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1

Exploring Ethical Dilemmas Using the "Drifting Goals" Archetype  

Science.gov (United States)

This article demonstrates how the system archetype "drifting goals" can be used in the classroom to explore ethical dilemmas. System archetypes provide a framework that shifts the focus from seeing ethical dilemmas as stemming solely from the acts of individuals to exploring the systemic structures that are responsible for generic patterns of…

Bardoel, E. Anne; Haslett, Tim

2006-01-01

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Evidence, Ethics & Social Policy Dilemmas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within the philosophy of the social sciences, the relationship between evidence, ethics, and social policy is in need of further analysis. The present paper is an attempt to argue that while important social policies can, and perhaps ought to be, grounded in ethical theory, they are seldom articulated in this fashion due to the ambiguity surrounding the "evidence condition." Using a consequentialist-utilitarian framework, and a case study of a policy dilemma, the authors analyze the difficulties associated with resolving policy-based dilemmas which must appeal to evidential support as a justification for an ethical stand. Implication for the relevance of ethics to social policy formulation are discussed in detail.

Steven I. Miller

1993-07-01

3

Ethical and Value Dilemmas in Urban Management Performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

This module represents one portion of the National Training and Development Service Urban Management Curriculum Development Project. It focuses on the issue of ethics in urban management performance and is designed to demonstrate that ethical dilemmas are a personal, complex, everyday managerial problem, and to enlarge the range of ethical options…

Thomas, Theodore H.

4

Ethical Dilemmas: A Model to Understand Teacher Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Over recent decades, the field of ethics has been the focus of increasing attention in teaching. This is not surprising given that teaching is a moral activity that is heavily values-laden. Because of this, teachers face ethical dilemmas in the course of their daily work. This paper presents an ethical decision-making model that helps to explain…

Ehrich, Lisa Catherine; Kimber, Megan; Millwater, Jan; Cranston, Neil

2011-01-01

5

Whistleblowing: an ethical dilemma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because most organizations depend on computer systems that electronically store important data to perform crucial business functions, the integrity of these information systems is paramount. Securing company systems, however, is not always an easy task. More sophisticated systems often provide widespread access to computer resources and increased user knowledge, which may lead to added difficulties in maintaining security. This paper explores whistleblowing employees' exposing illegal or unethical computer practices taking place in the organization as a method of computer security and the support for whistleblowing found in codes of ethical conduct formulated by professional societies.

Joan K. Pierson

1993-11-01

6

Ethical Dilemmas in Counseling Elderly Adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Counselors work with elderly adults in various health care settings. Often an ethical dilemma arises between client autonomy and counselor beneficence. A case history approach using a critical-evaluative model as a strategy for analysis and resolution of the ethical dilemma is presented. (Author)

Fitting, Melinda Dell

1986-01-01

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Teachers' Ethical Dilemmas: What Would You Do?  

Science.gov (United States)

Educators will face a variety of ethical and moral dilemmas throughout their teaching careers; however, they do not have a common board that governs its members' ethical behavior. Instead, there are numerous educational organizations that have written their own specific codes for ethical behavior. The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) has…

Bucholz, Jessica L.; Keller, Cassandra L.; Brady, Michael P.

2007-01-01

8

Refusal of treatment: an ethical dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

When a patient with a new spinal cord injury (SCI) refuses all care, the treatment team struggles with an ethical dilemma. The issues of patients' rights and autonomy are in conflict with the concepts of beneficence and nonmaleficence. Thomasma (1978) recommended a model useful in addressing situations in which values are in conflict. This model for an ethical workup is applied retrospectively to review a specific clinical case. The need to recognize and respect as many ethical principles as possible is identified as useful in reaching some acceptable resolution of an ethical dilemma. PMID:10347538

Kraft, M R

1999-03-01

9

An autopsy of an ethical dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

An ethical dilemma was created for the intensive care unit staff following a physician's "No Code (Do Not Resuscitate)" telephone order. The author, the Director of Nursing involved, analyzes the short- and long-term outcomes of the situation. She applies a deontological framework, or duty-oriented ethical decision-making methodology, to help other administrators solve similar problems. PMID:2348247

Czerwinski, B S

1990-06-01

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The Ethical Dilemma of Coached Malingering Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical dilemmas surrounding research in which the efficacy of various coaching strategies designed to outsmart validity scales are discussed in the context of competing demands between the requirement of the ethical principles of the American Psychological Association and the need to give detailed descriptions of research procedures in scientific…

Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

1994-01-01

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Ethical Dilemmas in Retail Merchandising: Student Perceptions  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical dilemmas observed by students in retailing internships were the basis for a survey in which students indicated their perceptions as to whether case situations involved unethical behavior. Expanded case situations were offered to students for further exploration. The specific questions posed in this study included the following: (1) In what…

Paulins, V. Ann; Lombardy, Lisa

2005-01-01

12

Ethical dilemmas in clinical genetics.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the results of a survey of medical and paramedical opinion relating to various difficult ethical issues in clinical genetics. These include the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship, prenatal diagnosis and termination, and Huntington's chorea. It is suggested that this method provides a useful means of assessing what is ethically acceptable in contemporary society.

Young, I. D.

1984-01-01

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Moral Dilemmas and the Concept of Value in Engineering Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to show that the consideration of value is necessary to understand moral dilemmas in engineering ethics. First, the author shows that moral dilemmas are not fully understood in engineering ethics and argues that it is due to the lack of understanding of value. Second, the author considers the concept of value from the viewpoint of ‘desirability’ . Finally, three suggestions for improving engineering ethics in the understanding of moral dilemmas are made.

Ohishi, Toshihiro

14

Ethical Dilemma of Governmental Wiretapping  

CERN Document Server

USA Government wiretapping activities is a very controversial issue. Undoubtedly this technology can assist law enforced authority to detect / identify unlawful or hostile activities; however, this task raises severe privacy concerns. In this paper, we have discussed this complex information technology issue of governmental wiretapping and how it effects both public and private liberties. Legislation has had a major impact on the uses and the stigma of wiretapping for the war on terrorism. This paper also analyzes the ethical and legal concerns inherent when discussing the benefits and concerns of wiretapping. The analysis has concluded with the effects of wiretapping laws as they relate to future government actions in their fight against terrorists.

Mullikin, Arwen; Rahman, M

2010-01-01

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Ethical and legal dilemmas in infertility treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main characteristics of the new millennium is the affirmation of human rights in all aspects of human existence, with the intention of turning declarative statements into reality. Development of up-to-date assisted reproductive technologies (ART and their application in infertility treatment have raised numerous ethical, legal, religious, social and other questions. In vitro fertilization, donation of gametes, embryos and pre-embryos, cryopreservation of gametes, embryos, ovarian and testicular tissues, embryo transfer, genetic reproductive techniques, cloning and other sophisticated methods used in infertility treatment require cooperation between the medical and legal professions. Ethical aspects of human reproduction and assisted fertilization are based on full respect of the life of an individual even before conception, from pre-embryo stage, via embryo stage and fetus stage to a newborn infant. Regarding investigative and clinical projects, this standpoint implies the legalization of all ART procedures, unencumbered exchange of information and consensus about their application, and adherence to the basic ethical principles of autonomy benefit, justice and common welfare. Ethical postulates provide unequivocal directions in the creation of new life and resolve all possible ethical dilemmas, protecting the rights of doctors and participant in relevant procedures alike and reasserting the crucial principle - respect of human dignity.

Dragojevi?-Diki? Svetlana

2004-01-01

16

Ethical dilemmas in workplace health promotion.  

Science.gov (United States)

In less than a decade, workplace health promotion programs designed to promote employee health and help reduce the high cost of health insurance premiums paid by business and industry have proliferated. Notwithstanding the latent benefits and cost savings that corporate management expects to gain from the investment in such programs, it is argued that workplace health promotion is not without potential misuse and that its goals and methods ought not to be above ethical scrutiny. Drawing on earlier work, we discuss how workplace health promotion may pose ethical problems related to social justice, protection of privacy, and social control. The attendant moral dilemmas for the professional whose responsibility it is to develop and implement such programs are also presented. PMID:3749011

Allegrante, J P; Sloan, R P

1986-05-01

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Ethical Dilemmas of Swedish School Leaders: Contrasts and Common Themes  

Science.gov (United States)

Being a skillful school leader presumes the competence to judge the ethical consequences of actions. This implies a need for all school agents to discover and analyze what values are at stake and, in turn, reconcile didactic rationality with ethical rationality. This article aims to explore ethical dilemmas in daily school practice, experienced…

Norberg, Katarina; Johansson, Olof

2007-01-01

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Exploring how IBCLCs manage ethical dilemmas: a qualitative study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Professional health care practice should be based on ethical decisions and actions. When there are competing ethical standards or principles, one must choose between two or more competing options. This study explores ethical dilemmas experienced by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants. Methods The investigator interviewed seven International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and analyzed the interviews using qualitative res...

Noel-Weiss Joy; Cragg Betty; Woodend A

2012-01-01

19

A template for analyzing ethical dilemmas in discharge planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Involvement in discharge planning in acute-care hospitals can produce troubling ethical conflicts for social workers. Using case material, the authors present a model for analyzing these dilemmas. Exploration of available data, value systems, and decision-making dimensions of the situation at hand is suggested as a way of understanding a dilemma and moving toward necessary action. PMID:3817649

Blumenfield, S; Lowe, J I

1987-01-01

20

A quick guide to ethical theory in healthcare: solving ethical dilemmas in nutrition support situations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical dilemmas can be challenging for the nutrition support clinician who is accustomed to evidence-based practice. The emotional and personal nature of ethical decision making can present difficulties, and conflict can arise when people have different ethical perspectives. An understanding of ethical terms and ethical theories can be helpful in clarifying the source of this conflict. These may include prominent ethical theories such as moral relativism, utilitarianism, Kantian absolutism, Aristotle's virtue ethics and ethics of care, as well as the key ethical principles in healthcare (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice). Adopting a step-by-step approach can simplify the process of resolving ethical problems. PMID:16556920

Ferrie, Suzie

2006-04-01

 
 
 
 
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Exploring how IBCLCs manage ethical dilemmas: a qualitative study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Professional health care practice should be based on ethical decisions and actions. When there are competing ethical standards or principles, one must choose between two or more competing options. This study explores ethical dilemmas experienced by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants. Methods The investigator interviewed seven International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and analyzed the interviews using qualitative research methods. Results "Staying Mother-Centred" emerged as the overall theme. It encompassed six categories that emerged as steps in managing ethical dilemmas: 1 recognizing the dilemma; 2 identifying context; 3 determining choices; 4 strategies used; 5 results and choices the mother made; and 6 follow-up. The category, "Strategies used", was further analyzed and six sub-themes emerged: building trust; diffusing situations; empowering mothers; finding balance; providing information; and setting priorities. Conclusions This study provides a framework for understanding how International Board Certified Lactation Consultants manage ethical dilemmas. Although the details of their stories changed, the essence of the experience remained quite constant with the participants making choices and acting to support the mothers. The framework could be the used for further research or to develop tools to support IBCLCs as they manage ethical dilemmas and to strengthen the profession with a firm ethics foundation.

Noel-Weiss Joy

2012-07-01

22

"Living" Ethical Dilemmas for Researchers When Researching with Children  

Science.gov (United States)

This article will explore some of the ethical dilemmas that confront researchers when they seek to invite children's participation in research. It firstly tracks the historical landscape of ethical research and will examine the influence of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) on participatory research with children.…

Mortari, Luigina; Harcourt, Deborah

2012-01-01

23

Teaching Social Work Students to Resolve Ethical Dilemmas in Domestic Violence  

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This article examines findings from three focus groups conducted about resolving ethical dilemmas in the area of domestic violence. The study's findings point to the need to increase content on domestic violence throughout the social work curriculum and provide educational opportunities for field instructors and local professionals. Helping…

Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

2007-01-01

24

Liberal democracy and nuclear despotism: two ethical foreign policy dilemmas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article advances a critical analysis of John Rawls's justification of liberal democratic nuclear deterrence in the post-Cold War era as found in The Law of Peoples. Rawls's justification overlooked how nuclear-armed liberal democracies are ensnared in two intransigent ethical dilemmas: one in which the mandate to secure liberal constitutionalism requires both the preservation and violation of important constitutional provisions in domestic affairs, and the other in which this same mandate requires both the preservation and violation of the liberal commitment to international legal arrangements and to the rule of law generally. On this view, the choice to violate constitutional provisions and international legal arrangements is evidence of nuclear despotism. Moreover, this choice does not imply that the ethical foreign policy dilemmas were resolved. Instead, it implies that the dilemmas force liberal democratic governments into implementing ethically paradoxical policy outcomes.

Thomas E. Doyle

2013-09-01

25

Social Workers' Participation in the Resolution of Ethical Dilemmas in Hospice Care  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical dilemmas are inherent in every health care setting. A sample of hospice social workers with no direct access to a hospice ethics committee (N = 110) was surveyed regarding ethical issues in hospice care, how the issues were managed, and the extent to which social workers participated in resolution of ethical dilemmas. Common issues…

Csikai, Ellen L.

2004-01-01

26

Ethical Dilemmas Associated with Self-Disclosure in Student Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Personal and reflective writing assignments in psychology courses may prompt self-disclosure that presents ethical dilemmas. The literature discusses responsibilities of the psychologist in instances such as disclosure of suicidal ideation or threats of harming others within the context of the therapist-client relationship, but significantly less…

Haney, Michelle R.

2004-01-01

27

Ethical Dilemmas: The "Bread and Butter" of Educational Leaders' Lives  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research into the ethical dilemmas faced by school heads from seven independent schools in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: Data for the research were gathered by semi-structured in-depth interviews with the Heads, all of whom were experienced school leaders. All the schools had religious…

Cranston, Neil; Ehrich, Lisa C.; Kimber, Megan

2006-01-01

28

Some ethical dilemmas faced by Jewish doctors during the Holocaust.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discourse on physicians and ethics in the Nazi regime usually refers to the violation of medical ethics by Nazi doctors who as a guild and as individuals applied their professional knowledge, training and status in order to facilitate murder and medical "experimentation". In the introduction to this article I will give a brief outline of this vast subject. In the main article I wish to bear witness to the Jewish physicians in the ghettos and the camps who tried to the best of their ability to apply their professional training according to ethical principles in order to prolong life as best as they could, despite being forced to exist and work under the most appalling conditions. These prisoner doctors were faced with impossible existential, ethical and moral dilemmas that they had not encountered beforehand. This paper addresses some of these ethical quandaries that these prisoner doctors had to deal with in trying to help their patients despite the extreme situations they found themselves in. This is an overview of some of these ethical predicaments and does not delve into each one separately for lack of space, but rather gives the reader food for thought. Each dilemma discussed deserves an analysis of its own in the context of professionalism and medical ethics today. PMID:16440865

Chelouche, Tessa

2005-12-01

29

Nursing students' responses to ethical dilemmas in nursing practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

In literature as well as in nursing practice a growing concern about nurses' ethical competence can be observed. Based on the cognitive theory of moral development by Kohlberg, this research examined nursing students' ethical behaviour in five nursing dilemmas. Ethical behaviour refers not only to the ethical reasoning of nursing students but also to the relationship between reasoning and behaviour. Kohlberg's definition of morality was refined by adding a care perspective. The results show that the majority of students can be located in the fourth moral stage according to Kohlberg's theory, that is, the conventional level of moral development. This finding implies that students are still guided by professional rules, norms and duties, and have not (yet) succeeded in making personal ethical decisions on the basis of their own principles and acting according to such decisions. PMID:9052178

Dierckx de Casterlé, B; Grypdonck, M; Vuylsteke-Wauters, M; Janssen, P J

1997-01-01

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Ethical dilemmas for physicians in time of war.  

Science.gov (United States)

During times of war, physicians are sometimes faced with the conflict of their professional duties to ensure the ethical principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, patient autonomy, and self-determination, within the framework of the proper ethical conduct in the practice of medicine, and the obligation and duties placed upon the physician by the state in times of war. Many ethical dilemmas may occur for the physician on the battlefield or elsewhere in the war region, including the treatment of detainees and the priority of treating wounded enemy soldiers or civilians first. When physicians are faced with a conflict between following state or national policies and following international principles of humanitarian law and medical ethics, the physician should opt for the latter. Physicians should not participate in any way in human rights abuses of detainees or prisoners when deployed in a war zone. Physicians must maintain the principles and standards and ethical considerations of their noble profession at all times. PMID:20684174

Rosner, Fred

2010-03-01

31

Designing and Introducing Ethical Dilemmas into Computer-Based Business Simulations  

Science.gov (United States)

This article makes two contributions to the teaching of business ethics literature. First, it describes the steps involved in developing effective ethical dilemmas to incorporate into a computer-based business simulation. Second, it illustrates these steps by presenting two ethical dilemmas that an instructor can incorporate into any business…

Schumann, Paul L.; Scott, Timothy W.; Anderson, Philip H.

2006-01-01

32

The oil industry and climate change. Strategies and ethical dilemmas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors

33

The oil industry and climate change: strategies and ethical dilemmas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see,' and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (i) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (ii) avoiding responsibility; and (iii) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors. (Author)

34

Animal ethics dilemma : a computer supported learning tool  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways to explore the program; for example, they can navigate the program using the 'Assist Me' option, which explains the basis of theethical arguments. Reality text provides details of real events on which the case is based, and a glossary of terminology is available for the students to explore. Selected access to a case template is also available, enabling students and teachers to create their own case studies. Evaluation of the program has been ongoing during its development.

Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina

2006-01-01

35

Gender Differences In Responses To Hypothetical Business Ethical Dilemmas By Business Undergraduates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Business leaders are often failing to display ethical behavior in business decisions. This paper examines the gender differences found in undergraduate business students when faced with ethical decision making dilemmas.

Margie L. McInerney

2011-01-01

36

Ethical and medical dilemmas of space tourism  

Science.gov (United States)

Space tourism is an important new venture, however it raises several issues that must be addressed; namely, the medical implications associated with space flight and potential for ethical problems surrounding the safety of such travel. It seems highly likely that businesses involved in space tourism could find themselves liable for any passenger deaths or injuries, if they are found to have been negligent. This paper, therefore, discusses such issues as the medical facilities that need to be made available on board a space facility, and the companies' duty to disclose to potential passengers the risks associated with microgravity and the likelihood of space sickness, loss of bone density, disease, and pregnancy.

Marsh, Melinda

37

Exploratory Study of Common and Challenging Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Professional School Counselors  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of a survey asking public school counselors in Virginia to indicate their most common and most challenging ethical dilemmas are presented. Ninety-two school counselors reported that the most common and challenging ethical dilemmas included those involving student confidentiality, dual relationship with faculty, parental rights, and acting…

Bodenhorn, Nancy

2006-01-01

38

Using Case Studies of Ethical Dilemmas for the Development of Moral Literacy: Towards Educating for Social Justice  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on a case study, framed as an ethical dilemma. It serves as an illustration for the teaching of moral literacy, with a special emphasis on social justice. Design/methodology/approach: Initially, the paper provides a rationale for the inclusion of case studies, emphasizing moral problems in university…

Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Hassinger, Robert E.

2007-01-01

39

Medical confidentiality versus disclosure: Ethical and legal dilemmas.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

A case is described of a fifty year old single man who made disclosures about criminal sexual practices during a psychiatric assessment. In common practice with other professional men, a doctor is under a duty not to disclose, without the consent of his patient, information which he has gained in his professional capacity other than in exceptional circumstances. We discuss the ethical and legal considerations surrounding issues of medical confidentiality and the dilemma that sometimes face clinicians, when they feel obliged, in the public interest, to disclose information they have gained in confidence. Breach of confidences can have deleterious consequences; particularly for the doctor-patient relationship, but failure to disclose in some situations could have serious implications for the well-being of the wider society. Doctors should be aware of the basic principles of confidentiality and the ethical and legal framework around which they are built.

Agyapong, V I O

2009-02-01

40

Learners in the marketplace: Ethical and educational dilemmas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the abolishment of legislation (the South African Schools Act, No. 84 of 1996 stipulating that a learner may only attend a certain school in an area, there is great competition amongst schools to attract learners to their schools. There is a tendency to regard as commodities learners who can be seen as assets to the school, especially if these learners show a talent for sports and have outstanding sporting achievements. The main aim of the research was to determine whether school principals, learners and parents think that it is unethical to ‘buy’ talented learners. A qualitative research approach was undertaken to determine the views of a purposefully selected sample of school principals, learners and parents regarding the ‘buying’ of talented learners. These participants were chosen as they were important role players in the process of ‘buying’ talented learners. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire with semistructured and open-ended questions. The participants’ answers were critically analysed, and the ethical correctness was determined by evaluating them against the ethical ideas identified in five ethical approaches, namely the utilitarian approach, the rights approach, the fairness or justice approach, the virtue approach and the ethical problem solving approach. An extrapolation of these findings gives one an idea of our society’s attitude to the ‘buying’of talented learners and whether a need exists to actively create greater awareness of this practice. The findings are significant to illustrate the different viewpoints of school principals,talented learners and parents on the ethical and educational dilemmas of schools that ‘buy’ talented learners.

Elize C. du Plessis

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
41

Ethical dilemmas experienced by speech-language pathologists working in private practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Speech-language pathologists experience ethical dilemmas as they fulfil their professional roles and responsibilities. Previous research findings indicated that speech-language pathologists working in publicly funded settings identified ethical dilemmas when they managed complex clients, negotiated professional relationships, and addressed service delivery issues. However, little is known about ethical dilemmas experienced by speech-language pathologists working in private practice settings. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech-language pathologists working in private practice. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 10 speech-language pathologists employed in diverse private practice settings. Participants explained the nature of ethical dilemmas they experienced at work and identified their most challenging and frequently occurring ethical conflicts. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse transcribed data and generate themes. Four themes reflected the nature of speech-language pathologists' ethical dilemmas; balancing benefit and harm, fidelity of business practices, distributing funds, and personal and professional integrity. Findings support the need for professional development activities that are specifically targeted towards facilitating ethical practice for speech-language pathologists in the private sector. PMID:24735456

Flatley, Danielle R; Kenny, Belinda J; Lincoln, Michelle A

2014-06-01

42

Staff attitudes to talking openly about ethical dilemmas : the role of business ethics conceptions and trust  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To ensure ethical employee behavior, companies often utilize several forms of mostly one-way communication such as codes of conduct. The extent to which these efforts, in addition to informing about the company stance on ethics, are able to positively influence behavior is disputed. Research on business ethics communication and behavior reveals that a good predictor of ethical conduct is open workplace dialogue about ethics.  In this paper, I therefore address the question: What influences employee attitudes to talking openly about ethical issues? Answers are proposed on the basis of focus group interviews at the healthcare company Novo Nordisk.   It was found that interest in discussing ethical issues was influenced by two main factors: employee conceptualizations of business ethics, and the level of inter-collegial trust, credibility, and confidence. In this paper, by examining these phenomena, I aim at providing insight that can help managers in their attempts to promote open workplace dialogue aboutethical issues.

Trapp, Leila

2010-01-01

43

Examination of ethical dilemmas experienced by adult intensive care unit nurses in physical restraint practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nurses are more likely to face the dilemma of whether to resort to physical restraints or not and have a hard time making that decision. This is a descriptive study. A total of 55 nurses participated in the research. For data collection, a question form developed by researchers to determine perceptions of ethical dilemmas by nurses in the application of physical restraint was used. A descriptive analysis was made by calculating the mean, standard deviation, and maximum and minimum values. The nurses expressed (36.4%) having difficulty in deciding to use physical restraint. Nurses reported that they experience ethical dilemmas mainly in relation to the ethic principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, and convenience. We have concluded that majority of nurses working in critical care units apply physical restraint to patients, although they are facing ethical dilemmas concerning harm and benefit principles during the application. PMID:24503745

Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdio?lu; Korhan, Esra Akin; Dizer, Berna; Gümü?, Fatma; Koyuncu, Rukiye

2014-01-01

44

Social Decision Making Social Dilemmas, Social Values, and Ethical Judgments  

CERN Document Server

This book, in honor of David Messick, is about social decisions and the role cooperation plays in social life. Noted contributors who worked with Dave over the years will discuss their work in social judgment, decision making and ethics which was so important to Dave.The book offers a unique and valuable contribution to the fields of social psychology and organizational behavior. Ethical decision making, a central focus of this volume, is highly relevant to current scholarship and research in both disciplines. The volume will be suitable for graduate level courses in organizational behavior, s

Kramer, Roderick M; Bazerman, Max H

2009-01-01

45

Two cases of pontocerebellar hypoplasia: ethical and prenatal diagnostic dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the clinical characteristics and the outcome of two cases of pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) in one family. The objective of this report is to describe the mode of presentation, discuss the clinical course, and address the dilemma of prenatal diagnosis and the prospects for genetic diagnosis for PCH. The first case is a 4-year-old boy in whom the diagnosis was made in the neonatal period. Despite extensive prenatal follow-up during the mother's subsequent pregnancy, prenatal diagnosis could not be made and a second affected child was born. Both siblings have severe developmental delay. The cases raise an important ethical dilemma about the most appropriate intervention if the mother of a child affected with PCH becomes pregnant. PCH is considered to have an autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance and a recurrence risk of 25% in each pregnancy. Until recently when genetic mutations in PCH types 2, 4, and 6 began to be identified, the lack of well-recognized genetic testing precluded experts from making clear recommendations. The best advice to these parents was difficult or elusive. With two children currently affected, should the parents terminate or continue with the latest pregnancy? Extensive monitoring with serial prenatal ultrasound failed in the previous pregnancy and resulted in the birth of the second affected child. It is evident that serial ultrasound scan may not be helpful in making the diagnosis prenatally. Therefore, other diagnostic modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging may be necessary and should be considered. With the identification of genetic basis or mutations in PCH types 2, 4, and 6 and possible development of commercial genetic testing for these types of PCH, reproductive decision or genetic testing during pregnancy should be recommended to affected families to enable informed choices. PMID:19644791

Ajibola, Ayodeji J; Netzloff, Michael; Samaraweera, Ranji; Omar, Said A

2010-02-01

46

Ethical Leadership and Decision Making in Education: Applying Theoretical Perspectives to Complex Dilemmas. Topics in Educational Leadership.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book discusses how students and practitioners should take into account four ethics paradigms to help solve authentic dilemmas. These paradigms are the ethic of justice, ethic of care, ethic of critique, and ethic of the profession. The book's purposes include demonstrating the application of these different paradigms through the discussion…

Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.

47

Ethical Dilemmas of Rehabilitation Counselors: Results of an International Qualitative Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports the results of an international qualitative study conducted to inform the process of revising the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors. The online survey gathered information regarding ethical dilemmas from a sample of certified rehabilitation counselors…

Tarvydas, Vilia; Barros-Bailey, Mary

2010-01-01

48

Ethical dilemmas in medical humanitarian practice: cases for reflection from Médecins Sans Frontières.  

Science.gov (United States)

Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is an independent medical humanitarian organisation working in over 70 countries. It has provided medical assistance for over 35 years to populations vulnerable through conflict, disease and inadequate health systems. Medical ethics define the starting point of the relationship between medical staff and patients. The ethics of humanitarian interventions and of research in conflict settings are much debated. However, less is known about the ethical dilemmas faced by medical humanitarian staff in their daily work. Ethical dilemmas can be intensified in humanitarian contexts by insecure environments, lack of optimum care, language barriers, potentially heightened power discrepancies between care providers and patients, differing cultural values and perceptions of patients, communities and medical staff. Time constraints, stressful conditions and lack of familiarity with ethical frameworks can prevent reflection on these dilemmas, as can frustration that such reflection does not necessarily provide instant solutions. Lack of reflection, however, can be distressing for medical practitioners and can reduce the quality of care. Ethical reflection has a central role in MSF, and the organisation uses ethical frameworks to help with clinical and programmatic decisions as well as in deliberations over operational research. We illustrate and discuss some real ethical dilemmas facing MSF teams. Only by sharing and seeking guidance can MSF and similar actors make more thoughtful and appropriate decisions. Our aim in sharing these cases is to invite discussion and dialogue in the wider medical community working in crisis, conflict or with severe resource limitations. PMID:21084354

Sheather, Julian; Shah, Tejshri

2011-03-01

49

Staff Attitudes to Talking Openly About Ethical Dilemmas : The Role of Business Ethics Conceptions and Trust  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To ensure ethical employee behavior, companies often utilize several forms of mostly one-way communication such as codes of conduct. The extent to which these efforts, in addition to informing about the company stance on ethics, are able to positively influence behavior is disputed. In contrast, research on business ethics communication and behavior indicates a relatively clear, positive link between open workplace dialogue about ethical issues and ethical conduct. In this paper, I therefore address the question: What influences employee attitudes to talking openly about ethical issues? Answers are proposed on the basis of focus group interviews with staff at the Denmark and Brazil affiliates of the global healthcare company Novo Nordisk. It was found that interest in discussing ethical issues was influenced by two main factors: employee conceptualizations of business ethics, and the level of inter-collegial trust, credibility, and confidence. In this paper, by examining these phenomena, I am at providinginsight that can both inform scholars in these fields as well as help managers in their attempts to promote open workplace dialogue about ethical issues.

Trapp, Leila

2011-01-01

50

Digital Security Governance and Accountability in Europe: Ethical Dilemmas in Terrorism Risk Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital security governance – the use of digital personal data for threat analysis on the basis of (automated risk profiling – enhances terrorism risk management in Europe. European security strategies emphasise that information and communication technology increasingly play a key role in preventing and anticipating threats such as terrorism and cyber-crime. It enables, for example, the sharing of personal, financial or travellers’ data with third countries. This article focuses on digital security governance in the context of the Passenger Name Record (PNR, the Advance Passenger Information (API and the Terrorist Finance Tracking System (TFTP programmes. Particularly, it considers the ethical dilemmas of using and sharing digital personal data as well as accountability for this type of risk management. Because there are broader socio-political, legal and technological issues connected to the use of information and communication technology for digital security governance, the concept of accountability in this article is holistic.

Quirine Eijkman

2014-01-01

51

Ethical dilemmas in the care of cancer patients near the end of life.  

Science.gov (United States)

By definition, an ethical dilemma involves the need to choose from among two or more morally acceptable options or between equally unacceptable courses of action, when one choice prevents selection of the other. Advances in medicine, increasing economic stress, rise of patient self-determination and differing values between healthcare workers and patients are among the many factors contributing to the frequency and complexity of ethical issues in healthcare. In the cancer patient near the end of life, common ethical dilemmas include those dealing with artificial nutrition and hydration, truth-telling and disagreements over management plans. It would stand the clinician in good stead to be aware of these issues and have an approach toward dealing with such problems. In addition, organisations have a responsibility to ensure that systems are in place to minimise its occurrence and ensure that staff are supported through the process of resolving dilemmas and conflicts that may arise. PMID:22252176

Ong, W Y; Yee, C M; Lee, A

2012-01-01

52

Ethical dilemmas and PD as important steps towards critical e-government design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The delivering of public services to citizens through the internet -- also known as e-government - has gained serious momentum, driven by political ambitions of improved efficiency. E-government, however, is considered complex and e-government failures are well known from media. Research of how e-government is enacted inside government is sparse. Technology mediated public services in real world entail ethical dilemmas. By extracting ethical dilemmas from a qualitative e-government participatory design study, this paper shows how ethical dilemmas may inform future e-government design and design processes. The case, adoption of digital post in a local e-government setting, showed that design flaws, staff's concern for citizens and political fear of citizens' critique had an impact on e-government adoption.

Berger, Jesper Bull

2014-01-01

53

Paradigms and personhood: a deepening of the dilemmas in ethics and medical ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many calls for a definition of personhood, but also many logical and Wittgensteinian reasons to think fulfilling this is unimportant or impossible. I argue that we can consider many contexts as language-games and consider the person as the key player in each. We can then examine the attributes, presuppositions and implications of personhood in those contexts. I use law and therapeutic psychology as two examples of such contexts or language-games. Each correlates with one of the classic "theories" of ethics-deontology and consequentialism. But each is a large enough cluster to consider them as paradigms in a sense related to Thomas Kuhn's notion in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Showing the presuppositions about and "takes" on personhood together with the connections involved in the paradigms deepens the dilemmas we already know to be present. PMID:10450664

Erde, E L

1999-04-01

54

A Cognitive Approach to Ethical Dilemmas Originating from Information Technology Revolution: Some Considerations and Recommendations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the emergence of information technology, occurrence of some ethical problems seems to be inevitable. Due to importance of this topic, the present article, adopting a cognitive approach, aimed to debate some ethical challenges relating to information technology so that via identification of such issues, thinking how they can be eradicated or diminished was stimulated. To do this, it discussed theoretical foundations, offered some evidences and highlighted necessity of considering interoperability between ethics and information technology and their related consequences. Moreover, it examined some ethical dilemmas originating from information technology and finally, made a reference to several recommendations.

Jalal Rahimi

2012-03-01

55

Ethical Dilemmas in Hospice and Palliative Care Units for Advanced Cancer Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethical dilemmas that face heathcare team members referring patients to hospice programs include the ability of clinicians to predict accurately a patient bad prognosis. They affect day-to-day patient management in palliative care programs including healthcare team members concern over the use of morphine because possible respiratory depression in the patient, the question of providing enteral or parenteral nutritional support to patients who refuse to eat and the question of providing parenteral fluids to patients who are unable to take fluids during the terminal phrases of illness. A final ethical dilemma concerns the methodology for quality of life research in palliative care. Understanding and resolving these ethical dilemmas is an important factor determining the quality of the caring for the patient. The ethical dilemmas that are discussed in the article likely to occur in this period can be prevented through his/her participation in the decisions concerning his or her treatment. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 65-79

Beyhan Bag

2013-02-01

56

[Ethical dilemmas in fieldwork: forgotten issues in qualitative health research in Iberoamerica].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores some ethical dilemmas faced while doing fieldwork. Ethical norms are not enough to appraise the relationship between researchers and participants; a reflexivity practice is needed to understand the dilemmas aroused during this process. Here four issues faced during fieldwork are presented. The academic social time usually defines the schedule of fieldwork; hence, the researcher may decide to follow the academic schedule or to arrange a different schedule with informants. Researchers usually decide which part of their identity will be disclosed for introducing themselves to the informants; but may also decide to hide who really he/she is. Researchers may cope with the dilemma to disclose their private life to informants during the fieldwork. Researchers also may decide to behave according to academic cultural norms of reciprocity or according to the cultural norms of participants. Finally, a reflexivity movement should be developed in Iberoamerica to define an agenda on ethical issues and to develop decolonizing strategies to debate these ethical dilemmas. PMID:22450400

Robles-Silva, Leticia

2012-03-01

57

International Ethical Dilemmas Confronting Australian Managers: Implications for the Training and Development of Employees Working Overseas  

Science.gov (United States)

Globalisation has seen diverse cultures becoming increasingly entwined and interdependent as business organisations operate in a borderless world. When organisations operate internationally they often find that countries differ in what is considered wrong or right. The objectives of the research were to identify cross-cultural ethical dilemmas

Pedigo, Kerry; Marshall, Verena

2004-01-01

58

Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: An Ethical Dilemma for Career Guidance Practice?  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual harassment in the workplace poses something of an ethical dilemma for career guidance practice. This is because it is now known that about half of all working women in the UK are likely to be victims at some stage of their employment and that the effects on individuals are invariably negative and can be positively harmful. What, therefore,…

Bimrose, Jenny

2004-01-01

59

Ethical Dilemmas of Child Abuse Reporting: Implications for Mental Health Counselors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores effect of child abuse reporting on counselor-client relationship, mental health profession, and child protective services system. Uses ecological systems approach in exploration of interventions needed to help resolve child abuse reporting dilemma. Within ecosystems framework, discusses ethical guidelines and policymaking for reporting…

MacNair, Rebecca R.

1992-01-01

60

Ethical Dilemmas of Providing Pro Bono Art Therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.

Moon, Bruce L.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Ethical dilemmas and the decision-making process. Is a consensus realistic?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydroelectric development projects, which frequently encounter ethical dilemmas, cannot be subject only to legal rules. Ethics are also at stake, especially in controversial situations. The purpose of this paper, which is based on an lEA report, is to find ethical principles that may help in the search for standards of conduct regarding hydropower development and the environment. The principles serve as the criteria for an article on legal and regulatory frameworks that also appears in this issue. This paper begins by restating, according to the lEA report, recurrent dilemmas raised by hydroelectricity projects (the protection of nature versus the satisfaction of essential human needs, distribution of wealth, the rights of affected communities, and the diversity of rules and cultural differences). The paper then presents and describes the five ethical principles discussed in the lEA report (stewardship; participatory decision-making; prudence and control; fairness and justice; and optimality). These principles are derived from international law and can guide decision-makers faced with dilemmas arising from hydropower projects. Accordingly, this text is a complement to the article on legal and regulatory frameworks that also appears in this issue. (Author)

Berube, Gilles; Villeneuve, Francois [Hydro-Quebec, Environment Dept., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

2002-11-01

62

Nurse Activism in the newborn intensive care unit: actions in response to an ethical dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nurses working in a newborn intensive care unit report that treatment decision disagreements for infants in their care may lead to ethical dilemmas involving all health-care providers. Applying Rest's Four-Component Model of Moral Action as the theoretical framework, this study examined the responses of 224 newborn intensive care unit nurses to the Nurses Ethical Involvement Survey. The three most frequent actions selected were as follows: talking with other nurses, talking with doctors, and requesting a team meeting. The multiple regression analysis indicates that newborn intensive care unit nurses with greater concern for the ethical aspects of clinical practice (p = .001) and an increased perception of their ability to influence ethical decision making (p = .018) were more likely to display Nurse Activism. Future research is necessary to identify other factors leading to and inhibiting Nurse Activism as these findings explained just 8.5% of the variance. PMID:23454980

Settle, Peggy Doyle

2014-03-01

63

The Ethical Dilemma of Information Asymmetry in Innovation: Reputation, Investors and Noise in the Innovation Channel.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A sufficient and steady stream of innovations is widely seen as a basis for healthy modern economies. Governments divert substantial resources from other purposes in society to increase innovation. Yet the failure rate among innovative SMEs is high, suggesting that resources are wasted. Avoiding such waste is a challenge for both governments and investors, but also raises a question for the innovative company, namely how to build and fund the enterprise on an ethical basis. The dilemma of ...

Millar, C. C. J. M.; Udalov, Y.; Millar, H.

2012-01-01

64

Has Our Knowledge of Neuroscience Led to Ethical Dilemmas?  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a lesson dealing with a new subdivision of bioethics called neuroethics. As our knowledge of the brain and nervous system expands, so do the ethical issues that result from this knowledge. This new area of study results from our increasing research in the field of neurobiology. In the first part of this activity, students will discuss the stigma associated with psychological illness. They will then be introduced to Dr. Kay Jamison who discusses some of the ethical implications of bipolar disorder. The class will take part in an activity called a Topical Barometer where they will have to choose a position regarding an ethical decision. In Part 2 of the activity, they will write a position paper after exploring the topic of drug enhancement, another controversial issue in the world of neuroscience. From the original handout text by Caren Gough

Musante, Susan

65

Painful dilemmas: the ethics of animal-based pain research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While it has the potential to deliver important human benefits, animal-based pain research raises ethical questions, because it involves inducing pain in sentient beings. Ethical decision-making, connected with this variety of research, requires informed harm-benefit analysis, and the aim of this paper is to provide information for such an analysis. We present an overview of the different models and their consequences for animal welfare, showing that, of the many animal models available, most have a considerable welfare impact on the animal. While the usual approach to pain control through administration of analgesic substances is usually unsuitable in pain research, refinement remains an option, both within the experimental protocol and in general husbandry and handling. Drawing on the overview, we develop a discussion of the ethical acceptability of animal-based pain research against the background of the kinds of harm done to the animals involved, the potential for refinement, and the expected benefits ofthe research.

Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M.; SandØe, Peter

2009-01-01

66

Development of ethical dilemma scale Japanese nurse faced physical restraints to elderly patients with dementia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to develop an ethical dilemma scale for nurses faced with the use of physical restraint when caring for elderly patients with dementia. Methods: We used a previously established 20-item dilemma scale. The objective and method of the study were explained to the head of nursing at 17 selected hospitals, and 121 nurses working in the general wards of 14 hospitals (excluding emergency department wards of psychiatry, pediatrics, obstetrics, outpatients, operating rooms and intensive care units who agreed to participate were enrolled in 2000. Seventy-six nurses from one of the hospitals were selected after eight years (2008 to provide a comparison. Ethical considerations: The study was conducted with the approval of the ethics committee at Meiji University of Integrative Medicine. Results and discussion: Four factors were compared between 2000 and 2008: “execution of treatment and security”, “characteristic features in nursing of elderly patients with dementia”, “cooperative relationship in nursing”, and “priorities in nursing”. The cumulative contribution ratio was 65.3% (KMO = 0.77, p = 0.000 in 2000 and 72.5% (KMO = 0.78, p = 0.000 in 2008. Therefore, the scale dilemma nurse faced physical restraints to elderly patients with dementia in Japan was developed 4 facoters from 17-delremmas items of 20 items.

