Results of surveys in which pharmacy students and pharmacists responded to ethical dilemmas are discussed. Respondents indicated a high level of concern about patient welfare and patient rights in dilemmas involving conflicts with socio-economic issues, and with peers and physicians. Conflicts that might arise as the roles of pharmacists change and the health-care systems evolve are also discussed.
Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne; Hanlon, Alison; Loor, Hillar; SandÃ¸e, Peter
'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1) the...... blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways to...
Liegeois, Axel; Van Audenhove, Chantal
Ethical dilemmas in community mental health care is the focus of this article. The dilemmas are derived from a discussion of the results of a qualitative research project that took place in five countries of the European Union. The different stakeholders are confronted with the following dilemmas: community care versus hospital care (clients); a life with care versus a life without care (informal carers); stimulation of the client toward greater responsibility versus protection against such r...
Dennis, Mary Kate; Washington, Karla T; Koenig, Terry L
Ethical decision making is critically important in hospice social work. Through in-depth interviews, researchers explored ethical dilemmas faced by 14 hospice social workers and the processes they used to move toward resolution. The dilemmas were integrated into a framework focused on the sources of ethical conflict: the client system, the agency, and the profession. Processes involved in resolving ethical dilemmas included consulting with other professionals, weighing the pros and cons of options, and bringing about desired outcomes. Findings suggest that hospice teams should be provided with opportunities to meaningfully discuss ethical decision making. Further, the involvement of social workers in administrative leadership is recommended to increase the likelihood that discipline-specific perspectives are incorporated into formal policies and procedures that shape practice in ethically complex situations. PMID:25397348
Nurses are increasingly realising that they can offer relevant information and participate in decision-making involving ethical issues. However, inter-professional communications are frequently inadequate, and do not permit exchange of opinions. The consequences are often frustrating and upsetting for nurses whose care is affected by others' policies. This paper explores these issues using some clinical examples.
Joan K. Pierson
Full Text Available Because most organizations depend on computer systems that electronically store important data to perform crucial business functions, the integrity of these information systems is paramount. Securing company systems, however, is not always an easy task. More sophisticated systems often provide widespread access to computer resources and increased user knowledge, which may lead to added difficulties in maintaining security. This paper explores whistleblowing employees' exposing illegal or unethical computer practices taking place in the organization as a method of computer security and the support for whistleblowing found in codes of ethical conduct formulated by professional societies.
Salmonowicz, Michael J.
This case was written for use in courses dealing with school administration, philosophy of education, or ethics in educational leadership. It deals with the ethical dilemma of an assistant principal at a low-performing, urban high school. Caught between a principal and a teacher who have different views on plagiarism, the assistant principal mustâ¦
Dunn, Earl V.
Ethical dilemmas in family practice have increased in frequency and complexity as both the potential benefit and the potential harm of medical treatments have increased. All physicians must be aware of moral issues relating to medicine. Family physicians commonly face ethical problems concerning the patient with diminished autonomy; the right to refuse treatment; allocation of resources; informed consent; surrogate consent (for children, for the incompetent, and for those with diminished auto...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe the kinds of ethical dilemmas surgeons face during practice. Methods Five male and five female surgeons at a University hospital in Norway were interviewed as part of a comprehensive investigation into the narratives of physicians and nurses about ethically difficult situations in surgical units. The transcribed interview texts were subjected to a phenomenological-hermeneutic interpretation. Results No gender differences were found in the kinds of ethical dilemmas identified among male and female surgeons. The main finding was that surgeons experienced ethical dilemmas in deciding the right treatment in different situations. The dilemmas included starting or withholding treatment, continuing or withdrawing treatment, overtreatment, respecting the patients and meeting patients' expectations. The main focus in the narratives was on ethical dilemmas concerning the patients' well-being, treatment and care. The surgeons narrated about whether they should act according to their own convictions or according to the opinions of principal colleagues or colleagues from other departments. Handling incompetent colleagues was also seen as an ethical dilemma. Prioritization of limited resources and following social laws and regulations represented ethical dilemmas when they contradicted what the surgeons considered was in the patients' best interests. Conclusion The surgeons seemed confident in their professional role although the many ethical dilemmas they experienced in trying to meet the expectations of patients, colleagues and society also made them professionally and personally vulnerable.
Mullikin, Arwen; Rahman, M
USA Government wiretapping activities is a very controversial issue. Undoubtedly this technology can assist law enforced authority to detect / identify unlawful or hostile activities; however, this task raises severe privacy concerns. In this paper, we have discussed this complex information technology issue of governmental wiretapping and how it effects both public and private liberties. Legislation has had a major impact on the uses and the stigma of wiretapping for the war on terrorism. This paper also analyzes the ethical and legal concerns inherent when discussing the benefits and concerns of wiretapping. The analysis has concluded with the effects of wiretapping laws as they relate to future government actions in their fight against terrorists.
Full Text Available The article reviews the issues of in vitro fertilization and the ethical dilemmas that rise from the impact of the medical, social, moral and legal framework of this method of assisted human reproduction, starting with the origin of gametes, the status of embryos and of biological or shedding parents, the maternal age, the sexual orientation of parents, the fate of embryos, the experimentation on embryo, taking into account the legislative framework, but also the moral and religious ones.The dilemmas are all under review, seeking to highlight the positive and negative aspects of the process, considering fairly the need of these techniques and the benefits of their use and the benefit they would bring to society.
Woloshin, Phyllis Lerman
This report describes a study undertaken to assess student choices in medical ethical dilemmas. Medical ethical dilemmas are interpreted to include problems such as abortion, euthanasia, sterilization, experimentation on humans, allocation of scarce medical resources, and physician and health personnel training. The major purpose of the study was
Full Text Available Nurses are increasingly confronted with situations of moral difficulty, such as not to feed terminally ill patients, whistle blowing, or participation in termination of pregnancy. Most of these moral dilemmas are often analyzed using the principle-based approach which applies the four moral principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence, and nonmalificence. In some instances, consequentialism is considered, but these frameworks have their limitations. Their limitations has to do with a consideration for the interpersonal nature of clinical nursing practice on the one hand, and is not always clear on how to judge which consequences are best on the other hand. When principles are in conflict it is not always easy to decide which principle should dominate. Furthermore, these frameworks do not take into account the importance of the interpersonal and emotional element of human experience. On the contrary, decision making about moral issues in healthcare demands that nurses exercise rational control over emotions. This clearly focuses the attention on the nurse as moral agent and in particular their character. In this article I argue that virtue ethics as an approach, which focus of the character of a person, might provide a more holistic analysis of moral dilemmas in nursing and might facilitate more flexible and creative solutions when combined with other theories of moral decision-making. Advancing this argument, firstly, I provide the central features of virtue ethics. Secondly I describe a story in which a moral dilemma is evident. Lastly I apply virtue ethics as an approach to this moral dilemma and in particular focusing on the virtues inherent in the nurse as moral agent in the story.
Full Text Available One of the main characteristics of the new millennium is the affirmation of human rights in all aspects of human existence, with the intention of turning declarative statements into reality. Development of up-to-date assisted reproductive technologies (ART and their application in infertility treatment have raised numerous ethical, legal, religious, social and other questions. In vitro fertilization, donation of gametes, embryos and pre-embryos, cryopreservation of gametes, embryos, ovarian and testicular tissues, embryo transfer, genetic reproductive techniques, cloning and other sophisticated methods used in infertility treatment require cooperation between the medical and legal professions. Ethical aspects of human reproduction and assisted fertilization are based on full respect of the life of an individual even before conception, from pre-embryo stage, via embryo stage and fetus stage to a newborn infant. Regarding investigative and clinical projects, this standpoint implies the legalization of all ART procedures, unencumbered exchange of information and consensus about their application, and adherence to the basic ethical principles of autonomy benefit, justice and common welfare. Ethical postulates provide unequivocal directions in the creation of new life and resolve all possible ethical dilemmas, protecting the rights of doctors and participant in relevant procedures alike and reasserting the crucial principle - respect of human dignity.
Abolaji Joachim Abiodun
Full Text Available The modern workplace is composed of people with diverse backgrounds in terms of nationality, culture, religion, age, education and socioeconomic status. Each of these people enters the work with different values, goals, and perceptions of acceptable behaviours. The diverse background creates ethical challenges for individuals as well as managers. There are issues and decisions that are to be made by workers in the organization that have implications for their job security and salary, and success of the organization. Pressure may be on the workers to protect their own interests, sometimes at the risk of losing personal and corporate integrity. This paper attempts to evaluate ethical dilemmas and conflicts from an Africa perspective, bearing in mind different value systems between western and African nations.
Levinas's ethics has in the last decades exerted a significant influence on Nursing and Caring Science. The core of Levinas's ethics - his analyses of how our subjectivity is established in the ethical encounter with our neighbour or theâ Other - is applied both to healthcare practice and in the project of building an identity of Nursing and Caring Science. Levinas's analyses are highly abstract and metaphysical, and also non-normative. Thus, his analyses cannot be applied directly to practical problems and questions. Theorists in Nursing and Caring Science are generally aware of this. Nevertheless, many of them use Levinas's analyses to explore and solve questions of practical and normative character. This article focuses on the challenges and dilemmas of using Levinas in this manner. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents some central ideas of Levinas's ethics based on the latter part of his authorship. The main focus is on the radicalism of Levinas's critique of the symbolic order (which includes concepts, categories, knowledge, etc.) - or as he puts it 'the said' - as a basis for subjectivity and responsibility. Levinas's notions of saying, anarchy, and singularity accentuate this point of view. These notions refer to conditions in the language, which counteract the symbolic order in the ethical encounter to such an extent that it becomes an incomprehensible. Levinas gives the argumentation a metaphysical frame: The encounter with the incomprehensible is an encounter with the Holy, which is not the ontological God, but a metaphysical desire. It is a mystery as to what this means, and herein lies possibly the main challenge when using Levinas's ethics in science and research: How to maintain the radicalism of his critique of the symbolic order when this is to be communicated in a scientific context that expects clarification of statements and ideas? The second part of the article explores this question by examining how some theorists use Levinas's ethics on questions and problems in the area of healthcare and Nursing and Caring Science. The focus is especially on the theorists' reception and use of the just mentioned notions. The study reveals that these theorists to a large extent transform Levinas's ethics according to their own approaches, with the result that his ethics loses its critical radicalism. Thus, I question the reason why they use Levinas. PMID:25413564
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To review the history, epidemiology, etiology, gestational aspects, diagnosis and prognosis of imperfect twinning. DATA SOURCES Scientific articles were searched in PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases, using the descriptors "conjoined twins", "multiple pregnancy", "ultrasound", "magnetic resonance imaging" and "prognosis". The research was not delimited to a specific period of time and was supplemented with bibliographic data from books. DATA SYNTHESIS: The description of conjoined twins is legendary. The estimated frequency is 1/45,000-200,000 births. These twins are monozygotic, monochorionic and usually monoamniotic. They can be classified by the most prominent fusion site, by the symmetry between the conjoined twins or by the sharing structure. The diagnosis can be performed in the prenatal period or after birth by different techniques, such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography. These tests are of paramount importance for understanding the anatomy of both fetuses/children, as well as for prognosis and surgical plan determination. CONCLUSIONS Although imperfect twinning is a rare condition, the prenatal diagnosis is very important in order to evaluate the fusion site and its complexity. Hence, the evaluation of these children should be multidisciplinary, involving mainly obstetricians, pediatricians and pediatric surgeons. However, some decisions may constitute real ethical dilemmas, in which different points should be discussed and analyzed with the health team and the family.
Paulson, Steve; Comfort, Christopher P; Lee, Barbara Coombs; Shemie, Sam; Solomon, Mildred Z
The ability of modern medicine to prolong life has raised a variety of difficult legal, ethical, and social issues on which reasonable minds can differ. Among these are the morality of euthanasia in cases of deep coma or irreversible injury, as well as the Dead Donor Rule with respect to organ harvesting and transplants. As science continues to refine and develop lifesaving technologies, questions remain as to how much medical effort and financial resources should be expended to prolong the lives of patients suspended between life and death. At what point should death be considered irreversible? What criteria should be used to determine when to withhold or withdraw life-prolonging treatments in cases of severe brain damage and terminal illness? To explore these complex dilemmas, Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion panel. Pediatrician Sam Shemie, hospice medical director Christopher P. Comfort, bioethicist Mildred Z. Solomon, and attorney Barbara Coombs Lee examined the underlying assumptions and considerations that ultimately shape individual and societal decisions surrounding these issues. The following is an edited transcript of the discussion that occurred November 12, 2013, 7:00-8:30 PM, at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City. PMID:25079490
Zydziunaite, V; Suominen, T
Abstract Background: Understanding the reasons and consequences of leadership styles in ethical dilemmas is fundamental to exploring nurse managers' abilities to influence outcomes for patients and nursing personnel. Purpose: To explain the associations between different leadership styles, reasons for their application and its consequences when nurse managers make decisions in ethical dilemmas. Methods: The data were collected between 15 October 2011 and 30 April 2012 by statistically validated questionnaire. The respondents (n=278) were nurse managers. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0, calculating Spearman's correlations, the Stepwise Regression and ANOVA. Results: The reasons for applying different leadership styles in ethical dilemmas include personal characteristics, years in work position, institutional factors, and the professional authority of nurse managers. The applied leadership styles in ethical dilemmas are associated with the consequences regarding the satisfaction of patients', relatives' and nurse managers' needs. Conclusions: Nurse managers exhibited leadership styles oriented to maintenance, focusing more on the "doing the job" than on managing the decision-making in ethical dilemmas. PMID:25242639
Thomas E. Doyle
Full Text Available This article advances a critical analysis of John Rawls's justification of liberal democratic nuclear deterrence in the post-Cold War era as found in The Law of Peoples. Rawls's justification overlooked how nuclear-armed liberal democracies are ensnared in two intransigent ethical dilemmas: one in which the mandate to secure liberal constitutionalism requires both the preservation and violation of important constitutional provisions in domestic affairs, and the other in which this same mandate requires both the preservation and violation of the liberal commitment to international legal arrangements and to the rule of law generally. On this view, the choice to violate constitutional provisions and international legal arrangements is evidence of nuclear despotism. Moreover, this choice does not imply that the ethical foreign policy dilemmas were resolved. Instead, it implies that the dilemmas force liberal democratic governments into implementing ethically paradoxical policy outcomes.
Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.
This article examines findings from three focus groups conducted about resolving ethical dilemmas in the area of domestic violence. The study's findings point to the need to increase content on domestic violence throughout the social work curriculum and provide educational opportunities for field instructors and local professionals. Helping
This is a reflective account of an ethical dilemma encountered while on placement on a cardiology ward. Reflection is a process which allows practitioners to reveal and expose thoughts, behaviours and feelings that are present at a particular time. All reflective models are based on the principle that purposeful reflection results in a better understanding and awareness, thus enhancing clinical practice (Driscoll and Teh 2001). The Gibbs' Reflective Cycle has been selected for its simplicity and ease of use to aid personal development. The dilemma was identified and analysed from a professional, ethical and legal perspective. Pseudonyms are used to maintain confidentiality and protect the identities of all parties involved. PMID:17711245
Although student nurses are taught ethics, the theoretical dimension is not enough. Students must be given support and guidance in their practice to enable them to carry out ethical reflection and to adapt their nursing approach. PMID:26675106
Haney, Michelle R.
Personal and reflective writing assignments in psychology courses may prompt self-disclosure that presents ethical dilemmas. The literature discusses responsibilities of the psychologist in instances such as disclosure of suicidal ideation or threats of harming others within the context of the therapist-client relationship, but significantly lessâ¦
Cranston, Neil; Ehrich, Lisa C.; Kimber, Megan
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research into the ethical dilemmas faced by school heads from seven independent schools in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: Data for the research were gathered by semi-structured in-depth interviews with the Heads, all of whom were experienced school leaders. All the schools had religious
business ethics communication and behavior reveals that a good predictor of ethical conduct is open workplace dialogue about ethics.Â In this paper, I therefore address the question: What influences employee attitudes to talking openly about ethical issues? Answers are proposed on the basis of focus group...... aim at providing insight that can help managers in their attempts to promote open workplace dialogue about ethical issues....
Schumann, Paul L.; Scott, Timothy W.; Anderson, Philip H.
This article makes two contributions to the teaching of business ethics literature. First, it describes the steps involved in developing effective ethical dilemmas to incorporate into a computer-based business simulation. Second, it illustrates these steps by presenting two ethical dilemmas that an instructor can incorporate into any business
This paper explores the possibility of moral conflict in Kants ethics. An analysis of the only explicit discussion of the topic in his published writings confirms that there is no room for genuine moral dilemmas. Conflict is limited to nonconclusive grounds of obligation. They arise only in the sphere of ethical duty and, though defeasible, ought to be construed as the result of valid arguments an agent correctly judges to apply in the situation at hand. While it is difficult to determine ...
Sen, Piyal; Gordon, Harvey; Adshead, Gwen; Irons, Ashley
One approach to the analysis of ethical dilemmas in medical practice uses the âfour principles plus scopeâ approach. These principles are: respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonâmaleficence and justice, along with concern for their scope of application. However, conflicts between the different principles are commonplace in psychiatric practice, especially in forensic psychiatry, where duties to patients often conflict with duties to third parties such as the public. This article seeks to high...
Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina
'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways to explore the program; for example, they can navigate the program using the 'Assist Me' option, which explains the basis of the ethical arguments. Reality text provides details of real events on which the case is based, and a glossary of terminology is available for the students to explore. Selected access to a case template is also available, enabling students and teachers to create their own case studies. Evaluation of the program has been ongoing during its development.
This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors
This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see,' and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (i) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (ii) avoiding responsibility; and (iii) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors. (Author)
Holm, Anne Lise; Severinsson, Elisabeth
Due to their understanding of self-management, healthcare team members responsible for depressed older persons can experience an ethical dilemma. Each team member contributes important knowledge and experience pertaining to the management of depression, which should be reflected in the management plan. The aim of this study was to explore healthcare team members' reflections on the ethical dilemmas involved in promoting self-management among depressed older persons. A qualitative design was used and data were collected by means of focus group interviews. The results revealed one main theme: 'Lack of trust in the community health care system's commitment to bringing about effectiveness and change, based on three themes; 'Struggling to ensure the reliable transfer of information about depressed older persons to professionals and family members', 'Balancing autonomy, care and dignity' and 'Differences in the understanding of responsibility'. Lack of engagement on the part of and trust between the various professional categories who work in the community are extremely counterproductive and have serious implications for patient dignity as well as safety. In conclusion, ethical dilemmas occur when staff members are unable to act in accordance with their professional ethical stance and deliver an appropriate standard of care. PMID:24106261
Margie L. McInerney
Full Text Available Business leaders are often failing to display ethical behavior in business decisions. This paper examines the gender differences found in undergraduate business students when faced with ethical decision making dilemmas.
Space tourism is an important new venture, however it raises several issues that must be addressed; namely, the medical implications associated with space flight and potential for ethical problems surrounding the safety of such travel. It seems highly likely that businesses involved in space tourism could find themselves liable for any passenger deaths or injuries, if they are found to have been negligent. This paper, therefore, discusses such issues as the medical facilities that need to be made available on board a space facility, and the companies' duty to disclose to potential passengers the risks associated with microgravity and the likelihood of space sickness, loss of bone density, disease, and pregnancy.
Luxardo, Natalia; Colombo, Graciela; Iglesias, Gabriela
The purpose of this article is to examine some obstacles and dilemmas related to methodological strategies and ethical considerations that arose during the fieldwork of research focused on family violence during the stages of pregnancy and childbirth in adolescent females in Buenos Aires during 2007. From this study, we are able to contribute some
Agyapong, V I O
A case is described of a fifty year old single man who made disclosures about criminal sexual practices during a psychiatric assessment. In common practice with other professional men, a doctor is under a duty not to disclose, without the consent of his patient, information which he has gained in his professional capacity other than in exceptional circumstances. We discuss the ethical and legal considerations surrounding issues of medical confidentiality and the dilemma that sometimes face clinicians, when they feel obliged, in the public interest, to disclose information they have gained in confidence. Breach of confidences can have deleterious consequences; particularly for the doctor-patient relationship, but failure to disclose in some situations could have serious implications for the well-being of the wider society. Doctors should be aware of the basic principles of confidentiality and the ethical and legal framework around which they are built.
are proposed on the basis of focus group interviews with staff at the Denmark and Brazil affiliates of the global healthcare company Novo Nordisk. It was found that interest in discussing ethical issues was influenced by two main factors: employee conceptualizations of business ethics, and the level...
Billiot, Mary Jo; Daniel, David; Glandon, Sid; Glandon, TerryAnn
We examine the effect of different contexts in an educational process on measures of ethical sensitivity and levels of moral reasoning of accounting majors in the first Intermediate Accounting course. The educational process compared a context that centers on ethical issues with one that focuses on technical accounting issues. At the end of the
Flatley, Danielle R; Kenny, Belinda J; Lincoln, Michelle A
Speech-language pathologists experience ethical dilemmas as they fulfil their professional roles and responsibilities. Previous research findings indicated that speech-language pathologists working in publicly funded settings identified ethical dilemmas when they managed complex clients, negotiated professional relationships, and addressed service delivery issues. However, little is known about ethical dilemmas experienced by speech-language pathologists working in private practice settings. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech-language pathologists working in private practice. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 10 speech-language pathologists employed in diverse private practice settings. Participants explained the nature of ethical dilemmas they experienced at work and identified their most challenging and frequently occurring ethical conflicts. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse transcribed data and generate themes. Four themes reflected the nature of speech-language pathologists' ethical dilemmas; balancing benefit and harm, fidelity of business practices, distributing funds, and personal and professional integrity. Findings support the need for professional development activities that are specifically targeted towards facilitating ethical practice for speech-language pathologists in the private sector. PMID:24735456
Elize C., du Plessis; Petro, Marais.
Full Text Available Since the abolishment of legislation (the South African Schools Act, No. 84 of 1996) stipulating that a learner may only attend a certain school in an area, there is great competition amongst schools to attract learners to their schools. There is a tendency to regard as commodities learners who can [...] be seen as assets to the school, especially if these learners show a talent for sports and have outstanding sporting achievements. The main aim of the research was to determine whether school principals, learners and parents think that it is unethical to 'buy' talented learners. A qualitative research approach was undertaken to determine the views of a purposefully selected sample of school principals, learners and parents regarding the 'buying' of talented learners. These participants were chosen as they were important role players in the process of 'buying' talented learners. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire with semi-structured and open-ended questions. The participants' answers were critically analysed, and the ethical correctness was determined by evaluating them against the ethical ideas identified in five ethical approaches, namely the utilitarian approach, the rights approach, the fairness or justice approach, the virtue approach and the ethical problem solving approach. An extrapolation of these findings gives one an idea of our society's attitude to the 'buying' of talented learners and whether a need exists to actively create greater awareness of this practice. The findings are significant to illustrate the different viewpoints of school principals, talented learners and parents on the ethical and educational dilemmas of schools that 'buy' talented learners.
To ensure ethical employee behavior, companies often utilize several forms of mostly one-way communication such as codes of conduct. The extent to which these efforts, in addition to informing about the company stance on ethics, are able to positively influence behavior is disputed. Research on business ethics communication and behavior reveals that a good predictor of ethical conduct is open workplace dialogue about ethics. In this paper, I therefore address the question: What influences employee attitudes to talking openly about ethical issues? Answers are proposed on the basis of focus group interviews at the healthcare company Novo Nordisk. It was found that interest in discussing ethical issues was influenced by two main factors: employee conceptualizations of business ethics, and the level of inter-collegial trust, credibility, and confidence. In this paper, by examining these phenomena, I aim at providing insight that can help managers in their attempts to promote open workplace dialogue aboutethical issues.
Berger, Jesper Bull
The delivering of public services to citizens through the internet -- also known as e-government - has gained serious momentum, driven by political ambitions of improved efficiency. E-government, however, is considered complex and e-government failures are well known from media. Research of how e-government is enacted inside government is sparse. Technology mediated public services in real world entail ethical dilemmas. By extracting ethical dilemmas from a qualitative e-government participat...
Sorta-Bilajac, Iva; Badari?, Ksenija; agrovi?, Morana Brklja?i?; Jan?i?, Ervin; Brozovi?, Boris; ?engic, Tomislav; ?orluka, Stipe; Agich, George J
The aim of this study was to assess nurses' and physicians' ethical dilemmas in clinical practice. Nurses and physicians of the Clinical Hospital Centre Rijeka were surveyed (N=364). A questionnaire was used to identify recent ethical dilemma, primary ethical issue in the situation, satisfaction with the resolution, perceived usefulness of help, and usage of clinical ethics consultations in practice. Recent ethical dilemmas include professional conduct for nurses (8%), and near-the-end-of-life decisions for physicians (27%). The main ethical issue is limiting life-sustaining therapy (nurses 15%, physicians 24%) and euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (nurses 16%, physicians 9%). The types of help available are similar for nurses and physicians: obtaining complete information about the patient (37% vs. 50%) and clarifying ethical issues (31% vs. 39%). Nurses and physicians experience similar ethical dilemmas in clinical practice. The usage of clinical ethics consultations is low. It is recommended that the individual and team consultations should be introduced in Croatian clinical ethics consultations services. PMID:21558110
Kramer, Roderick M; Bazerman, Max H
This book, in honor of David Messick, is about social decisions and the role cooperation plays in social life. Noted contributors who worked with Dave over the years will discuss their work in social judgment, decision making and ethics which was so important to Dave.The book offers a unique and valuable contribution to the fields of social psychology and organizational behavior. Ethical decision making, a central focus of this volume, is highly relevant to current scholarship and research in both disciplines. The volume will be suitable for graduate level courses in organizational behavior, s
Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.
This book discusses how students and practitioners should take into account four ethics paradigms to help solve authentic dilemmas. These paradigms are the ethic of justice, ethic of care, ethic of critique, and ethic of the profession. The book's purposes include demonstrating the application of these different paradigms through the discussionâ¦
Full Text Available Brain death (BD, as the irreversible and permanent loss of cerebral and brainstem function, is relatively uncommon among newborns who need life support. It is considered the result of an acute and irreversible central nervous system insult. Asphyxia, severe intracranial hemorrhage and infection are the most common causes of BD in children. BD diagnosis is usually based on clinical criteria. Dilemmas about life prolonging treatment for severely compromised infants as brain dead infants are has become challenging since neonatal intensive care unit (NICU care has developed, quality of life and resource issues are nowadays continuously underlined. Caring for premature babies is expensive and costs have risen especially since an increased number of infants with handicaps survives. Intensivists main duty is first to save lives and then to interrupt treatment in certain conditions like detrimental brain damage. The objective of this article is to present ethical decisions regarding brain dead newborns in order to balance between organ donation necessities and withholding/withdrawing treatment, with respect to the important role of infants parents in the process.
To ensure ethical employee behavior, companies often utilize several forms of mostly one-way communication such as codes of conduct. The extent to which these efforts, in addition to informing about the company stance on ethics, are able to positively influence behavior is disputed. In contrast, research on business ethics communication and behavior indicates a relatively clear, positive link between open workplace dialogue about ethical issues and ethical conduct. In this paper, I therefore address the question: What influences employee attitudes to talking openly about ethical issues? Answers are proposed on the basis of focus group interviews with staff at the Denmark and Brazil affiliates of the global healthcare company Novo Nordisk. It was found that interest in discussing ethical issues was influenced by two main factors: employee conceptualizations of business ethics, and the level of inter-collegial trust, credibility, and confidence. In this paper, by examining these phenomena, I am at providinginsight that can both inform scholars in these fields as well as help managers in their attempts to promote open workplace dialogue about ethical issues.
Ethics-related dilemmas arise in forensic psychiatry as in all psychiatric practice. Although most can be resolved by following the AAPL Ethics Guidelines and the AAPL Ethics Questions and Answers, the more complex ones inevitably have no easy solutions. Ethics-based duties can conflict without clear guidance on prioritization. Weighing competing factors necessitates more than merely following a rule, since there are potentially conflicting rules, and ethical practitioners may prioritize them differently. Concerns pertaining to the death penalty and defendants who are victims of discrimination are especially difficult. Such considerations usually are in the realm of aspirational ethics, with conclusions open to debate. They need consideration by most practitioners concerned with determining the most ethical course of action. Much as it is insufficient for an ethical citizen merely to avoid breaking the law, it is not enough to avoid violating any one guideline while remaining blind to context. Most such dilemmas need resolution long before testimony and arise first in the way the forensic assessment is conducted and in decisions on the data to be included in a report and how they are presented. Although there can be legitimate differences of opinion about how to weigh and resolve conflicting considerations, ethics-related dilemmas should not be sidestepped. PMID:24051589
Amy M. Wiles
Full Text Available Students often struggle with weighing multiple sides of bioethical dilemmas. The assignment described here incorporates discussion of ethical dilemmas in an upper-level undergraduate biology course. Students are introduced to ethical dilemmas in genetics through discussion of issues in small groups. They are then polled as to what positions they take on each dilemma and are assigned to argue a side opposite of one of their choices. Each student receives a subpoena to appear before a Senate subcommittee to give testimony as an expert witness. This role-play provides students with a starting point and motivation for developing their argument as well as a way to distance themselves from their own opinions by acting as someone holding the opposite stance. At the end of the presentations, students are required to reflect on the experience.
Wiles, Amy M
Students often struggle with weighing multiple sides of bioethical dilemmas. The assignment described here incorporates discussion of ethical dilemmas in an upper-level undergraduate biology course. Students are introduced to ethical dilemmas in genetics through discussion of issues in small groups. They are then polled as to what positions they take on each dilemma and are assigned to argue a side opposite of one of their choices. Each student receives a subpoena to appear before a Senate subcommittee to give testimony as an expert witness. This role-play provides students with a starting point and motivation for developing their argument as well as a way to distance themselves from their own opinions by acting as someone holding the opposite stance. At the end of the presentations, students are required to reflect on the experience. PMID:25574284
Bezerra do Amaral, Juliana; Menezes, Maria do Rosário de; Martorell-Poveda, Maria Antonia; Cardoso Passos, Simone
Objective: analyzing ethic and bioethics dilemmas experienced by nurses who take palliative care for hospitalized elderly. Method: quality study, exploring, descriptive, using the interview as technical for collecting oral history from tem nurses. The context was a geriatric palliative care unit from the city of Salvador Brazil, in the period between May and August 2005. Content was used for speech analyzing. Results: the speeches arose dilemmas like: artificially prolonging of life; feedin...
Berger, Jesper Bull
The delivering of public services to citizens through the internet -- also known as e-government - has gained serious momentum, driven by political ambitions of improved efficiency. E-government, however, is considered complex and e-government failures are well known from media. Research of how e-government...... is enacted inside government is sparse. Technology mediated public services in real world entail ethical dilemmas. By extracting ethical dilemmas from a qualitative e-government participatory design study, this paper shows how ethical dilemmas may inform future e-government design and design...... processes. The case, adoption of digital post in a local e-government setting, showed that design flaws, staff's concern for citizens and political fear of citizens' critique had an impact on e-government adoption....
Berger, Jesper Bull
The delivering of public services to citizens through the internet -- also known as e-government - has gained serious momentum, driven by political ambitions of improved efficiency. E-government, however, is considered complex and e-government failures are well known from media. Research of how e-government is enacted inside government is sparse. Technology mediated public services in real world entail ethical dilemmas. By extracting ethical dilemmas from a qualitative e-government participatory design study, this paper shows how ethical dilemmas may inform future e-government design and design processes. The case, adoption of digital post in a local e-government setting, showed that design flaws, staff's concern for citizens and political fear of citizens' critique had an impact on e-government adoption.
To ensure ethical employee behavior, companies often utilize several forms of mostly one-way communication such as codes of conduct. The extent to which these efforts, in addition to informing about the company stance on ethics, are able to positively influence behavior is disputed. In contrast, research on business ethics communication and behavior indicates a relatively clear, positive link between open workplace dialogue about ethical issues and ethical conduct. In this paper, I therefore add...
OBJECTIVES: To identify ethical dilemmas experienced by occupational and physical therapists working in the UK National Health Service (NHS). To compare ethical contexts, themes and principles across the two groups. DESIGN: A structured questionnaire was circulated to the managers of occupational and physical therapy services in England and Wales. SUBJECTS: The questionnaires were given to 238 occupational and 249 physical therapists who conformed to set criteria. RESULTS: Ethical dilemmas ex...
