethical principles. Although it is accepted that ethics play a central role in health research in developing countries, much of the recent debate has focused on controversies surrounding internationally sponsored research and has taken place largely without adequate participation of the developing countries. The relationship between ethical guidelines and regulations, and indigenously sponsored and public health research has not been adequately explored. For example, while the fundamental principles of ethical health research, such as community participation, informed consent, and shared benefits and burdens, remain sacrosanct other issues, such as standards of care and prior agreements, merit greater public debate within developing countries. In particular, the relationship of existing ethical guidelines to epidemiological and public health research merits further exploration. In order to support health research in developing countries that is both relevant and meaningful, the focus must be on developing health research that promotes equity and on developing local capacity in bioethics. Only through such proactive measures can we address the emerging ethical dilemmas and challenges that globalization and the genomics revolution will bring in their wake.
Ethical dilemmas in blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses: a legal-bioethical analysis Dilemas éticos en la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeová: un análisis jurídico-bioético Dilemas éticos na hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová: uma análise jurídico-bioética
Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify knowledge production by healthcare professionals about blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses (JW, listing the therapeutic alternatives for blood transfusion in these individuals and citing the legal, ethical and bioethical standards regarding blood transfusion in JWs. METHODS: Data were collected in the LILACS and SciELO databases, Nursing journals and on http://www.google.com.br. Articles focusing on blood transfusion in JWs were included, and texts that were repeated or did not approach this theme were excluded. Content analysis was used. RESULTS: The thematic categories show that the JWs accept self-transfusion and are opposed to the medical practice of blood transfusion, even if it represents the continuity of life. CONCLUSION: Healthcare professionals experience ethical dilemmas when they need to perform blood transfusion in JWs due to the fact that religious freedom is not an absolute value, and the apparent collision of fundamental rights demands that a decision be made, centered on legal standards and bioethical principles.OBJETIVO: Identificar la producción de conocimiento por los profesionales de salud respecto a la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeova (TJ, listar las alternativas terapéuticas de la transfusión sanguínea en esos individuos y citar la ordenanza jurídica, ética y bioética en lo que concierne a la transfusión sanguínea en TJ. MÉTODOS: Se recolectaron datos en las bases de datos LILACS y SciELO, periódicos de Enfermería y en el http://www.google.com.br. Se incluyeron artículos enfocando la transfusión sanguínea en TJ, y se excluyeron a los que no abordaban esa temática o estaban repetidos. Se utilizó el análisis de contenido. RESULTADOS: Las categorías temáticas señalan que los TJ acatan la auto-transfusión y se contraponen a la práctica médica de la transfusión sanguínea, aunque ella represente la continuidad de la vida. CONCLUSIÓN: Los profesionales de salud vivencian dilemas éticos cuando precisan realizar transfusiones sanguíneas en TJ debido a que la libertad religiosa no es un valor absoluto y la aparente colisión de derechos fundamentales les exige una toma de decisión centrada en la ordenanza jurídica y en los principios bioéticos.OBJETIVO: Identificar a produção de conhecimento pelos profissionais de saúde acerca da hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová (TJ, listar as alternativas terapêuticas para a hemotransfusão nesses indivíduos e citar o ordenamento jurídico, ético e bioético no concernente a hemotransfusão em TJ. MÉTODOS: Coletaram-se dados nas bases de dados LILACS e SciELO, periódicos de Enfermagem e no http://www.google.com.br. Incluiram-se artigos enfocando hemotransfusão em TJ, e excluíram-se os que não abordassem essa temática ou estivessem repetidos. Utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: As categorias temáticas sinalizam que as TJ acatam a auto-transfusão e se contrapõem à prática médica da hemotransfusão, mesmo que ela represente a continuidade da vida. CONCLUSÃO: Os profissionais de saúde vivenciam dilemas éticos quando precisam administrar hemotransfusão em TJ devido a liberdade religiosa não ser um valor absoluto e a aparente colisão de direitos fundamentais exigir uma tomada de decisão centrada no ordenamento jurídico e nos princípios bioéticos.
Ethical dilemmas in blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses: a legal-bioethical analysis / Dilemas éticos en la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeová: un análisis jurídico-bioético / Dilemas éticos na hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová: uma análise jurídico-bioética
Inacia Sátiro Xavier de, França; Rosilene Santos, Baptista; Virgínia Rosana de Sousa, Brito.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar a produção de conhecimento pelos profissionais de saúde acerca da hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová (TJ), listar as alternativas terapêuticas para a hemotransfusão nesses indivíduos e citar o ordenamento jurídico, ético e bioético no concernente a hemotransfusão em TJ. MÉT [...] ODOS: Coletaram-se dados nas bases de dados LILACS e SciELO, periódicos de Enfermagem e no http://www.google.com.br. Incluiram-se artigos enfocando hemotransfusão em TJ, e excluíram-se os que não abordassem essa temática ou estivessem repetidos. Utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: As categorias temáticas sinalizam que as TJ acatam a auto-transfusão e se contrapõem à prática médica da hemotransfusão, mesmo que ela represente a continuidade da vida. CONCLUSÃO: Os profissionais de saúde vivenciam dilemas éticos quando precisam administrar hemotransfusão em TJ devido a liberdade religiosa não ser um valor absoluto e a aparente colisão de direitos fundamentais exigir uma tomada de decisão centrada no ordenamento jurídico e nos princípios bioéticos. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Identificar la producción de conocimiento por los profesionales de salud respecto a la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeova (TJ), listar las alternativas terapéuticas de la transfusión sanguínea en esos individuos y citar la ordenanza jurídica, ética y bioética en lo que concierne a [...] la transfusión sanguínea en TJ. MÉTODOS: Se recolectaron datos en las bases de datos LILACS y SciELO, periódicos de Enfermería y en el http://www.google.com.br. Se incluyeron artículos enfocando la transfusión sanguínea en TJ, y se excluyeron a los que no abordaban esa temática o estaban repetidos. Se utilizó el análisis de contenido. RESULTADOS: Las categorías temáticas señalan que los TJ acatan la auto-transfusión y se contraponen a la práctica médica de la transfusión sanguínea, aunque ella represente la continuidad de la vida. CONCLUSIÓN: Los profesionales de salud vivencian dilemas éticos cuando precisan realizar transfusiones sanguíneas en TJ debido a que la libertad religiosa no es un valor absoluto y la aparente colisión de derechos fundamentales les exige una toma de decisión centrada en la ordenanza jurídica y en los principios bioéticos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify knowledge production by healthcare professionals about blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses (JW), listing the therapeutic alternatives for blood transfusion in these individuals and citing the legal, ethical and bioethical standards regarding blood transfusion in JWs. METH [...] ODS: Data were collected in the LILACS and SciELO databases, Nursing journals and on http://www.google.com.br. Articles focusing on blood transfusion in JWs were included, and texts that were repeated or did not approach this theme were excluded. Content analysis was used. RESULTS: The thematic categories show that the JWs accept self-transfusion and are opposed to the medical practice of blood transfusion, even if it represents the continuity of life. CONCLUSION: Healthcare professionals experience ethical dilemmas when they need to perform blood transfusion in JWs due to the fact that religious freedom is not an absolute value, and the apparent collision of fundamental rights demands that a decision be made, centered on legal standards and bioethical principles.
C. ANITHA (Corresponding Author,
Full Text Available Today, e-learning and various online education applications are used in many countries and educational institutions than ever before. Ethics deals with the principle governing ideal or good behavior, it focuses on what is right or what is wrong. Although in education, the ethical issues that they may be facing are not about of life and death issues. An ethical dilemma will take place when the educator faced with a decision that maybe incongruent with the organization’s values and policies. There are several examples of ethical issues in education. In this reason, the educator must be guided with the appropriate decision-making strategies. With the increasing use of new communication technologies, adoption of distance education by traditional educational institutes and owing to growing demand on the part of learners, it becomes more important to discuss the ethical issues. This important title provides academicians, students, and professionals with ethical insight into the world of e-learning through fascinating case studies that elucidate the issues through real-world examples. Pioneer’s experience in the field of distance education indicates that the profile of distance learners varies, cutting across barriers of gender, class and caste. The distance learner may be suffering from a sense of isolation as he/she makes a return to study after a gap of time or while working. It is there that the distance educator makes a positive, ethical and interventionist role by helping the student to learn beyond the stereotypical classroom situation and can act effectively as the friend, philosopher and guide of the learner. However, the industry of education is a serious one, requiring well defined ethics and values, well bound in visible legal outlines to regulate its exchange and distribution. Because as the industry grows, so do the issues of ethical concern such as plagiarism, electronic voyeurism, and licensing. The objective of this paper is to raise awareness of additional ethical issues in order to encourage further debate and consideration of these importance issues. The present paper will focus on the ethical values to be followed and implemented in the open distance education system
In this paper I argue that the standoff between justice and care approaches to animal ethics presents us with a false dilemma. We should take justice's focus on reasoning from principles, and care's use of sympathetic awareness, as two integrated deliberative capacities necessary for the consideration of arguments for extending moral concern to animals. Such an integrated approach rests on a plausible account of the psychology of moral deliberation. I develop my argument as follows. Section I summarizes the nature of the debate between justice and care approaches to animal ethics, focusing on Brian Luke's arguments against justice approaches. Section II provides pro-justice rebuttals to Luke's objections. These rebuttals, while largely successful against Luke's objections, do not account for the intuition that sympathy does play a central epistemological role in animal ethics. Section III explains how sympathy cognitively simulates the perspective of the other, and thus can play an epistemological role in animal ethics. I argue that the abilities to simulate the perspective of the other and to reason from moral principles can complement each other. In section IV, I argue that though it may not be desirable to use both sympathy and reasoning from principles in all moral deliberation, it is a desirable aim when offering, and considering, moral arguments for what I will term the "extensionist project" of extending over moral concern to animals. I make this idea plausible by elucidating the claim that arguments for this project are best thought of as second-order deliberations about our first-order deliberative life. PMID:15462029
Mina Mobasher; Nouzar Nakhaee; Mamak Tahmasebi; Farzaneh ZaHedi; Bagher Larijani
Background: In the recent years, advances in medical technologies for end stage cancer patients’ care have affected the end-of-life decision-making in clinical practice and exposed oncologists to serious ethical dilemmas. But little is known about oncologists' viewpoints in our country regarding their ethical problems in this mention. We aimed to clarify the ethical dilemmas which Iranian oncologists may face in our health care setting and to determine factors influencing decision-making pr...
McNutt, Louise-Anne; Gordon, Elisa J; Uusküla, Anneli
Background Much attention has been devoted to ethical issues related to randomized controlled trials for HIV treatment and prevention. However, there has been less discussion of ethical issues surrounding families involved in observational studies of HIV transmission. This paper describes the process of ethical deliberation about how best to obtain informed consent from sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs) tested for HIV, within a recent HIV study in Eastern Europe. The study aimed to assess the amount of HIV serodiscordance among IDUs and their sexual partners, identify barriers to harm reduction, and explore ways to optimize intervention programs. Including IDUs, either HIV-positive or at high risk for HIV, and their sexual partners would help to gain a more complete understanding of barriers to and opportunities for intervention. Discussion This paper focuses on the ethical dilemma regarding informed recruitment: whether researchers should disclose to sexual partners of IDUs that they were recruited because their partner injects drugs (i.e., their heightened risk for HIV). Disclosing risks to partners upholds the ethical value of respect for persons through informed consent. However, disclosure compromises the IDU's confidentiality, and potentially, the scientific validity of the research. Following a brief literature review, we summarize the researchers' systematic evaluation of this issue from ethical, scientific, and logistical perspectives. While the cultural context may be somewhat unique to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the issues raised and solutions proposed here inform epidemiological research designs and their underlying ethical tensions. Summary We present ethical arguments in favor of disclosure, discuss how cultural context shapes the ethical issues, and recommend refinement of guidance for couples research of communicable diseases to assist investigators encountering these ethical issues in the future. PMID:19709442
Full Text Available The delivery of extremely low gestational age newborns and extremely low birth weight infants presents challenging ethical issues for caregivers and parents. Major concerns regard the high mortality and morbidity resulting in long term sequelae, the limit of viability as well as the conflict and difficulty in judgement involving “quality of life” and “sanctity of life” issues. Other paramount ethical concepts include the newborn’s best interest, the decision to initiate or withhold treatment at birth and the decision to withdraw treatment with the consequence that the infant will die. On the basis of the ethical principles of beneficence, autonomy, justice and nonmaleficence we will discuss the best interest standards, the standard for the decision making process and treatment decisions, which should always be governed by the prospect for the individual infant. In this paper we propose that ethical questions should not be regulated by law and the legal system should not interfere in the patient-physician relationship. Continuous improvement in medicine over the last decades led to increased treatment possibilities, which on the other hand also resulted in more ethical dilemmas. Therefore, today more than ever, it is essential that the neonatologist becomes familiar with basic ethical concepts and their application to clinical reality. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou
Boes, Susan R.; Chibbaro, Julia S.; Bingeman, Brittany A.
This paper addresses a survey conducted to examine knowledge of ethics in school counselor candidates. Students in school counseling practicum and internship classes indicated their familiarity with ethical codes and ethical decision making-models and responded to items pertaining to ethical dilemmas. Areas of concern to counselor educators…
The 3rd Pan-African Ethics Human Rights and Medical Law (3rd EHRML) conference was held in Johannesburg on July 7, 2013, as part of the Africa Health Congress. The conference brought together bioethicists, researchers and scholars from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Kenya and Nigeria working in the field of bioethics as well as students and healthcare workers interested in learning about ethical issues confronting the African continent. The conference which ran with a theme of "Bioethical and legal perspectives in biomedical research and medical practice in Africa with a focus on: Informed consent, HIV-AIDS & Tuberculosis, leadership & organizational ethics, patients and healthcare workers rights," was designed to expand the dialogue on African bioethics beyond the traditional focus on research ethics and the ethical dilemmas surrounding the conduct of biomedical research in developing countries. This introductory article highlights some of areas of focus at the conference including issues of leadership, organizational ethics and patients and healthcare workers rights in Africa. We analyze the importance of free speech, public debate of issues, argumentation and the need to introduce the teaching and learning of ethics to students in Africa in accordance with UNESCO guidelines. This article also focuses on other challenges confronting Africa today from an ethical standpoint, including the issues of poor leadership and organizational ethics which are main contributors to the problems prevalent in African countries, such as poverty, poor education and healthcare delivery systems, terrorism, social inequities, infrastructural deficits and other forms of 'structural violence' confronting vulnerable African communities. We believe that each of the eight articles included in this supplement, which have been rigorously peer-reviewed are a good example of current research on bioethics in Africa, and explore some new directions towards broadening the African bioethics agenda as we move forward to a new dawn for Africa in the 21st century. PMID:24564890
This resource is a PDF that provides a short introduction to ethical questions and strategies having to do with Ethics instruction. The PDF describes an overview of ethical questions and develops student understanding of ethical questions through three different worksheets.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently, the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT is indispensable to life. The utilization of ICT has provided advantages for people, organizations and society as a whole. Nevertheless, the widespread and rapid use of ICT in society has exacerbated existing ethical issues or dilemmas and also led to the emergence of new ethical issues such as unauthorized access, software piracy, internet pornography, privacy protection, information gap and many others. Approach: Therefore, the aim of this study is to discuss several issues of the ICT ethics. It will focusing on two major issues, that is, data accuracy and accessibility. Results: The results indicated that more than half percentage of respondents tend to be ethical in data accuracy scenario and also in accessibility scenario. Several computer ethics scenarios that relate to the data accuracy and accessibility are presented and the results of analysis are then discussed. Conclusion: Based on the results in this study, computer ethics issues such as data accuracy and accessibility should receive more attention in the ICT field.
Kaufmann, I M; Rühli, F J
Ethical issues are of foremost importance in modern bio-medical science. Ethical guidelines and socio-cultural public awareness exist for modern samples, whereas for ancient mummy studies both are de facto lacking. This is particularly striking considering the fact that examinations are done without informed consent or that the investigations are invasive due to technological aspects and that it affects personality traits. The aim of this study is to show the pro and contra arguments of ancient mummy research from an ethical point of view with a particular focus on the various stakeholders involved in this research. Relevant stakeholders in addition to the examined individual are, for example, a particular researcher, and the science community in general, likely descendents of the mummy or any future generation. Our broad discussion of the moral dilemma of mummy research should help to extract relevant decision-making criteria for any such study in future. We specifically do not make any recommendations about how to rate these decision-factors, since this is highly dependent on temporal and cultural affiliations of the involved researcher. The sustainability of modern mummy research is dependent on ethical orientation, which can only be given and eventually settled in an interdisciplinary approach such as the one we attempt to present here. PMID:20671292
Percepção de enfermeiros sobre dilemas éticos relacionados a pacientes terminais em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva / Perception of nurses about ethical dilemmas related to terminal patients in intensive care units / Percepción de enfermeros sobre dilemas éticos relacionados a pacientes terminales en unidades de terapia intensiva
Adriano Aparecido Bezerra, Chaves; Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga, Massarollo.
Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivos conhecer a percepção de enfermeiros sobre dilemas éticos existentes na assistência de enfermagem a pacientes terminais, no contexto da UTI de um hospital geral do município de São Paulo e o que é considerado para a tomada de decisão. O estudo foi realizado atravé [...] s de entrevistas com dez enfermeiros atuantes na UTI, utilizando uma abordagem qualitativa, conforme a análise de conteúdo. Foram encontrados dilemas éticos ligados a: diversidade de valores; presença dos pacientes terminais na UTI; incertezas sobre a terminalidade e limites de intervenção para prolongar a vida dos pacientes; discordância de tomadas de decisão; não aceitação do processo de morte pela família do paciente e a falta de esclarecimento da família e do paciente. Além disso, para tomar decisão frente aos dilemas éticos, ele considera os seus valores, a ética profissional, a empatia e o diálogo com os colegas. Abstract in spanish El presente estudio tuvo como objetivos conocer la percepción de enfermeros sobre dilemas éticos existentes en la asistencia de enfermería a pacientes terminales en el contexto de la UTI de un hospital de São Paulo y lo que se considera como la toma de decisiones. El estudio fue realizado desde una [...] perspectiva cualitativa, utilizando el análisis de contenidos. Fueron entrevistados diez enfermeros actuantes en la UTI. El estudio mostró que los enfermeros encuentran dilemas éticos generados por diversos factores: diversidad de valores; presencia dem los pacientes terminales en la UTI; incertidumbre generada a raíz de la condición terminal; los límites de intervención para prolongar la vida; discordancia en la toma de decisiones; resistencia para aceptar el proceso de muerte por parte de la familia y la falta de esclarecimiento de la família y de los pacientes. Además, sus valores, la ética profesional, la empatía y el diálogo son tenidos en cuenta para tomar decisiones. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to learn about nurses' perception about ethical dilemmas in nursing care for terminal patients in the context of a general hospital ICU in the city of São Paulo, and what they take into account when making decisions. The study was performed through interviews with ten n [...] urses working at the ICU, using a qualitative approach based on content analysis. Ethical dilemmas were found to be linked to: diversity of values; presence of terminal patients at the ICU; uncertainties about terminality and the limits of intervention to prolong the patients' lives; disagreements in decision-making; non-acceptance of the process of dying by the patients' families and the lack of clarifications for the patient and the family. In addition, the nurses consider their values, the professional ethics, empathy and dialogue with co-workers to make decisions in view of such ethical dilemmas.