Miwa Yamamoto

2013-05-01

67

A Right to Die?: Ethical Dilemmas of Euthanasia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Euthanasia is considered an important social issue of the 1990s. Mental health professionals should understand the differences between voluntary, involuntary, passive, and active euthanasia; mercy killing, and assisted suicide. Encourages counselors to ethically formulate client-supportive positions to help clients face life-and-death decisions.…

Albright, Dianne E.; Hazler, Richard J.

1992-01-01

68

Responsibility, fairness and credibility - ethical dilemmas concerning nuclear waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is written with the aim to stimulate discussion and studies on ethical aspects of nuclear waste management. It does not penetrate the technical details of the different stages of waste handling, but concentrates on questions such as our responsibility towards future generations etc

69

Ethics and Special Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussion of ethics in special education focuses on four challenges: (1) examination of special education's history within an ethical framework; (2) articulation of character morality as well as choice morality in special education ethical dilemmas; (3) examination of special education in a liberal democracy; and (4) development of an ethical

Paul, James; French, Peter; Cranston-Gingras, Ann

2001-01-01

70

Ethical dilemmas in scientific publication: pitfalls and solutions for editors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Editors of scientific journals need to be conversant with the mechanisms by which scientific misconduct is amplified by publication practices. This paper provides definitions, ways to document the extent of the problem, and examples of editorial attempts to counter fraud. Fabrication, falsification, duplication, ghost authorship, gift authorship, lack of ethics approval, non-disclosure, 'salami' publication, conflicts of interest, auto-citation, duplicate submission, duplicate publications, a...

Gollogly Laragh; Momen Hooman

2006-01-01

71

View point: Ethical dilemmas in malaria vector research in Africa: making the difficult choice between mosquito, science and humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria vector studies are a very important aspect of malaria research as they assist researchers to learn more about the malaria vector. Research programmes in various African countries include studies that assess various methods of preventing malaria transmission including controlling the malaria vector. Various institutions have also established mosquito colonies that are maintained by staff from the institutions. Malaria vector research presents several dilemmas relating to the various ways in which humans are used in the malaria vector research enterprise. A review of the past and present practices reveals much about the prevailing attitudes and assumptions with regard to the ethical conduct of research involving humans. The focus on the science of malaria vector research has led some researchers in African institutions to engage in questionable practices which reveal the ethical tensions inherent in the choice between science and the principles of justice, nonmaleficence and respect for individuals. The analysis of past and present choices in malaria vector research has relevance to broader questions of human dignity and are in line with the current emphasis on ethical research worldwide. PMID:23638277

Ndebele, P; Musesengwa, R

2012-09-01

72

O julgamento moral de dilemas éticos em negociação / Moral judgment of ethical dilemmas in negotiation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os processos cognitivos da tomada de decisão ética têm sido objeto de estudo de diversas pesquisas interessadas em compreender o que motiva os executivos a tomar as decisões eticamente questionáveis. A negociação é uma das práticas empresariais mais interessantes para estudar a honestidade e a ética [...] , uma vez que é central a todas as interações humanas e rica em dilemas éticos. Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo analisar em que medida diferenças individuais em termos de prioridades do sistema de valores condicionam o julgamento moral de práticas negociais eticamente ambíguas. Usando um modelo de equações estruturais, as relações entre os sistemas de valores, a ideologia ética e o julgamento moral são avaliadas. Os resultados sugerem que as dimensões da individualidade humana analisadas exercem uma influência significativa na forma como os gestores avaliam a moralidade de práticas negociais eticamente ambíguas. Os resultados podem ainda contribuir significativamente para melhorar a compreensão do processo de tomada de decisão ética. Abstract in english The cognitive processes underlying ethical decision making have been object of several studies interested in understanding what motivates executives to make ethically questionable decisions. Negotiation is one of the most interesting activities to study honesty and ethics, since it is central to all [...] human interactions and it poses several ethical dilemmas to the negotiators. This study has the objective to analyze how individual differences in values systems' priorities influence the moral judgment of ethically ambiguous negotiation practices. Using structural equations modeling, the relationships among an individual's personal values, ethical ideology and moral judgment are investigated. The empirical results suggest that the aforementioned dimensions of human individuality influence the moral judgment of ethically ambiguous negotiation tactics. These findings may significantly contribute to the theoretical understanding of ethical decision making processes.

Filipe João Bera de Azevedo, Sobral.

2009-10-01

73

Futility and the care of surgical patients: ethical dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Futility has been a contentious topic in medicine for several decades. Surgery in critical or end-of-life situations often raises difficult questions about futility. In this article, we discuss the definition of futility, methods for resolving futility disputes, and some ways to reframe the futility debate to a more fruitful discussion about the goals of care, better communication between surgeon and patient/surrogate, and palliative surgical care. Many definitions of futile therapy have been discussed. The most controversial of these is "qualitative futility" which describes a situation in which the treatment provided is likely to result in an unacceptable quality of life. This is an area of continued controversy because it has been impossible to identify universally held beliefs about acceptable quality of life. Many authors have described methods for resolving futility disputes, including community standards and legalistic multi-step due process protocols. Others, however, have abandoned the concept of futility altogether as an unhelpful term. Reframing the issue of futility as one of inadequate physician-patient communication, these authors have advocated for methods of improving communication and strengthening the patient-physician relationship. Finally, we discuss the utilization of consultants who may be of use in resolving futility disputes: ethics committees, palliative care specialists, pastoral care teams, and dedicated patient advocates. Involving these specialists in a futility conflict can help improve communication and provide invaluable assistance in arriving at the appropriate treatment decision. PMID:24849199

Grant, Scott B; Modi, Parth K; Singer, Eric A

2014-07-01

74

Dilema ético de la eutanasia Ethical dilemma of euthanasia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La eutanasia significa una muerte buena. Desde el punto de vista jurídico, es la muerte sin sufrimiento físico provocada por propia voluntad de un enfermo incurable. En la práctica consiste en administrar drogas, fármacos u otras sustancias que alivien el dolor aunque con ello se acorte la vida. La decisión de la aplicación de la eutanasia ha sido un problema persistente en la historia de la humanidad, ideologías diversas se enfrentan defendiendo sus argumentos de si debe o no practicarse. El objetivo de este trabajo, es exponer las consideraciones éticas, científicas y religiosas, sobre la práctica de la eutanasia a partir de un análisis histórico desde los tiempos de Platón hasta la actualidad. Lo verdaderamente importante es que el hombre, como ser racional, capaz de revolucionar constantemente la ciencia y la técnica y de transformar la naturaleza en beneficio de la especie, debe también morir con dignidad.Euthanasia means nice death. From the legal viewpoint, it means physical suffering-free provoked death willingly accepted by a terminally-ill patient. In practice, it means to administer drugs, pharmaceuticals or other substances that release pain even though they may reduce lifetime. The decision for euthanasia has been a persistent controversy in the history of mankind; thus various ideologies clash in support of arguments in favour or against this practice. The objective of this paper is to present ethical, scientific and religious considerations on the implementation of euthanasia, taking as a basis a historical analysis covering from Platon up to the present times. It is really important that man, as a rational being capable of permanently revolutionizing science and technique and transforming nature for the benefit of the species, should also die with dignity.

Mabel Creagh Peña

2012-03-01

75

Dilema ético de la eutanasia / Ethical dilemma of euthanasia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La eutanasia significa una muerte buena. Desde el punto de vista jurídico, es la muerte sin sufrimiento físico provocada por propia voluntad de un enfermo incurable. En la práctica consiste en administrar drogas, fármacos u otras sustancias que alivien el dolor aunque con ello se acorte la vida. La [...] decisión de la aplicación de la eutanasia ha sido un problema persistente en la historia de la humanidad, ideologías diversas se enfrentan defendiendo sus argumentos de si debe o no practicarse. El objetivo de este trabajo, es exponer las consideraciones éticas, científicas y religiosas, sobre la práctica de la eutanasia a partir de un análisis histórico desde los tiempos de Platón hasta la actualidad. Lo verdaderamente importante es que el hombre, como ser racional, capaz de revolucionar constantemente la ciencia y la técnica y de transformar la naturaleza en beneficio de la especie, debe también morir con dignidad. Abstract in english Euthanasia means nice death. From the legal viewpoint, it means physical suffering-free provoked death willingly accepted by a terminally-ill patient. In practice, it means to administer drugs, pharmaceuticals or other substances that release pain even though they may reduce lifetime. The decision f [...] or euthanasia has been a persistent controversy in the history of mankind; thus various ideologies clash in support of arguments in favour or against this practice. The objective of this paper is to present ethical, scientific and religious considerations on the implementation of euthanasia, taking as a basis a historical analysis covering from Platon up to the present times. It is really important that man, as a rational being capable of permanently revolutionizing science and technique and transforming nature for the benefit of the species, should also die with dignity.

Mabel, Creagh Peña.

2012-03-01

76

Dilema ético de la eutanasia / Ethical dilemma of euthanasia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La eutanasia significa una muerte buena. Desde el punto de vista jurídico, es la muerte sin sufrimiento físico provocada por propia voluntad de un enfermo incurable. En la práctica consiste en administrar drogas, fármacos u otras sustancias que alivien el dolor aunque con ello se acorte la vida. La [...] decisión de la aplicación de la eutanasia ha sido un problema persistente en la historia de la humanidad, ideologías diversas se enfrentan defendiendo sus argumentos de si debe o no practicarse. El objetivo de este trabajo, es exponer las consideraciones éticas, científicas y religiosas, sobre la práctica de la eutanasia a partir de un análisis histórico desde los tiempos de Platón hasta la actualidad. Lo verdaderamente importante es que el hombre, como ser racional, capaz de revolucionar constantemente la ciencia y la técnica y de transformar la naturaleza en beneficio de la especie, debe también morir con dignidad. Abstract in english Euthanasia means nice death. From the legal viewpoint, it means physical suffering-free provoked death willingly accepted by a terminally-ill patient. In practice, it means to administer drugs, pharmaceuticals or other substances that release pain even though they may reduce lifetime. The decision f [...] or euthanasia has been a persistent controversy in the history of mankind; thus various ideologies clash in support of arguments in favour or against this practice. The objective of this paper is to present ethical, scientific and religious considerations on the implementation of euthanasia, taking as a basis a historical analysis covering from Platon up to the present times. It is really important that man, as a rational being capable of permanently revolutionizing science and technique and transforming nature for the benefit of the species, should also die with dignity.

Mabel, Creagh Peña.

2012-03-01

77

Dilema ético de la eutanasia / Ethical dilemma of euthanasia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La eutanasia significa una muerte buena. Desde el punto de vista jurídico, es la muerte sin sufrimiento físico provocada por propia voluntad de un enfermo incurable. En la práctica consiste en administrar drogas, fármacos u otras sustancias que alivien el dolor aunque con ello se acorte la vida. La [...] decisión de la aplicación de la eutanasia ha sido un problema persistente en la historia de la humanidad, ideologías diversas se enfrentan defendiendo sus argumentos de si debe o no practicarse. El objetivo de este trabajo, es exponer las consideraciones éticas, científicas y religiosas, sobre la práctica de la eutanasia a partir de un análisis histórico desde los tiempos de Platón hasta la actualidad. Lo verdaderamente importante es que el hombre, como ser racional, capaz de revolucionar constantemente la ciencia y la técnica y de transformar la naturaleza en beneficio de la especie, debe también morir con dignidad. Abstract in english Euthanasia means nice death. From the legal viewpoint, it means physical suffering-free provoked death willingly accepted by a terminally-ill patient. In practice, it means to administer drugs, pharmaceuticals or other substances that release pain even though they may reduce lifetime. The decision f [...] or euthanasia has been a persistent controversy in the history of mankind; thus various ideologies clash in support of arguments in favour or against this practice. The objective of this paper is to present ethical, scientific and religious considerations on the implementation of euthanasia, taking as a basis a historical analysis covering from Platon up to the present times. It is really important that man, as a rational being capable of permanently revolutionizing science and technique and transforming nature for the benefit of the species, should also die with dignity.

Mabel, Creagh Peña.

78

Dilema ético de la eutanasia / Ethical dilemma of euthanasia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La eutanasia significa una muerte buena. Desde el punto de vista jurídico, es la muerte sin sufrimiento físico provocada por propia voluntad de un enfermo incurable. En la práctica consiste en administrar drogas, fármacos u otras sustancias que alivien el dolor aunque con ello se acorte la vida. La [...] decisión de la aplicación de la eutanasia ha sido un problema persistente en la historia de la humanidad, ideologías diversas se enfrentan defendiendo sus argumentos de si debe o no practicarse. El objetivo de este trabajo, es exponer las consideraciones éticas, científicas y religiosas, sobre la práctica de la eutanasia a partir de un análisis histórico desde los tiempos de Platón hasta la actualidad. Lo verdaderamente importante es que el hombre, como ser racional, capaz de revolucionar constantemente la ciencia y la técnica y de transformar la naturaleza en beneficio de la especie, debe también morir con dignidad. Abstract in english Euthanasia means nice death. From the legal viewpoint, it means physical suffering-free provoked death willingly accepted by a terminally-ill patient. In practice, it means to administer drugs, pharmaceuticals or other substances that release pain even though they may reduce lifetime. The decision f [...] or euthanasia has been a persistent controversy in the history of mankind; thus various ideologies clash in support of arguments in favour or against this practice. The objective of this paper is to present ethical, scientific and religious considerations on the implementation of euthanasia, taking as a basis a historical analysis covering from Platon up to the present times. It is really important that man, as a rational being capable of permanently revolutionizing science and technique and transforming nature for the benefit of the species, should also die with dignity.

Mabel, Creagh Peña.

79

The problem of choice in major dilemmas of obstetrics- actors, roles, ethical arguments and influences  

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Full Text Available The article discusses the principle of autonomy of patientss choice in a highly sensitive area, the obstetrics, regarding two issues which arise many dilemmas and debates, the induced abortion and the elective cesarean section..It brings up many pro and cons ethical arguments, reviews the various points of view and historical, legal, religious and humanist influences.Article stresses the need to adapt the old ethic principles to the realities of the actual complex society and the necessity of fully respect for the fundamental rights of the patient, including autonomy. Article leaves still open the problem of the influence of various factors on patients choice, and the need for the physician to assure the observance of this right.

Ingrid-Laura FIRULEASA

2010-12-01

80

[Ethical dilemmas of nurses concerning informational privacy of persons with HIV/AIDS. An exploratory study of the kinds of dilemmas, emotional experiences and coping strategies].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on the results of a study conducted in 1994. The aim of the study was to gain insight into nurses' perceptions of ethical dilemmas concerning informational privacy of patients with hiv/aids. The chosen research method was descriptive, from a qualitative research perspective (Grounded Theory). The purposive sample consisted of seven nurses working in a university hospital. Data were collected by means of in-depth interviews and the critical incidents method. The description of the dilemmas led to a central theme: the nurses' choice whether or not to give information revealing the diagnosis seropositivity or aids to patient's relatives or partner. The core categories were derived from analysis of the descriptions given by the nurses. They are split up into experiences of the nurses and the way nurses cope with these dilemmas. Recommendations are given for promotion of expertise and education. PMID:9376930

Vrehen, H M; van der Bijl, J

1997-05-01

 
 
 
 
81

Dilemas éticos en el diagnóstico de hipertensión arterial Ethical Dilemmas when Diagnosing Hypertension  

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Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión sobre los dilemas éticos en el diagnóstico de la hipertensión arterial, así como de algunos elementos en el surgimiento del concepto de bioética. Se identificaron los conflictos éticos que aparecen en cada etapa del diagnóstico de la hipertensión arterial: en el momento de suministrar la información, en el instante de la indicación y realización de las pruebas diagnósticas, en la comunicación del diagnóstico y en la toma de decisiones posteriores. Se concluye que el desarrollo tecnológico va a introducir nuevas decisiones éticas en el diagnóstico de la hipertensión arterial que van a involucrar cada vez más los intereses de la sociedad y crear de una manera u otra conflictos éticos y morales en la toma de decisiones.A review on the ethical dilemmas in the diagnosis of hypertension and some elements in the emergence of the bioethics concept was performed. Ethical conflicts that appear at each stage of diagnosis of hypertension: at the time of providing the information, at the point of indication and performance of diagnostic tests, when communicating the diagnosis and during subsequent decision making were identified. We conclude that technological development will introduce new ethical decisions in the diagnosis of hypertension that will increasingly involve the interests of society and create, in one way or another, ethical and moral conflict in the decision making process.

Sandra Santana López

2012-12-01

82

The Moral Values and Dilemmas in Romanian University. The Influence of Prosperity on Ethical Behavior  

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Full Text Available Upon analysis, it appears that education is the only solution to prevail over this moral crisis; the dilemma of contemporary society, faced with this moral challenge, lies at the crossroads between philosophy and pedagogy. Moral value education cannot be reduced to “civic education” or to “human rights education”, as it lies at the crossroads between the logic of the mind and the logic of the heart, which generate values together. A “new ethics” is necessary, one which must reflect our historical standpoint, because the overthrow of a set of values and the inauguration of a “new moral” cannot be achieved by one “brilliant Zarathustra”.The questions of our papers are: What was and what is it now the University? And what are university professors’ responsibilities? Are the social-economical changes influencing the academic activity?

Magdalena IORGA

2012-08-01

83

Epistemological and ethical dilemmas of public participation on residential tourism planning  

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Full Text Available There exists a wide consensus among governance theorists about the need of broadening the level of active engagement of the public in the processes of local planning and decision making. However, the praxis of public participation still arise many doubts and uncertainties that have not been solved by the academia yet. This paper examines the problems and difficulties faced during the design and im-plementation of a public participation process on the alternatives and future of several local development projects of residential tourism in two municipalities in the South-East of Spain. The objective of this paper is to show the main epistemological and ethical dilemmas (legitimacy, representation and utility challenged during this project, as well as some of the answers given to these questions

Ortiz Noguera, Guadalupe

2007-01-01

84

The referee’s dilemma. The ethics of scientific communities and game theory  

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Full Text Available This article argues that various deviations from the basic principles of the scientific ethos – primarily the appearance of pseudoscience in scientific communities – can be formulated and explained using specific models of game theory, such as the prisoner’s dilemma and the iterated prisoner’s dilemma. The article indirectly tackles the deontology of scientific work as well, in which it is assumed that there is no room for moral skepticism, let alone moral anti-realism, in the ethics of scientific communities. Namely, on the basis of the generally accepted dictum of scientific endeavor as the pursuit of knowledge exclusively for knowledge’s sake, scientifically »right« behavior is seen to be clearly defined and distinguishable from scientifically »wrong« behavior. After elucidating the basic principles of game theory, the article illustrates – by using imaginary and real cases, as well as some views from the philosophyof biology (the units of selection debate – how this sort of reasoning could be applied in an analysis of the functioning of science.

Tomislav Bracanovic

2002-06-01

85

Ethical and social dilemmas in community-based controlled trials in situations of poverty: a view from a South African project.  

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All psychological and social research presents ethical dilemmas, many of which centre around the difficulties which flow from the power imbalances between those conducting the research and the research respondents or participants. Issues of power are magnified in research undertaken in contexts of poverty, and there is a burgeoning literature on ethical issues in research in developing countries. In this article, we augment the existing literature by focusing on the experiences of an assessor working in a controlled trial of a mother-infant intervention in a poor South African community. We consider issues of community expectations, the presentation to our project of physical health problems, the issue of HIV/AIDS, cultural beliefs which impact on the research, child protection issues, and the tensions between research assessment and ubuntu--a cultural norm which requires helpful engagement with others. We suggest that our experiences may assist with the development of further research. PMID:16881161

Nama, Nosisana; Swartz, Leslie

2002-01-01

86

Ethical issues in presymptomatic genetic testing for minors: a dilemma in Li-Fraumeni syndrome.  

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In 2001, a French expert panel recommended that presymptomatic tests should not be carried out on minors in families affected by Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), flying in the face of possible parental demands for such testing. We decided to investigate the legitimacy of such a recommendation. We conducted a national multicenter survey using self-administered questionnaires mailed to French oncogeneticists in 33 regional centers in France. We aimed to (1) determine the extent to which these doctors were confronted with parental requests for TP53 testing, (2) study how they responded to these requests and the arguments used and (3) assess the attitude of oncogeneticists concerning the normative framework regulating the prescription of tests for minors. Twenty oncogeneticists stated that they had managed at least one LFS family. Eleven of these doctors had been confronted with parental requests for testing and three had prescribed such tests on at least one occasion. The oncogeneticists gave balanced medical, psychological and ethical arguments, highlighting the dilemma they face in the decision-making process. This dilemma is due to the lack of a consensus concerning this recommendation, which aims to protect the minor by limiting presymptomatic tests to cases in which a clear medical benefit can be demonstrated but which prevents the unique situation of particular families from being taken into account. In conclusion, the recommendation has a normative status but first, from a clinical stance, it is difficult to dissociate it from the evaluation of individual family situations, and second, the benefit of a specific medical follow-up for TP53 mutation carriers is currently being investigated. PMID:23233110

Fresneau, Brice; Brugières, Laurence; Caron, Olivier; Moutel, Grégoire

2013-06-01

87

Ethical issues in rehabilitation: a qualitative analysis of dilemmas identified by occupational therapists.  

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Little available research exists to address the range of ethical issues encountered by occupational therapists (OTs) in their daily clinical work. The few articles in the literature have tended to be case-based or anecdotal or have focused on professional issues rather than clinical issues. To characterize the array of clinical ethical issues in occupational therapy, we asked OTs in a free-standing academic rehabilitation hospital to describe in some detail up to three scenarios or situations from their clinical practice that raised morally troubling questions. A coding system was developed to preserve the richness of the detail but to allow for some categorization of the topics. A second section of the survey asked the therapists to rate whether various traditional ethics topics were of high, medium, or low interest to them. A third section asked that they identify the formats that would be most appealing to them for future educational interventions. Of the 56 therapists surveyed, 38 (or 68%) responded. The three self-generated topics mentioned most frequently by the therapists were (in decreasing order of frequency): reimbursement pressures, conflicts around goal setting, and patient/family refusal of team recommendations. The respondents were particularly interested in knowing more about patient-centered ethics topics, such as conflict resolution between teams and patients and the patient's role in decision making. Furthermore, they indicated a strong preference for interdisciplinary and interactive educational formats. PMID:14523711

Foye, Sarah Jajesnica; Kirschner, Kristi L; Brady Wagner, Lynne C; Stocking, Carol; Siegler, Mark

2002-01-01

88

THE PARADIGM OF ANTIGONE AND GACEL SAYAH: An approach to historical and contemporary Ethical/moral dilemmas of Journalism  

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Full Text Available This work intends to locate and to explore the complexities ofsome classical moral dilemmas in human history considering twoparadigms as references: Antigone’s, created by Sophocles; andGacel Sayah’s, created by Vázquez-Figueroa. The work situatesboth historical and contemporary dilemmas of journalism andpoints out examples furnished by professionals in activity andacademic experts. At the same time, it relates immediate conflicts to particularities of journalistic activity – from the historical perspective of consolidation of values to the present scenario of professional journalism in both Cyberspace and the Information Society (in which ethics, techniques and aesthetics try to structure the perspective of moral convergence in order to support the activity and its social credibility and legitimacy.

Francisco José Castilhos Karam

2009-12-01

89

Ethical Dilemma Factor in Regarding Physical Restraints to Elderly of Female Nurses with the Living Together Experience  

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Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to illuminate the connotation of “dilemma” regarding the use of physical restraint on elderly patients as represented by female nurses working in general wards at community hospitals who also live with elderly adults at home. Method: The study used the questionnaire method with an independently prepared questionnaire. Participants: The objective of the study was explained to the persons in charge of nursing in the selected 17 hospitals, and 1929. Finally, this study of participants were 524 female nurses working in general 54 wards (excluding the emergency wards of psychiatry, pediatrics, obstetrics, outpatients, operating rooms, and intensive care units at community hospitals who also live with elderly adults at home. Results and conclusions: Cronbach’s overall coefficient for the 20 items of dilemma was high (0.78 and the factor analysis extracted four dilemma factors as having a characteristic value of 1 (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure value = 0.81 with a cumulative contribution ratio of 64.5%. The high Cronbach’s for these items (0.86, 0.88, 0.87 and 0.81 confirmed the internal consistencies. With respect to the dilemma where nurses working in general wards at community hospitals who also live with elderly adults at home are faced with the physical restraint of elderly persons, four factors in the clarification of the dilemma were extracted: accomplishment of medical-treatment and accident prevention, characteristic features in nursing for elderly patients with dementia, healthcare professional relationship in nursing for elderly patients with dementia, and priorities on the accident prevention for elderly patients with dementia. Therefore, the construction of four systems to cope with these dilemmas is suggested. These systems would enable practising nurses to: (i institution of policies to encourage discussion between nurses and other medical staff to reach consensus on treatment; (ii allocating elderly care specialists to wards to promote alternatives to restraints; (iii establishment of safety standards to define nurses’ responsibilities; and (iv institution of continuous ethical education for nurses.

Masako Aota

2012-09-01

90

Behavioral Ethics: Toward a Deeper Understanding of Moral Judgment and Dishonesty  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Early research and teaching on ethics focused on either a moral development perspective or philosophical approaches, and used a normative approach by focusing on the question of how people should act when resolving ethical dilemmas. In this paper, we briefly describe the traditional approach to ethics and then present a (biased) review on the behavioral approach to ethics. We define behavioral ethics as the study of systematic and predictable ways in which individuals make ethical decisions a...

Bazerman, Max H.; Gino, Francesca

2012-01-01

91

Ethical downsizing. Managers must focus on justice and human dignity.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is vital that leaders and managers focus on justice and human dignity in the workplace when faced with the possible need to downsize. First, administrators should clearly identify the goals of work force reduction, evaluate their importance, and consider whether they could be achieved through other means. Once they have made the decision to downsize, top managers must clearly communicate the reasons and the goals to those responsible for identifying the employees affected. Employees selected for layoff should be identified on the basis of the articulated goals for work force reduction, whenever possible. When this is not clear, the tough decisions can be based on a variety of factors: "across-the-board" reductions; employee abilities, qualifications, and performance; diversity goals; seniority; or multiple criteria. It is also important to respect human dignity in the layoff process. Affected employees should be informed in advance and given an honest explanation for the layoff. Ordinarily, they should be encouraged to work until the effective date. All employees need a clear and honest explanation of the reasons for and the expected effects of the layoff. There should be a stress on the free flow of information, without an effort to control it. How downsizing is handled says a lot about the nature of an organization and its leadership. Ethical downsizing is, first of all, a refusal to deny the complexity of the issues and evidence of the organization's commitment to justice and human dignity. PMID:10135164

Weber, L J

1994-01-01

92

An approach to ethic dilemmas of geriatric medicine. Un acercamiento a los dilemas éticos de la medicina geriátrica  

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Full Text Available The bioethical formulation is based on three (or four principles: beneficence (and no maleficence, after some authors, justice and autonomy. In spite of multiple received criticisms this proposal have been enriched and strengthened. From this point, sanitary activity and the medical practice as well, can be considered as activities with a clear social insertion, thus susceptible of an ethical analysis which goes beyond of the narrow margins of the professional ethics. Population aging as a worldwide phenomenon will bring about a major demand of the assistance and social services. New ethic dilemmas could emerge from the demographic changes, related to the intergenerational, family and health services relationship overall. General practitioners and particularly gerontologist should be prepared to face this medical an ethical challenges. La formulación bioética está basada en la definición de tres (o cuatro principios: beneficencia (y no maleficencia según algunos autores, justicia y autonomía. A pesar de las múltiples críticas recibidas, dicha propuesta no ha hecho sino enriquecerse y consolidarse. De ahí que la actividad sanitaria, y, dentro de ella, la práctica médica, puedan ser consideradas como actividades con una clara inserción social, susceptible, por tanto, de un análisis ético que vaya más allá de los estrechos márgenes de la ética profesional. El envejecimiento poblacional como fenómeno mundial, traerá consigo una mayor demanda de los servicios asistenciales y sociales. Nuevos dilemas éticos se producen a la luz de los cambios demográficos, sobre todos los relacionados con la relación intergeneracional, la familia y los servicios de salud en general. Los médicos generales y los gerontólogos en particular deben estar preparados para enfrentar estos desafíos médicos y éticos en general.

Carlos Daniel Mayor Igarza

2008-06-01

93

Faculty Ethics: New Dilemmas, New Choices. AAHE-ERIC/Higher Education Research Currents, June 1980.  

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Faculty ethics are considered in relation to conflict of interest between academic work and nonacademic consulting jobs, confidentiality of research, the employment of faculty by intelligence agencies, and the need for self-regulation by the academic community. For faculty members who serve as consultants, ethical issues arise concerning the use…

Shulman, Carol Herrnstadt

94

Language acquisition, motherhood, and the perpetual preservation of ethical dialogue: a model for ethical discourse focusing on Julia Kristeva  

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Full Text Available This article proposes that Julia Kristeva’s semiotic view of language supports the mother/child paradigm as a model for ethical discourse. Her defense of motherhood, particularly her discussion of the sacredness of maternal love and the mother tongue, strengthens the argument that motherhood is a primary means of preserving language acquisition and ethical development. It focuses on motherhood’s ability to ensure, protect and preserve the possibility of productive ethical discourse through verbal and non-verbal means of communication. This article discusses the constraints of language, and its effects on the actualization of self.

Jennifer Lemma

2009-01-01

95

Quality improvement in general practice: enabling general practitioners to judge ethical dilemmas.  

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Quality improvement (QI) is fundamental to maintaining high standards of health care. Significant debate exists concerning the necessity for an ethical approval system for those QI projects that push the boundaries, appearing more similar to research than QI. The authors discuss this issue identifying the core ethical issues in family medicine (FM), drawing upon the fundamental principles of medical ethics, including principles of autonomy, utility, justice and non-maleficence. Recent debate concerning the application of QI ethics boards is discussed with relevance to primary care and issues such as general practitioner (GP) intentions, the impact of QI on patients and the use of confidential patient data and the impact of dissemination. The authors conclude that a system of QI ethical approval leaves many issues unresolved and potentially creates several barriers to implementing QI. To ensure ethical QI work is generated within FM it is essential for GPs to learn about and engage in more ethical reflection so that they can better judge and resolve these issues. PMID:20212001

Tapp, Laura; Edwards, Adrian; Elwyn, Glyn; Holm, Soren; Eriksson, Tina

2010-03-01

96

El dilema ético de la fluoración del agua potable / The ethical dilemma of water fluoridation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Dental caries remains a worldwide public health problem because of its magnitude and impact on affected people's quality of life. Among preventive strategies, water fluoridation is one of the most important, but its value still remains uncertain after more than a half of Century of its use. The aim [...] of this study is to analyse some of the ethical arguments for and against water fluoridation and to determine if empirical data allow to decide if there are correct policies from a bioethical perspective. Autonomy, compulsory medication (mass medication), precautionary principle, justice in health care and ethics of protection are discussed. It is concluded that fluoridation is beneficial and that there is no ethical reason to oppose it, based on a specific kind of ethics developed to analyse and clarify complex public health's issues

Carolina, Mendoza V.

97

El dilema ético de la fluoración del agua potable The ethical dilemma of water fluoridation  

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Full Text Available Dental caries remains a worldwide public health problem because of its magnitude and impact on affected people's quality of life. Among preventive strategies, water fluoridation is one of the most important, but its value still remains uncertain after more than a half of Century of its use. The aim of this study is to analyse some of the ethical arguments for and against water fluoridation and to determine if empirical data allow to decide if there are correct policies from a bioethical perspective. Autonomy, compulsory medication (mass medication, precautionary principle, justice in health care and ethics of protection are discussed. It is concluded that fluoridation is beneficial and that there is no ethical reason to oppose it, based on a specific kind of ethics developed to analyse and clarify complex public health's issues

Carolina Mendoza V

2007-11-01

98

Ethical decision-making in the dilemma of the intersex infant.  

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The Making Ethical Decisions about Surgical Intervention (MEDSI) tool is designed to guide health care professionals, patients, and families faced with ethically charged decisions regarding surgical interventions for pediatric patients. MEDSI is built on the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and patient autonomy and created to promote truth-telling, compassion, respect for patient cultural and religious preferences, and appropriate follow up in the clinical setting. Following an overview of the 8 steps that compose MEDSI, the tool is applied to the management of intersex infants. The birth of a child with a disorder of sexual development (DSD) and ambiguous genitalia presents an ethically challenging situation for the family and health care team. The use of the MEDSI model is demonstrated in a case study involving the decision of surgical intervention in the management of an intersex child. PMID:24251985

Lathrop, Breanna L; Cheney, Teresa B; Hayman, Annette B

2014-03-01

99

Ethical Dilemmas in Protecting Individual Rights Versus Public Protection in the Case of Infectious Diseases  

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Infectious diseases—including emerging and re-emerging diseases such as Ebola and tuberculosis—continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality in the globalizing, contemporary world. This article discusses the ethical issues associated with protecting the rights of individuals versus the protection of the health of populations in the case of infectious diseases. The discussion uses the traditional medical ethics approach together with the public health approach presented by Faden and Shebaya.3 Infectious diseases such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Nipah virus and HIV/AIDS (together with tuberculosis) will be used to illustrate particular points in the discussion. PMID:24847171

Phua, Kai-Lit

2013-01-01

100

Parental Choices and Ethical Dilemmas Involving Disabilities: Special Education and the Problem of Deliberately Chosen Disabilities  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical issues regarding children with disabilities have long involved their treatment after they are born. These issues remain important, but children may be deliberately created with or without characteristics that are usually thought of as disabilities. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and related technologies that involve human…

Kauffman, James M.; Hallahan, Daniel P.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Exploring Ethical Dilemmas for Principals Arising from Role Conflict with School Counsellors  

Science.gov (United States)

Acting in the best interests of students is central to the moral and ethical work of schools. Yet tensions can arise between principals and school counsellors as they work from at times opposing professional paradigms. In this article we report on principals' and counsellors' responses to scenarios covering confidentiality and the law,…

Kimber, Megan; Campbell, Marilyn

2014-01-01

102

Psychotropic Medication Consultation in Schools: An Ethical and Legal Dilemma for School Psychologists  

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Assessing, consulting, and intervening with students being treated with psychotropic medications is an increasingly common activity for school psychologists. This article reviews some of the literature providing evidence for the greater need for training in school psychopharmacology. A legal and ethical case study is presented that highlights the…

Carlson, John S.; Thaler, Cara L.; Hirsch, Amanda J.

2006-01-01

103

Managerji HRM in njihove eti?ne dileme = Human Resource Managers and Their Ethical Dilemma  

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Full Text Available Douglas Renwick (2003 said that the personnel function plays therole of guardian of employees’ wellbeing, but on the other hand, hesaid that personnel managers also tamper with the wellbeing of employees.Looking at Renwick’s theory through Ulrich’s model of personnelmanagers as guardians of employees’ wellbeing, they play therole of strategic partners, managers of the changes and the role of theemployees representatives. Gantz and Hayes (in Payne and Wayland,1999 explicated a few fields where we can talk of ethical conflict whileperforming these roles: discrimination, psychological tests, anti-unionbehaviour, design of work flow, job insecurity, discipline, confidentiality,privacy, and firing because of technological redundancy. In this paperwe explore the field of potential and real ethical conflicts of humanresource managers.What are the most important values of humanresources managers? In which areas do ethical conflicts occur?And how do they solve these conflicts on an everyday basis? We usedquestionnaires to gather data on these issues. We found out that managerswho are in leading positions suffer the most, next are those whohave had long tenure. In this situation ethical codes don’t help much.

Mateja Primoži?

2011-09-01

104

The Mole's Dilemma: Ethical Aspects of Public Internet Access in Academic Libraries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses ethical issues concerning public Internet access in academic libraries. Highlights include intellectual freedom, censorship, technical aspects of limiting or restricting use, legal liability for public use of computers for illegal purposes such as child pornography, and the importance of priority use of terminals by the primary academic…

Still, Julie; Kassabian, Vibiana

1999-01-01

105

Ethical Dilemmas and Emergent Values Encountered by Working College Students: Implications for Marketing Educators  

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A large body of pedagogical research exists on developing curricula and ethics training tools to prepare college graduates for entering the workforce. However, many college students are "already" in the workforce while they attend school. Many of these jobs are entry-level or frontline employee positions in retail or service industries,…

Bush, Victoria D.; Smith, Rachel Korthage; Bush, Alan J.

2013-01-01

106

COVER It: A Comprehensive Framework for Guiding Students through Ethical Dilemmas  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a model that aims to create a greater ability to recognize the negative aspects of making unethical decisions. To this end, the authors developed an ethical decision-making model to aid students through the process of analyzing these situations--a model that is easy to remember and apply. Through this model, the COVER model,…

Mitchell, Jennifer M.; Yordy, Eric D.

2010-01-01

107

On Tour with the "Accidental" Expert: Ethical Dilemmas of the Development Consultant.  

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This paper explores Max Weber's study of the origins of the secularization of the Puritan work ethic and examines the hybridized category of secular science expert. The hybrid construct provides an opening for the critical analysis of the concrete activity of development from two perspectives, the structural and the individual. The individual…

Basile, Michael L.

108

Challenges in international medicine: ethical dilemmas, unanticipated consequences, and accepting limitations.  

Science.gov (United States)

While personal and organizational challenges occur in every area of health care, practitioners of international medicine face unique problems and dilemmas that are rarely discussed in training programs. Health professions schools, residency and fellowship programs, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and government programs have a responsibility to make those new to international medicine aware of the special circumstances that they may face and to provide methods for understanding and dealing with these circumstances. Standard "domestic" approaches to such challenges may not work in international medicine, even though these challenges may appear to be similar to those faced in other clinical settings. How should organizations ensure that well-meaning health intervention efforts do not cause adverse unintended sequelae? How should an individual balance respect for cultural uniqueness and local mores that may profoundly differ from his or her own beliefs, with the need to remain a moral agent true to one's self? When is acceptance the appropriate response to situations in which limitations of resources seem to preclude any good solution? Using a case-based approach, the authors discuss issues related to the four major international medicine domains: clinical practice (postdisaster response, resource limitations, standards of care), medical systems and systems development (prehospital care, wartime casualties, sustainable change, cultural awareness), teaching (instruction and local resources, professional preparation), and research (questionable funded studies, clinical trials, observational studies). It is hoped that this overview may help prepare those involved with international medicine for the challenges and dilemmas they may face and help frame their responses to these situations. PMID:22548491

Iserson, Kenneth V; Biros, Michelle H; James Holliman, C

2012-06-01

109

Stakeholder Analysis: Using the Jigsaw Method for Ethical Dilemmas in Business  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stakeholder analysis is an essential part of business education as students develop awareness of the different perspectives that influence business and the difficult decisions made by business, government and communities. An important aspect of learning is to think critically about who is presenting the viewpoint and the conclusions they have drawn. We have found that the Jigsaw Method is a powerful way to learn the importance of different viewpoints in the teaching of ethical practice and sustainability.

Leigh N Wood

2011-03-01

110

The Prisoner's Dilemma: The History, Ethical Dimensions, and Evolving Regulatory Landscape of Clinical Trials on Inmates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The history of research on prisoners in the United States is marred with a shameful past of abuse and coercion. With the development of research ethics arising from the Nuremberg Code and the Belmont Report, a critical light was shone on these oppressive practices. In 1974, the Department of Health and Human Services commissioned a group to investigate the conditions under which prisoners were used a research subjects and to formulate recommendations to guide clinicians in the ...

Fitzpatrick, Caitlin Noelle

2013-01-01

111

The organizational context of ethical dilemmas: a role-playing simulation for the intensive care unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The allocation of health care resources often requires decision makers to balance conflicting ethical principles. The resource-constrained intensive care unit (ICU) provides an ideal setting to study how decision makers go about their balancing act in a complex and dynamic environment. The author presents a role-playing simulation exercise which models ICU admission and discharge decision making. Designed for the class-room, the simulation engages a variety of ethical, managerial, and public policy issues including end-of-life decision making, triage, and rationing. The simulation is based on a sequence of scenarios or "decision rounds" delineating conditions in the ICU in terms of disposition of ICU patients, number of available ICU beds, prognoses of candidates for admission, and other physiological and organizational information. Students, playing the roles of attending physician, hospital administrator, nurse manager, triage officer, and ethics committee member, are challenged to reach consensus in the context of multiple power centers and conflicting goals. An organization theory perspective, incorporated into the simulation, provides insight on how decisions are actually made and stimulates discussion on how decision making might be improved. PMID:11586656

Strosberg, M A

2001-01-01

112

Ethical dilemmas related to predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged. PMID:24481888

Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W

2013-01-01

113

Nursing and the resolution of ethical dilemmas Enfermería y la resolución de los dilemas éticos Enfermagem e a resolução dos dilemas éticos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inherent to Nursing Care, ethical dimension includes having to decide about the dilemmas that arise in practice. Experience shows that generally we do not have a reference and then sufficient training to judge the ethical quality of our decisions and actions, reason why, in this article some methods are introduced that will facilitate this ethical analysis when faced with a conflict or dilemma that warrants it.La dimensión ética, inherente al Cuidado de Enfermería, incluye el tener que decidir sobre los dilemas que se presentan en su práctica. Generalmente, la experiencia muestra que no poseemos una referencia ni suficiente entrenamiento, para juzgar la calidad ética de nuestras decisiones y acciones, razón por la cual, en este artículo se muestran algunos métodos que facilitarán este análisis ético frente a un conflicto o dilema que así lo amerite.A dimensão ética, inerente ao Cuidado de Enfermagem, inclui o ter que decidir sobre os dilemas que se apresentam em sua prática. A experiência mostra que geralmente não possuímos uma referência e depois suficiente treinamento, para julgar a qualidade ética de nossas decisões e ações, razão pela qual, neste artigo se mostram alguns métodos que facilitarão esta análise ética frente a um conflito ou dilema que assim o amerite.