Gillett, Grant; Chamberlain, Joshua
There is a continuing intense medico-ethico-legal debate around legalized euthanasia and physician assisted suicide such that ethically informed clinicians often agree with the arguments but feel hesitant about the conclusion, especially when it may bring about a change in law. We argue that this confusion results from the convergence of two continua that underpin the conduct of a clinician and are especially prominent in psychiatry. The two continua concern the duty of care and the importance of patient autonomy and they do not quite map into traditional divides in debates about sanctity of life, paternalism, and autonomy. As ethical dimensions, they come into sharp focus in the psychological complexities of end-of-life care and they form two key factors in most ethical and legal or disciplinary deliberations about a clinician's actions. Whereas both dimensions are important when a clinician reflects on what s/he has done or should do, they need careful balancing in a request for euthanasia or physician assisted suicide where the patient wants to take a decisive role in his or her own end-of-life care. However, end-of-life is also a situation where clinicians often encounter 'cries for help' so that both continua are importantly in play. Balancing these two continua without using blunt legal instruments is often required in psychiatric care in such a way as to problematize the idea that patient decisions should dominate the care options available. A simplistic approach to that issue arguably plays into what has been called an 'impoverished construction of life and death' and, some would say, devalues the basic commitments fundamental to medical care. PMID:23830641
This paper addresses methodological dilemmas on the qualitative scientific writing process arising from anonymization practices, over a tendency to assume it as an easy and quick preliminary procedure to be performed when analyzing data. Ethical issues are pervasive along both social science practices and paradigms. Sociologists commitment to ethical principles is taught and gradually learned during academic training, later accepted through professional institutional membership and derived c...
The article discusses the principle of autonomy of patientss choice in a highly sensitive area, the obstetrics, regarding two issues which arise many dilemmas and debates, the induced abortion and the elective cesarean section..It brings up many pro and cons ethical arguments, reviews the various points of view and historical, legal, religious and humanist influences.Article stresses the need to adapt the old ethic principles to the realities of the actual complex society and the necessity of...
A university-based teacher educator in Australia examines her ethical dilemma in fulfilling a commitment to professional practice grounded in caring without being drawn into endless emotional involvement with students, and offers an alternative conceptualizaiton of caring as mutual empowerment, deliberative relationships, and transparency of
Pedigo, Kerry; Marshall, Verena
Globalisation has seen diverse cultures becoming increasingly entwined and interdependent as business organisations operate in a borderless world. When organisations operate internationally they often find that countries differ in what is considered wrong or right. The objectives of the research were to identify cross-cultural ethical dilemmas
Full Text Available Ethical dilemmas that face heathcare team members referring patients to hospice programs include the ability of clinicians to predict accurately a patient bad prognosis. They affect day-to-day patient management in palliative care programs including healthcare team members concern over the use of morphine because possible respiratory depression in the patient, the question of providing enteral or parenteral nutritional support to patients who refuse to eat and the question of providing parenteral fluids to patients who are unable to take fluids during the terminal phrases of illness. A final ethical dilemma concerns the methodology for quality of life research in palliative care. Understanding and resolving these ethical dilemmas is an important factor determining the quality of the caring for the patient. The ethical dilemmas that are discussed in the article likely to occur in this period can be prevented through his/her participation in the decisions concerning his or her treatment. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 65-79
This article explores the ethical tensions and dilemmas that arose for 2 U.S. social work students during an 8-month international clinical internship in northern Uganda. These students encountered cultural differences related to issues of confidentiality, autonomy, and self-determination. Student experiences were analyzed using the culturalâ¦
Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M.; Sandøe, Peter; Olsson, I. A. S.
While it has the potential to deliver important human benefits, animal-based pain research raises ethical questions, because it involves inducing pain in sentient beings. Ethical decision-making, connected with this variety of research, requires informed harm-benefit analysis, and the aim of this...
Moon, Bruce L.
This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.
Ilias Chatziioannidis; Georgios Mitsiakos
Brain death (BD), as the irreversible and permanent loss of cerebral and brainstem function, is relatively uncommon among newborns who need life support. It is considered the result of an acute and irreversible central nervous system insult. Asphyxia, severe intracranial hemorrhage and infection are the most common causes of BD in children. BD diagnosis is usually based on clinical criteria. Dilemmas about life prolonging treatment for severely compromised infants as brain dead infants ar...
Livingstone, Sonia; Locatelli, Elisabetta
Research on the digital and online environment poses several ethical questions that are new or, at least, newly pressing, especially in relation to youth. Established ethical practices require that research has integrity, quality, transparency and impartiality. They also stipulate that risks to the researcher, institution, data and participants should be anticipated and addressed. But there are difficulties in applying these to an environment in which the online and offline intersect in shift...
Matalí Costa, J L; Pardo Gallego, M; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, V; Serrano Troncoso, E; Gabaldon Fraile, S; Luaces Cubells, C
Illegal drug use among adolescents has increased in recent years in Spain, as well as has the risk behaviours and problems typical of adolescence. The results of studies on drug use during this stage of life reveal the serious and wide-ranging consequences that can arise. Emergency services are often the first to receive and deal with these and its professionals must face situations that pose contradictions between two of the basic ethical principles, the principle of autonomy and the principle of beneficence; an ethical dilemma that is addressed in this work. PMID:19303828
Litschka, Michael; Suske, Michaela; Brandtweiner, Roman
This paper is the result of an empirical research project analysing the decision behaviour of Austrian managers in ethical dilemma situations. While neoclassical economic theory would suggest a pure economic rational basis for management decisions, the empirical study conducted by the authors put other concepts to a test, thereby analysing their importance for managerial decision making: specific notions of fairness, reciprocal altruism, and commitment. After reviewing some of ...
While many academics are sceptical about the 'impact agenda', it may offer the potential to re-value feminist and participatory approaches to the co-production of knowledge. Drawing on my experiences of developing a UK Research Excellence Framework (REF) impact case study based on research on young caregiving in the UK, Tanzania and Uganda, I explore the dilemmas and tensions of balancing an ethic of care and participatory praxis with research management demands to evidence 'impact' in the ne...
Hendee, James G.
In theory, profitable globalization practices in developed, industrialized countries share a symbiotic relationship with cheaper off-shore human resources in third-world, poor, or underdeveloped nations. A short case study of Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. is given, which examines Wal-Mart's increased use of the cheaper Chinese workforce. By seeking out a lower cost labor force in a yet developing country, an ethical dilemma arises in that the business in the industrialized nation must ignore or disre...
Upon analysis, it appears that education is the only solution to prevail over this moral crisis; the dilemma of contemporary society, faced with this moral challenge, lies at the crossroads between philosophy and pedagogy. Moral value education cannot be reduced to civic education or to human rights education, as it lies at the crossroads between the logic of the mind and the logic of the heart, which generate values together. A new ethics is necessary, one which must reflect our histor...
Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M.; SandØe, Peter
While it has the potential to deliver important human benefits, animal-based pain research raises ethical questions, because it involves inducing pain in sentient beings. Ethical decision-making, connected with this variety of research, requires informed harm-benefit analysis, and the aim of this paper is to provide information for such an analysis. We present an overview of the different models and their consequences for animal welfare, showing that, of the many animal models available, most have a considerable welfare impact on the animal. While the usual approach to pain control through administration of analgesic substances is usually unsuitable in pain research, refinement remains an option, both within the experimental protocol and in general husbandry and handling. Drawing on the overview, we develop a discussion of the ethical acceptability of animal-based pain research against the background of the kinds of harm done to the animals involved, the potential for refinement, and the expected benefits of the research.
Karmakar, Nitya L.
The Internet remains as a wonder for the 21st century and its growth is phenomenon. According to a recent survey, the online population is now about 500 million globally and if this trend continues, it should reach 700 million by the end of 2002. This exponential growth of the Internet has given rise to several security, privacy and ethical
This book is written with the aim to stimulate discussion and studies on ethical aspects of nuclear waste management. It does not penetrate the technical details of the different stages of waste handling, but concentrates on questions such as our responsibility towards future generations etc
This article discusses issues related to the role of ethics in shaping policy decisions of recreation industry entrepreneurs. Also described are philosophical differences between commercial and public sector recreation facilities, and the extent to which public values have a place on the recreation entrepreneur's agenda. (IAH)
Albright, Dianne E.; Hazler, Richard J.
Euthanasia is considered an important social issue of the 1990s. Mental health professionals should understand the differences between voluntary, involuntary, passive, and active euthanasia; mercy killing, and assisted suicide. Encourages counselors to ethically formulate client-supportive positions to help clients face life-and-death decisions.
Beamish, Patricia M.; And Others
Reviews literature on complex ethical and legal issues that may arise in counseling families (defining the client, welfare and rights of individuals versus those of family system, informed consent and manipulative therapeutic techniques, family members who refuse to participate, confidentiality, and family values). Concludes with specific
Escalating health care costs place our country at an economic disadvantage in the world marketplace. Currently, a mixture of rationing methods in the health care system limits access to control costs. Federal and state moneys fund the state Medicaid programs. States on limited budgets often tighten eligibility to far below the poverty level; those with benefits get unlimited care and those without get none. The state of Oregon has a different idea: Medicaid covers everyone below the poverty level but limits services to those with the "best cost-to-benefit ratio." Many people consider the distribution and finance of health care an ethical issue. The Oregon plan raises some ethical concerns and several arguments. The federal government waived Title XIX of the Social Security Act to allow implementation of the plan. Many providers believe universal access is important; however, the drive to see more patients may limit visit time. PMID:8907784
Ahmad Bello, Dogarawa
Banks in the modern day society, almost everywhere, play a multifarious role, which includes unifying and intermediary roles between the fund-supplying and fund-demanding sides of the society, executing savings and investment functions. Considering the requirements for protection of the rights and interests of innumerable depositors, establishment of stability and confidence in financial markets along with requirements for economic development, banks are expected to ethically pursue their ope...
Manzar, Nabeel; Manzar, Bushra; Hussain, Nuzhat; Hussain, M Fawwad Ahmed; Raza, Sajjad
To determine the knowledge, attitude, and ethical concerns of medical students and graduates with regard to Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC) research. This questionnaire based descriptive study was conducted at the Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), Pakistan from February to July 2008. A well structured questionnaire was administered to medical students and graduate doctors, which included their demographic profile as well as questions in line with the study objective. Informed consent was taken and full confidentiality was assured to the participants. Data were entered in a Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version.12) and analyzed. A total of 204 male and 216 female medical students and doctors were administered questionnaires out of which 105 males (51.4%) and 108 females (50%) were aware of the embryonic stem cell research and its ethical implications. Forty percent males and 47% of females were of the opinion that life begins at conception. Forty-six percent males and 39% females were in favor of stem cell research while only 31% males and 28% females supported the ESC research. Less than 1/3 of students supported using frozen embryos for research purposes while more than 2/3 indicated that they were unlikely to support abortion for stem cell research purposes. The majority of the students were in favor of stem cell research with some reservations regarding ESC research. A sizeable number of students withheld their views, reflecting their poor understanding of medical ethics. The result of the study indicates a need for incorporating bioethics into the medical curriculum. PMID:22038063
Full Text Available USA Government wiretapping activities is a very controversial issue. Undoubtedly this technology canassist law enforced authority to detect / identify unlawful or hostile activities; however, this task raisessevere privacy concerns. In this paper, we have discussed this complex information technology issue ofgovernmental wiretapping and how it effects both public and private liberties. Legislation has had amajor impact on the uses and the stigma of wiretapping for the war on terrorism. This paper alsoanalyzes the ethical and legal concerns inherent when discussing the benefits and concerns ofwiretapping. The analysis has concluded with the effects of wiretapping laws as they relate to futuregovernment actions in their fight against terrorists.
Samtani B, Suraj; Jadue Z, Mariana; Beca I, Juan Pablo
It is indispensable for physicians to understand and recognize the fusion of different cultures, to deliver the best possible service to patients with different cultural backgrounds, especially when ethical-medical problems are involved. The Hindu community in Chile differs in significant ways with the western culture. This is especially true for some issues such as the belief in reincarnation or gender inequality, among others. These discrepancies can be relevant for the analysis of several bioethical problems. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the different beliefs, traditions and Hindu visions. We hereby present a review of Hinduism, its relation with medical practice and, as an example, a case of abortion in a Hindu family. Reviewing the traditions, beliefs and methods will help to understand and respect the beliefs of different cultures in contemporary and globalized bioethics. PMID:20098814
Marlise Silva Barros, Rose Mary Costa Rosa Andrade Silva, Eliane Ramos Pereira, Marcos Andrade Silva
Full Text Available Objective: this study intends reflect philosophically about the ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses from the Intensive Care Center at University Hospital Antonio Pedro, from the Theory of Value of Max Scheler. Methods: this is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. The population shall be defined by the technique of saturation, consisting of nurses of the sector, to be interviewed after the signing of the Free Informed Consent forms, if they wish participate spontaneously in the study. The information will be transcribed, categorized in order of significance and analyzed from the theoretical framework of Max Scheler who looks on the objectivity of values and the process of seizure of emotional character. The project has received approval from the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine / University Hospital Antonio Pedro. Expected results: through the analysis of data, based on theoretical referential, the study intends to contribute to the decision making process of nurses, in front of the possible ethical dilemmas experienced with regard to practical work and, moreover, with the quality of care provided by nurses in the Intensive Care Center.
Eberholst, Mads Kæmsgaard; Hartley, Jannie Møller; Olsen, Maria Bendix
to broader issues of journalistic ethics. Some of these experienced problems are, combined with the technological mechanisms, much embodied in online journalism and in journalistic practice in general. The survey indicates that the problems amplify the discrepancy between the students expectation of......This article looks at journalism students experiences in a course that simulates an online newsroom. On the basis of a quantitative survey and more qualitative reflections from the students, we explore the dilemmas that students experience working as online journalists and how these are related...... good journalism and the perceived practice of online journalism. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of providing a course that simulates a real newsroom....
This article focuses on the measure of involuntary treatment of mental patients in the community, not only with regard to human rights and more specifically those of persons with mental disorders, but also with regard to ethics and deontology in mental healthcare delivery service. In this light, the important role of informed consent in psychiatry with regard to the psychiatric act is examined. Informed consent of mental patients in treatment when they are in need of voluntary or involuntary hospitalization is further examined, while emphasis is being put on the case of involuntary treatment. The Convention for Human Rights and Biomedicine (Convention of ?viedo), the European Convention of Human Rights, other documents of International Organizations (UN) and specialized national legislation (A. 2071/1992, Chapter vi, Greek law) constitute basic reference and interpretation points. The examination of consent and the demarcation of the exceptions are important issues that need to be approached. More particularly, our interest lies with the article 7 of the Convention for Human Rights and Biomedicine, which specifically refers to the protection of person who suffers from a mental disorder. The opinion that informed consent in psychiatric treatment and involuntary treatment are concepts and processes which are distinct but not always mutually exclusive is enhanced. In any case, involuntary treatment causes major dilemmas as far as informed consent in the psychiatric act is concerned, as it raises issues that affect the autonomy of the person. Today, however, there are many factors which influence public politics towards the adoption of the measure of involuntary treatment within the community. How is it that this paradoxical link is legitimized and justified: involuntary treatment and community? The enactment of the above mentioned measure in many European and North American countries has created new paths in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. Nonetheless, it continues to divide the psychiatric and legal word for it causes intense questioning from a legal, ethical, deontological and clinical aspect, as it offends fundamental rights of the individual. In a legal civilization, in which the principle of informed consent or refusal constitutes a basic rule of the lawfulness of the medical and psychiatric act, any divergence from this rule has consequences for the patients and affects a well-tempered therapeutic treatment. The above mentioned measure could be counterbalanced by the legal regulation of advance directives and the provision for the appointment of a proxy person by the mental patient. PMID:25630547
Mabel, Creagh Peña.
Full Text Available La eutanasia significa una muerte buena. Desde el punto de vista jurídico, es la muerte sin sufrimiento físico provocada por propia voluntad de un enfermo incurable. En la práctica consiste en administrar drogas, fármacos u otras sustancias que alivien el dolor aunque con ello se acorte la vida. La [...] decisión de la aplicación de la eutanasia ha sido un problema persistente en la historia de la humanidad, ideologías diversas se enfrentan defendiendo sus argumentos de si debe o no practicarse. El objetivo de este trabajo, es exponer las consideraciones éticas, científicas y religiosas, sobre la práctica de la eutanasia a partir de un análisis histórico desde los tiempos de Platón hasta la actualidad. Lo verdaderamente importante es que el hombre, como ser racional, capaz de revolucionar constantemente la ciencia y la técnica y de transformar la naturaleza en beneficio de la especie, debe también morir con dignidad. Abstract in english Euthanasia means nice death. From the legal viewpoint, it means physical suffering-free provoked death willingly accepted by a terminally-ill patient. In practice, it means to administer drugs, pharmaceuticals or other substances that release pain even though they may reduce lifetime. The decision f [...] or euthanasia has been a persistent controversy in the history of mankind; thus various ideologies clash in support of arguments in favour or against this practice. The objective of this paper is to present ethical, scientific and religious considerations on the implementation of euthanasia, taking as a basis a historical analysis covering from Platon up to the present times. It is really important that man, as a rational being capable of permanently revolutionizing science and technique and transforming nature for the benefit of the species, should also die with dignity.
Mabel Creagh Peña
Full Text Available La eutanasia significa una muerte buena. Desde el punto de vista jurídico, es la muerte sin sufrimiento físico provocada por propia voluntad de un enfermo incurable. En la práctica consiste en administrar drogas, fármacos u otras sustancias que alivien el dolor aunque con ello se acorte la vida. La decisión de la aplicación de la eutanasia ha sido un problema persistente en la historia de la humanidad, ideologías diversas se enfrentan defendiendo sus argumentos de si debe o no practicarse. El objetivo de este trabajo, es exponer las consideraciones éticas, científicas y religiosas, sobre la práctica de la eutanasia a partir de un análisis histórico desde los tiempos de Platón hasta la actualidad. Lo verdaderamente importante es que el hombre, como ser racional, capaz de revolucionar constantemente la ciencia y la técnica y de transformar la naturaleza en beneficio de la especie, debe también morir con dignidad.Euthanasia means nice death. From the legal viewpoint, it means physical suffering-free provoked death willingly accepted by a terminally-ill patient. In practice, it means to administer drugs, pharmaceuticals or other substances that release pain even though they may reduce lifetime. The decision for euthanasia has been a persistent controversy in the history of mankind; thus various ideologies clash in support of arguments in favour or against this practice. The objective of this paper is to present ethical, scientific and religious considerations on the implementation of euthanasia, taking as a basis a historical analysis covering from Platon up to the present times. It is really important that man, as a rational being capable of permanently revolutionizing science and technique and transforming nature for the benefit of the species, should also die with dignity.
Full Text Available The article discusses the principle of autonomy of patientss choice in a highly sensitive area, the obstetrics, regarding two issues which arise many dilemmas and debates, the induced abortion and the elective cesarean section..It brings up many pro and cons ethical arguments, reviews the various points of view and historical, legal, religious and humanist influences.Article stresses the need to adapt the old ethic principles to the realities of the actual complex society and the necessity of fully respect for the fundamental rights of the patient, including autonomy. Article leaves still open the problem of the influence of various factors on patients choice, and the need for the physician to assure the observance of this right.
Ethical Dilemmas in Financial Reporting Situations and the Preferred Mode of Resolution of Ethical Conflicts as Taken by Certified and Noncertified Management Accountants in Organizations with Perceived Different Ethical Work Climates.
McKenna, John N.
Responses from 37.7% of 491 chief financial officers surveyed revealed a majority of organizational climates based on law and codes. Most believed their organizations attempted sound financial reporting and ethical operation. Certified accountants perceived a greater likelihood of the occurrence of ethical dilemmas than did noncertified
kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia
Ongoing structural and financial changes in the health care sector have resulted in increased risks for ethical dilemmas and moral distress. It is purported that increased ethical competence will help staff manage ethical dilemmas and hence decrease moral distress. To enhance ethical competence several approaches may be used theoretical education, and methods focusing on reflection and decision-making abilities. Ethics rounds are a widespread systematic method hypothesized to improve ethica...
Full Text Available Introduction: In the age of neoliberalism, there are differences in the implementation of nursing activities due to business interests being integrated into nurse-patient relationships. An example of this is hotel-type nursing, which involves fulfilling patientsâ needs by charging for nursing services (or by charging an additional fee for extra services. Whether this constitutes a contemporary nursing development or a danger is an important question. Â This paper explores an approach to resolving ethical dilemmas, which often emerge when the interests of businesses, nurses, and patients are integrated, as contemporary nursing is implemented according to community care principles.Methods: In a case study of nursesâ activities conducted in June 2013 and 2014 in three different institutions, the methods of observation and interviews were used. The collected data were analyzed using Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT methodology, and then verified and updated with a power diagram qualitative interpretation and the Decide, Establish, Consider, Identify, Develop, and Implement (DECIDE decision-making model.Results: Based on my study of hotel-type nursing, an approach to resolving ethical dilemmas which arise with the integration of business interests into nurse-patient relationships is explained.Discussion: Hotel-type nursing involves an adaptation by nurses to a change in their relationship with the patient. This adaptation must ensure that the nurseâs professionalism is recognized as being significantly more beneficial to the patient than a reduction of the nurseâs role to one of simply fulfilling a patientâs wishes.Conclusion: Hotel-type nursing can be advantageous in the development of contemporary nursing if nurses adhere to high ethical standards and practice self-control.
Three controversial ethical issues, among others, stir the debate in health care institutions, in medical associations, and in the whole society: the care of patients in persistent vegetative state, the regulation of artificial procreation, some individual requests for reshaping an healthy body. Dealing with these dilemmas, typical of advanced medical science and technological practice, implies not only balancing carefully the burdens and benefits for suffering persons, families, equipes, hospitals, cultural and religious communities, but also imaging and realizing new visions of a just society, of a beneficent (without paternalism) medicine and generally of a good life, where each moral agent could write in front of all and in worthy, convincing ways, the next chapter of the book of his/her own life. PMID:21560776
Full Text Available This article argues that various deviations from the basic principles of the scientific ethos â primarily the appearance of pseudoscience in scientific communities â can be formulated and explained using specific models of game theory, such as the prisonerâs dilemma and the iterated prisonerâs dilemma. The article indirectly tackles the deontology of scientific work as well, in which it is assumed that there is no room for moral skepticism, let alone moral anti-realism, in the ethics of scientific communities. Namely, on the basis of the generally accepted dictum of scientific endeavor as the pursuit of knowledge exclusively for knowledgeâs sake, scientifically Â»rightÂ« behavior is seen to be clearly defined and distinguishable from scientifically Â»wrongÂ« behavior. After elucidating the basic principles of game theory, the article illustrates â by using imaginary and real cases, as well as some views from the philosophyof biology (the units of selection debate â how this sort of reasoning could be applied in an analysis of the functioning of science.
The present situation of the HIV/AIDS epidemic is very grim in China. The probability of China becoming a country with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS cannot be excluded because there have been factors which promote the wide spread of HIV if we fail to take timely action to prevent it at the opportune moment. However, China's HIV prevention policy is inadequate. Health professionals and programmers believed that they could take a conventional public health approach to cope with the HIV epidemic. They simply ignored the fact that HIV infection is an epidemic so special that their approach is not effective to deter the epidemic. Many health professionals and programmers bypassed ethical issues that had emerged in the prevention of the HIV epidemic. Even some health educators, sexologists and officials believe that 'AIDS is the punishment for promiscuity', and this belief has led to discrimination and stigmatization of AIDS patients, HIV positive people, their family members and high risk groups. Although homosexuality is not illegal, the police can always find any reason to detain homosexuals. A difficult ethical issue is about the laws prohibiting prostitution and drug use in China which force prostitutes and intravenous drug users underground, giving them no chance to access information, education and the services needed to protect them. The dilemma facing China is whether to stay with a restrictive policy for the reason of ideology cleansing or to turn to a more supportive policy. It is necessary to have some change in the ethical framework to evaluate the action in HIV prevention. Tolerance should be the first ethical principle. PMID:11654786
Eberholst, Mads Kæmsgaard; Hartley, Jannie MØller
This article looks at journalism students experiences in a simulated online newsroom. On the basis of a quantitative survey and more qualitative reflections from the students we explore what dilemmas that students experience working as online journalists and how these are or are not related to broader issues of journalistic ethics. Some of these problems are, combined with the technological mechanisms, much embodied in online journalism and to journalistic practice in general: for example allowing sources to request for review of quotes and requiring rewrites of quotes and/or articles although the article is published. The survey shows that some students also publish wrong facts and articles without relevant sources partly because of the demands for fast news production. The survey indicates that the problems amplify the discrepancy between the students expectation of good journalism and the perceived practice of online journalism. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of providing such a course, which simulates a real newsroom and what it means for the learning outcome in terms of both journalistic practice and ethics.
A study examined news coverage by "The Saint Petersburg Times" of a local double teen suicide in August 1993. Focusing on how the story was covered, the study explored the newspaper's decision-making process, analyzing the process in relation to standard philosophical methods in ethics and recognized journalistic principles. As background,
Newman, Anne; Glass, Ronald David
This essay examines several ethical and epistemological issues that arise when philosophers conduct empirical research focused on, or in collaboration with, community groups seeking to bring about systemic change. This type of research can yield important policy lessons about effective community-driven reform and how to incorporate the voices ofâ¦
Fresneau, Brice; Brugières, Laurence; Caron, Olivier; Moutel, Grégoire
In 2001, a French expert panel recommended that presymptomatic tests should not be carried out on minors in families affected by Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), flying in the face of possible parental demands for such testing. We decided to investigate the legitimacy of such a recommendation. We conducted a national multicenter survey using self-administered questionnaires mailed to French oncogeneticists in 33 regional centers in France. We aimed to (1) determine the extent to which these doctors were confronted with parental requests for TP53 testing, (2) study how they responded to these requests and the arguments used and (3) assess the attitude of oncogeneticists concerning the normative framework regulating the prescription of tests for minors. Twenty oncogeneticists stated that they had managed at least one LFS family. Eleven of these doctors had been confronted with parental requests for testing and three had prescribed such tests on at least one occasion. The oncogeneticists gave balanced medical, psychological and ethical arguments, highlighting the dilemma they face in the decision-making process. This dilemma is due to the lack of a consensus concerning this recommendation, which aims to protect the minor by limiting presymptomatic tests to cases in which a clear medical benefit can be demonstrated but which prevents the unique situation of particular families from being taken into account. In conclusion, the recommendation has a normative status but first, from a clinical stance, it is difficult to dissociate it from the evaluation of individual family situations, and second, the benefit of a specific medical follow-up for TP53 mutation carriers is currently being investigated. PMID:23233110
Manos, Emmanouil; Gkika, Dimitra; Euthimiou, Christoforos; Lola, Vassiliki; Potonos, Stefanos; Kokkori, Ioanna; Tsiouda, Theodora; Pililitsis, Leonidas; Angel, Jacob
Background Lung cancer is second in frequency in both sexes, with very poor prognosis and high mortality rates. Smoking is the main cause. Malignant neoplasms of the lung on pregnancy are not very frequent. They constitute a direct threat for the womans life and simultaneously the outcome of pregnancy is doubtful. Objective We present this case because of the rarity of coexistence of lung neoplasm and pregnancy, in absence of treatment guidelines. The question of overcoming, by the attending physician, the ethical dilemmas and the medical protocols is apposed, in the progress and outcome of pregnancy, when lung malignant neoplasm coexists. Methods A 33-year-old woman, smoker, with occasional alcohol consumption and medical history of Leiden thrombophilia, is at 18-19 weeks of gestation. She presents to the emergency department of the general hospital with reported episodes of dyspnea and cough. She refers cough with difficulty in the elimination of sputum, dyspnea, orthopnea, facial and neck edema with venous distension, common symptoms of superior vena cava syndrome. The CT scan revealed a lung mass in the right upper lobe with the right hilum involved. The rest of the staging was negative. Results The first bronchoscopy revealed edema in the main carina and right upper lobe stenosis while the biopsy samples did not demonstrate a histological identification. Mediastinoscopy was followed and revealed a poorly differentiated carcinoma (primary pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor). Both patient and relatives consented to start chemotherapy treatment. After four cycles of chemotherapy with carboplatin + etoposide, the patient in the 7th month of gestation, gave birth to a healthy baby boy weighted 1,130 gr. The patient died after four months because she suffered from an extremely aggressive tumor with brain and diffused spinal metastatic infiltrations and also from the appearance of paraneoplastic disorders like Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. Conclusions The successful outcome of pregnancy with coexisting malignant lung neoplasm is an achievable target, even though seems rather impossible. It is required a conscious overcoming, not only of the lack of existing treatment guidelines but also by the involving of the ethical dilemmas that may arise.
Marcus, Brian S; Carlson, Jestin N; Hegde, Gajanan G; Shang, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind
We sought to evaluate whether health care professionals' viewpoints differed on the role of ethics committees and hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethical dilemmas based on practice location. We conducted a survey study from December 21, 2013 to March 15, 2014 of health care professionals at six hospitals (one tertiary care academic medical center, three large community hospitals and two small community hospitals). The survey consisted of eight clinical ethics cases followed by statements on whether there was a role for the ethics committee or hospital in their resolution, what that role might be and case specific queries. Respondents used a 5-point Likert scale to express their degree of agreement with the premises posed. We used the ANOVA test to evaluate whether respondent views significantly varied based on practice location. 240 health care professionals (108-tertiary care center, 92-large community hospitals, 40-small community hospitals) completed the survey (response rate: 63.6Â %). Only three individual queries of 32 showed any significant response variations across practice locations. Overall, viewpoints did not vary across practice locations within question categories on whether the ethics committee or hospital had a role in case resolution, what that role might be and case specific queries. In this multicenter survey study, the viewpoints of health care professionals on the role of ethics committees or hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethics cases varied little based on practice location. PMID:25519957
Greene, C. H.; Kammen, D. M.
For over 200 years, fossil fuels have been the basis for an industrial revolution that has delivered a level of prosperity to modern society unimaginable during the previous 5000 years of human civilization. However, society's dependence on fossil fuels is coming to an end for two reasons. The first reason is because our fossil fuel reserves are running out, oil in this century, natural gas during the next century, and coal a few centuries later. The second reason is because fossil fuels are having a devastating impact on the habitability of our planet, disrupting our climate system and acidifying our oceans. So the question is not whether we will discontinue using fossil fuels, but rather whether we will stop using them before they do irreparable damage to the Earth's life-support systems. Within our geoscience community, climate scientists have determined that a majority of existing fossil fuel reserves must remain unburned if dangerous climate change and ocean acidification are to be avoided. In contrast, Exxon-Mobil, Shell, and other members of the fossil fuel industry are pursuing a business model that assumes all of their reserves will be burned and will not become stranded assets. Since the geosciences have had a long and mutually beneficial relationship with the fossil fuel industry, this inherent conflict between climate science and industrial interests presents an ethical dilemma for many geoscientists. This conflict is further heightened by the fossil fuel divestment movement, which is underway at over 400 college and university campuses around the world. This presentation will explore some of the ethical and financial issues being raised by the divestment movement from a geoscientist's perspective.
Proposals to manipulate the fertility of wild, free-living animals extend the domination humans already exercise over domesticated animals. Current lethal methods for population control include poisoning, trapping, hunting, dogging, shooting, explosives, fumigants, and deliberately introduced disease. Animal welfare interests are based on individual animal suffering, but those interests are often overshadowed by labelling of groups of animals as pests, resource species, national emblem or endangered species. Public concern for animal welfare and acceptance of new population control methods will be influenced by such labels. The animal welfare implications of new population control technology must be balanced against the existing inhumane lethal methods used. It will be difficult to resolve the dilemma of a mechanism for disseminating a fertility control agent that will cause some animal suffering (e.g. a genetically-manipulated myxoma virus for European rabbits), yet may reduce future rabbit populations and therefore the number suffering from lethal methods. An Animal Impact Statement is proposed as a tool to assist debate during development of fertility control methods and for decision making prior to their use. A comprehensive and objective Animal Impact Statement may introduce an ethic that moves the pendulum from attitudes that allow sentient animals to be destroyed by any and all available means, towards a more objective selection of the most effective and humane methods. PMID:9109207
LaMontagne, Ramona Marie
This qualitative study examined the perceptions of human resource managers who had faced ethical dilemmas in the workplace, to gain an understanding of how they felt their life experiences shaped their values in making ethical decisions. The experiences of ten human resource managers who believed they chose a right course of action when faced with
Francisco José Castilhos Karam
Full Text Available This work intends to locate and to explore the complexities of
some classical moral dilemmas in human history considering two
paradigms as references: Antigones, created by Sophocles; and
Gacel Sayahs, created by Vázquez-Figueroa. The work situates
both historical and contemporary dilemmas of journalism and
points out examples furnished by professionals in activity and
academic experts. At the same time, it relates immediate conflicts to particularities of journalistic activity from the historical perspective of consolidation of values to the present scenario of professional journalism in both Cyberspace and the Information Society (in which ethics, techniques and aesthetics try to structure the perspective of moral convergence in order to support the activity and its social credibility and legitimacy.