Hunka, S A
Every day throughout the UK medical professionals working within Intensive Therapy Units (ITUs) are faced with the ethical dilemma of whether it is right to withhold extraordinary treatments from patients. Within this case study an ethical dilemma arises from the question: 'Is it morally sound to treat this patient who, we knew, would have refused our care had he been able to give a written legally binding request not to receive extraordinary medical therapy?' This paper concentrates on the ethical decision-making process and seeking to find a solution to an everyday dilemma within moral philosophy. Personal and professional values and the prima facie principle of non-maleficence within which the doctrine of ordinary and extraordinary means, the doctrine of double effect and the slippery slope argument are discussed in their context relevant to an ITU situation. The nurse's role as patient advocate is addressed as the case study highlights the difficulties encountered in fulfilling this responsibility. It is hoped that the issues raised will help in clarifying how a real ethical dilemma for all the ITU team can be addressed and so help others faced with similar dilemmas. The decision-makers within this dilemma were the patient, family, and the ITU multidisciplinary team. The term extraordinary treatment is understood within biomedical ethics to encompass all medicines, therapies, and operations, which cannot be obtained or used without excessive expense, pain or other physical inconvenience, or which, if used, would not offer a reasonable hope of benefit. PMID:8329846
This paper addresses ethical issues in educational research with a focus on the interplay between research ethics and both internal and external quality of research. Research ethics is divided into three domains: (1) ethics "within" the research community; (2) ethics concerning relationships with "individuals and groups directly…
Wilczenski, Felicia L.; Cook, Amy L.
Virtue ethics focus on the motives that guide ethical decision making and action, and as such, are critical to the competent application of the counseling profession's ethical codes. Knowledge of virtue ethics deepens understanding of moral responsibilities and ethical reasoning in professional practice. This paper is an overview of virtue ethics…
Jacob Dahl Rendtorff
Full Text Available After the publication of my book Ethics for Psychologists, one reviewer asked the question about whether and when I would write an ethics of public administration.With this suggestion in mind, I proposed a new book to the publisher (DJØF’s forlag – Danish Lawyer’s and Economist’s publishing company and the publisher accepted. So now the problem is how to formulate an ethics of administration. Indeed, facing the present global crisis and the need for global principles of sustainability and cosmopolitanism it could be argued that public administration ethics should be redefined according to these ethical ideals. As such I would argue that a book about ethics of administration should deal with ethical theories and principles and dilemmas of public administration in public organizations and institutions, i.e. state, regional and municipal administrations and bureaucracies, including ethical dimensions of the work of courts, police and military. A presentation of ethics of administration should also look at problems and dilemmas in different types of more or less public organizations and institutions.
Kallio, Brenda R.
With the advent of globalization and the growing concept that schools are marketplaces of ideas, educational administrators need guidance in ethical decision making. Moral dilemma is defined, ethical models are presented, and a process is described in which facts, resolution options, and values are reflected upon and decisions made based on…
Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.; O'Brien, G. Michaele
Shapiro and Stefkovich in their 2001 book on ethics propose a framework for examining ethical dilemmas. At the heart of this conceptualization is "the best interests of the student." Yet a review of the literature reveals this term is interpreted broadly and few systematic attempts have been made to define it. In response to this lack of clarity,…
Gruber, Verena; Schlegelmilch, Bodo B.
Ethics education provided by universities in general, and MBA programs aimed at future business leaders in particular, has come under intense public scrutiny because of corporate scandals and ethical dilemmas. To date, academic research has been mainly devoted to the characteristics of instruction formats and their effectiveness, characteristics…
H. J.G. Zandman
Full Text Available Scientists have started with experimentation that raises difficult ethical questions. It comprises taking material from the human blueprint (DNA and inserting this in various test animals. The purpose of such research is noble, namely the alleviation of hu- man suffering. Yet the ethical ramifications of blending the hu- man and animal genome are significant, especially for Chris- tians. The creation of all living entities after their kind and the image-bearing dignity attributed to man both come under se- vere ethical stress for those who presuppose divine order in God’s ecology. For non-Christians the philosophical dilemma ought not to exist in the ethical sense if applied at the purest level. If the human is merely a kind of animal, along with and ontologically not diffe- rent from other animals, there is little logical reason to object to chimeric research apart from a concern about what such re- search and application might do to the order of life pragmati- cally. However, many non-Christian do object. Man is made in God’s image and the concept of human dignity and a universal sense of right and wrong still binds Christians and non-Chris- tians when considering ethics in the field of chimeric research. As the mixing of human stem cells with embryonic animals takes place, certain non-Christian authors protest that human dignity is being diminished and the animal essence is being vio- lated.
Growing incidences of corporate ethical misconducts have revived the debate over ethical reasoning and moral development of corporate managers. The role of information technology (IT) in the ethical dilemmas is becoming more evident as virtual environments become increasingly popular, organizations adopt digital form of record keeping, and the…
Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Holmes, Elizabeth K.
When faced with a morally charged situation, individuals engage in an ethical decision-making process to resolve the ethical dilemma. This paper outlines a model that describes the steps in the ethical decision-making process and identifies situational factors, collectively termed moral intensity, which may influence this process. The use of a…
Isman, Aytekin; Altinay Aksal, Fahriye; Altinay Gazi, Zehra
The research study stimulates critical approach to research and practice, with an increasing emphasis on ethics and ethical decision making of the teacher researchers within action research process by using technology in its process. The study investigates the impact of technology within the action research, ethical considerations and dilemmas…
Matherne, Brett P.; Gove, Steve; Forlani, Victor; Janney, Jay J.
This article proposes a pedagogical approach dedicated to help students develop personal ethical agency--the ability to make decisions that involve ethical dilemmas consistent with an individual's ethical standards and professional standards of practice. The approach presented involves a tripartite gathering of students, business executives, and…
Speck, Bruce W.
Describes a method for helping students evaluate ethical issues in a systematic way, based on Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Recommends the case-study approach for creating social constructs in which students face ethical dilemmas, and outlines a case-study ethics unit using Kohlberg's model. (MM)
Kim, Mijung; Roth, Wolff-Michael
In this paper we argue that scientific literacy ought to be rethought in that it involves ethics as its core element. Considering the fact that science education has addressed ethical dilemmas of Science, Technology, Society and Environment (STSE) issues, it is worthwhile to question what the ethics of scientific knowledge mean in terms of their…
We focus on how repeat collaboration in creative projects affects the performance. Repeat collaboration has two contradictory aspects. One of them is a positive aspect: team development or experience. The other aspect is negative: team degeneration or abrasion. This contradiction causes the dilemma whether we should keep collaborating or not. The contradiction has not been quantitatively analysed. We provided extensive and quantitative analyses of the dilemma in creative projects by using patent data of Japan and the United States. We proposed the three conditions to validate the existence of the dilemma quantitatively. First condition is the better impact of team patents is, the longer collaborations occur. Second condition is impact of consecutive patents decrease after hits a team makes. Third condition is at some point of consecutive patents, expectation of impact by switching teams is better than one of a consecutive production. We found these conditions arise in patents of Japan and the United States. T...
Haldane, J J
Contemporary medical ethics is generally concerned with the application of ethical theory to medico-moral dilemmas and with the critical analysis of the concepts of medicine. This paper presents an alternative programme: the development of a medical philosophy which, by taking as its starting point the two questions: what is man? and, what constitutes goodness in life? offers an account of health as one of the primary concepts of value. This view of the subject resembles that implied by ancie...
Dunn Cavelty, Myriam
Current approaches to cyber-security are not working. Rather than producing more security, we seem to be facing less and less. The reason for this is a multi-dimensional and multi-faceted security dilemma that extends beyond the state and its interaction with other states. It will be shown how the focus on the state and "its" security crowds out consideration for the security of the individual citizen, with detrimental effects on the security of the whole system. The threat arising from cyberspace to (national) security is presented as possible disruption to a specific way of life, one building on information technologies and critical functions of infrastructures, with relatively little consideration for humans directly. This non-focus on people makes it easier for state actors to militarize cyber-security and (re-)assert their power in cyberspace, thereby overriding the different security needs of human beings in that space. Paradoxically, the use of cyberspace as a tool for national security, both in the dimension of war fighting and the dimension of mass-surveillance, has detrimental effects on the level of cyber-security globally. A solution out of this dilemma is a cyber-security policy that is decidedly anti-vulnerability and at the same time based on strong considerations for privacy and data protection. Such a security would have to be informed by an ethics of the infosphere that is based on the dignity of information related to human beings. PMID:24781874
Alcaraz, Gloria; Correa, Adriana
An ethical analysis was performed during the development of a research project titled "Culture, nourishment and malaria in the Kuna aboriginals of Urabá, Colombia." This project had 2 objectives; (1) to investigate the prevalence of malaria and its relationship with hypovitaminosis A and nutritional status, and (2) to understand the community's conceptions and practices towards malaria. The current paper summarizes reflections concerning the application of ethical principles and moral values during the course of the malaria research project. Two intercultural relationships were clearly defined: the culture of the Tule (Kuna) Indians, with a traditional medical system, and the culture of the research group, focused on the biomedical model. The rationale and the discussion proposed during the writing of the project proposal was presented as well as the dilemmas that developed during the project within the communities. These problems required rapid decision-making in situations for which the scientists had not been adequately prepared. A need was indicated for application of ethical principles to permeate the analysis throughout the research process in a horizontal manner, such that the human dignity of the participants and the ethnicity of the community are preserved above the purposes of the project. In the research process, mediation between the ethics of conviction and the ethics of consequences must take precedence, with both outcomes tied to an informed consent in place during the process. The establishment of national and local research ethics committees was indicated as necessary to preserve the lifestyle and culture of the ethnic groups. These values were seen as endangered given the trading pressures and health policies in a globalized world. PMID:16929899
Johannes Michael Schnarrer
I would like to look at some of the challenges of ethcis today. Therefore, in the first part I say something about ethics, the ethical theories and ethical concepts. Afterwords I am going to explain a little bit about the human dimensions, the dealing with experiences (i.e. work); because the human person has to decide the right thing in the right place on the right time, and in relatively freedom. In the end, there are some ideas about applied ethics which is necessary to focusing on the pra...
Wolff, Brian G.
Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a…
Iserson, Kenneth V
Neither law nor religion, bioethics absorbs and applies elements of both. Its theories, principles, and methods stem from various philosophical schools. Practitioners use case-based reasoning to apply bioethics to clinical situations, usually giving most weight to patients' autonomy and values, but also incorporating other relevant bioethical principles, including those encompassed in professional oaths and codes. Emergency clinicians must be able to recognize bioethical dilemmas, have action plans based on their readings and discussions, and have a method through which to apply ethical principles in clinical settings. This article provides an overview of ethical considerations and guidelines for emergency clinicians. PMID:16877128
Pavilanis, Alan V.
Ethical problems often revolve around the conflicts of the models of beneficence and autonomy. Adolescents present a particular complication in their own struggle for autonomy. The physician is confronted with the further dilemma of sorting out the role of parents and the role of the adolescent patient in decision making. Furthermore, as adolescents develop their own moral code, they may lack consistency in their actions and opinions. The physician must examine the total context in arriving a...
Johannes Michael Schnarrer
Full Text Available I would like to look at some of the challenges of ethcis today. Therefore, in the first part I say something about ethics, the ethical theories and ethical concepts. Afterwords I am going to explain a little bit about the human dimensions, the dealing with experiences (i.e. work; because the human person has to decide the right thing in the right place on the right time, and in relatively freedom. In the end, there are some ideas about applied ethics which is necessary to focusing on the practical issues, too. Otherwise people who do not like the ethical discussions they could think that ethical ideas are selfsufficient and do not make sense, but I will tell them something else....
White, Janine; Phakoe, Maureen; Rispel, Laetitia C.
Background A recent focus of the global discourse on the health workforce has been on its quality, including the existence of codes of ethics. In South Africa, the importance of ethics and value systems in nursing was emphasised in the 2011 National Nursing Summit. Objective The study explored hospital nurses’ perceptions of the International Code of Ethics for Nurses; their perceptions of the South African Nurses’ Pledge of Service; and their views on contemporary ethical practice. Methods Following university ethics approval, the study was done at a convenience sample of five hospitals in two South African provinces. In each hospital, all day duty nurses in paediatric, maternity, adult medical, and adult surgical units were requested to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire focused on their perceptions of the Code of Ethics and the Pledge, using a seven-point Likert scale. STATA® 13 and NVIVO 10 were used to analyse survey data and open-ended responses, respectively. Results The mean age of survey participants (n=69) was 39 years (SD=9.2), and the majority were female (96%). The majority agreed with a statement that they will promote the human rights of individuals (98%) and that they have a duty to meet the health and social needs of the public (96%). More nuanced responses were obtained for some questions, with 60% agreeing with a statement that too much emphasis is placed on patients’ rights as opposed to nurses’ rights and 32% agreeing with a statement that they would take part in strike action to improve nurses’ salaries and working conditions. The dilemmas of nurses to uphold the Code of Ethics and the Pledge in face of workplace constraints or poor working conditions were revealed in nurses’ responses to open-ended questions. Conclusion Continuing education in ethics and addressing health system deficiencies will enhance nurses’ professional development and their ethical decision-making and practice. PMID:25971398
Full Text Available Background: A recent focus of the global discourse on the health workforce has been on its quality, including the existence of codes of ethics. In South Africa, the importance of ethics and value systems in nursing was emphasised in the 2011 National Nursing Summit. Objective: The study explored hospital nurses’ perceptions of the International Code of Ethics for Nurses; their perceptions of the South African Nurses’ Pledge of Service; and their views on contemporary ethical practice. Methods: Following university ethics approval, the study was done at a convenience sample of five hospitals in two South African provinces. In each hospital, all day duty nurses in paediatric, maternity, adult medical, and adult surgical units were requested to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire focused on their perceptions of the Code of Ethics and the Pledge, using a seven-point Likert scale. STATA® 13 and NVIVO 10 were used to analyse survey data and open-ended responses, respectively. Results: The mean age of survey participants (n=69 was 39 years (SD=9.2, and the majority were female (96%. The majority agreed with a statement that they will promote the human rights of individuals (98% and that they have a duty to meet the health and social needs of the public (96%. More nuanced responses were obtained for some questions, with 60% agreeing with a statement that too much emphasis is placed on patients’ rights as opposed to nurses’ rights and 32% agreeing with a statement that they would take part in strike action to improve nurses’ salaries and working conditions. The dilemmas of nurses to uphold the Code of Ethics and the Pledge in face of workplace constraints or poor working conditions were revealed in nurses’ responses to open-ended questions. Conclusion: Continuing education in ethics and addressing health system deficiencies will enhance nurses’ professional development and their ethical decision-making and practice.
Hurst, S A; Reiter-Theil, S; Slowther, A-M; Pegoraro, R; Forde, R; Danis, M
In an international survey of rationing we have found that European physicians encounter scarcity-related ethical difficulties, and are dissatified with the resolution of many of these cases. Here we further examine survey results to explore whether ethics support services would be potentially useful in addressing scarcity related ethical dilemmas. Results indicate that while the type of help offered by ethics support services was considered helpful by physicians, they rarely referred difficulties regarding scarcity to ethics consultation. We propose that ethics consultants could assist physicians by making the process less difficult, and by contributing to decisions being more ethically justifiable. Expertise in bringing considerations of justice to bear on real cases could also be useful in recognising an unjust limit, as opposed to a merely frustrating limit. Though these situations are unlikely to be among the most frequently referred to ethics support services, ethics consultants should be prepared to address them. PMID:18375673
Brinkmann, Johannes; Sims, Ronald R.; Nelson, Lawrence J.
This article describes and discusses team teaching and particularly guest lectures as a way of integrating ethics into the business curriculum. After a brief discussion of business school responsibilities and the teaching of ethics, the article looks at efforts to integrate the teaching of ethics across the curriculum. Then, findings from a small pilot study among business ethics and business school colleagues are summarized and discussed, with a focus on guest lecturing and team teaching, bo...
Lea, Dale Halsey; Williams, Janet; Donahue, M Patricia
Genetic factors contribute to risk for disease. Information clarifying risk in an individual and his/her family members can be identified through clinical screening and genetic testing. In some circumstances, this information can be used in clinical decisions about surveillance and prevention or treatment of disease. However, use of this information is not always a straightforward process. Application of knowledge about risk of genetic disease in provision of primary health care for women requires understanding of new genetic discoveries as well as the ability to participate in resolution of ethical dilemmas that may result when genetic screening and testing are considered. These dilemmas arise not only from the current state of knowledge about genetic risk factors and utility of genetic tests but also result from conflicts that can arise when the needs of the client are not in unison with needs of others within the family or society. Ethical theories and principles provide a framework for resolving ethical dilemmas in maternal screening for genetic conditions during a pregnancy, carrier testing prior to or during a pregnancy, clinical genetic testing, and newborn metabolic screening. PMID:15895002
Patients are increasingly involved in health informatics research. Researchers are always aware of the ethical dimensions of their research, but studies in the field with patients--especially among the frail, elderly, cognitively impaired--present specific additional 'everyday moral dilemmas'. Reflecting on experiences of a hospital study of patients with dementia, this paper draws attention on the type and constant presence of this situated ethics, the immediacy of decision-making, and the importance of everyday ethics for health informatics. PMID:25160300
Practitioners in the hospitality sector rate ethics as one of the most important issues faced by the industry. Manyscholars argue that the hospitality sector is open to frequent unethical practices. Managers and employees, due tointensive face-to-face interactions with clients, confront many ethical dilemmas in their day-to-day operations.Previous research confirms that a positive ethical climate nurtures a healthy organization by increasing managerand employee job satisfaction, enhancing cu...