Liliana Basso-Musso

2012-07-01

114

Nursing and the resolution of ethical dilemmas / Enfermagem e a resolução dos dilemas éticos / Enfermería y la resolución de los dilemas éticos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A dimensão ética, inerente ao Cuidado de Enfermagem, inclui o ter que decidir sobre os dilemas que se apresentam em sua prática. A experiência mostra que geralmente não possuímos uma referência e depois suficiente treinamento, para julgar a qualidade ética de nossas decisões e ações, razão pela qual [...] , neste artigo se mostram alguns métodos que facilitarão esta análise ética frente a um conflito ou dilema que assim o amerite. Abstract in spanish La dimensión ética, inherente al Cuidado de Enfermería, incluye el tener que decidir sobre los dilemas que se presentan en su práctica. Generalmente, la experiencia muestra que no poseemos una referencia ni suficiente entrenamiento, para juzgar la calidad ética de nuestras decisiones y acciones, raz [...] ón por la cual, en este artículo se muestran algunos métodos que facilitarán este análisis ético frente a un conflicto o dilema que así lo amerite. Abstract in english Inherent to Nursing Care, ethical dimension includes having to decide about the dilemmas that arise in practice. Experience shows that generally we do not have a reference and then sufficient training to judge the ethical quality of our decisions and actions, reason why, in this article some methods [...] are introduced that will facilitate this ethical analysis when faced with a conflict or dilemma that warrants it.

Liliana, Basso-Musso.

115

Dilemas Éticos y Modelos Deontológicos para el Periodista Usuario de Medios Sociales / Ethical Dilemmas and Deontological Models for Journalist User of Social Media  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo se propone identificar los principales dilemas éticos emergentes en el uso de medios sociales por parte de los periodistas. Para ello, recorre experiencias recientes que dieron lugar a reflexiones sobre la necesidad de establecer pautas específicas para la publicación de contenidos en es [...] tos medios, y analiza las características y la pertinencia de las respuestas deontológicas a esos dilemas, ensayadas en los últimos dos años por distintas organizaciones periodísticas de proyección internacional. Finalmente, se clasifican y describen los modelos deontológicos de acuerdo con el grado de autonomía que las organizaciones conceden al periodista para que se exprese libremente en los medios sociales, y se plantea la necesidad de la autorregulación individual y de fortalecer el compromiso del periodista con la excelencia profesional. Abstract in english This paper aims to identify key emerging ethical dilemmas when journalists use social media. To this end, it goes over recent experiences that led to reflections on the need for specific guidelines for publishing content in social media, and analyzes the characteristics and relevance of ethical resp [...] onses to these dilemmas, that were stated in the last two years by different international news organizations. Lastly, it classifies and describes ethical models according to the degree of autonomy granted by organizations to their journalists to express themselvesfreely in social media, and raises the needfor individual self-regulation and for strengthen journalist's commitment with professional excellence.

Mariano, Ure.

116

Dilemas Éticos y Modelos Deontológicos para el Periodista Usuario de Medios Sociales / Ethical Dilemmas and Deontological Models for Journalist User of Social Media  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo se propone identificar los principales dilemas éticos emergentes en el uso de medios sociales por parte de los periodistas. Para ello, recorre experiencias recientes que dieron lugar a reflexiones sobre la necesidad de establecer pautas específicas para la publicación de contenidos en es [...] tos medios, y analiza las características y la pertinencia de las respuestas deontológicas a esos dilemas, ensayadas en los últimos dos años por distintas organizaciones periodísticas de proyección internacional. Finalmente, se clasifican y describen los modelos deontológicos de acuerdo con el grado de autonomía que las organizaciones conceden al periodista para que se exprese libremente en los medios sociales, y se plantea la necesidad de la autorregulación individual y de fortalecer el compromiso del periodista con la excelencia profesional. Abstract in english This paper aims to identify key emerging ethical dilemmas when journalists use social media. To this end, it goes over recent experiences that led to reflections on the need for specific guidelines for publishing content in social media, and analyzes the characteristics and relevance of ethical resp [...] onses to these dilemmas, that were stated in the last two years by different international news organizations. Lastly, it classifies and describes ethical models according to the degree of autonomy granted by organizations to their journalists to express themselvesfreely in social media, and raises the needfor individual self-regulation and for strengthen journalist's commitment with professional excellence.

Mariano, Ure.

2013-06-01

117

Authorship: an ethical dilemma of science / Autoria: um dilema ético da ciência  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO AND OBJETIVO: Com o avanço científico e tecnológico ocorrido a partir dos anos 60, surgiu um crescente aumento do número de pesquisas científicas e uma inflação de co-autorias. Ao longo do tempo, observou-se que numerosas publicações mostravam autores ou co-autores cuja participação na pesq [...] uisa publicada havia sido mínima ou até mesmo inexistente. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar, através da literatura, as situações de má-conduta em autoria: tipos, principais causas, conseqüências e normas éticas; e estabelecer propostas para que as publicações científicas apresentem um maior comprometimento ético. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Revisão narrativa realizada na Faculdade de Medicina de Itajubá, Minas Gerais, Brasil. MÉTODO: Análise de publicações sobre autoria, através das bases de dados Medline, Lilacs e SciELO. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Freqüentes tipos de má conduta são autoria "presenteada", fragmentação e duplicação em publicações. As causas que mais induzem a essas situações parecem ser a pressão exercida pela academia e o desejo de ascensão social e profissional. Esse viés na ciência, acrescido de outras formas de autoria antiética, continua até hoje, apesar dos critérios definidos pelo Comitê Internacional de Editores de Periódicos Médicos, o Grupo de Vancouver. RECOMENDAÇÕES: São propostas várias ações juntoàs instituições de ensino, agências de fomento à pesquisa, órgãos reguladores e associações de classe, para que se institua uma política de avaliação que priorize a qualidade das publicações, bem como o estabelecimento de preceitos éticos em pesquisa e produção científica. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The scientific and technological progress that has taken place since the 1960s has brought an ever-growing volume of scientific research, and inflation in co-authorship. Over this period, it has been observed that an increasing number of publications have listed authors or co- [...] authors whose participation in the published research was minimal or even nonexistent. The objective of this work was to analyze reports in the literature regarding misconduct in authorship: its types, chief causes, consequences and ethical guidelines; and to outline proposals for greater ethical commitment in scientific publication. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review undertaken at Faculdade de Medicina de Itajubá, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Analysis of publications about authorship using the Medline, Lilacs and SciELO databases. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Frequent types of misconduct were gift authorship and divided and redundant publications. The chief causes of these practices seem to be the pressure exerted by academia and the desire for social and professional development. Such factors have brought an increase in unethical behavior. This bias in science continues despite the criteria defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the Vancouver group. RECOMMENDATIONS: Various actions are proposed for educational institutions, research development agencies, regulatory agencies and professional associations. The aim is to establish an evaluation policy that gives primacy to the quality of publications and sets ethical principles for scientific research.

Maria Christina Anna, Grieger.

2005-11-01

118

Protest of doctors: a basic human right or an ethical dilemma  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Peaceful protests and strikes are a basic human right as stated in the United Nations’ universal declaration on human rights. But for doctors, their proximity to life and death and the social contract between a doctor and a patient are stated as the reasons why doctors are valued more than the ordinary beings. In Pakistan, strikes by doctors were carried out to protest against lack of service structure, security and low pay. This paper discusses the moral and ethical concerns pertaining to the strikes by medical doctors in the context of Pakistan. The author has carefully tried to balance the discussion about moral repercussions of strikes on patients versus the circumstances of doctors working in public sector hospitals of a developing country that may lead to strikes. Discussion Doctors are envisaged as highly respectable due to their direct link with human lives. Under Hippocrates oath, care of the patient is a contractual obligation for the doctors and is superior to all other responsibilities. From utilitarian perspective, doctors’ strikes are justifiable only if there is evidence of long term benefits to the doctors, patients and an improvement in service delivery. Despite that, it is hard to justify such benefits against the risks to the patients. Harms that may incur to the patients include: prolongation of sufferings, irreversible damage to health, delay in treatment, death, loss of work and waste of financial resources. In a system of socialized medicine, government owing to greater control over resources and important managerial decisions should assume greater responsibility and do justice to all stakeholders including doctors as well as patients. If a doctor is underpaid, has limited options for career growth and is forced to work excessively, then not only quality of medical care and ability to act in the best interests of patients is adversely affected, it may also lead to brain drain. Summary There is no single best answer against or in favor of doctors’ industrial action. The author calls for the debate and discussion to revitalize the understanding of the ethical predicaments of doctors’ strikes with patient care as the priority. PMID:24612947

2014-01-01

119

Genomic medicine: health care issues and the unresolved ethical and social dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our perception of the mechanism by which single genes can cause disease is evolving. This has led to the understanding of the pathophysiological basis of common diseases. Genomic Medicine continues to contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of disease. Medicine has strived to achieve the goal of tailoring interventions to individual variations in risk and treatment response and advances in medical genomics will facilitate this process. Relevant to present-day practice is the use of genomic information to classify individuals according to disease susceptibility or expected responsiveness to a pharmacologic treatment and to provide targeted interventions. By investigating the genetic profile of individuals, medical professionals are able to select patients and use the information obtained to plan out a course of treatment that is much more in step with the way their body works. However, society is concerned about the effect genetic knowledge will have on ethnic or racial groups. Currently, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act prohibits discrimination based on genetics. There is a need to increase the understanding of the social and ethical challenges that genomics information may pose to clinicians and scientists. This review is not meant to be exhaustive; rather, clinically relevant examples are used to illustrate how genomic medicine can facilitate the provision of molecular diagnostic methods that improve drug therapy. Finally, the rapid pace of change in genomics may likely make my conclusions today obsolete tomorrow. PMID:22713532

Idemyor, Vincent

2014-01-01

120

Body enhancement through female genital cosmetic surgery creates ethical and rights dilemmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female genital cosmetic surgery is surgery performed on a woman within a normal range of variation of human anatomy. The issues are heightened by a lack of long-term and substantive evidence-based literature, conflict of interest from personal financial gain through performing these procedures, and confusion around macroethical and microethical domains. It is a source of conflict and controversy globally because the benefit and harm of offering these procedures raise concerns about harmful cultural views, education, and social vulnerability of women with regard to both ethics and human rights. The rights issues of who is defining normal female anatomy and function, as well as the economic vulnerability of women globally, bequeath the profession a greater responsibility to ensure that there is adequate health and general education-not just among patients but broadly in society-that there is neither limitation nor interference in the decision being made, and that there are no psychological disorders that could be influencing such choices. PMID:23735570

Cain, Joanna M; Iglesia, Cheryl B; Dickens, Bernard; Montgomery, Owen

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
121

Problems, Trends, and Dilemmas--What the Future Will Demand and Its Implications for Ethics, Decision-Making, and Responsibility for Sports Participation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses some predictive problems, trends, and dilemmas regarding education for the 21st century, and asks what the future will demand of humankind. Such topics as the information explosion, the increasingly important learning needs in a changing world, and technology versus humanity are examined. Discussion focuses on the implications…

Fisher, Millard J.

122

Dilemmas in Medicine, 2nd Edition 1977. CEM Probe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Published for secondary school youth in England, the PROBE series presents provocative information and discussion questions on topical themes. The focus of this issue is on aspects of medicine which raise moral dilemmas for doctors, patients, and society in general. This issue contains case studies which illustrate ethical questions raised by the…

Undy, Harry, Ed.

123

Ethical Decision Making: Basic Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

Among counselors, ethical dilemmas occur often. Although ethical dilemmas are challenging, they can be solved by implementing a code of ethics and/or an ethical decision-making model. Using case studies, the authors illustrate how counselors can make informed, accurate decisions that are made to protect the welfare of the client. It also helps…

Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, C. Bret

2008-01-01

124

Ethical Issues in Physiatrist Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Editorial on Ethical Issues. Medical ethics is at the centre of medical practice. It isrightly gaining much needed renewed focus and attentionin the evolving scenario. The impetus for it may beattributed to the revelations that arose through Nurembergtrials, the framework elements that define research andpublications related compulsions, and indeed the contextand state of affairs of present day medical jurisprudence.The physiatrist’s practice cannot remain untouched bythe moral and ethical dilemmas faced in today’s world.Although the pillars of the specialty are grounded in the

Hand G

2008-04-01

125

El diagnóstico de preimplantación genética. Perspectivas científicas y dilemas bioéticos The diagnosis of genetic pre-implantation. Scientific Perspectives and bio-ethical dilemma  

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Full Text Available El diagnóstico de preimplantación genética (DPG es la prueba más reciente entre las técnicas de diagnóstico genético. En este trabajo se analiza su desarrollo, sus indicaciones médicas y los dilemas bioéticos que se pueden llegar a presentar con su uso indiscriminado. Se propone, además, unas preguntas que guíen la toma de decisiones para implantar o no un embrión con algún defecto genético. Por último, se analizan algunos argumentos filosóficos a favor y en contra del PDG.The diagnosis of genetic pre-implantation (PGD is the most recent test amongst the genetic diagnostic techniques. This works analyses its development, medical indications and bio-ethical dilemma that may occur with indiscriminate use. It has been proposed as well that some questions guiding the physicians in the decision making process to implant or not an embryo with some genetic defect. And last, some philosophical issues are also analyzed in pro or against PGD.

Orlando Mejía

2005-12-01

126

Ethical Dilemmas in Individual and Collective Rights-Based Approaches to Tertiary Education Scholarships: The Cases of Canada and Cuba  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the ongoing debates in Canadian higher education is the dilemma of the brain drain and the seemingly conflicting goals between the strategies and intentions of various government departments. While Citizenship and Immigration Canada aims to recruit the brightest students from across the globe to study in Canada and to enable their long-term…

Lehr, Sabine

2008-01-01

127

Dilemas éticos y bioéticos de la práctica pediátrica en la Atención Primaria de Salud / Ethical and Bioethical Dilemmas in Paediatric Primary Health Care Setting  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La ética médica es el conjunto de principios y normas que rigen entre los profesionales de la salud, la relación del médico con sus pacientes, con sus familiares, con otros profesionales de la salud, para lograr la preservación de la salud, el tratamiento y recuperación de los pacientes. La bioética [...] se fundamenta en la sociedad en el equipo salud-paciente, las decisiones pueden ser tomadas por el Comité de Ética y el paciente toma parte en las decisiones. El pediatra de la Atención Primaria de Salud tiene la responsabilidad moral de brindar una atención esmerada, pues su compromiso no es solo con el niño y su familia, es también con la salud pública cubana y el país en general. Para reflexionar sobre los principales dilemas éticos y bioéticos en el ejercicio de la práctica pediátrica en la Atención Primaria de Salud se realizó esta revisión Abstract in english Medical Ethics gathers a group of principles and standards that rule out the behaviour amongst the health staff and amongst the doctor-patient and doctor-relatives relationship in order to preserve the patient?s health, treatment and rehabilitation. Bioethics has its bases on society in the health-p [...] atient team, and decisions can be taken by an Ethics Commission with the patient?s participation in the decision-taking process. The paediatrician in the primary health care setting should give a qualified health attention not only to the children but to their family members too due to the specialists? commitment with the Cuban public health in general. Therefore, this bibliographical review is carried out to reflect on the main ethical dilemmas at the primary health care setting in the paediatric practice.

José, García Mendiola; Gisselle, Chi Gil; Maite, Piñeiro Barreiro; Niurka, Callejas Sánchez.

128

Dilemas éticos y bioéticos de la práctica pediátrica en la Atención Primaria de Salud / Ethical and Bioethical Dilemmas in Paediatric Primary Health Care Setting  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La ética médica es el conjunto de principios y normas que rigen entre los profesionales de la salud, la relación del médico con sus pacientes, con sus familiares, con otros profesionales de la salud, para lograr la preservación de la salud, el tratamiento y recuperación de los pacientes. La bioética [...] se fundamenta en la sociedad en el equipo salud-paciente, las decisiones pueden ser tomadas por el Comité de Ética y el paciente toma parte en las decisiones. El pediatra de la Atención Primaria de Salud tiene la responsabilidad moral de brindar una atención esmerada, pues su compromiso no es solo con el niño y su familia, es también con la salud pública cubana y el país en general. Para reflexionar sobre los principales dilemas éticos y bioéticos en el ejercicio de la práctica pediátrica en la Atención Primaria de Salud se realizó esta revisión Abstract in english Medical Ethics gathers a group of principles and standards that rule out the behaviour amongst the health staff and amongst the doctor-patient and doctor-relatives relationship in order to preserve the patient?s health, treatment and rehabilitation. Bioethics has its bases on society in the health-p [...] atient team, and decisions can be taken by an Ethics Commission with the patient?s participation in the decision-taking process. The paediatrician in the primary health care setting should give a qualified health attention not only to the children but to their family members too due to the specialists? commitment with the Cuban public health in general. Therefore, this bibliographical review is carried out to reflect on the main ethical dilemmas at the primary health care setting in the paediatric practice.

José, García Mendiola; Gisselle, Chi Gil; Maite, Piñeiro Barreiro; Niurka, Callejas Sánchez.

2010-04-01

129

The Impact of the Nurse-Physician Professional Relationship on Nurses' Experience of Ethical Dilemmas in Effective Pain Management.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of 1,015 Australian registered nurses found that those who felt adequately consulted by physicians were significantly more likely to initiate consultation. Nurses dissatisfied with their relationship with physicians were more likely to experience ethical conflicts related to pain management. Level of satisfaction with this relationship…

Van Niekerk, Leesa Micole; Martin, Frances

2002-01-01

130

Internação por ordem judicial: dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeiros / Hospitalization by court order: ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses / Internación por orden judicial: dilemas éticos vividos por enfermeros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pesquisa qualitativa, cujo objetivo foi descrever as situações vivenciadas e os dilemas éticos dos enfermeiros no percurso de encaminhamento e recebimento, por ordem judicial, de pacientes com indicação de internação em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Foi efetivada entrevista parcialmente estrut [...] urada com 10 enfermeiros, que atuam em UTI e 10 que atuam em emergência de hospitais públicos e privados da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Os dados foram submetidos à análise temática. Os resultados indicam que os enfermeiros vivenciam dilemas éticos consequentes aos problemas de superlotação das UTI e das emergências, da precária tecnologia especializada, da orientação quanto ao benefício concedido pela lei. Concluiu-se que é fundamental a participação dos enfermeiros em debates que possibilitem mapear as diferentes instâncias que têm promovido esta situação, muitas vezes caótica. Abstract in spanish Investigación cualitativa cuyo objetivo fue describir las situaciones vividas y los dilemas éticos de los enfermeros en el transcurso del envío y recibimiento por orden judicial de pacientes con indicación de internamiento en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI). Se realizó una entrevista parcialm [...] ente estructurada con 10 enfermeros que actuaban en la UCI y 10 que actuaban en Emergencias de hospitales públicos y privados de la región metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Los datos fueron analizados según el Análisis Temático. Los resultados indican que los enfermeros experimentan dilemas éticos consiguientes problemas de hacinamiento en emergencia y UCI, especialista en tecnología pobre, la orientación en cuanto a los beneficios establecidos por la ley. Se concluye que es fundamental la participación de los enfermeros en debates que posibiliten mapear las diferentes instancias que han promovido esta situación muchas veces caótica. Abstract in english A qualitative study aimed at describing the situations experienced and the ethical dilemmas of nurses in the process of referring and receiving hospitalized patients by court order who require admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). A partially structured interview was conducted with 10 nurses w [...] ho worked in the ICU and 10 who worked in the Emergency Room (ER) in public and private hospitals in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The data was analyzed following the Semantic Analysis. The results indicated that nurses experienced ethical dilemmas associated with problems of overcrowding in emergency rooms and ICUs, poor specialized technology and orientation as to the benefits provided by law. We concluded that it is essential for nurses to participate in discussions that allow the planning of the different instances that have been promoting this often chaotic situation.

Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira, Vargas; Flávia Regina Souza, Ramos; Dulcinéia Ghizoni, Schneider; Nadir, Schneider; Alessandra Ceci dos, Santos; Sandra Maria Cezar, Leal.

131

Ethical challenges embedded in qualitative research interviews with close relatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforeseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for human rights and respect for autonomy through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative research interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must be enhanced, and there is a need for an increased focus on the researchers' ethical preparation and to continually address and discuss cases from their own interviews. PMID:23774032

Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth Oc

2014-02-01

132

Ethical dilemmas in scientific publication: pitfalls and solutions for editors Dilemas éticos na publicação científica: dificuldades e soluções para editores  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Editors of scientific journals need to be conversant with the mechanisms by which scientific misconduct is amplified by publication practices. This paper provides definitions, ways to document the extent of the problem, and examples of editorial attempts to counter fraud. Fabrication, falsification, duplication, ghost authorship, gift authorship, lack of ethics approval, non-disclosure, 'salami' publication, conflicts of interest, auto-citation, duplicate submission, duplicate publications, a...

Laragh Gollogly; Hooman Momen

2006-01-01

133

MILD DILEMMAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper argues that, while the existence of strong moral dilemmas is notoriously controversial, a case can be made for the existence of mild dilemmas. It is common for people to feel that they are caught in some type of moral dilemma. If mild dilemmas are a genuine feature of the moral terrain, perceptions by ordinary people that they are caught in a moral dilemma are to some extent vindicated.

Gregory Mellema

2010-01-01

134

Las posibilidades de la terapia génica y sus dilemas bioéticos / The possibilities of gene therapy and its bio-ethical dilemmas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La terapia génica tiene, de acuerdo con Anderson, cuatro niveles de aplicación: las células somáticas, las células germinales, la terapia perfectiva y la manipulación eugenésica. Se hace un análisis de los dilemas bioéticos en cada nivel de terapia y se plantea el denominado Argumento Evolutivo para [...] cuestionar los deseos de algunos científicos de iniciar terapia génica de células germinales. De igual manera, se advierte de los peligros de iniciar terapia perfectiva y la manipulación eugénica por las implicaciones sociales y políticas de una reactivación de programas de eugenesia positiva. Abstract in english According to Anderson, gene therapy has four levels of application; somatic cells, germinal cells, perfective therapy and eugenic manipulation. An analysis of the bio-ethical dilemma in each therapy level is made and the so called Evolution Concept is stated to question the wish of some scientists t [...] o start gene therapy from germ cells. Likewise, there is a warning about the hazards of starting perfective therapy and eugenic manipulation due to the social and political implications of positive eugenics programs reactivation.

Orlando, Mejía.

135

El diagnóstico de preimplantación genética. Perspectivas científicas y dilemas bioéticos / The diagnosis of genetic pre-implantation. Scientific Perspectives and bio-ethical dilemma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El diagnóstico de preimplantación genética (DPG) es la prueba más reciente entre las técnicas de diagnóstico genético. En este trabajo se analiza su desarrollo, sus indicaciones médicas y los dilemas bioéticos que se pueden llegar a presentar con su uso indiscriminado. Se propone, además, unas pregu [...] ntas que guíen la toma de decisiones para implantar o no un embrión con algún defecto genético. Por último, se analizan algunos argumentos filosóficos a favor y en contra del PDG. Abstract in english The diagnosis of genetic pre-implantation (PGD) is the most recent test amongst the genetic diagnostic techniques. This works analyses its development, medical indications and bio-ethical dilemma that may occur with indiscriminate use. It has been proposed as well that some questions guiding the phy [...] sicians in the decision making process to implant or not an embryo with some genetic defect. And last, some philosophical issues are also analyzed in pro or against PGD.

Orlando, Mejía.

2005-12-01

136

Focus on Ethics and Public Relations Practice in a University Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Public relations action relies on sound decision making about how to inspire cooperation between an organization and its publics. Such thinking must uphold principles for ethical communication. Effectively combining ethics with public relations practice for students is key. A pedagogical approach to public relations ethics, hinging on selected…

Smudde, Peter M.

2011-01-01

137

Philanthropic dilemmas and the nurse administrator role.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nurse administrators are in a position to encounter ethical dilemmas when evaluating philanthropic proposals. Nurses may have little formal training in ethics, or they may be most experienced with ethical frameworks that apply primarily to clinical patient encounters. Gifts of goods, services, education, or other benefits to nurses may create ethical dilemmas. Philanthropic ethics and potential dilemmas are discussed in nonnursing professions such as medicine and nonprofit administration but rarely explored in the nursing administration context. Nurse administrators in a position to evaluate generous offers of philanthropy should identify key components to fully assess the ethics of their receipt. A survey of several resources is done to provide nurse administrators with the foundation to develop policies related to philanthropy if they are absent, preferably in advance of the offer. Recommendations for assessment and evaluation of philanthropic proposals are provided to aid nurse administrators in their synthesis and application of ethical principles from multiple sources. PMID:25208151

Klein, Tracy

2014-01-01

138

'They say Islam has a solution for everything, so why are there no guidelines for this?' Ethical dilemmas associated with the births and deaths of infants with fatal abnormalities from a small sample of Pakistani Muslim couples in Britain.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents ethical dilemmas concerning the termination of pregnancy, the management of childbirth, and the withdrawal of life-support from infants in special care, for a small sample of British Pakistani Muslim parents of babies diagnosed with fatal abnormalities. Case studies illustrating these dilemmas are taken from a qualitative study of 66 families of Pakistani origin referred to a genetics clinic in Southern England. The paper shows how parents negotiated between the authoritative knowledge of their doctors, religious experts, and senior family members in response to the ethical dilemmas they faced. There was little knowledge or open discussion of the view that Islam permits the termination of pregnancy for serious or fatal abnormality within 120 days and there was considerable disquiet over the idea of ending a pregnancy. For some parents, whether their newborn baby would draw breath was a main worry, with implications for the baby's Muslim identity and for the recognition of loss the parents would receive from family and community. This concern sometimes conflicted with doctors' concerns to minimize risk to future pregnancies by not performing a Caesarean delivery if a baby is sure to die. The paper also identifies parents' concerns and feelings of wrong-doing regarding the withdrawal of artificial life-support from infants with multiple abnormalities. The conclusion considers some of the implications of these observations for the counselling and support of Muslim parents following the pre- or neo-natal diagnosis of fatal abnormalities in their children. PMID:21649685

Shaw, Alison

2012-11-01

139

The Human Brain Project: social and ethical challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focusing on the Human Brain Project, I discuss some social and ethical challenges raised by such programs of research: the possibility of a unified knowledge of "the brain," balancing privacy and the public good, dilemmas of "dual use," brain-computer interfaces, and "responsible research and innovation" in governance of emerging technologies. PMID:24945767

Rose, Nikolas

2014-06-18

140

Ethical issues in family care of older persons with dementia: implications for family therapists.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite a considerable literature on family care of the elderly, comparatively little attention has been devoted to the ethical dimensions of caring for frail and dependent older family members. Nor is there an extensive literature available to guide family therapists or others in the helping professions who work with families experiencing ethical dilemmas and issues associated with caring for elderly loved ones. The purpose of this paper is to highlight some of the ethical dilemmas families face in caring for an elderly loved one, and to identify several ethical principles that can be used to address these dilemmas. There is an explicit focus on families caring for aged parents afflicted with a dementia such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:12018683

Barber, C E; Lyness, K P

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Human Research Protection (OHRP) has mandated that all research sites outside the United States that participate in research funded by the U.S. Government must file documentation certifying that each research site observes the Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects and has an independent ethics committee. Sites participating in trials sponsored by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) must also undergo regular on-site audits.

142

Cómo enfrenta el hinduismo un dilema ético-clínico / How does Hinduism analyze an ethical clinical dilemma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english It is indispensable for physicians to understand and recognize the fusion of different cultures, to deliver the best possible service to patients with different cultural backgrounds, especially when ethical-medical problems are involved. The Hindu community in Chile differs in significant ways with [...] the western culture. This is especially true for some issues such as the belief in reincarnation or gender inequality, among others. These discrepancies can be relevant for the analysis of several bioethical problems. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the different beliefs, traditions and Hindu visions. We hereby present a review of Hinduism, its relation with medical practice and, as an example, a case of abortion in a Hindu family. Reviewing the traditions, beliefs and methods will help to understand and respect the beliefs of different cultures in contemporary and globalized bioethics.

Suraj, Samtani B; Mariana, Jadue Z; Juan Pablo, Beca I.

143

Cómo enfrenta el hinduismo un dilema ético-clínico How does Hinduism analyze an ethical clinical dilemma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is indispensable for physicians to understand and recognize the fusion of different cultures, to deliver the best possible service to patients with different cultural backgrounds, especially when ethical-medical problems are involved. The Hindu community in Chile differs in significant ways with the western culture. This is especially true for some issues such as the belief in reincarnation or gender inequality, among others. These discrepancies can be relevant for the analysis of several bioethical problems. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the different beliefs, traditions and Hindu visions. We hereby present a review of Hinduism, its relation with medical practice and, as an example, a case of abortion in a Hindu family. Reviewing the traditions, beliefs and methods will help to understand and respect the beliefs of different cultures in contemporary and globalized bioethics.

Suraj Samtani B

2009-11-01

144

Ethical Issues in Consulting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifies common ethical dilemmas that arise in performance technology consultant-client relationships and the difficulties both parties have in resolving them. Questions of integrity v ethics, legality v ethics, conflict of interest issues, contracts and fee issues, and ownership issues are addressed. (MER)

Schwartz, Lois

1980-01-01

145

Dentes como fonte de Células-Tronco: uma alternativa aos dilemas éticos / Teeth as source of Stem Cells: an alternative to ethical dilemmas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As Células-Tronco têm sido objeto principal de estudo no campo científico da Medicina Regenerativa. Estas células, quando obtidas de embriões, podem se diferenciar em todos os tecidos, embora os métodos utilizados para sua obtenção necessitem lidar com dilemas éticos e legais. Em busca de alternativ [...] as às fontes de células-tronco, os dentes vêm ganhando espaço. Estes órgãos apresentam no tecido pulpar e estruturas adjacentes características fundamentais como, multidiferenciação e capacidade de autoduplicação, além de facilidade de acesso e obtenção. Este trabalho apresenta o conhecimento atual e as perspectivas sobre o uso das células-tronco de origem dentária com destaque para as de dentes decíduos esfoliados. Especial atenção foi dada às limitações legais e administrativas para o funcionamento dos Bancos de Dentes Humanos e Biobancos no Brasil, aspecto que se revelado o principal entrave para a difusão do uso de células-tronco de origem dentária. Abstract in english Stem cells have been the main object of study in the Restorative Medicine scientific field. When obtained from embryos, such cells may distinguish in all tissues, although the methods applied to obtain them have to deal with ethical and legal dilemmas. In the search for alternative sources of stem c [...] ells, teeth have gained relevant ground. Those organs present, in their pulp tissue and neighboring structures, fundamental characteristics, such as multilineage differentiation and capacity for self-renewing, besides the fact that they are easy to access and obtain. This work provides the current knowledge and perspectives about the application of stem cells from dental source, with emphasizing those obtained from exfoliated deciduous teeth. Especial attention has been drawn to legal and administrative constraints found in the activities of Human Teeth Banks and Biobanks in Brazil, an aspect that has risen as the main obstacles when communicating the use of stem cells from dental source.

Mariana, Rezende Machado; Rodrigo, Grazinoli Garrido.

146

Ethical dilemmas in scientific publication: pitfalls and solutions for editors / Dilemas éticos na publicação científica: dificuldades e soluções para editores  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Editores de revistas científicas precisam estar atentos aos mecanismos de disseminação de condutas inadequadas no processo de publicação. Este artigo fornece definições, formas de documentar a extensão do problema e exemplos de iniciativas para conter fraudes editorias. Fabricação, falsificação, dup [...] licação, autoria-fantasma, autoria concedida, falta de ética na aprovação de manuscritos, não-divulgação desses fatos, publicação "salami", conflitos de interesse, autocitação, submissão e publicação duplicadas, e plágio são problemas comuns. A conduta editorial inadequada inclui: falha em seguir o processo devido, atraso nas decisões e comunicação com os autores, falhas na revisão, e confundir o conteúdo de um periódico com seu potencial promocional e de propaganda. Os editores podem ser advertidos por seus pares por não investigar comportamento científico suspeito, por não se retratar quando indicado ou não obedecer as seis principais fontes internacionais de orientação em pesquisa, publicação e política editorial. Os editores estão em posição privilegiada para promover práticas adequadas, adotando orientações éticas e claras sobre os procedimentos adotados nos periódicos. Assim, revisores, editores, autores e leitores terão condições de compreender e seguir as normas de publicação. Abstract in english Editors of scientific journals need to be conversant with the mechanisms by which scientific misconduct is amplified by publication practices. This paper provides definitions, ways to document the extent of the problem, and examples of editorial attempts to counter fraud. Fabrication, falsification, [...] duplication, ghost authorship, gift authorship, lack of ethics approval, non-disclosure, 'salami' publication, conflicts of interest, auto-citation, duplicate submission, duplicate publications, and plagiarism are common problems. Editorial misconduct includes failure to observe due process, undue delay in reaching decisions and communicating these to authors, inappropriate review procedures, and confounding a journal's content with its advertising or promotional potential. Editors also can be admonished by their peers for failure to investigate suspected misconduct, failure to retract when indicated, and failure to abide voluntarily by the six main sources of relevant international guidelines on research, its reporting and editorial practice. Editors are in a good position to promulgate reasonable standards of practice, and can start by using consensus guidelines on publication ethics to state explicitly how their journals function. Reviewers, editors, authors and readers all then have a better chance to understand, and abide by, the rules of publishing.

Laragh, Gollogly; Hooman, Momen.

147

Ethical dilemmas in scientific publication: pitfalls and solutions for editors / Dilemas éticos na publicação científica: dificuldades e soluções para editores  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Editores de revistas científicas precisam estar atentos aos mecanismos de disseminação de condutas inadequadas no processo de publicação. Este artigo fornece definições, formas de documentar a extensão do problema e exemplos de iniciativas para conter fraudes editorias. Fabricação, falsificação, dup [...] licação, autoria-fantasma, autoria concedida, falta de ética na aprovação de manuscritos, não-divulgação desses fatos, publicação "salami", conflitos de interesse, autocitação, submissão e publicação duplicadas, e plágio são problemas comuns. A conduta editorial inadequada inclui: falha em seguir o processo devido, atraso nas decisões e comunicação com os autores, falhas na revisão, e confundir o conteúdo de um periódico com seu potencial promocional e de propaganda. Os editores podem ser advertidos por seus pares por não investigar comportamento científico suspeito, por não se retratar quando indicado ou não obedecer as seis principais fontes internacionais de orientação em pesquisa, publicação e política editorial. Os editores estão em posição privilegiada para promover práticas adequadas, adotando orientações éticas e claras sobre os procedimentos adotados nos periódicos. Assim, revisores, editores, autores e leitores terão condições de compreender e seguir as normas de publicação. Abstract in english Editors of scientific journals need to be conversant with the mechanisms by which scientific misconduct is amplified by publication practices. This paper provides definitions, ways to document the extent of the problem, and examples of editorial attempts to counter fraud. Fabrication, falsification, [...] duplication, ghost authorship, gift authorship, lack of ethics approval, non-disclosure, 'salami' publication, conflicts of interest, auto-citation, duplicate submission, duplicate publications, and plagiarism are common problems. Editorial misconduct includes failure to observe due process, undue delay in reaching decisions and communicating these to authors, inappropriate review procedures, and confounding a journal's content with its advertising or promotional potential. Editors also can be admonished by their peers for failure to investigate suspected misconduct, failure to retract when indicated, and failure to abide voluntarily by the six main sources of relevant international guidelines on research, its reporting and editorial practice. Editors are in a good position to promulgate reasonable standards of practice, and can start by using consensus guidelines on publication ethics to state explicitly how their journals function. Reviewers, editors, authors and readers all then have a better chance to understand, and abide by, the rules of publishing.

Laragh, Gollogly; Hooman, Momen.

148

Resolving Ethical Issues at School  

Science.gov (United States)

Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

Benninga, Jacques S.

2013-01-01

149

Dilemas éticos en el trabajo de campo: temas olvidados en la investigación cualitativa en salud en Iberoamérica / Ethical dilemmas in fieldwork: forgotten issues in qualitative health research in Iberoamerica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se exploran algunos dilemas éticos enfrentados durante el trabajo de campo en la investigación cualitativa en salud. La premisa es que los códigos éticos no son suficientes para orientar las relaciones entre los investigadores y los informantes siendo necesaria una práctica reflexiva [...] para enfrentar los mismos. La reflexión se centra en cuatro situaciones del trabajo de campo y sus dilemas. El tiempo social de la vida académica estructura la agenda de trabajo y el investigador se enfrenta a la disyuntiva de seguir los tiempos y ritmos de la academia o negociar con los informantes una agenda conjunta. El investigador también debe decidir cuál de sus múltiples identidades habrá de utilizar para ser aceptado, y al mismo tiempo decidir si oculta o no quien es realmente. En el establecimiento de una relación de intimidad con los informantes el investigador debe resolver si abre su vida personal. Y al momento de definir las formas de reciprocidad, decidir si lo hará de acuerdo a los valores de la academia o a los de los nativos. Se concluye argumentando la necesidad de crear una práctica reflexiva sobre estos y otros dilemas dirigida a colocar una agenda de temas y formas de descolonización en el debate ético en Iberoamérica. Abstract in english This paper explores some ethical dilemmas faced while doing fieldwork. Ethical norms are not enough to appraise the relationship between researchers and participants; a reflexivity practice is needed to understand the dilemmas aroused during this process. Here four issues faced during fieldwork are [...] presented. The academic social time usually defines the schedule of fieldwork; hence, the researcher may decide to follow the academic schedule or to arrange a different schedule with informants. Researchers usually decide which part of their identity will be disclosed for introducing themselves to the informants; but may also decide to hide who really he/she is. Researchers may cope with the dilemma to disclose their private life to informants during the fieldwork. Researchers also may decide to behave according to academic cultural norms of reciprocity or according to the cultural norms of participants. Finally, a reflexivity movement should be developed in Iberoamerica to define an agenda on ethical issues and to develop decolonizing strategies to debate these ethical dilemmas.

Leticia, Robles-Silva.

150

Dilemas éticos en el trabajo de campo: temas olvidados en la investigación cualitativa en salud en Iberoamérica / Ethical dilemmas in fieldwork: forgotten issues in qualitative health research in Iberoamerica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se exploran algunos dilemas éticos enfrentados durante el trabajo de campo en la investigación cualitativa en salud. La premisa es que los códigos éticos no son suficientes para orientar las relaciones entre los investigadores y los informantes siendo necesaria una práctica reflexiva [...] para enfrentar los mismos. La reflexión se centra en cuatro situaciones del trabajo de campo y sus dilemas. El tiempo social de la vida académica estructura la agenda de trabajo y el investigador se enfrenta a la disyuntiva de seguir los tiempos y ritmos de la academia o negociar con los informantes una agenda conjunta. El investigador también debe decidir cuál de sus múltiples identidades habrá de utilizar para ser aceptado, y al mismo tiempo decidir si oculta o no quien es realmente. En el establecimiento de una relación de intimidad con los informantes el investigador debe resolver si abre su vida personal. Y al momento de definir las formas de reciprocidad, decidir si lo hará de acuerdo a los valores de la academia o a los de los nativos. Se concluye argumentando la necesidad de crear una práctica reflexiva sobre estos y otros dilemas dirigida a colocar una agenda de temas y formas de descolonización en el debate ético en Iberoamérica. Abstract in english This paper explores some ethical dilemmas faced while doing fieldwork. Ethical norms are not enough to appraise the relationship between researchers and participants; a reflexivity practice is needed to understand the dilemmas aroused during this process. Here four issues faced during fieldwork are [...] presented. The academic social time usually defines the schedule of fieldwork; hence, the researcher may decide to follow the academic schedule or to arrange a different schedule with informants. Researchers usually decide which part of their identity will be disclosed for introducing themselves to the informants; but may also decide to hide who really he/she is. Researchers may cope with the dilemma to disclose their private life to informants during the fieldwork. Researchers also may decide to behave according to academic cultural norms of reciprocity or according to the cultural norms of participants. Finally, a reflexivity movement should be developed in Iberoamerica to define an agenda on ethical issues and to develop decolonizing strategies to debate these ethical dilemmas.