Ho, Anita; MacDonald, Lisa Mei-Hwa; Unger, David
Healthcare institutions have been making increasing efforts to standardize consultation methodology and to accredit both bioethics training programs and the consultants accordingly. The focus has traditionally been on the ethics consultation as the relevant unit of ethics intervention. Outcome measures are studied in relation to consultations, and the hidden assumption is that consultations are the preferred or best way to address day-to-day ethical dilemmas. Reflecting on the data from an internal quality improvement survey and the literature, we argue that having general ethics education as a key function of ethics services may be more important in meeting the contemporaneous needs of acute care settings. An expanded and varied ethics education, with attention to the time constraints of healthcare workers' schedules, was a key recommendation brought forward by survey respondents. Promoting ethical reflection and creating a culture of ethics may serve to prevent ethical dilemmas or mitigate their effects. PMID:25752297
Kamuya, Dorcas M; Theobald, Sally J; Munywoki, Patrick K; Koech, Dorothy; Geissler, Wenzel P; Molyneux, Sassy C
Fieldworkers (FWs) are community members employed by research teams to support access to participants, address language barriers, and advise on culturally appropriate research conduct. The critical role that FWs play in studies, and the range of practical and ethical dilemmas associated with their involvement, is increasingly recognised. In this paper, we draw on qualitative observation and interview data collected alongside a six month basic science study which involved a team of FWs regularly visiting 47 participating households in their homes. The qualitative study documented how relationships between field workers and research participants were initiated, developed and evolved over the course of the study, the shifting dilemmas FWs faced and how they handled them. Even in this one case study, we see how the complex and evolving relationships between fieldworkers and study participants had important implications for consent processes, access to benefits and mutual understanding and trust. While the precise issues that FWs face are likely to depend on the type of research and the context in which that research is being conducted, we argue that appropriate support for field workers is a key requirement to strengthen ethical research practice and for the long term sustainability of research programmes. PMID:23433316
While Principlism is a widely accepted consensus statement for ethics, the moral theory that underpins it faces serious challenges. This two-part paper proposes a version of virtue theory as a more grounded system of moral analysis. Part 2 examines the role of basic moral theory as the foundation to ethics and suggests how virtue theory can be used as a central framework for ethics while being inclusive of insights from deontology and consequentialism. PMID:25792615
This article proposes that Julia Kristevas semiotic view of language supports the mother/child paradigm as a model for ethical discourse. Her defense of motherhood, particularly her discussion of the sacredness of maternal love and the mother tongue, strengthens the argument that motherhood is a primary means of preserving language acquisition and ethical development. It focuses on motherhoods ability to ensure, protect and preserve the possibility of productive ethical discourse through ve...
Mishara, Brian L.; Weisstub, David N.
The ethical basis of suicide prevention is illustrated by contrasting helpline emergency rescue policies of the Samaritans and the AAS and the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline network. We contrast moralist, relativist, and libertarian ethical premises and question whether suicide can be rational. Samaritans respect a caller's right to
Waples, Elaine; Darayseh, Musa
The corporate scandals of recent years have highlighted the failure of ethics, not only in corporate management, but also in the big accounting firms. For tax professionals, there is an inherent conflict of interest that makes studying ethics in the context of tax practice problematic. On the one hand, the tax professional is a client advocate
Penchaszadeh, Victor B
This paper reviews the health situation and developments in medical genetics and bioethics in Latin America, with a focus on Argentina. The region is the most inequitable in the world, with an average Gini Index of 52.5 and 25 % of the population living in poverty. Health expenditures are low and health systems are fragmented and privatised, with curtailed governmental responsibility and regulation. Health-care decision making is mostly in the hands of private insurance corporations and the medical-industrial complex, so that what is (or is not) covered by health plans is arbitrary and determined by the market and not by population health needs. This inequity and the lack of meaningful governmental intervention in the provision of health care, including genetic services, are at the heart of the bioethical dilemmas in Latin America. It is not surprising, therefore, that bioethics in the region has developed an approach grounded in social justice, equity and human rights as guiding principles, in contrast to the individualism espoused by Anglo-Saxon bioethics. The main ethical issues identified in genetics in Latin America are (1) inequity in access to genetic services, particularly in prenatal diagnosis, (2) genetic discrimination and (3) the lack of adherence to internationally accepted requisites of clinical validity and utility for diagnostic and predictive genetic testing. In this context, there is a risk that the impressive advances in genetics/genomics occurring in developed countries may fail to improve the public's health and deepen inequity, with the implementation of expensive genetic technologies of unproven validity. PMID:25666434
Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza
This paper attempts to analyze the way in which the issue of ethics in social research is dealt by institutional commissions based in biomedicine criteria. This discussion is particularly important for Social Sciences in Health, as our projects must necessarily be presented to Committees for assessment. In actual fact, Resolution N masculine 196/1996 issued by the National Health Council establishes this mandatory requirement for all social areas. However, there is a question among researchers working with social issues, arguing that the health sector is moving outside its field when attempting to regulate actions in other fields of investigation. Grounded on philosophical anthropology, this paper is divided into three parts: (1) elements of anthropological foundations of ethics; (2) contributions of Anthropology to thinking about ethics and human rights in health; (3) internal and external questioning about anthropological practice. I conclude that if the ethical issue that involves human beings cannot be reduced to the procedures established by Ethics Committees, discussions in greater depth are required among social scientists on the construction of a practice based on and guided by respect for the intersubjectivity of all the players engaged in a research project. PMID:18813549
Bush, Victoria D.; Smith, Rachel Korthage; Bush, Alan J.
A large body of pedagogical research exists on developing curricula and ethics training tools to prepare college graduates for entering the workforce. However, many college students are "already" in the workforce while they attend school. Many of these jobs are entry-level or frontline employee positions in retail or service industries,
Carlson, John S.; Thaler, Cara L.; Hirsch, Amanda J.
Assessing, consulting, and intervening with students being treated with psychotropic medications is an increasingly common activity for school psychologists. This article reviews some of the literature providing evidence for the greater need for training in school psychopharmacology. A legal and ethical case study is presented that highlights the
... submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval. Proposed Collection: Title... services will provide better insight into the perspective and culture of surgery as it relates to ethical... public comment on proposed data collection projects, the Department of Bioethics, the Clinical...
Full Text Available Douglas Renwick (2003 said that the personnel function plays therole of guardian of employeesâ wellbeing, but on the other hand, hesaid that personnel managers also tamper with the wellbeing of employees.Looking at Renwickâs theory through Ulrichâs model of personnelmanagers as guardians of employeesâ wellbeing, they play therole of strategic partners, managers of the changes and the role of theemployees representatives. Gantz and Hayes (in Payne and Wayland,1999 explicated a few fields where we can talk of ethical conflict whileperforming these roles: discrimination, psychological tests, anti-unionbehaviour, design of work flow, job insecurity, discipline, confidentiality,privacy, and firing because of technological redundancy. In this paperwe explore the field of potential and real ethical conflicts of humanresource managers.What are the most important values of humanresources managers? In which areas do ethical conflicts occur?And how do they solve these conflicts on an everyday basis? We usedquestionnaires to gather data on these issues. We found out that managerswho are in leading positions suffer the most, next are those whohave had long tenure. In this situation ethical codes donât help much.
Mitchell, Jennifer M.; Yordy, Eric D.
This article describes a model that aims to create a greater ability to recognize the negative aspects of making unethical decisions. To this end, the authors developed an ethical decision-making model to aid students through the process of analyzing these situations--a model that is easy to remember and apply. Through this model, the COVER model,
Kauffman, James M.; Hallahan, Daniel P.
Ethical issues regarding children with disabilities have long involved their treatment after they are born. These issues remain important, but children may be deliberately created with or without characteristics that are usually thought of as disabilities. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and related technologies that involve human
Leigh N. Wood; Peter Dixon
Stakeholder analysis is an essential part of business education as students develop awareness of the different perspectives that influence business and the difficult decisions made by business, government and communities. An important aspect of learning is to think critically about who is presenting the viewpoint and the conclusions they have drawn. We have found that the Jigsaw Method is a powerful way to learn the importance of different viewpoints in the teaching of ethical practice and su...
There is not any doubt that the SCT procedure involves important ethical and legal aspects. The expectations of patients concerning the quality of life and the new way of treatment are certainly an important motivation for researchers and physicians. Societies in Europe seem to accept the idea of using their own or allogeneic stem cells for tissue engineering and transplantation. A physician should be aware of the standards established by tradition and act within the general principles that have governed professional conduct. The International Code of Ethics and the Declaration of Geneva (1948), developed and approved by the World Medical Association, have modernized the ancient codes. They have been endorsed by each member organization, including The Polish Medical Association, as a general guide with nationwide application. The Polish Chamber of Physicians accepts the responsibility of delineating the standard of ethical behavior expected of Polish physicians. An interpretation of the principles concerning SCT is developed in the following pages as a guide for individual SCT physicians. PMID:18978753
Umeora, Ouj; Chukwuneke, Fn
The traditional African society places an invaluable premium on procreation and, in some communities, a woman's place in her matrimony is only confirmed on positive reproductive outcome. Infertility is rife in Nigeria, and HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection is a global pandemic, which has led to a drop in life expectancy across the world. In Nigeria, a number of cultural norms relating to gender roles and power dynamics constitute a serious barrier to issues of sexuality and infertility. Couples are concerned about their infertility diagnostic test being disclosed to each other, especially before marriage. This concern is understandable, especially in an environment that lacks the modern concepts and attitude toward sexual matters. This is complicated by the advent of HIV/AIDS infection and the societal mind-set that look at seropostive individuals as transgressors. At present, sexual and reproductive health rights are currently not in place because ethical issues are not given prominence by many physicians in Nigeria. A case of an infertile and seropostive discordant couple, which raised a lot of medical and ethical concerns, is presented here to awaken the consciousness of Nigerian physicians and stimulate discussions on the ethical matters such as this in clinical practice. PMID:23634339
Crawshaw, Marilyn A; Glaser, Adam W; Pacey, Allan A
Increased awareness of the importance of fertility concerns to teenage cancer survivors is leading to growing numbers of male teenagers being offered sperm banking at the time of diagnosis. This is now extending to males diagnosed with other conditions where gonadotoxic agents are used in treatment. The storage of sperm in these circumstances is a challenging aspect of health care, given the complex issues and timescale involved. UK law has been enacted to protect legal minors from the potentially harmful effects of exposure to pornographic materials, yet there is reason to suppose that their use in this context could have therapeutic benefit in aiding successful masturbation. This paper uses material gained through consultation with the eleven largest UK sperm banks and 94 male teenage cancer survivors, to discuss the associated legal and ethical dilemmas, including those around the role of parents/carers. Findings suggest that there is variable practice in sperm banks, that almost a quarter of teenage males wanted access to soft porn when banking sperm, and half wanted to bring in their own materials. It concludes that there is an urgent need for any legal barriers to the therapeutic use of pornographic materials to be understood and examined. PMID:17786648
Roberto Israel RodrÃguez Soriano
Full Text Available This essay is a reflection on some of the political elements embedded in the ethical problems of medically assisted suicide and euthanasia. The thesis work is that political theoretical foundaÂtions of modern nations are aimed to protect the lives of people, a fact that responds to a series of historical processes of the very development of modern political theory. These fundamentals directly affect the cultural and political positions for the refusal to accept the legalization or regulation of the two practices in question, thus denying the right of self-determination in human decision making on the own life and death.
Full Text Available El artículo se propone identificar los principales dilemas éticos emergentes en el uso de medios sociales por parte de los periodistas. Para ello, recorre experiencias recientes que dieron lugar a reflexiones sobre la necesidad de establecer pautas específicas para la publicación de contenidos en es [...] tos medios, y analiza las características y la pertinencia de las respuestas deontológicas a esos dilemas, ensayadas en los últimos dos años por distintas organizaciones periodísticas de proyección internacional. Finalmente, se clasifican y describen los modelos deontológicos de acuerdo con el grado de autonomía que las organizaciones conceden al periodista para que se exprese libremente en los medios sociales, y se plantea la necesidad de la autorregulación individual y de fortalecer el compromiso del periodista con la excelencia profesional. Abstract in english This paper aims to identify key emerging ethical dilemmas when journalists use social media. To this end, it goes over recent experiences that led to reflections on the need for specific guidelines for publishing content in social media, and analyzes the characteristics and relevance of ethical resp [...] onses to these dilemmas, that were stated in the last two years by different international news organizations. Lastly, it classifies and describes ethical models according to the degree of autonomy granted by organizations to their journalists to express themselvesfreely in social media, and raises the needfor individual self-regulation and for strengthen journalist's commitment with professional excellence.
THEY SAY ISLAM HAS A SOLUTION FOR EVERYTHING, SO WHY ARE THERE NO GUIDELINES FOR THIS? ETHICAL DILEMMAS ASSOCIATED WITH THE BIRTHS AND DEATHS OF INFANTS WITH FATAL ABNORMALITIES FROM A SMALL SAMPLE OF PAKISTANI MUSLIM COUPLES IN BRITAIN
This paper presents ethical dilemmas concerning the termination of pregnancy, the management of childbirth, and the withdrawal of life-support from infants in special care, for a small sample of British Pakistani Muslim parents of babies diagnosed with fatal abnormalities. Case studies illustrating these dilemmas are taken from a qualitative study of 66 families of Pakistani origin referred to a genetics clinic in Southern England. The paper shows how parents negotiated between the authoritat...
Maria Christina Anna, Grieger.
Full Text Available CONTEXTO AND OBJETIVO: Com o avanço científico e tecnológico ocorrido a partir dos anos 60, surgiu um crescente aumento do número de pesquisas científicas e uma inflação de co-autorias. Ao longo do tempo, observou-se que numerosas publicações mostravam autores ou co-autores cuja participação na pesq [...] uisa publicada havia sido mínima ou até mesmo inexistente. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar, através da literatura, as situações de má-conduta em autoria: tipos, principais causas, conseqüências e normas éticas; e estabelecer propostas para que as publicações científicas apresentem um maior comprometimento ético. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Revisão narrativa realizada na Faculdade de Medicina de Itajubá, Minas Gerais, Brasil. MÉTODO: Análise de publicações sobre autoria, através das bases de dados Medline, Lilacs e SciELO. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Freqüentes tipos de má conduta são autoria "presenteada", fragmentação e duplicação em publicações. As causas que mais induzem a essas situações parecem ser a pressão exercida pela academia e o desejo de ascensão social e profissional. Esse viés na ciência, acrescido de outras formas de autoria antiética, continua até hoje, apesar dos critérios definidos pelo Comitê Internacional de Editores de Periódicos Médicos, o Grupo de Vancouver. RECOMENDAÇÕES: São propostas várias ações juntoàs instituições de ensino, agências de fomento à pesquisa, órgãos reguladores e associações de classe, para que se institua uma política de avaliação que priorize a qualidade das publicações, bem como o estabelecimento de preceitos éticos em pesquisa e produção científica. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The scientific and technological progress that has taken place since the 1960s has brought an ever-growing volume of scientific research, and inflation in co-authorship. Over this period, it has been observed that an increasing number of publications have listed authors or co- [...] authors whose participation in the published research was minimal or even nonexistent. The objective of this work was to analyze reports in the literature regarding misconduct in authorship: its types, chief causes, consequences and ethical guidelines; and to outline proposals for greater ethical commitment in scientific publication. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review undertaken at Faculdade de Medicina de Itajubá, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Analysis of publications about authorship using the Medline, Lilacs and SciELO databases. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Frequent types of misconduct were gift authorship and divided and redundant publications. The chief causes of these practices seem to be the pressure exerted by academia and the desire for social and professional development. Such factors have brought an increase in unethical behavior. This bias in science continues despite the criteria defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the Vancouver group. RECOMMENDATIONS: Various actions are proposed for educational institutions, research development agencies, regulatory agencies and professional associations. The aim is to establish an evaluation policy that gives primacy to the quality of publications and sets ethical principles for scientific research.
Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Diyanova, Svetlana N; Kitas, George D
Publishing scholarly articles in traditional and newly-launched journals is a responsible task, requiring diligence from authors, reviewers, editors, and publishers. The current generation of scientific authors has ample opportunities for publicizing their research. However, they have to selectively target journals and publish in compliance with the established norms of publishing ethics. Over the past few years, numerous illegitimate or predatory journals have emerged in most fields of science. By exploiting gold Open Access publishing, these journals paved the way for low-quality articles that threatened to change the landscape of evidence-based science. Authors, reviewers, editors, established publishers, and learned associations should be informed about predatory publishing practices and contribute to the trustworthiness of scholarly publications. In line with this, there have been several attempts to distinguish legitimate and illegitimate journals by blacklisting unethical journals (the Jeffrey Beall's list), issuing a statement on transparency and best publishing practices (the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association's and other global organizations' draft document), and tightening the indexing criteria by the Directory of Open Access Journals. None of these measures alone turned to be sufficient. All stakeholders of science communication should be aware of multiple facets of unethical practices and publish well-checked and evidence-based articles. PMID:26240476
Devor, Marshall; Rappaport, Isabelle; Rappaport, Z Harry
Pain has variously been used as a means of punishment, extracting information, or testing commitment, as a tool for education and social control, as a commodity for sacrifice, and as a draw for sport and entertainment. Attitudes concerning these uses have undergone major changes in the modern era. Normative convictions on what is right and wrong are generally attributed to religious tradition or to secular-humanist reasoning. Here, we elaborate the perspective that ethical choices concerning pain have much earlier roots that are based on instincts and brain-seated empathetic responses. They are fundamentally a function of brain circuitry shaped by processes of Darwinian evolution. Social convention and other environmental influences, with their idiosyncrasies, are a more recent, ever-changing overlay. We close with an example in which details on the neurobiology of pain processing, specifically the question of where in the brain the experience of pain is generated, affect decision making in end-of-life situations. By separating innate biological substrates from culturally imposed attitudes (memes), we may arrive at a more reasoned approach to a morality of pain prevention. PMID:24766620
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to describe the need to protect the rights of human subjects participating in nursing research, and procedures for doing so. The path taken to the task at hand was to approach the topic by discussing the philosophical underpinnings of human subject protection and describing the approach for doing this in all cases where humans are used as research subjects. These underpinnings include specific ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice, and the procedures used in the U.S. for protecting the rights of human subjects. Once the process was clarified, the considerations necessary to protect the special groups referred to as ''vulnerable'' are discussed. Given the authors access to U.S. documents and the fact that U.S. government agencies took early steps to formalize rules and regulations for the protection of human subjects, vulnerable or otherwise, the experience of the United States was selected for presentation. It is recognized that there are now relevant international documents that are exceedingly helpful, and also, that various countries may have their own guidelines for investigators to follow. In such cases researchers can engage in comparative analysis between their own guidance and the processes described here, and decide their path accordingly.
Undy, Harry, Ed.
Published for secondary school youth in England, the PROBE series presents provocative information and discussion questions on topical themes. The focus of this issue is on aspects of medicine which raise moral dilemmas for doctors, patients, and society in general. This issue contains case studies which illustrate ethical questions raised by the
Digital security governance the use of digital personal data for threat analysis on the basis of (automated) risk profiling enhances terrorism risk management in Europe. European security strategies emphasise that information and communication technology increasingly play a key role in preventing and anticipating threats such as terrorism and cyber-crime. It enables, for example, the sharing of personal, financial or travellers data with third countries. This article focuses on digital s...
Michael J, Selgelid.
Full Text Available La posibilidad de usar los resultados de investigaciones científicas bienintencionadas con fines beneficiosos o con ánimo de causar daño da lugar a lo que hoy día se conoce en general como el dilema del «doble uso». Más concretamente, ha cobrado intensidad el debate sobre el doble uso de las investi [...] gaciones en ciencias de la vida que puedan facilitar la producción de armas biológicas. En este artículo se examinan varias publicaciones que han generado bastante polémica en ese campo y se analizan críticamente algunas novedades de interés en materia de políticas, sobre todo en los Estados Unidos de América. Aunque el problema del doble uso constituye en lo fundamental un dilema ético, en la mayoría de los debates sobre las investigaciones de doble uso han participado principalmente científicos y expertos en seguridad más que especialistas en ética. Es importante que haya más aportaciones desde el campo de la ética en los debates sobre la gobernanza de las investigaciones de doble uso. Abstract in english Scenarios where the results of well-intentioned scientific research can be used for both good and harmful purposes give rise to what is now widely known as the "dual-use dilemma". There has been growing debate about the dual-use nature of life science research with implications for making biological [...] weapons. This paper reviews several controversial publications that have been the focus of debates about dual-use life science research and critically examines relevant policy developments, particularly in the United States of America. Though the dual-use dilemma is inherently ethical in nature, the majority of debates about dual-use research have primarily involved science and security experts rather than ethicists. It is important that there is more ethical input into debates about the governance of dual-use research.
Full Text Available Editorial on Ethical Issues. Medical ethics is at the centre of medical practice. It isrightly gaining much needed renewed focus and attentionin the evolving scenario. The impetus for it may beattributed to the revelations that arose through Nurembergtrials, the framework elements that define research andpublications related compulsions, and indeed the contextand state of affairs of present day medical jurisprudence.The physiatrists practice cannot remain untouched bythe moral and ethical dilemmas faced in todays world.Although the pillars of the specialty are grounded in the
Full Text Available El diagnóstico de preimplantación genética (DPG) es la prueba más reciente entre las técnicas de diagnóstico genético. En este trabajo se analiza su desarrollo, sus indicaciones médicas y los dilemas bioéticos que se pueden llegar a presentar con su uso indiscriminado. Se propone, además, unas pregu [...] ntas que guíen la toma de decisiones para implantar o no un embrión con algún defecto genético. Por último, se analizan algunos argumentos filosóficos a favor y en contra del PDG. Abstract in english The diagnosis of genetic pre-implantation (PGD) is the most recent test amongst the genetic diagnostic techniques. This works analyses its development, medical indications and bio-ethical dilemma that may occur with indiscriminate use. It has been proposed as well that some questions guiding the phy [...] sicians in the decision making process to implant or not an embryo with some genetic defect. And last, some philosophical issues are also analyzed in pro or against PGD.
Warnock, Carla Jean Pease
All US governmental, public, and private healthcare facilities and their staff fall under some form of regulatory requirement to provide opportunities for spiritual health assessment and care as a component of holistic healthcare. As often the case with regulations, these facilities face the predicament of funding un-reimbursable care. However, chaplains and nurses who provide most patient spiritual care are paid using funds the facility obtains from patients, private, and public sources. Furthermore, Veteran healthcare services, under the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), are provided with taxpayer funds from local, state, and federal governments. With the recent legal action by the Freedom From Religion Foundation, Inc. (FFRF) against the Veterans Administration, the ethical dilemma surfaces between taxpayers funding holistic healthcare and the first amendment requirement for separation of church and state. PMID:19890722
Full Text Available El diagnóstico de preimplantación genética (DPG es la prueba más reciente entre las técnicas de diagnóstico genético. En este trabajo se analiza su desarrollo, sus indicaciones médicas y los dilemas bioéticos que se pueden llegar a presentar con su uso indiscriminado. Se propone, además, unas preguntas que guíen la toma de decisiones para implantar o no un embrión con algún defecto genético. Por último, se analizan algunos argumentos filosóficos a favor y en contra del PDG.The diagnosis of genetic pre-implantation (PGD is the most recent test amongst the genetic diagnostic techniques. This works analyses its development, medical indications and bio-ethical dilemma that may occur with indiscriminate use. It has been proposed as well that some questions guiding the physicians in the decision making process to implant or not an embryo with some genetic defect. And last, some philosophical issues are also analyzed in pro or against PGD.
One of the ongoing debates in Canadian higher education is the dilemma of the brain drain and the seemingly conflicting goals between the strategies and intentions of various government departments. While Citizenship and Immigration Canada aims to recruit the brightest students from across the globe to study in Canada and to enable their long-term
Christopher Clement emphasised how the RP system is based on science, values and experience and that ethics focuses on values, normative statements, while facts as descriptive statements, are more a question of science. Even full and complete knowledge is not sufficient to decide what ought to be since it is not possible to derive statements of values (what ought to be) from statements of facts (what is). In the case of radiation effects where knowledge is far from complete, value judgements are necessary. Different types of values include aesthetics with beauty and harmony, and ethics with good and right, as values. The RP system relates to human conduct, which is about action and focus on right and wrong actions. The presentation briefly reviewed different schools of ethical though (Aristotele, Bentham and Kant) and theories of normative ethics in particular consequentialism /utilitarianism and deontology. These approaches are elegant, but have flaws. A more complex approach was presented on the basis of Ross indicating that obligations must be balanced depending on each circumstance, where ethical decisions are a matter of balancing potentially conflicting responsibilities or values. A pragmatic approach was proposed, seeking a set of values relevant to the RP system, commonly acceptable to the widest possible range of cultures. The challenge with this approach rests in clarifying the values (responsibilities/duties/obligations) related to the system of radiological protection and at the same time in clarifying the objectives in the protection of people and of the environment. A list of thoughts was proposed, in the final part of the presentation, concerning the objective of providing a reasonable level of protection to all people in medical exposures, occupational and public exposures, which includes: the recognition of the special status of children, acceptable to all, but not necessarily equal for all and a separate treatment for the very small segments of society suffering from specific and rare medical conditions
Chima, S C; Mamdoo, F
Termination of pregnancy (TOP) or feticide for severe fetal anomalies is ethically and morally challenging and maybe considered illegal in countries with restrictive abortion laws. While diagnostic modalities such as fetal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and genetic screening have improved prenatal diagnosis, these technologies remain scarce in many African countries making diagnosis and counseling regarding TOP difficult. Ethical dilemmas such as women's autonomy rights may conflict with fetus' right to personhood, and doctor's moral obligations to society. In liberal jurisdictions, previable fetuses may not have legal rights of personhood; therefore, appropriate action would be to respect pregnant women's decisions regarding TOP. However, in countries with restrictive abortion laws the fetus maybe imbued with the right of personhood at conception, making TOP illegal and exposing doctors and patients to potential criminal prosecution. Birth of a severely disabled baby with independent legal rights creates further conflicts between parents and clinicians complicating healthcare decision-making. Irrespective of the maternal decision to accept or refuse TOP, the psychological and emotional impact of an impaired fetus or neonate, often lead to moral distress and posttraumatic stress reactions in parents. Doctors have legal and ethical obligations to provide an accurate antenatal diagnosis with full disclosure to enable informed decision making. Failure to provide timely or accurate diagnosis may lead to allegations of negligence with potential liability for "wrongful birth" or "wrongful life" following birth of severely disabled babies. Mismanagement of such cases also causes misuse of scarce healthcare resources in resource-poor countries. This paper describes ethical challenges in clinical management of two neonates born following declined and failed feticide for severe central nervous system anomalies with a critical appraisal of the relevant literature. PMID:26620620
Edwards, Hillary Anne; Hifnawy, Tamer; Silverman, Henry
Recently, training programs in research ethics have been established to enhance individual and institutional capacity in research ethics in the developing world. However, commentators have expressed concern that the efforts of these training programs have placed 'too great an emphasis on guidelines and research ethics review', which will have limited effect on ensuring ethical conduct in research. What is needed instead is a culture of ethical conduct supported by national and institutional commitment to ethical practices that are reinforced by upstream enabling conditions (strong civil society, public accountability, and trust in basic transactional processes), which are in turn influenced by developmental conditions (basic freedoms of political freedoms, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency guarantees, and protective security). Examining this more inclusive understanding of the determinants of ethical conduct enhances at once both an appreciation of the limitations of current efforts of training programs in research ethics and an understanding of what additional training elements are needed to enable trainees to facilitate national and institutional policy changes that enhance research practices. We apply this developmental model to a training program focused in Egypt to describe examples of such additional training activities. PMID:24894063
Maite Piñeiro Barreiro
Full Text Available Medical Ethics gathers a group of principles and standards that rule out the behaviour amongst the health staff and amongst the doctor-patient and doctor-relatives relationship in order to preserve the patients health, treatment and rehabilitation. Bioethics has its bases on society in the health-patient team, and decisions can be taken by an Ethics Commission with the patients participation in the decision-taking process. The paediatrician in the primary health care setting should give a qualified health attention not only to the children but to their family members too due to the specialists commitment with the Cuban public health in general. Therefore, this bibliographical review is carried out to reflect on the main ethical dilemmas at the primary health care setting in the paediatric practice.La ética médica es el conjunto de principios y normas que rigen entre los profesionales de la salud, la relación del médico con sus pacientes, con sus familiares, con otros profesionales de la salud, para lograr la preservación de la salud, el tratamiento y recuperación de los pacientes. La bioética se fundamenta en la sociedad en el equipo salud-paciente, las decisiones pueden ser tomadas por el Comité de Ética y el paciente toma parte en las decisiones. El pediatra de la Atención Primaria de Salud tiene la responsabilidad moral de brindar una atención esmerada, pues su compromiso no es solo con el niño y su familia, es también con la salud pública cubana y el país en general. Para reflexionar sobre los principales dilemas éticos y bioéticos en el ejercicio de la práctica pediátrica en la Atención Primaria de Salud se realizó esta revisión
José, García Mendiola; Gisselle, Chi Gil; Maite, Piñeiro Barreiro; Niurka, Callejas Sánchez.
Full Text Available La ética médica es el conjunto de principios y normas que rigen entre los profesionales de la salud, la relación del médico con sus pacientes, con sus familiares, con otros profesionales de la salud, para lograr la preservación de la salud, el tratamiento y recuperación de los pacientes. La bioética [...] se fundamenta en la sociedad en el equipo salud-paciente, las decisiones pueden ser tomadas por el Comité de Ética y el paciente toma parte en las decisiones. El pediatra de la Atención Primaria de Salud tiene la responsabilidad moral de brindar una atención esmerada, pues su compromiso no es solo con el niño y su familia, es también con la salud pública cubana y el país en general. Para reflexionar sobre los principales dilemas éticos y bioéticos en el ejercicio de la práctica pediátrica en la Atención Primaria de Salud se realizó esta revisión Abstract in english Medical Ethics gathers a group of principles and standards that rule out the behaviour amongst the health staff and amongst the doctor-patient and doctor-relatives relationship in order to preserve the patient?s health, treatment and rehabilitation. Bioethics has its bases on society in the health-p [...] atient team, and decisions can be taken by an Ethics Commission with the patient?s participation in the decision-taking process. The paediatrician in the primary health care setting should give a qualified health attention not only to the children but to their family members too due to the specialists? commitment with the Cuban public health in general. Therefore, this bibliographical review is carried out to reflect on the main ethical dilemmas at the primary health care setting in the paediatric practice.
Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...
Carlos Daniel Mayor Igarza
Full Text Available The bioethical formulation is based on three (or four principles: beneficence (and no maleficence, after some authors, justice and autonomy. In spite of multiple received criticisms this proposal have been enriched and strengthened. From this point, sanitary activity and the medical practice as well, can be considered as activities with a clear social insertion, thus susceptible of an ethical analysis which goes beyond of the narrow margins of the professional ethics. Population aging as a worldwide phenomenon will bring about a major demand of the assistance and social services. New ethic dilemmas could emerge from the demographic changes, related to the intergenerational, family and health services relationship overall. General practitioners and particularly gerontologist should be prepared to face this medical an ethical challenges. La formulaciÃ³n bioÃ©tica estÃ¡ basada en la definiciÃ³n de tres (o cuatro principios: beneficencia (y no maleficencia segÃºn algunos autores, justicia y autonomÃa. A pesar de las mÃºltiples crÃticas recibidas, dicha propuesta no ha hecho sino enriquecerse y consolidarse. De ahÃ que la actividad sanitaria, y, dentro de ella, la prÃ¡ctica mÃ©dica, puedan ser consideradas como actividades con una clara inserciÃ³n social, susceptible, por tanto, de un anÃ¡lisis Ã©tico que vaya mÃ¡s allÃ¡ de los estrechos mÃ¡rgenes de la Ã©tica profesional. El envejecimiento poblacional como fenÃ³meno mundial, traerÃ¡ consigo una mayor demanda de los servicios asistenciales y sociales. Nuevos dilemas Ã©ticos se producen a la luz de los cambios demogrÃ¡ficos, sobre todos los relacionados con la relaciÃ³n intergeneracional, la familia y los servicios de salud en general. Los mÃ©dicos generales y los gerontÃ³logos en particular deben estar preparados para enfrentar estos desafÃos mÃ©dicos y Ã©ticos en general.
Berkiten Ergin, Ayla; Özcan, Müesser; Ersoy, Nermin; Acar, Zeynep
Background: The independent roles of midwives have not been properly defined, and midwifery ethical values and moral codes proper to Turkish culture have not been developed. The absence of legal regulations concerning midwifery has negatively affected midwifery in the process of professionalization. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the professional values of midwifery in Turkey. Materials and Methods: A focus group was created with the participation of nine midwives working at two state hospitals and a university hospital that provide birth service for women in Kocaeli, which is the most important industrial city in Turkey. The opinions of the midwives on the characteristics that a good midwife should possess and the professional values that a good midwife should observe were collected via in-depth interviews. The interviews were recorded. A total of three meetings were held with the participants. Finally, the notes taken by the reporter during these interviews were rearranged, and the recordings were transcribed by the researchers. Results: The characteristics suggested by the participants were classified into three categories: professional, personal, and interpersonal. Professional competence, capacity to properly inform interested parties, trustworthiness, respect for individuals and human dignity, and empathy were the most commonly named characteristics. As for the professional values of midwifery, professional competence, trustworthiness, responsibility, maximum benefit, and protection of privacy were the most often identified. Midwives also reported that most of the difficulties they faced in the exercise of daily tasks concerned protecting the privacy of their patients as well as the integrity and prestige of the profession, achieving the maximum benefit and least harm for patients, and providing a just and equal service. Conclusions: The professional values were mentioned by participant midwives were similar to the values proposed by international professional organizations. But there were some differences perhaps due to cultural differences. PMID:25414872
This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empat...