Hughes, Julian C.; Hope, Tony; Reader, Steve; Rice, Dee
There has been little work on the ethical issues facing non-professionals who care for relatives or others with dementia. A qualitative pilot study was conducted in ten such individuals, eight of them women, caring for persons drawn mainly from one general practice. The interviews indicated that many of the dilemmas faced by carers are ethical and that the issues differ from those faced by professionals. Ethical issues are sometimes the most troublesome matter for care...
School art therapists face numerous ethical dilemmas, from referrals to therapy, through privacy, safety and predictability in the art therapy room, to the need to balance cooperation with the educational staff and its expectations of shared information with loyalty to the patient. Breach of confidentiality also has legal implications. The…
Price, Sandra J.
By identifying and weighing the effects of an act on each constituency, a matrix based on John Stuart Mill's theories of utilitarianism illuminates and helps resolve complex ethical dilemmas. Application of the approach is illustrated with a simulated case study concerning the issue of reputation in a small private college. (Author/MSE)
Alternrtivas de comprension y diálogo frente al dilema ético que ofrece Ia bioética. ¿Cómo enfrentar el uso de cultivos genéticamente modificados? / ALTERNATIVES OF UNDERSTANDING AND DIALOGUE IN FRONT OF THE lETHICAL DILEMMA THAT OFFERS BIOETHICS, FACING THE USE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CULTURES / ALTERNATIVAS DE COMPREENSÃO E DIÁLOGO OFERECIDAS PELA BIOÉTICA FRENTE AO DILEMA ÉTICO DERIVADO DA UTILIZAÇÃO DE CULTIVOS GENETICAMENTE MODIFICADOS
Santiago Eliécer, Arango Diago.
Full Text Available No primeiro lugar se examinarão de forma sistemática e reflexiva as virtudes e benefícios possíveis dos cultivos geneticamente modificados, assim como alguns dos argumentos acadêmicos e científicos que os apóiam. No segundo lugar, será abordada uma segunda posição a partir de seus próprios argumento [...] s e pesquisa, um pouco mais incisiva e informada contra o uso e a manipulação desta classe de cultivos geneticamente modificados. Por último, mesmo que a intenção deste artigo está na análise de alternativas de compreensão e diálogo do dilema ético que surge de utilizar organismos geneticamente modificados para a bioética, também está na necessidade urgente de criar uma hermenêutica bioética fundada nos princípios essenciais da precaução, da justiça e não-maleficência. Estes devem ser padrões dialógicos de encontro e discussão com o respeito e a tolerância que exige esse dilema ético e biotecnológico. Abstract in spanish En un primer momento, se hará un acercamiento sistemático y reflexivo a las posibles virtudes y beneficios de los cultivos genéticamente modificados. Así también, en un segundo momento, se abordará una postura más inquieta y prevenida con respecto al uso y manipulación de esta clase de cultivos gené [...] ticamente modificados. Finalmente, la reflexión gira en torno al análisis de las alternativas de comprensión y diálogo frente al dilema ético que ofrece el uso de cultivos genéticamente modificados para la Bioética, la reflexión también depende de la urgente necesidad de una hermenéutica bioética emplazada en los principios esenciales de precaución y justicia y no maleficencia como pautas dialógicas de encuentro y discusión solícitas del respeto y tolerancia que requiere dicho dilema ético y biotecnológico. Abstract in english At initially addressed a systematic and thoughtful approach facing possible virtues and benefits of crops genetically modified, together with some of the academic and scientific arguments employees for the benefit of the sustainability of many of their performances. As well also, and in a second tim [...] e, will be addressed from its own arguments and research, what we have chosen to draw a second position somewhat more restless and prevented regarding the use of handling of this class of crops genetically modified. Finally as well as understood that this monograph written intentionally revolves around the analysis of the understanding and dialogue with the ethical dilemma that offers the use of alternatives genetically modified for Bioethics crops, it is also the urgent need a hermeneutic located bioethics it on the essential caution, justice and not harm as dialogic principles guidelines and discussion of respect and tolerance meeting and discussion requires that ethical dilemma and biotechnological.
Kanthimathinathan, Hari Krishnan; Scholefield, Barnaby R
Providing evidence-based interventions for infants and children is important in paediatric intensive care, where decision making impacts most acutely on morbidity and mortality. However, despite the major progress of medicine in the 21st century, we still lack this evidence for majority of the decisions we make. In this article, we explore and suggest possible solutions for several dilemmas faced by paediatric intensive care researchers. These include ethical dilemmas such as validity of informed consent, use of deferred consent, balancing risk versus benefit and methodological dilemmas such as how to generate high-quality evidence with low-patient volume, choice of valid outcome measures and how best to use research and researchers' networks. PMID:24919710
Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Saravolatz, Louis; Hirsh, Benjamin; Agrawal, Pratik; Scarabelli, Tiziano M
Heart failure (HF), a complex clinical syndrome due to structural or functional disorder of the heart, is a major global health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA alone, and over 23 million worldwide. As a leading cause of hospitalizations among patients aged 65 years or older, HF is a major consumer of healthcare resources, creating a substantial strain on the healthcare system. This paper discusses the epidemiology of HF, financial impact, and multifaceted predicaments in end-stage HF care. A search was conducted on the U.S. National Library of Medicine website (www.pubmed.gov) using keywords such as end-stage heart failure, palliative care, ethical dilemmas. Despite the poor prognosis of HF (worse than that for many cancers), many HF patients, caregivers, and clinicians are unaware of the poor prognosis. In addition, the unpredictable clinical trajectory of HF complicates the planning of end-of-life care, such as palliative care and hospice, leading to underutilization of such resources. In conclusion, ethical dilemmas in end-stage HF are numerous, embroiling not only the patient, but also the caregiver, healthcare team, and society. PMID:25678905
Sonia Maria Oliveira de Barros; José Pinus
This is a review article on the origin of the ethical analysis ofresearch protocols, the Brazilian and International legislation,including the Research Ethics Committee of Hospital IsraelitaAlbert Einstein. Since 1997, when the Committee was validatedits role has been recognized as that of a consultant and educator,participating on local and national scientific events andcollaborating with researchers in order to improve their projectsand learn to recognize ethical dilemmas in their protocols.
Sonia Maria Oliveira de Barros
Full Text Available This is a review article on the origin of the ethical analysis ofresearch protocols, the Brazilian and International legislation,including the Research Ethics Committee of Hospital IsraelitaAlbert Einstein. Since 1997, when the Committee was validatedits role has been recognized as that of a consultant and educator,participating on local and national scientific events andcollaborating with researchers in order to improve their projectsand learn to recognize ethical dilemmas in their protocols.
Fox, Ellen; And Others
This article reviews the 25-year history of undergraduate medical ethics education. Alternatives to the traditional model that focus more directly on students' personal values, attitudes, and behavior, are discussed. Three incipient trends are identified: everyday ethics, student ethics, and macro-ethics. Specific course and curricula are used as…
When the Homo Faber; to the beginning of the humanization, overcame the instinct that established a relationship balanced in the ecosphere between the animal and the nature, an interference it began in the relationship man-nature; since that was not adapted this but rather it began its transformation adapting the environment to its necessities. During miles of years the development of this production technique of the Homo Faber could be considered like a progressive and innocuous exploitation of the natural resources. At the present time, kind of a dialectical transformation of the quantity in a new quality characterizes the critical stadium of the new phase of the evolution inaugurated by the Homo Faber. We arrive this way today to that the production force, by means of the science and the technique, outlines us the problem of if for a bigger development in the productivity is necessary a progressive destruction of the ecosphere. That is to say, so that there is progress and will civilization be necessary a progressive interference of the natural balance, with the consequent setting in danger of the life? Moreover this article treats topics about their location and focuses, environmental ethics framed in the talkative ethics and virtues of the environmental ethics, among other topics
Harrod, Wendy J.
Manageable in a 50-minute class with as many as 60 students, this game is designed to help college- level sociology students recognize (1) the reward structure leading to social dilemmas, (2) the individualistic strategy people follow in social dilemmas, and (3) the inefficacy and hypocrisy of communication in social dilemmas. (RM)
Gordon, M; Levitt, D
The implementation of a living will can give rise to ethical dilemmas for the patient's family and the health care professionals involved. The case reported here raises questions about the right of patients to self-determination, the importance of quality-of-life considerations in treatment decisions and physicians' obligations with respect to the implementation of living wills. Physicians should ensure in advance that the instructions set out in a living will are unambiguous and should bring to the patient's attention any ethical difficulties that they foresee in carrying out those instructions. PMID:8837536
Di Nucci, Ezio
Ethics Without Intention tackles the questions raised by difficult moral dilemmas by providing a critical analysis of double effect and its most common ethical and political applications. The book discusses the philosophical distinction between intended harm and foreseen but unintended harm. This distinction, which, according to the doctrine of double effect, makes a difference to the moral justification of actions, is widely applied to some of the most controversial ethical and political questions of our time: collateral damages in wars and acts of terrorism; palliative care, euthanasia, abortion, and embryo research; self-defence, suicide, and self-sacrifice. It is also crucial to the now notorious theoretical cases of the trolley problem and the knobe effect. Di Nucci approaches the doctrine of double effect from four key directions: its historical origins, which can be traced further back than the classic attribution to Aquinas; its theoretical coherence, which is the subject of a lively contemporary debate in philosophy; its moral intuitiveness, which has always been taken for granted but has recently begun to be questioned; and finally its relevance to the difficult moral and political decisions of our time. An engaging and comprehensive introduction to the doctrine of double effect. - See more at: http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/ethics-without-intention-9781472525796/#sthash.NKISOPL8.dpuf
Introduction: The presentation is a general introduction to the main schools in applied ethics, their implications and problems, and their relationship to the notion of equity. Background: Dilemmas and tensions between ethical principles and the practices of the maritime industry will be discussed at an empirical level in the workshop Ethics and Equity. This opening theoretical presentation is an attempt to frame and qualify the following discussion. Summary: The interest of normative ethics' is the content of our moral behaviour. Normative ethical theories seek to provide action-guides - procedures for answering practical questions ("What ought I to do?"). That is, in practice, normative ethics cannot be pursued in isolation from applied ethics. Four main theories will be introduced: Utilitarism: An action is right if and only if, in the situation, there was no alternative to it which would have resulted in a larger sum of total of welfare in the world Egoism: We ought always to act so as to maximize the sum total of our own welfare. Duty ethics: There are universal duties and prohibition we always should follow, irrespective of the consequences of following them. Virtue ethics: The most basic question is not what we ought to do, but what kind of persons we ought to be. Besides, the ethics of right, the ethics of care and theories of justice will be mentioned. The theories' advantages and problems will be actualised by relevant examples. Conclusion at discretion
Bogdan-Lovis, Elizabeth; de Vries, Raymond G
In this issue of The Journal of Clinical Ethics, we offer a variety of perspectives on the moral and medical responsibilities of professionals with regard to a woman's choice of where she will birth her baby. The articles in this special issue focus on place of birth, but they have larger resonance for clinicians whose decisions about providing the best possible care require them to sort through evidence, consider their own possible biases and the limitations of their training, and balance the wishes of their patients with the demands of colleagues, hospitals, and insurers. The articles published in this special issue of The Journal of Clinical Ethics will help those who wrestle with such dilemmas in everyday clinical decision making. PMID:24282846
Full Text Available The authors present ethical dilemmas in the therapy, particularly family therapy, individual and group psychotherapy of schizophrenia in the context of the specific personality of persons suffering from schizophrenia as well as their experience
In this article, I argue that agriculture and food production processes are subject to what I refer to as 'dilemmatic situations'. These dilemmatic situations are rather new, and require a new orientation in ethics to account for them. Ethics has to give up long-cherished ideals, such as: (a) the identification of ethics with a set of obligations that require people to do certain actions; (b) the idea that there is only one good solution to an ethical problem; (c) the idea that compromises ar...
Clement, Dorothy B.; And Others
A questionnaire completed by school psychologists indicated ethical and legal dilemmas involved in evaluation, decision making, and placement of students under P.L. 94-142. These conflicts arose from budgetary restraints and professional disagreements. The dilemmas are discussed and possible preventive measures are suggested. (DWH)
Issues concerning the beginning of life and medical intervention in the onset of human existence are very delicate in their nature; they involve multi-dimensional knowledge, they are difficult to comprehend and sensitive to handle. When pure scientific elements are combined with profound emotions, when the genius of technological discoveries touches upon human dignity and sanctity, when passion for the technological achievement intervenes in basic human rights, then the sense of inadequacy and ignorance becomes intense and critical. Silence seems more sought-after than words, and willingness to learn more prudent than the desire to speak. Fear of the inconceivable consequences and even more so the inability to assess them, experiments with the unknown, the likelihood that basic historical, ethical and social values may change forever, but mainly the replacement of God in His wondrous work of creation--the onset of human life--places the ethics of reproductive technologies on the frontline of contemporary bioethics. This opinion paper does not deal with dangers, insults, fears, threats, "speed limits" or ethical controversies, but rather with the very mystery of life. Although there are no generally accepted replies to the various questions being posed, some thoughts and reservations, which can shed some light upon complicated dilemmas are presented. Firstly, the content of reproductive technologies, the problem of infertility today, the methods of fertility treatment, and of prenatal and pre-implantation testing are described, and then the social impact of IVF, complicated cases, deontological dilemmas and some ethical concerns are discussed. PMID:20412986
Insights from social science are increasingly used in the field of applied ethics. However, recent insights have shown that the empirical branch of business ethics lacks thorough theoretical grounding. This article discusses the use of the Rawlsian methods of wide reflective equilibrium and overlapping consensus in the field of applied ethics. Instead of focussing on one single comprehensive ethical doctrine to provide adequate guidance for resolving moral dilemmas, these Rawlsian methods see...
ALBERTO, ROJAS O; LIBIA, LARA C.
Full Text Available Hace pocos años, términos como ética, bioética o ética médica eran ajenos en el uso en medicina clínica, así como en la ciencia experimental. Sin embargo, el aumento progresivo de los problemas éticos en la práctica de la medicina, que en ocasiones son verdaderos dilemas, ha producido confusión en e [...] l significado de cada uno de estos conceptos. Es por ello que nos ha parecido de interés revisar estos conceptos, así como el significado y utilidad que tiene cada uno de ellos. Abstract in english A few years ago, words like Ethics, Bioethics or Medical Ethics were unheard of in clinical medicine, as well as in experimental sciences. However, the increasing number of ethical conflicts in medical practice and dilemmas in clinical research has produced misunderstandings in the use of these term [...] s. Therefore, it presently seems interesting to review the basis of each one of these concepts, as well as the meaning and proper use of them.
Barker, Chris; Martin, Brian
There is a burgeoning amount of research into happiness and greatly increased popular attention, so it seems logical to add a course on happiness to the university curriculum. We encountered, in developing and running such a course, a number of dilemmas that the topic of happiness makes especially acute. Should the teacher remain separate from the…
The notorious intensification and digitalization of surveillance technologies and practices in today’s society has brought about numerous changes. These changes have been widely noticed, described and discussed across many academic disciplines. However, the contexts of entertainment, play and leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance as portrayed in the movies Rear Window (1954) and The Conversation (1974). I argue that such research as well as studies of the experience of surveillance contributes to our theoretical insights into the ambiguous and ubiquitous phenomenon of surveillance.
Richardson, Robert W
Healthcare professionals can be confronted with a wide range of ethical and regulatory issues in today's ever-changing practice environments. While achieving best practice standards, physical therapists may need to compromise what is best for patients due to fiscally driven rules, regulations, and limited benefits. Scenarios may surface where ethical issues and associated dilemmas become paramount between what is versus what should be. A challenge that should be in the forefront of professional endeavors is staying current with published rules, regulations, and conditions of participation, as applied to various practice models and environments while still adhering to ethical codes. Knowing and utilizing available resources especially American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), websites, documents, and references can strengthen practice patterns and treatment options. PMID:25864102
Full Text Available Abstract Where unethical business decision-making arises from failures of ethical perception, there is an important role for ethical training and decision-making tools. These may help business people to consider all relevant issues when assessing the ethical status of potential decisions. Ethical training programmes give business people a basic understanding of the principles which underlie ethical judgements and equip them with many of the necessary skills for dealing with the ethical dilemmas which they face in their jobs. Similarly, ethical decision-making tools may guide managers through the various ethical considerations which are relevant to business decision-making and help them to develop their ethical-perceptual skills. Furthermore, by establishing and reinforcing good ethical decision-making practices, training programmes and decision-making tools may also reduce the incidence of self-consciously unethical decision-making. A new approach to improving the ethical quality of business decision-making by the use of computerized business ethics expert systems is proposed. These systems have the potential to guide business people through a process of ethical evaluation while simultaneously fulfilling an educational role, thus providing many of the benefits of both training programmes and decision-making tools. While the prospect of a computer system which could simply make ethical judgements for business people is both unrealistic and undesirable, a system which leads human decision-makers through a structured assessment process has the potential for genuine benefits. Keywords: Expert Systems, Ethical Decision Making
Drouvelis, Michalis; Metcalfe, Robert; Powdthavee, Nattavudh
Research on public goods mainly focuses its attention on the ability of incentives, beliefs and group structure to affect behaviour in social dilemma interactions. This paper investigates the pure effects of a rather subtle mechanism on social preferences in a one-shot linear public good game. Using priming techniques from social psychology, we activate the concept of cooperation and explore the extent to which this intervention brings about changes in people's voluntary contributions to the ...
Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.
Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.
Full Text Available Technological advancement has made the increasing closeness among the diverse regions of the world inevitable. This article focuses on the ethical implications that this proximity entails. The author analyzes how global warming, commerce, and international law are topics that should interest and involve all nations because the decisions taken towards these matters have global consequences. He purports that there is a need to apply an ethic for one world that also goes beyond the human species.
Jeanne Ting Chowning
Students often come to class discussions with preformed opinions on many ethical issues. The challenging task for teachers is to help students learn to identify the facts of a case, recognize the underlying ethical dilemmas, and to understand the different perspectives involved. These objectives can be met successfully by following the three key components to effective discussions related to ethics and science that are discussed in this article: Content and lesson strategies, a decision-making model, and a familiarity with ethical perspectives (see Figure 1).
Full Text Available Today modern society pays great attention to the development of ethical guidelines for each profession and their implementation in the form of codes of ethics to individual policies. In particular, the Ministry of Health and Welfare is faced in meeting the ethical codes of the current economic and political developments in society. Optimization of standards for health and social care that are implemented through normative no systematic evaluation of the impact on each target group significantly reduces their quality of life. The paper draws attention to the dilemmas of social work and health care in relation to ethics.