Leticia, Robles-Silva.

151

Why Should Nanoscience Students be Taught to be Ethically Competent?  

Science.gov (United States)

During the education of scientists at the university level the students become more and more specialized. The specialization of the students is a consequence of the scientific research becoming specialized as well. In the interdisciplinary field of nanoscience the importance of specialization is also emphasized throughout the education. Being an interdisciplinary field of study the specialization in this area is not focused on scientific disciplines, but on the different branches of the research. Historically ethics has not been a priority in science education, however, in recent years the importance of such teachings has been highly recognize especially in medicine, biotechnology and engineering. The rapid development, the many new and unknown areas and the highly specialized focus of nanotechnology suggest the importance of having ethically competent researchers. In this article the importance of ethical competence in nanoscience research is argued for by an example of a dilemma that could occur in a research project. The dilemma is analyzed using two different ethical views, generating two different choices for action. It is seen that the dilemma can have more than one solution and that ethical competence can help in justifying the choice of solution in a specific situation. Furthermore it is suggested that a way to reach this competence is through education in ethics incorporated into the nanoscience education curriculum. PMID:24297092

Rasmussen, Anna Julie; Ebbesen, Mette

2014-12-01

152

Focus on the Activity of a Local Ethics Committee in Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background: The continuing evolution of medical treatments and the loss of neutrality of medicine with respect to morality of human values have represented the major tracking elements towards settings of sharing of choices between society and medicine. Several concerns have been raised upon links between pharmaceutical corporations and researchers. Moreover, being in a learning environment, we must pay even more attention to these items because students appear to be at risk for unrecognized influence by marketing efforts. The aim of this study is to focus on the activities of a local ethics committee (LEC and the characteristics of the protocols discussed in an Italian LEC during a three year period (2001-2003.

Methods: Three years of activity of a LEC were analysed by a questionnaire registering: main sponsorship, setting, technical characteristics of trials, outcome of the submission to the LEC, state of progress. Approved trials were followed-up until April 30th, 2005.

Results: A total of 345 protocols were discussed. 67.8% (n = 198 of approved protocols were submitted by a pharmaceutical corporation. 72.6% (n = 212 of studies approved in 2001 were still in progress in 2005. 91.3% (n = 73 of closed trials had a pharmaceutical corporation as their main sponsor. None of the submitted studies focused on prevention strategies.

Conclusions: These results show how important grants offered by pharmaceutical industries are, the efforts spent on therapy and the lack of investors in prevention.

Pamela Barbadoro

2008-06-01

153

Ethics in Economic Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper summarizes the author’s experience of conducting economic scientific research. Economic scientific research is understood as both an analysis of economic phenomena and research purchased on the market of research services. The former are not subject to ethical dilemmas. It is a professional approach backed by sound economic theory that is important. The latter, regardless of who purchases research services, pose a risk of ethical dilemmas and conflicts of interest. ...

Wyz?nikiewicz, Bohdan

2008-01-01

154

Teaching medical ethics to meet the realities of a changing health care system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The changing context of medical practice--bureaucratic, political, or economic--demands that doctors have the knowledge and skills to face these new realities. Such changes impose obstacles on doctors delivering ethical care to vulnerable patient populations. Modern medical ethics education requires a focus upon the knowledge and skills necessary to close the gap between the theory and practice of ethical care. Physicians and doctors-in-training must learn to be morally sensitive to ethical dilemmas on the wards, learn how to make professionally grounded decisions with their patients and other medical providers, and develop the leadership, dedication, and courage to fulfill ethical values in the face of disincentives and bureaucratic challenges. A new core focus of medical ethics education must turn to learning how to put ethics into practice by teaching physicians to realistically negotiate the new institutional maze of 21st-century medicine. PMID:24802645

Millstone, Michael

2014-06-01

155

[Ethical issues in nursing leadership].  

Science.gov (United States)

Social transition causes shifts and changes in the relationship between health professionals and their patients. In their professional capacity, it is important today for nurses to handle ethical dilemmas properly, in a manner that fosters an ethical environment. This article investigates the ethical concerns and decision processes of nurses from a knowledge construction perspective, and examines such issues as patient needs, staff perceptions, organizational benefits, and professional image. The decision making methods commonly used when facing ethical dilemma explored in this study include the traditional problem solving, nursing process, MORAL model, and Murphy's methods. Although decision making for ethical dilemmas is governed by no universal rule, nurses are responsible to try to foster a trusting relationship between employee and employer, health care providers and patients, and the organization and colleagues. When decision making on ethical dilemmas is properly executed quality care will be delivered and malpractice can be reduced. PMID:16222641

Wang, Shu-Fang; Hung, Chich-Hsiu

2005-10-01

156

Dilemas éticos em UTI: contribuições da Teoria dos Valores de Max Scheler / Ethical dilemmas in ICU: contributions of Max Scheler's Theory of Values / Dilemas éticos en UTI: contribuciones de la Teoría de Valores de Max Scheler  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo objetivou refletir, tomando como base o referencial teórico de Max Scheler, sobre os dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeiros na UTI, e sobre os valores que norteiam suas atitudes e decisões. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa, tendo sido entrevistados dez enfermeiros da UTI de um hospital [...] universitário. Identificou-se a vivência de dilemas éticos referentes à terminalidade relacionada aos limites de intervenções e de utilização dos recursos materiais, além da questão da transfusão de sangue em caso de restrição religiosa. Os valores identificados foram: respeito, dignidade do paciente, conhecimento científico, humildade, paixão pela profissão e amor a Deus. A teoria dos valores constitui importante subsídio para enfermagem por permitir a abordagem de uma ética humanizadora da práxis, especialmente nas situações de dilemas éticos. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue reflexionar, con base en el marco teórico de Max Scheler, sobre los dilemas éticos experimentados por enfermeros en la UCI, y sobre los valores que orientan sus actitudes y decisiones,. Se trata de investigación cualitativa y fueran entrevistados diez enfermeros de la UCI [...] de un hospital universitario. Identificada la experiencia de los dilemas éticos relativos a la condición terminal sobre los límites de la intervención y el uso de los recursos materiales, más allá de la cuestión de la transfusión de sangre en caso de restricciones religiosas. Los valores identificados fueron: el respeto, la dignidad del paciente, el conocimiento científico, la humildad, la pasión por la profesión y el amor de Dios. La teoría del valor constituye un instrumento importante para la enfermería, permitiendo el uso de una ética humana de la práctica en situaciones de dilemas éticos. Abstract in english The study aimed to reflect, based on the theoretical framework of Max Scheler, about the ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses in the ICU, and about the values that guide their actions and decisions,. This is qualitative research, and ten ICU nurses have been interviewed at a university hospital. I [...] t was identified the experience of ethical dilemmas related to the terminality related to the limits of intervention and use of material resources, as well as the issue of blood transfusion in case of religious restrictions. The values identified were: respect, dignity of the patient, scientific knowledge, humility, passion for the profession and love of God. The theory of values is an important tool for nursing because it allows the approach of an ethics of humanizing praxis, especially in situations of ethical dilemmas.

Marlise Barros de, Medeiros; Eliane Ramos, Pereira; Rose Mary Costa Rosa Andrade, Silva; Marcos Andrade, Silva.

2012-04-01

157

Dilemas éticos em UTI: contribuições da Teoria dos Valores de Max Scheler / Ethical dilemmas in ICU: contributions of Max Scheler's Theory of Values / Dilemas éticos en UTI: contribuciones de la Teoría de Valores de Max Scheler  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo objetivou refletir, tomando como base o referencial teórico de Max Scheler, sobre os dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeiros na UTI, e sobre os valores que norteiam suas atitudes e decisões. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa, tendo sido entrevistados dez enfermeiros da UTI de um hospital [...] universitário. Identificou-se a vivência de dilemas éticos referentes à terminalidade relacionada aos limites de intervenções e de utilização dos recursos materiais, além da questão da transfusão de sangue em caso de restrição religiosa. Os valores identificados foram: respeito, dignidade do paciente, conhecimento científico, humildade, paixão pela profissão e amor a Deus. A teoria dos valores constitui importante subsídio para enfermagem por permitir a abordagem de uma ética humanizadora da práxis, especialmente nas situações de dilemas éticos. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue reflexionar, con base en el marco teórico de Max Scheler, sobre los dilemas éticos experimentados por enfermeros en la UCI, y sobre los valores que orientan sus actitudes y decisiones,. Se trata de investigación cualitativa y fueran entrevistados diez enfermeros de la UCI [...] de un hospital universitario. Identificada la experiencia de los dilemas éticos relativos a la condición terminal sobre los límites de la intervención y el uso de los recursos materiales, más allá de la cuestión de la transfusión de sangre en caso de restricciones religiosas. Los valores identificados fueron: el respeto, la dignidad del paciente, el conocimiento científico, la humildad, la pasión por la profesión y el amor de Dios. La teoría del valor constituye un instrumento importante para la enfermería, permitiendo el uso de una ética humana de la práctica en situaciones de dilemas éticos. Abstract in english The study aimed to reflect, based on the theoretical framework of Max Scheler, about the ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses in the ICU, and about the values that guide their actions and decisions,. This is qualitative research, and ten ICU nurses have been interviewed at a university hospital. I [...] t was identified the experience of ethical dilemmas related to the terminality related to the limits of intervention and use of material resources, as well as the issue of blood transfusion in case of religious restrictions. The values identified were: respect, dignity of the patient, scientific knowledge, humility, passion for the profession and love of God. The theory of values is an important tool for nursing because it allows the approach of an ethics of humanizing praxis, especially in situations of ethical dilemmas.

Marlise Barros de, Medeiros; Eliane Ramos, Pereira; Rose Mary Costa Rosa Andrade, Silva; Marcos Andrade, Silva.

158

Feeling Better about Moral Dilemmas  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been a trend in contemporary ethics to believe that a morally admirable agent would feel negative self-assessing emotions following even the best possible choice in a moral dilemma. A commonly held reason for holding this position is that agents who are well-brought up are trained to feel negative self-assessing emotions when they do…

Swedene, Jason K.

2005-01-01

159

Written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia: an empirical-based organizational-ethical framework.  

Science.gov (United States)

As euthanasia has become a widely debated issue in many Western countries, hospitals and nursing homes especially are increasingly being confronted with this ethically sensitive societal issue. The focus of this paper is how healthcare institutions can deal with euthanasia requests on an organizational level by means of a written institutional ethics policy. The general aim is to make a critical analysis whether these policies can be considered as organizational-ethical instruments that support healthcare institutions to take their institutional responsibility for dealing with euthanasia requests. By means of an interpretative analysis, we conducted a process of reinterpretation of results of former Belgian empirical studies on written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia in dialogue with the existing international literature. The study findings revealed that legal regulations, ethical and care-oriented aspects strongly affected the development, the content, and the impact of written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia. Hence, these three cornerstones-law, care and ethics-constituted the basis for the empirical-based organizational-ethical framework for written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia that is presented in this paper. However, having a euthanasia policy does not automatically lead to more legal transparency, or to a more professional and ethical care practice. The study findings suggest that the development and implementation of an ethics policy on euthanasia as an organizational-ethical instrument should be considered as a dynamic process. Administrators and ethics committees must take responsibility to actively create an ethical climate supporting care providers who have to deal with ethical dilemmas in their practice. PMID:24420744

Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris

2014-05-01

160

Ethics in oncology nursing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the process of cancer treatment and care, the ethical duties of the cancer nurses contribute to preventing ethical dilemmas, resolving ethical problems, and most importantly maintaining an ethical cancer care system. The ethical duties of humanistic caregiving, disclosure, honesty, relief of pain and suffering, fair distribution of resources, provision of adequate palliative care, and assistance to patients and families for imminent death, which are the hallmarks of oncology nursing, are justified by the values, professional standards and the contemporary roles of nursing. Therefore, ethical competency of the oncology nurse is an inevitable requirement.

Nermin ERSOY

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Teaching Ethics: Telling Stories.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to develop moral literacy, nursing students should be exposed to both rules- and justice-based ethics and to a feminist care perspective. They can learn to analyze and understand ethical dilemmas and to tell their own stories in order to identify the influences on their decision making. (SK)

Bowman, Ann

1995-01-01

162

Ethics Commission Member's Comment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) Ethics Commission member's comments and suggestions about how early childhood educators can best make sound decisions about the ethical dilemma of the welfare of the child and the confidentiality of its divorced parents. (BB)

Riley, Sue Spayth

1988-01-01

163

Ethical issues in the management of thyroid disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of this article is on clinical ethics issues in the thyroid disease context. Clinical ethics is a subspecialty of bioethics that deals with bedside ethical dilemmas that specifically involve the provider-patient relationship. Such issues include consent and capacity; weighing therapeutic benefits against risks and side-effects; innovative therapies; end of life care; unintended versus intentional harms to patients or patient populations; and healthcare access. This article will review core ethical principles for practice, as well as the moral and legal requirements of informed consent. It will then discuss the range of unique and universal ethical issues and considerations that present in the management of autoimmune thyroid disease and thyroid cancer. PMID:24891177

Rosenthal, M Sara

2014-06-01

164

A Transcultural Integrative Model for Ethical Decision Making in Counseling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Transcultural Integrative Ethical Decision-Making Model in counseling addresses the need for including cultural factors in the process of ethical dilemma resolution. The proposed model is presented in a step-by-step, linear format that can be used by counselors facing ethical dilemmas in a variety of settings and with different cultural…

Garcia, Jorge, G.; Cartwright, Brenda; Winston, Stacey M.; Borzuchowska, Barbara

2003-01-01

165

Getting around the Impasse: A Grounded Approach to Teaching Ethics and Social Responsibility in International Business Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considers the dilemma of teaching ethics and social responsibility in international business courses with either an ethnocentric absolutist or an unengaged relativistic approach. Suggests a strategy that focuses on a grounded understanding of the elements, processes, and properties of capitalism that would serve as a common understanding upon…

Jones, Marc T.; Lok, Peter

1999-01-01

166

From cases to capacity? A critical reflection on the role of 'ethical dilemmas' in the development of dual-use governance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dual-use issue is often framed as a series of paralyzing 'dilemmas' facing the scientific community as well as institutions which support innovation. While this conceptualization of the dual-use issue can be useful in certain contexts (such as in awareness-raising and as part of educational activities directed at the scientific community) its usefulness is more limited when reflecting on the governance and politics of the dual-use issue. Within this paper, key shortcomings of the dilemma framing are outlined. It is argued that many of the issues raised in the most recent debates about 'dual-use' bird flu research remain unresolved. This includes questions about the trajectories of certain lines of research, as well as broader trends in the practice and governance of science. This leads to difficult questions about current approaches to the dual-use issue within the US, as well as internationally. PMID:23703451

Edwards, Brett; Revill, James; Bezuidenhout, Louise

2014-06-01

167

Technology / Society Interaction and Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

Technology is something present in our everyday lives. From the computer we type our e-mails on to the plasma television where we watch our favorite shows, technology is an integral part of how we live. This website, created by Engineering Technology Pathways, presents the interaction of technology with society and the ethical issues associated with that interplay. Focusing mostly on the role of engineers in the creation of technology, the website provides examples of responsible practices employed by the profession. The website introduces the reader to different case studies that are examples of these ethical dilemmas. In the end, this is a good overview as it introduces students to issues not typically associated with the field of engineering.

Heitkamp, Greg

2010-10-07

168

When Ethics and Policy Collide  

Science.gov (United States)

This case study explores an ethical dilemma faced by a new junior high school principal. It is appropriate for use in all preparation course work, including the internship. Studies show that novice principal decision making differs from that of experienced principals in moral dilemmas, including following policy versus best interests of the…

Hightower, Bynum Blake; Klinker, JoAnn Franklin

2012-01-01

169

Making the Right Choices: Ethical Judgments among Educational Leaders  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Scholars have adopted a multiple ethical paradigms approach in an attempt to better understand the bases upon which everyday ethical dilemmas are resolved by educational leaders. The aim of this study is to examine the ethical considerations in ethical judgments of aspiring principals. Design/methodology/approach: To examine the ethical

Eyal, Ori; Berkovich, Izhak; Schwartz, Talya

2011-01-01

170

Researching from within: External and Internal Ethical Engagement  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the superficial and deep ethical and moral dilemmas confronting "insider" researchers, which we term external and internal ethical engagement. External ethical engagement refers to the traditional, easily identifiable ethical issues that insider researchers attend to by submitting their application for ethical approval to…

Floyd, Alan; Arthur, Linet

2012-01-01

171

Payment of research participants: current practice and policies of Irish research ethics committees.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Payment of research participants helps to increase recruitment for research studies, but can pose ethical dilemmas. Research ethics committees (RECs) have a centrally important role in guiding this practice, but standardisation of the ethical approval process in Ireland is lacking.

Roche, Eric

2013-09-01

172

New Innovative Ethical Principles in Increasing Road Safety  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Future managers are faced daily with a variety of ethical dilemmas in traffic that need to be balanced by the interests of all participants. The question is whether a new innovative model of ethical principles could be developed that would increase road safety.Purpose: The a im is to raise the level of social responsibility and relationship of participants in traffic as well as warn all participants on the importance of safety. In addition, the purpose is to share suggestions to other researchers for further research studies in the area of increasing traffic safety.Method: We carried out a quantitative study (survey among first year post-graduate students studying at a higher education school focused on quality management in south-eastern Slovenia. The article presents five different ethical scenarios.Results: The participants have very similar views on judging individual ethical dilemmas. The desire to increase road safety, have led to new useful suggestions for further study of innovative new ethical principles in the field of safety, such as: no death victims annually, adequate road infrastructure, improved vehicle technology, video surveillance systems, and so on.Organization: Relevant authorities should promote models of ethical thinking and the introduction of codes of conduct at an early age. As such, the state, police, rescuers, fire departments, hospitals, and so on, would have fewer deaths due to serious traffic accidents.Society: By taking these results and further research suggestions into account, society would gain a new model that would be based on zero accidents annually.Originality: Research in the field of ethics and innovative ethical principles of traffic safety is limited. The article presents practical examples of ethical and moral decision-making that we encounter in daily traffic. But nothing much is done to make it better ("every day the same story".Limitations/Future Research: The research study was conducted on a small sample of 13 students.

Igor Mileti?

2013-06-01

173

Brief report : ethical problems in research practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most accounts of the ethical problems facing researchers across a broad spectrum of research fields come from ethicists, ethics committees, and specialists committed to the study of ethics in human research. In contrast, this study reports on the ethical questions that researchers, themselves, report facing in their everyday practice. Fifty-five Swedish researchers contributed 109 examples of ethical dilemmas, conflicts, and problems in research. They were all researchers at the postdoctoral ...

Colnerud, Gunnel

2013-01-01

174

The effects of ethical dilemmas regarding the use of physical restraints in eldercare on female nurses who care for their relatives in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: This study sought to clarify the relationship between a nurse’s exposure to elderly relatives and their perspective in using restraints on the elderly in health care situations. Methods: We approached nursing staff supervisors at 17 general hospital wards and explained the objectives of the study. Supervisors at 14 hospitals agreed to participate, giving us a sampling pool of 1929 nurses. We used a chi square test to compare nurses who had spent time with elderly relatives and those who had not on several variables related to using restraints on elderly patients. Results and Conclusion: This study found that nurses who live with elderly family members were significantly more likely to believe that restraints cause diseases (including chronic diseases based on a chi square test (p < 0.05. Therefore it would be important that essential was the experiences of individuals with elderly family members when making programs of decreasing nurse’s dilemma to restraining the elderly.

Miwa Yamamoto

2012-06-01

175

DRs dilemma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Titel: DRs dilemma - en undersøgelse af DR og legitmitet. Opgaven bygger på en branche og virksomhedsanalyse gennem brugen af Porters five forces og SWOT-analyse. Dette har været grundlaget til beskrive DRs stakeholders og finde frem til hvilke krav og forventninger de har. Dette er suppleret med en institutionel og nyinstitutionel organisationsopfattelse, hvormed vi har fundet frem til regulative, normative og kognitive strukturer der påvirker DR. I diskussionen kommer vi ind på...

Holten-lund, Anders; Vigild Laursen, Pernille; Schmidt Jørgensen, Sidsel

2006-01-01

176

Ethical Problems in Higher Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concerns about ethics in college administration and governance stem from a variety of sources, including competition, decreasing resources, growing scale and impact of higher education, and consumer sophistication. Trustees must be conscious of ethical dilemmas and conflicts of interest and take responsibility for their conduct and decisions. (MSE)

Ylvisaker, Paul N.

1983-01-01

177

Encyclopedia of Information Ethics and Security  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

233Rapid developments in information andcommunication technologies have created newsecurity threats along with ethical dilemmas. Thesedevelopments have been so fast that appropriatesecurity precautions and ethical codes fail to keeppace with the technological developments. In thisrespect, education of both professionals andordinary citizens regarding information technologyethics carries utmost importance. Encyclopedia ofInformation Ethics and Security serves as anauthentic and comprehensive r...

Akbulut, Reviewed By Yavuz

2008-01-01

178

Dilemas éticos / Ehtical dilemma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen Son múltiples los dilemas éticos que enfrentan los profesionales de enfermería en el cumplimiento de su labor y que sugieren una toma de decisión fundamentada en los conocimientos, habilidades y en la experiencia, pero donde la ética y la moral es la que posibilita que esta se soporte en val [...] ores, principios y argumentos éticos. Aplicar la Bioética y cumplir con los Derechos Humanos requiere una profunda modificación en toda la cultura sanitaria; ya sea en los propios profesionales, en sus relaciones inter- e intraprofesionales, ya en la organización y gestión de los servicios. No basta con tener normativas, hay que realizar cambios y aportaciones delimitando el quehacer y estableciendo la corresponsabilización que permita la contribución de cada grupo profesional. En este artículo se realiza una reflexión sobre algunos dilemas éticos en el ámbito hospitalario, planteando situaciones dilemáticas que nos sirvan para tomar conciencia sobre la importancia de cuestiones tan relevantes como el respeto a la autonomía del paciente, el consentimiento informado, la justicia distributiva de los recursos sanitarios, entre otros. Abstract in english Abstract There are many ethical dilemmas that nursing professionals have to face in fulfilling their work and that suggest decision making should be based on knowledge, ability, skills and experience, but where ethics and morality are the ones that enable this work to be supported on values, princip [...] les and ethical arguments. Applying Bioethics and Human Rights requires a radical change in the whole culture of health; whether professionals themselves, in their personal and intraprofessional relations, and in the organization and management of services. It is not enough to have rules, you have to make changes and contributions delineating the work and establishing joint responsibility, that allows the contribution of each professional group. This article is a reflection on ethical dilemmas taking place in hospitals, raising controversial situations that serve as awareness on the importance of such relevant issues as respect for patient autonomy, informed consent, and distributive justice of health resources, among others.

Elizabeth, Villarreal Cantillo; Gloria, Visbal Illera.

179

Dilemas éticos / Ehtical dilemma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen Son múltiples los dilemas éticos que enfrentan los profesionales de enfermería en el cumplimiento de su labor y que sugieren una toma de decisión fundamentada en los conocimientos, habilidades y en la experiencia, pero donde la ética y la moral es la que posibilita que esta se soporte en val [...] ores, principios y argumentos éticos. Aplicar la Bioética y cumplir con los Derechos Humanos requiere una profunda modificación en toda la cultura sanitaria; ya sea en los propios profesionales, en sus relaciones inter- e intraprofesionales, ya en la organización y gestión de los servicios. No basta con tener normativas, hay que realizar cambios y aportaciones delimitando el quehacer y estableciendo la corresponsabilización que permita la contribución de cada grupo profesional. En este artículo se realiza una reflexión sobre algunos dilemas éticos en el ámbito hospitalario, planteando situaciones dilemáticas que nos sirvan para tomar conciencia sobre la importancia de cuestiones tan relevantes como el respeto a la autonomía del paciente, el consentimiento informado, la justicia distributiva de los recursos sanitarios, entre otros. Abstract in english Abstract There are many ethical dilemmas that nursing professionals have to face in fulfilling their work and that suggest decision making should be based on knowledge, ability, skills and experience, but where ethics and morality are the ones that enable this work to be supported on values, princip [...] les and ethical arguments. Applying Bioethics and Human Rights requires a radical change in the whole culture of health; whether professionals themselves, in their personal and intraprofessional relations, and in the organization and management of services. It is not enough to have rules, you have to make changes and contributions delineating the work and establishing joint responsibility, that allows the contribution of each professional group. This article is a reflection on ethical dilemmas taking place in hospitals, raising controversial situations that serve as awareness on the importance of such relevant issues as respect for patient autonomy, informed consent, and distributive justice of health resources, among others.

Elizabeth, Villarreal Cantillo; Gloria, Visbal Illera.

2013-01-01

180

The threshold moment: ethical tensions surrounding decision making on tracheostomy for patients in the intensive care unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the aging of the general population and the ability of intensivists to support patients using ventilator support, tracheostomy has become a vital tool in the medical management of critically ill patients. While much of the medical literature on tracheostomy has focused on the optimal timing of and indications for performing this procedure, little is written on the ethical tensions that can revolve around decisions by patients, surrogates, and physicians on its use.This article will elucidate the ethical dilemmas that can arise surrounding the use of tracheostomy in critically ill patients and how ethics consultants and committees can approach these cases to allow resolution. PMID:23923812

Venkat, Arvind

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

A Report on Reports: Two Dilemmas of Genre Teaching.  

Science.gov (United States)

Through focusing on the genre of informational reports, two dilemmas of genre teaching are explored: (1) a teaching dilemma about how to help students achieve flexible writing competencies through a combination of immersion in text exemplars and instruction in text features; and (2) a curriculum dilemma about how to combine the goals of…

Cazden, Courtney B.

182

Assisted or Hastened Death: The Healthcare Practitioner’s Dilemma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Assisting or hastening death is a dilemma with many ethical as well as practical issues facing healthcare practitioners in many countries worldwide now. Various arguments for and against assisted dying have been made over time but the call from the public for legalisation of euthanasia or assisted suicide has never been stronger. While many studies have documented the reluctance of medical and other health professionals to be involved in the practice of assisted dying or euthanasia, there is still much open debate in the public domain. Those who have the most experience of palliative care are strongest in their opposition to assisted death or euthanasia. This paper explores salient practical and ethical considerations for healthcare practitioners associated with assisted death, with a focus on examining the concepts of autonomy for patients and healthcare practitioners. The role of the healthcare practitioner has clearly and undoubtedly changed over time with advances in healthcare practices but the duty of care has not changed. The dilemmas for healthcare practitioners thus who have competent patients requesting hastened death extends far beyond acting within a country’s laws as they go to the very heart of the relationship between the practitioner and patient.

Rod Duncan MacLeod

2012-07-01

183

Managers’ Views on Ethics Education in Business Schools : An Empirical Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

More and more scholars are expressing their apprehensions regarding the current state of management education. The increased number of corporate scandals has fueled their concerns that training students to have sound business ethics upon graduation has failed. Consequently, research is emerging that focuses on the lack of impact that business ethics teaching has had on students in recent years. Remarkably, the voice of managers has barely been heard in this area, even though they are the ones who are among those best suited to evaluate graduates’ capabilities to solve ethical dilemmas. This research presents the managers’ view on the role of business schools in training students in business ethics, and the managers’ evaluation of business schools’ success in that area. The findings reveal that managers are quite disappointed with the lack of improvement in the ethics of graduating students. Managers nonetheless provide a range of ideas for business schools to work on, and particularly, call for closer collaboration between industry and business schools.

Sigurjonsson, Throstur Olaf; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

2014-01-01

184

Skyview Foods: Eric's Real Dilemma with Channel Partners  

Science.gov (United States)

As a marketing analyst, Eric is faced with several ethical dilemmas. When asked to engage in unethical and illegal behavior, Eric must decide whether to obey his boss and fudge the numbers (the counts of product purchased in order to get reimbursed more from the manufacturer during special sales) or take the ethical route. The case consists of two…

Castleberry, Stephen B.

2011-01-01

185

IJCP, Vol 2, No 4, Autumn 2009 161 To Give or Not to Give Fluids, Artificially: That Is an Ethical Dilemma!  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eating and drinking are essential for life. There are clinical situations that artificial hydration is necessary. For dying patients artificial hydration looks useless and in many conditions could even be harmful (e.g. pulmonary edema in hypoalbuminemic patients. In our medical culture artificial hydration is a symbol of care to the patient and withholding it, is a very emotive issue, especially to the family. Attention to autonomy, explanation about advantages and disadvantages of artificial hydration to the family and reassure them that th e patient will be looked after and kept comfortable till the last se conds might be the solution of this ethical dilemm

Tahmasebi M

2009-11-01

186

The Ethical Consultant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Described are student/consultant reports, turned in as homework, that reflected their abilities to distinguish useful from irrelevant information, solve the underlying calculus extremum problem, and reconcile the individual mathematical solutions with the ethical considerations surrounding the moral dilemma of the hypothetical consulting client.…

Minton, Roland

1991-01-01

187

Ethically Challenging Situations Reported by School Psychologists: Implications for Training  

Science.gov (United States)

Practitioner-members of the National Association of School Psychologists (N = 208) completed questionnaires regarding their ethics training, preparedness, the types of ethical transgressions and dilemmas encountered in the previous year, and the strategies used to solve problems. Respondents who received multilevel training in ethics (ethics

Dailor, A. Nichole; Jacob, Susan

2011-01-01

188

Ethical Implications of Technological Advances on Business Communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores ethical issues heightened by use of technology, and examines a means for managing these ethical concerns. Argues that ethical problems are not inherent in technological advances, but rather it is how human beings choose to use these new tools that may lead to ethical dilemmas in business contexts. (SR)

Herschel, Richard T.; Andrews, Patricia Hayes

1997-01-01

189

The Ethical Problems of Reserach : An empirical study of ethics in research practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most accounts of the ethical problems facing researchers across a broad spectrum of research fields come from ethicists, ethics committees and specialists committed to the study of ethics in human research. In contrast, this study reports on the ethical questions that researchers, themselves, report facing in their everyday practice. Fifty-five Swedish researchers contributed 109 examples of ethical dilemmas, conflicts and problems in research. They were all researchers at the post-doctoral l...

Colnerud, Gunnel

2013-01-01

190

Casuistry: A Complement to Principle Ethics and a Foundation for Ethical Decisions  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical dilemmas within any system are created when moral/ethical principles, rules, or guidelines can be cited for opposing actions with neither side presenting the obvious, right course to follow. This condition exposes the intricate interrelationship between abstract moral/ethical principles and the description and evaluation of real-life…

Freeman, Stephen J.; Francis, Perry C.

2006-01-01

191

Ethics Case Studies: The Working Mother.  

Science.gov (United States)

Summarizes results of a survey on an ethical dilemma about whether a teacher should meet the needs of a working mother or those of her four-year-old son in terms of naptime. Educator Lilian Katz and philosopher Kenneth Kipnis comment on the dilemma. (BB)

Feeney, Stephanie; And Others

1987-01-01

192

A pesquisa e os dilemas éticos do trabalho da Enfermagem / The research and the ethical dilemmas of Nursing work / La investigación y los dilemas éticos del trabajo de Enfermería  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Trata o presente artigo de uma reflexão acerca da pesquisa e dos dilemas éticos do trabalho da enfermagem, tendo como principal objetivo fornecer subsídios para ajudar a pensar o cuidar, no cotidiano profissional, no campo do ensino, da pesquisa e, particularmente, da assistência. Recorremos a autor [...] es que tratam a respeito da ética, do trabalho e da condição humana, buscando a articulação entre esses conhecimentos e o fazer da Enfermagem, em seu cotidiano. Concluímos que diante da realidade da saúde, em meio a tantas adversidades com as quais nos deparamos, no dia-a-dia da prática profissional, seja no ensino, na pesquisa ou na assistência de Enfermagem, o pensar e agir com ética é uma condição estruturante, que enobrece e humaniza a profissão dando sentido às ações de seus profissionais. Abstract in spanish El presente artículo es una reflexión sobre la investigación y los dilemas éticos del trabajo de Enfermería, con el objetivo primordial de ofrecer subsidios para ayudar a pensar la atención, de acuerdo con la práctica profesional en el campo de la educación, la investigación, y en particular la asis [...] tencia. Recurrimos a autores que se ocupan de la ética, el trabajo y la condición humana, en la búsqueda de una relación entre este conocimiento y el quehacer de Enfermería en su vida diaria. Se concluye que, dada la realidad de salud, en medio de tantas adversidades con las que nos enfrentamos en la práctica diaria, ya sea en la docencia, la investigación o la atención de enfermería, pensar y actuar de manera ética es una condición estructurante, que humaniza y dignifica la profesión y que da sentido a las acciones de sus profesionales. Abstract in english This paper is a reflection on research and the ethical dilemmas of nursing work, with the primary objective of providing subsidies to help thinking about care, according to professional practice in the field of education, research, and particularly of assistance. We rely on authors who deal about et [...] hics, labor and human condition, finding a link between this knowledge and nursing's doing in its daily practice. We conclude that given the reality of health, amid so many adversities with which we are faced in day-to-day practice, whether in teaching, research or nursing care, to think and to act ethically is a structuring condition, which humanizes and ennobles the profession giving meaning to the actions of its professionals.

Raimunda Medeiros, Germano.

2013-09-01

193

A pesquisa e os dilemas éticos do trabalho da Enfermagem / The research and the ethical dilemmas of Nursing work / La investigación y los dilemas éticos del trabajo de Enfermería  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Trata o presente artigo de uma reflexão acerca da pesquisa e dos dilemas éticos do trabalho da enfermagem, tendo como principal objetivo fornecer subsídios para ajudar a pensar o cuidar, no cotidiano profissional, no campo do ensino, da pesquisa e, particularmente, da assistência. Recorremos a autor [...] es que tratam a respeito da ética, do trabalho e da condição humana, buscando a articulação entre esses conhecimentos e o fazer da Enfermagem, em seu cotidiano. Concluímos que diante da realidade da saúde, em meio a tantas adversidades com as quais nos deparamos, no dia-a-dia da prática profissional, seja no ensino, na pesquisa ou na assistência de Enfermagem, o pensar e agir com ética é uma condição estruturante, que enobrece e humaniza a profissão dando sentido às ações de seus profissionais. Abstract in spanish El presente artículo es una reflexión sobre la investigación y los dilemas éticos del trabajo de Enfermería, con el objetivo primordial de ofrecer subsidios para ayudar a pensar la atención, de acuerdo con la práctica profesional en el campo de la educación, la investigación, y en particular la asis [...] tencia. Recurrimos a autores que se ocupan de la ética, el trabajo y la condición humana, en la búsqueda de una relación entre este conocimiento y el quehacer de Enfermería en su vida diaria. Se concluye que, dada la realidad de salud, en medio de tantas adversidades con las que nos enfrentamos en la práctica diaria, ya sea en la docencia, la investigación o la atención de enfermería, pensar y actuar de manera ética es una condición estructurante, que humaniza y dignifica la profesión y que da sentido a las acciones de sus profesionales. Abstract in english This paper is a reflection on research and the ethical dilemmas of nursing work, with the primary objective of providing subsidies to help thinking about care, according to professional practice in the field of education, research, and particularly of assistance. We rely on authors who deal about et [...] hics, labor and human condition, finding a link between this knowledge and nursing's doing in its daily practice. We conclude that given the reality of health, amid so many adversities with which we are faced in day-to-day practice, whether in teaching, research or nursing care, to think and to act ethically is a structuring condition, which humanizes and ennobles the profession giving meaning to the actions of its professionals.

Raimunda Medeiros, Germano.

194

A dimensão da ética na pesquisa em saúde com ênfase na abordagem qualitativa / Ethic dimension in health research focusing on the qualitative approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo trata da dimensão ética na pesquisa em saúde, relacionando-a mais especificamente à abordagem qualitativa, a partir das contribuições das ciências sociais e em particular da etnografia, que pressupõe a construção de uma relação de confiança e respeito entre pesquisador e pesquisado que s [...] e configura paulatinamente. Os aspectos éticos permeiam a pesquisa qualitativa desde a escolha do objeto de estudo, as delimitações metodológicas, as análises dos resultados até o compromisso de uma devolutiva das informações obtidas; pressupondo a valorização de uma relação interpessoal em que os diferentes interesses, valores e visões de mundo colocam-se como possibilidade ou não de uma construção conjunta do conhecimento. A escolha de um tema ou objeto de estudo está relacionada a uma trajetória de vida singular, em que a todo o momento o pesquisador deve se perguntar como compatibilizar a constituição da postura ética em relação aos pesquisados com seus desejos, sonhos, curiosidades e expectativas. O artigo tem o intuito de refletir sobre esses impasses vivenciados pelo pesquisador, ressaltando a importância da ética para o seu desenvolvimento pessoal, profissional e sociopolítico, valorizando o desejo pela autonomia do conhecimento, a solidariedade com os grupos sociais e com as pessoas envolvidas na pesquisa. A partir do relato de um processo de pesquisa, pretende-se contribuir para a compreensão de como os aspectos éticos são indissociáveis da pesquisa e do próprio pesquisador, trazendo elementos para a realização de pesquisas qualitativas especialmente no campo da saúde coletiva. Abstract in english This article addresses the ethical dimension in health research, relating it more specifically to the qualitative approach, based on contributions of the social sciences and ethnography in particular, as it presupposes building a relationship of trust and respect between researchers and researched s [...] ubjects that is gradually configured. The ethical aspects permeate qualitative research from the choice of the subject matter, the methodological outlines, analysis of the results, to the commitment of providing a feedback for the researched subjects regarding the obtained information. The ethical aspects presuppose the value of an interpersonal relationship in which the different interests, values and worldviews stand as a possibility or not of a joint construction of knowledge. The choice of a subject or object of study is related to a particular life trajectory in which the researcher should ask himself, at all times, how to conciliate the constitution of an ethical attitude in relation to the researched subjects with his own desires, dreams, curiosities and expectations. The article aims to discuss such dilemmas experienced by the researcher, highlighting the importance of ethics for his personal, professional and socio-political growth, and emphasizing the desire for knowledge autonomy, solidarity with social groups and with people involved in the research. Based on the report of a research process, the article intends to contribute to the understanding of how ethical aspects are inextricably linked to research, and also to the researcher, bringing elements to the conduction of qualitative research especially in public health.

Carlos Roberto de Castro e, Silva; Rosilda, Mendes; Eunice, Nakamura.

195

A dimensão da ética na pesquisa em saúde com ênfase na abordagem qualitativa / Ethic dimension in health research focusing on the qualitative approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo trata da dimensão ética na pesquisa em saúde, relacionando-a mais especificamente à abordagem qualitativa, a partir das contribuições das ciências sociais e em particular da etnografia, que pressupõe a construção de uma relação de confiança e respeito entre pesquisador e pesquisado que s [...] e configura paulatinamente. Os aspectos éticos permeiam a pesquisa qualitativa desde a escolha do objeto de estudo, as delimitações metodológicas, as análises dos resultados até o compromisso de uma devolutiva das informações obtidas; pressupondo a valorização de uma relação interpessoal em que os diferentes interesses, valores e visões de mundo colocam-se como possibilidade ou não de uma construção conjunta do conhecimento. A escolha de um tema ou objeto de estudo está relacionada a uma trajetória de vida singular, em que a todo o momento o pesquisador deve se perguntar como compatibilizar a constituição da postura ética em relação aos pesquisados com seus desejos, sonhos, curiosidades e expectativas. O artigo tem o intuito de refletir sobre esses impasses vivenciados pelo pesquisador, ressaltando a importância da ética para o seu desenvolvimento pessoal, profissional e sociopolítico, valorizando o desejo pela autonomia do conhecimento, a solidariedade com os grupos sociais e com as pessoas envolvidas na pesquisa. A partir do relato de um processo de pesquisa, pretende-se contribuir para a compreensão de como os aspectos éticos são indissociáveis da pesquisa e do próprio pesquisador, trazendo elementos para a realização de pesquisas qualitativas especialmente no campo da saúde coletiva. Abstract in english This article addresses the ethical dimension in health research, relating it more specifically to the qualitative approach, based on contributions of the social sciences and ethnography in particular, as it presupposes building a relationship of trust and respect between researchers and researched s [...] ubjects that is gradually configured. The ethical aspects permeate qualitative research from the choice of the subject matter, the methodological outlines, analysis of the results, to the commitment of providing a feedback for the researched subjects regarding the obtained information. The ethical aspects presuppose the value of an interpersonal relationship in which the different interests, values and worldviews stand as a possibility or not of a joint construction of knowledge. The choice of a subject or object of study is related to a particular life trajectory in which the researcher should ask himself, at all times, how to conciliate the constitution of an ethical attitude in relation to the researched subjects with his own desires, dreams, curiosities and expectations. The article aims to discuss such dilemmas experienced by the researcher, highlighting the importance of ethics for his personal, professional and socio-political growth, and emphasizing the desire for knowledge autonomy, solidarity with social groups and with people involved in the research. Based on the report of a research process, the article intends to contribute to the understanding of how ethical aspects are inextricably linked to research, and also to the researcher, bringing elements to the conduction of qualitative research especially in public health.