Full Text Available La terapia génica tiene, de acuerdo con Anderson, cuatro niveles de aplicación: las células somáticas, las células germinales, la terapia perfectiva y la manipulación eugenésica. Se hace un análisis de los dilemas bioéticos en cada nivel de terapia y se plantea el denominado Argumento Evolutivo para [...] cuestionar los deseos de algunos científicos de iniciar terapia génica de células germinales. De igual manera, se advierte de los peligros de iniciar terapia perfectiva y la manipulación eugénica por las implicaciones sociales y políticas de una reactivación de programas de eugenesia positiva. Abstract in english According to Anderson, gene therapy has four levels of application; somatic cells, germinal cells, perfective therapy and eugenic manipulation. An analysis of the bio-ethical dilemma in each therapy level is made and the so called Evolution Concept is stated to question the wish of some scientists t [...] o start gene therapy from germ cells. Likewise, there is a warning about the hazards of starting perfective therapy and eugenic manipulation due to the social and political implications of positive eugenics programs reactivation.
Full Text Available La terapia génica tiene, de acuerdo con Anderson, cuatro niveles de aplicación: las células somáticas, las células germinales, la terapia perfectiva y la manipulación eugenésica. Se hace un análisis de los dilemas bioéticos en cada nivel de terapia y se plantea el denominado Argumento Evolutivo para cuestionar los deseos de algunos científicos de iniciar terapia génica de células germinales. De igual manera, se advierte de los peligros de iniciar terapia perfectiva y la manipulación eugénica por las implicaciones sociales y políticas de una reactivación de programas de eugenesia positiva.According to Anderson, gene therapy has four levels of application; somatic cells, germinal cells, perfective therapy and eugenic manipulation. An analysis of the bio-ethical dilemma in each therapy level is made and the so called Evolution Concept is stated to question the wish of some scientists to start gene therapy from germ cells. Likewise, there is a warning about the hazards of starting perfective therapy and eugenic manipulation due to the social and political implications of positive eugenics programs reactivation.
Young, G B
The four principles of ethical behaviour are autonomy of the patient, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. The physician must strive to do what is best for the patient while respecting that person's wishes. This allows for decision-making, including withdrawal of care, using the patient's advance directives. Brain death is equivalent to death and should not pose decision-making problems. Making decisions for the patient who was never competent requires close co-operation among physicians, other care-givers and substitute decision-makers, while respecting ethical principles and the risk-to-benefit ratio. In most countries euthanasia, while controversial, is illegal. Safeguards and ethical principles for the enrollment of patients in clinical trials, the importance of informed consent and conduct as an expert witness all involve the above ethical principles and responsibility. PMID:9117081
Smudde, Peter M.
Public relations action relies on sound decision making about how to inspire cooperation between an organization and its publics. Such thinking must uphold principles for ethical communication. Effectively combining ethics with public relations practice for students is key. A pedagogical approach to public relations ethics, hinging on selected
Smudde, Peter M.
Public relations action relies on sound decision making about how to inspire cooperation between an organization and its publics. Such thinking must uphold principles for ethical communication. Effectively combining ethics with public relations practice for students is key. A pedagogical approach to public relations ethics, hinging on selectedâ¦
'They say Islam has a solution for everything, so why are there no guidelines for this?' Ethical dilemmas associated with the births and deaths of infants with fatal abnormalities from a small sample of Pakistani Muslim couples in Britain.
This paper presents ethical dilemmas concerning the termination of pregnancy, the management of childbirth, and the withdrawal of life-support from infants in special care, for a small sample of British Pakistani Muslim parents of babies diagnosed with fatal abnormalities. Case studies illustrating these dilemmas are taken from a qualitative study of 66 families of Pakistani origin referred to a genetics clinic in Southern England. The paper shows how parents negotiated between the authoritative knowledge of their doctors, religious experts, and senior family members in response to the ethical dilemmas they faced. There was little knowledge or open discussion of the view that Islam permits the termination of pregnancy for serious or fatal abnormality within 120 days and there was considerable disquiet over the idea of ending a pregnancy. For some parents, whether their newborn baby would draw breath was a main worry, with implications for the baby's Muslim identity and for the recognition of loss the parents would receive from family and community. This concern sometimes conflicted with doctors' concerns to minimize risk to future pregnancies by not performing a Caesarean delivery if a baby is sure to die. The paper also identifies parents' concerns and feelings of wrong-doing regarding the withdrawal of artificial life-support from infants with multiple abnormalities. The conclusion considers some of the implications of these observations for the counselling and support of Muslim parents following the pre- or neo-natal diagnosis of fatal abnormalities in their children. PMID:21649685
Full Text Available Although ethics training is one of the core components of psychiatric education, it is not sufficiently addressed in the curricula of many educational institutions. It is shown that many of the psychiatry residents received no ethics training in both residency and medical school. Predictably, over half of the psychiatry residents had faced an ethical dilemma that they felt unprepared to meet, and nearly all of them indicated ethics education would have helped them to solve this dilemma. In addition to learning about the fundamental topics of ethics like confidentiality, boundary violations, justice, benefience and nonmaleficence, psychiatrists must also learn to deal with other hidden ethical dilemmas which are mostly due to the changing world order. It is obvious that residency training should include a well developed ethics curriculum. However, some still believe that ethical principles cannot be taught and are formed in ones early moral development. Accepting the fact that teaching ethics is difficult, we believe that it is getting easier with the new methods for teaching in medicine. These methods are clinical supervisions, rol-models, case studies, role playing, small group discussions, team based learning and lets talking medicine groups which is a useful methods for discussing ethics dilemmas on daily practice and C.A.R.E (Core Beliefs, Actions, Reasons, Experience which is a special training method for teaching ethics. In this review, the need of ethics training in residency curriculum will be discussed and new methods for teaching ethics will be proposed.
Focusing on the Human Brain Project, I discuss some social and ethical challenges raised by such programs of research: the possibility of a unified knowledge of "the brain," balancing privacy and the public good, dilemmas of "dual use," brain-computer interfaces, and "responsible research and innovation" in governance of emerging technologies. PMID:24945767
Suraj Samtani B
Full Text Available It is indispensable for physicians to understand and recognize the fusion of different cultures, to deliver the best possible service to patients with different cultural backgrounds, especially when ethical-medical problems are involved. The Hindu community in Chile differs in significant ways with the western culture. This is especially true for some issues such as the belief in reincarnation or gender inequality, among others. These discrepancies can be relevant for the analysis of several bioethical problems. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the different beliefs, traditions and Hindu visions. We hereby present a review of Hinduism, its relation with medical practice and, as an example, a case of abortion in a Hindu family. Reviewing the traditions, beliefs and methods will help to understand and respect the beliefs of different cultures in contemporary and globalized bioethics.
This paper presents a challenging case study that reflects on the ethical and legal obligations of health-care workers. The case raised issues about the rights of terminally ill patients to refuse or reject treatment, and changed practice with the formulation of procedures and guidelines about self-harm, the wider issue of euthanasia, and the responsibilities of health-care workers in such cases. This case study is the story of Bernie (pseudonym), an 84-year-old man, from his admission to the palliative care outreach service, to his death. At the time of his attempted suicide, he was a patient of a palliative care outreach team at an Austalian hospital. The right of a person to take their own life, respect for autonomy and the actions of health-care workers are the basis of discussion. PMID:19957456
Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines
Carter, Mary Whelan
This article represents an effort to formulate an ethical framework for long-term care with the explicit purpose of providing a catalyst to promote further discourse and expand consideration of what an ethic of long-term care might entail. Grounding the discussion, an introduction to traditional ethical philosophy is presented, focusing mainly on the fundamentals of deontological and teleological ethical theories. Attention then shifts to a review of the more frequently cited principles found in the long-term care ethics literature, followed by a critique of the current reliance upon principlism to resolve ethical dilemmas in long-term care. In response to this criticism, an agent-driven ethical framework stressing dignity and respect for personhood, drawn from the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, is advanced. PMID:14598850
Mariana, Rezende Machado; Rodrigo, Grazinoli Garrido.
Full Text Available As Células-Tronco têm sido objeto principal de estudo no campo científico da Medicina Regenerativa. Estas células, quando obtidas de embriões, podem se diferenciar em todos os tecidos, embora os métodos utilizados para sua obtenção necessitem lidar com dilemas éticos e legais. Em busca de alternativ [...] as às fontes de células-tronco, os dentes vêm ganhando espaço. Estes órgãos apresentam no tecido pulpar e estruturas adjacentes características fundamentais como, multidiferenciação e capacidade de autoduplicação, além de facilidade de acesso e obtenção. Este trabalho apresenta o conhecimento atual e as perspectivas sobre o uso das células-tronco de origem dentária com destaque para as de dentes decíduos esfoliados. Especial atenção foi dada às limitações legais e administrativas para o funcionamento dos Bancos de Dentes Humanos e Biobancos no Brasil, aspecto que se revelado o principal entrave para a difusão do uso de células-tronco de origem dentária. Abstract in english Stem cells have been the main object of study in the Restorative Medicine scientific field. When obtained from embryos, such cells may distinguish in all tissues, although the methods applied to obtain them have to deal with ethical and legal dilemmas. In the search for alternative sources of stem c [...] ells, teeth have gained relevant ground. Those organs present, in their pulp tissue and neighboring structures, fundamental characteristics, such as multilineage differentiation and capacity for self-renewing, besides the fact that they are easy to access and obtain. This work provides the current knowledge and perspectives about the application of stem cells from dental source, with emphasizing those obtained from exfoliated deciduous teeth. Especial attention has been drawn to legal and administrative constraints found in the activities of Human Teeth Banks and Biobanks in Brazil, an aspect that has risen as the main obstacles when communicating the use of stem cells from dental source.
Full Text Available Editors of scientific journals need to be conversant with the mechanisms by which scientific misconduct is amplified by publication practices. This paper provides definitions, ways to document the extent of the problem, and examples of editorial attempts to counter fraud. Fabrication, falsification, duplication, ghost authorship, gift authorship, lack of ethics approval, non-disclosure, 'salami' publication, conflicts of interest, auto-citation, duplicate submission, duplicate publications, and plagiarism are common problems. Editorial misconduct includes failure to observe due process, undue delay in reaching decisions and communicating these to authors, inappropriate review procedures, and confounding a journal's content with its advertising or promotional potential. Editors also can be admonished by their peers for failure to investigate suspected misconduct, failure to retract when indicated, and failure to abide voluntarily by the six main sources of relevant international guidelines on research, its reporting and editorial practice. Editors are in a good position to promulgate reasonable standards of practice, and can start by using consensus guidelines on publication ethics to state explicitly how their journals function. Reviewers, editors, authors and readers all then have a better chance to understand, and abide by, the rules of publishing.Editores de revistas científicas precisam estar atentos aos mecanismos de disseminação de condutas inadequadas no processo de publicação. Este artigo fornece definições, formas de documentar a extensão do problema e exemplos de iniciativas para conter fraudes editorias. Fabricação, falsificação, duplicação, autoria-fantasma, autoria concedida, falta de ética na aprovação de manuscritos, não-divulgação desses fatos, publicação "salami", conflitos de interesse, autocitação, submissão e publicação duplicadas, e plágio são problemas comuns. A conduta editorial inadequada inclui: falha em seguir o processo devido, atraso nas decisões e comunicação com os autores, falhas na revisão, e confundir o conteúdo de um periódico com seu potencial promocional e de propaganda. Os editores podem ser advertidos por seus pares por não investigar comportamento científico suspeito, por não se retratar quando indicado ou não obedecer as seis principais fontes internacionais de orientação em pesquisa, publicação e política editorial. Os editores estão em posição privilegiada para promover práticas adequadas, adotando orientações éticas e claras sobre os procedimentos adotados nos periódicos. Assim, revisores, editores, autores e leitores terão condições de compreender e seguir as normas de publicação.
Laragh, Gollogly; Hooman, Momen.
Full Text Available Editores de revistas científicas precisam estar atentos aos mecanismos de disseminação de condutas inadequadas no processo de publicação. Este artigo fornece definições, formas de documentar a extensão do problema e exemplos de iniciativas para conter fraudes editorias. Fabricação, falsificação, dup [...] licação, autoria-fantasma, autoria concedida, falta de ética na aprovação de manuscritos, não-divulgação desses fatos, publicação "salami", conflitos de interesse, autocitação, submissão e publicação duplicadas, e plágio são problemas comuns. A conduta editorial inadequada inclui: falha em seguir o processo devido, atraso nas decisões e comunicação com os autores, falhas na revisão, e confundir o conteúdo de um periódico com seu potencial promocional e de propaganda. Os editores podem ser advertidos por seus pares por não investigar comportamento científico suspeito, por não se retratar quando indicado ou não obedecer as seis principais fontes internacionais de orientação em pesquisa, publicação e política editorial. Os editores estão em posição privilegiada para promover práticas adequadas, adotando orientações éticas e claras sobre os procedimentos adotados nos periódicos. Assim, revisores, editores, autores e leitores terão condições de compreender e seguir as normas de publicação. Abstract in english Editors of scientific journals need to be conversant with the mechanisms by which scientific misconduct is amplified by publication practices. This paper provides definitions, ways to document the extent of the problem, and examples of editorial attempts to counter fraud. Fabrication, falsification, [...] duplication, ghost authorship, gift authorship, lack of ethics approval, non-disclosure, 'salami' publication, conflicts of interest, auto-citation, duplicate submission, duplicate publications, and plagiarism are common problems. Editorial misconduct includes failure to observe due process, undue delay in reaching decisions and communicating these to authors, inappropriate review procedures, and confounding a journal's content with its advertising or promotional potential. Editors also can be admonished by their peers for failure to investigate suspected misconduct, failure to retract when indicated, and failure to abide voluntarily by the six main sources of relevant international guidelines on research, its reporting and editorial practice. Editors are in a good position to promulgate reasonable standards of practice, and can start by using consensus guidelines on publication ethics to state explicitly how their journals function. Reviewers, editors, authors and readers all then have a better chance to understand, and abide by, the rules of publishing.
Benson, Ailsa; Cribb, Alan; Barber, Nick
Pharmacy, like other health care professions, is both a knowledge-based and a value-based profession. However, the values that inform practice activities are rarely made explicit. We sought to identify the values drawn on by UK pharmacists through qualitative interviews on day-to-day practice activities focused around practitioners' conceptions of 'the good pharmacist', good practice and their experiences of ethical issues and dilemmas. The study was based upon loosely structured, one-to-one interviews of 38 selected practitioners reflecting a range of practice roles and settings. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed following the principles of grounded theory. The accounts of practice (of self and colleagues) in the data showed pharmacists to be very dedicated and conscientious. Practice was predominantly discussed and presented by practitioners drawing upon a scientific mode of rationality. Value and ethical judgements were typically presented within this mode, with more open-ended and complex discussion of values and ethics appearing quite rarely. Two core values generally drawn on in reported practice emerged from the analysis--these were, 'the patient's best interests' and a value we labelled 'respect for medicines'. Common dilemmas arose from conflicting values, for example competing obligations to different parties, sometimes brought to a head by the conflicting demands of 'rules' of various sorts. Reported dilemmas related to rule breaking, resource allocation, patient communication and teamwork. There was a tendency for practitioners to 'fall back', often unreflectively, on their own personal value judgements when addressing these dilemmas. However, in the main, the values and dilemmas reported clearly show the socially embedded nature of professional ethics and, thereby, contribute to the social science re-theorisations of professional ethics needed if work on ethics development is to be realistic. PMID:19410345
Huey, Wayne C.
Discusses ethical dilemmas inherent in the school setting that result from conflicts in counselor responsibilities to pupils, parents, and school. An ethical dilemma involving a pregnant student who is considering an abortion is described, and some possible counselor responses are discussed. (Author)
Benninga, Jacques S.
Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a
Dilemas éticos en el trabajo de campo: temas olvidados en la investigación cualitativa en salud en Iberoamérica / Ethical dilemmas in fieldwork: forgotten issues in qualitative health research in Iberoamerica
Full Text Available En este trabajo se exploran algunos dilemas éticos enfrentados durante el trabajo de campo en la investigación cualitativa en salud. La premisa es que los códigos éticos no son suficientes para orientar las relaciones entre los investigadores y los informantes siendo necesaria una práctica reflexiva [...] para enfrentar los mismos. La reflexión se centra en cuatro situaciones del trabajo de campo y sus dilemas. El tiempo social de la vida académica estructura la agenda de trabajo y el investigador se enfrenta a la disyuntiva de seguir los tiempos y ritmos de la academia o negociar con los informantes una agenda conjunta. El investigador también debe decidir cuál de sus múltiples identidades habrá de utilizar para ser aceptado, y al mismo tiempo decidir si oculta o no quien es realmente. En el establecimiento de una relación de intimidad con los informantes el investigador debe resolver si abre su vida personal. Y al momento de definir las formas de reciprocidad, decidir si lo hará de acuerdo a los valores de la academia o a los de los nativos. Se concluye argumentando la necesidad de crear una práctica reflexiva sobre estos y otros dilemas dirigida a colocar una agenda de temas y formas de descolonización en el debate ético en Iberoamérica. Abstract in english This paper explores some ethical dilemmas faced while doing fieldwork. Ethical norms are not enough to appraise the relationship between researchers and participants; a reflexivity practice is needed to understand the dilemmas aroused during this process. Here four issues faced during fieldwork are [...] presented. The academic social time usually defines the schedule of fieldwork; hence, the researcher may decide to follow the academic schedule or to arrange a different schedule with informants. Researchers usually decide which part of their identity will be disclosed for introducing themselves to the informants; but may also decide to hide who really he/she is. Researchers may cope with the dilemma to disclose their private life to informants during the fieldwork. Researchers also may decide to behave according to academic cultural norms of reciprocity or according to the cultural norms of participants. Finally, a reflexivity movement should be developed in Iberoamerica to define an agenda on ethical issues and to develop decolonizing strategies to debate these ethical dilemmas.
Until very recently, ethical issues were given little attention in administrator-preparation programs. This digest in Spanish outlines the ethical responsibilities of school leaders and the dilemmas that they face. It offers the following suggestions for resolving ethical dilemmas: (1) Leaders should have and be willing to act on a definite senseâ¦
Fullerton, Jami A.; Kendrick, Alice; McKinnon, Lori Melton
A national survey of 1,045 advertising students measured opinions about the ethical nature of advertising and ethical dilemmas in the advertising business. More than nine out of ten students agreed that working for a company with high ethical standards was important. Students rated all twelve workplace dilemmas presented as somewhat unethical. For
RAHMANI, Azam; MERGHATI-KHOEI, Effat; MOGHADDAM-BANAEM, Lida; ZAREI, Fatemeh; MONTAZERI, Ali; HAJIZADEH, Ebrahim
Background: Research on sensitive topics, such as sexuality, could raise technical, methodological, ethical, political, and legal challenges. The aim of this paper was to draw the methodological challenges which the authors confronted during sexuality research with young population in the Iranian culture. Methods: This study was an exploratory mixed method one conducted in 201314. We interviewed 63 young women aged 1834 yr in qualitative phase and 265 young women in quantitative phase in (university and non-university) dormitories and in an Adolescent Friendly Center. Data were collected using focus group discussions and individual interviews in the qualitative phase. We employed conventional content analysis to analyze the data. To enhance the rigor of the data, multiple data collection methods, maximum variation sampling, and peer checks were applied. Results: Five main themes emerged from the data: interaction with opposite sex, sexual risk, sexual protective, sex education, and sexual vulnerability. Challenges while conducting sex research have been discussed. These challenges included assumption of promiscuity, language of silence and privacy concerns, and sex segregation policy. Conclusion: We described the strategies applied in our study and the rationales for each strategy. Strategies applied in the present study can be employed in contexts with the similar methodological and moral concerns.
Full Text Available Abstract Psychiatric practice is often faced with complex situations that seem to pose serious moral dilemmas for practitioners. Methods for solving these dilemmas have included the development of more objective rules to guide the practitioner such as utilitarianism and deontology. A more modern variant on this objective model has been 'Principlism' where 4 mid level rules are used to help solve these complex problems. In opposition to this, there has recently been a focus on more subjective criteria for resolving complex moral dilemmas. In particular, virtue ethics has been posited as a more sensitive method for helping doctors to reason their way through difficult ethical issues. Here the focus is on the character traits of the practitioner. Bloch and Green advocated another way whereby more objective methods such as Principlism and virtue ethics are combined to produce what they considered sound moral reasoning in psychiatrists. This paper points out some difficulties with this approach and instead suggests that a better model of ethical judgment could be developed through the use of narratives or stories. This idea puts equal prima facie value on the patient's and the psychiatrist's version of the dilemma they are faced with. It has the potential to lead to a more genuine empathy and reflective decision-making.
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Background: The continuing evolution of medical treatments and the loss of neutrality of medicine with respect to morality of human values have represented the major tracking elements towards settings of sharing of choices between society and medicine. Several concerns have been raised upon links between pharmaceutical corporations and researchers. Moreover, being in a learning environment, we must pay even more attention to these items because students appear to be at risk for unrecognized influence by marketing efforts. The aim of this study is to focus on the activities of a local ethics committee (LEC and the characteristics of the protocols discussed in an Italian LEC during a three year period (2001-2003.
Methods: Three years of activity of a LEC were analysed by a questionnaire registering: main sponsorship, setting, technical characteristics of trials, outcome of the submission to the LEC, state of progress. Approved trials were followed-up until April 30th, 2005.
Results: A total of 345 protocols were discussed. 67.8% (n = 198 of approved protocols were submitted by a pharmaceutical corporation. 72.6% (n = 212 of studies approved in 2001 were still in progress in 2005. 91.3% (n = 73 of closed trials had a pharmaceutical corporation as their main sponsor. None of the submitted studies focused on prevention strategies.
Conclusions: These results show how important grants offered by pharmaceutical industries are, the efforts spent on therapy and the lack of investors in prevention.
Christoffersen, Mette Buhl; Boukaouit, Dounia; Weeke Hervit, Benjamin Helmer; Winther Brødreskift, Ditte; Makilä, Riia Marette; Pingel Vogel, Klara Elisa; Wolter Strate, Simon
With the opportunities for anonymity and free expression on the Internet it is it is not inconceivable that moral and ethical dilemmas occur. To give examples of this, we have chosen to analyse two case studies that are concerned with ethical dilemmas. The first case concerns the hacker group Anonymous which revealed personal information and accused two men of being paedophiles. The second case deals with the violation of privacy based on the famous meme Scumbag Steve. The two dimensions ...
A distanásia como geradora de dilemas éticos nas Unidades de Terapia Intensiva: considerações sobre a participação dos enfermeiros La distanasia como generadora de dilemas éticos en las Unidades deTerapia Intensiva: algunos aspectos a cerca de lo envolvimiento de los enfermeros Disthanasia as an ethical dilemma at the Intensive Care Units: considerations about nurses involvement
Maria Cecilia Toffoletto
Full Text Available A distanásia apresenta-se como uma das fontes geradoras de dilemas éticos nas Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI. Discute-se o contexto que favorece a prática da distanásia nesse ambiente, com ênfase na utilização excessiva do suporte tecnológico. Tecemos comentários sobre a participação dos familiares e profissionais envolvidos, principalmente médicos e enfermeiros, considerando-se o papel sócio-profissional atribuído a cada um. Pretende-se com as considerações apresentadas, fornecer subsídios para a reflexão do tema, com vistas a uma participação mais ativa dos enfermeiros de UTI nos dilemas éticos relacionados à distanásia.La distanasia se presenta como una de las fuentes generadoras de los dilemas éticos en las Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI Discute el contexto que favorece la práctica de la distanasia en este ambiente, con énfasis en la utilización excesiva del arsenal tecnologico. Además de los comentarios sobre la posición de los familiares y de los profesionales involucrados, principalmente los médicos y enfermeros, se consideró el papel socio-profesional que se atribuye a cada uno. Para finalizar, los profesionales del area son estimulados a refletir sobre el tema y los enfermeros a participar de manera más activa en las discusiones de los dilemas éticos relacionados a la distanasia.Disthanasia is conceptualized and presented as an ethical dilemma in Intensive Care Units (ICU. The context favoring the disthanasia practice on this environment focusing the excessive use of technological devices will be discussed. The study will approach the family, physician and nurses participation in the situations, considering the social and professional role of each one. This study aims to provide support for healthcare professionals to reflect on this subject, aiming the nurses more effective participation on ethical dilemmas related to disthanasia.
The changing context of medical practice--bureaucratic, political, or economic--demands that doctors have the knowledge and skills to face these new realities. Such changes impose obstacles on doctors delivering ethical care to vulnerable patient populations. Modern medical ethics education requires a focus upon the knowledge and skills necessary to close the gap between the theory and practice of ethical care. Physicians and doctors-in-training must learn to be morally sensitive to ethical dilemmas on the wards, learn how to make professionally grounded decisions with their patients and other medical providers, and develop the leadership, dedication, and courage to fulfill ethical values in the face of disincentives and bureaucratic challenges. A new core focus of medical ethics education must turn to learning how to put ethics into practice by teaching physicians to realistically negotiate the new institutional maze of 21st-century medicine. PMID:24802645
Dilemas éticos em UTI: contribuições da Teoria dos Valores de Max Scheler / Ethical dilemmas in ICU: contributions of Max Scheler's Theory of Values / Dilemas éticos en UTI: contribuciones de la Teoría de Valores de Max Scheler
Marlise Barros de, Medeiros; Eliane Ramos, Pereira; Rose Mary Costa Rosa Andrade, Silva; Marcos Andrade, Silva.
Full Text Available O estudo objetivou refletir, tomando como base o referencial teórico de Max Scheler, sobre os dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeiros na UTI, e sobre os valores que norteiam suas atitudes e decisões. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa, tendo sido entrevistados dez enfermeiros da UTI de um hospital [...] universitário. Identificou-se a vivência de dilemas éticos referentes à terminalidade relacionada aos limites de intervenções e de utilização dos recursos materiais, além da questão da transfusão de sangue em caso de restrição religiosa. Os valores identificados foram: respeito, dignidade do paciente, conhecimento científico, humildade, paixão pela profissão e amor a Deus. A teoria dos valores constitui importante subsídio para enfermagem por permitir a abordagem de uma ética humanizadora da práxis, especialmente nas situações de dilemas éticos. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue reflexionar, con base en el marco teórico de Max Scheler, sobre los dilemas éticos experimentados por enfermeros en la UCI, y sobre los valores que orientan sus actitudes y decisiones,. Se trata de investigación cualitativa y fueran entrevistados diez enfermeros de la UCI [...] de un hospital universitario. Identificada la experiencia de los dilemas éticos relativos a la condición terminal sobre los límites de la intervención y el uso de los recursos materiales, más allá de la cuestión de la transfusión de sangre en caso de restricciones religiosas. Los valores identificados fueron: el respeto, la dignidad del paciente, el conocimiento científico, la humildad, la pasión por la profesión y el amor de Dios. La teoría del valor constituye un instrumento importante para la enfermería, permitiendo el uso de una ética humana de la práctica en situaciones de dilemas éticos. Abstract in english The study aimed to reflect, based on the theoretical framework of Max Scheler, about the ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses in the ICU, and about the values that guide their actions and decisions,. This is qualitative research, and ten ICU nurses have been interviewed at a university hospital. I [...] t was identified the experience of ethical dilemmas related to the terminality related to the limits of intervention and use of material resources, as well as the issue of blood transfusion in case of religious restrictions. The values identified were: respect, dignity of the patient, scientific knowledge, humility, passion for the profession and love of God. The theory of values is an important tool for nursing because it allows the approach of an ethics of humanizing praxis, especially in situations of ethical dilemmas.
Pitesa, Marko; Thau, Stefan
In this research, we examine when and why organizational environments influence how employees respond to moral issues. Past research proposed that social influences in organizations affect employees' ethical decision making, but did not explain when and why some individuals are affected by the organizational environment and some disregard it. To address this problem, we drew on research on power to propose that power makes people more self-focused, which, in turn, makes them more likely to ac...
Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris
As euthanasia has become a widely debated issue in many Western countries, hospitals and nursing homes especially are increasingly being confronted with this ethically sensitive societal issue. The focus of this paper is how healthcare institutions can deal with euthanasia requests on an organizational level by means of a written institutional ethics policy. The general aim is to make a critical analysis whether these policies can be considered as organizational-ethical instruments that support healthcare institutions to take their institutional responsibility for dealing with euthanasia requests. By means of an interpretative analysis, we conducted a process of reinterpretation of results of former Belgian empirical studies on written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia in dialogue with the existing international literature. The study findings revealed that legal regulations, ethical and care-oriented aspects strongly affected the development, the content, and the impact of written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia. Hence, these three cornerstones-law, care and ethics-constituted the basis for the empirical-based organizational-ethical framework for written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia that is presented in this paper. However, having a euthanasia policy does not automatically lead to more legal transparency, or to a more professional and ethical care practice. The study findings suggest that the development and implementation of an ethics policy on euthanasia as an organizational-ethical instrument should be considered as a dynamic process. Administrators and ethics committees must take responsibility to actively create an ethical climate supporting care providers who have to deal with ethical dilemmas in their practice. PMID:24420744
Full Text Available In the process of cancer treatment and care, the ethical duties of the cancer nurses contribute to preventing ethical dilemmas, resolving ethical problems, and most importantly maintaining an ethical cancer care system. The ethical duties of humanistic caregiving, disclosure, honesty, relief of pain and suffering, fair distribution of resources, provision of adequate palliative care, and assistance to patients and families for imminent death, which are the hallmarks of oncology nursing, are justified by the values, professional standards and the contemporary roles of nursing. Therefore, ethical competency of the oncology nurse is an inevitable requirement.
The paper aims at focusing the relationship between scientific evidence and ethical values' issues of occupational health practice according to the new Italian law 81/2008 stating that the occupational health physician (OHP) is required to act according to the Code of Ethics of the International Commission on Occupational Health. The code itself emphasizes that (i) the practice should be relevant, knowledge-based, sound, and appropriate to the occupational risks and (ii) the objectives and methods of health surveillance must be clearly defined. Because exposure to nanoparticles involves several uncertainties about health effects and may limit the effectiveness of workers' health surveillance, OHPs face a several ethical dilemmas, involving different stakeholders. The dilemmas arising from the practice should be dealt with according to the ethical principles of beneficence, autonomy, and justice in order to take a decision. PMID:22014197
Resnik, David B; Elliott, Kevin C
Social responsibility is an essential part of the responsible conduct of research that presents difficult ethical questions for scientists. Recognizing one's social responsibilities as a scientist is an important first step toward exercising social responsibility, but it is only the beginning, since scientists may confront difficult value questions when deciding how to act responsibly. Ethical dilemmas related to socially responsible science fall into at least three basic categories: 1) dilemmas related to problem selection, 2) dilemmas related to publication and data sharing, and 3) dilemmas related to engaging society. In responding to these dilemmas, scientists must decide how to balance their social responsibilities against other professional commitments and how to avoid compromising their objectivity. In this article, we will examine the philosophical and ethical basis of social responsibility in science, discuss some of the ethical dilemmas related to exercising social responsibility, and make five recommendations to help scientists deal with these issues. PMID:26193168
Sigurjonsson, Throstur Olaf; Arnardottir, Audur Arna; Vaiman, Vlad; Rikhardsson, Pall
More and more scholars are expressing their apprehensions regarding the current state of management education. The increased number of corporate scandals has fueled their concerns that training students to have sound business ethics upon graduation has failed. Consequently, research is emerging...... that focuses on the lack of impact that business ethics teaching has had on students in recent years. Remarkably, the voice of managers has barely been heard in this area, even though they are the ones who are among those best suited to evaluate graduates capabilities to solve ethical dilemmas. This...... research presents the managers view on the role of business schools in training students in business ethics, and the managers evaluation of business schools success in that area. The findings reveal that managers are quite disappointed with the lack of improvement in the ethics of graduating students...
Roughly 6.5 billion people inhabit the earth, but over 1 billion people regularly go hungry. This food shortfall poses an ethical dilemma for agriculture, and Agriculture's Ethical Horizon grapples with this dilemma. It argues that agricultural productivity has been the quintessential value of agr...
Elizabeth, Villarreal Cantillo; Gloria, Visbal Illera.