Oishi, Koji; Cebrian, Manuel; Abeliuk, Andres; Masuda, Naoki
The Internet has enabled the emergence of collective problem solving, also known as crowdsourcing, as a viable option for solving complex tasks. However, the openness of crowdsourcing presents a challenge because solutions obtained by it can be sabotaged, stolen, and manipulated at a low cost for the attacker. We extend a previously proposed crowdsourcing dilemma game to an iterated game to address this question. We enumerate pure evolutionarily stable strategies within the class of so-called reactive strategies, i.e., those depending on the last action of the opponent. Among the 4096 possible reactive strategies, we find 16 strategies each of which is stable in some parameter regions. Repeated encounters of the players can improve social welfare when the damage inflicted by an attack and the cost of attack are both small. Under the current framework, repeated interactions do not really ameliorate the crowdsourcing dilemma in a majority of the parameter space.
Oishi, Koji; Abeliuk, Andres; Masuda, Naoki
The Internet has enabled the emergence of collective problem solving, also known as crowdsourcing, as a viable option for solving complex tasks. However, the openness of crowdsourcing presents a challenge because solutions obtained by it can be sabotaged, stolen, and manipulated at a low cost for the attacker. We extend a previously proposed crowdsourcing dilemma game to an iterated game to address this question. We enumerate pure evolutionarily stable strategies within the class of so-called reactive strategies, i.e., those depending on the last action of the opponent. Among the 4096 possible reactive strategies, we find 16 strategies each of which is stable in some parameter regions. Repeated encounters of the players can improve social welfare when the damage inflicted by an attack and the cost of attack are both small. Under the current framework, repeated interactions do not really ameliorate the crowdsourcing dilemma in a majority of the parameter space.
Kumar, Pramod; Singh, Virendra
Blindness associated with mid-facial fractures is rare. Here we present a case of panfacial fracture associated with loss of vision of right eye. The reconstruction of left orbital region posed a challenge, as post surgical vision loss can be a remote complication. Through this case report we highlight our dilemma and describe the different philosophies adopted by other specialties in management. PMID:25838708
Koji Oishi; Manuel Cebrian; Andres Abeliuk; Naoki Masuda
The Internet has enabled the emergence of collective problem solving, also known as crowdsourcing, as a viable option for solving complex tasks. However, the openness of crowdsourcing presents a challenge because solutions obtained by it can be sabotaged, stolen, and manipulated at a low cost for the attacker. We extend a previously proposed crowdsourcing dilemma game to an iterated game to address this question. We enumerate pure evolutionarily stable strategies within the ...
Abdullah, W A
The Deviants' Dilemma is a two-person game with the individual gain conflicting with the choice for global good. Evolutionary considerations yield fixed point attractors, with the pehenomena of exclusion potentially playing an important role when current opponent information is available. We carry out computer simulations which substantiates and illuminates theoretical claims, and brings to light the pertinance of the choice between deterministic and stochastic dynamics, and the conjecture of 'ergodicity spread'.
Ethical issues are central to any discussion or reflection on aging and health care. The authors of the OJIN topic, Health Care and the Aging Population: What Are Today's Challenges?, address a variety of topics including quality of life, long-term care planning, geriatric education, frail elder care, and successful aging behaviors. Imbedded in these topics are ethical issues that are relevant to nursing and/or health care. Thus, the focus of this column is to examine select ethical issues in...
Hansen, Sinne HjælmsØ; Pedersen, Lise Celine
The increased use of scarce metals in combination with climate changes pave way for extensive extraction of mineral resources in Greenland. The focus of this study is on environmental ethical aspects of mining activities in a vulnerable and unspoiled arctic nature. Mining can have several economic and social benefits for Greenland. On the other hand, the environmental impacts from mining are well known. Through DPSIR (Drivers, Pressures, States, Impacts, Responses) and Stakeholder analysis, we assess how future mining in Greenland can be sustainably implemented. The analysis revealed that numerous stakeholders have to be taken into consideration with a wide range of different interests. The DPSIR analysis clarified the availability of various potential political responses that could affect the drivers, pressures, states and impacts of mining mainly focused on implementation of effective environmental regulation strategies. Our findings revealed different environmental ethical dilemmas of which the most critical is how Greenland can open up for mining, gain economical revenue while averting destruction of unspoiled regions and aesthetic impairment. We recommend strict environmental legislation involving use of the “polluter pay principle”, continuous monitoring of pollution and establishment of an industry-funded catastrophe trust fund. These initiatives can ensure economic benefits while environmental impacts remain negligible.
Ethics contain a set of principles of personal and professional conduct .The concept of Business ethics relates itself to the norms and the ideals businessman and business groups adopt in course of their activities in business .Business ethics is an assertion of “be good” and “do good” in business. Ethical business practices has been a blessing to the enterprises as it ensures faith in society ,government trust ,business partners trust .on the other hand unethical business pra...
Jonasson, Haukur Ingi
How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.
Kreander, Niklas; Beattie, Vivien; Mcphail, Ken
The charity and voluntary sector in Norway is substantial (Sivesind, 2007). Yet we know of no academic research which focuses on charity ethical investment in Norway. We have examined charity ethical investment policies and how these policies relate to the aims of charitable organisations. We survey large Norwegian charities using a postal questionnaire and semi structured interviews. The findings show that few charities publish an ethical investment policy, and it is often lim...
Editorial on Ethical Issues. Medical ethics is at the centre of medical practice. It isrightly gaining much needed renewed focus and attentionin the evolving scenario. The impetus for it may beattributed to the revelations that arose through Nurembergtrials, the framework elements that define research andpublications related compulsions, and indeed the contextand state of affairs of present day medical jurisprudence.The physiatrist’s practice cannot remain untouched bythe moral and ethical d...
Te Riele, K.; Brooks, R.
The focus of this special edition of Youth Studies Australia is on questions, issues, challenges and (tentative) solutions in relation to ensuring that research with young people is conducted ethically. This introductory paper by the guest editors of this edition draws on ethical principles as outlined in the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans and in the Fairbridge Code of Ethics for youth work. The authors explain how these principles can inform ethical youth ...
Contemporary medical ethics is far from the traditional concept of "In-Sul (benevolent art)" or "Yul-Li (?, ethics), which emphasizes so much the personality or the character of a doctor. Nowadays, medical ethics should be considered as "professional ethics" which regulates the acts and medical practices of ordinary doctors in their daily practice. The key concepts of the professional ethics are "autonomy", "integrity", and "professional standard" established by medical organizations such as medical societies or associations. Most of Korean doctors have not been familiar with the concept of professional ethics or professionalism, which is due to the modern history of Korea. However, the concept of professional ethics is really critical to Korean doctors from the perspective of professional dignity and social respect to this profession. The current healthcare system of Korea is suffering from many problems of both private and public sector. Nonetheless, the professional ethics is urgently demanded for that very reason. PMID:23018533
In this study, the ethical decision-making of preschool teachers (N = 26) in Samsun, on the northern coast of Turkey, was examined. For this analysis, six real-life dilemmas were prepared, chosen from the problems that most often arise in kindergartens in Turkey. These dilemmas addressed the commitment of the teacher to the child, to self, to the…
Medeiros, Kelsey E; Gibson, Carter; Mecca, Jensen T; Giorgini, Vincent; Connelly, Shane; Mumford, Michael D
Ethical dilemmas are inherently ambiguous, complex, and ill-defined. Additionally, these dilemmas involve multiple stakeholders. These characteristics may induce political behavior as a resolution tactic. Thus, the goal of the present effort was to investigate perspectives on politics among researchers in an ethical decision-making context. A qualitative analysis of interviews with university faculty members revealed that faculty members' perspectives on political behavior in an ethical decision-making context fall into a number of categories, including positive, negative, and realistic views of political activity. The implications of these varying perspectives on ethical decision making are discussed. PMID:25928179
Wilson, Vernesia Bracey
As ethical dilemmas arise in community colleges, administrators make decisions that require sensitivity to the organizational, political, and environmental factors surrounding their particular institutional climates and locales. The moral reasoning and ethical decision-making of community college administrators were examined in this study. In…
Perri, David F.; Callanan, Gerard A.; Rotenberry, Paul F.; Oehlers, Peter F.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a teaching methodology for improving the understanding of ethical decision making. This pedagogical approach is applicable in college courses and in corporate training programs. Design/methodology/approach: Participants are asked to analyze a set of eight ethical dilemmas with differing situational…
Lasser, Jon; Klose, Laurie McGarry
School psychologists routinely engage in ethical decision making, and existing models have served as useful tools for systematically approaching ethical dilemmas. However, a few of these models have taken account of the rich and salient body of social psychology research. This article reviews social psychological phenomena that present clear…
Moe, Jeanne M.; Coleman, Carolee; Fink, Kristie; Krejs, Kirsti
Archaeology is a highly interdisciplinary field. Its main goal is to construct culture histories, but it uses many scientific methods in the process. Ethical dilemmas inherent in archaeology make it a good vehicle for teaching ethics and character in the classroom (Moe 2000). The interdisciplinary nature of the field makes it possible to weave…
Guðmundur Heiðar Frímannsson
Care ethics is a relatively recent development in ethics, originating in Carol Gilligan´s book In a Different Voice, published in 1982 and pointing out flaws in Kohlberg´s theory of moral development, specifically in choosing only boys for the experiments, in using moral dilemmas to measure moral development, and in his idea that morality only consisted in universal rules.
Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.; Brijnath, Bianca; Crockett, Belinda
Qualitative researchers are often confronted by ethical challenges when making research decisions because current guidelines and principles guiding research ethics do not wholly cover the concerns that can arise in complex social research situations. In this article, the authors explore this dilemma in relation to our experiences of conducting…
International Council for Computers in Education, Eugene, OR.
Five articles and two columns reprinted from 1984 and 1985 issues of "The Computing Teacher" address various ethical and legal issues involved in computer use. In "A Question of Ethics," Larry S. Hannah and Charles B. Matus suggest guidelines for dilemma discussion in the classroom to address social and moral issues and to help students to develop…
Hassan Danaee Fard; Mohammad Reza Noruzi,
An ethical issue in business is increasing and it is being focused on by the business markets,customers and communities. It was important from the beginning and is important also now as well. Andevery company or organization for being survival and comparative should pay much more attention to thisimportant. This paper aims to study the ethic and some of related issues around it.
Dilemas éticos da vida humana: a trajetória hospitalar de crianças portadoras de paralisia cerebral grave The ethical dilemmas of human life: the hospital history of children with serious cerebral palsy
Full Text Available O artigo é um estudo antropológico que aborda os pressupostos éticos do tratamento médico ministrado em crianças portadoras de paralisia cerebral grave. A pesquisa foi realizada a partir de um trabalho etnográfico de oito meses, com pacientes em tratamento no Centro de Paralisia Cerebral do Hospital Sarah, Salvador. A observação da terapêutica ministrada a estas crianças, que apresentam pouquíssimas mudanças do quadro clínico, levou ao questionamento já bastante sugerido em discussões relativas à deontologia médica: Qual o objetivo do tratamento médico empregado nestas crianças? Na verdade, os resultados desta pesquisa indicaram a existência de explicações sócio-humanistas que estariam além da explicação médico-científica oficial, a qual resumiria a terapêutica a um fisicalismo corporal.This study deals with the ethical premises of medical treatment for children with serious cerebral palsy. Eight months of ethnographic research were carried out with patients at the Cerebral Palsy Center in the Sarah Hospital in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Observation of treatment for these children, who displayed limited clinical change, led to the following question, as suggested by discussions from medical deontology: What is the purpose of medical treatment for children with serious cerebral palsy? The results of our research point to social and humanist explanations going beyond the official medical scientific explanation, which limits treatment to corporal mechanicism.
The overall objective of this thesis is to examine in what way ethical theory and ethical analysis can contribute to further understanding of the ethical challenges of the multicultural classroom. Based on the fact that the world is going through a process of globalization and migration, the education-system and daily praxis of teaching is put in front of new ethical challenges. The teacher in the multicultural classroom is on a daily base confronted with various dilemmas regarding for exampl...
Pao-Hung Fu; Fang-Yi Lo
The ethical operation model demonstrated four different types of the ethics by ethical leadership and catalyticmechanics. The objective of this paper was examined the different types ethical operation model but also furtherexplore the model’s antecedents and consequences. The research gap focused on the behavior side of thepractices of the ethics was included in the consequences variables in the paper. We also move further to explorethe antecedents of the ethical operation model. As to the re...
Schneider, B. J.
Society uses animals in ever-increasing numbers and ways, providing ethical challenges. Decisions about animal use are guided by the social consensus ethic towards animals. Because there is no clear social consensus ethic, these decisions are difficult. Society's ethic is changing and a "new ethic" towards animals is emerging. This study addressed the need to better understand society's ethics towards animals. Qualitative research methodology (focus groups) was used to study 7 different anima...
Hinman, Lawrence M.
Created in 1994 by Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego, the Ethics Updates site is designed primarily to be used to ethics instructors and their students. However, the site is rather interesting, so members of the general public may find themselves making a few return visits. Visitors can use the drop-down tabs on the top of the homepage to make their way through sections that cover some of the basic theories of ethics and also learn more about applied ethics in relation to such issues as animal rights, torture, and world hunger. Moving on, the "Resources" area includes case studies for discussion, a glossary of terms, classic texts in ethics, and ethics surveys. The site is rounded out by a search engine and a selection of videos that deal with various topics in ethics.
Fatemeh Shidfar; Saeedeh Sadeghi
During the last decades, gamete donation has been known as an assisted reproductive treatment for infertile couples. This method has raised many ethical issues; one of the dilemmas is the payment between the donor and recipient. In this article we discuss the payment issues in gamete donation. For compiling this article, we searched keywords of "gamete donation, monetary relationship and ethics" in Pubmed and Ovid. "nAfter reviewing the history of gamete donation, the r...
The author, head of a teaching hospital surgical unit, argues that the medical curriculum must ensure that all students are exposed to a minimum of ethical discussion and decision-making. In describing his own approach he emphasises the need to show students that it is 'an intensely practical subject'. Moreover, he reminds them that moral dilemmas in medicine--perhaps a better term than medical ethics--are unavoidable in clinical practice. Professor Johnson emphasises the need for small group...
Savitz, S; Rivlin, M; Savitz, M
The prophylactic use of antibiotics has become a routine procedure in many areas of medicine. In neurosurgery, however, there is considerable debate over their use in the prevention of postoperative infection. We pose several ethical questions about antibiotic prophylaxis in a neurosurgical setting. These questions are discussed under the following categories: responsible usage of antibiotics; the ethical dilemmas of controlled, antibiotic clinical trials, and some problems inherent in not us...
Bennett, Sara; Chanfreau, Catherine
Despite a growing global commitment to the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART), its availability is still likely to be less than the need. This imbalance raises ethical dilemmas about who should be granted access to publicly-subsidized ART programmes. This paper reviews the eligibility and targeting criteria used in four case-study countries at different points in the scale-up of ART, with the aim of drawing lessons regarding ethical approaches to rationing. Mexico, Senegal, Thailand an...
Lategan, Laetus; Hooper, Peter
The focus of this paper is to reflect on research ethics practices at universities and particularly on the additional considerations needed as "enterprise" becomes a key driver across the sector internationally. The outcome of the paper is to identify suitable guidelines for dealing with the management of research ethics in this changing…
Kanungo, Rabindra Nath; Mendonca, Manuel
This book argues that the literature on leadership, especially business leadership, has neglected ethical issues by focusing on approaches and strategies that emphasize individualistic concerns. The book calls for an end to the traditional separation of personal and public morality. It also argues that ethics of leadership is consistent with the…
Defining bioethics as the rational use of dialogue in the formulation, justification, and application of ethical principles, with the aim ofgenerating good practices in research, clinical practice, and advocacy, this paper focuses on methods for bioethical deliberation relevantto psychiatry. Stressing that bioethics fuses the two main ethical traditions in Western thought, the deontological and the teleological, thepaper emphasizes the three conditions that any intervention, ...
Created in 2007, this website is a superb tool for learning about the ethical dilemmas engineers face in areas such as emerging technologies, environment, safety and sustainability, and responsible research. Visitors can learn about various ethical dilemmas via the site's collection of "Cases", "Essays & Articles", "Instructional Resources", and "Other Resources". The "Cases" link contains a fascinating collection of historical cases, hypothetical cases, fictionalized cases, numerical problems, and scenarios. Visitors will find cases that address a killer robot, reverse engineering, Internet privacy, and the real case of a "computerized radiation therapy machine and its software flaws, which caused massive overdoses to patients." The "Instructional Resources" link provides various university syllabi for courses on computers and the Internet, as well as a syllabus for a course for both young people and senior citizens which addresses the future of technology. Visitors will also find an informational article on the misuse of emerging technologies, entitled "Antibiotic Resistance and Dual Use".
MacKenzie, C Ronald; de Melo-Martin, Inmaculada
Chronic diseases compromise the life of the sufferer, encumber their families, and exert intractable burdens on the health-care system. With the aging of the population, such conditions have become the primary determinants of morbidity and mortality and the leading cause of disability in our society. Despite the serious challenges they impose, the ethical discourse engendered by them has lagged behind that of acute care medicine. Of particular relevance are the challenges to individual autonomy, as the dilemmas arising in the chronic care setting have not only medical but personal and societal dimensions, may require the input of multiple participants, and resolve over longer periods of time. As such, the conventional model of autonomy is often inadequate to address problems in the chronic care setting. This paper deals with this dilemma through an examination of a clinical scenario. A framework for the exploration of ethical problems in the chronic care setting is thus presented. PMID:25864103
Full Text Available Increasing the numbers of health workers and improving their skills requires that countries confront a number of ethical dilemmas. The ethical considerations in answering five important questions on enabling health workers to deal appropriately with the circumstances in which they must work are described. These include the problems of the standards of training and practice required in countries with differing levels of socioeconomic development and different priority diseases; how a society can be assured that health practitioners are properly trained; how a health system can support its workers; diversion of health workers and training institutions; and the teaching of ethical principles to student health workers. The ethics of setting standards for the skills and care provided by traditional health-care practitioners are also discussed.
Full Text Available Contemporary medical practice brings a diverse range of professions and disciplines together in greater and closer contact. This situation of increasing complexity and changing professional roles gives rise to multifaceted ethical dilemmas and theoretical and practical concerns. In this essay we argue that for multidisciplinary relationships to be facilitated and to progress towards interdisciplinary teamwork, moral agents have to go beyond orthodox ethical systems and appeal to normative theory. We will argue that conceptualising ethics as a shared social practice may provide a useful starting point. This dialogic approach places greater emphasis on open deliberation and the articulation, negotiation, exploration and generation of new ethical perspectives in the here and now of clinical practice.