Carlos Roberto de Castro e, Silva; Rosilda, Mendes; Eunice, Nakamura.

2012-03-01

196

Narrative analysis of the ethics in providing advance care planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objective was to better understand the values and ethical dilemmas surrounding advance care planning through stories told by registered nurses and licensed social workers, who were employed as care managers within Area Agencies on Aging. We conducted eight focus groups in which care managers were invited to tell their stories and answer open-ended questions focusing on their interactions with consumers receiving home-based long-term care. Using narrative analysis to understand how our participants thought through particular experiences and what they valued, we identified seven themes representative of their work with consumers and families: humility, respect, responsibilities, boundaries, empowerment, courage, and veracity. PMID:23702895

Baughman, Kristin R; Aultman, Julie M; Ludwick, Ruth; O'Neill, Anne

2014-02-01

197

IS ETHICAL HACKING ETHICAL?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.

MUHAMMAD NUMAN ALI KHAN; DANISH JAMIL,

2011-01-01

198

Handbook on Ethical Issues in Anthropology  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Anthropological Association has recently added number 23 to its series of special online publications. Edited by Joan Cassell and Sue-Ellen Jacobs, this collection of six essays is presented to "stimulate discussion and reflection on ethical issues" among anthropologists. Offerings include a background essay and annotated bibliography, two essays containing fictional ethical dilemmas and proposed solutions, an essay on introducing issues of ethical responsibility into the classroom, and guidelines on holding a workshop on ethical problems in fieldwork.

2005-11-30

199

Ethical issues and Huntington's disease  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's [...] disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethical dilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper.

J G R, Kromberg; T-M, Wessels.

1023-10-01

200

Ethical issues and Huntington's disease  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's [...] disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethical dilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper.

J G R, Kromberg; T-M, Wessels.

 
 
 
 
201

Ethical issues and Huntington's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethical dilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper.  PMID:24300652

Kromberg, Jennifer G R; Wessels, Tina-Marié

2013-12-01

202

Global health: the ethical responsibility of the pharmaceutical industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health as a global issue concerns all and clearly manifests global inequality. All stakeholders of the healthcare systems and disease treatment--including the pharmaceutical industry--have an ethical obligation to contribute to promoting global health. At Novo Nordisk we primarily focus on providing our contribution to global health through defeating diabetes. At the same time we stand by being a private company required to deliver a financial profit, which is why we must create positive results on the financial, the environmental and the social bottom lines. In this article we attempt to provide a brief overview of some of the initiatives that we think business companies can take--and therefore are also obliged to in promoting global health. Further, we have pointed out a number of dilemmas within research and development as well as business ethics that all companies face when they convert the ethical principles to daily practice globally. PMID:17349219

Lassen, Lars Christian; Thomsen, Mads Krogsgaard

2007-02-01

203

Present state of reproductive medicine in Japan – ethical issues with a focus on those seen in court cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Against a background of on the one hand, a declining demography and a conservative family register system that emphasizes the importance of the blood line, and on the other hand, an increase in the number of people undergoing fertility treatment, the absence of a legal regulatory framework concerning ART matters is likely to result in an increasing number of contradictory situations. It is against this background that the paper sets out to examine the judgements of court cases related to ART, with a particular focus on the legal determination of parental status, and to link these to aspects of the legal and socio-ethical environment within which the courts make their judgements. Methods The methods used were thorough investigation of all the court cases concerning ART in the public domain in Japan, including the arguments of the concerned parties and the judgements so far delivered. With the court cases as a central focal point, trends in Japan, including deliberations by government and academic societies, are reviewed, and the findings of surveys on the degree of understanding and attitudes among the people toward ART are summarized. Results In terms of the judgements to date, the central criteria used by the courts in determining parental status were the act of parturition and the consent of the husband of the concerned couple. The government and academic societies have displayed a cautious attitude toward ART, but the findings of attitude surveys among the people at large show a generally positive attitude toward ART. Attitudes toward the overwhelming importance hitherto attached to the bloodline are also seen to be changing. Conclusion The main conclusion is that in the absence of a legal regulatory framework for ART, there is likely to be an increase in the contradictions between the use of outdated legal precedents and the technical development of ART. Since much of the specialist discussion necessary for the formulation of a legal framework has already been carried out, the speedy enactment of comprehensive and at the same time flexible legislation would be highly desirable, but further wide-ranging discussion involving the general public is likely to be needed first.

Mayeda Mayumi

2006-04-01

204

Anthropology Ethics: Online Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Studying humankind can give us great insight into the complexities of society and culture. However, any research involving human subjects comes with a thorny set of ethical considerations. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln's Ethics Center has curated this collection of online resources related to ethical dilemmas and situations in anthropology. The materials are divided into four areas: Case Studies, About, Additional Teaching Resources, and Codes of Ethics. The Case Studies area is quite well-developed, containing 20 rigorously vetted case studies from SUNY-Buffalo, the Society for Economic Botany, and the Smithsonian Institution. For those just entering the field, the Codes of Ethics area might be quite useful. It offers up professional codes from organizations like the American Anthropological Association, the American Association of Museums, and the American Folklore Society.

205

The dilemma of reporting suspicions of child maltreatment in pediatric dentistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the factors that lead specialists in pediatric dentistry to suspect child abuse or neglect and the considerations that influence the decision to report these suspicions to social services. Focus group discussions were used to identify new aspects of child maltreatment suspicion and reporting. Such discussions illuminate the diversity of informants' experiences, opinions, and reflections. Focus groups included 19 specialists and postgraduate students in pediatric dentistry. We conducted video-recorded focus group discussions at the informants' dental clinics. All sessions lasted approximately 1.5 h. We transcribed the discussions verbatim and studied the transcripts using thematic analysis, a method well-suited to evaluating the experiences discussed and how the informants understand them. The analysis process elicited key concepts and identified one main theme, which we labeled 'the dilemma of reporting child maltreatment'. We found this dilemma to pervade a variety of situations and divided it into three sub-themes: to support or report; differentiating concern for well-being from maltreatment; and the supportive or unhelpful consultation. Reporting a suspicion about child maltreatment seems to be a clinical and ethical dilemma arising from concerns of having contradicting professional roles, difficulties confirming suspicions of maltreatment, and perceived shortcomings in the child-protection system. PMID:25039643

Kvist, Therese; Wickström, Anette; Miglis, Isabelle; Dahllöf, Göran

2014-10-01

206

Informed consent: the nurse's dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The author builds upon the concept of informed consent whereby the patient agrees to undergo experimental medical procedures. Ideally, the doctor will inform the patient fully on the proposed treatment so as to assure the patient's right to participate intelligently and freely in the decisions regarding his treatment. The nurse is drawn into the doctor-patient relationship in cases where the patient seeks her counsel because he feels insufficiently informed by the doctor, or because the nurse becomes aware of inadequacies in the information-giving process. She is then faced by the nurse's dilemma: a conflict between the loyalties she owes to her patient and to her physician team mate. A work sheet is presented which can help the nurse decide upon the proper course of action in solving this dilemma, guided by her personal and professional beliefs and by specific ethical concepts in the Code for Nurses. Solution of the dilemma and attainment of informed consent requires willing cooperation between doctor and nurse. Both can develop the skills for imparting information to the patient under difficult conditions and for verifying its comprehension by the patient. Both must learn to respect the patient's decision and to temper their professional skills with sensitivity, a strong moral sense and a deep respect for their fellow human beings. PMID:8692002

Tabak, N

1996-01-01

207

Reanimación cardiopulmonar en el paciente oncológico terminal: Dilemas éticos y bioéticos en Enfermería / Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in terminal oncologic patient: Ethical and bioethical dilemmas in Nursing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La vida empieza a tener sentido cuando ayudas a otro, a ponerse de pie y a andar sabiendo que su camino llega al final. Con tal propósito se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal en el contexto hospitalario del Hospital Universitario Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau de la provincia de Villa Clara [...] en el período de octubre de 2005 a abril de 2006. Con el objetivo de determinar el nivel de conocimiento teórico práctico del personal de enfermería en el manejo de la Reanimación Cardiopulmonar (RCP) en el paciente oncológico terminal en urgencias. Se tomó una muestra de 115 enfermeros, que constituyó el 65 % de los que laboran en las diferentes salas del centro hospitalario a partir de un muestreo probabilístico intencional, se incluyeron enfermeros licenciados así como técnicos que laboran en estos servicios, se excluyeron enfermeros en maestrías, licencias y certificados prolongados. Las variables estudiadas fueron nivel de actualización en RCP oncológica, conducta en la reanimación, valores en enfermería, criterio de eutanasia, manejo psicológico del paciente oncológico, principios éticos en enfermería. Se aplicaron encuestas, entrevistas a profundidad, formulario, criterio de expertos y revisión actualizada del tema. Se confeccionaron tablas y gráficos estadísticos con los resultados de los diferentes procederes en las etapas incluidas en el estudio. Se determinó que existe una relación psicoafectiva positiva paciente-enfermero, así como criterio adecuado de enfermería con respecto a la muerte digna y actualización científica sobre el manejo de la reanimación cardiopulmonar oncológica terminal Abstract in english Life starts to have sense when you help somebody else to stand up and to walk, knowing that they are going to die. A longitudinal and descriptive study was undertaken in the hospital context of "Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau" Hospital of Villa Clara Province from October 2005 to April 2006 to determ [...] ine the level of theoretical and practical knowledge of the Nursing staff in the management of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (PCR) in terminal oncologic patients in the emergency service. A sample of 115 nurses (65%) was taken from those working in different wards of the hospital, starting from an intentional probabilistic sampling. Nursing licentiates, as well as technicians working in these services were included. Nurses who were taking Master's degree courses, and those with leaves of absence and prolonged medical certificates were excluded. The studied variables were: updating level in oncologic CPR, resuscitation behaviour, Nursing values, euthanasia criterion, psychological management of the oncologic patient and Nursing ethical principles. Surveys, in-depth interviews, questionnaires, expert's criteria and updated reviews of the topic were used. Statistical tables and graphics with the results of the different procedures in the stages included in the study were made. It was concluded that there was a positive psychoaffective patient-nurse relation, as well as a Nursing proper criterion regarding a dignified death, and an adequate scientific updating on the management of terminal oncologic cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Evaldo, Sardiñas Llerenas; Vivian M, Alvarez Pérez; Armando, Núñez Machado.

208

Reanimación cardiopulmonar en el paciente oncológico terminal: Dilemas éticos y bioéticos en Enfermería Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in terminal oncologic patient: Ethical and bioethical dilemmas in Nursing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La vida empieza a tener sentido cuando ayudas a otro, a ponerse de pie y a andar sabiendo que su camino llega al final. Con tal propósito se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal en el contexto hospitalario del Hospital Universitario Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau de la provincia de Villa Clara en el período de octubre de 2005 a abril de 2006. Con el objetivo de determinar el nivel de conocimiento teórico práctico del personal de enfermería en el manejo de la Reanimación Cardiopulmonar (RCP en el paciente oncológico terminal en urgencias. Se tomó una muestra de 115 enfermeros, que constituyó el 65 % de los que laboran en las diferentes salas del centro hospitalario a partir de un muestreo probabilístico intencional, se incluyeron enfermeros licenciados así como técnicos que laboran en estos servicios, se excluyeron enfermeros en maestrías, licencias y certificados prolongados. Las variables estudiadas fueron nivel de actualización en RCP oncológica, conducta en la reanimación, valores en enfermería, criterio de eutanasia, manejo psicológico del paciente oncológico, principios éticos en enfermería. Se aplicaron encuestas, entrevistas a profundidad, formulario, criterio de expertos y revisión actualizada del tema. Se confeccionaron tablas y gráficos estadísticos con los resultados de los diferentes procederes en las etapas incluidas en el estudio. Se determinó que existe una relación psicoafectiva positiva paciente-enfermero, así como criterio adecuado de enfermería con respecto a la muerte digna y actualización científica sobre el manejo de la reanimación cardiopulmonar oncológica terminalLife starts to have sense when you help somebody else to stand up and to walk, knowing that they are going to die. A longitudinal and descriptive study was undertaken in the hospital context of "Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau" Hospital of Villa Clara Province from October 2005 to April 2006 to determine the level of theoretical and practical knowledge of the Nursing staff in the management of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (PCR in terminal oncologic patients in the emergency service. A sample of 115 nurses (65% was taken from those working in different wards of the hospital, starting from an intentional probabilistic sampling. Nursing licentiates, as well as technicians working in these services were included. Nurses who were taking Master's degree courses, and those with leaves of absence and prolonged medical certificates were excluded. The studied variables were: updating level in oncologic CPR, resuscitation behaviour, Nursing values, euthanasia criterion, psychological management of the oncologic patient and Nursing ethical principles. Surveys, in-depth interviews, questionnaires, expert's criteria and updated reviews of the topic were used. Statistical tables and graphics with the results of the different procedures in the stages included in the study were made. It was concluded that there was a positive psychoaffective patient-nurse relation, as well as a Nursing proper criterion regarding a dignified death, and an adequate scientific updating on the management of terminal oncologic cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Evaldo Sardiñas Llerenas

2007-12-01

209

Ethical issues and accountability in pressure ulcer prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pressure ulcers represent a considerable cost, both in terms of healthcare spending and quality of life. They are increasingly viewed in terms of patient harm. For clinicians involved in pressure ulcer prevention, ethical issues surrounding accountability may arise from both policy and practice perspectives. It may be useful for clinicians to refer to ethical theories and principles to create frameworks when addressing ethical dilemmas. However, such theories and principles have been criticised for their simplicity and over-generalisation. Alternative theories, for example, virtue ethics and experiential learning, can provide more comprehensive guidance and promote a pluralistic approach to tackling ethical dilemmas. PMID:25335632

Welsh, Lynn

2014-10-22

210

IS ETHICAL HACKING ETHICAL?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.

MUHAMMAD NUMAN ALI KHAN

2011-05-01

211

Evaluation Team Dynamics: Intragroup Ethical Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical challenges associated with the relationships among members of an evaluative team/organization receive less attention. Examples of the kinds of ethical dilemmas that could occur within an evaluation team include an individual taking undeserved credit, transferring blame, making false promises, withholding information, breaching…

Urias, David

2009-01-01

212

Health Ethics Education for Health Administration Chaplains  

Science.gov (United States)

It is imperative for divinity and health administration programs to improve their level of ethics education for their graduates who work as health administration chaplains. With an initial presentation of the variation of ethical dilemmas presented in health care facilities covering social, organizational, and patient levels, we indicate the need…

Porter, Russell; Broussard, Amelia; Duckett, Todd

2008-01-01

213

Salesperson Ethics: An Interactive Computer Simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

A new interactive computer simulation designed to teach sales ethics is described. Simulation learner objectives include gaining a better understanding of legal issues in selling; realizing that ethical dilemmas do arise in selling; realizing the need to be honest when selling; seeing that there are conflicting demands from a salesperson's…

Castleberry, Stephen

2014-01-01

214

An analytic approach to resolving problems in medical ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Education in ethics among practising professionals should provide a systematic procedure for resolving moral problems. A method for such decision-making is outlined using the two classical orientations in moral philosophy, teleology and deontology. Teleological views such as utilitarianism resolve moral dilemmas by calculating the excess of good over harm expected to be produced by each feasible alternative for action. The deontological view focuses on rights, duties, and principles of justice. Both methods are used to resolve the 1971 Johns Hopkins case of a baby born with Down's syndrome and duodenal atresia. PMID:6234395

Candee, D; Puka, B

1984-06-01

215

The State of Ethical Training for Counseling Psychology Doctoral Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveyed 50 student representatives from American Psychological Association-accredited doctoral programs in professional psychology on exposure to and type of ethics education, and perception of preparedness to deal with ethical dilemmas. Found that 94% of programs required training in ethics and that most students felt prepared for legal and…

Wilson, Linda S.; Ranft, Victor A.

1993-01-01

216

Ethical Issues in the Recovery of Sexual Abuse Memories.  

Science.gov (United States)

This speech highlights ethical considerations in defining "reasonable practice" or standards of care in cases of the recovery of sexual abuse memories. Knowing the ethical standards of the psychological profession is not sufficient. These standards cannot be and are not exhaustive in addressing all the ethical dilemmas that psychologists face.…

Hotelling, Kathy

217

[Ethical aspects of transcultural research].  

Science.gov (United States)

An increasing number of patients in contact with the Danish health services have a non-Danish background. What are the ethical questions and dilemmas doctors face with this patient population in relation to their participation in medical research? This paper discusses the core medical ethical principles, including autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice in relation to the participation in research of members of various ethnic groups. PMID:16472434

Kastrup, Marianne Carisius; Jerlang, Clea

2006-01-30

218

Ethics in the bank internet encounter : an explorative study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss some ethical issues in the internet encounter between customer and bank. Empirical data related to the difficulties that customers have when they deal with the bank through internet technology and electronic banking. The authors discuss the difficulties that customers expressed from an ethical standpoint. Design/methodology/approach – The key problem of the paper is “how does research handle the user's lack of competence in a web-based commercial environment?” The authors illustrate this ethical dilemma with data from a Danish Bank collected in 2002. The data have been structured by an advanced text analytic method, Pertex (by generation of intentionality of verbal actors from text). Findings – The authors can conclude that the experience of lack of competency in internet banking implies a severe damage on the experience of the ethics of the good life and of the respect for the basic ethical principles of customer autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability. However, increased experience of competency may imply experience of increased feeling of ethical superiority and of the good life among customers. Research limitations/implications – The important implication for managerial research of this study would be for banks to focus on customer competency with an ethical concern instead of only being concerned with technical solutions for effective internet operations. Practical implications – Since more and more businesses are digitally based, the authors can foresee a potential generic problem of lack of competence for certain age groups and also of people from different social groups. Originality/value – The paper provides an analysis of the ethics of on-line banking on the basis of Pertex methodology and with the use of basic ethical principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability.

Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl; Mattsson, Jan

2012-01-01

219

Gender Differences in Personal Selling Ethics Evaluations: Do They Exist and What Does Their Existence Mean for Teaching Sales Ethics?  

Science.gov (United States)

Sales career opportunities are growing, and the number of women in sales is increasing. Educators must adequately prepare both men and women for today's ethical sales dilemmas. Using the Personal Selling Ethics Scale, the current study analyzes the impact of idealism and relativism on the sales ethics evaluations of men and women. Results indicate…

Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy; Kondo, Christopher

2012-01-01

220

What is the Business of Ethics in Business Ethics?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For the last decades, business ethics have spread from a new brand of a few socially and environmentally benevolent companies to the corporate mainstream. Thus, today, business ethics have become a central concern for both business managers and researchers in order to manage the cultural value base of the organization, stakeholder relations, etc.. Throughout the history of business ethics, though, and especially in the last decade, a series of studies have criticized the dominant view of business ethics for being instrumental and reductive. This critique often dismisses business ethics altogether. This paper addresses these “movements” or approaches to business ethics. It argues that business ethics is caught between two conceptions of what it is for. The first movement promotes the idea that it can be a reassuring and satisfying set of ideas that reminds us how to do the right thing in order to manage the cultural value base of the organization, stakeholder relations, etc.. The second movement promotes the idea that ethics is something that threatens us by exposing us to dilemmas and differences. The paper concludes that business ethics is both a source of solutions and questions. This acknowledgement allows us to engage with business ethics in a theoretical fruitful and ethically engaged manner that challenges us to see business ethics as a involving both practical solutions and critical questions.

Lystbæk, Christian Tang

 
 
 
 
221

An Ethics Primer: A Few Short Ethics Cases  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource is a PDF that provides teachers with several short ethics case studies: Two Tales of Rice (genetically modified food), Talk About Short (growth hormone for short stature -- fictionalized), and One Family's Dilemma (a family considers what to do about excess IVF embryos).

2008-01-01

222

Ethical and Moral Decision Making: Praxis and Hermeneutics for School Leaders  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been a renewed interest in the inclusion of ethics as part of educators' training and interest in understanding the moral and ethical dimensions of educational practice. This research was designed to study the types of dilemmas school level leaders face, the characteristics of typical dilemmas, and the implications for leader…

Minnis, Joan Quinn

2011-01-01

223

Publication aspects of ethics in photogrammetry  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the Code of Ethics of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), the principles on which ethics are founded consist of honesty, justice, and courtesy, forming a moral philosophy associated with mutual interest among men. We will cover in particular the ethical problems of publication of photogrammetric material in the various media. There are many such problems, and we often face a dilemma in selecting a course which is the right thing to do.

Thompson, Morris M.

1991-01-01

224

Ethical Issues in the Mental Health Treatment of Gender Dysphoric Adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines ethical dilemmas arising when treating adolescents with gender dysphoria, discussing ethical and legal issues pertinent to treating any adolescent and highlighting gender dysphoric adolescents. Reviews legal decisions, existing data on adolescent decision making, and ethical principles for resolving complex situations. Illustrates ethical

Swann, Stephanie; Herbert, Sarah E.

1999-01-01

225

Ethical dilemmas concerning human reproduction. Gestational surrogacy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Los avances científicos en el campo de la genética y de la biología han obligado al legislador a adoptar soluciones jurídicas concretas, generalmente partiendo de determinados criterios éticos que, en ocasiones, entran en conflicto con la ética individual o libertad de conciencia. Pues bien, una de estas cuestiones es la llamada «gestación de sustitución». La gestación de sustitución ha suscitado un intenso debate en el ámbito social, ético y jurídico, que con...

Souto Galva?n, Beatriz

2006-01-01

226

Ethical Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ethical Challenges scenario in the June 2004 issue of the American Journal of Evaluation focused on an evaluator-client disagreement concerning the wisdom of having consumer representation on a steering committee that would help plan and oversee an evaluation in an agency providing community-based residential services to the chronically…

Morris, Michael

2005-01-01

227

Vulnerable participants in health research : methodological and ethical challenges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki Declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and health care research, in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research. The guidelines appear to be instrumental and over simplistic representations of the often “messy” realities surrounding the research process that is often guided by relational and local negotiations of ethical solutions. Vulnerable participants, for instance, challenge both professional and research ethics, leaving both professionals and researchers in ethical and moral dilemmas. In this article, we specifically focus on the methodological challenges of obtaining informed consent from drug users and terminally ill cancer patients in our PhD research. The question is how you can illuminate the needs and problems of vulnerable patients and - at the same time - respect their integrity without exposing them unnecessarily. The article illuminates the interactional construction of roles and relationships and how they affect the contextual construction of vulnerability. In this respect, we demonstrate that both patients and researchers are at risk of being vulnerable. In conclusion, we outline and advocate for a more contextualized approach and empirically-informed ethics to informed consent in research with potentially vulnerable participants.

Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Nanna, Kappel

2011-01-01

228

Procedure versus process: ethical paradigms and the conduct of qualitative research  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Research is fundamental to improving the quality of health care. The need for regulation of research is clear. However, the bureaucratic complexity of research governance has raised concerns that the regulatory mechanisms intended to protect participants now threaten to undermine or stifle the research enterprise, especially as this relates to sensitive topics and hard to reach groups. Discussion Much criticism of research governance has focused on long delays in obtaining ethical approvals, restrictions imposed on study conduct, and the inappropriateness of evaluating qualitative studies within the methodological and risk assessment frameworks applied to biomedical and clinical research. Less attention has been given to the different epistemologies underlying biomedical and qualitative investigation. The bioethical framework underpinning current regulatory structures is fundamentally at odds with the practice of emergent, negotiated micro-ethics required in qualitative research. The complex and shifting nature of real world settings delivers unanticipated ethical issues and (occasionally) genuine dilemmas which go beyond easy or formulaic ‘procedural’ resolution. This is not to say that qualitative studies are ‘unethical’ but that their ethical nature can only be safeguarded through the practice of ‘micro-ethics’ based on the judgement and integrity of researchers in the field. Summary This paper considers the implications of contrasting ethical paradigms for the conduct of qualitative research and the value of ‘empirical ethics’ as a means of liberating qualitative (and other) research from an outmoded and unduly restrictive research governance framework based on abstract prinicipalism, divorced from real world contexts and values. PMID:23016663

2012-01-01

229

Moral Dilemma Discussions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Summarizes research concerning the influence of different types of discussions about moral dilemmas between adolescents and either parents or peers on the adolescents' moral development. Discusses implications for camp staff, who may lead campers in discussions based on real-life moral dilemmas in their cabins. (SV)

Powell, Gwynn M.

2001-01-01

230

Ethical Implications For Attorneys Involved In Extraterritorial Application Of The Civil Rights Acts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Globalization of business has increasingly involved American attorneys in an ethical dilemma which is not just academic, but may result in disciplinary action against the attorney. What is counsel to do when it is discovered that overseas employment practices (legal in the foreign country violate American law? May counsel, citing current case law, ethically advise management that discharge of a troublesome employee may be effected "legally" by simply transferring the employee overseas, then firing her? These ethical issues can be put in sharp focus by reviewing a provision of the 1991 Civil Rights Act (CRA that extends application of the 1964 CRA to cover American citizens working overseas for American owned or controlled firms. Expansive interpretation of this by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC has ensnarled over 21,000 overseas businesses with the threat of being sued, in the United States, for employment practices committed outside of the United States.

Howard E. McNier

2011-07-01

231

Ethical issues in the conduct of research at a multidisciplinary clinic.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the process our interdisciplinary clinic used to create an institutional policy regarding research participant recruitment from among our client base. We demonstrate how certain elements of the client-clinician relationship can lead to inadvertent ethical quandaries in research recruitment, including implicit coercion and fostering of "therapeutic misconception." Our internal policy deliberations focused on five central dilemmas, each requiring a careful evaluation of ethical principles. Interpersonal and cross-disciplinary differences of opinion required a delicate balance among competing priorities. The final policy represents our attempt to resolve these ethical paradoxes in a way that allows us to support and pursue valuable clinician-researcher partnerships while prioritizing both our clients' clinical care and their rights to autonomy and fully informed consent. PMID:22144084

Larsen, Jennifer; McMillin, Andy

2011-11-01

232

Ethical issues and addiction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The epidemic of substance abuse continues to pose a significant challenge to clinicians nationwide. Although there is a tendency to simply associate drug abuse with poverty, the problem affects every social stratum gender and race; and pregnant women are no exception. Caring for pregnant, substance-using women and their infants presents complex legal and ethical issues. Debate is ongoing about whether criminal penalties should be imposed on women based solely on their use of alcohol and other drugs during pregnancy. Furthermore, controversies persist about the rights and wishes of pregnant women versus the interests of their fetuses. For health professionals, conflict arises when the pregnant woman chooses behaviors that have the potential to harm the developing fetus. The ethical dilemma arises from competing autonomy-based and beneficence-based obligations to the maternal-fetal dyad. This chapter explores the ethics-based conflicts in the delivery of health care to drug abusing pregnant women. PMID:20407974

Lambert, Binta; Scheiner, Melissa; Campbell, Deborah

2010-04-01

233

Ethics in international health research: a perspective from the developing world  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Health research plays a pivotal role in addressing inequities in health and human development, but to achieve these objectives the research must be based on sound scientific and ethical principles. Although it is accepted that ethics play a central role in health research in developing countries, much of the recent debate has focused on controversies surrounding internationally sponsored research and has taken place largely without adequate participation of the developing countries. The relationship between ethical guidelines and regulations, and indigenously sponsored and public health research has not been adequately explored. For example, while the fundamental principles of ethical health research, such as community participation, informed consent, and shared benefits and burdens, remain sacrosanct other issues, such as standards of care and prior agreements, merit greater public debate within developing countries. In particular, the relationship of existing ethical guidelines to epidemiological and public health research merits further exploration. In order to support health research in developing countries that is both relevant and meaningful, the focus must be on developing health research that promotes equity and on developing local capacity in bioethics. Only through such proactive measures can we address the emerging ethical dilemmas and challenges that globalization and the genomics revolution will bring in their wake.

Bhutta Zulfiqar Ahmed

2002-01-01

234

ETHICAL PERSPECTIVES IN OPEN AND DISTANCE EDUATION SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, e-learning and various online education applications are used in many countries and educational institutions than ever before. Ethics deals with the principle governing ideal or good behavior, it focuses on what is right or what is wrong. Although in education, the ethical issues that they may be facing are not about of life and death issues. An ethical dilemma will take place when the educator faced with a decision that maybe incongruent with the organization’s values and policies. There are several examples of ethical issues in education. In this reason, the educator must be guided with the appropriate decision-making strategies. With the increasing use of new communication technologies, adoption of distance education by traditional educational institutes and owing to growing demand on the part of learners, it becomes more important to discuss the ethical issues. This important title provides academicians, students, and professionals with ethical insight into the world of e-learning through fascinating case studies that elucidate the issues through real-world examples. Pioneer’s experience in the field of distance education indicates that the profile of distance learners varies, cutting across barriers of gender, class and caste. The distance learner may be suffering from a sense of isolation as he/she makes a return to study after a gap of time or while working. It is there that the distance educator makes a positive, ethical and interventionist role by helping the student to learn beyond the stereotypical classroom situation and can act effectively as the friend, philosopher and guide of the learner. However, the industry of education is a serious one, requiring well defined ethics and values, well bound in visible legal outlines to regulate its exchange and distribution. Because as the industry grows, so do the issues of ethical concern such as plagiarism, electronic voyeurism, and licensing. The objective of this paper is to raise awareness of additional ethical issues in order to encourage further debate and consideration of these importance issues. The present paper will focus on the ethical values to be followed and implemented in the open distance education system

C. ANITHA (Corresponding Author,

2013-01-01

235

Psychosomatic approach is the new medicine tailored for patient personality with a focus on ethics, economy, and quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last 40 years the proliferation of the biopsychosocial (BPS) model across clinical and theoretical research has shown that psychosocial factors can be shown to be causes, co-factors, or sequelae of many illnesses. Scientific presuppositions about the BPS model have been grounded firmly in psychobiological, psycho-behavioural, sociobiological, and socio-behavioural processes. According to the allostatic load model, stressful factors can be psychological ones or any other factor that is able to modify the stress-response system; these might include genetic factors or life experiences. Personality profiles, in particular, seem to be predictive of responses to different stressors. Stress responses preceding or following illness are clearly related, from a psychobiological point of view, to different personality traits, which themselves correlate to specific defence mechanisms. Neural processes underlying these mechanisms interact with the biological substrate of somatic illnesses. Recent advances in brain imaging with regard to neurobiological and behavioural interactions of empathy and alexithymia support the crucial role of the (psycho) therapeutic relationship across the whole of medical practice. Psychotherapies operate as biological factors on mind, brain, and body; indeed it is necessary to reconsider the doctor-patient relationship as a psychotherapeutic process. The basic methodological triad of observation (outer viewing), introspection (inner viewing), and dialogue (inter viewing) becomes essential in medical practice and in scientific research. Psychoanalytic processes such as transference, resistance, the therapeutic alliance, and attachment have been reconsidered from a neuroscientific perspective and reconceived as moments of meeting of the procedural memory and are therefore considered relevant to the relationship with patients in primary care. Indeed, they are useful to an ethical approach to understanding the meaning of illness, and they also influence the results of treatment projects. Because all these aspects impact upon illness duration and quality of life, affecting both the individual concerned and his or her family, the economic consequences of this psychosomatic approach are important in both general and specialist medicine. Medicine is becoming, and will become even more in the future, an integrated science; human illness and the maintenance of good health may be better understood if all medical disciplines are considered as a whole. The domain of psychosomatic medicine has now extended to coincide with that of medical practice. There is increasing evidence, not only in psychiatry, but in all medical fields, that care of the mental well-being of a person is essential for effective care of the body. Not only mens sana in corpore sano, but also corpus sanus in mente sana. PMID:21045782

Fassino, S

2010-09-01

236

Transfer effects between moral dilemmas: a causal model theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluations of analogous situations are an important source for our moral intuitions. A puzzling recent set of findings in experiments exploring transfer effects between intuitions about moral dilemmas has demonstrated a striking asymmetry. Transfer often occurred with a specific ordering of moral dilemmas, but not when the sequence was reversed. In this article we present a new theory of transfer between moral intuitions that focuses on two components of moral dilemmas, namely their causal structure and their default evaluations. According to this theory, transfer effects are expected when the causal models underlying the considered dilemmas allow for a mapping of the highlighted aspect of the first scenario onto the causal structure of the second dilemma, and when the default evaluations of the two dilemmas substantially differ. The theory's key predictions for the occurrence and the direction of transfer effects between two moral dilemmas are tested in five experiments with various variants of moral dilemmas from different domains. A sixth experiment tests the predictions of the theory for how the target action in the moral dilemmas is represented. PMID:24440432

Wiegmann, Alex; Waldmann, Michael R

2014-04-01

237

Ethical Issues in the End of Life Care for Cancer Patients in Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: In the recent years, advances in medical technologies for end stage cancer patients’ care have affected the end-of-life decision-making in clinical practice and exposed oncologists to serious ethical dilemmas. But little is known about oncologists' viewpoints in our country regarding their ethical problems in this mention. We aimed to clarify the ethical dilemmas which Iranian oncologists may face in our health care setting and to determine factors influencing decision-making pr...

Mina Mobasher; Nouzar Nakhaee; Mamak Tahmasebi; Farzaneh ZaHedi; Bagher Larijani

2013-01-01

238

Bioethical principles and care-based ethics in medical futility.  

Science.gov (United States)

The process for solving ethical, legal, and moral dilemmas in the field of medicine is complex and time consuming. Frequently, the constraint of time forces the healthcare professional to make decisions quickly. When working with the cancer population, one faces, additionally, the dilemma of medical futility. Guidelines from the bioethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmalificence, and justice help to address this dilemma. The use of care-based ethics allows healthcare professionals to establish trust, thus enabling patients and their families to be open to change and make realistic decisions. This article contrasts care-based ethical theory with justice-based ethical theory, using a case presentation to illustrate the importance of care-based ethics in making a moral decision to forgo medically futile treatment. PMID:8788770

Laffey, J

1996-01-01

239

Informed recruitment in partner studies of HIV transmission: an ethical issue in couples research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been devoted to ethical issues related to randomized controlled trials for HIV treatment and prevention. However, there has been less discussion of ethical issues surrounding families involved in observational studies of HIV transmission. This paper describes the process of ethical deliberation about how best to obtain informed consent from sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs tested for HIV, within a recent HIV study in Eastern Europe. The study aimed to assess the amount of HIV serodiscordance among IDUs and their sexual partners, identify barriers to harm reduction, and explore ways to optimize intervention programs. Including IDUs, either HIV-positive or at high risk for HIV, and their sexual partners would help to gain a more complete understanding of barriers to and opportunities for intervention. Discussion This paper focuses on the ethical dilemma regarding informed recruitment: whether researchers should disclose to sexual partners of IDUs that they were recruited because their partner injects drugs (i.e., their heightened risk for HIV. Disclosing risks to partners upholds the ethical value of respect for persons through informed consent. However, disclosure compromises the IDU's confidentiality, and potentially, the scientific validity of the research. Following a brief literature review, we summarize the researchers' systematic evaluation of this issue from ethical, scientific, and logistical perspectives. While the cultural context may be somewhat unique to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the issues raised and solutions proposed here inform epidemiological research designs and their underlying ethical tensions. Summary We present ethical arguments in favor of disclosure, discuss how cultural context shapes the ethical issues, and recommend refinement of guidance for couples research of communicable diseases to assist investigators encountering these ethical issues in the future.

Gordon Elisa J

2009-08-01

240

Percepção de enfermeiros sobre dilemas éticos relacionados a pacientes terminais em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva / Perception of nurses about ethical dilemmas related to terminal patients in intensive care units / Percepción de enfermeros sobre dilemas éticos relacionados a pacientes terminales en unidades de terapia intensiva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve por objetivos conhecer a percepção de enfermeiros sobre dilemas éticos existentes na assistência de enfermagem a pacientes terminais, no contexto da UTI de um hospital geral do município de São Paulo e o que é considerado para a tomada de decisão. O estudo foi realizado atravé [...] s de entrevistas com dez enfermeiros atuantes na UTI, utilizando uma abordagem qualitativa, conforme a análise de conteúdo. Foram encontrados dilemas éticos ligados a: diversidade de valores; presença dos pacientes terminais na UTI; incertezas sobre a terminalidade e limites de intervenção para prolongar a vida dos pacientes; discordância de tomadas de decisão; não aceitação do processo de morte pela família do paciente e a falta de esclarecimento da família e do paciente. Além disso, para tomar decisão frente aos dilemas éticos, ele considera os seus valores, a ética profissional, a empatia e o diálogo com os colegas. Abstract in spanish El presente estudio tuvo como objetivos conocer la percepción de enfermeros sobre dilemas éticos existentes en la asistencia de enfermería a pacientes terminales en el contexto de la UTI de un hospital de São Paulo y lo que se considera como la toma de decisiones. El estudio fue realizado desde una [...] perspectiva cualitativa, utilizando el análisis de contenidos. Fueron entrevistados diez enfermeros actuantes en la UTI. El estudio mostró que los enfermeros encuentran dilemas éticos generados por diversos factores: diversidad de valores; presencia dem los pacientes terminales en la UTI; incertidumbre generada a raíz de la condición terminal; los límites de intervención para prolongar la vida; discordancia en la toma de decisiones; resistencia para aceptar el proceso de muerte por parte de la familia y la falta de esclarecimiento de la família y de los pacientes. Además, sus valores, la ética profesional, la empatía y el diálogo son tenidos en cuenta para tomar decisiones. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to learn about nurses' perception about ethical dilemmas in nursing care for terminal patients in the context of a general hospital ICU in the city of São Paulo, and what they take into account when making decisions. The study was performed through interviews with ten n [...] urses working at the ICU, using a qualitative approach based on content analysis. Ethical dilemmas were found to be linked to: diversity of values; presence of terminal patients at the ICU; uncertainties about terminality and the limits of intervention to prolong the patients' lives; disagreements in decision-making; non-acceptance of the process of dying by the patients' families and the lack of clarifications for the patient and the family. In addition, the nurses consider their values, the professional ethics, empathy and dialogue with co-workers to make decisions in view of such ethical dilemmas.

Adriano Aparecido Bezerra, Chaves; Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga, Massarollo.

 
 
 
 
241

Diabetes Diagnosis Dilemma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Diabetes Diagnosis Dilemma HealthDay November 18, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Diabetes Health Screening Transcript Approximately three out of every ...

242

Diabetes Diagnosis Dilemma  

Science.gov (United States)

... lower right-hand corner of the player. Diabetes Diagnosis Dilemma HealthDay November 18, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages ... lost to follow-up at each stage of diagnosis, referral, and treatment. The results showed that an ...

243

Dilemma of repeat collaborations in creative projects  

CERN Document Server

We focus on how repeat collaboration in creative projects affects the performance. Repeat collaboration has two contradictory aspects. One of them is a positive aspect: team development or experience. The other aspect is negative: team degeneration or abrasion. This contradiction causes the dilemma whether we should keep collaborating or not. The contradiction has not been quantitatively analysed. We provided extensive and quantitative analyses of the dilemma in creative projects by using patent data of Japan and the United States. We proposed the three conditions to validate the existence of the dilemma quantitatively. First condition is the better impact of team patents is, the longer collaborations occur. Second condition is impact of consecutive patents decrease after hits a team makes. Third condition is at some point of consecutive patents, expectation of impact by switching teams is better than one of a consecutive production. We found these conditions arise in patents of Japan and the United States. T...

Inoue, Hiroyasu

2014-01-01

244

Analyzing Accuracy and Accessibility in Information and Communication Technology Ethical Scenario Context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently, the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT is indispensable to life. The utilization of ICT has provided advantages for people, organizations and society as a whole. Nevertheless, the widespread and rapid use of ICT in society has exacerbated existing ethical issues or dilemmas and also led to the emergence of new ethical issues such as unauthorized access, software piracy, internet pornography, privacy protection, information gap and many others. Approach: Therefore, the aim of this study is to discuss several issues of the ICT ethics. It will focusing on two major issues, that is, data accuracy and accessibility. Results: The results indicated that more than half percentage of respondents tend to be ethical in data accuracy scenario and also in accessibility scenario. Several computer ethics scenarios that relate to the data accuracy and accessibility are presented and the results of analysis are then discussed. Conclusion: Based on the results in this study, computer ethics issues such as data accuracy and accessibility should receive more attention in the ICT field.

M. Masrom

2011-01-01

245

False or Recovered Memories?: Legal and Ethical Implications for Therapists.  

Science.gov (United States)

Places the development of the debate over false or recovered memories in its social and historical context. Identifies some of the ethical and legal implications of this area of work for therapists by using the Drama Triangle. Outlines ethical dilemmas for therapists and some of the implications for therapeutic practice. (RJM)

Jenkins, Peter

1997-01-01

246

Postmodern Career Counselling, Theory and Training: Ethical Considerations  

Science.gov (United States)

This article suggests a re-consideration of the way in which postmodern career counselling and theory could position counsellors in relation to their clients. It also poses ethical challenges and questions to developing career counsellors and their established educators. More specifically, the article explores the ethical dilemmas confronting…

Kuit, Wim; Watson, Mark

2005-01-01

247

Integration and Exchange: How Executive MBA Students Envision Ethics Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethics education provided by universities in general, and MBA programs aimed at future business leaders in particular, has come under intense public scrutiny because of corporate scandals and ethical dilemmas. To date, academic research has been mainly devoted to the characteristics of instruction formats and their effectiveness, characteristics…

Gruber, Verena; Schlegelmilch, Bodo B.