Full Text Available Resumen Son múltiples los dilemas éticos que enfrentan los profesionales de enfermería en el cumplimiento de su labor y que sugieren una toma de decisión fundamentada en los conocimientos, habilidades y en la experiencia, pero donde la ética y la moral es la que posibilita que esta se soporte en val [...] ores, principios y argumentos éticos. Aplicar la Bioética y cumplir con los Derechos Humanos requiere una profunda modificación en toda la cultura sanitaria; ya sea en los propios profesionales, en sus relaciones inter- e intraprofesionales, ya en la organización y gestión de los servicios. No basta con tener normativas, hay que realizar cambios y aportaciones delimitando el quehacer y estableciendo la corresponsabilización que permita la contribución de cada grupo profesional. En este artículo se realiza una reflexión sobre algunos dilemas éticos en el ámbito hospitalario, planteando situaciones dilemáticas que nos sirvan para tomar conciencia sobre la importancia de cuestiones tan relevantes como el respeto a la autonomía del paciente, el consentimiento informado, la justicia distributiva de los recursos sanitarios, entre otros. Abstract in english Abstract There are many ethical dilemmas that nursing professionals have to face in fulfilling their work and that suggest decision making should be based on knowledge, ability, skills and experience, but where ethics and morality are the ones that enable this work to be supported on values, princip [...] les and ethical arguments. Applying Bioethics and Human Rights requires a radical change in the whole culture of health; whether professionals themselves, in their personal and intraprofessional relations, and in the organization and management of services. It is not enough to have rules, you have to make changes and contributions delineating the work and establishing joint responsibility, that allows the contribution of each professional group. This article is a reflection on ethical dilemmas taking place in hospitals, raising controversial situations that serve as awareness on the importance of such relevant issues as respect for patient autonomy, informed consent, and distributive justice of health resources, among others.
Hightower, Bynum Blake; Klinker, JoAnn Franklin
This case study explores an ethical dilemma faced by a new junior high school principal. It is appropriate for use in all preparation course work, including the internship. Studies show that novice principal decision making differs from that of experienced principals in moral dilemmas, including following policy versus best interests of the
Hambrick, James P.; Pimentel, Sandra; Albano, Anne Marie
Although formal ethics classes provide a basic foundation in managing ethical dilemmas, professionals often point to their experiences on internship as an important training ground for consolidation of their ethical development. Clinical interns face many personal and professional transitions that can lead to a number of ethical dilemmas.
Candee, D; Puka, B
Education in ethics among practising professionals should provide a systematic procedure for resolving moral problems. A method for such decision-making is outlined using the two classical orientations in moral philosophy, teleology and deontology. Teleological views such as utilitarianism resolve moral dilemmas by calculating the excess of good over harm expected to be produced by each feasible alternative for action. The deontological view focuses on rights, duties, and principles of justic...
Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans JÃ¸rgen
A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper.......A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper....
"Ethics of Media." Nick Couldry, Mirca Madianou, Amit Pinchevski (eds). Palgrave Macillan. June 2013. --- Do digital media create new ethical dilemmas? What is our responsibility as spectators and witnesses? Bringing together philosophers and media scholars and drawing on a range of contemporary case studies, Ethics of Media aims to highlight the diversity of competing answers to the question, is there an ethics of media? Patrick Weir finds that this is thought provoking first step in discu...
Floyd, Alan; Arthur, Linet
This article examines the superficial and deep ethical and moral dilemmas confronting "insider" researchers, which we term external and internal ethical engagement. External ethical engagement refers to the traditional, easily identifiable ethical issues that insider researchers attend to by submitting their application for ethical approval to
Therapist's role and dilemmas faced in treating a gender dysphoric client are discussed. Examines ethical and moral issues relating to transsexualism and discusses the appropriateness of art therapy as a treatment for transsexual clients. (SNR)
Kahane, Guy; Everett, Jim A C; Earp, Brian D; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian
A growing body of research has focused on so-called 'utilitarian' judgments in moral dilemmas in which participants have to choose whether to sacrifice one person in order to save the lives of a greater number. However, the relation between such 'utilitarian' judgments and genuine utilitarian impartial concern for the greater good remains unclear. Across four studies, we investigated the relationship between 'utilitarian' judgment in such sacrificial dilemmas and a range of traits, attitudes, judgments and behaviors that either reflect or reject an impartial concern for the greater good of all. In Study 1, we found that rates of 'utilitarian' judgment were associated with a broadly immoral outlook concerning clear ethical transgressions in a business context, as well as with sub-clinical psychopathy. In Study 2, we found that 'utilitarian' judgment was associated with greater endorsement of rational egoism, less donation of money to a charity, and less identification with the whole of humanity, a core feature of classical utilitarianism. In Studies 3 and 4, we found no association between 'utilitarian' judgments in sacrificial dilemmas and characteristic utilitarian judgments relating to assistance to distant people in need, self-sacrifice and impartiality, even when the utilitarian justification for these judgments was made explicit and unequivocal. This lack of association remained even when we controlled for the antisocial element in 'utilitarian' judgment. Taken together, these results suggest that there is very little relation between sacrificial judgments in the hypothetical dilemmas that dominate current research, and a genuine utilitarian approach to ethics. PMID:25460392
Kahane, Guy; Everett, Jim A.C.; Earp, Brian D.; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian
A growing body of research has focused on so-called utilitarian judgments in moral dilemmas in which participants have to choose whether to sacrifice one person in order to save the lives of a greater number. However, the relation between such utilitarian judgments and genuine utilitarian impartial concern for the greater good remains unclear. Across four studies, we investigated the relationship between utilitarian judgment in such sacrificial dilemmas and a range of traits, attitudes, judgments and behaviors that either reflect or reject an impartial concern for the greater good of all. In Study 1, we found that rates of utilitarian judgment were associated with a broadly immoral outlook concerning clear ethical transgressions in a business context, as well as with sub-clinical psychopathy. In Study 2, we found that utilitarian judgment was associated with greater endorsement of rational egoism, less donation of money to a charity, and less identification with the whole of humanity, a core feature of classical utilitarianism. In Studies 3 and 4, we found no association between utilitarian judgments in sacrificial dilemmas and characteristic utilitarian judgments relating to assistance to distant people in need, self-sacrifice and impartiality, even when the utilitarian justification for these judgments was made explicit and unequivocal. This lack of association remained even when we controlled for the antisocial element in utilitarian judgment. Taken together, these results suggest that there is very little relation between sacrificial judgments in the hypothetical dilemmas that dominate current research, and a genuine utilitarian approach to ethics. PMID:25460392
Payment of research participants helps to increase recruitment for research studies, but can pose ethical dilemmas. Research ethics committees (RECs) have a centrally important role in guiding this practice, but standardisation of the ethical approval process in Ireland is lacking.
Dean, Peter J.
Discussion of ethics focuses on the role of human performance technology professionals in helping corporate ethicists. Highlights include definitions of ethics, morals, values, and business ethics; ethics in academia and in business; and application of the knowledge of ethics to decision-making. (Contains 18 references.) (LRW)
Full Text Available O propósito deste artigo foi descrever a necessidade de proteger os direitos dos sujeitos humanos que participam na pesquisa em enfermagem, e os procedimentos que há para fazê-lo. A rota tomada para realizar esta tarefa consistiu na abordagem do tema desde a discussão dos fundamentos filosóficos da [...] proteção dos sujeitos humanos e a descrição do enfoque empregado para sua participação na investigação. Estes fundamentos são os princípios específicos éticos de respeito pelas pessoas, beneficência e a justiça, e os procedimentos utilizados para a proteção dos direitos dos sujeitos humanos nos Estados Unidos. Discutem-se ademais as considerações a ter em conta para proteger aos grupos especiais mencionados como "vulneráveis". Selecionou-se a experiência de Estados Unidos devido a do que a autora tinha acesso aos documentos deste país e a do que as agências governamentais norte-americanos foram os primeiras que formalizaram normas e regulamentos para a proteção dos sujeitos humanos, vulneráveis ou de outro tipo. Se reconhece que agora há documentos internacionais pertinentes que são sumamente úteis, e que também vários países dispõem de suas próprias diretrizes a seguir, em tais casos, os pesquisadores podem realizar análises comparativas entre sua própria orientação e os processos descritos aqui, e decidir seu caminho em consequência. Abstract in spanish El propósito de este artículo fue describir la necesidad de proteger los derechos de los sujetos humanos que participaron en la investigación en enfermería, y los procedimientos que hay para hacerlo. La ruta tomada para realizar esta tarea consistió en el abordaje del tema desde la discusión de los [...] fundamentos filosóficos de la protección de los sujetos humanos y la descripción del enfoque empleado para su participación en la investigación. Estos fundamentos son los principios específicos éticos de respeto por las personas, beneficencia y la justicia, y los procedimientos utilizados para la protección de los derechos de los sujetos humanos en los Estados Unidos. Se discuten además las consideraciones a tener en cuenta para proteger a los grupos especiales mencionados como "vulnerables". Se seleccionó la experiencia de Estados Unidos debido a que la autora tenía acceso a los documentos de este país y a que las agencias gubernamentales estadounidenses fueron los primeras que formalizaron normas y reglamentos para la protección de los sujetos humanos, vulnerables o de otro tipo. Se reconoce que ahora hay documentos internacionales pertinentes que son sumamente útiles, y que también varios países disponen de sus propias directrices a seguir, en tales casos, los investigadores pueden realizar análisis comparativos entre su propia orientación y los procesos descritos aquí, y decidir, en consecuencia su camino. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper was to describe the need to protect the rights of human subjects participating in nursing research, and procedures for doing so. The path taken to the task at hand was to approach the topic by discussing the philosophical underpinnings of human subject protection and descri [...] bing the approach for doing this in all cases where humans are used as research subjects. These underpinnings include specific ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice, and the procedures used in the U.S. for protecting the rights of human subjects. Once the process was clarified, the considerations necessary to protect the special groups referred to as ''vulnerable'' are discussed. Given the authors access to U.S. documents and the fact that U.S. government agencies took early steps to formalize rules and regulations for the protection of human subjects, vulnerable or otherwise, the experience of the United States was selected for presentation. It is recognized that there are now relevant international documents that are exceedingly helpful, and also, that various countries may have their own guidelines for investigators to fo
Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Future managers are faced daily with a variety of ethical dilemmas in traffic that need to be balanced by the interests of all participants. The question is whether a new innovative model of ethical principles could be developed that would increase road safety.Purpose: The a im is to raise the level of social responsibility and relationship of participants in traffic as well as warn all participants on the importance of safety. In addition, the purpose is to share suggestions to other researchers for further research studies in the area of increasing traffic safety.Method: We carried out a quantitative study (survey among first year post-graduate students studying at a higher education school focused on quality management in south-eastern Slovenia. The article presents five different ethical scenarios.Results: The participants have very similar views on judging individual ethical dilemmas. The desire to increase road safety, have led to new useful suggestions for further study of innovative new ethical principles in the field of safety, such as: no death victims annually, adequate road infrastructure, improved vehicle technology, video surveillance systems, and so on.Organization: Relevant authorities should promote models of ethical thinking and the introduction of codes of conduct at an early age. As such, the state, police, rescuers, fire departments, hospitals, and so on, would have fewer deaths due to serious traffic accidents.Society: By taking these results and further research suggestions into account, society would gain a new model that would be based on zero accidents annually.Originality: Research in the field of ethics and innovative ethical principles of traffic safety is limited. The article presents practical examples of ethical and moral decision-making that we encounter in daily traffic. But nothing much is done to make it better ("every day the same story".Limitations/Future Research: The research study was conducted on a small sample of 13 students.
Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Dobrovolny, Robert; Nazarenko, Irina; Ballegaard, Martin; Hasholt, Lis; Rasmussen, Ase K; Christensen, Erik Ilsø; Sorensen, Soren S; Wibrand, Flemming; Desnick, Robert J
normal due to random X-chromosomal inactivation, and diagnostic confirmation requires identification of the family's a-Gal A gene mutation. In a young female who had occasional acroparesthesias, corneal opacities, and 15 to 50% of the lower limit of normal leukocyte a-Gal A activity, a-Gal A sequencing...... in two expert laboratories did not identify a confirmatory mutation, presenting a diagnostic dilemma. A renal biopsy proved diagnostic and renewed efforts to detect an a-Gal A mutation. Subsequent gene dosage analyses identified a large a-Gal A deletion confirming her heterozygosity, and she was...... started on enzyme replacement therapy. Thus, gene dosage analyses can detect large deletions (>50bp) in suspect heterozygotes for X-linked and autosomal dominant diseases that are "sequencing cryptic," resolving molecular diagnostic dilemmas....
Downes, T.; CHANNER, K
Ethics is about judgment, which is rarely black and white. This paper highlights some of the ethical dilemmas that face practising clinicians in their everyday life and restates how useful the General Medical Council guidance is to make appropriate decisions. The authors have faced all eight of the clinical scenarios in this paper in their routine clinical practice.
AKBULUT, Reviewed By Yavuz
233Rapid developments in information andcommunication technologies have created newsecurity threats along with ethical dilemmas. Thesedevelopments have been so fast that appropriatesecurity precautions and ethical codes fail to keeppace with the technological developments. In thisrespect, education of both professionals andordinary citizens regarding information technologyethics carries utmost importance. Encyclopedia ofInformation Ethics and Security serves as anauthentic and comprehensive r...
Stohs, Joanne Hoven
Employed women are in a quandary between two ethics, equity and care, in relation to the household division of labor. Uses the frameworks of both Benhabib and Gilligan to explain the moral rationales that women use to prioritize the ethic of care and to articulate the ethical dilemmas of employed women. (LKS)
Macleod, Rod Duncan; Wilson, Donna M; Malpas, Phillipa
Assisting or hastening death is a dilemma with many ethical as well as practical issues facing healthcare practitioners in many countries worldwide now. Various arguments for and against assisted dying have been made over time but the call from the public for legalisation of euthanasia or assisted suicide has never been stronger. While many studies have documented the reluctance of medical and other health professionals to be involved in the practice of assisted dying or euthanasia, there is still much open debate in the public domain. Those who have the most experience of palliative care are strongest in their opposition to assisted death or euthanasia. This paper explores salient practical and ethical considerations for healthcare practitioners associated with assisted death, with a focus on examining the concepts of autonomy for patients and healthcare practitioners. The role of the healthcare practitioner has clearly and undoubtedly changed over time with advances in healthcare practices but the duty of care has not changed. The dilemmas for healthcare practitioners thus who have competent patients requesting hastened death extends far beyond acting within a country's laws as they go to the very heart of the relationship between the practitioner and patient. PMID:23121745
The present research examined pet ownership, current pet diet, and guilt associated with pet diet among a fairly large sample of non-meat-eaters (n=515). It specifically focused on the conflict that pits feeding one's pet an animal-based diet that may be perceived as best promoting their well-being with concerns over animal welfare and environmental degradation threatened by such diets, here labeled the vegetarian's dilemma. Questionnaire responses indicated that ethically motivated meat abstainers were more likely to own pets and owned more of them than those motivated by health concerns or a combination of ethical and health concerns. Vegans and those resisting meat on ethical grounds were more likely to feed their pet a vegetarian diet and expressed the greatest concerns over feeding their pet an animal-based diet. For vegans and ethical meat abstainers, it is suggested that questions concerning what to feed their pet approaches a tragic tradeoff contrasting two sacred values: protecting the well-being of their pets and protecting the well-being of other animals and the environment. For meat abstainers motivated by health concerns, this constitutes a relatively easy moral problem because the primary concern for such individuals is the health of their pet with less or no regard for other ramifications of the decision, i.e., harming other animals or the environment. PMID:23619313
Castleberry, Stephen B.
As a marketing analyst, Eric is faced with several ethical dilemmas. When asked to engage in unethical and illegal behavior, Eric must decide whether to obey his boss and fudge the numbers (the counts of product purchased in order to get reimbursed more from the manufacturer during special sales) or take the ethical route. The case consists of two
Even though principles to guide practice are crucial, there are no hard-and-fast rules for resolving ethical issues--dilemmas that are not easily resolvable because they present opposing values and outcomes that may harm to certain groups of people if not properly considered. This article describes a number of ethical dilemmas faced as a workplace
The Puzzler's Dilemma explores the world of classic logic puzzles, and tells the amazing stories behind them, from the Lighthouse of Alexandria to code-breaking with the Enigma machine. Here are brain teasers that even maths whizzes have never seen explained by a mind as nimble and playful as Derrick Niederman's, the author of Number Freak and the New York Times's near-genius crossword setter. A man is found dead in a room, hanging from a rope with only a puddle of water beneath him: What happened? Just the thing to get your brain working at full speed!
Dailor, A. Nichole; Jacob, Susan
Practitioner-members of the National Association of School Psychologists (N = 208) completed questionnaires regarding their ethics training, preparedness, the types of ethical transgressions and dilemmas encountered in the previous year, and the strategies used to solve problems. Respondents who received multilevel training in ethics (ethics
InternaÃ§Ã£o por ordem judicial: dilemas Ã©ticos vivenciados por enfermeiros InternaciÃ³n por orden judicial: dilemas Ã©ticos vividos por enfermeros Hospitalization by court order: ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses
Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira Vargas
Full Text Available Pesquisa qualitativa, cujo objetivo foi descrever as situaÃ§Ãµes vivenciadas e os dilemas Ã©ticos dos enfermeiros no percurso de encaminhamento e recebimento, por ordem judicial, de pacientes com indicaÃ§Ã£o de internaÃ§Ã£o em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI. Foi efetivada entrevista parcialmente estruturada com 10 enfermeiros, que atuam em UTI e 10 que atuam em emergÃªncia de hospitais pÃºblicos e privados da regiÃ£o metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Os dados foram submetidos Ã anÃ¡lise temÃ¡tica. Os resultados indicam que os enfermeiros vivenciam dilemas Ã©ticos consequentes aos problemas de superlotaÃ§Ã£o das UTI e das emergÃªncias, da precÃ¡ria tecnologia especializada, da orientaÃ§Ã£o quanto ao benefÃcio concedido pela lei. Concluiu-se que Ã© fundamental a participaÃ§Ã£o dos enfermeiros em debates que possibilitem mapear as diferentes instÃ¢ncias que tÃªm promovido esta situaÃ§Ã£o, muitas vezes caÃ³tica.InvestigaciÃ³n cualitativa cuyo objetivo fue describir las situaciones vividas y los dilemas Ã©ticos de los enfermeros en el transcurso del envÃo y recibimiento por orden judicial de pacientes con indicaciÃ³n de internamiento en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI. Se realizÃ³ una entrevista parcialmente estructurada con 10 enfermeros que actuaban en la UCI y 10 que actuaban en Emergencias de hospitales pÃºblicos y privados de la regiÃ³n metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Los datos fueron analizados segÃºn el AnÃ¡lisis TemÃ¡tico. Los resultados indican que los enfermeros experimentan dilemas Ã©ticos consiguientes problemas de hacinamiento en emergencia y UCI, especialista en tecnologÃa pobre, la orientaciÃ³n en cuanto a los beneficios establecidos por la ley. Se concluye que es fundamental la participaciÃ³n de los enfermeros en debates que posibiliten mapear las diferentes instancias que han promovido esta situaciÃ³n muchas veces caÃ³tica.A qualitative study aimed at describing the situations experienced and the ethical dilemmas of nurses in the process of referring and receiving hospitalized patients by court order who require admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. A partially structured interview was conducted with 10 nurses who worked in the ICU and 10 who worked in the Emergency Room (ER in public and private hospitals in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The data was analyzed following the Semantic Analysis. The results indicated that nurses experienced ethical dilemmas associated with problems of overcrowding in emergency rooms and ICUs, poor specialized technology and orientation as to the benefits provided by law. We concluded that it is essential for nurses to participate in discussions that allow the planning of the different instances that have been promoting this often chaotic situation.
Carlos Roberto de Castro e Silva
Full Text Available Este artigo trata da dimensão ética na pesquisa em saúde, relacionando-a mais especificamente à abordagem qualitativa, a partir das contribuições das ciências sociais e em particular da etnografia, que pressupõe a construção de uma relação de confiança e respeito entre pesquisador e pesquisado que se configura paulatinamente. Os aspectos éticos permeiam a pesquisa qualitativa desde a escolha do objeto de estudo, as delimitações metodológicas, as análises dos resultados até o compromisso de uma devolutiva das informações obtidas; pressupondo a valorização de uma rela??ão interpessoal em que os diferentes interesses, valores e visões de mundo colocam-se como possibilidade ou não de uma construção conjunta do conhecimento. A escolha de um tema ou objeto de estudo está relacionada a uma trajetória de vida singular, em que a todo o momento o pesquisador deve se perguntar como compatibilizar a constituição da postura ética em relação aos pesquisados com seus desejos, sonhos, curiosidades e expectativas. O artigo tem o intuito de refletir sobre esses impasses vivenciados pelo pesquisador, ressaltando a importância da ética para o seu desenvolvimento pessoal, profissional e sociopolítico, valorizando o desejo pela autonomia do conhecimento, a solidariedade com os grupos sociais e com as pessoas envolvidas na pesquisa. A partir do relato de um processo de pesquisa, pretende-se contribuir para a compreensão de como os aspectos éticos são indissociáveis da pesquisa e do próprio pesquisador, trazendo elementos para a realização de pesquisas qualitativas especialmente no campo da saúde coletiva.This article addresses the ethical dimension in health research, relating it more specifically to the qualitative approach, based on contributions of the social sciences and ethnography in particular, as it presupposes building a relationship of trust and respect between researchers and researched subjects that is gradually configured. The ethical aspects permeate qualitative research from the choice of the subject matter, the methodological outlines, analysis of the results, to the commitment of providing a feedback for the researched subjects regarding the obtained information. The ethical aspects presuppose the value of an interpersonal relationship in which the different interests, values and worldviews stand as a possibility or not of a joint construction of knowledge. The choice of a subject or object of study is related to a particular life trajectory in which the researcher should ask himself, at all times, how to conciliate the constitution of an ethical attitude in relation to the researched subjects with his own desires, dreams, curiosities and expectations. The article aims to discuss such dilemmas experienced by the researcher, highlighting the importance of ethics for his personal, professional and socio-political growth, and emphasizing the desire for knowledge autonomy, solidarity with social groups and with people involved in the research. Based on the report of a research process, the article intends to contribute to the understanding of how ethical aspects are inextricably linked to research, and also to the researcher, bringing elements to the conduction of qualitative research especially in public health.
Carlos Roberto de Castro e, Silva; Rosilda, Mendes; Eunice, Nakamura.
Full Text Available Este artigo trata da dimensão ética na pesquisa em saúde, relacionando-a mais especificamente à abordagem qualitativa, a partir das contribuições das ciências sociais e em particular da etnografia, que pressupõe a construção de uma relação de confiança e respeito entre pesquisador e pesquisado que s [...] e configura paulatinamente. Os aspectos éticos permeiam a pesquisa qualitativa desde a escolha do objeto de estudo, as delimitações metodológicas, as análises dos resultados até o compromisso de uma devolutiva das informações obtidas; pressupondo a valorização de uma relação interpessoal em que os diferentes interesses, valores e visões de mundo colocam-se como possibilidade ou não de uma construção conjunta do conhecimento. A escolha de um tema ou objeto de estudo está relacionada a uma trajetória de vida singular, em que a todo o momento o pesquisador deve se perguntar como compatibilizar a constituição da postura ética em relação aos pesquisados com seus desejos, sonhos, curiosidades e expectativas. O artigo tem o intuito de refletir sobre esses impasses vivenciados pelo pesquisador, ressaltando a importância da ética para o seu desenvolvimento pessoal, profissional e sociopolítico, valorizando o desejo pela autonomia do conhecimento, a solidariedade com os grupos sociais e com as pessoas envolvidas na pesquisa. A partir do relato de um processo de pesquisa, pretende-se contribuir para a compreensão de como os aspectos éticos são indissociáveis da pesquisa e do próprio pesquisador, trazendo elementos para a realização de pesquisas qualitativas especialmente no campo da saúde coletiva. Abstract in english This article addresses the ethical dimension in health research, relating it more specifically to the qualitative approach, based on contributions of the social sciences and ethnography in particular, as it presupposes building a relationship of trust and respect between researchers and researched s [...] ubjects that is gradually configured. The ethical aspects permeate qualitative research from the choice of the subject matter, the methodological outlines, analysis of the results, to the commitment of providing a feedback for the researched subjects regarding the obtained information. The ethical aspects presuppose the value of an interpersonal relationship in which the different interests, values and worldviews stand as a possibility or not of a joint construction of knowledge. The choice of a subject or object of study is related to a particular life trajectory in which the researcher should ask himself, at all times, how to conciliate the constitution of an ethical attitude in relation to the researched subjects with his own desires, dreams, curiosities and expectations. The article aims to discuss such dilemmas experienced by the researcher, highlighting the importance of ethics for his personal, professional and socio-political growth, and emphasizing the desire for knowledge autonomy, solidarity with social groups and with people involved in the research. Based on the report of a research process, the article intends to contribute to the understanding of how ethical aspects are inextricably linked to research, and also to the researcher, bringing elements to the conduction of qualitative research especially in public health.
J G R, Kromberg; T-M, Wessels.
Full Text Available The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's [...] disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethical dilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper.
MUHAMMAD NUMAN ALI KHAN; DANISH JAMIL,
This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.
J. A. Cuesta; Jimenez, R; Lugo, H.; Sanchez, A.
One of the most direct human mechanisms of promoting cooperation is rewarding it. We study the effect of sharing a reward among cooperators in the most stringent form of social dilemma, namely the Prisoner's Dilemma. Specifically, for a group of players that collect payoffs by playing a pairwise Prisoner's Dilemma game with their partners, we consider an external entity that distributes a fixed reward equally among all cooperators. Thus, individuals confront a new dilemma: o...
Corvol, Aline; Moutel, Grégoire; Gagnon, Dominique; Nugue, Mathilde; Saint-Jean, Olivier; Somme, Dominique
As case management is under development in France for elderly people, this study sets out to identify and analyse key situations responsible for ethical dilemmas for French case managers. We based our study on the analyses of individual interviews made with case managers and focus-group discussions, bringing together all case managers working in local organisations running for at least a year. We identified three situations giving rise to ethical dilemmas: in the order of importance, the refusals of care, the practicalities of collecting and sharing personal data and the allocation of resources. These three situations can lead to conflict between the principle of beneficence and those of respect for autonomy, non-maleficence and justice. We describe here how French case managers practically deal with these situations. PMID:22918055
Reanimación cardiopulmonar en el paciente oncológico terminal: Dilemas éticos y bioéticos en Enfermería / Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in terminal oncologic patient: Ethical and bioethical dilemmas in Nursing
Evaldo, Sardiñas Llerenas; Vivian M, Alvarez Pérez; Armando, Núñez Machado.
Full Text Available La vida empieza a tener sentido cuando ayudas a otro, a ponerse de pie y a andar sabiendo que su camino llega al final. Con tal propósito se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal en el contexto hospitalario del Hospital Universitario Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau de la provincia de Villa Clara [...] en el período de octubre de 2005 a abril de 2006. Con el objetivo de determinar el nivel de conocimiento teórico práctico del personal de enfermería en el manejo de la Reanimación Cardiopulmonar (RCP) en el paciente oncológico terminal en urgencias. Se tomó una muestra de 115 enfermeros, que constituyó el 65 % de los que laboran en las diferentes salas del centro hospitalario a partir de un muestreo probabilístico intencional, se incluyeron enfermeros licenciados así como técnicos que laboran en estos servicios, se excluyeron enfermeros en maestrías, licencias y certificados prolongados. Las variables estudiadas fueron nivel de actualización en RCP oncológica, conducta en la reanimación, valores en enfermería, criterio de eutanasia, manejo psicológico del paciente oncológico, principios éticos en enfermería. Se aplicaron encuestas, entrevistas a profundidad, formulario, criterio de expertos y revisión actualizada del tema. Se confeccionaron tablas y gráficos estadísticos con los resultados de los diferentes procederes en las etapas incluidas en el estudio. Se determinó que existe una relación psicoafectiva positiva paciente-enfermero, así como criterio adecuado de enfermería con respecto a la muerte digna y actualización científica sobre el manejo de la reanimación cardiopulmonar oncológica terminal Abstract in english Life starts to have sense when you help somebody else to stand up and to walk, knowing that they are going to die. A longitudinal and descriptive study was undertaken in the hospital context of "Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau" Hospital of Villa Clara Province from October 2005 to April 2006 to determ [...] ine the level of theoretical and practical knowledge of the Nursing staff in the management of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (PCR) in terminal oncologic patients in the emergency service. A sample of 115 nurses (65%) was taken from those working in different wards of the hospital, starting from an intentional probabilistic sampling. Nursing licentiates, as well as technicians working in these services were included. Nurses who were taking Master's degree courses, and those with leaves of absence and prolonged medical certificates were excluded. The studied variables were: updating level in oncologic CPR, resuscitation behaviour, Nursing values, euthanasia criterion, psychological management of the oncologic patient and Nursing ethical principles. Surveys, in-depth interviews, questionnaires, expert's criteria and updated reviews of the topic were used. Statistical tables and graphics with the results of the different procedures in the stages included in the study were made. It was concluded that there was a positive psychoaffective patient-nurse relation, as well as a Nursing proper criterion regarding a dignified death, and an adequate scientific updating on the management of terminal oncologic cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Reanimación cardiopulmonar en el paciente oncológico terminal: Dilemas éticos y bioéticos en Enfermería Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in terminal oncologic patient: Ethical and bioethical dilemmas in Nursing
Evaldo Sardiñas Llerenas
Full Text Available La vida empieza a tener sentido cuando ayudas a otro, a ponerse de pie y a andar sabiendo que su camino llega al final. Con tal propósito se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal en el contexto hospitalario del Hospital Universitario Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau de la provincia de Villa Clara en el período de octubre de 2005 a abril de 2006. Con el objetivo de determinar el nivel de conocimiento teórico práctico del personal de enfermería en el manejo de la Reanimación Cardiopulmonar (RCP en el paciente oncológico terminal en urgencias. Se tomó una muestra de 115 enfermeros, que constituyó el 65 % de los que laboran en las diferentes salas del centro hospitalario a partir de un muestreo probabilístico intencional, se incluyeron enfermeros licenciados así como técnicos que laboran en estos servicios, se excluyeron enfermeros en maestrías, licencias y certificados prolongados. Las variables estudiadas fueron nivel de actualización en RCP oncológica, conducta en la reanimación, valores en enfermería, criterio de eutanasia, manejo psicológico del paciente oncológico, principios éticos en enfermería. Se aplicaron encuestas, entrevistas a profundidad, formulario, criterio de expertos y revisión actualizada del tema. Se confeccionaron tablas y gráficos estadísticos con los resultados de los diferentes procederes en las etapas incluidas en el estudio. Se determinó que existe una relación psicoafectiva positiva paciente-enfermero, así como criterio adecuado de enfermería con respecto a la muerte digna y actualización científica sobre el manejo de la reanimación cardiopulmonar oncológica terminalLife starts to have sense when you help somebody else to stand up and to walk, knowing that they are going to die. A longitudinal and descriptive study was undertaken in the hospital context of "Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau" Hospital of Villa Clara Province from October 2005 to April 2006 to determine the level of theoretical and practical knowledge of the Nursing staff in the management of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (PCR in terminal oncologic patients in the emergency service. A sample of 115 nurses (65% was taken from those working in different wards of the hospital, starting from an intentional probabilistic sampling. Nursing licentiates, as well as technicians working in these services were included. Nurses who were taking Master's degree courses, and those with leaves of absence and prolonged medical certificates were excluded. The studied variables were: updating level in oncologic CPR, resuscitation behaviour, Nursing values, euthanasia criterion, psychological management of the oncologic patient and Nursing ethical principles. Surveys, in-depth interviews, questionnaires, expert's criteria and updated reviews of the topic were used. Statistical tables and graphics with the results of the different procedures in the stages included in the study were made. It was concluded that there was a positive psychoaffective patient-nurse relation, as well as a Nursing proper criterion regarding a dignified death, and an adequate scientific updating on the management of terminal oncologic cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Jelena StankeviÄienÄ; Marek Szarucki
Various dilemmas concerning modern economy and business have been in the focus of scientific discussion in recent years (Klich, 2013; Renko & Knezevic, 2013; Szarucki, 2013; Agrawal & Gugnani, 2014; Pardhasaradhi & Grace, 2015). In modern economy, not only researches but corporations face complex economic and business dilemmas in their daily routine. The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission addresses key economic challenges by stimulating innovations, sustainability policies, soci...
Porter, Russell; Broussard, Amelia; Duckett, Todd
It is imperative for divinity and health administration programs to improve their level of ethics education for their graduates who work as health administration chaplains. With an initial presentation of the variation of ethical dilemmas presented in health care facilities covering social, organizational, and patient levels, we indicate the need
McCormick, Donald W.