Cronin, V. S.; Di Capua, G.; Palinkas, C. M.; Pappas Maenz, C.; Peppoloni, S.; Ryan, A. M.
The need to promote ethical practice in the geosciences has long been recognized. Governmental boards for licensing professional geoscientists commonly require participation in continuing-education courses or workshops about professional ethics as part of the license-renewal processes. Geoscience-based companies and organizations of professional geoscientists have developed ethical codes for their members or employees. Ethical problems have been reported that involve the practice of science applied to Earth studies, interpersonal relationships within geoscience departments, business practices in geoscience-based companies, field work and the destructive modification of geologic sites, public policy development or implementation related to Earth resources, extractive resource industries, development that modifies landscapes in significant ways, interactions with the press and other media professionals, and even interactions with individuals or groups that have a significantly different worldview. We are working toward the creation of a modular semester-long course in GeoEthics. The modules will be free-standing, so each could be repurposed for use in a different course; however, the GeoEthics course will provide a useful overall introduction to a variety of topics in ethics applied in the context of geoscience. Such a course might be an excellent capstone course for undergraduate geoscientists, or an introductory course for graduate students. The first module will cover basics intended to provide a common vocabulary of words, ideas and practices that will be used throughout the course. The remaining 5-6 modules will focus on aspects of geoscience in which ethical considerations play an important role. We feel that the geoscience classroom can provide a safe, controlled environment in which students can confront a representative sample of the types of ethical issues they might encounter in their professional or academic careers. Our goal is to help students develop effective strategies for working through these dilemmas. Our modules will utilize formal discussion, role-playing, debate, and reflective writing, among other techniques. We hope that this will lead students to internalize these lessons so that they lead careers in which ethical practice is an essential element.
Klijn, E. H.; Edelenbos, J.; Twist, M. J. W.; Kort, M. B.
This article looks at how managers in large infrastructure projects in The Netherlands deal with difficult choices, which are labelled as dilemmas in this article, in their managerial activities. It presents the results of a survey of 32 managers in 18 complex decision-making projects in which public-private partnerships (PPPs) play an important role. The managers were presented with a number of choices and asked to rate the amount of attention they paid to each of the choices. The article fo...
Braunack-Mayer, A. J.
Whilst there has been considerable debate about the fit between moral theory and moral reasoning in everyday life, the way in which moral problems are defined has rarely been questioned. This paper presents a qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with 15 general practitioners (GPs) in South Australia to argue that the way in which the bioethics literature defines an ethical dilemma captures only some of the range of lay views about the nature of ethical problems. The bioethics literatu...
Full Text Available Image manipulation using computer technology has become a basic skill required in various graphics dependent industries such as advertising, and the print and electronic media, and for specialist use in institutions for in-house and on-line publishing and the creation of Web pages. The 'seamless' alteration of photographs and other visual images made possible by computer technology has allowed misrepresentation with intent to deceive, and difficulty in establishing copyright of original images. The dilemma in teaching techniques of image manipulation is to create a basis for ethical practice HCI in this paper refers to the ethics/skills interface in the education and work of multimedia practitioners.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the features of whistleblowing by considering the arguments about whistleblowing in engineering ethics. First, I analyze the concept of ‘whistleblowing’ by defining the word as clearly as possible. Second, I examine the standard justification theory of whistleblowing by showing the problems of the theory. Finally, I analyze the dilemma about whistleblowing by revealing a prospective whistleblower?s struggle to choose moral value or non-moral value.
M. Rosa BUXARRAIS ESTRADA
Full Text Available One of the main challenges currently facing education is the incorporation of the ethics of compassion at the theoretical level as well as in educational practice. This article outlines the main arguments that permit us to introduce a sentiment of compassion in the pedagogical proposals for moral education. Emphasis is placed on the complementary nature of ethics and moral development which, under various denominations, consider similar aspects: ethics of moral sentiments; ethics of care and responsibility; ethics of otherness; and ethics of hospitality among others. Finally, we arrive at two features that should be considered when implementing the teaching of compassion in the moral realm: the relationship between students and teachers, and the narrative focus in moral development.
Full Text Available In this paper I employ Goodenough´s distinction between films that illustrate, are about and do philosophy to answer the question how we can identify the ethical content of movies. Crimes and Misdemeanors by Woody Allen is taken as an example but Mary L. Litch has argued that this movie illustrates ethical problems and is about ethics. On Litch´s reading the film reveals inherent flaws in utilitarianism and illustrates a Kantian insight as well as other ethical and religious theses. I argue, however, that Litch has relied on a too narrow method when identifying the ethics of Crimes and Misdemeanors. She focuses almost exclusively on dialogue and the general storyline. If we broaden our method to include sensitivity to filming, editing, camera angulation etc., we will not only realize a rather different ethical content in Crimes and Misdemeanors but also see how the movie stirkes close to home for most viewers of Hollywood movies.
Md Abdul Jalil; Ferdous Azam; Muhammad Khalilur Rahman
Ethics and ethical behavior are issues which are increasingly being focused on the business community today. People are becoming more concerned about what is actually happening in business organizations in the name of competition, growth, and profitability. Organizations are crossing the red zone of ethics and ethical behaviors. A growing number of organizations are constantly surveying and evaluating the unethical practice in business organizations worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to ...
An outstanding feature of the study of nursing ethics is that it raises questions concerning moral virtue, conscience, consistency and character. A considerable section of the literature is devoted to ideas of how best to teach ethics to health professionals. It has been shown that when faced with ethical dilemmas nurses tended to rely on intuition and instinct to resolve them, with little systematic analysis to help the process. Nurses who have been in practice for a number of years may expe...
Abstract Background The four principles of Beauchamp and Childress - autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice - have been extremely influential in the field of medical ethics, and are fundamental for understanding the current approach to ethical assessment in health care. This study tests whether these principles can be quantitatively measured on an individual level, and then subsequently if they are used in the decision making process when individuals are faced with ethical dilemma...
This article analyses decision-making processes concerning applications for family immigration to Norway by giving an account of the dilemmas and challenges faced by the employees of the Norwegian immigration administration. I argue that these civil servants negotiate two somewhat different ethical principles where the foundation for ethical conduct is either emotion or reason. The article investigates the ethical potential of bureaucracy and aims to contribute to sociological debates about e...
This article analyses decision-making processes concerning applications for family immigration to Norway by giving an account of the dilemmas and challenges faced by the employees of the Norwegian immigration administration. I argue that these civil servants negotiate two somewhat different ethical principles where the foundation for ethical conduct is either emotion or reason. The article investigates the ethical potential of bureaucracy and aims to contribute to sociological debates about e...
Avins, A. L.
Randomised clinical trials provide the most valid means of establishing the efficacy of clinical therapeutics. Ethical standards dictate that patients and clinicians should not consent to randomisation unless there is uncertainty about whether any of the treatment options is superior to the others ("equipoise"). However, true equipoise is rarely present; most randomised trials, therefore, present challenging ethical dilemmas. Minimising the tension between science and ethics is an obligation ...
Kastenberg, Zachary J; Odorico, Jon S
Despite many advances in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) technology the ethical dilemma involving the destruction of a human embryo is one factor that has limited the development of hESC based clinical therapies. Two recent reports describing the production of pluripotent stem cells following the in vitro reprogramming of human somatic cells with certain defined factors illustrate one potential method of bypassing the ethical debate surrounding hESCs (Yu J, Vodyanik MA, Smuga-Otto K, et al. Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from human somatic cells. Science. 2007 Dec;318(5858):1917-1920; Takahashi K, Tanabe K, Ohnuki M, et al. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors. Cell. 2007 Nov;131(5): 861-872.). Other alternative methods include nuclear transfer, altered nuclear transfer, and parthenogenesis; each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. This review discusses recent advances in these technologies with specific focus on the issues of embryo destruction, oocyte recovery, and the potential of each technology to produce large scale, patient specific cell transplantation therapies that would require little or no immunosuppression. PMID:18631882
Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed
Elliott, Glenda R.
Based on the core conditions of client-centered counseling and supported by aspects of psychodynamic, cognitive developmental, and behavioral theories, a perspective is introduced that provides a resolution to the dilemma experienced by counselors and counseling students whose personal values and beliefs conflict with the ethical guidelines of the…
The television series ER presents an opportunity to reflect on ethical dilemmas. This article discusses the example of an episode in which a patient suffering from an incurable disease, unable to express his views clearly, has a tracheotomy performed on him without the consent of the team or his health care proxy. PMID:23776983
Dresden, Elissa; McElmurry, Beverly J.; McCreary, Linda L.
Case studies depict dilemmas in nursing research involving protection of community rights and community informed consent. Outlines research guidelines derived from communitarian ethical frameworks that consider beneficence, justice, and respect for autonomy in the context of community. (Contains 58 references.) (SK)
This paper examines the appropriateness of the case study approach, commonly used in medical and law schools, for prospective and inservice teachers in schools of education. Developing courses in which case studies would be used to illustrate moral dilemmas would aid teachers in examining their ethical principles, weighing moral issues, and…
Rezler, Agnes G.; And Others
This project evaluated and compared the values used by medical and law students when dealing with ethical dilemmas in the practice of law and medicine. The Professional Decisions and Values Test was given to 77 medical students and 92 law students. Differences were noted on beneficence, professional responsibility, and harm avoidance. (MLW)
Full Text Available Practitioners in the hospitality sector rate ethics as one of the most important issues faced by the industry. Manyscholars argue that the hospitality sector is open to frequent unethical practices. Managers and employees, due tointensive face-to-face interactions with clients, confront many ethical dilemmas in their day-to-day operations.Previous research confirms that a positive ethical climate nurtures a healthy organization by increasing managerand employee job satisfaction, enhancing customer experience, and increasing the organization’s profit. Despiteits crucial role, studies on ethics in the hospitality industry are limited compared to those undertaken in the moregeneral business area. This manuscript reviews the literature on ethical perceptions and practices amonghospitality managers, employees and students (future professionals, and proposes a research agenda. This criticreview intends to increase awareness and knowledge on the importance of this issue and give some orientationsfor scholars towards several important topics for future research in the area of hospitality ethics.
Shank, Daniel B; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Saber, Saam; Gale, Thomas; Kirley, Michael
Empirical findings on public goods dilemmas indicate an unresolved dilemma: that increasing size-the number of people in the dilemma-sometimes increases, decreases, or does not influence cooperation. We clarify this dilemma by first classifying public goods dilemma properties that specify individual outcomes as individual properties (e.g., Marginal Per Capita Return) and group outcomes as group properties (e.g., public good multiplier), mathematically showing how only one set of properties can remain constant as the dilemma size increases. Underpinning decision-making regarding individual and group properties, we propose that individuals are motivated by both individual and group preferences based on a theory of collective rationality. We use Van Lange's integrated model of social value orientations to operationalize these preferences as an amalgamation of outcomes for self, outcomes for others, and equality of outcomes. Based on this model, we then predict how the public good's benefit and size, combined with controlling individual versus group properties, produce different levels of cooperation in public goods dilemmas. A two (low vs. high benefit) by three (2-person baseline vs. 5-person holding constant individual properties vs. 5-person holding constant group properties) factorial experiment (group n = 99; participant n = 390) confirms our hypotheses. The results indicate that when holding constant group properties, size decreases cooperation. Yet when holding constant individual properties, size increases cooperation when benefit is low and does not affect cooperation when benefit is high. Using agent-based simulations of individual and group preferences vis-à-vis the integrative model, we fit a weighted simulation model to the empirical data. This fitted model is sufficient to reproduce the empirical results, but only when both individual (self-interest) and group (other-interest and equality) preference are included. Our research contributes to understanding how people's motivations and behaviors within public goods dilemmas interact with the properties of the dilemma to lead to collective outcomes. PMID:25799355
Full Text Available The methodological divisions in ethics result in fundamental consequences both on the conceptual level and in the practical applicability of such ethics. These divisions arise from broader theoretical positions, however they are also the work of individual moral sensibilities or 'moral instincts', as they are called at least in the Hegelian tradition. The deontological, consequentialist, vrtue-, developmental and other methodological models of ethics have facilitated a miltiplication of standards of ethical argument. This process has been intellectually productive, however at the same time it has created significant problems for practical philosophy, especially for applied philosophical areas which require a clearly defined and specific referential relationship between the key values formative of the respective ethical models on the one hand, and the concrete moral challenges encountered by the proponents of such ethics, on the other. The contemporary, value- and methodologically transformative age, requires ethics to go beyond the methodological and conceptual reductionism and adopt a synthetic and eclectic approach to moral argument. The first question to be asked in this context is what types of already available normative ethical models might be reinterpreted and further developed into synthetic ethics. This paper discusses the ethics of asceticism, primarily in the form of Christian ethics, as a good candidate for a comprehensive and synthetic ethics. The paper purports to elucidate, on various levels, the potential of ascetic ethics to integrate elements of eudaimonistic ethics, duty ethics, virtue-ethics, consequentialist and deontological ethical methodologies. To do so the paper focuses two key and, at least by my lights, provocative questions: (1 To what extent the ethics of asceticism is 'negative' and based solely on the principles of self-denial, and to what extent is it able to incorporate a positive dynamic content? In other words, can the ascetic Christian ethics be interpreted so that it is able to integrate the concept of pleasure in the meaning of 'eudaimonia'? (2 Is an ascetic ethics able to generate specific moral questions instrumental to a moral justification of asctions, which would meaningfully integrate the various methods of ethical argument (minimally the deontological, consequentialist and virtue-ethics? If this consideration is able to show that ascetic ethics can achieve both goals, one could reasonably conclude that it is a good candidate for a general eclectic ethics. Of course, this would not automatically mean that the asectic ethics is the only potentially synthetic ethics, however it would facilitate a broader conceptualisation of asceticism as a practical way of moral thinking geared towards achieving a 'good life'. At the same time, such a consideration might open an additional inroad into the formulation of general criteria which practical philosophy, and especially ethics, would need to fulfil in order to address the composite and synthetic issues that life in a transformative age presents.
Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego provides ethics students with a unique kind of meta-page where the user can choose from a wide array of information formats within each of the 23 topics under the main sub-headings of ethical theory and applied ethics. Topics covered include ethical relativism, utilitarianism, race and ethnicity, and euthanasia, among others. Information formats include links to web sites, bibliographies, court decisions, legislation, relevant documents, and articles in popular and professional literature. Much of the site content is adapted from Hinman's books.
Bolton, Gary E.; Brandts, Jordi; Katok, E.
We test six hypotheses for contributions in dilemma games, a category that includes the prisoner's dilemma and public goods games. Our experiment focuses specifically on the strategic interdependence of contributing behavior, and manipulates the strategy space of a two-person dilemma game especially designed for the task. The hypothesis that contributors have non-linear preferences over own and the other player's payoffs accurately matches the strategic pattern of contributing that we observe...
This paper raises the issue of research methodology for intellectual capital and other types of management research by focusing on the dilemma of rigour versus relevance. The more traditional explanatory approach to research often leads to rigorous results that are not of much help to solve practical problems. This paper describes an alternative…
How does one conduct, measure and record a ‘good’ ethical review of biomedical research? To what extent do ethics committees invoke professionalism in researchers and in themselves, and to what extent do they see competence as adherence to a set of standard operating procedures for ethical review? Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork with the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a capacity-building NGO that runs ethics committee trainings and reviews in the Asia Pacific region, I develop an analysis of ethical review and its effects. I focus on a ‘second-order audit’ run by FERCAP, which recognises committees according to a set of standards that are designed to render ‘local’ committees internationally legible. The article adds to a growing comparative literature that expands studies of audit-like measuring and disciplining activities beyond western contexts and enriches readings of ‘ethics’. I begin and end with a reflection on the ethical effects of a measurement practice that takes ethics itself as its object.
Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl
With focus on the role of integrity in relation to business ethics versus economic strategy the chapter contains following sections: 1. The concept of organizational integrity as a moral notion as it is described in the work of Lynn-Sharp Paine on organizational integrity. 2. The concept of integrity as an economic notion as it is described in the recent work of Michael Jensen. This section will discuss recent efforts in the business economics literature to consider integrity as an important notion of strategy. 3. Paine contra Jensen: A virtue or a workability concept of integrity. Here the authors discuss the basic dilemmas and problems of integrating integrity, economic performance and strategy in the perspective of the two theories of about integrity of Paine and Jensen.
This book offers an overview of the ethical problems posed by Information Warfare, and of the different approaches and methods used to solve them, in order to provide the reader with a better grasp of the ethical conundrums posed by this new form of warfare.The volume is divided into three parts, each comprising four chapters. The first part focuses on issues pertaining to the concept of Information Warfare and the clarifications that need to be made in order to address its ethical implications. The second part collects contributions focusing on Just War Theory and its application to the case
The IARC's 2004 classification of formaldehyde as a human carcinogen has led to intensive discussion on scientific and regulatory levels. In June 2014, the European Union followed and classified formaldehyde as a cause of cancer. This automatically triggers consequences in terms of emission minimization and the health-related assessment of building and consumer products. On the other hand, authorities are demanding and authorizing technologies and products which can release significant quantities of formaldehyde into the atmosphere. In the outdoor environment, this particularly applies to combusting fuels. The formation of formaldehyde through photochemical smog has also been a recognized problem for years. Indoors there are various processes which can contribute to increased formaldehyde concentrations. Overall, legislation faces a dilemma: primary sources are often over-regulated while a lack of consideration of secondary sources negates the regulations' effects. PMID:25772784
Energy companies face several crucial investment dilemmas in the liberalized energy market. These are: the availability of energy sources, feed-in tariffs, market positioning and consumer satisfaction. Research analyzes profitability of the Cogeneration (Combined Heat and Power, CHP) project in the city of Rijeka. The CHP is designed to provide district heating for the University campus, the Hospital and active private consumers of district heating, and bring about further sales of electricity. Revitalization of the CHP project comprises necessary adaptive actions in the distribution power system but also real time monitoring, which enables the CHP island operation, with uninterrupted electric and thermal energy supply of critical consumers (e.g. hospital) in case of a serious disturbance. Results indicate the project profitability under several conditions: non-government regulation for heating price, feed-in tariffs and guaranteed sale of electricity together with added value from automatic control system (ACS)–island operation.