2013-01-01

248

School Administrators and Ethical Decision-Making in Rural Communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the advent of globalization and the growing concept that schools are marketplaces of ideas, educational administrators need guidance in ethical decision making. Moral dilemma is defined, ethical models are presented, and a process is described in which facts, resolution options, and values are reflected upon and decisions made based on…

Kallio, Brenda R.

2003-01-01

249

Ethical Issues in Counseling Gender, Race, and Culturally Distinct Groups.  

Science.gov (United States)

Addresses the complex ethical and cultural issues that arise when counseling women, Blacks, ethnic minorities, poor people, lesbians, and gays. Common dilemmas arising from the social context of the counselor-client relationship, the need to respect client autonomy, and the imperative for ethical and quality health care are outlined and discussed,…

Cayleff, Susan E.

1986-01-01

250

Ethics of Administration – Towards Sustainability and Cosmopolitanism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the publication of my book Ethics for Psychologists, one reviewer asked the question about whether and when I would write an ethics of public administration.With this suggestion in mind, I proposed a new book to the publisher (DJØF’s forlag – Danish Lawyer’s and Economist’s publishing company and the publisher accepted. So now the problem is how to formulate an ethics of administration. Indeed, facing the present global crisis and the need for global principles of sustainability and cosmopolitanism it could be argued that public administration ethics should be redefined according to these ethical ideals. As such I would argue that a book about ethics of administration should deal with ethical theories and principles and dilemmas of public administration in public organizations and institutions, i.e. state, regional and municipal administrations and bureaucracies, including ethical dimensions of the work of courts, police and military. A presentation of ethics of administration should also look at problems and dilemmas in different types of more or less public organizations and institutions.

Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

2013-11-01

251

Balancing Ethics and Quality in Educational Research--The Ethical Matrix Method  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper addresses ethical issues in educational research with a focus on the interplay between research ethics and both internal and external quality of research. Research ethics is divided into three domains: (1) ethics "within" the research community; (2) ethics concerning relationships with "individuals and groups directly…

Tangen, Reidun

2014-01-01

252

Ethics: A Bridge for Studying the Social Contexts of Professional Communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a method for helping students evaluate ethical issues in a systematic way, based on Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Recommends the case-study approach for creating social constructs in which students face ethical dilemmas, and outlines a case-study ethics unit using Kohlberg's model. (MM)

Speck, Bruce W.

1989-01-01

253

Teacher Researchers: Technology and Ethical Considerations while Conducting an Action Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The research study stimulates critical approach to research and practice, with an increasing emphasis on ethics and ethical decision making of the teacher researchers within action research process by using technology in its process. The study investigates the impact of technology within the action research, ethical considerations and dilemmas

Isman, Aytekin; Altinay Aksal, Fahriye; Altinay Gazi, Zehra

2009-01-01

254

Information Ethics: The Duty, Privilege, and Challenge of Educating Information Professionals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the history and evolution of information ethics at the University of Pittsburgh and describes a course that was developed in the School of Information Sciences that includes the need for moral instruction and ethical reflection, resolving moral dilemmas, and ethical issues in librarianship, information technology, and management.…

Carbo, Toni; Almagno, Stephen

2001-01-01

255

A Need to Know: An Ethical Decision-Making Model for Research Administrators  

Science.gov (United States)

When faced with a morally charged situation, individuals engage in an ethical decision-making process to resolve the ethical dilemma. This paper outlines a model that describes the steps in the ethical decision-making process and identifies situational factors, collectively termed moral intensity, which may influence this process. The use of a…

Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Holmes, Elizabeth K.

2008-01-01

256

Communicating Effectively to Resolve Ethical Concerns: The Role of School Psychology Supervisors  

Science.gov (United States)

It is incumbent upon each school psychologist to engage in ethical behavior based on current ethical codes guiding school psychology. The school psychologist is often the team member most knowledgeable regarding federal and state laws mandating educational services. Sometimes ethical dilemmas that school psychologists face are the result of a…

Olley, Rivka I.

2010-01-01

257

Ethical principles--emergency medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neither law nor religion, bioethics absorbs and applies elements of both. Its theories, principles, and methods stem from various philosophical schools. Practitioners use case-based reasoning to apply bioethics to clinical situations, usually giving most weight to patients' autonomy and values, but also incorporating other relevant bioethical principles, including those encompassed in professional oaths and codes. Emergency clinicians must be able to recognize bioethical dilemmas, have action plans based on their readings and discussions, and have a method through which to apply ethical principles in clinical settings. This article provides an overview of ethical considerations and guidelines for emergency clinicians. PMID:16877128

Iserson, Kenneth V

2006-08-01

258

[Research ethics: the case with the tule (kuna), Urabbá, Colombia].  

Science.gov (United States)

An ethical analysis was performed during the development of a research project titled "Culture, nourishment and malaria in the Kuna aboriginals of Urabá, Colombia." This project had 2 objectives; (1) to investigate the prevalence of malaria and its relationship with hypovitaminosis A and nutritional status, and (2) to understand the community's conceptions and practices towards malaria. The current paper summarizes reflections concerning the application of ethical principles and moral values during the course of the malaria research project. Two intercultural relationships were clearly defined: the culture of the Tule (Kuna) Indians, with a traditional medical system, and the culture of the research group, focused on the biomedical model. The rationale and the discussion proposed during the writing of the project proposal was presented as well as the dilemmas that developed during the project within the communities. These problems required rapid decision-making in situations for which the scientists had not been adequately prepared. A need was indicated for application of ethical principles to permeate the analysis throughout the research process in a horizontal manner, such that the human dignity of the participants and the ethnicity of the community are preserved above the purposes of the project. In the research process, mediation between the ethics of conviction and the ethics of consequences must take precedence, with both outcomes tied to an informed consent in place during the process. The establishment of national and local research ethics committees was indicated as necessary to preserve the lifestyle and culture of the ethnic groups. These values were seen as endangered given the trading pressures and health policies in a globalized world. PMID:16929899

Alcaraz, Gloria; Correa, Adriana

2006-03-01

259

Environmental Studies and Utilitarian Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a…

Wolff, Brian G.

2009-01-01

260

Ethics and its challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available I would like to look at some of the challenges of ethcis today. Therefore, in the first part I say something about ethics, the ethical theories and ethical concepts. Afterwords I am going to explain a little bit about the human dimensions, the dealing with experiences (i.e. work; because the human person has to decide the right thing in the right place on the right time, and in relatively freedom. In the end, there are some ideas about applied ethics which is necessary to focusing on the practical issues, too. Otherwise people who do not like the ethical discussions they could think that ethical ideas are selfsufficient and do not make sense, but I will tell them something else....

Johannes Michael Schnarrer

2006-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Epistemology and Ethics of Quality Improvement.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research conference, to be held December 8-9, 2001, will examine and develop a framework for articulating the epistemology of and ethical dilemmas produced by quality improvement (QI) efforts so as to suggest if current processes and procedures for p...

J. Lynn

2002-01-01

262

Making an Ethical Decision: A Utilitarian Strategy.  

Science.gov (United States)

By identifying and weighing the effects of an act on each constituency, a matrix based on John Stuart Mill's theories of utilitarianism illuminates and helps resolve complex ethical dilemmas. Application of the approach is illustrated with a simulated case study concerning the issue of reputation in a small private college. (Author/MSE)

Price, Sandra J.

1992-01-01

263

Ethics and the Principal: Five Vignettes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five principals were asked by NASSP editors to describe their personal response to an ethical dilemma. Principals' difficult situations included an athletic team's transportation costs, a college scholarship requirement, a site-based management problem, an employee alcoholism case, and a too-strict textbook adoption policy. (MLH)

Dempsey, Dennis

1988-01-01

264

The everyday ethics of field work research with vulnerable patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients are increasingly involved in health informatics research. Researchers are always aware of the ethical dimensions of their research, but studies in the field with patients--especially among the frail, elderly, cognitively impaired--present specific additional 'everyday moral dilemmas'. Reflecting on experiences of a hospital study of patients with dementia, this paper draws attention on the type and constant presence of this situated ethics, the immediacy of decision-making, and the importance of everyday ethics for health informatics. PMID:25160300

Lichtner, Valentina

2014-01-01

265

The teaching of medical ethics to medical students.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Teaching medical ethics to medical students in a pluralistic society is a challenging task. Teachers of ethics have obligations not just to teach the subject matter but to help create an academic environment in which well motivated students have reinforcement of their inherent good qualities. Emphasis should be placed on the ethical aspects of daily medical practice and not just on the dramatic dilemmas raised by modern technology. Interdisciplinary teaching should be encouraged and teaching ...

Glick, S. M.

1994-01-01

266

A situated practice of ethics for participatory visual and digital methods in public health research and practice: a focus on digital storytelling.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores ethical considerations related to participatory visual and digital methods for public health research and practice, through the lens of an approach known as "digital storytelling." We begin by briefly describing the digital storytelling process and its applications to public health research and practice. Next, we explore 6 common challenges: fuzzy boundaries, recruitment and consent to participate, power of shaping, representation and harm, confidentiality, and release of materials. We discuss their complexities and offer some considerations for ethical practice. We hope this article serves as a catalyst for expanded dialogue about the need for high standards of integrity and a situated practice of ethics wherein researchers and practitioners reflexively consider ethical decision-making as part of the ongoing work of public health. PMID:23948015

Gubrium, Aline C; Hill, Amy L; Flicker, Sarah

2014-09-01

267

Ethical assessment of research protocols: the experience of the Research Ethics Committee of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a review article on the origin of the ethical analysis ofresearch protocols, the Brazilian and International legislation,including the Research Ethics Committee of Hospital IsraelitaAlbert Einstein. Since 1997, when the Committee was validatedits role has been recognized as that of a consultant and educator,participating on local and national scientific events andcollaborating with researchers in order to improve their projectsand learn to recognize ethical dilemmas in their protocols.

Sonia Maria Oliveira de Barros

2005-03-01

268

Authenticity or autonomy? When deep brain stimulation causes a dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

While deep brain stimulation (DBS) for patients with Parkinson's disease has typically raised ethical questions about autonomy, accountability and personal identity, recent research indicates that we need to begin taking into account issues surrounding the patients' feelings of authenticity and alienation as well. In order to bring out the relevance of this dimension to ethical considerations of DBS, I analyse a recent case study of a Dutch patient who, as a result of DBS, faced a dilemma between autonomy and authenticity. This case study is meant to point out the normatively meaningful tension patients under DBS experience between authenticity and autonomy. PMID:23355227

Kraemer, Felicitas

2013-12-01

269

Ethical Issues within the Gerontological Nursing Curriculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation focuses on ethical issues that need to be addressed within the gerontological nursing curriculum for preparing nurses to become change agents and catalysts in the health care of the older population. Ethics and ethical principles are defined, and three ethical principles are discussed: justice; beneficence; and autonomy.…

Bahr, Rose Therese

270

A student's perspective on medical ethics education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite many efforts to increase ethics education in US medical schools, barriers continue to arise that impede the production of morally driven physicians who practice medicine with ideal empathy. Research has shown that, particularly during the clinical years, medical students lose the ability both to recognize ethical dilemmas and to approach such situations with compassionate reasoning. This article summarizes the current status of ethics education in US medical schools, described through the eyes of and alongside the story of a graduating medical student. PMID:23793349

Terndrup, Christopher

2013-12-01

271

Ethical problems in the treatment of schizophrenia [Problemy etyczne w terapii schizofrenii  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The authors present ethical dilemmas in the therapy, particularly family therapy, individual and group psychotherapy of schizophrenia in the context of the specific personality of persons suffering from schizophrenia as well as their experience

Kostecka, Ma?gorzata; Namys?owska, Irena; Ostoja-zawadzka, Krystyna

2012-01-01

272

Ethical problems in the treatment of schizophrenia [Problemy etyczne w terapii schizofrenii  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors present ethical dilemmas in the therapy, particularly family therapy, individual and group psychotherapy of schizophrenia in the context of the specific personality of persons suffering from schizophrenia as well as their experience

Kostecka, Ma?gorzata

2012-06-01

273

Reporting and referring research participants: ethical challenges for investigators studying children and youth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers studying at-risk and socially disenfranchised child and adolescent populations are facing ethical dilemmas not previously encountered in the laboratory or the clinic. One such set of ethical challenges involves whether to: (a) share with guardians research-derived information regarding participant risk, (b) provide participants with service referrals, or (c) report to local authorities problems uncovered during the course of investigation. The articles assembled for this special section address the complex issues of deciding if, when, and how to report or provide referrals for research participants who are minors (referred to hereafter as minor research participants). This paper focuses on two factors underlying these decisions: the validity of risk estimates and meta-ethical positions on scientific responsiblity. It is suggested that, before sharing information about minor research participants investigators should do the following: critically examine the diagnostic validity of developmental measures, include the scope and limitations of information sharing in informed consent procedures, and become familiar with state reporting laws. I discuss the impact of the traditionally accepted act utilitarian meta-ethical position on the investigator-participant relationship, and I recommend consideration of alternative positions as a step toward developing a research ethic of scientific responsibility and care. PMID:11654930

Fisher, Celia B

1994-01-01

274

Diabetes Diagnosis Dilemma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... lower right-hand corner of the player. Diabetes Diagnosis Dilemma HealthDay November 18, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages ... lost to follow-up at each stage of diagnosis, referral, and treatment. The results showed that an ...

275

Jeb Stewart's Dilemma  

Science.gov (United States)

This case study creates a dilemma that many school districts face. Public education is under-funded. Principals are expected to be the instructional leaders and are held accountable for student achievement. Is it appropriate then for public schools to have local businesses as benefactors when teaching personnel are involved? The conflict between…

Cedo, Kelli M.; Dickerson, William E.

2010-01-01

276

Synthetic biology ethics: a deontological assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article I discuss the ethics of synthetic biology from a broadly deontological perspective, evaluating its morality in terms of the integrity of nature, the dignity of life and the relationship between God and his creation. Most ethical analyses to date have been largely consequentialist in nature; they reveal a dual use dilemma, showing that synbio has potential for great good and great evil, possibly more so than any step humanity has taken before. A deontological analysis may help to resolve this dilemma, by evaluating whether synbio is right or wrong in itself. I also assess whether deontology alone is a sufficient methodological paradigm for the proper evaluation of synbio ethics. PMID:24010856

Heavey, Patrick

2013-10-01

277

Myasthenia gravis: diagnostic and management dilemmas.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review focuses on the diagnostic tests that may help to confirm myasthenia in patients without acetylcholine receptor antibodies, including the newly discovered anti-muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase antibody and other investigations. We discuss management dilemmas, particularly those that revolve around treatments whose efficacy is questionable or unproved, such as thymectomy. We review the important issue of how treatments are assessed, and examine future treatment trial designs.

Palace, J.; Vincent, A.; Beeson, D.

2001-01-01

278

Ethical challenges in biobanking: moving the agenda forward in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is no agreement on the typology and definition of biobanks.The present regulations across countries, including India, focus ongenomic and genetic databases and DNA and cell line biobanking.It is unclear how the range of the holdings of biological samples in diagnostic and research laboratories fall under these regulatory frameworks. Biobank-related research has become very attractive because of advances in sample storage and data processing, a better understanding of the human genome, and high throughput laboratory assays. There is extensive literature and much debate on the subject, especially on the ethical and regulatory dilemmas, in the developed countries, but this is hardly the casein developing countries. This paper is based on a review of the published documents and data, and aims at evaluating the ethical frameworks for biobanking in the Indian context. The issues of"'broad consent; commercialisation of samples, and extended sample use are discussed. The governance of biobanks emerges as an integral part of the ethical responsibilities of institutions. It also makes the implementation of national guidelines possible, and helps to enhance the trust and confidence of local contributors in biobank research. PMID:24727618

Vaz, Manjulika; Vaz, Mario; Srinivasan, K

2014-01-01

279

The ethics and safety of medical student global health electives  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To explore and characterize the ethical and safety challenges of global health experiences as they affect medical students in order to better prepare trainees to face them. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 Canadian medical trainees who had participated in global health experiences during medical school. Convenience and snowball sampling were utilized. Using Moustakas’s transcendental phenomenological approach, participant descriptions of ethical dilemmas and patient/trainee safety problems were analyzed. This generated an aggregate that illustrates the essential meanings of global health experience ethical and safety issues faced. Results We interviewed 23 participants who had completed 38 electives (71%, n=27, during pre-clinical years) spend-ing a mean 6.9 weeks abroad, and having visited 23 countries. Sixty percent (n=23) had pre-departure training while 36% (n=14) had post-experience debriefing. Three macro-level themes were identified: resource disparities and provision of care; navigating clinical ethical dilemmas; and threats to trainee safety. Conclusions Medical schools have a responsibility to ensure ethical and safe global health experiences. However, our findings suggest that medical students are often poorly prepared for the ethical and safety dilemmas they encounter during these electives. Medical students require intensive pre-departure training that will prepare them emotionally to deal with these dilemmas. Such training should include discussions of how to comply with clinical limitations.

Dell, Evelyn M.; Varpio, Lara; Petrosoniak, Andrew; Gajaria, Amy

2014-01-01

280

UNESCO's activities in ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

UNESCO is an intergovernmental organization with 193 Member States. It is concerned with a broad range of issues regarding education, science and culture. It is the only UN organisation with a mandate in science. Since 1993 it is addressing ethics of science and technology, with special emphasis on bioethics. One major objective of the ethics programme is the development of international normative standards. This is particularly important since many Member States only have a limited infrastructure in bioethics, lacking expertise, educational programs, bioethics committees and legal frameworks. UNESCO has recently adopted the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. The focus of current activities is now on implementation of this Declaration. Three activities are discussed that aim at improving and reinforcing the ethics infrastructure in relation to science and technology: the Global Ethics Observatory, the Ethics Education Programme and the Assisting Bioethics Committees project. PMID:19697158

ten Have, Henk A M J

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
281

A Computerised Business Ethics Expert System -A new approach to improving the ethical quality of business decision-making  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Where unethical business decision-making arises from failures of ethical perception, there is an important role for ethical training and decision-making tools. These may help business people to consider all relevant issues when assessing the ethical status of potential decisions. Ethical training programmes give business people a basic understanding of the principles which underlie ethical judgements and equip them with many of the necessary skills for dealing with the ethical dilemmas which they face in their jobs. Similarly, ethical decision-making tools may guide managers through the various ethical considerations which are relevant to business decision-making and help them to develop their ethical-perceptual skills. Furthermore, by establishing and reinforcing good ethical decision-making practices, training programmes and decision-making tools may also reduce the incidence of self-consciously unethical decision-making. A new approach to improving the ethical quality of business decision-making by the use of computerized business ethics expert systems is proposed. These systems have the potential to guide business people through a process of ethical evaluation while simultaneously fulfilling an educational role, thus providing many of the benefits of both training programmes and decision-making tools. While the prospect of a computer system which could simply make ethical judgements for business people is both unrealistic and undesirable, a system which leads human decision-makers through a structured assessment process has the potential for genuine benefits. Keywords: Expert Systems, Ethical Decision Making

Bernie Brenner

2007-06-01

282

Iterated crowdsourcing dilemma game  

CERN Document Server

The Internet has enabled the emergence of collective problem solving, also known as crowdsourcing, as a viable option for solving complex tasks. However, the openness of crowdsourcing presents a challenge because solutions obtained by it can be sabotaged, stolen, and manipulated at a low cost for the attacker. We extend a previously proposed crowdsourcing dilemma game to an iterated game to address this question. We enumerate pure evolutionarily stable strategies within the class of so-called reactive strategies, i.e., those depending on the last action of the opponent. Among the 4096 possible reactive strategies, we find 16 strategies each of which is stable in some parameter regions. Repeated encounters of the players can improve social welfare when the damage inflicted by an attack and the cost of attack are both small. Under the current framework, repeated interactions do not really ameliorate the crowdsourcing dilemma in a majority of the parameter space.

Oishi, Koji; Abeliuk, Andres; Masuda, Naoki

2014-01-01

283

Iterated crowdsourcing dilemma game  

Science.gov (United States)

The Internet has enabled the emergence of collective problem solving, also known as crowdsourcing, as a viable option for solving complex tasks. However, the openness of crowdsourcing presents a challenge because solutions obtained by it can be sabotaged, stolen, and manipulated at a low cost for the attacker. We extend a previously proposed crowdsourcing dilemma game to an iterated game to address this question. We enumerate pure evolutionarily stable strategies within the class of so-called reactive strategies, i.e., those depending on the last action of the opponent. Among the 4096 possible reactive strategies, we find 16 strategies each of which is stable in some parameter regions. Repeated encounters of the players can improve social welfare when the damage inflicted by an attack and the cost of attack are both small. Under the current framework, repeated interactions do not really ameliorate the crowdsourcing dilemma in a majority of the parameter space.

Oishi, Koji; Cebrian, Manuel; Abeliuk, Andres; Masuda, Naoki

2014-02-01

284

A French Dilemma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores the gap that exists between the principles put forward by the French republican model and actual discriminations against citizens of foreign origin in French society. It suggests that anti-discrimination policies implemented to overcome this contradiction have produced what could be characterized, in the words of G. Myrdal, as a "French dilemma". Paradoxically the strong emphasis put on racial and ethnic categories has resulted in a move away from the norm of color-blind p...

Streiff-fe?nart, Jocelyne

2012-01-01

285

A continuous dilemma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study prisoner's dilemmas played in continuous time with flow payoffs over 60 seconds. In most cases, the median rate of mutual cooperation rises to 90% or more. Control sessions with 8-time repeated matchings achieve less than half as much cooperation, and cooperation rates approach zero in one-shot control sessions. In follow-up sessions with a variable number of subperiods, cooperation rates increase nearly linearly as the grid size decreases and, with one-second subperiods, they approa...

Friedman, Daniel; Oprea, Ryan

2009-01-01

286

Iterated crowdsourcing dilemma game  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Internet has enabled the emergence of collective problem solving, also known as crowdsourcing, as a viable option for solving complex tasks. However, the openness of crowdsourcing presents a challenge because solutions obtained by it can be sabotaged, stolen, and manipulated at a low cost for the attacker. We extend a previously proposed crowdsourcing dilemma game to an iterated game to address this question. We enumerate pure evolutionarily stable strategies within the ...

Koji Oishi; Manuel Cebrian; Andres Abeliuk; Naoki Masuda

2014-01-01

287

Organizational And Administrative Ethics In Health Care: An Ethics Gap  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although much literature exists on health care clinical ethics, considerably less literature exists on health care organizational and administrative ethics. This situation is especially important to recognize during periods of restructuring, where too often what is good for health care business may not be ethical, causing an "ethics gap." Ethics gaps can be identified and corrected by careful analysis of an institution's organizational culture. Once the analysis is complete, the institution must focus on building a solid ethics infrastructure that permeates all aspects of the institution. A true case situation is presented to illustrate how a nurse was able to change a tainted organization into a responsible one by ethics infrastructure changes. Finally, implications for health care are addressed.

Mary Cipriano Silva

1998-12-01

288

Ethics and the University. Professional Ethics Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book brings together the closely related topics of the practice of ethics in the university, "academic ethics," and the teaching of practical, or applied, ethics in the university. The volume considers practical ethics, research ethics, the teaching of ethics, and sexual ethics as related to the university. The chapters are: (1) "The Ethics

Davis, Michael

289

Infanticide as Instructing Ethics in “Rostam and Sohrab”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper investigates the story of “Rostam and Sohrab” by Abolghasem Ferdowsi – the poet of the fourth century. This paper aims to demonstrate the relationship between infanticide by the major character of this work, Rostam, and ethical dilemmas in the light of Emmanuel Levinas’s notion of responsibility and depicts how instructing ethics will appear in the act of infanticide by him. Therefore, this paper shows how infanticide despite of being indecent is considered as an ethical dead in specific circumstances.Key words: Infanticide; Responsibility; Ethics

Hassan Shahabi

2013-02-01

290

Literary works as case studies for teaching human experimentation ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Case studies are widely used as a teaching strategy for a variety of topics in various disciplines. They are particularly valued as a teaching strategy in the teaching of ethics because they provide a context for understanding the complexities of situations involving ethical dilemmas. This article describes the successful use of two literary works as case studies in teaching master's students about the ethical issues in human experimentation. Pygmalion and Flowers for Algernon were selected to exemplify the ethical considerations important in the conduct of research with human subjects. Students found the assignment both personally and professionally stimulating and recommended continued use of the assignment in the course. PMID:8676212

Cassidy, V R

1996-03-01

291

Project ethics  

CERN Document Server

How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.

Jonasson, Haukur Ingi

2013-01-01

292

Hacia una ética de la investigación orientada a la protección de las comunidades y los grupos étnicos / Towards an ethical research focus on the protection of communities and ethnics groups  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Desde los comienzos de la bioética, diversos especialistas, han planteado la necesidad de salvaguardar, tanto a los individuos como grupos vulnerables, de los efectos indeseables que derivan de las investigaciones. Sin embargo, algunos críticos han afirmado que la protección de los derechos de los s [...] ujetos, si bien es incuestionablemente importante, no es suficiente para garantizar la eticidad de una investigación. Resulta entonces de vital importancia, la custodia y la protección de las comunidades o grupos étnicos involucrados en la investigación en salud. En esta dirección, el análisis de aquellos elementos que definen la participación de una comunidad en la investigación, permitirá reflexionar en torno a los aspectos éticos referidos a su protección. El planteo de este artículo supone un doble desafío: por un lado, reflexionar sobre las actuales condiciones éticas de la investigación y, por el otro, tratar de impulsar la afirmación de una ética de la investigación atenta a los particularismos y de las singularidades étnicas y socio-culturales. Abstract in english Diverse specialists have pointed out, from the beginning of Bioethics, the necessity to protect individuals and vulnerable people from undesirable effects of participating in research. Nevertheless, some critics have asserted that, even though protection of individual rights is unquestionably import [...] ant, it is not enough to guarantee the ethical condition in a research. Thus, it is vitally important the safekeeping and safeguard of communities and ethnics groups involved in health research. The analysis of elements and conditions that define the way the community participates in research will allow ethical evaluation on their protection. This article has two challenges, on the one hand, to analyze current conditions of Ethical research, in the other, to promote Research Ethics focuses and based on socio-cultural singularities and particularism.

Magalí Paula, Milmaniene.

293

The relationship between education and ethical behavior of nursing students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the cognitive theory of moral development of Kohlberg, refined by the addition of the dimension "ethics of care" and the educational theory of Janssen, the relationship of education and ethical behavior of nursing students was examined. Ethical behavior referred not only to the ethical reasoning of students but also to the relationship between this reasoning and their behavior. This study examined the responses of 2,624 nursing students to five ethical nursing dilemmas included in the Ethical Behavior Test by relating them to four educational variables: students' level of education, level of enrollment, school, and students' perceptions of the educational process. A significant relationship between education and ethical behavior was found. PMID:8693726

Dierckx de Casterlé, B; Janssen, P J; Grypdonck, M

1996-06-01

294

Ethics Column: "Ethical Challenges in the Care of Elderly Persons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ethical issues are central to any discussion or reflection on aging and health care. The authors of the OJIN topic, Health Care and the Aging Population: What Are Today's Challenges?, address a variety of topics including quality of life, long-term care planning, geriatric education, frail elder care, and successful aging behaviors. Imbedded in these topics are ethical issues that are relevant to nursing and/or health care. Thus, the focus of this column is to examine select ethical issues in...

Ludwick, R.

2003-01-01

295

Dilemas éticos da vida humana: a trajetória hospitalar de crianças portadoras de paralisia cerebral grave The ethical dilemmas of human life: the hospital history of children with serious cerebral palsy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O artigo é um estudo antropológico que aborda os pressupostos éticos do tratamento médico ministrado em crianças portadoras de paralisia cerebral grave. A pesquisa foi realizada a partir de um trabalho etnográfico de oito meses, com pacientes em tratamento no Centro de Paralisia Cerebral do Hospital Sarah, Salvador. A observação da terapêutica ministrada a estas crianças, que apresentam pouquíssimas mudanças do quadro clínico, levou ao questionamento já bastante sugerido em discussões relativas à deontologia médica: Qual o objetivo do tratamento médico empregado nestas crianças? Na verdade, os resultados desta pesquisa indicaram a existência de explicações sócio-humanistas que estariam além da explicação médico-científica oficial, a qual resumiria a terapêutica a um fisicalismo corporal.This study deals with the ethical premises of medical treatment for children with serious cerebral palsy. Eight months of ethnographic research were carried out with patients at the Cerebral Palsy Center in the Sarah Hospital in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Observation of treatment for these children, who displayed limited clinical change, led to the following question, as suggested by discussions from medical deontology: What is the purpose of medical treatment for children with serious cerebral palsy? The results of our research point to social and humanist explanations going beyond the official medical scientific explanation, which limits treatment to corporal mechanicism.

Debora Diniz

1996-09-01

296

Towards the responsible conduct of scientific research: is ethics education enough?  

Science.gov (United States)

Much of the discourse on 'beyond the laboratory door' biosecurity to date has focused on the need to raise awareness among the scientific community of the risks posed by the rapid advancement of biotechnology in recent decades. While education is undoubtedly important, a growing body of evidence suggests that ethics education does not necessarily translate into ethical behaviour. This trend has already been reported in clinical settings, where research has highlighted doctors' own reports of ethically dubious practices and challenges when confronted with moral dilemmas in their everyday work. The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the practical value of ethics education and show why it is an essential, although insufficient, measure for promoting a culture of responsible conduct of research. We conclude by highlighting the importance of continuing professional development as a way of maintaining life scientists' engagement with biosecurity issues and supporting them in active roles in the effective implementation of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC). PMID:22606762

Novossiolova, Tatyana; Sture, Judi

2012-01-01

297

An Investigation of the Ethical Decision-Making of Preschool Teachers: A Cultural Study of a Sample in Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the ethical decision-making of preschool teachers (N = 26) in Samsun, on the northern coast of Turkey, was examined. For this analysis, six real-life dilemmas were prepared, chosen from the problems that most often arise in kindergartens in Turkey. These dilemmas addressed the commitment of the teacher to the child, to self, to the…

Ozturk, Safak

2011-01-01

298

Facing Management Dilemmas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article looks at how managers in large infrastructure projects in The Netherlands deal with difficult choices, which are labelled as dilemmas in this article, in their managerial activities. It presents the results of a survey of 32 managers in 18 complex decision-making projects in which public-private partnerships (PPPs) play an important role. The managers were presented with a number of choices and asked to rate the amount of attention they paid to each of the choices. The article fo...

Klijn, E. H.; Edelenbos, J.; Twist, M. J. W.; Kort, M. B.

2008-01-01

299

The nuclear dilemma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Declaring nuclear preparedness 'immoral' helps to recreate the pacifism of 50 years ago. War itself is a dilemma, not the weapons with which it is waged. We must ask of the anti-war proposals: whom do they benefit On the whole people concerned are ordinary citizens who are fearful of nuclear incineration. But marching with them is a spectrum of forces with other motivations and purposes. In a real life situation of international tension or crises, numbers of weapons in combination with their particular charateristics could mean the difference between peace and outbreak of war

300

ETHICS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION MANAGEMENT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Master's thesis is focused on the treatement of public administration ethics. In this context, we have first presented the theoretical bases and selected fundamental concepts such as management, public administration management, new public management, strategic management models of public administration and Bryson’s model of public administration management. Hereinafter we have studied and presented on the basis of reading the values, ethics and ethical standards of management, the characte...

Fras, Petra

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Ethics and the Promotion of Inclusiveness within Qualitative Research: Case Examples from Asia and the Pacific  

Science.gov (United States)

Qualitative researchers are often confronted by ethical challenges when making research decisions because current guidelines and principles guiding research ethics do not wholly cover the concerns that can arise in complex social research situations. In this article, the authors explore this dilemma in relation to our experiences of conducting…

Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.; Brijnath, Bianca; Crockett, Belinda

2010-01-01

302

Archaeology, Ethics, and Character: Using Our Cultural Heritage to Teach Citizenship  

Science.gov (United States)

Archaeology is a highly interdisciplinary field. Its main goal is to construct culture histories, but it uses many scientific methods in the process. Ethical dilemmas inherent in archaeology make it a good vehicle for teaching ethics and character in the classroom (Moe 2000). The interdisciplinary nature of the field makes it possible to weave…

Moe, Jeanne M.; Coleman, Carolee; Fink, Kristie; Krejs, Kirsti

2002-01-01

303

School Psychologists Ethical Decision Making: Implications from Selected Social Psychological Phenomena  

Science.gov (United States)

School psychologists routinely engage in ethical decision making, and existing models have served as useful tools for systematically approaching ethical dilemmas. However, a few of these models have taken account of the rich and salient body of social psychology research. This article reviews social psychological phenomena that present clear…

Lasser, Jon; Klose, Laurie McGarry

2007-01-01

304

Examining Moral Reasoning and Ethical Decision Making among Mississippi's Community College Administrators  

Science.gov (United States)

As ethical dilemmas arise in community colleges, administrators make decisions that require sensitivity to the organizational, political, and environmental factors surrounding their particular institutional climates and locales. The moral reasoning and ethical decision-making of community college administrators were examined in this study. In…

Wilson, Vernesia Bracey

2010-01-01

305

Education and Training in Ethical Decision Making: Comparing Context and Orientation  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a teaching methodology for improving the understanding of ethical decision making. This pedagogical approach is applicable in college courses and in corporate training programs. Design/methodology/approach: Participants are asked to analyze a set of eight ethical dilemmas with differing situational…

Perri, David F.; Callanan, Gerard A.; Rotenberry, Paul F.; Oehlers, Peter F.

2009-01-01

306

Gift Giving and Receiving in Child-Centered Play Therapy: An Ethical Response  

Science.gov (United States)

Child-centered play therapists are often confronted with the challenge of receiving gifts from clients. This article highlights recommended strategies when faced with gift receiving, exemplified by actual ethical dilemmas encountered by child-centered play therapists. Ethical and therapeutic considerations of therapist gift giving to child clients…

Blanco, Pedro J.; Sheely-Moore, Angela I.

2012-01-01

307

[Mrs. H.'s dilemma. Description of a patient situation in the intensive care unit, observations and consequences].  

Science.gov (United States)

"The dilemma about Mrs. H." describes an ethical conflict centering around the theme of patient-restraint, an ethical dilemma the author has experienced with a patient on the emergency ward. The question whether the safety of the patient is more important than her autonomy is posed. In discussions with the care team solutions are sought that can be realized subsequently to a great part. It is furthermore shown that many conflicts of nurses caring for patients may not be solved but at least better coped with by discussions and reflections. PMID:8511452

Schmidli-Bless, C

1993-04-13

308

Infanticide as Instructing Ethics in “Rostam and Sohrab”  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper investigates the story of “Rostam and Sohrab” by Abolghasem Ferdowsi – the poet of the fourth century. This paper aims to demonstrate the relationship between infanticide by the major character of this work, Rostam, and ethical dilemmas in the light of Emmanuel Levinas’s notion of responsibility and depicts how instructing ethics will appear in the act of infanticide by him. Therefore, this paper shows how infanticide despite of being indecent is considered as an ...

Hassan Shahabi; Marzieh Kouchaki

2013-01-01

309

Ethical problems in radiology: radiological consumerism.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the causes of the increasing request for radiological examinations occurring in all economically developed countries is the active role played by the patient-consumer. Consumerism places the radiologist in an ethical dilemma, between the principle of autonomy on the one hand and the ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice on the other. The choice made by radiologists in moral dilemmas is inspired by an adherence to moral principles, which in Italy and elsewhere refer to the Judaeo-Christian tradition or to neo-Darwinian relativism. Whatever the choice, the radiologist is bound to adhere to that choice and to provide the patient with all the relevant information regarding his or her state of health. PMID:19662338

Magnavita, N; Bergamaschi, A

2009-10-01

310

Business ethics in ethics committees?  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Ethics committees" column in this issue of the Hastings Center Report features an introduction by Cynthia B. Cohen and four brief commentaries on the roles hospital ethics committees may play in the making of institutional and public health care policy in the 1990s. The pros and cons of a broader, more public role for ethics committees in reconciling the business and patient care aspects of health care delivery are debated by Cohen in "Ethics committees as corporate and public policy advocates," and by Philip Boyle in this article. Boyle is an associate for ethical studies at The Hastings Center. PMID:2228587

Boyle, P

1990-01-01

311

Ethical issues in health workforce development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing the numbers of health workers and improving their skills requires that countries confront a number of ethical dilemmas. The ethical considerations in answering five important questions on enabling health workers to deal appropriately with the circumstances in which they must work are described. These include the problems of the standards of training and practice required in countries with differing levels of socioeconomic development and different priority diseases; how a society can be assured that health practitioners are properly trained; how a health system can support its workers; diversion of health workers and training institutions; and the teaching of ethical principles to student health workers. The ethics of setting standards for the skills and care provided by traditional health-care practitioners are also discussed.

Cash Richard

2005-01-01

312

The Ethics/ Skills Interface in Image Manipulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image manipulation using computer technology has become a basic skill required in various graphics dependent industries such as advertising, and the print and electronic media, and for specialist use in institutions for in-house and on-line publishing and the creation of Web pages. The 'seamless' alteration of photographs and other visual images made possible by computer technology has allowed misrepresentation with intent to deceive, and difficulty in establishing copyright of original images. The dilemma in teaching techniques of image manipulation is to create a basis for ethical practice HCI in this paper refers to the ethics/skills interface in the education and work of multimedia practitioners.

Jenny Webber

2000-05-01

313

Sage Series in Business Ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book argues that the literature on leadership, especially business leadership, has neglected ethical issues by focusing on approaches and strategies that emphasize individualistic concerns. The book calls for an end to the traditional separation of personal and public morality. It also argues that ethics of leadership is consistent with the…

Kanungo, Rabindra Nath; Mendonca, Manuel

314

Ethics, Governance, Research and Enterprise  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of this paper is to reflect on research ethics practices at universities and particularly on the additional considerations needed as "enterprise" becomes a key driver across the sector internationally. The outcome of the paper is to identify suitable guidelines for dealing with the management of research ethics in this changing…

Lategan, Laetus; Hooper, Peter

2009-01-01

315

Emotion Interference Solves Social Dilemma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Roles of emotion in decision-making have been attracting attention in neuroeconomics and behavioral game theory. We mathematically demonstrate that “emotion interference”, a recently-discovered psychological phenomenon [1] helps to solve social dilemma in a one-shot prisoner’s dilemma game. Furthermore, the present theory also accounts for the violation of Savage’s sure-thing principle in the prisoner’s dilemma [2]. Furthermore, it is also explained that why people in the society with higher social mobility are more cooperative. Relations of the present work to recently evolving fields of neuroeconomics and quantum decision theory are discussed.

Taiki Takahashi

2012-12-01

316

Dilemmas of Modernity in Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The subject-matter of this paper is to try to find out some reference points in order to understand many dilemmas which accompanied modern society – its birth, evolution and spread throughout countries and centuries. The most frequent such dilemmas concerned the paramount criteria for choosing between individual or societal matters, between private propriety or public (state one, between private or public interests, between market mechanism or government policy as basis of the best decisions in human actions and matters. While analyzing such inconsistencies and dilemmas we can better understand the real nature of modernity and liberalism, especially what some researchers call “postmodernity”.

Sultana Suta-Selejan

2006-09-01

317

Ethical issues in perinatal mental health.  