Discusses ethical dilemmas that professors face in the classroom, drawing on three examples involving students: (1) discussing the illegal activities of an employer; (2) participating in politically controversial military activities; and (3) making racist comments. Argues that academic and professional organizations should issue codes of ethics
Lawler, Patricia Ann
Continuing professional education practitioners often face ethical dilemmas regarding their obligations to multiple stakeholders and issues arising in new arenas such as the workplace, distance education, and collaboration with business. Codes of ethics can guide practice, but practitioners should also identify their personal core values system
A new interactive computer simulation designed to teach sales ethics is described. Simulation learner objectives include gaining a better understanding of legal issues in selling; realizing that ethical dilemmas do arise in selling; realizing the need to be honest when selling; seeing that there are conflicting demands from a salesperson's
Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics
The role of individual life accounts has been promoted--largely through what has come to be described as narrative ethics-as important to the practice of medical ethics for a number of years. Beyond this the apparent incompatibility of personal stories with scientific procedure has limited their use. In this article I will argue that this represents a serious under-utilisation of a valuable method for researching ethical dilemmas and the settings in which these dilemmas are played out. Life s...
Betzabeth, Cárdenas Aldana; Beatriz Valles, González.
Full Text Available La adaptación de los implantes cocleares (IC) amerita una selección cuidadosa de los posibles candidatos y del respeto pleno de su autonomía. El propósito se centró en promover la autonomía con respecto al uso de los IC en personas sordas, sus padres y representantes legales, con base al desarrollo [...] de un programa educativo. El diseño surgió de un diagnóstico que se obtuvo en una investigación cualitativa realizada en una escuela de sordos. Como técnica para la recolección de datos se utilizaron encuestas y conversaciones con padres de niños sordos receptores de IC y de niños sordos candidatos a recibirlos. La evaluación se elaboró a partir del análisis de conversaciones, testimonios y producciones escritas aportadas por los participantes. Los resultados muestran que los padres no recibieron información oportuna y suficiente por el equipo médico. Representa un aporte significativo e innovador para conformar un espacio para la obtención de información y para tomar decisiones responsables y autónomas. Abstract in english The use of Cochlear Implants (CI) requires a thorough selection of possible candidates as well as the respect of their autonomy. The purpose was focused on promoting autonomy regarding the use of Cochlear Implants in deaf people, their parents and legal guardians, towards an educational program abou [...] t CI. The design of the study was obtained from diagnosis performed during a qualitative research in a deaf school. As techniques for the collection of data, there were surveys and conversation exchange with the parents of deaf children recipients of CI, as well as deaf children candidates to receive them. The assessment was elaborated using as basis the analysis of conversations, testimonies and written productions provided by the participants. The results show that most of the parents did not receive appropriate and sufficient information from the medical team. Represents a significant and innovative contribution to create a space to obtain essential information for responsible and autonomous decision making.
Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy; Kondo, Christopher
Sales career opportunities are growing, and the number of women in sales is increasing. Educators must adequately prepare both men and women for today's ethical sales dilemmas. Using the Personal Selling Ethics Scale, the current study analyzes the impact of idealism and relativism on the sales ethics evaluations of men and women. Results indicate
Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl; Mattsson, Jan
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss some ethical issues in the internet encounter between customer and bank. Empirical data related to the difficulties that customers have when they deal with the bank through internet technology and electronic banking. The authors discuss the difficulties that customers expressed from an ethical standpoint. Design/methodology/approach The key problem of the paper is how does research handle the user's lack of competence in a web-based commercial environment? The authors illustrate this ethical dilemma with data from a Danish Bank collected in 2002. The data have been structured by an advanced text analytic method, Pertex (by generation of intentionality of verbal actors from text). Findings The authors can conclude that the experience of lack of competency in internet banking implies a severe damage on the experience of the ethics of the good life and of the respect for the basic ethical principles of customer autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability. However, increased experience of competency may imply experience of increased feeling of ethical superiority and of the good life among customers. Research limitations/implications The important implication for managerial research of this study would be for banks to focus on customer competency with an ethical concern instead of only being concerned with technical solutions for effective internet operations. Practical implications Since more and more businesses are digitally based, the authors can foresee a potential generic problem of lack of competence for certain age groups and also of people from different social groups. Originality/value The paper provides an analysis of the ethics of on-line banking on the basis of Pertex methodology and with the use of basic ethical principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability.
Di Nucci, Ezio
distinction, which, according to the doctrine of double effect, makes a difference to the moral justification of actions, is widely applied to some of the most controversial ethical and political questions of our time: collateral damages in wars and acts of terrorism; palliative care, euthanasia, abortion......Ethics Without Intention tackles the questions raised by difficult moral dilemmas by providing a critical analysis of double effect and its most common ethical and political applications. The book discusses the philosophical distinction between intended harm and foreseen but unintended harm. This...... political decisions of our time. An engaging and comprehensive introduction to the doctrine of double effect. - See more at: http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/ethics-without-intention-9781472525796/#sthash.NKISOPL8.dpuf...
Prinsloo, Johan; South African Society for Greek Philosophy and the Humanities; Kingshott, Brian
A number of ethical issues and dilemmas are to be found in policing. Police officers do engage in unethical behaviour which often originates from the norms of the organisational culture. However, working in the world of policing provides officers with the ability to rationalise, excuse and justify unethical behaviour, while maintaining a moral self image. Culture, values and norms as unconscious and conscious feelings are terms which have different, though not unrelated meanings and manifest ...
Lystbæk, Christian Tang
For the last decades, business ethics have spread from a new brand of a few socially and environmentally benevolent companies to the corporate mainstream. Thus, today, business ethics have become a central concern for both business managers and researchers in order to manage the cultural value base of the organization, stakeholder relations, etc.. Throughout the history of business ethics, though, and especially in the last decade, a series of studies have criticized the dominant view of business ethics for being instrumental and reductive. This critique often dismisses business ethics altogether. This paper addresses these movements or approaches to business ethics. It argues that business ethics is caught between two conceptions of what it is for. The first movement promotes the idea that it can be a reassuring and satisfying set of ideas that reminds us how to do the right thing in order to manage the cultural value base of the organization, stakeholder relations, etc.. The second movement promotes the idea that ethics is something that threatens us by exposing us to dilemmas and differences. The paper concludes that business ethics is both a source of solutions and questions. This acknowledgement allows us to engage with business ethics in a theoretical fruitful and ethically engaged manner that challenges us to see business ethics as a involving both practical solutions and critical questions.
Anker, Thomas Boysen; Sandøe, Peter; Kamin, Tanja; Kappel, Klemens
into account the ethical dimensions of health branding: this article presents a conceptual analysis of potential ethical problems in health branding. The analysis focuses on ethical concerns related to the application of three health brand elements (functional claims, process claims, and health symbols...
Lund, Thomas BÃ¸ker; MÃ¸rkbak, Morten Raun; Lassen, Jesper; SandÃ¸e, Peter
The conflict between animal costs and human benefits has dominated public as well as academic debates about animal research. However, surveys of public perceptions of animal research rarely focus on this part of attitude formation. This paper traces the prevalence of different attitudes to animal...
Medina Bustos, Ayeray Mirta
The meaning that Justice has after a conflict in a society might vary regarding the political development and cultural and shared values of a certain society. Rawls, in his Theory of Justice gives his idea of what justice is and presents two principles of justice that he argues are required to live in a good society: a first principle that secures equal rights and liberties for all individuals and a second egalitarian principle that restrains the consequences of economic inequalities within s...
This article argues that the English legislative regime is ineffective in regulating international surrogacy, particularly with regard to commercial payments. It suggests that if English law views surrogacy as exploitative, we have a responsibility to protect women both in England and abroad, and the only way to do so effectively is to create a domestic system of regulation that caters adequately for the demand in this country. This requires a system of authorisation for surrogacy before it is undertaken; ex-post facto examinations of agreements completed in other jurisdictions, after the child is already living with the commissioning parents, cannot be seen as an acceptable compromise, as authorisation will inevitably be granted in the child's best interests. PMID:26785890
Haines, A.; de B. White, C.; Gleisner, J
The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evide...
Brandenburg, Robyn; Gervasoni, Ann
The ethical practice underpinning self-study research has been addressed extensively in the literature of self-study of teacher education practices. Less attention has been paid to how researchers deal with ethical tensions and dilemmas when they arise unexpectedly during self-study research. In this article, we examine how the extrapolation and
Reviews some of the ethical issues that emerged during a study of 25 adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Discusses some cases where boundary issues became problematic; also discusses the dilemmas faced in working within a person-centered, qualitative approach. Examines considerations of counseling researchers and their trainers when
Merrick, Allison; Green, Rochelle; Cunningham, Thomas V; Eisenberg, Leah R; Hester, D Micah
Although ethics is an essential component of undergraduate medical education, research suggests that current medical ethics curricula face considerable challenges in improving students' ethical reasoning. This article discusses these challenges and introduces a promising new mode of graduate and professional ethics instruction for overcoming them. We begin by describing common ethics curricula, focusing in particular on established problems with current approaches. Next, we describe a novel method of ethics education and assessment for medical students that we have devised: the Medical Ethics Bowl (MEB). Finally, we suggest the pedagogical advantages of the MEB when compared to other ethics curricula. PMID:26788954
This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.
Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin
This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.
Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Nanna, Kappel
Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki Declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and health care research, in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research. The guidelines appear to be instrumental and over simplistic representations of the often messy realities surrounding the research process that is often guided by relational and local negotiations of ethical solutions. Vulnerable participants, for instance, challenge both professional and research ethics, leaving both professionals and researchers in ethical and moral dilemmas. In this article, we specifically focus on the methodological challenges of obtaining informed consent from drug users and terminally ill cancer patients in our PhD research. The question is how you can illuminate the needs and problems of vulnerable patients and - at the same time - respect their integrity without exposing them unnecessarily. The article illuminates the interactional construction of roles and relationships and how they affect the contextual construction of vulnerability. In this respect, we demonstrate that both patients and researchers are at risk of being vulnerable. In conclusion, we outline and advocate for a more contextualized approach and empirically-informed ethics to informed consent in research with potentially vulnerable participants.
Yim, Seon-Hee; Chung, Yeun-Jun
The rapid advances in genetic knowledge and technology raise various, sometimes unprecedented, ethical dilemmas in the scientific community as well as the public realm. To deal with these dilemmas, the international community has prepared and issued ethical standards in various formats. In this review, seven international standards regarding genetics and genomics will be briefly introduced in chronological order. Critical reflections on them will not be provided in this review, and naturally,...
Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Christiansen, Anne Hjøllund; Petersson, Birgit
scientific literature. AIM: To explore Danish midwives' experiences with and attitudes towards late TOP. Focus was on how midwives perceive their own role in late TOP, and how their professional identity is influenced by working with late TOP in a time where prenatal screening is rapidly developing. METHOD...... physicians counsel women/couples after prenatal diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The midwives' practice in relation to late TOP was characterised by an acknowledgement of the growing ethical status of the foetus and the emotional reactions of the women/couples going through late TOP. Other professions as well as...
Culiberg, Barbara; Bajde, Domen
Although recycling is often experienced as a moral dilemma, studies that systematically approach this issue from an ethical perspective are scarce. Moreover, previous studies have explored recycling by mainly using single ethical constructs, such as moral norms, values or obligations, rarely approaching it as an ethical decision-making process. Our study takes a more holistic approach and integrates the recycling literature with business ethics theory in order to develop a conceptual model of et...
Ethical dilemmas in blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses: a legal-bioethical analysis Dilemas éticos en la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeová: un análisis jurídico-bioético Dilemas éticos na hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová: uma análise jurídico-bioética
Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify knowledge production by healthcare professionals about blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses (JW, listing the therapeutic alternatives for blood transfusion in these individuals and citing the legal, ethical and bioethical standards regarding blood transfusion in JWs. METHODS: Data were collected in the LILACS and SciELO databases, Nursing journals and on http://www.google.com.br. Articles focusing on blood transfusion in JWs were included, and texts that were repeated or did not approach this theme were excluded. Content analysis was used. RESULTS: The thematic categories show that the JWs accept self-transfusion and are opposed to the medical practice of blood transfusion, even if it represents the continuity of life. CONCLUSION: Healthcare professionals experience ethical dilemmas when they need to perform blood transfusion in JWs due to the fact that religious freedom is not an absolute value, and the apparent collision of fundamental rights demands that a decision be made, centered on legal standards and bioethical principles.OBJETIVO: Identificar la producción de conocimiento por los profesionales de salud respecto a la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeova (TJ, listar las alternativas terapéuticas de la transfusión sanguínea en esos individuos y citar la ordenanza jurídica, ética y bioética en lo que concierne a la transfusión sanguínea en TJ. MÉTODOS: Se recolectaron datos en las bases de datos LILACS y SciELO, periódicos de Enfermería y en el http://www.google.com.br. Se incluyeron artículos enfocando la transfusión sanguínea en TJ, y se excluyeron a los que no abordaban esa temática o estaban repetidos. Se utilizó el análisis de contenido. RESULTADOS: Las categorías temáticas señalan que los TJ acatan la auto-transfusión y se contraponen a la práctica médica de la transfusión sanguínea, aunque ella represente la continuidad de la vida. CONCLUSIÓN: Los profesionales de salud vivencian dilemas éticos cuando precisan realizar transfusiones sanguíneas en TJ debido a que la libertad religiosa no es un valor absoluto y la aparente colisión de derechos fundamentales les exige una toma de decisión centrada en la ordenanza jurídica y en los principios bioéticos.OBJETIVO: Identificar a produção de conhecimento pelos profissionais de saúde acerca da hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová (TJ, listar as alternativas terapêuticas para a hemotransfusão nesses indivíduos e citar o ordenamento jurídico, ético e bioético no concernente a hemotransfusão em TJ. MÉTODOS: Coletaram-se dados nas bases de dados LILACS e SciELO, periódicos de Enfermagem e no http://www.google.com.br. Incluiram-se artigos enfocando hemotransfusão em TJ, e excluíram-se os que não abordassem essa temática ou estivessem repetidos. Utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: As categorias temáticas sinalizam que as TJ acatam a auto-transfusão e se contrapõem à prática médica da hemotransfusão, mesmo que ela represente a continuidade da vida. CONCLUSÃO: Os profissionais de saúde vivenciam dilemas éticos quando precisam administrar hemotransfusão em TJ devido a liberdade religiosa não ser um valor absoluto e a aparente colisão de direitos fundamentais exigir uma tomada de decisão centrada no ordenamento jurídico e nos princípios bioéticos.
Howard E. McNier
Full Text Available Globalization of business has increasingly involved American attorneys in an ethical dilemma which is not just academic, but may result in disciplinary action against the attorney. What is counsel to do when it is discovered that overseas employment practices (legal in the foreign country violate American law? May counsel, citing current case law, ethically advise management that discharge of a troublesome employee may be effected "legally" by simply transferring the employee overseas, then firing her? These ethical issues can be put in sharp focus by reviewing a provision of the 1991 Civil Rights Act (CRA that extends application of the 1964 CRA to cover American citizens working overseas for American owned or controlled firms. Expansive interpretation of this by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC has ensnarled over 21,000 overseas businesses with the threat of being sued, in the United States, for employment practices committed outside of the United States.
Deborah Oughton started with a view of the work in progress by the ICRP TG 94 on ethics, from the historical context and the principles-based ethics in RP, to continue with an overview of the ethical theories and with the main area of elaboration which concerns the common values, to conclude with considerations about the implementation in different area such as biomedicine, nuclear safety and workers, ecological aspects, and environmental health and society. By reading again the ICRP and IAEA publications on the ethical aspects in the protection of environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, the presentation covers the various and different cultures within the history of environmental ethics, the perception of Nature and the theories of environmental ethics, in particular by focusing on anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as philosophical worldwide views, and on conservation, biodiversity, sustainability, environmental justice and human dignity, as primary principles of environmental protection. The influence of western Christianity, with a view of man dominating over every creeping thing on earth, and of the non-western ideas, the human perception of Nature has been analyzed and discussed to conclude that, in reality then, the anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as reflected in many cultures and religions, they all support the need to protect the environment and to recognise and preserve the diversity. Three challenges were then discussed in the presentation: the ecosystem approach and ecological economics, for example in the case of Fukushima by asking what is the economic cost of marine contamination; the ecosystem changes with attention to what harms, as in the case of the environment in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl; and the environmental consequences of remediation, which can be considered a source of controversy for environmental ethics and policy
Wiegmann, Alex; Waldmann, Michael R
Evaluations of analogous situations are an important source for our moral intuitions. A puzzling recent set of findings in experiments exploring transfer effects between intuitions about moral dilemmas has demonstrated a striking asymmetry. Transfer often occurred with a specific ordering of moral dilemmas, but not when the sequence was reversed. In this article we present a new theory of transfer between moral intuitions that focuses on two components of moral dilemmas, namely their causal structure and their default evaluations. According to this theory, transfer effects are expected when the causal models underlying the considered dilemmas allow for a mapping of the highlighted aspect of the first scenario onto the causal structure of the second dilemma, and when the default evaluations of the two dilemmas substantially differ. The theory's key predictions for the occurrence and the direction of transfer effects between two moral dilemmas are tested in five experiments with various variants of moral dilemmas from different domains. A sixth experiment tests the predictions of the theory for how the target action in the moral dilemmas is represented. PMID:24440432
C. ANITHA (Corresponding Author,
Full Text Available Today, e-learning and various online education applications are used in many countries and educational institutions than ever before. Ethics deals with the principle governing ideal or good behavior, it focuses on what is right or what is wrong. Although in education, the ethical issues that they may be facing are not about of life and death issues. An ethical dilemma will take place when the educator faced with a decision that maybe incongruent with the organizationâs values and policies. There are several examples of ethical issues in education. In this reason, the educator must be guided with the appropriate decision-making strategies. With the increasing use of new communication technologies, adoption of distance education by traditional educational institutes and owing to growing demand on the part of learners, it becomes more important to discuss the ethical issues. This important title provides academicians, students, and professionals with ethical insight into the world of e-learning through fascinating case studies that elucidate the issues through real-world examples. Pioneerâs experience in the field of distance education indicates that the profile of distance learners varies, cutting across barriers of gender, class and caste. The distance learner may be suffering from a sense of isolation as he/she makes a return to study after a gap of time or while working. It is there that the distance educator makes a positive, ethical and interventionist role by helping the student to learn beyond the stereotypical classroom situation and can act effectively as the friend, philosopher and guide of the learner. However, the industry of education is a serious one, requiring well defined ethics and values, well bound in visible legal outlines to regulate its exchange and distribution. Because as the industry grows, so do the issues of ethical concern such as plagiarism, electronic voyeurism, and licensing. The objective of this paper is to raise awareness of additional ethical issues in order to encourage further debate and consideration of these importance issues. The present paper will focus on the ethical values to be followed and implemented in the open distance education system
Moral thinking is embedded within cultures, and we use ethics all the time in our dealings with one another. Many functioning communities tend to share some values that reflect a particular view of the importance of human life in quantity and quality. Rights and duties form an interconnected network of obligations that protect the security of individuals and groups. In health care, the motives and virtues of practitioners are important sources of the determination to provide care for the ill within the limits of resource constraints. Ethics and the law have similarities, but also significant differences that may cause tension between the two systems. Health care is morally grounded, and provides a bulwark against the widespread fear of disease and suffering. The way in which health care is delivered depends on both national wealth and community values. Ethical problems can be seen as dilemmas, in which there are conflicting values. Modern ethical thinking in health is complicated by the need to consider the values and interests of many stakeholders--patients, health care workers, families, politicians, administrators, health bureaucrats and many others. There are ways of ethical thinking that take account of these often countervailing interests. No universally 'right' answers can be specified. The mode and the thoroughness of ethical consideration, and the careful consideration of local community values, will help to assure that we make the best possible decisions for the time and place. PMID:14674215
In the last decade, we have witnessed a burgeoning of interest in ethical issues amongst psychiatrists. Teaching of the subject, however, remains at a rudimentary stage. Various approaches to such instruction are available, particularly modelling (students observe their experienced counterpart), the case method (examining specific clinical situations which involve a need for ethical decision-making), and the seminar approach (trainees are exposed to a core body of knowledge, mainly theoretical in nature). Faced with these different teaching models, the University of Oxford Department of Psychiatry has opted for a blend of all three approaches, which incorporates two goals: an increase in the trainees' sensitivity to the many intricate moral dilemmas facing the psychiatric profession; and their familiarity with salient concepts in moral philosophy which constitute a basis for ethical reasoning and which have a bearing on clinical practice. The teaching programme comprises the following: a pair of trainees prepares a presentation on an aspect of psychiatric ethics under the supervision of a senior psychiatrist. A moral philosopher assumes the role of discussant of the ethical problems raised by the trainees; this is followed by a general discussion. Topics have included involuntary hospitalization, dual loyalty, suicide, psychiatric diagnosis, and ethical issues in various spheres of psychiatric practice such as sex therapy, psychotherapy and child psychiatry. The approach has worked effectively and proved rewarding to all participants involved. PMID:3226351
The presentation aims at presenting the idea of balanc ed performativity as a strategic tool and focus in educational psychotherapy and coaching. By revitalizing the Aristotelian idea of the balance d life in working with anxiety and stress management among students, it is possible to initiat e an...
Percepção de enfermeiros sobre dilemas éticos relacionados a pacientes terminais em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva / Perception of nurses about ethical dilemmas related to terminal patients in intensive care units / Percepción de enfermeros sobre dilemas éticos relacionados a pacientes terminales en unidades de terapia intensiva
Adriano Aparecido Bezerra, Chaves; Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga, Massarollo.
Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivos conhecer a percepção de enfermeiros sobre dilemas éticos existentes na assistência de enfermagem a pacientes terminais, no contexto da UTI de um hospital geral do município de São Paulo e o que é considerado para a tomada de decisão. O estudo foi realizado atravé [...] s de entrevistas com dez enfermeiros atuantes na UTI, utilizando uma abordagem qualitativa, conforme a análise de conteúdo. Foram encontrados dilemas éticos ligados a: diversidade de valores; presença dos pacientes terminais na UTI; incertezas sobre a terminalidade e limites de intervenção para prolongar a vida dos pacientes; discordância de tomadas de decisão; não aceitação do processo de morte pela família do paciente e a falta de esclarecimento da família e do paciente. Além disso, para tomar decisão frente aos dilemas éticos, ele considera os seus valores, a ética profissional, a empatia e o diálogo com os colegas. Abstract in spanish El presente estudio tuvo como objetivos conocer la percepción de enfermeros sobre dilemas éticos existentes en la asistencia de enfermería a pacientes terminales en el contexto de la UTI de un hospital de São Paulo y lo que se considera como la toma de decisiones. El estudio fue realizado desde una [...] perspectiva cualitativa, utilizando el análisis de contenidos. Fueron entrevistados diez enfermeros actuantes en la UTI. El estudio mostró que los enfermeros encuentran dilemas éticos generados por diversos factores: diversidad de valores; presencia dem los pacientes terminales en la UTI; incertidumbre generada a raíz de la condición terminal; los límites de intervención para prolongar la vida; discordancia en la toma de decisiones; resistencia para aceptar el proceso de muerte por parte de la familia y la falta de esclarecimiento de la família y de los pacientes. Además, sus valores, la ética profesional, la empatía y el diálogo son tenidos en cuenta para tomar decisiones. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to learn about nurses' perception about ethical dilemmas in nursing care for terminal patients in the context of a general hospital ICU in the city of São Paulo, and what they take into account when making decisions. The study was performed through interviews with ten n [...] urses working at the ICU, using a qualitative approach based on content analysis. Ethical dilemmas were found to be linked to: diversity of values; presence of terminal patients at the ICU; uncertainties about terminality and the limits of intervention to prolong the patients' lives; disagreements in decision-making; non-acceptance of the process of dying by the patients' families and the lack of clarifications for the patient and the family. In addition, the nurses consider their values, the professional ethics, empathy and dialogue with co-workers to make decisions in view of such ethical dilemmas.
PercepÃ§Ã£o de enfermeiros sobre dilemas Ã©ticos relacionados a pacientes terminais em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva PercepciÃ³n de enfermeros sobre dilemas Ã©ticos relacionados a pacientes terminales en unidades de terapia intensiva Perception of nurses about ethical dilemmas related to terminal patients in intensive care units
Adriano Aparecido Bezerra Chaves
Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivos conhecer a percepÃ§Ã£o de enfermeiros sobre dilemas Ã©ticos existentes na assistÃªncia de enfermagem a pacientes terminais, no contexto da UTI de um hospital geral do municÃpio de SÃ£o Paulo e o que Ã© considerado para a tomada de decisÃ£o. O estudo foi realizado atravÃ©s de entrevistas com dez enfermeiros atuantes na UTI, utilizando uma abordagem qualitativa, conforme a anÃ¡lise de conteÃºdo. Foram encontrados dilemas Ã©ticos ligados a: diversidade de valores; presenÃ§a dos pacientes terminais na UTI; incertezas sobre a terminalidade e limites de intervenÃ§Ã£o para prolongar a vida dos pacientes; discordÃ¢ncia de tomadas de decisÃ£o; nÃ£o aceitaÃ§Ã£o do processo de morte pela famÃlia do paciente e a falta de esclarecimento da famÃlia e do paciente. AlÃ©m disso, para tomar decisÃ£o frente aos dilemas Ã©ticos, ele considera os seus valores, a Ã©tica profissional, a empatia e o diÃ¡logo com os colegas.El presente estudio tuvo como objetivos conocer la percepciÃ³n de enfermeros sobre dilemas Ã©ticos existentes en la asistencia de enfermerÃa a pacientes terminales en el contexto de la UTI de un hospital de SÃ£o Paulo y lo que se considera como la toma de decisiones. El estudio fue realizado desde una perspectiva cualitativa, utilizando el anÃ¡lisis de contenidos. Fueron entrevistados diez enfermeros actuantes en la UTI. El estudio mostrÃ³ que los enfermeros encuentran dilemas Ã©ticos generados por diversos factores: diversidad de valores; presencia dem los pacientes terminales en la UTI; incertidumbre generada a raÃz de la condiciÃ³n terminal; los lÃmites de intervenciÃ³n para prolongar la vida; discordancia en la toma de decisiones; resistencia para aceptar el proceso de muerte por parte de la familia y la falta de esclarecimiento de la famÃlia y de los pacientes. AdemÃ¡s, sus valores, la Ã©tica profesional, la empatÃa y el diÃ¡logo son tenidos en cuenta para tomar decisiones.The purpose of this study was to learn about nurses' perception about ethical dilemmas in nursing care for terminal patients in the context of a general hospital ICU in the city of SÃ£o Paulo, and what they take into account when making decisions. The study was performed through interviews with ten nurses working at the ICU, using a qualitative approach based on content analysis. Ethical dilemmas were found to be linked to: diversity of values; presence of terminal patients at the ICU; uncertainties about terminality and the limits of intervention to prolong the patients' lives; disagreements in decision-making; non-acceptance of the process of dying by the patients' families and the lack of clarifications for the patient and the family. In addition, the nurses consider their values, the professional ethics, empathy and dialogue with co-workers to make decisions in view of such ethical dilemmas.
Bloch, David Kristian
Denne artikel diskuterer Euthyphrons dilemma, som det fremstilles i Platons dialog Euthyphron. Der argumenteres for, at Kierkegaard i virkeligheden forsøger at omgå problemet, idet han vælger en helt tredje løsning. Udgivelsesdato: 1. april
Chima, Sylvester C; Mduluza, Takafira; Kipkemboi, Julius
The 3rd Pan-African Ethics Human Rights and Medical Law (3rd EHRML) conference was held in Johannesburg on July 7, 2013, as part of the Africa Health Congress. The conference brought together bioethicists, researchers and scholars from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Kenya and Nigeria working in the field of bioethics as well as students and healthcare workers interested in learning about ethical issues confronting the African continent. The conference which ran with a theme of "Bioethical and legal perspectives in biomedical research and medical practice in Africa with a focus on: Informed consent, HIV-AIDS & Tuberculosis, leadership & organizational ethics, patients and healthcare workers rights," was designed to expand the dialogue on African bioethics beyond the traditional focus on research ethics and the ethical dilemmas surrounding the conduct of biomedical research in developing countries. This introductory article highlights some of areas of focus at the conference including issues of leadership, organizational ethics and patients and healthcare workers rights in Africa. We analyze the importance of free speech, public debate of issues, argumentation and the need to introduce the teaching and learning of ethics to students in Africa in accordance with UNESCO guidelines. This article also focuses on other challenges confronting Africa today from an ethical standpoint, including the issues of poor leadership and organizational ethics which are main contributors to the problems prevalent in African countries, such as poverty, poor education and healthcare delivery systems, terrorism, social inequities, infrastructural deficits and other forms of 'structural violence' confronting vulnerable African communities. We believe that each of the eight articles included in this supplement, which have been rigorously peer-reviewed are a good example of current research on bioethics in Africa, and explore some new directions towards broadening the African bioethics agenda as we move forward to a new dawn for Africa in the 21st century. PMID:24564890
Research that includes non-human animal experimentation is fundamentally a dilemmatic enterprise. Humans use other animals in research to improve life for their own species. Ethical principles are established to deal with this dilemma. But despite this ethical apparatus, people who in one way or another work with animal experimentation have to interpret and understand the principles from their individual points of view. In interviews with members of Swedish animal ethics committees, different views on what the term ethics really means were articulated. For one member, the difficult ethical dilemma of animal experimentation is the lack of enriched cages for mice. For another, the ethical problem lies in regulations restraining research. A third member talks about animals' right not to be used for human interests. These different views on "ethics" intersect once a month in the animal ethics committee meetings. There is no consensus on what constitutes the ethical problem that the members should be discussing. Therefore, personal views on what ethics means, and hierarchies among committee members, characterise the meetings. But committee traditions and priorities of interpretation as well are important to the decisions. The author discusses how "ethics" becomes situated and what implications this may have for committees' decisions. PMID:19332584
basic question is not what we ought to do, but what kind of persons we ought to be. Besides, the ethics of right, the ethics of care and theories of justice will be mentioned. The theories' advantages and problems will be actualised by relevant examples. Conclusion at discretion......Introduction: The presentation is a general introduction to the main schools in applied ethics, their implications and problems, and their relationship to the notion of equity. Background: Dilemmas and tensions between ethical principles and the practices of the maritime industry will be discussed...... at an empirical level in the workshop Ethics and Equity. This opening theoretical presentation is an attempt to frame and qualify the following discussion. Summary: The interest of normative ethics' is the content of our moral behaviour. Normative ethical theories seek to provide action...
Javarone, Marco Alberto
We introduce an analytical model to study the evolution towards equilibrium in spatial games. In particular, we focus our attention on the spatial Prisoner's Dilemma, as it constitutes an emblematic example of a game whose Nash equilibrium is defection. Previous investigations showed that, under opportune conditions, it is possible to reach, in the evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma, an equilibrium of cooperation. Notably, it seems that mechanisms like motion may lead a population to become cooperative. In the proposed model, we map agents to particles of a gas so that, on varying the system temperature, they randomly move. In doing so, we are able to identify a relation between the temperature and the final equilibrium of the population, explaining how it is possible to break the classical Nash equilibrium in the spatial Prisoner's Dilemma. Moreover, we introduce a formalism to study order-disorder phase transitions in these dynamics. As result, we highlight that the proposed model allows to explain analyticall...
We focus on how repeat collaboration in creative projects affects the performance. Repeat collaboration has two contradictory aspects. One of them is a positive aspect: team development or experience. The other aspect is negative: team degeneration or abrasion. This contradiction causes the dilemma whether we should keep collaborating or not. The contradiction has not been quantitatively analysed. We provided extensive and quantitative analyses of the dilemma in creative projects by using patent data of Japan and the United States. We proposed the three conditions to validate the existence of the dilemma quantitatively. First condition is the better impact of team patents is, the longer collaborations occur. Second condition is impact of consecutive patents decrease after hits a team makes. Third condition is at some point of consecutive patents, expectation of impact by switching teams is better than one of a consecutive production. We found these conditions arise in patents of Japan and the United States. T...
Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently, the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT is indispensable to life. The utilization of ICT has provided advantages for people, organizations and society as a whole. Nevertheless, the widespread and rapid use of ICT in society has exacerbated existing ethical issues or dilemmas and also led to the emergence of new ethical issues such as unauthorized access, software piracy, internet pornography, privacy protection, information gap and many others. Approach: Therefore, the aim of this study is to discuss several issues of the ICT ethics. It will focusing on two major issues, that is, data accuracy and accessibility. Results: The results indicated that more than half percentage of respondents tend to be ethical in data accuracy scenario and also in accessibility scenario. Several computer ethics scenarios that relate to the data accuracy and accessibility are presented and the results of analysis are then discussed. Conclusion: Based on the results in this study, computer ethics issues such as data accuracy and accessibility should receive more attention in the ICT field.