Andrew, Jennifer; Robottom, Ian
Ethical issues concerning pain and suffering of animals are necessarily a consideration when it comes to killing pest or feral species in Australia. Within a continent where there are no large predators, many introduced animal species such as rabbits, foxes, horses, donkeys, camels, goats, and mice have been able to thrive, competing with the interests of farmers and graziers, and livestock and food production. These species, thus, gain the label of pest. Many methods now exist to kill these species and, consequently, ethical issues arise concerning the possible pain and suffering caused as a direct result of these methods. Yet within government and scientific communities, ethical issues are reduced to a secondary consideration without serious debate or contention. Ethical issues appear to be at odds with scientific agendas. How can environmental ethics be incorporated as part of science-based decision making that appeals to objectivity and scientific evidence? Within educational institutions as well, the same dilemma exists: How can ethical issues be addressed within the science curriculum and in the classroom? A greater understanding of various perspectives on the subject of environmental ethics and the value positions advocated by proponents of these perspectives may help teachers consider ways of handling such issues in the science classroom.
Lipowski, A; Lipowski, Adam; Ferreira, Antonio L.
Each year perhaps millions of young people face the following dilemma: should I continue my education or rather start working with already acquired skills. Right decision must take into account somebody's own abilities, accessibility to education institutions, competition, and potential benefits. A multi-agent, evolutionary model of this dilemma predicts a transition between stratified and homogeneous phases, evolution that diminishes fitness, fewer applicants per seat for decreased capacity of the university, and presence of poor students at \\'elite universities.
The Ethics CORE Digital Library, funded by the National Science Foundation, "brings together information on best practices in research, ethics instruction and responding to ethical problems that arise in research and professional life." It's a remarkable site where visitors can make their way through ethics resources for dozens of different professions and activities. The Resources by Discipline area is a great place to start. Here you will find materials related to the biological sciences, business, computer & information science, along with 14 additional disciplines. The Current News area is a great place to learn about the latest updates from the field. Of note, these pieces can easily be used in the classroom or shared with colleagues. The dynamism of the site can be found at the Interact with Ethics CORE area. Active learning exercises can be found here, along with instructional materials and visitors' own lessons learned.
Full Text Available Ethics has become an important part in the interaction among humans being. This paper specifically discusses applied ethics as one type of ethics. There are three applied ethics that will be reviewed in this paper, i.e. computer ethics, information ethics, and cyber ethics. There are two aspects of the three applied ethics that were reviewed, i.e. their definition and the issues associated with them. The reviewing results of the three applied ethics are then used for defining e-Government ethics and formulating the issues of e-Government ethics. The e-Government ethics position, based on the previous three applied ethics, is also described in this paper. Computer ethics, information ethics and cyber ethics are considered as the foundations of e-Government ethics and several others applied ethics could enrich the e-Government ethics.
Hacia el enunciado de dilemas éticos sobre la enfermedad de Alzheimer precoz, en Antioquia, Colombia / TOWARDS THE ENUNCIATION OF ETHICAL DILEMMAS REGARDING EARLY ONSET ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE IN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA
ANTONIO, GARCÍA; FRANCISCO, LOPERA; LUCÍA, MADRIGAL; JORGE, OSSA.
Full Text Available HEMOS TRATADO DE PRESENTAR, principalmente, aspectos legales y morales que tienen que ver con la enfermedad de Alzheimer de inicio precoz, con énfasis en la situación epidemiológica de Antioquia, Colombia. Más allá de la discusión moderna sobre los aspectos moleculares, queremos enfocarnos en las co [...] ndiciones objetivas de nuestros pacientes y sus familias incluídas sus condiciones socioeconómicas. Esperamos que, ojalá más temprano que tarde, nuestras reflexiones sean de importancia práctica y, eventualmente, que sean también de utilidad para otros grupos humanos en condiciones similares. Abstract in english THIS PAPER discusses moral and legal aspects regarding early onset Alzheimer’s Disease (EOAD) focusing on the epidemiological situation in Antioquia, Colombia. Beyond modern discussions on molecular aspects of genetic diseases we want to try to look at the objective situation of our patients, their [...] families and their socioeconomic environments. It is our hope that as soon as possible our thoughts could be of practical help. Eventually, some of these reflections may be applicable to other human groups under similar conditions.
Cavaliere, Frank J.; Mulvaney, Toni P.; Swerdlow, Marleen R.
Our country is faced with a financial crisis of mammoth proportions: a crisis rooted in ethics, or rather, the lack of ethics. Critics are increasingly complaining that business schools focus too much teaching effort on maximizing shareholder value, with only a limited understanding of ethical and social aspects of business leadership. Business…
Bech-Larsen, Tino; Jensen, Birger Boutrup
Purpose – Snacking has been characterized as normatively unrestricted and identified as one of the main causes of adolescent obesity. The purpose of this paper is not to question the relation between obesity and snacking, but to ask to which extent adolescent snacking is socially unrestricted and to explore adolescent perceptions of the potential conventions and dilemmas involved in snacking. Design/methodology/approach – Referring to previous research in food choice dilemmas and conventions, the paper starts out by discussing potential implications for adolescent snacking in different social contexts. Following this, the design, implementation and results of three focus groups, aiming at an exploration of adolescent snacking perceptions is described. Findings – By identifying two distinct forms of adolescent snacking, i.e. “in-between meals” and “fun snacks”, the results of the focus groups falsify the perception of snacking as socially unrestricted and offer some interesting insights into the conventions, personal dilemmas and intergenerational conflicts which characterize adolescent snacking. Social implications – The classification of snacking as unrestricted of social norms is both unwarranted and counterproductive to the understanding – and subsequently the mitigation – of the relation between snacking and obesity. Originality/value – Apart from falsifying the classification of snacking as unrestricted of social norms, the study contributes by devising a focus group design for elicitation of social norms and dilemmas. Recognizing that the study is just a first step towards a comprehensive understanding of adolescent snacking and that facilitation of healthier snacking behaviors requires such an understanding, recommendations for further research are given.
Thorsteinsdottir, Bjorg; Swetz, Keith M; Tilburt, Jon C
The current practice of hemodialysis for the frail elderly frequently ignores core bioethical principles. Lack of transparency and shared decision making coupled with financial incentives to treat have resulted in problems of overtreatment near the end of life. Imminent changes in reimbursement for hemodialysis will reverse the financial incentives to favor not treating high-risk patients. In this article, we describe what is empirically known about the approach to hemodialysis today, and how it violates four core ethical principles. We then discuss how the new financial system turns physician and organizational incentives upside down in ways that may exacerbate the ethical dilemmas, but in the opposite direction. PMID:23686511
Full Text Available This summative evaluation is the result of two years’ of data reflecting the impact of an ethics class in terms of students’ ethical decision-making. The research compares aggregate responses from scenario-based pre- and post-survey open-ended survey questions designed to measure changes in ethical decision-making by comparing students’ cognitive and affective perceptions about ethical workplace behavior. Grounded in constructivist theory, which explains how individuals “know” and “come to know something (Reeves, 2003, this intervention of an ethics class encourages students to make better and more informed ethical decisions in the workplace based on their understanding of their value and belief system. The findings suggest the intervention of an ethics class informed students’ cognitive and affective perceptions based on individual value and belief systems, strengthened student’s ability to remain open-minded and reconsider previous beliefs and actions from a 360 degree perspective, and increased student’s ability to apply new information to ethical dilemmas in the workplace.
Full Text Available This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169. Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15. 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34 and Strauss and Corbin (1990. The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990. The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985 and Morse (1994 related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based on these findings the researcher concluded that nurses are not thinking critically when making ethical decisions concerning the termination of pregnancies. Recommendations are made as a possible solution for this problem.
Bon, Susan C.; Bigbee, Adam J.
Special education teachers who also serve as case managers for students with disabilities are in unique leadership positions in which they face complex ethical dilemmas and are called on to make decisions that involve multiple competing interests and pressures. The purpose of this study was to explore how special education leaders identify ethical…
Prof. Ph.D. Cãtãlina Bonciu
Full Text Available In the contemporary business world ethics represents one of the most exciting challenges,precisely because there is still no universally valid modality for solving a problem of this kind. Adopting anethic personal behavior does not always ensure winning in the problems regarding the actual business, norin the organizational behavior itself. The personal values, either native or gained by an individual throughouthis socializing do not represent a support or advantage in the attitude towards the economic life. What is it that actually concerns the managers:to succeed in their activity or to have an ethic activity? A successful business is necessarily an ethic one, or one lacking ethics? In particular, should the human resources manager choose the human factor of solid moral and ethic grounds, or the one exclusively focused on money quantifiable performance?
Brondani, Mario A; Rossoff, Lawrence P
The subject of ethics and the teaching of skills associated with ethical reasoning in a predoctoral dental curriculum are as important as clinical skills development, but there is no single approach to teaching ethics in dentistry. This article aims to describe the didactic approach used to teach dental ethics and ethical reasoning in the first year of the D.M.D. curriculum at the University of British Columbia. This descriptive article discusses three main pedagogies employed to teach ethics: the "hot seat" experience via a role-play with a trained actor (standardized patient, SP); small-group presentations of a case workup deconstructing an ethical dilemma; and student reflections from the SP encounters. The approach to dental ethics presented here does not profess to make an otherwise unethical person ethical, but it can give all students the tools to recognize when a dilemma exists, use a process to reason ethically, and ultimately make a good decision. The "hot seat" and the case workup approaches have had a positive impact upon students as illustrated through their reflections; however, further study is needed to better understand the implications of ethical issues in both academic and professional settings. PMID:21045227
Anker, Thomas Boysen; SandØe, Peter
Commercial food health branding is a challenging branch of marketing because it might, at the same time, promote healthy living and be commercially viable. However, the power to influence individuals’ health behavior and overall health status makes it crucial for marketing professionals to take into account the ethical dimensions of health branding: this article presents a conceptual analysis of potential ethical problems in health branding. The analysis focuses on ethical concerns related to the application of three health brand elements (functional claims, process claims, and health symbols) as well as a number of general concerns that apply to health branding as such. Being a pioneering analysis, this article advances the academic understanding of health branding and provides practitioners with knowledge of important concerns to take into account when marketing health brands.
Ethical and epidemiological dilemmas in the treatment of dogs for visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America / Dilema ético y epidemiológico sobre el tratamiento de perros para la leishmaniasis visceral en América Latina
Bruno L, Travi.
Full Text Available En las Américas hay entre 4.500 y 6.800 casos anuales de leishmaniasis visceral grave y se estima que la mortalidad varía entre 7 y 10 %. Sin embargo, el subregistro y las infecciones subclínicas enmascaran la importancia epidemiológica real de la leishmaniasis visceral. Los esfuerzos de control que [...] típicamente se han enfocado en la aspersión de insecticidas contra los flebotomíneos vectores y el sacrificio de perros, han arrojado resultados dispares. No obstante, miles de perros se sacrifican cada año en países endémicos para leishmaniasis visceral. Además, los lineamientos actuales de los programas de control de la leishmaniasis han prohibido el tratamiento de perros con medicamentos de uso humano, mientras que otras drogas resultan en altas tasas de recaída. La sociedad requiere que los programas de control tengan un manejo más humanitario enfocado a limitar el sacrificio canino. Hay una necesidad urgente de promover la tenencia responsable de los perros y apoyar la investigación en: a) terapias veterinarias novedosas, b) diagnósticos moleculares de bajo costo y c) determinación de los umbrales de capacidad infecciosa canina para el manejo adecuado del reservorio. Abstract in english In the Americas there are between 4,500 and 6,800 annual cases of severe visceral leishmaniasis, and mortality is estimated to range between 7 and 10%. However, underreporting and subclinical infections mask the real epidemiological importance of visceral leishmaniasis. Control efforts, which have t [...] ypically focused on insecticide spraying of sand fly vectors and dog culling, have yielded disparate results. Nevertheless, thousands of dogs are sacrificed each year in countries endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. Additionally, current guidelines of leishmaniasis control programs have banned dog treatment with drugs of human use while therapy with other drugs resulted in high rates of relapses. Society requires that control programs take a more humanitarian approach aimed at limiting dog culling. There is an urgent need to promote responsible dog-ownership and support research on: a) novel veterinary therapies, b) low-cost molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis, and c) determination of dog infectivity threshold for proper reservoir management.
Padela, Aasim I
Modern medical practice is becoming increasingly pluralistic and diverse. Hence, cultural competency and awareness are given more focus in physician training seminars and within medical school curricula. A renewed interest in describing the varied ethical constructs of specific populations has taken place within medical literature. This paper aims to provide an overview of Islamic Medical Ethics. Beginning with a definition of Islamic Medical Ethics, the reader will be introduced to the scope of Islamic Medical Ethics literature, from that aimed at developing moral character to writings grounded in Islamic law. In the latter form, there is an attempt to derive an Islamic perspective on bioethical issues such as abortion, gender relations within the patient-doctor relationship, end-of-life care and euthanasia. It is hoped that the insights gained will aid both clinicians and ethicists to better understand the Islamic paradigm of medical ethics and thereby positively affect patient care. PMID:17845488
Mattila, Mika; Andersson, Linda
Abstract: In this study we have turned to the complex host-country environment of China to investigate Swedish companies doing business in a highly corrupt business context to see which dilemmas managers meet and their approaches to these dilemmas. The importance of adapting to the local culture and environment is something researchers stress in the business literature. In the beginning of our study we ask if the same statement is true when it comes to ethical decision making and from the fin...
Solihu, Abdul Kabir Hussain; Ambali, Abdul Rauf
The goal of responsible engineers is the creation of useful and safe technological products and commitment to public health, while respecting the autonomy of the clients and the public. Because engineers often face moral dilemma to resolve such issues, different engineers have chosen different course of actions depending on their respective moral value orientations. Islam provides a value-based mechanism rooted in the Maqasid al-Shari'ah (the objectives of Islamic law). This mechanism prioritizes some values over others and could help resolve the moral dilemmas faced in engineering. This paper introduces the Islamic interpretive-evaluative maxims to two core issues in engineering ethics: genetically modified foods and whistleblowing. The study aims primarily to provide problem-solving maxims within the Maqasid al-Shari'ah matrix through which such moral dilemmas in science and engineering could be studied and resolved. PMID:19937149
Full Text Available In his book In Defense of Pure Reason Laurence BonJour proposed an account of a priori justification which essentially refers to so-called rational insights. Unfortunately, the reader is not equipped with a substantial answer to the question what such rational insights exactly are. And moreover, he is told that this is not an in any way decisive shortcoming of BonJour’s account of a priori justification — at least not a shortcoming which should motivate us to abandon his account. In order to support this thesis, BonJour refers to an analogy between the case of rational insights and the case of consciousness. He points out that we would not give up the use of the notion of consciousness, in spite of the fact that today there is still no satisfying answer to the question what consciousness exactly is. I will argue that the analogy BonJour refers to is in fact a persuasive one and can help him as well as other proponents of the rational-insight account to deal with some prominent objections. But taking the analogy seriously does consequently mean to undermine a favourite rationalist’s thesis: the autonomy claim. I conclude that the rationalist is confronted with a dilemma; he simply cannot have it both ways.
Rasmussen, Annette; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard
In ethnographic research the direct involvement and long-term engagement of the researcher constitute key elements. Acknowledgements of numerous publications resulting from ethnographic studies illustrate that the researchers are often deeply indebted to the research subjects for allowing the researchers to follow them around. Thus it is impossible to carry out ethnographic work without obtaining access, getting involved in, and sharing the lives of the people that are subjects to such studies. Gaining the access, which is clearly in the interest – even a prerequisite – of the ethnographer, might constitute a problem in itself, as it actualizes the question of the interest of the research to the participants. Why should they allow the researcher to enter and describe their circumstances of life? What kind of interest might they have or accept in sharing their experiences with a researcher? Once having gained access to participate in and describe the lives of the participants of a given context, the next ethical question facing the researcher is the one of involvement. Again, the researcher has an interest in obtaining as much confidence as possible, whereas the interest of the observed subjects might be more dubious and a matter of difficulty to handle by the researcher. The obvious dilemma of conflicting interests and difficult handling of proximity is our focus of interest in this paper: One side of this dilemma is to ask the question, how close you need to go to obtain the confidence of the participants in the research context and the necessary in-depth insight to understand their cultures and conditions of life. Another side of it is to ask, how close you can go without violating in a symbolic sense the lives of the participants and their rights of privacy. This further raises the question, how does the presence of the researcher alter the dynamics of the observed reality and the lives of the people in it? Not a new question asked in research, but still a necessary and ethical question to ask and deal with in any ethnographic work, and for the authors of the paper an important question in planning a longitudinal, ethnographic study of children labeled as talented athletes joggling school, training, competition, friends, and family. The study plan includes a vision of following the children in their daily lives in a way that is inspired by the intensive data-gathering techniques employed by Annette Lareau in her study of family patterns in the USA (Lareau, 2011). This raises preliminary questions as to how such a fieldwork can be carried out; both to ensure the necessary provision of empirical data to carry out ethnographic analyses and challenge existing theoretical frameworks, and to ensure that the subjects under scrutiny are not subject to ethical violations. With this in mind the above dilemmas of proximity will be addressed and discussed in our paper.
Robeyns, I. A. M.
The capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological theories, virtue ethics, or pragmatism. As I will argue in this chapter, at present the core of the capability approach is an account of value, which together with some other (more minor) normative commitments adds...
Full Text Available Ethics contain a set of principles of personal and professional conduct .The concept of Business ethics relates itself to the norms and the ideals businessman and business groups adopt in course of their activities in business .Business ethics is an assertion of “be good” and “do good” in business. Ethical business practices has been a blessing to the enterprises as it ensures faith in society ,government trust ,business partners trust .on the other hand unethical business practices /behavior are may be the feel good factor in the short run for earning secret profit but prove as a monster in the long run as it leave a big spot on the enterprise image by indulging in activities like Black Marketing ,False Advertisement, Tax evasion etc .Thus it is the foremost duty of each enterprise to run its business on ethical grounds so that they can attain customers retention as well as employees retention in the long run and should not have a greed for becoming prey of unethical business practices thereby ditching the society as a whole .The principles laid down by IBE (Institute of Business Ethics ,London should be followed with sincerity by all enterprise leading to a trustworthy environment all around .
Full Text Available This article explores how Applied Ethics, especially Business Ethics, is taught at the University of South Africa (Unisa. This discussion refers to the content of a particular Unisa module, Theoretical and Applied Ethics, which serves as an introduction to Bio-medical Ethics, Business Ethics and Environmental Ethics. The fundamentals of this course are: defining ethics; providing methods for moral decision-making; describing the role of ethics in a particular field and addressing common dilemmas in a specific context. The intention is to empower students to identify issues they are likely to face in the workplace, and to grow in confidence in their ability to make sound moral decisions when required to do so. The aim of this article is to contribute to the ongoing discussion between tertiary institutions about how the teaching of Business Ethics can be promoted, how moral decision-making in the workplace can be encouraged and what role theological ethics can play in this regard.