Science.gov (United States)

The principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice can guide clinicians in finding ethical approaches to the treatment of women who have psychiatric disorders during preconception, pregnancy, and postpartum. Table 1 summarizes some clinical dilemmas in perinatal mental health care, the ethical conundrums posed by these situations, and guiding principles or tools that can help clinicians resolve ethical conflicts. The concept of relational ethics helps resolve apparent mother-offspring ethical conflicts, and the practice of preventive ethics helps anticipate and reduce the risk of ethical dilemmas and adverse clinical outcomes. These central principles suggest the following guidelines in caring for perinatal women: In situations that seem to pit the needs of a pregnant or postpartum woman against the needs of her fetus or baby, reframe the problem to find a solution that most benefits the mother-baby dyad while posing the least risk to the dyad. In evaluating a pregnant woman's ability to make autonomous, informed decisions about medical care, assess her ability to decide on behalf of both herself and her fetus. When explaining the risks of treatments such as psychotropic medication during pregnancy, avoid errors of omission by also explaining the risks of withholding the treatments. Apply the principle of justice to ensure that women are not stigmatized by having psychiatric disorders or by being pregnant. When screening for maternal psychiatric symptoms, ensure that the benefits of screening outweigh the ethical costs by designing effective follow-up systems for helping women who have positive screens. When treating women of reproductive age for psychiatric disorders, proactively discuss family planning and, when appropriate, the anticipated risks of the illness and the treatment during future pregnancies. Offer preventive interventions to reduce these risks. PMID:19486812

Miller, Laura J

2009-06-01

318

The Importance of Teaching Ethics of Sustainability  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the importance of a focus on ethics in sustainability education and present results from a pilot graduate-level course titled the Ethics of Sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: This is a case study presenting a qualitative evaluation from a pilot 14-week Ethics of Sustainability course.…

Biedenweg, Kelly; Monroe, Martha C.; Oxarart, Annie

2013-01-01

319

The low-level radioactive waste dilemma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dilemma of disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) is an issue faced by radiopharmaceutical companies and biomedical research and health care institutions as well as the nuclear industry itself. This chapter focuses on the programs and methods employed by one such research and educational institution as it strives to minimize the impact on the research community it serves and yet maintain a resonable, practical, and cost-effective LLRW disposal program. The type of program and the methods used may not be suitable for all applications, and the authors stress that each institution must determine which specific aspects and techniques best meet the goals and objectives of that organization

320

Modernity, Ethics and Religious Education in Contemporary Britain  

Science.gov (United States)

This article seeks to engage with the contention that, given the dilemmas of the self purportedly raised by these aspects of modernity, teachers of religious education need, ethically as well as professionally, to urgently revise their often traditionalist view of society, of children and of appropriate pedagogy for their subject. The aim of such…

Earl, Mary M.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Professional Decisions and Ethical Values in Medical and Law Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

This project evaluated and compared the values used by medical and law students when dealing with ethical dilemmas in the practice of law and medicine. The Professional Decisions and Values Test was given to 77 medical students and 92 law students. Differences were noted on beneficence, professional responsibility, and harm avoidance. (MLW)

Rezler, Agnes G.; And Others

1990-01-01

322

Approaching Ethical Reasoning in Nursing Research through a Communitarian Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Case studies depict dilemmas in nursing research involving protection of community rights and community informed consent. Outlines research guidelines derived from communitarian ethical frameworks that consider beneficence, justice, and respect for autonomy in the context of community. (Contains 58 references.) (SK)

Dresden, Elissa; McElmurry, Beverly J.; McCreary, Linda L.

2003-01-01

323

Governance Reforms and Organizational Dilemmas in European Universities  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this article is to examine how European universities, confronted with national reforms of their governance, have tried to resolve the dilemmas traditionally associated with internal reorganization, the redistribution of power, and the reformulation of teaching and research policies. The article does not focus on the central governance…

Capano, Giliberto; Regini, Marino

2014-01-01

324

Ethical considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed

325

Cogeneration – Investment dilemma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy companies face several crucial investment dilemmas in the liberalized energy market. These are: the availability of energy sources, feed-in tariffs, market positioning and consumer satisfaction. Research analyzes profitability of the Cogeneration (Combined Heat and Power, CHP) project in the city of Rijeka. The CHP is designed to provide district heating for the University campus, the Hospital and active private consumers of district heating, and bring about further sales of electricity. Revitalization of the CHP project comprises necessary adaptive actions in the distribution power system but also real time monitoring, which enables the CHP island operation, with uninterrupted electric and thermal energy supply of critical consumers (e.g. hospital) in case of a serious disturbance. Results indicate the project profitability under several conditions: non-government regulation for heating price, feed-in tariffs and guaranteed sale of electricity together with added value from automatic control system (ACS)–island operation.

326

Ethics Updates  

Science.gov (United States)

Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego provides ethics students with a unique kind of meta-page where the user can choose from a wide array of information formats within each of the 23 topics under the main sub-headings of ethical theory and applied ethics. Topics covered include ethical relativism, utilitarianism, race and ethnicity, and euthanasia, among others. Information formats include links to web sites, bibliographies, court decisions, legislation, relevant documents, and articles in popular and professional literature. Much of the site content is adapted from Hinman's books.

1997-01-01

327

Ethics in the Hospitality Industry: Review and Research Agenda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Practitioners in the hospitality sector rate ethics as one of the most important issues faced by the industry. Manyscholars argue that the hospitality sector is open to frequent unethical practices. Managers and employees, due tointensive face-to-face interactions with clients, confront many ethical dilemmas in their day-to-day operations.Previous research confirms that a positive ethical climate nurtures a healthy organization by increasing managerand employee job satisfaction, enhancing customer experience, and increasing the organization’s profit. Despiteits crucial role, studies on ethics in the hospitality industry are limited compared to those undertaken in the moregeneral business area. This manuscript reviews the literature on ethical perceptions and practices amonghospitality managers, employees and students (future professionals, and proposes a research agenda. This criticreview intends to increase awareness and knowledge on the importance of this issue and give some orientationsfor scholars towards several important topics for future research in the area of hospitality ethics.

Mouna Knani

2014-02-01

328

Dilemmas of Modernity in Change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The subject-matter of this paper is to try to find out some reference points in order to understand many dilemmas which accompanied modern society – its birth, evolution and spread throughout countries and centuries. The most frequent such dilemmas concerned the paramount criteria for choosing between individual or societal matters, between private propriety or public (state) one, between private or public interests, between market mechanism or government policy as basis of the best decisio...

Sultana Suta-Selejan

2006-01-01

329

Asceticism as an eclectic ethics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The methodological divisions in ethics result in fundamental consequences both on the conceptual level and in the practical applicability of such ethics. These divisions arise from broader theoretical positions, however they are also the work of individual moral sensibilities or 'moral instincts', as they are called at least in the Hegelian tradition. The deontological, consequentialist, vrtue-, developmental and other methodological models of ethics have facilitated a miltiplication of standards of ethical argument. This process has been intellectually productive, however at the same time it has created significant problems for practical philosophy, especially for applied philosophical areas which require a clearly defined and specific referential relationship between the key values formative of the respective ethical models on the one hand, and the concrete moral challenges encountered by the proponents of such ethics, on the other. The contemporary, value- and methodologically transformative age, requires ethics to go beyond the methodological and conceptual reductionism and adopt a synthetic and eclectic approach to moral argument. The first question to be asked in this context is what types of already available normative ethical models might be reinterpreted and further developed into synthetic ethics. This paper discusses the ethics of asceticism, primarily in the form of Christian ethics, as a good candidate for a comprehensive and synthetic ethics. The paper purports to elucidate, on various levels, the potential of ascetic ethics to integrate elements of eudaimonistic ethics, duty ethics, virtue-ethics, consequentialist and deontological ethical methodologies. To do so the paper focuses two key and, at least by my lights, provocative questions: (1 To what extent the ethics of asceticism is 'negative' and based solely on the principles of self-denial, and to what extent is it able to incorporate a positive dynamic content? In other words, can the ascetic Christian ethics be interpreted so that it is able to integrate the concept of pleasure in the meaning of 'eudaimonia'? (2 Is an ascetic ethics able to generate specific moral questions instrumental to a moral justification of asctions, which would meaningfully integrate the various methods of ethical argument (minimally the deontological, consequentialist and virtue-ethics? If this consideration is able to show that ascetic ethics can achieve both goals, one could reasonably conclude that it is a good candidate for a general eclectic ethics. Of course, this would not automatically mean that the asectic ethics is the only potentially synthetic ethics, however it would facilitate a broader conceptualisation of asceticism as a practical way of moral thinking geared towards achieving a 'good life'. At the same time, such a consideration might open an additional inroad into the formulation of general criteria which practical philosophy, and especially ethics, would need to fulfil in order to address the composite and synthetic issues that life in a transformative age presents.

Fati? Aleksandar

2014-01-01

330

Ethical Issues in Pharmacogenetics  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article illustrates how pharmacogenetics promises drugs specific to an individual's condition. However, it poses some ethical concerns: invasion of medical privacy, unequal distribution of benefits, discrimination because it involves genetic tests, and research/business conflict-of-interest.

Carol Isaacson Barash (Genetics, Ethics & Policy Consulting, Inc.;)

2001-02-01

331

Hacia el enunciado de dilemas éticos sobre la enfermedad de Alzheimer precoz, en Antioquia, Colombia / TOWARDS THE ENUNCIATION OF ETHICAL DILEMMAS REGARDING EARLY ONSET ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE IN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish HEMOS TRATADO DE PRESENTAR, principalmente, aspectos legales y morales que tienen que ver con la enfermedad de Alzheimer de inicio precoz, con énfasis en la situación epidemiológica de Antioquia, Colombia. Más allá de la discusión moderna sobre los aspectos moleculares, queremos enfocarnos en las co [...] ndiciones objetivas de nuestros pacientes y sus familias incluídas sus condiciones socioeconómicas. Esperamos que, ojalá más temprano que tarde, nuestras reflexiones sean de importancia práctica y, eventualmente, que sean también de utilidad para otros grupos humanos en condiciones similares. Abstract in english THIS PAPER discusses moral and legal aspects regarding early onset Alzheimer’s Disease (EOAD) focusing on the epidemiological situation in Antioquia, Colombia. Beyond modern discussions on molecular aspects of genetic diseases we want to try to look at the objective situation of our patients, their [...] families and their socioeconomic environments. It is our hope that as soon as possible our thoughts could be of practical help. Eventually, some of these reflections may be applicable to other human groups under similar conditions.

ANTONIO, GARCÍA; FRANCISCO, LOPERA; LUCÍA, MADRIGAL; JORGE, OSSA.

2003-06-01

332

An exploration of adolescent snacking conventions and dilemmas  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – Snacking has been characterized as normatively unrestricted and identified as one of the main causes of adolescent obesity. The purpose of this paper is not to question the relation between obesity and snacking, but to ask to which extent adolescent snacking is socially unrestricted and to explore adolescent perceptions of the potential conventions and dilemmas involved in snacking. Design/methodology/approach – Referring to previous research in food choice dilemmas and conventions, the paper starts out by discussing potential implications for adolescent snacking in different social contexts. Following this, the design, implementation and results of three focus groups, aiming at an exploration of adolescent snacking perceptions is described. Findings – By identifying two distinct forms of adolescent snacking, i.e. “in-between meals” and “fun snacks”, the results of the focus groups falsify the perception of snacking as socially unrestricted and offer some interesting insights into the conventions, personal dilemmas and intergenerational conflicts which characterize adolescent snacking. Social implications – The classification of snacking as unrestricted of social norms is both unwarranted and counterproductive to the understanding – and subsequently the mitigation – of the relation between snacking and obesity. Originality/value – Apart from falsifying the classification of snacking as unrestricted of social norms, the study contributes by devising a focus group design for elicitation of social norms and dilemmas. Recognizing that the study is just a first step towards a comprehensive understanding of adolescent snacking and that facilitation of healthier snacking behaviors requires such an understanding, recommendations for further research are given.

Bech-Larsen, Tino; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

2010-01-01

333

Ethics in oncology: consulting for the investment industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

As Ethics Committee Chair, I am pleased to introduce the first in an ongoing series of ethics vignettes. These columns, which are based on true-to-life situations that arise in oncology research and practice, are intended to identify and explore important ethical issues and provide commentary that is specific to oncology. Please look for them periodically in both the Journal of Clinical Oncology and the Journal of Oncology Practice. The idea for publishing vignettes evolved through the joint efforts of the Ethics Committee and the Board of Directors. Rather than adopt a single set of ethical principles that applies vaguely to any situation and well to none, the Committee and the Board preferred to tackle ethical dilemmas individually, specifically, and directly. Because the Ethics Committee thought the ethical and legal implications of physician interactions with the investment industry were so important and timely, it chose to address this topic in both a position article, which was previously published in the January 20, 2007, issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology (J Clin Oncol 25:338-340, 2007) and in its first vignette column. The Ethics Committee hopes this column will be the first of several that ASCO members will find helpful as they grapple with the many ethical issues that arise in daily practice in the field of oncology. Because these columns are intended to address the concerns of ASCO members, the Committee welcomes suggestions for future topics at vignettes@asco.org. Martin D. Abeloff, MD, Chair, Ethics Committee. PMID:17264341

Berlin, Jordan; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Tannock, Ian F

2007-02-01

334

The Ethics of Human Spaceflight  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter intends to lay out some essential ethics questions that might frame the next step of space exploration. In this, I undertake two sorts of tasks. The first is to respond to the core ethic question: Is it ethical to travel in space? The second, assuming for the moment that I can convince you that the first premise can be justified, is to comment on what ethical challenges will face us there. It is appropriate to have a philosopher comment on this at the fortieth anniversary celebration, since it was also in 1962 that the National Academy of Science first convened a panel of philosophers to comment on space travel. They asked at that time whether it was indeed a worthwhile pursuit to travel in space and what might be expected of such an effort. What is at stake in any such boundary crossing is how the changing of essential human perimeters changes our own moral status. Will such boundary crossing worsen our human condition, or will it enhance it? In this way, the geopolitical quest is then linked to the quest for ontology, Pisarro hunting for the fountain of youth, for gold, and for territory. What follows are a series of ethical claims that link the problem of discovery in the larger world and the attendant ethical dilemmas of our explorations, as well as how this exploration alters our concepts of life on Earth. In this, the role of the ethicist is to function as both a skeptic and a stranger, aware of the optimism of science and the pessimism of philosophy.

Zoloth, Laurie

2005-01-01

335

Ethical and epidemiological dilemmas in the treatment of dogs for visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America / Dilema ético y epidemiológico sobre el tratamiento de perros para la leishmaniasis visceral en América Latina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish En las Américas hay entre 4.500 y 6.800 casos anuales de leishmaniasis visceral grave y se estima que la mortalidad varía entre 7 y 10 %. Sin embargo, el subregistro y las infecciones subclínicas enmascaran la importancia epidemiológica real de la leishmaniasis visceral. Los esfuerzos de control que [...] típicamente se han enfocado en la aspersión de insecticidas contra los flebotomíneos vectores y el sacrificio de perros, han arrojado resultados dispares. No obstante, miles de perros se sacrifican cada año en países endémicos para leishmaniasis visceral. Además, los lineamientos actuales de los programas de control de la leishmaniasis han prohibido el tratamiento de perros con medicamentos de uso humano, mientras que otras drogas resultan en altas tasas de recaída. La sociedad requiere que los programas de control tengan un manejo más humanitario enfocado a limitar el sacrificio canino. Hay una necesidad urgente de promover la tenencia responsable de los perros y apoyar la investigación en: a) terapias veterinarias novedosas, b) diagnósticos moleculares de bajo costo y c) determinación de los umbrales de capacidad infecciosa canina para el manejo adecuado del reservorio. Abstract in english In the Americas there are between 4,500 and 6,800 annual cases of severe visceral leishmaniasis, and mortality is estimated to range between 7 and 10%. However, underreporting and subclinical infections mask the real epidemiological importance of visceral leishmaniasis. Control efforts, which have t [...] ypically focused on insecticide spraying of sand fly vectors and dog culling, have yielded disparate results. Nevertheless, thousands of dogs are sacrificed each year in countries endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. Additionally, current guidelines of leishmaniasis control programs have banned dog treatment with drugs of human use while therapy with other drugs resulted in high rates of relapses. Society requires that control programs take a more humanitarian approach aimed at limiting dog culling. There is an urgent need to promote responsible dog-ownership and support research on: a) novel veterinary therapies, b) low-cost molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis, and c) determination of dog infectivity threshold for proper reservoir management.

Bruno L, Travi.

336

Ethical and epidemiological dilemmas in the treatment of dogs for visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America / Dilema ético y epidemiológico sobre el tratamiento de perros para la leishmaniasis visceral en América Latina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish En las Américas hay entre 4.500 y 6.800 casos anuales de leishmaniasis visceral grave y se estima que la mortalidad varía entre 7 y 10 %. Sin embargo, el subregistro y las infecciones subclínicas enmascaran la importancia epidemiológica real de la leishmaniasis visceral. Los esfuerzos de control que [...] típicamente se han enfocado en la aspersión de insecticidas contra los flebotomíneos vectores y el sacrificio de perros, han arrojado resultados dispares. No obstante, miles de perros se sacrifican cada año en países endémicos para leishmaniasis visceral. Además, los lineamientos actuales de los programas de control de la leishmaniasis han prohibido el tratamiento de perros con medicamentos de uso humano, mientras que otras drogas resultan en altas tasas de recaída. La sociedad requiere que los programas de control tengan un manejo más humanitario enfocado a limitar el sacrificio canino. Hay una necesidad urgente de promover la tenencia responsable de los perros y apoyar la investigación en: a) terapias veterinarias novedosas, b) diagnósticos moleculares de bajo costo y c) determinación de los umbrales de capacidad infecciosa canina para el manejo adecuado del reservorio. Abstract in english In the Americas there are between 4,500 and 6,800 annual cases of severe visceral leishmaniasis, and mortality is estimated to range between 7 and 10%. However, underreporting and subclinical infections mask the real epidemiological importance of visceral leishmaniasis. Control efforts, which have t [...] ypically focused on insecticide spraying of sand fly vectors and dog culling, have yielded disparate results. Nevertheless, thousands of dogs are sacrificed each year in countries endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. Additionally, current guidelines of leishmaniasis control programs have banned dog treatment with drugs of human use while therapy with other drugs resulted in high rates of relapses. Society requires that control programs take a more humanitarian approach aimed at limiting dog culling. There is an urgent need to promote responsible dog-ownership and support research on: a) novel veterinary therapies, b) low-cost molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis, and c) determination of dog infectivity threshold for proper reservoir management.

Bruno L, Travi.

2014-03-01

337

Ethnographic research with adolescent students: situated fieldwork ethics and ethical principles governing human research.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores ethical dilemmas in situated fieldwork ethics concerning ethnographic studies of adolescent students. While consequentialist and deontological ethics form the basis of the ethical stances shared by ethnographers and research ethics committees, the interpretation of those principles may diverge in school-based ethnography with adolescent students because of the particular role of the adult ethnographer vis-à-vis developmentally immature adolescents not held legally responsible for many of their actions. School ethnographers attempt to build trust with adolescent participants in order to learn about their hidden cultural worlds, which may involve activities that are very harmful to the youths involved. They face many difficult and sometimes unexpected choices, including whether to intervene and how to represent events and adolescents in published findings. Scenarios with examples drawn from research conducted in public high schools are used to illustrate and explicate dilemmas in formal research and latent insider/outsider roles and relations involving harmful adolescent behaviors, advocacy, and psychological trauma. Also examined are analytical procedures used to construct interpretations leading to representations of research participants in the resulting publication. PMID:19919317

Hemmings, Annette

2009-12-01

338

Evaluating the Intervention of an Ethics’ Class in Students’ Ethical Decision-Making: A Summative Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This summative evaluation is the result of two years’ of data reflecting the impact of an ethics class in terms of students’ ethical decision-making. The research compares aggregate responses from scenario-based pre- and post-survey open-ended survey questions designed to measure changes in ethical decision-making by comparing students’ cognitive and affective perceptions about ethical workplace behavior. Grounded  in constructivist theory, which explains how individuals “know” and “come to know something (Reeves, 2003, this intervention of an ethics class encourages students to make better and more informed ethical decisions in the workplace based on their understanding of their value and belief system. The findings suggest the intervention of an ethics class informed students’ cognitive and affective perceptions based on individual value and belief systems, strengthened student’s ability to remain open-minded and reconsider previous beliefs and actions from a 360 degree perspective, and increased student’s ability to apply new information to ethical dilemmas in the workplace.

Marquita Walker

2013-11-01

339

Special Education Leadership: Integrating Professional and Personal Codes of Ethics to Serve the Best Interests of the Child  

Science.gov (United States)

Special education teachers who also serve as case managers for students with disabilities are in unique leadership positions in which they face complex ethical dilemmas and are called on to make decisions that involve multiple competing interests and pressures. The purpose of this study was to explore how special education leaders identify ethical

Bon, Susan C.; Bigbee, Adam J.

2011-01-01

340

Critical thinking by nurses on ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decision-making. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169). Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15). 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34) and Strauss and Corbin (1990). The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990). The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985) and Morse (1994) related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based on these findings the researcher concluded that nurses are not thinking critically when making ethical decisions concerning the termination of pregnancies. Recommendations are made as a possible solution for this problem. PMID:11949153

Botes, A

2000-09-01

 
 
 
 
341

Critical thinking by nurses on ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169. Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15. 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34 and Strauss and Corbin (1990. The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990. The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985 and Morse (1994 related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based on these findings the researcher concluded that nurses are not thinking critically when making ethical decisions concerning the termination of pregnancies. Recommendations are made as a possible solution for this problem.

A. Botes

2000-09-01

342

Teaching Business Ethics after the Financial Meltdown: Is It Time for Ethics with a Sermon?  

Science.gov (United States)

Our country is faced with a financial crisis of mammoth proportions: a crisis rooted in ethics, or rather, the lack of ethics. Critics are increasingly complaining that business schools focus too much teaching effort on maximizing shareholder value, with only a limited understanding of ethical and social aspects of business leadership. Business…

Cavaliere, Frank J.; Mulvaney, Toni P.; Swerdlow, Marleen R.

2010-01-01

343

Overview on business ethics and human resources management ethics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the contemporary business world ethics represents one of the most exciting challenges,precisely because there is still no universally valid modality for solving a problem of this kind. Adopting anethic personal behavior does not always ensure winning in the problems regarding the actual business, norin the organizational behavior itself. The personal values, either native or gained by an individual throughouthis socializing do not represent a support or advantage in the attitude towards the economic life. What is it that actually concerns the managers:to succeed in their activity or to have an ethic activity? A successful business is necessarily an ethic one, or one lacking ethics? In particular, should the human resources manager choose the human factor of solid moral and ethic grounds, or the one exclusively focused on money quantifiable performance?

Prof. Ph.D. Cãtãlina Bonciu

2008-05-01

344

Health branding ethics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Commercial food health branding is a challenging branch of marketing because it might, at the same time, promote healthy living and be commercially viable. However, the power to influence individuals’ health behavior and overall health status makes it crucial for marketing professionals to take into account the ethical dimensions of health branding: this article presents a conceptual analysis of potential ethical problems in health branding. The analysis focuses on ethical concerns related to the application of three health brand elements (functional claims, process claims, and health symbols) as well as a number of general concerns that apply to health branding as such. Being a pioneering analysis, this article advances the academic understanding of health branding and provides practitioners with knowledge of important concerns to take into account when marketing health brands.

Anker, Thomas Boysen; SandØe, Peter

2011-01-01

345

ADVERTISING ETHICS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the theoretical part of the paper we describe the ethics of advertising. We explain the concepts of both in order to clarify the meaning of the words and to point out the significance they bear. We have mostly covered advertising, also dealt with criticisms, media advertising, and explained some general and basic rules. Besides that, we highlight ethical and unethical ads, why they occur and how to recognize them. Nowadays both, ethical and unethical, ads can be seen every day, in all envi...

Jels?ek, Alen

2012-01-01

346

How close can you go? : Dilemmas of proximity in ethnographic research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In ethnographic research the direct involvement and long-term engagement of the researcher constitute key elements. Acknowledgements of numerous publications resulting from ethnographic studies illustrate that the researchers are often deeply indebted to the research subjects for allowing the researchers to follow them around. Thus it is impossible to carry out ethnographic work without obtaining access, getting involved in, and sharing the lives of the people that are subjects to such studies. Gaining the access, which is clearly in the interest – even a prerequisite – of the ethnographer, might constitute a problem in itself, as it actualizes the question of the interest of the research to the participants. Why should they allow the researcher to enter and describe their circumstances of life? What kind of interest might they have or accept in sharing their experiences with a researcher? Once having gained access to participate in and describe the lives of the participants of a given context, the next ethical question facing the researcher is the one of involvement. Again, the researcher has an interest in obtaining as much confidence as possible, whereas the interest of the observed subjects might be more dubious and a matter of difficulty to handle by the researcher. The obvious dilemma of conflicting interests and difficult handling of proximity is our focus of interest in this paper: One side of this dilemma is to ask the question, how close you need to go to obtain the confidence of the participants in the research context and the necessary in-depth insight to understand their cultures and conditions of life. Another side of it is to ask, how close you can go without violating in a symbolic sense the lives of the participants and their rights of privacy. This further raises the question, how does the presence of the researcher alter the dynamics of the observed reality and the lives of the people in it? Not a new question asked in research, but still a necessary and ethical question to ask and deal with in any ethnographic work, and for the authors of the paper an important question in planning a longitudinal, ethnographic study of children labeled as talented athletes joggling school, training, competition, friends, and family. The study plan includes a vision of following the children in their daily lives in a way that is inspired by the intensive data-gathering techniques employed by Annette Lareau in her study of family patterns in the USA (Lareau, 2011). This raises preliminary questions as to how such a fieldwork can be carried out; both to ensure the necessary provision of empirical data to carry out ethnographic analyses and challenge existing theoretical frameworks, and to ensure that the subjects under scrutiny are not subject to ethical violations. With this in mind the above dilemmas of proximity will be addressed and discussed in our paper.

Rasmussen, Annette; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard

347

Islamic medical ethics: a primer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern medical practice is becoming increasingly pluralistic and diverse. Hence, cultural competency and awareness are given more focus in physician training seminars and within medical school curricula. A renewed interest in describing the varied ethical constructs of specific populations has taken place within medical literature. This paper aims to provide an overview of Islamic Medical Ethics. Beginning with a definition of Islamic Medical Ethics, the reader will be introduced to the scope of Islamic Medical Ethics literature, from that aimed at developing moral character to writings grounded in Islamic law. In the latter form, there is an attempt to derive an Islamic perspective on bioethical issues such as abortion, gender relations within the patient-doctor relationship, end-of-life care and euthanasia. It is hoped that the insights gained will aid both clinicians and ethicists to better understand the Islamic paradigm of medical ethics and thereby positively affect patient care. PMID:17845488

Padela, Aasim I

2007-03-01

348

Ethical leadership.  

Science.gov (United States)

In today's climate and environment, the conventional relationship between caring, economic, and administrative practices no longer serves the interest of patients, clinicians, or systems. A shift toward human caring values and an ethic of authentic healing relationships is required as systems now have to value human resources and life purposes, inner meaning, and processes for providers and patients alike. The costs of unethical behavior can be even greater for followers. When we assume the benefits of leadership, we also assume ethical burdens. It is the assertion and experience of the author that the triangle of ethics and ethical behavior, followers, and patient's outcomes are closely interrelated and affect each other in a very intimate and direct way. Unethical leadership may lead to follower disappointment and distrust, leading to lack of interest and commitment, consequently negatively impacting patient outcomes and organizational effectiveness. PMID:22864295

Keselman, David

2012-01-01

349

Ethics (lesson)  

Science.gov (United States)

Students examine some examples of ethical issues that have resulted from our expanded knowledge of neuroscience. They are asked to write a position paper describing their own point of view on one of these controversial topics.

2009-04-14

350

Crelier: sobre Kant y los dilemas morales / Crelier: on Kant and moral dilemmas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo plantea dudas sobre la interpretación que Crelier hace de la ética kantiana en relación con los conflictos de deberes o dilemas. Argumentamos que, a pesar de las declaraciones de Crelier en sentido contrario, él no logra articular una interpretación de la ética de Kant en la que los dile [...] mas morales sean admisibles. En la interpretación de Crelier, sostenemos, los dilemas que son admisibles son sólo aparentes o epistémicos. Pero no queda cabida para aquellos dilemas en los que ninguno de los deberes es, objetivamente, superior a otro deber en conflicto Abstract in english The article raises questions about the interpretation that Crelier makes of the Kantian ethics regarding conflicts of duties or moral dilemmas. We argue that, despite Crelier's conflicting statements, he fails to articulate an interpretation of Kant's ethics in which moral dilemmas are admissible. I [...] n Crelier's interpretation, we contend, the dilemmas that are eligible are only apparent or epistemic. But there is no room for those dilemmas in which none of the duties is objectively superior to another duty in conflict

Gabriel Eduardo, Vargas; Pablo R., Arango.

2013-06-01

351

BUSINESS ETHICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethics contain a set of principles of personal and professional conduct .The concept of Business ethics relates itself to the norms and the ideals businessman and business groups adopt in course of their activities in business .Business ethics is an assertion of “be good” and “do good” in business. Ethical business practices has been a blessing to the enterprises as it ensures faith in society ,government trust ,business partners trust .on the other hand unethical business practices /behavior are may be the feel good factor in the short run for earning secret profit but prove as a monster in the long run as it leave a big spot on the enterprise image by indulging in activities like Black Marketing ,False Advertisement, Tax evasion etc .Thus it is the foremost duty of each enterprise to run its business on ethical grounds so that they can attain customers retention as well as employees retention in the long run and should not have a greed for becoming prey of unethical business practices thereby ditching the society as a whole .The principles laid down by IBE (Institute of Business Ethics ,London should be followed with sincerity by all enterprise leading to a trustworthy environment all around .

Raman Arora

2014-06-01

352

The dilemma of ethical political communication in South African elections  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In view of South Africa’s diversity, its unresolved issues of race and complex social legacy, election campaigns are highly sensitive. From a Reformed Christian perspective, a critical question is: To what extent is the political culture infused by the Biblical imperatives of brotherly love, respect and compassion? Given the growing use of adversarial political advertising the following two questions arise and are specifically addressed: • Could it realistically be expected of Christian political communicators in a secular country such as South Africa to communicate with full respect to people at all times, or should they be excused if they try to win at all costs? and • How do political theorists view the issue? In answering these questions, social responsibility and the need for social harmony as precondition for free and fair political activities, as well as a Biblical perspective on communication are addressed. In view of these theoretical points of departure the role of emotional messages is discussed and evaluated. It is argued that all advertising, but specifically political advertising in an emotionally charged atmosphere such as an election campaign, could have a direct negative impact on social harmony and is therefore Biblically unacceptable. Examples from previous South African general elections are discussed and evaluated from a Biblical viewpoint. It is argued that parties should not merely campaign with the aim of winning an election, but rather with the intention of respecting voters while campaigning. Simultaneously they could promote democracy within a fragile social context. Any victory outside of these parameters will not stand the test of a Biblical critique. However, it would seem extremely difficult, if not impossible, to prescribe in any detail which types of negative advertisements are acceptable and which are not.

L.M. Fourie

2007-07-01

353

The ethical dilemma posed by overly conservative environmental standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The searing introduction of the public to the human health effects from large doses of ionizing radiation came from the nuclear weapon explosions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan at the end of World War II. The horrors of a war using such weapons are part of the human consciousness. This introduction created fear and concern over ionizing radiation from man-made radionuclides or natural radionuclides enhanced by man's activities. This leads to a public over-emphasis on reducing exposure to man-made ionizing radiation whatever the expense might be. A study that evaluated costs of 500 life saving interventions found that radiation control activities had a median cost of $27 million (US) per life per year and were four of the top ten most expensive [up to $34 billion (US) per life per year]. [Tengs, 1994] (author)

354

Ethical Orientations for Understanding Business Ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that history provides the necessary framework in which both to discuss and to seek answers to the three necessary and sequential questions about business ethics: (1) What is ethics and what does it mean to be ethical? (2) Why be ethical?; and (3) How can one be ethical? (SG)

Lewis, Phillip V.; Speck, Henry E., III

1990-01-01

355

¿Ética, bioética o ética médica? / Ethics, bioethics or medical ethics?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Hace pocos años, términos como ética, bioética o ética médica eran ajenos en el uso en medicina clínica, así como en la ciencia experimental. Sin embargo, el aumento progresivo de los problemas éticos en la práctica de la medicina, que en ocasiones son verdaderos dilemas, ha producido confusión en e [...] l significado de cada uno de estos conceptos. Es por ello que nos ha parecido de interés revisar estos conceptos, así como el significado y utilidad que tiene cada uno de ellos. Abstract in english A few years ago, words like Ethics, Bioethics or Medical Ethics were unheard of in clinical medicine, as well as in experimental sciences. However, the increasing number of ethical conflicts in medical practice and dilemmas in clinical research has produced misunderstandings in the use of these term [...] s. Therefore, it presently seems interesting to review the basis of each one of these concepts, as well as the meaning and proper use of them.

ALBERTO, ROJAS O; LIBIA, LARA C.

2014-06-01

356

Trends and Dilemmas in Citizenship Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article elaborates some important trends and discussions in citizenship education. It seems that there are strong arguments from scientific scholars which express opposition to a focus on only formal facts and democratic procedures in the teaching of citizenship education. This approach is also criticized by students for its meaninglessness and irrelevance. There also seems to be relative agreement that democracies are being challenged for various reasons, that school plays an important role in citizenship education, that republicanism is the preferred framework, and that students construct their own views of the world (constructivist learning processes. Despite this rather general agreement, there remain quite a few important dilemmas and also disagreements in the field of citizenship education. Among these are: the conceptualization of democracy, the knowledge to be presented, adopting a national versus a global perspective, the maturity of young citizens regarding the question of multiculturalism, and approaches to teaching (particularly providing room for criticism. These and other dilemmas are discussed, and a summary of recommendations is put forward.

Trond Solhaug

2013-08-01

357

What's the matter with business ethics?  

Science.gov (United States)

The more business ethics secures its status in campuses across the country, the more bewildering it appears to actual managers. It's not that managers dislike the idea of doing the right thing. As University of Toronto Assistant Professor Andrew Stark argues, far too many business ethicists just haven't offered them the practical advice they need. Before business ethics became a formal discipline, advocates of corporate social responsibility claimed that the market would ultimately reward ethical behavior. But ethics and interests did not always intersect so fruitfully in the real world. And when they did not, managers were left in the dark to grope for the right ethical course. In the 1970s, the brand-new field of business ethics came onto the scene to address this issue. Critical of the "ethics pays" approach, academics held that ethics and interests can and do conflict. Still, scholars took an equally unrealistic line. To them, a manager's motivation could be either altruistic or self-interested, but never both. In short, ethicists still weren't addressing the difficult moral dilemmas that managers face on a day-to-day basis, and only recently have they begun to do so. After some initial stumbles, ethicists are getting their hands dirty and seriously considering the costs of doing the right thing. Finally, a new business ethics is emerging that acknowledges and accepts the messy world of mixed motives. As a result, novel concepts are springing up: moderation, pragmatism, minimalism, among others.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10126154

Stark, A

1993-01-01

358

A Snap Shot on Business Ethic and Ethic in Business  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An ethical issue in business is increasing and it is being focused on by the business markets,customers and communities. It was important from the beginning and is important also now as well. Andevery company or organization for being survival and comparative should pay much more attention to thisimportant. This paper aims to study the ethic and some of related issues around it.

Hassan Danaee Fard

2011-05-01

359

Moral Dilemmas and Moral Rules  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent work shows an important asymmetry in lay intuitions about moral dilemmas. Most people think it is permissible to divert a train so that it will kill one innocent person instead of five, but most people think that it is not permissible to push a stranger in front of a train to save five innocents. We argue that recent emotion-based…

Nichols, Shaun; Mallon, Ron

2006-01-01

360

Delusion or obsession: Clinical dilemma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background A 52-year old lady presented for admission with severe depression characterised by suicidal ideation and delusional belief. Case presentation Her treatment regime was reviewed and modified. The dilemma was whether she suffered from a psychotic depression with delusion or an obsessional disorder. She responded well to change of antipsychotic medication. Conclusions Her depression went in remission and her delusional belief decrea...

Gandhi Priya; Gadit Amin Muhammad

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Retrievability, ethics and democracy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethics is always a social concern, an integrated part of laws and regulations. Treatment of ethics as a separate part in the decision making process is therefore always debatable. It cannot be introduced as an extraneous component to compensate for, or to improve, a morally flawed practice, and the margin for unethical practices is strongly circumscribed by regulation in the nuclear field, internationally. However, a discussion on different stakeholders and their different ethical concerns should always be welcome. One example is the implementer's views on ethics. Even if they are in complete parity with existing legal and regulatory goals, the goals may still represent the implementer's own motives and choices. Also, stakeholders may view the laws or regulations as unfair. In making the critique, the stakeholder simply formulates a separate political standpoint. Finally, an alternative discussion is to place existing regulations into an ethical perspective - adding a new dimension to the issues. Retrievability for high level waste repositories is often in focus in ethical discussions. Unfortunately, it is used in many ways and has become an unclear term. It may cover anything from planned recuperation to the property of waste being retrievable in years or tens of years, or in the distant time range of hundreds or thousands of years. The term retrievability is often proposed to cover mainly positive qualities such as the option of later changes to the repository or a new disposal concept. However, as ICRP and others have pointed out, it also implies the possibility of: i) operational exposures, ii) continuing risks of accidental releases, iii) financial provisions to cover operating costs and iv) continuing reliance on institutional control, thus imposing some burdens to future generations. In a certain sense, anything can be retrieved from any repository. There is therefore a need for a clear and operable definition of retrievability requirements, including the definition of the corresponding legal consequences. (author)

362

The Ethics of Workspace Surveillance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The general framework of this thesis is that of ethical Technology Assessment (eTA). Whereas the first essay proposes an inclusive approach to technology assessment by delineating an ethical checklist, the following essays focus on two of the checklist points, i.e. “privacy” and “control, influence and power”, in relation to workspace surveillance. The core idea of Essay I (written in collaboration with Sven Ove Hansson) is that, due to its strong social impact, new technology and nov...

Palm, Elin

2008-01-01

363

Ethics committees. Research ethics: beyond the guidelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is international recognition of the need for sustainable research ethics committees to provide ethical review of human subjects research in developing countries, but many developing countries do not have such committees (often called 'IRBs'). Theoretical and practical uncertainties encountered by an IRB on the Caribbean island of Grenada offer insight into ethical review of research in developing countries. Theoretical uncertainties include questions about whether means of ensuring confidentiality and obtaining informed consent will be effective in local settings, and whether deviations from Western norms are justifiable. International guidelines are helpful in addressing these concerns, but are subject to interpretation. Guidelines are less helpful in practical areas like selecting members or chairs. They do not address what sort of procedures and paperwork will work in a developing country, or IRBs' relationships to governments that have no mandate for them. Experiences presented here show that IRBs in developing countries can sustainably adhere to international standards. Sustainability requires knowledge, personal commitment, and an official mandate to uphold international standards. Capacity building must therefore focus on educational programs to make developing country leaders knowledgeable about the value of international guidelines to their nations. Such knowledge is needed before people will become motivated to promote, implement, and uphold their guidelines. People in developing countries must help design bridges to help their nations put international standards into practice. The structure of such bridges may, of necessity, very in different settings. PMID:12870511

Macpherson, C C

2001-05-01

364

Negative economic consequences of ethical campaigns?: Market data evidence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study demonstrates how ethical attributes of goods affect market outcomes on the basis of market data and actual ethical campaigns. Among the various types of such attributes, such as eco-label and fair trade label, I focus on cause-related marketing (CRM), which economists study less frequently than other ethical attributes. Researchers who analyzed this topic focused largely on experimental data, which has less noise and enables researchers to obtain the pure effect of ethical attribut...

Yamamoto, Wataru

2013-01-01

365

Ethics Column:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethics is concerned with the suffering humans cause one another and the related capacity of humans to recognize and address this suffering through the empathetic virtues of sympathy, compassion, and caring (Roberts, 1996. Much suffering throughout history can be related to the problem of "unacceptable" diversity among individuals or groups. Remembering the cruelties of the Nazi exterminations of Jews, slavery in the United States, and discrimination against homosexuals jolts us to awareness of the suffering of those who are "different." A task of ethics, then, is to include, rather than exclude (Post, 1995. One approach to an ethics of diversity for healthcare professionals is a call for intimate listening to the stories of those who are different, who may be unseen, marginalized, and excluded in our health care systems.

Sorrell, J

2003-08-01

366

The Ethics of Nanotechnology  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue-focused, reviewed, student article hopes that examining nanotechnology in the light of ethical decision-making will help us to answer questions such as: Do we need to create and enforce global laws for its development? How do we minimize potential dangers, such as weaponry uses? Is it our duty to share research with other nations? and How can we ensure that technology is used for the common good?

Andrew Chen (Santa Clara University, California;)

2002-03-01

367

Faculty Views on the Teaching of Ethics to Accounting Students: The Zimbabwean Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corporate scandals have led to renewed calls for ethics education for the accounting profession. One of the oldest university and trainer of accounting students in Zimbabwe for more than three decades introduced a two semester course on ethics for accounting students beginning 2012/13 academic year. Prior to this development a survey was carried out in 2011 to find the preparedness of the accounting faculty to embrace accounting ethics education. Faculty perceived ethics as extremely important in personal, business and accounting education. Respondents considered the development of abilities needed to deal with ethical dilemmas as the most important. Offering ethics as a discrete course was the popular option. Most faculty expressed an interest in teaching ethics topics.

Togara Warinda

2013-01-01

368

Optimizing the aging, retirement, and pensions dilemma  

CERN Document Server

A straightforward guide focused on life cycle investing-namely aging, retirement, and pensions Life cycle investing and the implications of aging, retirement, and pensions continues to grow in importance. With people living longer, the relative and absolute number of retirees is growing while the number of workers contributing to pension funds is declining. This reliable resource develops a detailed economic analysis-at the micro (individual) and macro (economy wide) levels-which addresses issues regarding the economics of an aging population. Topics touched upon include retirement and the associated health care funding of the aged as well as social security and the asset classes that are considered asset-liability choices over time. The probability of achieving adequate return patterns from various investment strategies and asset classes is reviewed Shares rich insights on the aging, retirement, and pensions dilemma An assessment of the resources the real economy will be able to commit to non-workers is prov...