Kaufmann, I M; RÃ¼hli, F J
Ethical issues are of foremost importance in modern bio-medical science. Ethical guidelines and socio-cultural public awareness exist for modern samples, whereas for ancient mummy studies both are de facto lacking. This is particularly striking considering the fact that examinations are done without informed consent or that the investigations are invasive due to technological aspects and that it affects personality traits. The aim of this study is to show the pro and contra arguments of ancient mummy research from an ethical point of view with a particular focus on the various stakeholders involved in this research. Relevant stakeholders in addition to the examined individual are, for example, a particular researcher, and the science community in general, likely descendents of the mummy or any future generation. Our broad discussion of the moral dilemma of mummy research should help to extract relevant decision-making criteria for any such study in future. We specifically do not make any recommendations about how to rate these decision-factors, since this is highly dependent on temporal and cultural affiliations of the involved researcher. The sustainability of modern mummy research is dependent on ethical orientation, which can only be given and eventually settled in an interdisciplinary approach such as the one we attempt to present here. PMID:20671292
Bell, Sue Ellen
Because of changing demographics and other factors, patients receiving care for wounds, ostomies, or incontinence are being referred in increasing numbers to community health nursing organizations for initial or continued care. As home-based wound care becomes big business, little discussion is being focused on the moral and ethical issues likely to arise in the high-tech home setting. Progressively more complex and expensive home care relies on family members to take on complicated care regimens in the face of decreasing numbers of allowable skilled nursing home visits. A framework and a principle-based theory for reflection on the character and content of moral and ethical conflicts are provided to encourage informed and competent care of patients in the home. Common moral and ethical conflicts for WOC nurses in the United States are presented. These conflicts include issues of wound care supply procurement; use of documentation to maximize care or profit; problems of quality, care consistency, and caregiver consent; and dilemmas of tiered health care options. The advantages of a framework to address ethical conflicts are discussed. PMID:14560284
Gruber, Verena; Schlegelmilch, Bodo B.
Ethics education provided by universities in general, and MBA programs aimed at future business leaders in particular, has come under intense public scrutiny because of corporate scandals and ethical dilemmas. To date, academic research has been mainly devoted to the characteristics of instruction formats and their effectiveness, characteristics
Places the development of the debate over false or recovered memories in its social and historical context. Identifies some of the ethical and legal implications of this area of work for therapists by using the Drama Triangle. Outlines ethical dilemmas for therapists and some of the implications for therapeutic practice. (RJM)
Jacob Dahl Rendtorff
Full Text Available After the publication of my book Ethics for Psychologists, one reviewer asked the question about whether and when I would write an ethics of public administration.With this suggestion in mind, I proposed a new book to the publisher (DJØFs forlag Danish Lawyers and Economists publishing company and the publisher accepted. So now the problem is how to formulate an ethics of administration. Indeed, facing the present global crisis and the need for global principles of sustainability and cosmopolitanism it could be argued that public administration ethics should be redefined according to these ethical ideals. As such I would argue that a book about ethics of administration should deal with ethical theories and principles and dilemmas of public administration in public organizations and institutions, i.e. state, regional and municipal administrations and bureaucracies, including ethical dimensions of the work of courts, police and military. A presentation of ethics of administration should also look at problems and dilemmas in different types of more or less public organizations and institutions.
Full Text Available Scientists have started with experimentation that raises difficult ethical questions. It comprises taking material from the human blueprint (DNA and inserting this in various test animals. The purpose of such research is noble, namely the alleviation of hu- man suffering. Yet the ethical ramifications of blending the hu- man and animal genome are significant, especially for Chris- tians. The creation of all living entities after their kind and the image-bearing dignity attributed to man both come under se- vere ethical stress for those who presuppose divine order in Gods ecology. For non-Christians the philosophical dilemma ought not to exist in the ethical sense if applied at the purest level. If the human is merely a kind of animal, along with and ontologically not diffe- rent from other animals, there is little logical reason to object to chimeric research apart from a concern about what such re- search and application might do to the order of life pragmati- cally. However, many non-Christian do object. Man is made in Gods image and the concept of human dignity and a universal sense of right and wrong still binds Christians and non-Chris- tians when considering ethics in the field of chimeric research. As the mixing of human stem cells with embryonic animals takes place, certain non-Christian authors protest that human dignity is being diminished and the animal essence is being vio- lated.
Dunn Cavelty, Myriam
Current approaches to cyber-security are not working. Rather than producing more security, we seem to be facing less and less. The reason for this is a multi-dimensional and multi-faceted security dilemma that extends beyond the state and its interaction with other states. It will be shown how the focus on the state and "its" security crowds out consideration for the security of the individual citizen, with detrimental effects on the security of the whole system. The threat arising from cyberspace to (national) security is presented as possible disruption to a specific way of life, one building on information technologies and critical functions of infrastructures, with relatively little consideration for humans directly. This non-focus on people makes it easier for state actors to militarize cyber-security and (re-)assert their power in cyberspace, thereby overriding the different security needs of human beings in that space. Paradoxically, the use of cyberspace as a tool for national security, both in the dimension of war fighting and the dimension of mass-surveillance, has detrimental effects on the level of cyber-security globally. A solution out of this dilemma is a cyber-security policy that is decidedly anti-vulnerability and at the same time based on strong considerations for privacy and data protection. Such a security would have to be informed by an ethics of the infosphere that is based on the dignity of information related to human beings. PMID:24781874
Essay 1: Traffic research shares a fundamental dilemma with other areas of empirical research in which humans are potentially put at risk. Research is justified because it can improve safety in the long run. Nevertheless, people can be harmed in the research situation. Hence, we need to balance short-term risks against long-term safety improvements, much as in other areas of research with human subjects. In this paper we focus on ethical issues that arise when human beings are directly affect...
Kottow, Miguel H
Genetics research has shown enormous developments in recent decades, although as yet with only limited clinical application. Bioethical analysis has been unable to deal with the vast problems of genetics because emphasis has been put on the principlism applied to both clinical and research bioethics. Genetics nevertheless poses its most complex moral dilemmas at the public level, where a social brand of ethics ought to supersede the essentially interpersonal perspective of principlism. A more social understanding of ethics in genetics is required to unravel issues such as research and clinical explorations, ownership and patents, genetic manipulation, and allocation of resources. All these issues require reflection based on the requirements of citizenry, consideration of common assets, and definition of public policies in regulating genetic endeavors and protecting the society as a whole Bioethics has privileged the approach to individual ethical issues derived from genetic intervention, thereby neglecting the more salient aspects of genetics and social ethics. PMID:12471377
This paper addresses ethical issues in educational research with a focus on the interplay between research ethics and both internal and external quality of research. Research ethics is divided into three domains: (1) ethics "within" the research community; (2) ethics concerning relationships with "individuals and groups directly
Wilczenski, Felicia L.; Cook, Amy L.
Virtue ethics focus on the motives that guide ethical decision making and action, and as such, are critical to the competent application of the counseling profession's ethical codes. Knowledge of virtue ethics deepens understanding of moral responsibilities and ethical reasoning in professional practice. This paper is an overview of virtue ethics
Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Saravolatz, Louis; Hirsh, Benjamin; Agrawal, Pratik; Scarabelli, Tiziano M
Heart failure (HF), a complex clinical syndrome due to structural or functional disorder of the heart, is a major global health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA alone, and over 23 million worldwide. As a leading cause of hospitalizations among patients aged 65 years or older, HF is a major consumer of healthcare resources, creating a substantial strain on the healthcare system. This paper discusses the epidemiology of HF, financial impact, and multifaceted predicaments in end-stage HF care. A search was conducted on the U.S. National Library of Medicine website (www.pubmed.gov) using keywords such as end-stage heart failure, palliative care, ethical dilemmas. Despite the poor prognosis of HF (worse than that for many cancers), many HF patients, caregivers, and clinicians are unaware of the poor prognosis. In addition, the unpredictable clinical trajectory of HF complicates the planning of end-of-life care, such as palliative care and hospice, leading to underutilization of such resources. In conclusion, ethical dilemmas in end-stage HF are numerous, embroiling not only the patient, but also the caregiver, healthcare team, and society. PMID:25678905
Shank, Daniel B.; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Saber, Saam; Gale, Thomas; Kirley, Michael
Empirical findings on public goods dilemmas indicate an unresolved dilemma: that increasing sizeâthe number of people in the dilemmaâsometimes increases, decreases, or does not influence cooperation. We clarify this dilemma by first classifying public goods dilemma properties that specify individual outcomes as individual properties (e.g., Marginal Per Capita Return) and group outcomes as group properties (e.g., public good multiplier), mathematically showing how only one set of properties ca...
Alternrtivas de comprension y diálogo frente al dilema ético que ofrece Ia bioética. ¿Cómo enfrentar el uso de cultivos genéticamente modificados? / ALTERNATIVES OF UNDERSTANDING AND DIALOGUE IN FRONT OF THE lETHICAL DILEMMA THAT OFFERS BIOETHICS, FACING THE USE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CULTURES / ALTERNATIVAS DE COMPREENSÃO E DIÁLOGO OFERECIDAS PELA BIOÉTICA FRENTE AO DILEMA ÉTICO DERIVADO DA UTILIZAÇÃO DE CULTIVOS GENETICAMENTE MODIFICADOS
Santiago Eliécer, Arango Diago.
Full Text Available No primeiro lugar se examinarão de forma sistemática e reflexiva as virtudes e benefícios possíveis dos cultivos geneticamente modificados, assim como alguns dos argumentos acadêmicos e científicos que os apóiam. No segundo lugar, será abordada uma segunda posição a partir de seus próprios argumento [...] s e pesquisa, um pouco mais incisiva e informada contra o uso e a manipulação desta classe de cultivos geneticamente modificados. Por último, mesmo que a intenção deste artigo está na análise de alternativas de compreensão e diálogo do dilema ético que surge de utilizar organismos geneticamente modificados para a bioética, também está na necessidade urgente de criar uma hermenêutica bioética fundada nos princípios essenciais da precaução, da justiça e não-maleficência. Estes devem ser padrões dialógicos de encontro e discussão com o respeito e a tolerância que exige esse dilema ético e biotecnológico. Abstract in spanish En un primer momento, se hará un acercamiento sistemático y reflexivo a las posibles virtudes y beneficios de los cultivos genéticamente modificados. Así también, en un segundo momento, se abordará una postura más inquieta y prevenida con respecto al uso y manipulación de esta clase de cultivos gené [...] ticamente modificados. Finalmente, la reflexión gira en torno al análisis de las alternativas de comprensión y diálogo frente al dilema ético que ofrece el uso de cultivos genéticamente modificados para la Bioética, la reflexión también depende de la urgente necesidad de una hermenéutica bioética emplazada en los principios esenciales de precaución y justicia y no maleficencia como pautas dialógicas de encuentro y discusión solícitas del respeto y tolerancia que requiere dicho dilema ético y biotecnológico. Abstract in english At initially addressed a systematic and thoughtful approach facing possible virtues and benefits of crops genetically modified, together with some of the academic and scientific arguments employees for the benefit of the sustainability of many of their performances. As well also, and in a second tim [...] e, will be addressed from its own arguments and research, what we have chosen to draw a second position somewhat more restless and prevented regarding the use of handling of this class of crops genetically modified. Finally as well as understood that this monograph written intentionally revolves around the analysis of the understanding and dialogue with the ethical dilemma that offers the use of alternatives genetically modified for Bioethics crops, it is also the urgent need a hermeneutic located bioethics it on the essential caution, justice and not harm as dialogic principles guidelines and discussion of respect and tolerance meeting and discussion requires that ethical dilemma and biotechnological.
Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, Bret
The proliferation of the use of e-mail and texting has created some ethical dilemmas for family counselors. Although e-mail can expand and encourage communication, it is not problem free and, in fact, can pose problems. There are issues with privacy, confidentiality, and maintaining an appropriate professional relationship. Family counselors
Practitioners in the hospitality sector rate ethics as one of the most important issues faced by the industry. Manyscholars argue that the hospitality sector is open to frequent unethical practices. Managers and employees, due tointensive face-to-face interactions with clients, confront many ethical dilemmas in their day-to-day operations.Previous research confirms that a positive ethical climate nurtures a healthy organization by increasing managerand employee job satisfaction, enhancing cu...
Saunders, Kathryn J.; Rennie, Léonie J.
Internationally there is concern that many science teachers do not address socioscientific issues (SSI) in their classrooms, particularly those that are controversial. However with increasingly complex, science-based dilemmas being presented to society, such as cloning, genetic screening, alternative fuels, reproductive technologies and vaccination, there is a growing call for students to be more scientifically literate and to be able to make informed decisions on issues related to these dilemmas. There have been shifts in science curricula internationally towards a focus on scientific literacy, but research indicates that many secondary science teachers lack the support and confidence to address SSI in their classrooms. This paper reports on a project that developed a pedagogical model that scaffolded teachers through a series of stages in exploring a controversial socioscientific issue with students and supported them in the use of pedagogical strategies and facilitated ways of ethical thinking. The study builds on existing frameworks of ethical thinking. It presents an argument that in today's increasingly pluralistic society, these traditional frameworks need to be extended to acknowledge other worldviews and identities. Pluralism is proposed as an additional framework of ethical thinking in the pedagogical model, from which multiple identities, including cultural, ethnic, religious and gender perspectives, can be explored.
Wolff, Brian G.
Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a
Sonia Maria Oliveira de Barros
Full Text Available This is a review article on the origin of the ethical analysis ofresearch protocols, the Brazilian and International legislation,including the Research Ethics Committee of Hospital IsraelitaAlbert Einstein. Since 1997, when the Committee was validatedits role has been recognized as that of a consultant and educator,participating on local and national scientific events andcollaborating with researchers in order to improve their projectsand learn to recognize ethical dilemmas in their protocols.
Sonia Maria Oliveira de Barros; José Pinus
This is a review article on the origin of the ethical analysis ofresearch protocols, the Brazilian and International legislation,including the Research Ethics Committee of Hospital IsraelitaAlbert Einstein. Since 1997, when the Committee was validatedits role has been recognized as that of a consultant and educator,participating on local and national scientific events andcollaborating with researchers in order to improve their projectsand learn to recognize ethical dilemmas in their protocols.
Hughes, Julian; Common, Jill
This article discusses issues that might count as 'ethical' in the care of people with dementia and some of the dilemmas that occur. Ethical theories, such as virtue ethics, deontology and consequentialism are discussed, and ethical approaches that can be useful are outlined. Thinking about matters case-by-case is another approach, one that forms the first component of the Nuffield Council's ethical framework for dementia care, which is described. Case examples are provided, raising issues of autonomy, diagnosis, restraint and withholding treatment. The notion of personhood and the need to understand the person with dementia as broadly as possible are emphasised. Recommendations for nursing practice are included. PMID:26243122
Rod Duncan MacLeod; DONNA M WILSON; Phillipa Malpas
Assisting or hastening death is a dilemma with many ethical as well as practical issues facing healthcare practitioners in many countries worldwide now. Various arguments for and against assisted dying have been made over time but the call from the public for legalisation of euthanasia or assisted suicide has never been stronger. While many studies have documented the reluctance of medical and other health professionals to be involved in the practice of assisted dying or euthanasia, there is...
Full Text Available Background: A recent focus of the global discourse on the health workforce has been on its quality, including the existence of codes of ethics. In South Africa, the importance of ethics and value systems in nursing was emphasised in the 2011 National Nursing Summit. Objective: The study explored hospital nurses perceptions of the International Code of Ethics for Nurses; their perceptions of the South African Nurses Pledge of Service; and their views on contemporary ethical practice. Methods: Following university ethics approval, the study was done at a convenience sample of five hospitals in two South African provinces. In each hospital, all day duty nurses in paediatric, maternity, adult medical, and adult surgical units were requested to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire focused on their perceptions of the Code of Ethics and the Pledge, using a seven-point Likert scale. STATA® 13 and NVIVO 10 were used to analyse survey data and open-ended responses, respectively. Results: The mean age of survey participants (n=69 was 39 years (SD=9.2, and the majority were female (96%. The majority agreed with a statement that they will promote the human rights of individuals (98% and that they have a duty to meet the health and social needs of the public (96%. More nuanced responses were obtained for some questions, with 60% agreeing with a statement that too much emphasis is placed on patients rights as opposed to nurses rights and 32% agreeing with a statement that they would take part in strike action to improve nurses salaries and working conditions. The dilemmas of nurses to uphold the Code of Ethics and the Pledge in face of workplace constraints or poor working conditions were revealed in nurses responses to open-ended questions. Conclusion: Continuing education in ethics and addressing health system deficiencies will enhance nurses professional development and their ethical decision-making and practice.
In this article, I argue that agriculture and food production processes are subject to what I refer to as 'dilemmatic situations'. These dilemmatic situations are rather new, and require a new orientation in ethics to account for them. Ethics has to give up long-cherished ideals, such as: (a) the identification of ethics with a set of obligations that require people to do certain actions; (b) the idea that there is only one good solution to an ethical problem; (c) the idea that compromises ar...
Brinkmann, Johannes; Sims, Ronald R.; Nelson, Lawrence J.
This article describes and discusses team teaching and particularly guest lectures as a way of integrating ethics into the business curriculum. After a brief discussion of business school responsibilities and the teaching of ethics, the article looks at efforts to integrate the teaching of ethics across the curriculum. Then, findings from a small pilot study among business ethics and business school colleagues are summarized and discussed, with a focus on guest lecturing and team teaching, bo...
Di Nucci, Ezio
Ethics Without Intention tackles the questions raised by difficult moral dilemmas by providing a critical analysis of double effect and its most common ethical and political applications. The book discusses the philosophical distinction between intended harm and foreseen but unintended harm. This distinction, which, according to the doctrine of double effect, makes a difference to the moral justification of actions, is widely applied to some of the most controversial ethical and political questions of our time: collateral damages in wars and acts of terrorism; palliative care, euthanasia, abortion, and embryo research; self-defence, suicide, and self-sacrifice. It is also crucial to the now notorious theoretical cases of the trolley problem and the knobe effect. Di Nucci approaches the doctrine of double effect from four key directions: its historical origins, which can be traced further back than the classic attribution to Aquinas; its theoretical coherence, which is the subject of a lively contemporary debate in philosophy; its moral intuitiveness, which has always been taken for granted but has recently begun to be questioned; and finally its relevance to the difficult moral and political decisions of our time. An engaging and comprehensive introduction to the doctrine of double effect. - See more at: http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/ethics-without-intention-9781472525796/#sthash.NKISOPL8.dpuf
Full Text Available The authors present ethical dilemmas in the therapy, particularly family therapy, individual and group psychotherapy of schizophrenia in the context of the specific personality of persons suffering from schizophrenia as well as their experience
When the Homo Faber; to the beginning of the humanization, overcame the instinct that established a relationship balanced in the ecosphere between the animal and the nature, an interference it began in the relationship man-nature; since that was not adapted this but rather it began its transformation adapting the environment to its necessities. During miles of years the development of this production technique of the Homo Faber could be considered like a progressive and innocuous exploitation of the natural resources. At the present time, kind of a dialectical transformation of the quantity in a new quality characterizes the critical stadium of the new phase of the evolution inaugurated by the Homo Faber. We arrive this way today to that the production force, by means of the science and the technique, outlines us the problem of if for a bigger development in the productivity is necessary a progressive destruction of the ecosphere. That is to say, so that there is progress and will civilization be necessary a progressive interference of the natural balance, with the consequent setting in danger of the life? Moreover this article treats topics about their location and focuses, environmental ethics framed in the talkative ethics and virtues of the environmental ethics, among other topics
D'Auria, John; King, Matthew
Distinguishing between problems that have solutions and dilemmas that need to be managed, the authors identify three overarching questions from the School ABC case that center around data and perceptions. Because the ability to talk openly and honestly about difficult issues is critical to the health of a school, the authors consider the obstacles
Barker, Chris; Martin, Brian
There is a burgeoning amount of research into happiness and greatly increased popular attention, so it seems logical to add a course on happiness to the university curriculum. We encountered, in developing and running such a course, a number of dilemmas that the topic of happiness makes especially acute. Should the teacher remain separate from the
Using a hybrid episteme of descriptive education science and prescriptive philosophy of education, I will question the problem of distance education ethics, focusing on how new techniques are impacting morality and deontology. I will focus on every aspect of these ethics: accessibility and neutrality of media as to what concerns morality; then transmission of values and engineering of organizational culture concerning deontology. I will finally study the relationship between morality and deon...
In this article I discuss the ethics of synthetic biology from a broadly deontological perspective, evaluating its morality in terms of the integrity of nature, the dignity of life and the relationship between God and his creation. Most ethical analyses to date have been largely consequentialist in nature; they reveal a dual use dilemma, showing that synbio has potential for great good and great evil, possibly more so than any step humanity has taken before. A deontological analysis may help to resolve this dilemma, by evaluating whether synbio is right or wrong in itself. I also assess whether deontology alone is a sufficient methodological paradigm for the proper evaluation of synbio ethics. PMID:24010856
From Avicenna and Descartes a long debate on the role of mind-body dilemma has left a huge impact on ethics of psychological research. That is especially applicable on researches that include both human and non-human participants, as well as their limitations and constraints that are connected to ethical principles. However, these principles are closely related to the interpretation of mind-body dilemma, which depends on different understandings of connection between soul and senses. The purp...
Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts virtue ethics and care ethics to determine their mutual relation. It is argued that there is one tradition within virtue ethics that emphasises that virtue is knowledge and also focuses on direct altruism. There is no opposition between that form of virtue ethics and ethics of care. Furthermore, there are principled objections to generalising the necessarily asymmetric relations of an ethic of care to the case of justice as reciprocal fairness.
This paper compares and contrasts virtue ethics and care ethics to determine their mutual relation. It is argued that there is one tradition within virtue ethics that emphasises that virtue is knowledge and also focuses on direct altruism. There is no opposition between that form of virtue ethics and ethics of care. Furthermore, there are principled objections to generalising the necessarily asymmetric relations of an ethic of care to the case of justice as reciprocal fairness.
Doorn, N., van
Insights from social science are increasingly used in the field of applied ethics. However, recent insights have shown that the empirical branch of business ethics lacks thorough theoretical grounding. This article discusses the use of the Rawlsian methods of wide reflective equilibrium and overlapping consensus in the field of applied ethics. Instead of focussing on one single comprehensive ethical doctrine to provide adequate guidance for resolving moral dilemmas, these Rawlsian methods see...
NIH Ethics Office http://ethics.od.nih.gov/ NIH Enterprise Ethics System https://nees.nih.gov/nees/ Office of Government Ethics http://www.oge.gov/ NIH Manual: http://oma.od.nih.gov/manualchapters/ NIH Intramural Research Sourcebook: http://sourcebook.
Vaz, Manjulika; Vaz, Mario; Srinivasan, K
There is no agreement on the typology and definition of biobanks.The present regulations across countries, including India, focus ongenomic and genetic databases and DNA and cell line biobanking.It is unclear how the range of the holdings of biological samples in diagnostic and research laboratories fall under these regulatory frameworks. Biobank-related research has become very attractive because of advances in sample storage and data processing, a better understanding of the human genome, and high throughput laboratory assays. There is extensive literature and much debate on the subject, especially on the ethical and regulatory dilemmas, in the developed countries, but this is hardly the casein developing countries. This paper is based on a review of the published documents and data, and aims at evaluating the ethical frameworks for biobanking in the Indian context. The issues of"'broad consent; commercialisation of samples, and extended sample use are discussed. The governance of biobanks emerges as an integral part of the ethical responsibilities of institutions. It also makes the implementation of national guidelines possible, and helps to enhance the trust and confidence of local contributors in biobank research. PMID:24727618
Ethical and social issues are based upon a system of moral values that serve the best interests of the society in a humane and compassionate manner. The ethical decisions should be based upon the well-enunciated principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, parental autonomy, correct medical facts and justice. In view of our economic constraints, we should follow the philosophy of utilatarian ethics based on the concept of "value for money" and focus our resources and efforts for the care of salvageable babies. Nevertheless, we should try to ensure equitable development of health care of neonates at all levels, and NICU facilities should be developed in the country in a phased manner. In order to ensure justice and cost-effectiveness, the narrow principles of "best interest" of the child should be replaced by the concept of global beneficence to the family, society and the state. Neonatologists are often faced with a large number of ethical issues and dilemmas in the care of critically sick newborn babies and they should be resolved jointly by taking nurses, sub-speciality colleagues and family members into confidence. The technology should not be allowed to further dehumanize medicine and we must establish rapport and provide emotional support to the family members by showing our concern, sympathy and compassion in the care of their critically sick and extremely preterm babies. It is desirable that all the medical and nursing schools in the country should initiate regular education programs in the field of behavioural sciences, communication techniques and medical ethics for the benefit of graduate and postgraduate medical and nursing students. PMID:12841403
Full Text Available Abstract Where unethical business decision-making arises from failures of ethical perception, there is an important role for ethical training and decision-making tools. These may help business people to consider all relevant issues when assessing the ethical status of potential decisions. Ethical training programmes give business people a basic understanding of the principles which underlie ethical judgements and equip them with many of the necessary skills for dealing with the ethical dilemmas which they face in their jobs. Similarly, ethical decision-making tools may guide managers through the various ethical considerations which are relevant to business decision-making and help them to develop their ethical-perceptual skills. Furthermore, by establishing and reinforcing good ethical decision-making practices, training programmes and decision-making tools may also reduce the incidence of self-consciously unethical decision-making. A new approach to improving the ethical quality of business decision-making by the use of computerized business ethics expert systems is proposed. These systems have the potential to guide business people through a process of ethical evaluation while simultaneously fulfilling an educational role, thus providing many of the benefits of both training programmes and decision-making tools. While the prospect of a computer system which could simply make ethical judgements for business people is both unrealistic and undesirable, a system which leads human decision-makers through a structured assessment process has the potential for genuine benefits. Keywords: Expert Systems, Ethical Decision Making
The continuous inclusion of new technologies in organizations challenges business ethics and creates new problematics in work life. Managers in particular are challenged insofar as they must learn how to adapt general technological hardware to local organizational needs and work habits. Based on......? Using a techno-human practice approachâwhich takes into account both human and non-human entities as the basis of moral judgmentâthe new technologically-induced ethical dilemmas faced by managers are discussed. A typology of techno-ethics is introduced, which presents situated ways of engaging with...... technologies in businesses. By employing multiple ethics connected to the use of technologies in organizations might make managers more ethically responsible in decisions concerning technologies....
It has recently been established that quantum strategies are superior to classical ones for games such as the prisoner's dilemma. However, quantum states are subject to decoherence. In this Letter, we investigate the effects of decoherence on a quantum game, namely the prisoner dilemma, through three prototype decoherence channels. We show that in the case of prisoner dilemma, the Nash equilibria are not changed by the effects of decoherence for maximally entangled states
Roles of emotion in decision-making have been attracting attention in neuroeconomics and behavioral game theory. We mathematically demonstrate that emotion interference, a recently-discovered psychological phenomenon  helps to solve social dilemma in a one-shot prisoners dilemma game. Furthermore, the present theory also accounts for the violation of Savages sure-thing principle in the prisoners dilemma . Furthermore, it is also explained that why people in the society with higher ...
Abdullah, W A
The Deviants' Dilemma is a two-person game with the individual gain conflicting with the choice for global good. Evolutionary considerations yield fixed point attractors, with the pehenomena of exclusion potentially playing an important role when current opponent information is available. We carry out computer simulations which substantiates and illuminates theoretical claims, and brings to light the pertinance of the choice between deterministic and stochastic dynamics, and the conjecture of 'ergodicity spread'.
Discussion of sustainable communities, or sustainable development, focuses on the ethical role of information in fostering sustainable environmental development. Topics include background information, developments in information technology, permaculture in the area of horticulture and information ethics, information ethics models, hardware
Cuesta, J A; Jiménez, R; Lugo, H; Sánchez, A
One of the most direct human mechanisms of promoting cooperation is rewarding it. We study the effect of sharing a reward among cooperators in the most stringent form of social dilemma, namely the prisoner's dilemma (PD). Specifically, for a group of players that collect payoffs by playing a pairwise PD game with their partners, we consider an external entity that distributes a fixed reward equally among all cooperators. Thus, individuals confront a new dilemma: on the one hand, they may be inclined to choose the shared reward despite the possibility of being exploited by defectors; on the other hand, if too many players do that, cooperators will obtain a poor reward and defectors will outperform them. By appropriately tuning the amount to be shared a vast variety of scenarios arises, including the traditional ones in the study of cooperation as well as more complex situations where unexpected behavior can occur. We provide a complete classification of the equilibria of the n-player game as well as of its evolutionary dynamics. PMID:18177899
Moreau, D; Larochelle, C
Because of new advances in biomedical science and bio-technology, nurses are confronted with dilemmas for which no easy solutions are available. For this reason, it is becoming increasingly crucial that nursing students develop moral judgement. Nursing students find it difficult to relate the principles of ethics (moral conduct, duty and judgment) to concrete nursing situations. Blondeau (1986) believes the case study to be one of the most effective teaching strategies that can be used to raise moral sensitivity. However, it is very difficult to use this strategy with young adult students. The authors believe that if students learn ethical principles prior to the case study they will become aware of ethical problems and will be better prepared to discuss in depth ethical implications. They designed a self-learning module and compared the results with an equivalent group of students. Post-test cognitive results showed a difference between the two groups. Students using the new case study module expressed great satisfaction with the format, utilization and attitudes of this module. The approach proved useful since students were able to learn at their own pace. The time previously used to teach ethical principles was then allotted to class discussions and the process of ethical decision-making. PMID:8500090
Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.
Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.
Cassidy, V R
Case studies are widely used as a teaching strategy for a variety of topics in various disciplines. They are particularly valued as a teaching strategy in the teaching of ethics because they provide a context for understanding the complexities of situations involving ethical dilemmas. This article describes the successful use of two literary works as case studies in teaching master's students about the ethical issues in human experimentation. Pygmalion and Flowers for Algernon were selected to exemplify the ethical considerations important in the conduct of research with human subjects. Students found the assignment both personally and professionally stimulating and recommended continued use of the assignment in the course. PMID:8676212
Mary Cipriano Silva
Full Text Available Although much literature exists on health care clinical ethics, considerably less literature exists on health care organizational and administrative ethics. This situation is especially important to recognize during periods of restructuring, where too often what is good for health care business may not be ethical, causing an "ethics gap." Ethics gaps can be identified and corrected by careful analysis of an institution's organizational culture. Once the analysis is complete, the institution must focus on building a solid ethics infrastructure that permeates all aspects of the institution. A true case situation is presented to illustrate how a nurse was able to change a tainted organization into a responsible one by ethics infrastructure changes. Finally, implications for health care are addressed.
The Japanese job hunting system inhibits Japanese students from studying abroad. A Japanese professor says it is a huge dilemma for the students.......The Japanese job hunting system inhibits Japanese students from studying abroad. A Japanese professor says it is a huge dilemma for the students....
Jonasson, Haukur Ingi
How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.
Implant ethics is defined here as the study of ethical aspects of the lasting introduction of technological devices into the human body. Whereas technological implants relieve us of some of the ethical problems connected with transplantation, other difficulties arise that are in need of careful analysis. A systematic approach to implant ethics is proposed. The major specific problems are identified as those concerning end of life issues (turning off devices), enhancement of human capabilities...
Ethics contain a set of principles of personal and professional conduct .The concept of Business ethics relates itself to the norms and the ideals businessman and business groups adopt in course of their activities in business .Business ethics is an assertion of be good and do good in business. Ethical business practices has been a blessing to the enterprises as it ensures faith in society ,government trust ,business partners trust .on the other hand unethical business pra...
Dilemas éticos da vida humana: a trajetória hospitalar de crianças portadoras de paralisia cerebral grave / The ethical dilemmas of human life: the hospital history of children with serious cerebral palsy
Full Text Available O artigo é um estudo antropológico que aborda os pressupostos éticos do tratamento médico ministrado em crianças portadoras de paralisia cerebral grave. A pesquisa foi realizada a partir de um trabalho etnográfico de oito meses, com pacientes em tratamento no Centro de Paralisia Cerebral do Hospital [...] Sarah, Salvador. A observação da terapêutica ministrada a estas crianças, que apresentam pouquíssimas mudanças do quadro clínico, levou ao questionamento já bastante sugerido em discussões relativas à deontologia médica: Qual o objetivo do tratamento médico empregado nestas crianças? Na verdade, os resultados desta pesquisa indicaram a existência de explicações sócio-humanistas que estariam além da explicação médico-científica oficial, a qual resumiria a terapêutica a um fisicalismo corporal. Abstract in english This study deals with the ethical premises of medical treatment for children with serious cerebral palsy. Eight months of ethnographic research were carried out with patients at the Cerebral Palsy Center in the Sarah Hospital in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Observation of treatment for these children, w [...] ho displayed limited clinical change, led to the following question, as suggested by discussions from medical deontology: What is the purpose of medical treatment for children with serious cerebral palsy? The results of our research point to social and humanist explanations going beyond the official medical scientific explanation, which limits treatment to corporal mechanicism.