Louise, Kretzschmar; Wessel, Bentley.
Full Text Available This article explores how Applied Ethics, especially Business Ethics, is taught at the University of South Africa (Unisa). This discussion refers to the content of a particular Unisa module, Theoretical and Applied Ethics, which serves as an introduction to Bio-medical Ethics, Business Ethics and En [...] vironmental Ethics. The fundamentals of this course are: defining ethics; providing methods for moral decision-making; describing the role of ethics in a particular field and addressing common dilemmas in a specific context. The intention is to empower students to identify issues they are likely to face in the workplace, and to grow in confidence in their ability to make sound moral decisions when required to do so. The aim of this article is to contribute to the ongoing discussion between tertiary institutions about how the teaching of Business Ethics can be promoted, how moral decision-making in the workplace can be encouraged and what role theological ethics can play in this regard.
One may purport that ones' awareness of space for scientific purposes comes about from a potential awareness of its' absence that is derived from times when ones attention is not focused on it. Yet simply one might extract the notion that space and entailed properties of it are elemental —i.e. conceptually non reducible and that from which all emanates. The words non-ethical induction, entailing the existence of ethical induction, if compared in a corresponding manner (to indivisible space ...
Buxton, Margaret; Phillippi, Julia C; Collins, Michelle R
The importance of ethical conduct in health care was acknowledged as early as the fifth century in the Hippocratic Oath and continues to be an essential element of clinical practice. Providers face ethical dilemmas that are complex and unfold over time, testing both practitioners' knowledge and communication skills. Students learning to be health care providers need to develop the knowledge and skills necessary to negotiate complex situations involving ethical conflict. Simulation has been shown to be an effective learning environment for students to learn and practice complex and overlapping skills sets. However, there is little guidance in the literature on constructing effective simulation environments to assist students in applying ethical concepts. This article describes realistic simulations with trained, standardized patients that present ethical problems to graduate-level nurse-midwifery students. Student interactions with the standardized patients were monitored by faculty and peers, and group debriefing was used to help explore students' emotions and reactions. Student feedback postsimulation was exceedingly positive. This simulation could be easily adapted for use by health care education programs to assist students in developing competency with ethics. PMID:25141791
The more business ethics secures its status in campuses across the country, the more bewildering it appears to actual managers. It's not that managers dislike the idea of doing the right thing. As University of Toronto Assistant Professor Andrew Stark argues, far too many business ethicists just haven't offered them the practical advice they need. Before business ethics became a formal discipline, advocates of corporate social responsibility claimed that the market would ultimately reward ethical behavior. But ethics and interests did not always intersect so fruitfully in the real world. And when they did not, managers were left in the dark to grope for the right ethical course. In the 1970s, the brand-new field of business ethics came onto the scene to address this issue. Critical of the "ethics pays" approach, academics held that ethics and interests can and do conflict. Still, scholars took an equally unrealistic line. To them, a manager's motivation could be either altruistic or self-interested, but never both. In short, ethicists still weren't addressing the difficult moral dilemmas that managers face on a day-to-day basis, and only recently have they begun to do so. After some initial stumbles, ethicists are getting their hands dirty and seriously considering the costs of doing the right thing. Finally, a new business ethics is emerging that acknowledges and accepts the messy world of mixed motives. As a result, novel concepts are springing up: moderation, pragmatism, minimalism, among others.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10126154
Full Text Available Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient Greek ethics, there is little unity to this group. Although there is a thin common ground that links all the group's members - a focus on the formation of character, on the nature of the passions, and on choice over the whole course of life - there are also crucial differences among them.
Gabriel Eduardo, Vargas; Pablo R., Arango.
Full Text Available El artículo plantea dudas sobre la interpretación que Crelier hace de la ética kantiana en relación con los conflictos de deberes o dilemas. Argumentamos que, a pesar de las declaraciones de Crelier en sentido contrario, él no logra articular una interpretación de la ética de Kant en la que los dile [...] mas morales sean admisibles. En la interpretación de Crelier, sostenemos, los dilemas que son admisibles son sólo aparentes o epistémicos. Pero no queda cabida para aquellos dilemas en los que ninguno de los deberes es, objetivamente, superior a otro deber en conflicto Abstract in english The article raises questions about the interpretation that Crelier makes of the Kantian ethics regarding conflicts of duties or moral dilemmas. We argue that, despite Crelier's conflicting statements, he fails to articulate an interpretation of Kant's ethics in which moral dilemmas are admissible. I [...] n Crelier's interpretation, we contend, the dilemmas that are eligible are only apparent or epistemic. But there is no room for those dilemmas in which none of the duties is objectively superior to another duty in conflict
Fourie, L. M.; Froneman, J. D.
In view of South Africa’s diversity, its unresolved issues of race and complex social legacy, election campaigns are highly sensitive. From a Reformed Christian perspective, a critical question is: To what extent is the political culture infused by the Biblical imperatives of brotherly love, respect and compassion? Given the growing use of adversarial political advertising the following two questions arise and are specifically addressed: • Could it realistically be expected of Christian p...
Full Text Available In view of South Africa’s diversity, its unresolved issues of race and complex social legacy, election campaigns are highly sensitive. From a Reformed Christian perspective, a critical question is: To what extent is the political culture infused by the Biblical imperatives of brotherly love, respect and compassion? Given the growing use of adversarial political advertising the following two questions arise and are specifically addressed: • Could it realistically be expected of Christian political communicators in a secular country such as South Africa to communicate with full respect to people at all times, or should they be excused if they try to win at all costs? and • How do political theorists view the issue? In answering these questions, social responsibility and the need for social harmony as precondition for free and fair political activities, as well as a Biblical perspective on communication are addressed. In view of these theoretical points of departure the role of emotional messages is discussed and evaluated. It is argued that all advertising, but specifically political advertising in an emotionally charged atmosphere such as an election campaign, could have a direct negative impact on social harmony and is therefore Biblically unacceptable. Examples from previous South African general elections are discussed and evaluated from a Biblical viewpoint. It is argued that parties should not merely campaign with the aim of winning an election, but rather with the intention of respecting voters while campaigning. Simultaneously they could promote democracy within a fragile social context. Any victory outside of these parameters will not stand the test of a Biblical critique. However, it would seem extremely difficult, if not impossible, to prescribe in any detail which types of negative advertisements are acceptable and which are not.
Zembylas, Michalinos; McGlynn, Claire
This article examines the potential and limitations of pedagogy of discomfort in a classroom of 10- and 11-year-old students of an integrated school in Northern Ireland. At the centre of the analysis are the students' and the teacher's emotional experiences and the resulting consequences when a discomforting pedagogical activity (an adaptation of…
A core feature of the emerging international governance of migration is the reliance on knowledge and science in elaborating policies. Yet how scientists and researchers can productively contribute to policy making is unclear. This is the result of knowledge uncertainty, the complexity of migration dynamics, and the unintended and counterproductive consequences policies. If research cannot say what “should be done,” it may tell policy makers what they definitively should not do. This arti...
The searing introduction of the public to the human health effects from large doses of ionizing radiation came from the nuclear weapon explosions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan at the end of World War II. The horrors of a war using such weapons are part of the human consciousness. This introduction created fear and concern over ionizing radiation from man-made radionuclides or natural radionuclides enhanced by man's activities. This leads to a public over-emphasis on reducing exposure to man-made ionizing radiation whatever the expense might be. A study that evaluated costs of 500 life saving interventions found that radiation control activities had a median cost of $27 million (US) per life per year and were four of the top ten most expensive [up to $34 billion (US) per life per year]. [Tengs, 1994] (author)
Sharma, Om P
Ethics are a set of moral principles and values a civilized society follows. Doing science with principles of ethics is the bedrock of scientific activity. The society trusts that the results and the projected outcome of any scientific activity is based on an honest and conscientious attempt by the scientific community. However, during the last few decades, there has been an explosion of knowledge and the advent of digital age. We can access the publications of competitors with just a "click". The evaluation parameters have evolved a lot and are based on impact factors, h-index and citations. There is a general feeling that the scientific community is under a lot of pressure for fulfilling the criteria for upward growth and even retention of the positions held. The noble profession of scientific research and academics has been marred by the temptation to falsify and fabricate data, plagiarism and other unethical practices. Broadly speaking, the breach of ethics involves: plagiarism, falsification of data, redundant (duplicate) publication, drawing far-fetched conclusions without hard data, for early publicity, gift authorship (receiving as well as giving), not giving sufficient attention and consideration to scholars and post-docs as per the norms, self promotion at the cost of team-members, treating colleagues (overall all juniors) in a feudal way and Machiavellianism (cunningness and duplicity in general conduct and push to positions of power and pelf). Misconduct in Indian academics and science is also under a lot of focus. It is important and urgent that science, engineering, and health departments and institutions in our country have in place systems for education and training in pursuit of science with ethics by sound and professional courses in Responsible Conduct of Research. All research and academic institution must have the Office of Ethics for information, guidelines, training and professional oversight of conduct of research with the ethos and ethics of research. PMID:26063945
Ethics is always a social concern, an integrated part of laws and regulations. Treatment of ethics as a separate part in the decision making process is therefore always debatable. It cannot be introduced as an extraneous component to compensate for, or to improve, a morally flawed practice, and the margin for unethical practices is strongly circumscribed by regulation in the nuclear field, internationally. However, a discussion on different stakeholders and their different ethical concerns should always be welcome. One example is the implementer's views on ethics. Even if they are in complete parity with existing legal and regulatory goals, the goals may still represent the implementer's own motives and choices. Also, stakeholders may view the laws or regulations as unfair. In making the critique, the stakeholder simply formulates a separate political standpoint. Finally, an alternative discussion is to place existing regulations into an ethical perspective - adding a new dimension to the issues. Retrievability for high level waste repositories is often in focus in ethical discussions. Unfortunately, it is used in many ways and has become an unclear term. It may cover anything from planned recuperation to the property of waste being retrievable in years or tens of years, or in the distant time range of hundreds or thousands of years. The term retrievability is often proposed to cover mainly positive qualities such as the option of later changes to the repository or a new disposal concept. However, as ICRP and others have pointed out, it also implies the possibility of: i) operational exposures, ii) continuing risks of accidental releases, iii) financial provisions to cover operating costs and iv) continuing reliance on institutional control, thus imposing some burdens to future generations. In a certain sense, anything can be retrieved from any repository. There is therefore a need for a clear and operable definition of retrievability requirements, including the definition of the corresponding legal consequences. (author)
This study demonstrates how ethical attributes of goods affect market outcomes on the basis of market data and actual ethical campaigns. Among the various types of such attributes, such as eco-label and fair trade label, I focus on cause-related marketing (CRM), which economists study less frequently than other ethical attributes. Researchers who analyzed this topic focused largely on experimental data, which has less noise and enables researchers to obtain the pure effect of ethical attribut...
Full Text Available This article elaborates some important trends and discussions in citizenship education. It seems that there are strong arguments from scientific scholars which express opposition to a focus on only formal facts and democratic procedures in the teaching of citizenship education. This approach is also criticized by students for its meaninglessness and irrelevance. There also seems to be relative agreement that democracies are being challenged for various reasons, that school plays an important role in citizenship education, that republicanism is the preferred framework, and that students construct their own views of the world (constructivist learning processes. Despite this rather general agreement, there remain quite a few important dilemmas and also disagreements in the field of citizenship education. Among these are: the conceptualization of democracy, the knowledge to be presented, adopting a national versus a global perspective, the maturity of young citizens regarding the question of multiculturalism, and approaches to teaching (particularly providing room for criticism. These and other dilemmas are discussed, and a summary of recommendations is put forward.
Musa Obalola; Kunle Aduloju; Folake Olowokudejo
Commitment of employees to their organisations has been one of the central research themes in organisational study. Though, many predictors of organisational commitment abound in the literature, much is however not known on how ethical behaviour in the organisation affects employees’ commitment. Considering the nature of insurance services, and high potentials for ethical dilemma in the industry, this study contributes to organisational commitment literature by providing further understandi...
This paper derives from a grounded theory study of how Medical Directors working within the UK National Health Service manage the moral quandaries that they encounter as leaders of health care organizations. The reason health care organizations exist is to provide better care for individuals through providing shared resources for groups of people. This creates a paradox at the heart of health care organization, because serving the interests of groups sometimes runs counter to serving the needs of individuals. The paradox presents ethical dilemmas at every level of the organization, from the boardroom to the bedside. Medical Directors experience these organizational ethical dilemmas most acutely by virtue of their position in the organization. As doctors, their professional ethic obliges them to put the interests of individual patients first. As executive directors, their role is to help secure the delivery of services that meet the needs of the whole patient population. What should they do when the interests of groups of patients, and of individual patients, appear to conflict? The first task of an ethical healthcare organization is to secure the trust of patients, and two examples of medical ethical leadership are discussed against this background. These examples suggest that conflict between individual and population needs is integral to health care organization, so dilemmas addressed at one level of the organization inevitably re-emerge in altered form at other levels. Finally, analysis of the ethical activity that Medical Directors have described affords insight into the interpersonal components of ethical skill and knowledge. PMID:18382123
Wallace, R; Wiegand, F; Warren, C
Ethical dilemmas and conflicts occur frequently in critical care units. When these dilemmas involve a pregnant patient, the conflicts are further complicated, because they also involve the interests of the fetus. Using an ethical decision-making process facilitates the analysis of ethical dilemmas and their resolutions. This process is used to analyze the dilemma of selecting appropriate treatment for a woman at 30 weeks' gestation, diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia. The case is examined from the perspective of the mother and the fetus, using the decision-making process. The medical indications include the patient's physical state, disease process, and treatment options. Patient preferences are the ethical and legal center of the patient-physician, and patient-nurse relationship. Contextual features include religious beliefs, cultural values, family dynamics, and financial and legal aspects of the care options. Finally, the ethical principles, relevant and in conflict, are assessed. Exploring these areas clarifies the best treatment option in consideration of the issues and facts of the case. PMID:9392715
Full Text Available Ethics is concerned with the suffering humans cause one another and the related capacity of humans to recognize and address this suffering through the empathetic virtues of sympathy, compassion, and caring (Roberts, 1996. Much suffering throughout history can be related to the problem of "unacceptable" diversity among individuals or groups. Remembering the cruelties of the Nazi exterminations of Jews, slavery in the United States, and discrimination against homosexuals jolts us to awareness of the suffering of those who are "different." A task of ethics, then, is to include, rather than exclude (Post, 1995. One approach to an ethics of diversity for healthcare professionals is a call for intimate listening to the stories of those who are different, who may be unseen, marginalized, and excluded in our health care systems.
This article offers a discussion of the connection between technology and values and, specifically, I take a closer look at ethically sound design. In order to bring the discussion into a concrete context, the theory of Value Sensitive Design (VSD) will be the focus point. To illustrate my argument concerning design ethics, the discussion involves a case study of an augmented window, designed by the VSD Research Lab, which has turned out to be a potentially surveillance-enabling technology. I call attention to a "positivist problem" that has to do with the connection between the design context and the use context, which VSD seems to presuppose, and I argue that it is necessary to clearly distinguish between the two, since the designers' intentions do not always correspond with the users' practice; in fact, the relation between design and use is very complex and principally unpredictable. Thus, a design theory must accept that foresight is limited to anticipation rather than prediction. To overcome the positivist problem, I suggest a phenomenological approach to technology inspired by Don Ihde's concept of multistability. This argument, which is general in nature and thus applies to any theory of design ethics, is intended as a constructive criticism, which can hopefully contribute to the further development of design ethics.
Accordingly, it is necessary that some independent body have the authority both to review research contracts for compliance with norms of subject protection and ethical integrity, and to reject studies that fail to meet ethical standards. Such review should take place prior to the start of research, not later. Because of its expertise and authority, the institutional ethics review board (IRB or REB) is the appropriate body to undertake such review. Much recent commentary has focused on contra...
Dr. Ron Epstein of San Francisco State University has compiled this comprehensive online source of information on environmental ethics. The site is simply presented, consisting of a straightforward menu of topics that link mostly to related external Web pages. Topics covered include environmental effects of war, genetic engineering, cloning, indigenous peoples, and much more. While some of the provided links appear to be duds, anyone interested in exploring the field of environmental ethics should find this convenient and well-organized collection of links useful.
Tymchuk, Alexander J.
Presents a model that can be used by social scientists to formulate and test choice alternatives to select the most ethical course of action when values are in conflict. Graduate students in psychology, education, and medicine have used the model to recognize and resolve ethical problems. (RM)
Finch, Elspeth; Geddes, E Lynne; Larin, Hélène
The identification and consideration of relevant ethical issues in clinical decision-making, and the education of health care professionals (HCPs) in these skills are key factors in providing quality health care. This qualitative study explores the way in which physical therapists (PTs) integrate ethical issues into clinical practice decisions and identifies ethical themes used by PTs. A purposive sample of eight PTs was asked to describe a recent ethically-based clinical decision. Transcribed interviews were coded and themes identified related to the following categories: 1) the integration of ethical issues in the clinical decision-making process, 2) patient welfare, 3) professional ethos of the PT, and 4) health care economics and business practices. Participants readily described clinical situations involving ethical issues but rarely identified specific conflicting ethical issues in their description. Ethical dilemmas were more frequently resolved when there were fewer emotional sequelae associated with the dilemma, and the PT had a clear understanding of professional ethos, valued patient autonomy, and explored a variety of alternative actions before implementing one. HCP students need to develop a clear professional ethos and an increased understanding of the economic factors that will present ethical issues in practice. PMID:16389696
KWIECI?SKI, PIOTR; Feder, Marcin
Institutional changes within universities and the challenge of EU enlargement present translator and interpreter trainers with both new opportunities and dilemmas. The major potential tension areas that must be addressed in the curricula include the status of retour translation and interpreting, the role of liaison interpreting in the curriculum, the separation of interpreter and translator training, and the focus on skills and techniques vs. background knowledge. The article suggests t...
Wu, Zhi-Xi; Rong, Zhihai
We study the evolution of cooperation in spatial Prisoner's dilemma games with and without extortion by adopting aspiration-driven strategy updating rule. We focus explicitly on how the strategy updating manner (whether synchronous or asynchronous) and also the introduction of extortion strategy affect the collective outcome of the games. By means of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations as well as dynamical cluster techniques, we find that the involvement of extortioners facilitates...