Bertocchi, Marida; Ziemba, William T.

2010-01-01

369

Environmental Ethics  

Science.gov (United States)

Dr. Ron Epstein of San Francisco State University has compiled this comprehensive online source of information on environmental ethics. The site is simply presented, consisting of a straightforward menu of topics that link mostly to related external Web pages. Topics covered include environmental effects of war, genetic engineering, cloning, indigenous peoples, and much more. While some of the provided links appear to be duds, anyone interested in exploring the field of environmental ethics should find this convenient and well-organized collection of links useful.

2008-06-11

370

TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER TRAINING. CURRICULUM DESIGN. NEW PROSPECTS AND DILEMMAS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Institutional changes within universities and the challenge of EU enlargement present translator and interpreter trainers with both new opportunities and dilemmas. The major potential tension areas that must be addressed in the curricula include the status of retour translation and interpreting, the role of liaison interpreting in the curriculum, the separation of interpreter and translator training, and the focus on skills and techniques vs. background knowledge. The article suggests t...

Kwiecin?ski, Piotr; Feder, Marcin

2005-01-01

371

The ethical problem of randomization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Fondazione Umberto Veronesi ethics committee recently published a statement concerning the inherent ethical issues of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), mainly focusing on randomization, raising many questions, and suggesting possible solutions. The main concern is that the patients enrolled in a RCT are used to improve medical knowledge, but they cannot be the beneficiaries of the results of the trials in which they are participating. Possible solutions come from a wider use of clinical and administrative databases, and an early termination of trials. We discuss this statement, emphasizing that the scientific and ethical reason for embarking on a clinical trial is uncertainty. The uncertainty regarding the comparative benefits and harms of each compared treatment (clinical equipoise) warrants equity in allocation. Randomization allows one to obtain unbiased evidence that we cannot know in advance. The expected probability of a new treatment to be successful describes the limits within which a study can be acceptable both from an ethical as well as a scientific point of view. Most people accept enrollment in a RCT if the probability of success of the experimental treatment is between 50 and 70 %. The assumption and concern that there is a conflict between "scientific" and "ethical" aspects of a clinical trial due to randomization should at least be mitigated, considering that only scientifically sounded studies can be considered ethical. Randomization remains the appropriate approach to ensure the study's internal validity. Different aspects seem to be more important, from the ethical point of view, considering RCT and their publication. PMID:25194693

Colli, Agostino; Pagliaro, Luigi; Duca, Piergiorgio

2014-10-01

372

Disciplinary supervision following ethics complaints: goals, tasks, and ethical dimensions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical supervision is considered an integral component of the training of psychologists, and most of the professional literature is focused on this type of supervision. But psychologists also may supervise fully credentialed colleagues in other circumstances. One such context occurs when licensing boards mandate supervision as part of a disciplinary order. When supervision is provided in disciplinary cases, there are significant implications for the ethical dimensions of the supervisory relationship and concomitant ethical challenges for supervisors. Not only are the goals, objectives, and supervisory tasks of disciplinary supervision distinct from other types of supervision, but the supervisor's ethical responsibilities also encompass unique dimensions. Competence, informed consent, boundaries, confidentiality, and documentation are examined. Recommendations for reports to licensing boards include a statement of the clinical or ethical problems instigating discipline, description of how these problems have been addressed, and an assessment of the supervisee's current practices and ability to perform competently. PMID:25220953

Thomas, Janet T

2014-11-01

373

Education confronts the energy dilemma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conference was convened to present a role that America's schools could play in solving or coping with the energy crisis. Eleven sessions were conducted to fulfill this concern: Our Energy Crisis and Education: A Critical Assessment; The Energy Agenda at the Office of Education; Energy Resources: Scenarios for the Future; The Moral Dilemma of Energy Education; Constraints Influencing Education's Role; Energy Education: What's Been Done to Date; Practitioners Discuss Their Future Roles, Responsibilities; Politics of Energy Education; Confronting the Energy Dilemma; The Meaning of Scarcity; and The Impact of the Carter Energy Program on American Schools. Summary reports and reactions to the conference conclude the proceedings. (MCW)

None

1977-01-01

374

Fundamental Dilemmas in Theoretical Physics  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we argue that there are foundational dilemmas in theoretical physics related to the concept of reality and the nature of mathematics in physics. Physical theory is treated as a conceptual organism which develops under the weight of its internal contradictions. The paper discusses in depth the problem of objective reality in physics and its relation to scientific practice. Then, it explores the problematic relation between physical meaning and mathematics in modern physical theory, followed by a discussion of the trend of contemporary physics to replace physical principles with pure mathematical principles. Finally, it discusses the problem of logical coherence in modern physical theory. The paper emphasizes the importance of resolving these dilemmas to the proper practice of theoretical physics.

Ghassib, Hisham

2014-01-01

375

Engineering ethics challenges and opportunities  

CERN Document Server

Engineering Ethics: Challenges and Opportunities aims to set a new agenda for the engineering profession by developing a key challenge: can the great technical innovation of engineering be matched by a corresponding innovation in the acceptance and expression of ethical responsibility?  Central features of this stimulating text include:   ·         An analysis of engineering as a technical and ethical practice providing great opportunities for promoting the wellbeing and agency of individuals and communities. ·         Elucidation of the ethical opportunities of engineering in three key areas:             - Engineering for Peace, emphasising practical amelioration of the root causes of    conflict rather than military solutions.             - Engineering for Health, focusing on close collaboration with healthcare professionals      for both the promotion and restoration of health.             - Engineering for Development, providing effective solution...

Bowen, W Richard

2014-01-01

376

Ethical perspectives of children's assent for research participation: deontology and on utilitarianism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Is a child's assent to participate in research that does not have the potential to directly benefit the child ethically mandated? Analysis of this particular dilemma of health care research in children using two competing theories results in different answers. Deontology (principle-based ethics) will be contrasted with utilitarianism (consequentialism). Historical cases of research with children will be used as exemplars of these two theoretical positions. PMID:18814566

Pieper, Pam

2008-01-01

377

Incidental visual field loss: ethical considerations in assessing and reporting ability to drive.  

Science.gov (United States)

Driving safety is an issue frequently encountered in the neurology clinic, particularly as it pertains to cognitive decline, vision loss, and motor limitations. This case illustrates the ethical dilemmas associated with determining driving safety, particularly those associated with an incidentally found congenital visual field abnormality. The authors discuss the issues involved with overruling patient autonomy for the principle of beneficence and the ethics of reporting patients with unsafe vision to authorities. PMID:25099108

Szewka, Aimee J; Newman, Nancy

2014-08-01

378

Maurice Hamington and Maureen Sander-Staudt (eds. Applying Care Ethics to Business (Dordrecht: Springer, 2011  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Care ethics is a relatively recent development in ethics, originating in Carol Gilligan´s book In a Different Voice, published in 1982 and pointing out flaws in Kohlberg´s theory of moral development, specifically in choosing only boys for the experiments, in using moral dilemmas to measure moral development, and in his idea that morality only consisted in universal rules.

Guðmundur Heiðar Frímannsson

2012-03-01

379

Electronic Commerce: A Taxing Dilemma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the last five years, remote selling-led by online organizations - has surged. The resulting growth has created concern among both traditional and remote sellers as they jockey for improved competitive position and governmental entities, in particular US states, over the erosion of their tax revenues as sales are diverted to remote sellers. This paper explores the issues and potential solutions surrounding the e-commerce tax dilemma. It provides a current assessment of the taxation environm...

Steven John Simon

2002-01-01

380

Ética médica en la literatura del siglo XIX / Medical Ethics in the 19th Century Literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Desde el siglo XX la humanidad está asediada por violencia, crisis del estado de derecho e impunidad, circunstancias que se extendieron al profesional de la salud: crisis de la ética moral médica. Objetivo: Aparte del registro de casos clínicos y dilemas ético-morales en el siglo XIX, investigar tes [...] timonios histórico médicos y de ética, moral, etiqueta y educación médicas en la literatura decimonónica, considerándola también resguardo fidedigno de ellos. Procedimiento histórico-analítico: Casos de autonomía, beneficencia, justicia, no maleficencia y solidaridad en 122 obras literarias (84 autores, 20 países) decimonónicas, elegidas -según analistas reconocidos- porque muestran coincidencia y trascendencia de objetos de la vida real con objetos representados literariamente, tomándose para este artículo Axel Munthe y su Historia de San Michele. Hallazgos: Se identificaron -agrupándose en cuadros analítico estadísticos- fragmentos literarios sobre impronta científica técnica, ejercicio profesional, relación galeno paciente, casos clínicos, dilemas ético morales, etiqueta y educación médicas, confirmándose que la dimensión médica más valiosa tiene raíces, tronco y fronda humanistas. Conclusiones: Innovación aportada: enfocada histórica, médica y bioéticamente, la obra literaria pudiera ser otra vía analítica reflexiva para que el médico lector esteta del siglo XXI, recuperando los objetos reales representados, escogiera la senda de su superación e hiciera crecer su éthos y su contribución al bien común. Abstract in english Since the last century, humanity has been besieged by violence, crisis of the state of law and impunity, everything extended to crisis of medical ethics moral. Objective: In addition to clinic cases and ethics and moral dilemmas in the nineteenth century, to investigate for testimonies of the histor [...] y of medicine and medical ethics, moral, etiquette and education in the nineteenth century literature, considering this a trustworthy archive of them. Analytic-historical proceeding: Cases of autonomy, beneficence, justice, nonmaleficence and solidarity in 122 nineteenth century literary masterpieces (84 authors, 20 countries), selected -according to prestigious scholars-because they show coincidence and transcendence of real life objects with literary represented objects, taking for this article just Axel Munthe s Story of San Michele. Finds: Grouped in statistical analytic tables literary paragraphs about technical scientific matters, professional exercise, medical patient relation, clinic cases, moral ethics dilemmas and medical etiquette and education were identified corroborating that the more worthy medical dimension has humanistic roots. Conclusions: Innovating contribution: focused through the lens of the medicine history and bioethics, literary masterpieces might be the reflexive analytical way for the twenty-first century physician/reader, to recover the real objects represented, to choose his excelling path and to increase his éthos and contribution to the common welfare.

Hugo, Fernández de Castro-Peredo.

2005-08-01

 
 
 
 
381

Ética médica en la literatura del siglo XIX / Medical Ethics in the 19th Century Literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Desde el siglo XX la humanidad está asediada por violencia, crisis del estado de derecho e impunidad, circunstancias que se extendieron al profesional de la salud: crisis de la ética moral médica. Objetivo: Aparte del registro de casos clínicos y dilemas ético-morales en el siglo XIX, investigar tes [...] timonios histórico médicos y de ética, moral, etiqueta y educación médicas en la literatura decimonónica, considerándola también resguardo fidedigno de ellos. Procedimiento histórico-analítico: Casos de autonomía, beneficencia, justicia, no maleficencia y solidaridad en 122 obras literarias (84 autores, 20 países) decimonónicas, elegidas -según analistas reconocidos- porque muestran coincidencia y trascendencia de objetos de la vida real con objetos representados literariamente, tomándose para este artículo Axel Munthe y su Historia de San Michele. Hallazgos: Se identificaron -agrupándose en cuadros analítico estadísticos- fragmentos literarios sobre impronta científica técnica, ejercicio profesional, relación galeno paciente, casos clínicos, dilemas ético morales, etiqueta y educación médicas, confirmándose que la dimensión médica más valiosa tiene raíces, tronco y fronda humanistas. Conclusiones: Innovación aportada: enfocada histórica, médica y bioéticamente, la obra literaria pudiera ser otra vía analítica reflexiva para que el médico lector esteta del siglo XXI, recuperando los objetos reales representados, escogiera la senda de su superación e hiciera crecer su éthos y su contribución al bien común. Abstract in english Since the last century, humanity has been besieged by violence, crisis of the state of law and impunity, everything extended to crisis of medical ethics moral. Objective: In addition to clinic cases and ethics and moral dilemmas in the nineteenth century, to investigate for testimonies of the histor [...] y of medicine and medical ethics, moral, etiquette and education in the nineteenth century literature, considering this a trustworthy archive of them. Analytic-historical proceeding: Cases of autonomy, beneficence, justice, nonmaleficence and solidarity in 122 nineteenth century literary masterpieces (84 authors, 20 countries), selected -according to prestigious scholars-because they show coincidence and transcendence of real life objects with literary represented objects, taking for this article just Axel Munthe s Story of San Michele. Finds: Grouped in statistical analytic tables literary paragraphs about technical scientific matters, professional exercise, medical patient relation, clinic cases, moral ethics dilemmas and medical etiquette and education were identified corroborating that the more worthy medical dimension has humanistic roots. Conclusions: Innovating contribution: focused through the lens of the medicine history and bioethics, literary masterpieces might be the reflexive analytical way for the twenty-first century physician/reader, to recover the real objects represented, to choose his excelling path and to increase his éthos and contribution to the common welfare.

Hugo, Fernández de Castro-Peredo.

382

Ombud's corner: Use of sensemaking* in ethical decisions  

CERN Multimedia

In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   Taking ethical decisions can often be a dilemma - one that requires recognition and proper representation of multiple pieces of complex information, as well as an intuitive judgment about potential consequences. Pressure is particularly placed on organizational leaders, who are tasked with projects, partnerships and individuals. Constraining forces - be they personal, situational or environmental - can negatively influence any decision by decreasing ethical awareness, ethical sensitivity and ethical judgment. By creating mental compensatory models, the Sensemaking* technique serves to counteract these constraining forces that narrow the search and evaluation of&nbs...

Vincent Vuillemin

2012-01-01

383

Do Ethics Classes Teach Ethics?  

Science.gov (United States)

The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe…

Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle

2014-01-01

384

The ethics of drug development and promotion: the need for a wider view.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical issues at the interface between the medical profession and the pharmaceutical industry have generally been approached from the vantage point of medical professionalism, with a focus on conflict of interest as the key ethical concern. Although conflicts of interest remain important, other ethical issues may be obscured unless a wider perspective is adopted. Besides medical professionalism, the ethics of the clinical therapeutic relationship, ethics of public health, and business ethics all provide additional insights. PMID:23047778

Brody, Howard

2012-11-01

385

New Innovative Ethical Principles in Increasing Road Safety  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research Question (RQ): Future managers are faced daily with a variety of ethical dilemmas in traffic that need to be balanced by the interests of all participants. The question is whether a new innovative model of ethical principles could be developed that would increase road safety.Purpose: The a im is to raise the level of social responsibility and relationship of participants in traffic as well as warn all participants on the importance of safety. In addition, the purpose is to share sugg...

Igor Mileti?

2013-01-01

386

Selecting the Perfect Baby The Ethics of "Embryo Design"  

Science.gov (United States)

This dilemma case is based on the true story of Jack and Lisa Nash, whose daughter Molly was born with a rare genetic disorder, Fanconi anemia. By having another child with specific genetic markers, the Nashes hoped to cure Molly using stem cells from the new baby’s umbilical cord blood. Students learn about developmental disorders and consider the ethical issues of genetic manipulation and fertility treatments. Although the case was written for beginning developmental psychology students, the issues raised involving genetic manipulation, advances in medical technology, and scientific ethics would be relevant in many other science courses.

Omarzu, Julia

2002-01-01

387

Science, culture and (eco-ethics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available EE Book 16 focuses on achievements and shortcomings of modern marine ecology. It also analysis the crux of all science: human capabilities and limitations of conducting research - of critically perceiving the world in and around us. Louis Legendre further examines the relationships between science and culture and underlines the significance of ethics, especially eco-ethics.

Louis Legendre

2004-05-01

388

The Ethics of Academic Book Reviewing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussion of ethical quandaries in academe focuses on the ethics of book reviewing. Topics include difficulties in getting published; exploitation of examination copies; reviewing books to get free copies; using book reviews as personal pulpits; inadequate rewards for reviewing books; and qualifications for reviewers. (LRW)

Ashley, Leonard R. N.

2002-01-01

389

Wealth, Groups, Ethics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For centuries, many scientists, many disciplines focused on how people make decisions. These approaches tend to be incompatible, if not orthogonal most case. In this article we attempt to give guidelines to a modeling approach, that will allow the description of a human “state vector”, which can be the basis for many decision making algorithms.First we will introduce a categorization of the things that determine the decisions of the individuals, and describe their characteristics and trade. Since the trade of things in separate groups is done in different fashion, they form groups on different grounds. These groups, formed by interaction among individuals, adhere to governing ethics – which serve the purpose of defining the rules of exchange where these have not been explicitly stated. And finally, we take a look how the two dominant ethics, the Commercial and the Guardian dominate the Teacher.

Dana R. Herrera

2008-06-01

390

ETHICAL APPROACHES AND THEIR APPLICATION IN HOTEL MANAGERS' DECISION MAKING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims at evaluating the ethical approaches effective for managers working at hotel business when making decisions. Ethics, in the working place, refers to the rules of the workplace that an employee has to comply with, along with the rules of society. In the study, the concept of ethics has been examined within theories of ethics, followed by a conceptual framework of making ethical decisions. The scope of the study consists of interviews conducted with 60 managers working in a chain hotel. The interview consists of 5 different scenarios relating to ethical dilemmas. The scenarios are composed of three different ethics approaches (moral justice approach, subjective approach and contract -based theoretical approach. In the analysis of the data, the Manova Analysis was carried out. The results suggest that managers prefer the contract -based theoretical approach more frequently in decision making. It was also found that managers differ in their choice of ethical approaches in terms of the scenarios. This difference is caused by subjective approaches which are used when dealing with problems related to socio-cultural and institutional reputation and ecology.

Hatice Güçlü Nergiz

2011-04-01

391

The Ethic of Community  

Science.gov (United States)

This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…

Furman, Gail C.

2004-01-01

392

Further Discussion on the Construction of Ethics of Professional Accountants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Any country is facing the problem of ethics of professional accountants, which also has been a focus of accounting theories for many years. Especially since the financial crisis in 2008 and the recession of world economy, business has been difficult, which makes the ethics of professional accountants more important. In perspective of business ethics, the author discusses the characteristics and the structure of ethics of professional accountants, locating the barriers for the construction of ethics of professional accountants and relevant reasons, and proposing the way for establishing the system of ethics of professional accountants.

Yong Cheng

2012-05-01

393

Nothing to Fear but Fear Itself? Fear of Fear, Fear of Greed and Gender Effects in Two-Person Asymmetric Social Dilemmas  

Science.gov (United States)

This article extends Simpson's (2003) research on sex differences in social dilemmas. To test the hypotheses that men defect in response to greed and women to fear, Simpson created Fear and Greed Dilemmas, but experiments using these games supported the greed hypothesis only. In this article I focus on why the fear hypothesis failed and suggest…

Kuwabara, Ko

2005-01-01

394

Doing the Right Thing: Ethical Issues in Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent ethical lapses in corporate America have motivated institutions of higher education to focus more attention on their ethical responsibilities. These responsibilities include creating ethical learning environments in which students can learn the principles and traditions of professional practice and develop knowledge and skills to help them…

Couch, Sue

2005-01-01

395

Awareness and Practice of Professional Ethics amongst Librarians in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is focused on the awareness and practicability of Librarianship ethics amongst librarians. Survey questionnaire was designed to identify the degree of awareness of librarianship ethics amongst librarians in Nigeria, whether the ethics are feasible and being utilized by librarians in their day to day library management, and to find out…

Igbeka, J. U.; Okoroma, F. N.

2013-01-01

396

Preferences for Key Ethical Principles that Guide Business School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Business ethics is presently a major component of the business school curriculum. Although there has been much attention focused on the impact of such coursework on instilling ethical decision-making (Nguyen et al., 2008), there is sparse research on how business students view the major ethical principles that serve as the foundation of business…

Guyette, Roger; Piotrowski, Chris

2010-01-01

397

Dilemas morais e praticas de saude / Moral dilemmas and health practices / Dilemas morales y practicas de salud  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Discute-se a emergência de dilemas morais nas práticas de saúde, tendo em vista a acelerada transição demográfica nos países em desenvolvimento e os crescentes custos dos sistemas públicos de saúde. São focalizadas duas dimensões do cuidado à saúde que têm ocupado um lugar importante na geração dess [...] es dilemas: a tensão entre as estratégias comerciais que contornam o mercado de produtos de saúde e a expansão do acesso a esses produtos, por um lado, e o aumento da importância das tecnociências nas práticas de cuidado à saúde, por outro. Em conclusão, é discutida a importância da arbitragem política, social e jurídica na codificação ética desses dilemas e o papel do Estado Democrático de Direito nessa arbitragem. Abstract in spanish El texto discute la emergencia de dilemas morales en las prácticas de salud, teniendo en cuenta la acelerada transición demográfica en los países en desarrollo y los crecientes costos de los sistemas públicos de salud. Se hace énfasis en dos dimensiones del cuidado de la salud que han ocupado un lug [...] ar importante en la generación de tales dilemas. La tensión entre las estrategias comerciales que contornan el mercado de productos de salud y la expansión del acceso a dichos productos, por un lado, y el aumento de la importancia de las tecnociencias en las prácticas de cuidado de la salud, por el otro. En conclusión, se discute la importancia del arbitraje político, social y jurídico en la codificación ética de los dilemas y el papel del Estado Democrático de Derecho en el arbitraje. Abstract in english The emergence of moral dilemmas in health care practices, in view of the rapid demographic transition in developing countries, and skyrocketing public health care costs, is discussed. The focus is on two aspects of health care that have occupied an important place in the generation of these dilemmas [...] . On the one hand, the tension between commercial strategies involving the health products market and the expansion of access to them and, on the other, the growth of techno-sciences in health care practices. In conclusion, the importance of the political, social and juridical arbitration on the ethical codifi cation of those dilemmas and the role of a Democratic State of Law in that arbitration is discussed.

Reinaldo, Guimaraes.

398

Dilemas morais e praticas de saude / Moral dilemmas and health practices / Dilemas morales y practicas de salud  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Discute-se a emergência de dilemas morais nas práticas de saúde, tendo em vista a acelerada transição demográfica nos países em desenvolvimento e os crescentes custos dos sistemas públicos de saúde. São focalizadas duas dimensões do cuidado à saúde que têm ocupado um lugar importante na geração dess [...] es dilemas: a tensão entre as estratégias comerciais que contornam o mercado de produtos de saúde e a expansão do acesso a esses produtos, por um lado, e o aumento da importância das tecnociências nas práticas de cuidado à saúde, por outro. Em conclusão, é discutida a importância da arbitragem política, social e jurídica na codificação ética desses dilemas e o papel do Estado Democrático de Direito nessa arbitragem. Abstract in spanish El texto discute la emergencia de dilemas morales en las prácticas de salud, teniendo en cuenta la acelerada transición demográfica en los países en desarrollo y los crecientes costos de los sistemas públicos de salud. Se hace énfasis en dos dimensiones del cuidado de la salud que han ocupado un lug [...] ar importante en la generación de tales dilemas. La tensión entre las estrategias comerciales que contornan el mercado de productos de salud y la expansión del acceso a dichos productos, por un lado, y el aumento de la importancia de las tecnociencias en las prácticas de cuidado de la salud, por el otro. En conclusión, se discute la importancia del arbitraje político, social y jurídico en la codificación ética de los dilemas y el papel del Estado Democrático de Derecho en el arbitraje. Abstract in english The emergence of moral dilemmas in health care practices, in view of the rapid demographic transition in developing countries, and skyrocketing public health care costs, is discussed. The focus is on two aspects of health care that have occupied an important place in the generation of these dilemmas [...] . On the one hand, the tension between commercial strategies involving the health products market and the expansion of access to them and, on the other, the growth of techno-sciences in health care practices. In conclusion, the importance of the political, social and juridical arbitration on the ethical codifi cation of those dilemmas and the role of a Democratic State of Law in that arbitration is discussed.

Reinaldo, Guimaraes.

399

The Nazi Origins of Eduard Pernkopf's "Topographische Anatomie des Menschen:" The Biomedical Ethical Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery of the Nazi origins of the classic Pernkopf anatomy atlas is one example of scientific information obtained by doctors who violated the Hippocratic Oath. The ethical dilemmas that doctors and medical centers face as a result of this and other potentially tainted data is reviewed. (Author/AEF)

Israel, Howard A.

1998-01-01

400

The Ratings Sweeps: An Essay on the Ethics of Television Economics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ethical dilemma presented by the ratings sweeps is a fundamental operating principle of advertiser-financed television broadcasting: broadcasters generate operating revenue and profit by exchanging audiences for money with advertisers. In order to create or attract audiences to be sold, the broadcaster formulates or acquires and then…

Tankel, Jonathan David

 
 
 
 
401

Therapeutic Implications of Pharmacotherapy: Current Trends and Ethical Issues.(practice & Theory)  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of psychotropic medications (pharmacotherapy) in conjunction with psychotherapy is regarded as the standard of care for many mental health disorders. Counselors, therefore, need to be knowledgeable about psychopharmacology to monitor its impact on the therapeutic relationship and on client outcome. Discussed are potential ethical dilemmas

King, Jason H.; Anderson, Shannon M.

2004-01-01

402

Is There Evil in Dying? Ethical and Legal Reflections concerning Induced Death  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyzes the moral dilemmas associated with death and carries out a reflection on the questions that arise when death is considered trivial from the perspective of the individual who dies. Additionally, the article analyzes the ethical and legal consequences of acknowledging the moral autonomy of those who, in extreme circumstances, decide when and how to die.

Alejandra Zúñiga F.

2011-08-01

403

Ethical issues in surgical innovation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Innovation is responsible for most advances in the field of surgery. Innovative approaches to solving clinical problems have significantly decreased morbidity and mortality for many surgical procedures, and have led to improved patient outcomes. While innovation is motivated by the surgeon's expectation that the new approach will be beneficial to patients, not all innovations are successful or result in improved patient care. The ethical dilemma of surgical innovation lies in the uncertainty of whether a particular innovation will prove to be a "good thing." This uncertainty creates challenges for surgeons, patients, and the healthcare system. By its very nature, innovation introduces a potential risk to patient safety, a risk that may not be fully known, and it simultaneously fosters an optimism bias. These factors increase the complexity of informed consent and shared decision making for the surgeon and the patient. Innovative procedures and their associated technology raise issues of cost and resource distribution in the contemporary, financially conscious, healthcare environment. Surgeons and institutions must identify and address conflicts of interest created by the development and application of an innovation, always preserving the best interest of the patient above the academic or financial rewards of success. Potential strategies to address the challenges inherent in surgical innovation include collecting and reporting objective outcomes data, enhancing the informed consent process, and adhering to the principles of disclosure and professionalism. As surgeons, we must encourage creativity and innovation while maintaining our ethical awareness and responsibility to patients. PMID:24728580

Miller, Megan E; Siegler, Mark; Angelos, Peter

2014-07-01

404

Dilemmas Faced by Nurses Regarding the Physical Restraint of Elderly Patients with Dementia in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the dilemma of nurses working in general wards who face the ethical dilemma of restraining older people with dementia in Midwestern Japan. The study used the questionnaire method with an independently prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to ensure privacy and anonymity. The privacy and anonymity of study participants was assured. Of the 340 survey questionnaires distributed, 291 (85.6% completed surveys were eligible number (12 additional surveys were returned without answers. An explanatory factor analysis revealed four dilemma factors among 15 items investigated (KMO value 0.84. These were: factor 1: “Execution of treatment and security,” ? = 0.91; factor 2: “approach in the nursing of older people with dementia,” ? = 0.93; factor 3: “A cooperative relationship in nursing of older people with dementia,” ? = 0.87; and factor 4: “Priorities in nursing,” ? = 0.81. The cumulative contribution ratio was 79.1%. We suggest that the program would enable nurses to cope with these dilemmas.

Miwa Yamamoto

2011-11-01

405

Biblical Ethics and Plotinus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A discussion of two contrasting views on the nature and purpose of ethics: the 'unifying' ethics of the Neoplatonic Pagan philosopher Plotinus (204/5-270 CE) as opposed to the 'relational' ethics of the Judeo-Christian tradition.

Pontoppidan, Maria

2012-01-01

406

Teachers' Perceptions of Moral Dilemmas at School.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the importance of professional morality in teachers' everyday work. Explores moral dilemmas identified by teachers and their resolution strategies through quantitative and qualitative data-gathering methods. Investigates teachers' reasoning in solving moral dilemmas using field-invariant and field-dependent arguments. Shows that solution…

Tirri, Kirsi

1999-01-01

407

Arts marketing and ethics: what you can and Kant do  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this chapter I want to explore the ethical nature of arts marketing. In particular I hope to demonstrate that, in spite of its common-sense appeal and affinity with the marketing concept of customer benefit, utilitarianism (i.e. an approach to ethics that focuses on consequences) is of limited use in helping us do arts marketing ethically. While acknowledging the partial relevance of a utilitarian approach, I will argue that the deontological approach to ethics associated with Immanuel Kan...

O Sullivan, Terry

2013-01-01

408

Corporate Governance Debate on Professional Ethics in Accounting Profession  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Paper focuses on the particular case of professional ethics in the context of the accounting profession. After briefly discussing recent events that made us reconsider our understanding of corporate governance, accountancy and ethics, we try to delimit the state of the art by looking at ethics from the accounting professions’ perspective. When aiming to clarify professional ethics, we closely analyze integrity based on the latest developments undertaken by European professional bodies. Find...

Carmen Giorgiana Bonaci; Ji?í Strouhal; Müllerová Libuše; Jaroslava Roubí?ková

2013-01-01

409

Feline lungworms: what a dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aelurostrongylus abstrusus is regarded as the major lungworm infecting Felis catus, although other, albeit poorly studied, nematodes have been described from the respiratory system of domestic cats. Recent records of these neglected parasites have renewed the attention of the scientific community, but their actual role in respiratory disease in cats is blurred. The epidemiology, pathogenic role, and diagnosis of Troglostrongylus spp., Oslerus rostratus, and Capillaria aerophila in domestic cats are far from being clarified. Indeed, recent studies have provided novel information but have also given rise to relevant doubts. We discuss here the state of current knowledge regarding felid lungworms together with the dilemmas recently roused in the scientific literature. PMID:23928099

Traversa, Donato; Di Cesare, Angela

2013-09-01

410

Great dilemmas of spatial planning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The planners often forget fundamental, unsolved dilemmas of their profession due to the everyday request and needs, and because those huge problems have permanent nature and they are consequently rarely considered as a main issue. The dichotomy between planning on the one and (neo liberalism and market mechanisms on the other hand, together with the similar relations between economic development and spatial development and protection of space are always shaping spatial planning. The aim of this paper is to reconsider all those basic questions within the frame of current economic, social and political circumstances the trends.

?or?evi? Dejan

2007-01-01

411

Ethical stockmanship.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this review is to consider the ethics of stockmanship, particularly from the perspective of the nature and extent of the duties of stockpeople to their farm animals. It will consider what science tells us about the impact of stockmanship on the animal, particularly the welfare of the farm animal. The effects of human-animal interactions on the stockperson will also be considered, since these interactions affect the work performance and job satisfaction of the stockperson and thus indirectly affect animal welfare. Animal ethics is broader than animal welfare and includes economic as well as philosophical, social, cultural and religious aspects. This paper is predicated on the view that farm animals can suffer, and that animal suffering is a key consideration in our moral obligations to animals. Housing and husbandry practices affect farm animal welfare and thus farmers and stockpeople have a responsibility to provide, at minimum, community-acceptable animal housing and husbandry standards for their animals. The farmer's or stockperson's attitudes and behaviour can directly affect the animal's welfare and thus they also have a responsibility to provide specific standards of stockmanship for these animals. However, research suggests that the behaviour of some stockpeople is not as correct as it might be. Such situations exemplify the inevitably unequal human - domestic animal relationship, and this inequality should be considered in analysing the boundary between right and wrong behaviour of humans. Thus ethical discussion, using science and other considerations and involving stockpeople, livestock industries, government and the general public, should be used to establish and assure acceptable stockperson competencies across the livestock industries. Training programs targeting the key attitudes and behaviour of stockpeople presently offer the livestock industries good opportunities to improve human-animal interactions. PMID:17470069

Hemsworth, P H

2007-05-01

412

The Quest for Resolving Second Language Teaching Dilemma: A Review of the Proposed Solutions during the Last Two Decades  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper intends to address the issue of Second Language Teaching (SLT Dilemma termed by Danesi (2003. It traces the major scholastic trends to this challenging dilemma in the area of SLT during the past two decades. The study gives a classified overview of two main theoretical trends to resolve this Dilemma. One theoretical trend expresses an ethno-culturally-oriented methodological reaction which focuses on the evolving perspectives on language teaching methods and approaches after the emergence of post-method era. With regard to this trend, the researcher particularly focuses on its two main responses to the SLT Dilemma chronologically listed as: Kumaravadivelu's (1994 "post-method pedagogy" and Larsen-Freeman's (1999 "seven I's". The other theoretical trend expresses a neurolinguisticlly-oriented methodological reaction to the SLT Dilemma which is related to bimodality theory developed by Danesi (2003. The researcher endeavourers to delve into the tenets and principles of these three specific responses to come up with a clear understanding of them which may coherently highlight the two investigated theoretical trends toward the SLT Dilemma accordingly. To this end, the researcher examines the different dimensions of these responses with reference to the following two theoretical questions: (a why have the pervious methods and approaches failed to tackle the SLT Dilemma? , (b how can the SLT Dilemma be resolved? In light of such a rationale, the study might be able to compare and elucidate the two investigated theoretical trends and consequently, it might shed more light on the issue of SLT Dilemma from a scholarly outlook.

Masoud Mahmoodzadeh

2011-10-01

413

Incidental emotions in moral dilemmas: The influence of emotion regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent theories have argued that emotions play a central role in moral decision-making and suggested that emotion regulation may be crucial in reducing emotion-linked biases. The present studies focused on the influence of emotional experience and individual differences in emotion regulation on moral choice in dilemmas that pit harming another person against social welfare. During these "harm to save" moral dilemmas, participants experienced mostly fear and sadness but also other emotions such as compassion, guilt, anger, disgust, regret and contempt (Study 1). Fear and disgust were more frequently reported when participants made deontological choices, whereas regret was more frequently reported when participants made utilitarian choices. In addition, habitual reappraisal negatively predicted deontological choices, and this effect was significantly carried through emotional arousal (Study 2). Individual differences in the habitual use of other emotion regulation strategies (i.e., acceptance, rumination and catastrophising) did not influence moral choice. The results of the present studies indicate that negative emotions are commonly experienced during "harm to save" moral dilemmas, and they are associated with a deontological bias. By efficiently reducing emotional arousal, reappraisal can attenuate the emotion-linked deontological bias in moral choice. PMID:24611625

Szekely, Raluca D; Miu, Andrei C

2015-01-01

414

Professional ethics at the bottom line.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, there has been much written about professional ethics in health care, but the literature has tended to focus on the ethical care and treatment of patients and protection of their privacy and confidential information. This article focuses on the ethical behavior of health care professionals and how they treat each other in the workplace. Examples of unethical behavior are described ranging from subtle favoritism by managers and bullying to crossing the legal line. Two specific cases demonstrate serious situations where it was necessary for colleagues to "blow the whistle" even at the risk of their own careers. PMID:15457844

Huston, Janis L; Brox, Georg A

2004-01-01

415

Organizational Commitment and Corporate Ethical Values: Exploring the Nexus between Employees' Psychological Contract and Firms' Ethical Behaviour in the Nigerian Insurance Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Commitment of employees to their organisations has been one of the central research themes in organisational study. Though, many predictors of organisational commitment abound in the literature, much is however not known on how ethical behaviour in the organisation affects employees’ commitment. Considering the nature of insurance services, and high potentials for ethical dilemma in the industry, this study contributes to organisational commitment literature by providing further understanding on the impact of corporate ethical values on organisational commitment in Nigeria. Underpinned by cognitive dissonance theory, the study proposes a significant relationship between the two constructs. While controlling for some demographic factors, corporate ethical values was hypothesized as a significant determinant of organisational commitment. With data from 415 managers, collected through Hunt’s et al (1989 Corporate Ethical Value and Hunt’s et al (1985 organisational commitment scales, the results of the multivariate analysis were presented, and discussed with managerial implications.

Musa Obalola

2012-02-01

416

Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?  

Science.gov (United States)

Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

Stablein, Ralph

2003-01-01

417

Ethics, Ricoeur And Philosophy: Ethical Teacher Workshops  

Science.gov (United States)

This work is about the ethics of education, and about philosophy as a discipline that can help us to help children look at ethics afresh. The study and practice of ethics is about morals and uncertainties and, as such, poses problems for the research community. The philosopher Ricoeur challenges research as only one way to find meaning in the…

Scott-Baumann, Alison

2006-01-01

418

Ethics Committee or Community? Examining the identity of Czech Ethics Committees in the period of transition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reflecting on a three year long exploratory research of ethics committees in the Czech Republic authors discuss the current role and identity of research ethics committees. The research of Czech ethics committees focused on both self-presentation and self-understanding of ECs members, and how other stakeholders (representatives of the pharmaceutical industry) view them. The exploratory research was based on formal and informal communication with the members of the ethics committees. Members of the research team took part at six regular voluntary meetings of the ethics committees' members, organised by the Forum of Czech Ethics Committees, and at three summer schools of medical ethics. There were realised twenty-five semi-structured interviews as well as six focus group sessions and a participant observation of several regular meetings of three ethics committees. On the grounds of experience from the interviews a simple questionnaire survey was realised among the members of the ethics committees. The ethics committees comprise a community of members working voluntarily, without claims to remuneration or prestige; the unifying goal is protection of subjects of research. The principal working methods are dialogue and agreement. The members of the ethics committees thus, among other things, create an informal community, which can be to a certain extent seen as a Kantian ethical community in a weak sense. The phenomenon of ethics committees can also be described by terms of an epistemic community and a community of practice. These concepts, which are borrowed from other authors and areas, are used as a way how to think of ECs role and identity a bit differently and are meant as a contribution to the current international debate on the topic. PMID:20675735

Simek, Jiri; Zamykalova, Lenka; Mesanyova, Marie

2010-09-01

419

Implementation Mechanism of Ethics in Business Organizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethics and ethical behavior are issues which are increasingly being focused on the business community today. People are becoming more concerned about what is actually happening in business organizations in the name of competition, growth, and profitability. Organizations are crossing the red zone of ethics and ethical behaviors. A growing number of organizations are constantly surveying and evaluating the unethical practice in business organizations worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of ethical practices and how to implement those ethical practices in business organizations. It is empirically proved that ethical practices in business organizations help to create favorable relationships with other organizations and can also establish long-term positive relationships with existing and potential future customers. Descriptive and analytical research methodology is applied in this research paper. The findings of this paper is that it is very essential to have a code of business ethics in every business organization and this code of business ethics must be implemented in the organization in objective and effective way.

Md. Abdul Jalil

2010-09-01

420

An Examination of Accounting Majors' Ethical Decisions before and after an Ethics Course Requirement  

Science.gov (United States)

The increased focus on ethical decision making in the accounting profession has resulted in greater attention being paid to the education of future accountants. Texas is one of the states that requires a State Board approved university course in Accounting Ethics to be on the transcript of prospective CPA candidates. This study reports on research…

Rogers, Violet; Smith, Aileen

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Informed Consent versus Involuntary Hospitalization in Psychiatric Practice. Ethical and Legal Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From its beginnings as social practice, medicine has always been confronted with ethical dilemmas. Ethical issues are brought into discussion mostly when the patient lacks awareness, when he does not understand, which means that he also does not accept the disease. In order to solve these dilemmas, the physician has to combine norms, habits, customs, religious beliefs and, first of all, legal standards specific to his space of action. Psychiatric diagnosis, especially, determines multiple ethical issues, from involuntary hospitalization to therapeutic methods. As it results from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (art. 1, 3, the fundamental rights of a person are based on the acknowledgment of his human status, that all human beings are born free. Since the autonomy and responsibility of each person – including of the one who needs healthcare – are accepted as important values, his involvement or participation to the decision-making process regarding his own body or health must be acknowledged as a universal right.

Daniel RADOI

2013-03-01

422

Ethics Primer: Ethics and Bioethics Lessons  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ethics Primer provides engaging, interactive, and classroom-friendly lesson ideas for integrating ethical issues into a science classroom. It also provides basic background on ethics as a discipline, with straightforward descriptions of major ethical theories. Several decision-making frameworks are included to help students apply reasoned analysis to ethical issues. Although the Primer is designed for secondary school science classrooms, it has been used by teachers in a variety of classes and grade levels. The Primer is free for download but the author requests information before accessing the file.

2007-01-01

423

Putting Law into Ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of ethics in law is followed from the harshness of caveat emptor to the humanistic ethics of the 1970s, including a renewal of formal ethics in the post-Watergate era. The impact on universities and individual disciplines of legalizing ethical conduct is examine