Bertocchi, Marida; Ziemba, William T.
A straightforward guide focused on life cycle investing-namely aging, retirement, and pensions Life cycle investing and the implications of aging, retirement, and pensions continues to grow in importance. With people living longer, the relative and absolute number of retirees is growing while the number of workers contributing to pension funds is declining. This reliable resource develops a detailed economic analysis-at the micro (individual) and macro (economy wide) levels-which addresses issues regarding the economics of an aging population. Topics touched upon include retirement and the associated health care funding of the aged as well as social security and the asset classes that are considered asset-liability choices over time. The probability of achieving adequate return patterns from various investment strategies and asset classes is reviewed Shares rich insights on the aging, retirement, and pensions dilemma An assessment of the resources the real economy will be able to commit to non-workers is prov...
Bowen, W Richard
Engineering Ethics: Challenges and Opportunities aims to set a new agenda for the engineering profession by developing a key challenge: can the great technical innovation of engineering be matched by a corresponding innovation in the acceptance and expression of ethical responsibility? Central features of this stimulating text include: · An analysis of engineering as a technical and ethical practice providing great opportunities for promoting the wellbeing and agency of individuals and communities. · Elucidation of the ethical opportunities of engineering in three key areas: - Engineering for Peace, emphasising practical amelioration of the root causes of conflict rather than military solutions. - Engineering for Health, focusing on close collaboration with healthcare professionals for both the promotion and restoration of health. - Engineering for Development, providing effective solution...
An increasing number of non?governmental organisations (NGOs) provide humanitarian assistance, including healthcare. Some faith?based NGOs combine proselytising work with humanitarian aid. This can result in ethical dilemmas that are rarely discussed in the literature. The article explores several ethical issues, using four generic activities of faith?based NGOs: (1) It is discriminatory to deny aid to a needy community because it provides less opportunity for proselytising work. Alloca...
M. Masrom; Ismail, Z; R. N. Anuar; Hussein, R; MOHAMED, N.
Problem statement: Recently, the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is indispensable to life. The utilization of ICT has provided advantages for people, organizations and society as a whole. Nevertheless, the widespread and rapid use of ICT in society has exacerbated existing ethical issues or dilemmas and also led to the emergence of new ethical issues such as unauthorized access, software piracy, internet pornography, privacy protection, inform...
Robert Cooper; Garry Frank; Cherry Shogren
With the nursing profession continuing to face an array of ethical issues, the article reports the findings of a survey of members of the American Organization of Nurse Executives conducted in 2012 to determine the extent to which nurse leaders at different organization levels perceive various factors in their personal, professional and organizational environments to be helpful in resolving ethical dilemmas. After their personal values, nurse leaders perceive factors related to their organiza...
Guðmundur Heiðar Frímannsson
Full Text Available Care ethics is a relatively recent development in ethics, originating in Carol Gilligan´s book In a Different Voice, published in 1982 and pointing out flaws in Kohlberg´s theory of moral development, specifically in choosing only boys for the experiments, in using moral dilemmas to measure moral development, and in his idea that morality only consisted in universal rules.
In an attempt to be rational and objective, and, possibly, to avoid the charge of moral relativism, ethicists seek to categorise and characterise ethical dilemmas. This approach is intended to minimise the effect of the confusing individuality of the context within which ethically challenging problems exist. Despite and I argue partly as a result of this attempt to be rational and objective, even when the logic of the argument is accepted—for example, by healthcare professionals—those sam...
Hugo, Fernández de Castro-Peredo.
Full Text Available Desde el siglo XX la humanidad está asediada por violencia, crisis del estado de derecho e impunidad, circunstancias que se extendieron al profesional de la salud: crisis de la ética moral médica. Objetivo: Aparte del registro de casos clínicos y dilemas ético-morales en el siglo XIX, investigar tes [...] timonios histórico médicos y de ética, moral, etiqueta y educación médicas en la literatura decimonónica, considerándola también resguardo fidedigno de ellos. Procedimiento histórico-analítico: Casos de autonomía, beneficencia, justicia, no maleficencia y solidaridad en 122 obras literarias (84 autores, 20 países) decimonónicas, elegidas -según analistas reconocidos- porque muestran coincidencia y trascendencia de objetos de la vida real con objetos representados literariamente, tomándose para este artículo Axel Munthe y su Historia de San Michele. Hallazgos: Se identificaron -agrupándose en cuadros analítico estadísticos- fragmentos literarios sobre impronta científica técnica, ejercicio profesional, relación galeno paciente, casos clínicos, dilemas ético morales, etiqueta y educación médicas, confirmándose que la dimensión médica más valiosa tiene raíces, tronco y fronda humanistas. Conclusiones: Innovación aportada: enfocada histórica, médica y bioéticamente, la obra literaria pudiera ser otra vía analítica reflexiva para que el médico lector esteta del siglo XXI, recuperando los objetos reales representados, escogiera la senda de su superación e hiciera crecer su éthos y su contribución al bien común. Abstract in english Since the last century, humanity has been besieged by violence, crisis of the state of law and impunity, everything extended to crisis of medical ethics moral. Objective: In addition to clinic cases and ethics and moral dilemmas in the nineteenth century, to investigate for testimonies of the histor [...] y of medicine and medical ethics, moral, etiquette and education in the nineteenth century literature, considering this a trustworthy archive of them. Analytic-historical proceeding: Cases of autonomy, beneficence, justice, nonmaleficence and solidarity in 122 nineteenth century literary masterpieces (84 authors, 20 countries), selected -according to prestigious scholars-because they show coincidence and transcendence of real life objects with literary represented objects, taking for this article just Axel Munthe s Story of San Michele. Finds: Grouped in statistical analytic tables literary paragraphs about technical scientific matters, professional exercise, medical patient relation, clinic cases, moral ethics dilemmas and medical etiquette and education were identified corroborating that the more worthy medical dimension has humanistic roots. Conclusions: Innovating contribution: focused through the lens of the medicine history and bioethics, literary masterpieces might be the reflexive analytical way for the twenty-first century physician/reader, to recover the real objects represented, to choose his excelling path and to increase his éthos and contribution to the common welfare.
EE Book 16 focuses on achievements and shortcomings of modern marine ecology. It also analysis the crux of all science: human capabilities and limitations of conducting research - of critically perceiving the world in and around us. Louis Legendre further examines the relationships between science and culture and underlines the significance of ethics, especially eco-ethics.
Ashley, Leonard R. N.
Discussion of ethical quandaries in academe focuses on the ethics of book reviewing. Topics include difficulties in getting published; exploitation of examination copies; reviewing books to get free copies; using book reviews as personal pulpits; inadequate rewards for reviewing books; and qualifications for reviewers. (LRW)
Brody, Baruch A.
The activities of the Center for Ethics, Medicine, and Public Issues (Texas) are described. The center focuses on the clinical teaching of medical ethics, collaborative teaching and research involving ethicists and clinicians, and the training of future practitioners. Problems and achievements are highlighted. (Author/MSE)
Full Text Available EE Book 16 focuses on achievements and shortcomings of modern marine ecology. It also analysis the crux of all science: human capabilities and limitations of conducting research - of critically perceiving the world in and around us. Louis Legendre further examines the relationships between science and culture and underlines the significance of ethics, especially eco-ethics.
In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity. Taking ethical decisions can often be a dilemma - one that requires recognition and proper representation of multiple pieces of complex information, as well as an intuitive judgment about potential consequences. Pressure is particularly placed on organizational leaders, who are tasked with projects, partnerships and individuals. Constraining forces - be they personal, situational or environmental - can negatively influence any decision by decreasing ethical awareness, ethical sensitivity and ethical judgment. By creating mental compensatory models, the Sensemaking* technique serves to counteract these constraining forces that narrow the search and evaluation of&nbs...
Full Text Available After almost 20 years of researching, teaching and consulting in business and organisational ethics, this emerging field seems to be facing an organisational dilemma. Who should manage the ethics and integrity systems that are slowly being adopted by Australian firms?During consulting engagements with numerous Australian businesses it has become clear that the task of managing ethics and integrity systems, i.e. creation of codes of ethics, ethics committees, information programs, conducting of audits, etc, more often than not seems to be delegated to Human Resources Managers and their Departments. This trend appears to be unique to the Australian setting and contrary to the US where Ethics Officers and Compliance Officers assume this role.The purpose of this paper is to consider the question of who is appropriate to manage the ethics function in the Australian context. A literature review will examine the concept of professionalism and what characteristics and duties qualifies an occupation as a profession. In particular it will identify the role of knowledge and the existence of an organisation or association that regulates and licences the individual to operate as a professional. It will then identify the roles, responsibilities and characteristics of ethics officers so as to determine the knowledge required to undertake this task in an organisation setting.Given the predisposition to delegate this function to Human Resources practitioners in Australian Organisations, a review of formal Postgraduate Human Resources programs at the major Australian Universities will be undertaken. The objective of this task is to determine whether such programs contain any specific ethics content, in particular the creation of codes of ethics, codes of conduct, ethics training and the conducting of ethics audits. This will establish whether Australian Human Resource professions are sufficiently equipped with the knowledge and capabilities required to undertake this function through their formal education.
Full Text Available Any country is facing the problem of ethics of professional accountants, which also has been a focus of accounting theories for many years. Especially since the financial crisis in 2008 and the recession of world economy, business has been difficult, which makes the ethics of professional accountants more important. In perspective of business ethics, the author discusses the characteristics and the structure of ethics of professional accountants, locating the barriers for the construction of ethics of professional accountants and relevant reasons, and proposing the way for establishing the system of ethics of professional accountants.
A.C. Botes; Otto, M.
The occupational health-nursing practitioner often becomes involved in ethical dilemmas with regard to the handling of HIV-positive people in the workplace in that the interests of the HIV-positive people conflict with the interests of the employer.
Die beroepsgesondheidsverpleegkundige raak dikwels in etiese dilemmas betrokke ten opsigte van die hantering van die MIV-positiewe persoon by die werkplek deurdat die belange van die MIV-positiewe pers...
Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle
The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe…
Igbeka, J. U.; Okoroma, F. N.
This study is focused on the awareness and practicability of Librarianship ethics amongst librarians. Survey questionnaire was designed to identify the degree of awareness of librarianship ethics amongst librarians in Nigeria, whether the ethics are feasible and being utilized by librarians in their day to day library management, and to find out…
Guyette, Roger; Piotrowski, Chris
Business ethics is presently a major component of the business school curriculum. Although there has been much attention focused on the impact of such coursework on instilling ethical decision-making (Nguyen et al., 2008), there is sparse research on how business students view the major ethical principles that serve as the foundation of business…
Research Question (RQ): Future managers are faced daily with a variety of ethical dilemmas in traffic that need to be balanced by the interests of all participants. The question is whether a new innovative model of ethical principles could be developed that would increase road safety.Purpose: The a im is to raise the level of social responsibility and relationship of participants in traffic as well as warn all participants on the importance of safety. In addition, the purpose is to share sugg...
This dilemma case is based on the true story of Jack and Lisa Nash, whose daughter Molly was born with a rare genetic disorder, Fanconi anemia. By having another child with specific genetic markers, the Nashes hoped to cure Molly using stem cells from the new baby’s umbilical cord blood. Students learn about developmental disorders and consider the ethical issues of genetic manipulation and fertility treatments. Although the case was written for beginning developmental psychology students, the issues raised involving genetic manipulation, advances in medical technology, and scientific ethics would be relevant in many other science courses.
Hatice Güçlü Nergiz
Full Text Available This study aims at evaluating the ethical approaches effective for managers working at hotel business when making decisions. Ethics, in the working place, refers to the rules of the workplace that an employee has to comply with, along with the rules of society. In the study, the concept of ethics has been examined within theories of ethics, followed by a conceptual framework of making ethical decisions. The scope of the study consists of interviews conducted with 60 managers working in a chain hotel. The interview consists of 5 different scenarios relating to ethical dilemmas. The scenarios are composed of three different ethics approaches (moral justice approach, subjective approach and contract -based theoretical approach. In the analysis of the data, the Manova Analysis was carried out. The results suggest that managers prefer the contract -based theoretical approach more frequently in decision making. It was also found that managers differ in their choice of ethical approaches in terms of the scenarios. This difference is caused by subjective approaches which are used when dealing with problems related to socio-cultural and institutional reputation and ecology.
Arief Ramadhan; Dana Indra Sensuse; Aniati Murni Arymurthy
Ethics has become an important part in the interaction among humans being. This paper specifically discusses applied ethics as one type of ethics. There are three applied ethics that will be reviewed in this paper, i.e. computer ethics, information ethics, and cyber ethics. There are two aspects of the three applied ethics that were reviewed, i.e. their definition and the issues associated with them. The reviewing results of the three applied ethics are then used for defining e-Government eth...
Ilka Nicéia D’Aquino Oliveira Teixeira
Full Text Available Objective: To identify the most prevalent nursing ethical issues published in scientific Brazilian journals. Methods: A systematic literature review with the following inclusion criteria: (1 articles on Nursing Ethics written in Portuguese, English, French, and Spanish; (2 published in Brazilian journals; (3 in the period from January 1997 to February 2009. The search was carried out in four databases BDENF, LILACS, MEDLINE, and SCIELO. The key-words were ethics AND nursing. The selected studies were classified into categories. The content of the articles were analyzed using the Collective Subject Discourse. The categories generated discourses by organizing the main excerpts from the abstracts of the selected studies, which are the “key expressions”. Results: A hundred and thirty three articles that met the inclusion criteria were classified into eight categories: 1. Nursing Care; 2. Dilemmas and Controversies; 3. Education; 4. Legal Aspects; 5. Research; 6. Management; 7. Values and Beliefs; 8. Perspectives and Health Policies. The category “Nursing Care” prevailed in 36% of the selected articles, and it was classified into six subcategories. “Dilemmas and Controversies” was the second most prevalent category (15%. Conclusion: The number of theoretical papers on ethical issues is high, but there is little research on the ethical experiences in nursing practice.
M. Sanjari; Zahedi, F; Larijani, B
"nNursing is a universal health care necessity. Nursing profession, similar to the other medical professions, is responsible to maintain public health promotion, prevent diseases, and also care and rehabilitate client, family and the soci¬ety. The inher-ent nature of nursing is respect for moral values and human rights. However, clinical ethical dilem¬mas occur for nurses at all levels, not always concerning patients. Although this is the primary area of concern, it is re...
Changing attitudes toward human experimentation along with other controversial moral issues emerged after the Second World War and, in 1963, led to the London Medical Group, organized by Ted Shotter, with similar Medical Groups emerging elsewhere from 1967. These became forums for discussion and debate arising from dilemmas encountered in medical settings. Medical ethics did not become a recognized subject in the syllabus of Britain's medical schools until 1993. This Witness Seminar transcrip...
ARVIDSSON, ADAM ERIK
In recent decades managerial discourse and actual business practice has paid increasing attention to ethics. What was chiefly an academic discussion about business ethics has grown into a virtual 'ethics industry' (Hyatt, 2005), and has been supplanted by a growing focus on corporate social responsibility and a booming consumer demand for ethical or 'fair' goods. Critical observers, myself included, have tended to dismiss this focus on ethics as little more than a cynical response...
In this paper, we argue that there are foundational dilemmas in theoretical physics related to the concept of reality and the nature of mathematics in physics. Physical theory is treated as a conceptual organism which develops under the weight of its internal contradictions. The paper discusses in depth the problem of objective reality in physics and its relation to scientific practice. Then, it explores the problematic relation between physical meaning and mathematics in modern physical theory, followed by a discussion of the trend of contemporary physics to replace physical principles with pure mathematical principles. Finally, it discusses the problem of logical coherence in modern physical theory. The paper emphasizes the importance of resolving these dilemmas to the proper practice of theoretical physics.
The conference was convened to present a role that America's schools could play in solving or coping with the energy crisis. Eleven sessions were conducted to fulfill this concern: Our Energy Crisis and Education: A Critical Assessment; The Energy Agenda at the Office of Education; Energy Resources: Scenarios for the Future; The Moral Dilemma of Energy Education; Constraints Influencing Education's Role; Energy Education: What's Been Done to Date; Practitioners Discuss Their Future Roles, Responsibilities; Politics of Energy Education; Confronting the Energy Dilemma; The Meaning of Scarcity; and The Impact of the Carter Energy Program on American Schools. Summary reports and reactions to the conference conclude the proceedings. (MCW)
In this paper, we argue that there are foundational dilemmas in theoretical physics related to the concept of reality and the nature of mathematics in physics. Physical theory is treated as a conceptual organism which develops under the weight of its internal contradictions. The paper discusses in depth the problem of objective reality in physics and its relation to scientific practice. Then, it explores the problematic relation between physical meaning and mathematics in mo...
Steven John Simon
In the last five years, remote selling-led by online organizations - has surged. The resulting growth has created concern among both traditional and remote sellers as they jockey for improved competitive position and governmental entities, in particular US states, over the erosion of their tax revenues as sales are diverted to remote sellers. This paper explores the issues and potential solutions surrounding the e-commerce tax dilemma. It provides a current assessment of the taxation environm...
Full Text Available This article represents a review of some of the ethical dilemmas that have arisen as a result of the development and deployment of transgenic crop plants. The potential for transgenic crops to alleviate human hunger and the possible effects on human health are discussed. Risks and benefits to the en [...] vironment resulting from genetic engineering of crops for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses are considered, in addition to effects on biodiversity. The socio-economic impacts and distribution of benefits from transgenic technologies are reviewed. Fundamental issues of man’s relationship with nature and the environment, and theological matters are also addressed. An almost unprecedented amount of discussion has been stimulated on the merits and demerits of genetic engineering of crop plants, and has divided both the public and scientific communities. The arguments for and against transgenics are invariably based on visions of the new technology from widely different ethical perspectives.
Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter
This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possibl...
Lepping Peter; Carson Alexander M
Abstract Psychiatric practice is often faced with complex situations that seem to pose serious moral dilemmas for practitioners. Methods for solving these dilemmas have included the development of more objective rules to guide the practitioner such as utilitarianism and deontology. A more modern variant on this objective model has been 'Principlism' where 4 mid level rules are used to help solve these complex problems. In opposition to this, there has recently been a focus on more subjective ...
Mafunisa, M.J.(Mutuwafhethu John)
In performing their functions, public officials have to make ethical choices. Learning about making ethical choices should therefore not be left to choice. Public officials should be equipped with ethical decision-making skills. This paper focuses on the teaching of Public Administration ethics in higher education. [In this paper the academic subject is spelt Public Administration whereas the practice is spelt public administration, (i.e. the one of activity)]. The paper covers issues such as...