Dilemas éticos da vida humana: a trajetória hospitalar de crianças portadoras de paralisia cerebral grave The ethical dilemmas of human life: the hospital history of children with serious cerebral palsy
Full Text Available O artigo é um estudo antropológico que aborda os pressupostos éticos do tratamento médico ministrado em crianças portadoras de paralisia cerebral grave. A pesquisa foi realizada a partir de um trabalho etnográfico de oito meses, com pacientes em tratamento no Centro de Paralisia Cerebral do Hospital Sarah, Salvador. A observação da terapêutica ministrada a estas crianças, que apresentam pouquíssimas mudanças do quadro clínico, levou ao questionamento já bastante sugerido em discussões relativas à deontologia médica: Qual o objetivo do tratamento médico empregado nestas crianças? Na verdade, os resultados desta pesquisa indicaram a existência de explicações sócio-humanistas que estariam além da explicação médico-científica oficial, a qual resumiria a terapêutica a um fisicalismo corporal.This study deals with the ethical premises of medical treatment for children with serious cerebral palsy. Eight months of ethnographic research were carried out with patients at the Cerebral Palsy Center in the Sarah Hospital in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Observation of treatment for these children, who displayed limited clinical change, led to the following question, as suggested by discussions from medical deontology: What is the purpose of medical treatment for children with serious cerebral palsy? The results of our research point to social and humanist explanations going beyond the official medical scientific explanation, which limits treatment to corporal mechanicism.
Hansen, Sinne HjælmsØ; Pedersen, Lise Celine
The increased use of scarce metals in combination with climate changes pave way for extensive extraction of mineral resources in Greenland. The focus of this study is on environmental ethical aspects of mining activities in a vulnerable and unspoiled arctic nature. Mining can have several economic and social benefits for Greenland. On the other hand, the environmental impacts from mining are well known. Through DPSIR (Drivers, Pressures, States, Impacts, Responses) and Stakeholder analysis, we assess how future mining in Greenland can be sustainably implemented. The analysis revealed that numerous stakeholders have to be taken into consideration with a wide range of different interests. The DPSIR analysis clarified the availability of various potential political responses that could affect the drivers, pressures, states and impacts of mining mainly focused on implementation of effective environmental regulation strategies. Our findings revealed different environmental ethical dilemmas of which the most critical is how Greenland can open up for mining, gain economical revenue while averting destruction of unspoiled regions and aesthetic impairment. We recommend strict environmental legislation involving use of the polluter pay principle, continuous monitoring of pollution and establishment of an industry-funded catastrophe trust fund. These initiatives can ensure economic benefits while environmental impacts remain negligible.
The Puzzler's Dilemma explores the world of classic logic puzzles, and tells the amazing stories behind them, from the Lighthouse of Alexandria to code-breaking with the Enigma machine. Here are brain teasers that even maths whizzes have never seen explained by a mind as nimble and playful as Derrick Niederman's, the author of Number Freak and the New York Times's near-genius crossword setter. A man is found dead in a room, hanging from a rope with only a puddle of water beneath him: What happened? Just the thing to get your brain working at full speed!
conflict between respect of autonomy and the risk of neglect. The patient is a young woman with schizophrenia and psychotic symptoms, which have re-emerged because of stress. The woman has no insight in her own illness and she does not want to receive antipsychotic medication to treat her psychotic...... symptoms. However, she agrees to meet with the community treatment team. How are they to act? Should they accept her refusal of antipsychotic medication, though they see it as the best treatment? This dilemma is analysed and described according to Beauchamps and Childress four fundamental principles: 1...
The Porgera gold mine in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea is technically one of the most sophisticated and successful mines of recent times. In its second year of operations (1992) it was the third largest gold producing mine in the world. Socially, though, the mine has brought a range of massive changes for the local Ipili community-both positive and negative. Dilemmas of Development is a record of a series of studies of the social and economic effects of the Porgerta mine, commissioned...
Magalí Paula, Milmaniene.
Full Text Available Desde los comienzos de la bioética, diversos especialistas, han planteado la necesidad de salvaguardar, tanto a los individuos como grupos vulnerables, de los efectos indeseables que derivan de las investigaciones. Sin embargo, algunos críticos han afirmado que la protección de los derechos de los s [...] ujetos, si bien es incuestionablemente importante, no es suficiente para garantizar la eticidad de una investigación. Resulta entonces de vital importancia, la custodia y la protección de las comunidades o grupos étnicos involucrados en la investigación en salud. En esta dirección, el análisis de aquellos elementos que definen la participación de una comunidad en la investigación, permitirá reflexionar en torno a los aspectos éticos referidos a su protección. El planteo de este artículo supone un doble desafío: por un lado, reflexionar sobre las actuales condiciones éticas de la investigación y, por el otro, tratar de impulsar la afirmación de una ética de la investigación atenta a los particularismos y de las singularidades étnicas y socio-culturales. Abstract in english Diverse specialists have pointed out, from the beginning of Bioethics, the necessity to protect individuals and vulnerable people from undesirable effects of participating in research. Nevertheless, some critics have asserted that, even though protection of individual rights is unquestionably import [...] ant, it is not enough to guarantee the ethical condition in a research. Thus, it is vitally important the safekeeping and safeguard of communities and ethnics groups involved in health research. The analysis of elements and conditions that define the way the community participates in research will allow ethical evaluation on their protection. This article has two challenges, on the one hand, to analyze current conditions of Ethical research, in the other, to promote Research Ethics focuses and based on socio-cultural singularities and particularism.
Novossiolova, Tatyana; Sture, Judi
Much of the discourse on beyond the laboratory door biosecurity to date has focused on the need to raise awareness among the scientific community of the risks posed by the rapid advancement of biotechnology in recent decades. While education is undoubtedly important, a growing body of evidence suggests that ethics education does not necessarily translate into ethical behaviour. This trend has already been reported in clinical settings, where research has highlighted doctors own reports of ethically dubious practices and challenges when confronted with moral dilemmas in their everyday work. The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the practical value of ethics education and show why it is an essential, although insufficient, measure for promoting a culture of responsible conduct of research. We conclude by highlighting the importance of continuing professional development as a way of maintaining life scientists engagement with biosecurity issues and supporting them in active roles in the effective implementation of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC). PMID:22606762
McArdle, Karen; Birchley, Jacinta; Bruce, Jayne; Hurrell, Alison; Paterson, Sandra; Stephen, Mary
Using participatory action research (PAR), this paper explores the ethical practice of students engaged in practitioner research in a higher education context. Using narrative enquiry, the paper explores the participants' experiences of practitioner research, including ethical dilemmas that resulted from a conflict of values between the
Ryan, Michael; Martinson, David L.
Reports on a study that found that public relations practitioners respond in different ways to different moral-ethical dilemmas and that they tend to think they are accountable in some situations to an authority higher than management. Concludes that subjectivism is the prevailing moral-ethical theory of practitioners. (FL)
Guðmundur Heiðar Frímannsson
Care ethics is a relatively recent development in ethics, originating in Carol Gilligan´s book In a Different Voice, published in 1982 and pointing out flaws in Kohlberg´s theory of moral development, specifically in choosing only boys for the experiments, in using moral dilemmas to measure moral development, and in his idea that morality only consisted in universal rules.
Berger, Carol; Angera, Jeffrey J.; Rawls, D. Terry; Rapaport, Ross J.; Bartels, Elizabeth; Black, Rebecca J.
Several factors shape practices in counseling centers today, including an increased need for referral to external mental health services. Providing external referrals can lead to both practical and ethical implications when counseling center employees also operate private practices. Guidelines to negotiate the potential ethical dilemmas inherent
Smith, David E.; Skalnik, J. Robert; Skalnik, Patricia C.
The ethical tendencies of university business students from Denmark (n=297) and the United States (n=183) were examined by analyzing their responses to ethical dilemmas on issues of coercion and control, conflict of interest, physical environment, paternalism, and personal integrity. Findings indicated that students from both countries had similar
Moe, Jeanne M.; Coleman, Carolee; Fink, Kristie; Krejs, Kirsti
Archaeology is a highly interdisciplinary field. Its main goal is to construct culture histories, but it uses many scientific methods in the process. Ethical dilemmas inherent in archaeology make it a good vehicle for teaching ethics and character in the classroom (Moe 2000). The interdisciplinary nature of the field makes it possible to weave
Spivey, Mark A.
Cultural diversity raises dilemmas for the library profession, some of which are difficult to resolve on the basis of its absolutist ethical prescriptions. Psychological studies of class, cultural, and gender differences in moral reasoning support a professional ethics based upon care and cultural sensitivity, instead of universal and obligatoryâ¦
Beamish, Patricia M.
This paper describes the ethical dilemmas encountered by family counselors using the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM). Numerous authors have emphasized that the DSM system does not contribute in an effective or efficient manner in the conduct of family therapy. The ethical issues of misrepresentation; trust; malfeasance;
Frick, J. Edward; Frick, William C.
As educators, we grapple with a myriad of dilemmas and often have difficulty resolving issues that relate to curriculum and instruction, funding, facilities and supervision, to name a few. Depending on the leader(s), a variety of ethics come in to play when making decisions. The ethic of connectedness refers to community building and welfare as
National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP), 2005
This document presents a code of ethics for early childhood educators that offers guidelines for responsible behavior and sets forth a common basis for resolving ethical dilemmas encountered in early education. It represents the English and Spanish versions of the revised code. Its contents were approved by the NAEYC Governing Board in April 2005
Lasser, Jon; Klose, Laurie McGarry
School psychologists routinely engage in ethical decision making, and existing models have served as useful tools for systematically approaching ethical dilemmas. However, a few of these models have taken account of the rich and salient body of social psychology research. This article reviews social psychological phenomena that present clear
Discusses some of the ethical dilemmas faced by writers who prepare marketing materials in engineering organizations. Describes social, political, economic, and legal changes in the professions during the last 30 years and the growing influence of market-driven decisions on ethical decision making. (PRA)
This paper is the second report of a research project involving collecting information via e-survey about occasions in which graduates of a California private University have encountered ethical issues/dilemma after graduation and the role that they think their education and the ethics course they had taken played in recognition and resolution of
The overall objective of this thesis is to examine in what way ethical theory and ethical analysis can contribute to further understanding of the ethical challenges of the multicultural classroom. Based on the fact that the world is going through a process of globalization and migration, the education-system and daily praxis of teaching is put in front of new ethical challenges. The teacher in the multicultural classroom is on a daily base confronted with various dilemmas regarding for exampl...
Frisque, Deloise A.; Kolb, Judith A.
This study examines the effects of ethics training on the attitudes, knowledge-based scores, and analysis of ethical dilemmas among office professionals. A treatment- and control-group design was used with variables of interest measured before, immediately after, and ninety days following completion of a six-hour ethics training workshop. A
Kreander, Niklas; Beattie, Vivien; McPhail, Ken
The charity and voluntary sector in Norway is substantial (Sivesind, 2007). Yet we know of no academic research which focuses on charity ethical investment in Norway. We have examined charity ethical investment policies and how these policies relate to the aims of charitable organisations. We survey large Norwegian charities using a postal questionnaire and semi structured interviews. The findings show that few charities publish an ethical investment policy, and it is often limited to screeni...
Kuhse, H.; Singer, P; Rickard, M; Cannold, L; Dyk, J. Van
OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between ethical reasoning and gender and occupation among a group of male and female nurses and doctors. DESIGN: Partialist and impartialist forms of ethical reasoning were defined and singled out as being central to the difference between what is known as the "care" moral orientation (Gilligan) and the "justice" orientation (Kohlberg). A structured questionnaire based on four hypothetical moral dilemmas involving combinations of (health care) profess...
Full Text Available Contemporary medical practice brings a diverse range of professions and disciplines together in greater and closer contact. This situation of increasing complexity and changing professional roles gives rise to multifaceted ethical dilemmas and theoretical and practical concerns. In this essay we argue that for multidisciplinary relationships to be facilitated and to progress towards interdisciplinary teamwork, moral agents have to go beyond orthodox ethical systems and appeal to normative theory. We will argue that conceptualising ethics as a shared social practice may provide a useful starting point. This dialogic approach places greater emphasis on open deliberation and the articulation, negotiation, exploration and generation of new ethical perspectives in the here and now of clinical practice.
Full Text Available Increasing the numbers of health workers and improving their skills requires that countries confront a number of ethical dilemmas. The ethical considerations in answering five important questions on enabling health workers to deal appropriately with the circumstances in which they must work are described. These include the problems of the standards of training and practice required in countries with differing levels of socioeconomic development and different priority diseases; how a society can be assured that health practitioners are properly trained; how a health system can support its workers; diversion of health workers and training institutions; and the teaching of ethical principles to student health workers. The ethics of setting standards for the skills and care provided by traditional health-care practitioners are also discussed.
Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl; Mattsson, Jan
difficulties that customers expressed from an ethical standpoint. Design/methodology/approach The key problem of the paper is how does research handle the user's lack of competence in a web-based commercial environment? The authors illustrate this ethical dilemma with data from a Danish Bank collected in......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss some ethical issues in the internet encounter between customer and bank. Empirical data related to the difficulties that customers have when they deal with the bank through internet technology and electronic banking. The authors discuss the...... 2002. The data have been structured by an advanced text analytic method, Pertex (by generation of intentionality of verbal actors from text). Findings The authors can conclude that the experience of lack of competency in internet banking implies a severe damage on the experience of the ethics of the...
Shank, Daniel B; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Saber, Saam; Gale, Thomas; Kirley, Michael
Empirical findings on public goods dilemmas indicate an unresolved dilemma: that increasing size-the number of people in the dilemma-sometimes increases, decreases, or does not influence cooperation. We clarify this dilemma by first classifying public goods dilemma properties that specify individual outcomes as individual properties (e.g., Marginal Per Capita Return) and group outcomes as group properties (e.g., public good multiplier), mathematically showing how only one set of properties can remain constant as the dilemma size increases. Underpinning decision-making regarding individual and group properties, we propose that individuals are motivated by both individual and group preferences based on a theory of collective rationality. We use Van Lange's integrated model of social value orientations to operationalize these preferences as an amalgamation of outcomes for self, outcomes for others, and equality of outcomes. Based on this model, we then predict how the public good's benefit and size, combined with controlling individual versus group properties, produce different levels of cooperation in public goods dilemmas. A two (low vs. high benefit) by three (2-person baseline vs. 5-person holding constant individual properties vs. 5-person holding constant group properties) factorial experiment (group n = 99; participant n = 390) confirms our hypotheses. The results indicate that when holding constant group properties, size decreases cooperation. Yet when holding constant individual properties, size increases cooperation when benefit is low and does not affect cooperation when benefit is high. Using agent-based simulations of individual and group preferences vis-à-vis the integrative model, we fit a weighted simulation model to the empirical data. This fitted model is sufficient to reproduce the empirical results, but only when both individual (self-interest) and group (other-interest and equality) preference are included. Our research contributes to understanding how people's motivations and behaviors within public goods dilemmas interact with the properties of the dilemma to lead to collective outcomes. PMID:25799355
This article offers a discussion of the connection between technology and values and, specifically, I take a closer look at ethically sound design. In order to bring the discussion into a concrete context, the theory of Value Sensitive Design (VSD) will be the focus point. To illustrate my argument...... concerning design ethics, the discussion involves a case study of an augmented window, designed by the VSD Research Lab, which has turned out to be a potentially surveillanceenabling technology. I call attention to a positivist problem that has to do with the connection between the design context and the...... design ethics, is intended as a constructive criticism, which can hopefully contribute to the further development of design ethics....
Full Text Available Image manipulation using computer technology has become a basic skill required in various graphics dependent industries such as advertising, and the print and electronic media, and for specialist use in institutions for in-house and on-line publishing and the creation of Web pages. The 'seamless' alteration of photographs and other visual images made possible by computer technology has allowed misrepresentation with intent to deceive, and difficulty in establishing copyright of original images. The dilemma in teaching techniques of image manipulation is to create a basis for ethical practice HCI in this paper refers to the ethics/skills interface in the education and work of multimedia practitioners.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the features of whistleblowing by considering the arguments about whistleblowing in engineering ethics. First, I analyze the concept of whistleblowing by defining the word as clearly as possible. Second, I examine the standard justification theory of whistleblowing by showing the problems of the theory. Finally, I analyze the dilemma about whistleblowing by revealing a prospective whistleblower?s struggle to choose moral value or non-moral value.
Kabil, Ahmad M.
Decision makers have considerable autonomy on how they make decisions and what type of support they receive. This situation places the DSS analyst in a different relationship with the client than his colleagues who support regular MIS applications. This paper addresses an ethical dilemma in Inverse Decision Support, when the analyst supports a decision maker who requires justification for a preconceived selection that does not correspond to the best option that resulted from the professiona...
Habgood, J. S.
All ethics has a religious dimension. This paper considers how specific Christian insights concerning death, suffering, human nature and human creatureliness can help to expose more fully the moral issues at stake in some of the dilemmas faced by doctors. It ends by acknowledging the crushing burden of decision-making which rests on many in the medical profession, and indicates the importance of religious resources in dealing with this.
Hassan Danaee Fard; Mohammad Reza Noruzi,
An ethical issue in business is increasing and it is being focused on by the business markets,customers and communities. It was important from the beginning and is important also now as well. Andevery company or organization for being survival and comparative should pay much more attention to thisimportant. This paper aims to study the ethic and some of related issues around it.
The continuous inclusion of new technologies in organizations challenges business ethics and creates new problematics in work life. Managers in particular are challenged insofar as they must learn how to adapt general technological hardware to local organizational needs and work habits. Based on new empirical research conducted in Danish health care organizations, it investigates how managers experience technologies and how these experiences affect their professional ethics; it asks: a) What kinds of ethics do managers consider when using new technologies? b) How are these ethics negotiated? Using a techno-human practice approachwhich takes into account both human and non-human entities as the basis of moral judgmentthe new technologically-induced ethical dilemmas faced by managers are discussed. A typology of techno-ethics is introduced, which presents situated ways of engaging with technologies in businesses. By employing multiple ethics connected to the use of technologies in organizations might make managers more ethically responsible in decisions concerning technologies.
Schneider, B J
Society uses animals in ever-increasing numbers and ways, providing ethical challenges. Decisions about animal use are guided by the social consensus ethic towards animals. Because there is no clear social consensus ethic, these decisions are difficult. Society's ethic is changing and a "new ethic" towards animals is emerging. This study addressed the need to better understand society's ethics towards animals. Qualitative research methodology (focus groups) was used to study 7 different anima...
Murphy, M. Shaun; Pinnegar, Eliza; Pinnegar, Stefinee
This article explores the authors', two teacher educators' and a pre-service teacher's, understanding of the ethical dilemmas, obligations, and plotlines that emerged in the experiences of a pre-service teacher as she began to develop her identity as a teacher. The inquiry, based in narrative inquiry, used the analysis of narratives from a
Elliott, Glenda R.
Based on the core conditions of client-centered counseling and supported by aspects of psychodynamic, cognitive developmental, and behavioral theories, a perspective is introduced that provides a resolution to the dilemma experienced by counselors and counseling students whose personal values and beliefs conflict with the ethical guidelines of the
Watkins, Beverly T.
At Carnegie Mellon University, interactive videodisks are used to create real-world moral dilemmas in the classroom for students studying ethics, values, and critical thinking. The medium combines the power of film with the control of the computer, but production of materials can be time consuming and difficult. (MSE)
Randell-Moon, Holly; Anderson, Nicole; Bretag, Tracey; Burke, Anthony; Grieshaber, Sue; Lambert, Anthony; Saltmarsh, David; Yelland, Nicola
This article offers perspectives from academics with recent journal editing experience on a range of ethical issues and dilemmas that regularly pose challenges for those in editorial roles. Each contributing author has provided commentary and reflection on a select topic that was identified in the research literature concerning academic publishing
Freeman, William H.
This paper deals with growing ethical dilemmas in sport as technology advances. Three aspects of sport are discussed: (l) the perpetual conflict between process (training) and product (the actual contest); (2) technophobia, the fear of the new world of technology; and (3) "technosport" or technological training. It is necessary to understand that
The IARC's 2004 classification of formaldehyde as a human carcinogen has led to intensive discussion on scientific and regulatory levels. In June 2014, the European Union followed and classified formaldehyde as a cause of cancer. This automatically triggers consequences in terms of emission minimization and the health-related assessment of building and consumer products. On the other hand, authorities are demanding and authorizing technologies and products which can release significant quantities of formaldehyde into the atmosphere. In the outdoor environment, this particularly applies to combusting fuels. The formation of formaldehyde through photochemical smog has also been a recognized problem for years. Indoors there are various processes which can contribute to increased formaldehyde concentrations. Overall, legislation faces a dilemma: primary sources are often over-regulated while a lack of consideration of secondary sources negates the regulations' effects. PMID:25772784
Energy companies face several crucial investment dilemmas in the liberalized energy market. These are: the availability of energy sources, feed-in tariffs, market positioning and consumer satisfaction. Research analyzes profitability of the Cogeneration (Combined Heat and Power, CHP) project in the city of Rijeka. The CHP is designed to provide district heating for the University campus, the Hospital and active private consumers of district heating, and bring about further sales of electricity. Revitalization of the CHP project comprises necessary adaptive actions in the distribution power system but also real time monitoring, which enables the CHP island operation, with uninterrupted electric and thermal energy supply of critical consumers (e.g. hospital) in case of a serious disturbance. Results indicate the project profitability under several conditions: non-government regulation for heating price, feed-in tariffs and guaranteed sale of electricity together with added value from automatic control system (ACS)island operation.
Clinical trials present an ethical dilemma for pharmaceutical companies. While companies may want to undertake and report these trials in an ethical manner, negative results can significantly affect product sales. There is accumulating evidence that company-financed trials are biased in favor of the product that the company makes. Ethical conduct in this article is defined as whether the trials are conducted in the best interests of the participants and/or reported in the best interests of pa...
The hypothesis that injunctive and descriptive norms interact positively or synergistically to promote cooperation in social dilemmas is tested in the context of a survey study focusing on environmentally responsible behaviour. Measurement error and strong and positive correlations between the two...
La participación de las audiencias desde distintos enfoques evaluativos: algunas consideraciones éticas y metodológicas / The audience participation since distinctly evaluative focusing: some ethic and methodological considerations
Esther, Martínez Piñeiro.
Full Text Available O impulso resultante da avaliação de programas e políticas públicas nos últimos anos levou a um aumento de práticas de avaliação que, distanciando-se da avaliação tradicional, outorgam um papel relevante, e inclusivamente hegemônico, aos vários grupos abrangidos em maior ou menor medida pelo program [...] a e sua avaliação. A dita participação é desejável não só do ponto de vista ético, como também metodológico. Nesta linha, apresentamos uma reflexão em torno da participação das audiências nos estudos da avaliação. Em primeiro lugar, abordamos as considerações metodológicas que levam a potenciar esta participação; a seguir, apresentamos os vários tipos de grupos que são chamados a participar. Detemo-nos depois no papel que esses grupos desempenham no projeto e realização destes estudos e na tomada de decisões posteriores segundo três formas de avaliação pluralistas - a avaliação centrada nos implicados, a avaliação participativa e a avaliação potenciadora. Por último, apresentamos algumas considerações sobre as dificuldades éticas e metodo-lógicas que pode acarretar a dita participação. Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english The impulse experimented by public programs and policies evaluation during the last years has brought about a remarkable increase of evaluative practices that, in contrast to traditional evaluation, grant the stakeholder groups a relevant, even hegemonic, role. The involvement of these groups in the [...] evaluation is highly desirable, not only from an ethical but also from a methodological point of view. From this perspective, a reflection on the audience participation in evaluative studies is presented. To begin with, methodological considerations supporting this participation are put forward. Next, the more habitually involved groups are described. Thereafter the role played by the aforementioned groups in the evaluation design and implementation and in the subsequent decision-making is analysed from three evaluative pluralist approaches: stakeholder based evaluation, participatory evaluation and empowerment evaluation. Finally, some considerations regarding ethical and methodological difficulties that can arise from the above-mentioned participation are discussed.
Saadia Izzeldin Malik
Full Text Available This study discusses the compatibility of Islamic theories of ethics with Western theories of ethics regarding the ethics of global journalism. The study examines Western and Islamic approaches and perspectives on ethics and applied ethics in the field of journalism. Central to the discussion are global journalism values of freedom of expression, individual right for privacy, public right to know, and the global clashing values of media ownership vs. freedom, and consumerism values vs. media values of social responsibility. These clashing media values are part of the broader practices of newsgathering and news reporting that encompass many ethical dilemmas in the field of media and journalism. The study concludes by discussing Western perspectives on character education. It also provides an Islamic moral perspective based on character education as an approach compatible with the Western perspective on moral education. This perspective will help reconcile global clashing media values.
Lipowski, A; Lipowski, Adam; Ferreira, Antonio L.
Each year perhaps millions of young people face the following dilemma: should I continue my education or rather start working with already acquired skills. Right decision must take into account somebody's own abilities, accessibility to education institutions, competition, and potential benefits. A multi-agent, evolutionary model of this dilemma predicts a transition between stratified and homogeneous phases, evolution that diminishes fitness, fewer applicants per seat for decreased capacity of the university, and presence of poor students at \\'elite universities.
Discusses the process of infusing ethics into courses across the graduate-level public administration curriculum, focusing on three areas: barriers to teaching ethics in public administration; a six-step method for incorporating ethics across the curriculum; and applying this method to overcome obstacles within programs, using organizational
Biedenweg, Kelly; Monroe, Martha C.; Oxarart, Annie
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the importance of a focus on ethics in sustainability education and present results from a pilot graduate-level course titled the Ethics of Sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: This is a case study presenting a qualitative evaluation from a pilot 14-week Ethics of Sustainability course.
Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed
M. Rosa BUXARRAIS ESTRADA
Full Text Available One of the main challenges currently facing education is the incorporation of the ethics of compassion at the theoretical level as well as in educational practice. This article outlines the main arguments that permit us to introduce a sentiment of compassion in the pedagogical proposals for moral education. Emphasis is placed on the complementary nature of ethics and moral development which, under various denominations, consider similar aspects: ethics of moral sentiments; ethics of care and responsibility; ethics of otherness; and ethics of hospitality among others. Finally, we arrive at two features that should be considered when implementing the teaching of compassion in the moral realm: the relationship between students and teachers, and the narrative focus in moral development.
Full Text Available In this paper I employ Goodenough´s distinction between films that illustrate, are about and do philosophy to answer the question how we can identify the ethical content of movies. Crimes and Misdemeanors by Woody Allen is taken as an example but Mary L. Litch has argued that this movie illustrates ethical problems and is about ethics. On Litch´s reading the film reveals inherent flaws in utilitarianism and illustrates a Kantian insight as well as other ethical and religious theses. I argue, however, that Litch has relied on a too narrow method when identifying the ethics of Crimes and Misdemeanors. She focuses almost exclusively on dialogue and the general storyline. If we broaden our method to include sensitivity to filming, editing, camera angulation etc., we will not only realize a rather different ethical content in Crimes and Misdemeanors but also see how the movie stirkes close to home for most viewers of Hollywood movies.
Mercuri, John J; Vigdorchik, Jonathan M; Otsuka, Norman Y
All orthopedic surgeons face moral dilemmas on a regular basis; however, little has been written about the moral dilemmas that are encountered when providing orthopedic care to pediatric patients and their families. This article aims to provide surgeons with a better understanding of how bioethics and professionalism apply to the care of their pediatric patients. First, several foundational concepts of both bioethics and professionalism are summarized, and definitions are offered for 16 important terms within the disciplines. Next, some of the unique aspects of pediatric orthopedics as a subspecialty are reviewed before engaging in a discussion of 5 common moral dilemmas within the field. Those dilemmas include the following: (1) obtaining informed consent and assent for either surgery or research from pediatric patients and their families; (2) performing cosmetic surgery on pediatric patients; (3) caring for pediatric patients with cognitive or physical impairments; (4) caring for injured pediatric athletes; and (5) meeting the demand for pediatric orthopedic care in the United States. Pertinent considerations are reviewed for each of these 5 moral dilemmas, thereby better preparing surgeons for principled moral decision making in their own practices. Each of these dilemmas is inherently complex with few straightforward answers; however, orthopedic surgeons have an obligation to take the lead and better define these kinds of difficult issues within their field. The lives of pediatric patients and their families will be immeasurably improved as a result. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(12):e1133-e1138.]. PMID:26652336
Full Text Available The methodological divisions in ethics result in fundamental consequences both on the conceptual level and in the practical applicability of such ethics. These divisions arise from broader theoretical positions, however they are also the work of individual moral sensibilities or 'moral instincts', as they are called at least in the Hegelian tradition. The deontological, consequentialist, vrtue-, developmental and other methodological models of ethics have facilitated a miltiplication of standards of ethical argument. This process has been intellectually productive, however at the same time it has created significant problems for practical philosophy, especially for applied philosophical areas which require a clearly defined and specific referential relationship between the key values formative of the respective ethical models on the one hand, and the concrete moral challenges encountered by the proponents of such ethics, on the other. The contemporary, value- and methodologically transformative age, requires ethics to go beyond the methodological and conceptual reductionism and adopt a synthetic and eclectic approach to moral argument. The first question to be asked in this context is what types of already available normative ethical models might be reinterpreted and further developed into synthetic ethics. This paper discusses the ethics of asceticism, primarily in the form of Christian ethics, as a good candidate for a comprehensive and synthetic ethics. The paper purports to elucidate, on various levels, the potential of ascetic ethics to integrate elements of eudaimonistic ethics, duty ethics, virtue-ethics, consequentialist and deontological ethical methodologies. To do so the paper focuses two key and, at least by my lights, provocative questions: (1 To what extent the ethics of asceticism is 'negative' and based solely on the principles of self-denial, and to what extent is it able to incorporate a positive dynamic content? In other words, can the ascetic Christian ethics be interpreted so that it is able to integrate the concept of pleasure in the meaning of 'eudaimonia'? (2 Is an ascetic ethics able to generate specific moral questions instrumental to a moral justification of asctions, which would meaningfully integrate the various methods of ethical argument (minimally the deontological, consequentialist and virtue-ethics? If this consideration is able to show that ascetic ethics can achieve both goals, one could reasonably conclude that it is a good candidate for a general eclectic ethics. Of course, this would not automatically mean that the asectic ethics is the only potentially synthetic ethics, however it would facilitate a broader conceptualisation of asceticism as a practical way of moral thinking geared towards achieving a 'good life'. At the same time, such a consideration might open an additional inroad into the formulation of general criteria which practical philosophy, and especially ethics, would need to fulfil in order to address the composite and synthetic issues that life in a transformative age presents.
Md Abdul Jalil; Ferdous Azam; Muhammad Khalilur Rahman
Ethics and ethical behavior are issues which are increasingly being focused on the business community today. People are becoming more concerned about what is actually happening in business organizations in the name of competition, growth, and profitability. Organizations are crossing the red zone of ethics and ethical behaviors. A growing number of organizations are constantly surveying and evaluating the unethical practice in business organizations worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to ...
Day, Mary Rose; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; McCarthy, Geraldine
Self-neglect is a significant international public health issue. Estimates suggest that there may be over one million cases per year in the United States. Aging populations will put more people at risk of self-neglect. This chapter presents background literature, self-neglect definitions and policy context, risk factors, and a brief overview of research on perspectives of self-neglect from both clients and community health and social care professionals. A case study is presented from the perspective of an individual and is used to explore ethical issues therein. A person-centered assessment within a multidisciplinary team approach is required for building a therapeutic relationship with clients. Capacity is a central issue in the management of responses to self-neglect. Ethical considerations of importance for community health and social care professionals include beneficence and nonmaleficence, autonomy and capacity, and respect for people's rights and dignity. A model of ethical justification is presented to explain dilemmas, challenges, and actions. Competence of professionals, multidisciplinary team working, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and best interest are also critical considerations. Effective decision making by an interdisciplinary team of professionals needs to be person-centered and give due consideration to the best interest of self-neglecting clients. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an in-depth discussion and examination of ethical issues and challenges relating to self-neglecting clients. PMID:26673378
Bech-Larsen, Tino; Jensen, Birger Boutrup
Purpose Snacking has been characterized as normatively unrestricted and identified as one of the main causes of adolescent obesity. The purpose of this paper is not to question the relation between obesity and snacking, but to ask to which extent adolescent snacking is socially unrestricted and to explore adolescent perceptions of the potential conventions and dilemmas involved in snacking. Design/methodology/approach Referring to previous research in food choice dilemmas and conventions, the paper starts out by discussing potential implications for adolescent snacking in different social contexts. Following this, the design, implementation and results of three focus groups, aiming at an exploration of adolescent snacking perceptions is described. Findings By identifying two distinct forms of adolescent snacking, i.e. in-between meals and fun snacks, the results of the focus groups falsify the perception of snacking as socially unrestricted and offer some interesting insights into the conventions, personal dilemmas and intergenerational conflicts which characterize adolescent snacking. Social implications The classification of snacking as unrestricted of social norms is both unwarranted and counterproductive to the understanding and subsequently the mitigation of the relation between snacking and obesity. Originality/value Apart from falsifying the classification of snacking as unrestricted of social norms, the study contributes by devising a focus group design for elicitation of social norms and dilemmas. Recognizing that the study is just a first step towards a comprehensive understanding of adolescent snacking and that facilitation of healthier snacking behaviors requires such an understanding, recommendations for further research are given.
Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl
With focus on the role of integrity in relation to business ethics versus economic strategy the chapter contains following sections: 1. The concept of organizational integrity as a moral notion as it is described in the work of Lynn-Sharp Paine on organizational integrity. 2. The concept of integrity as an economic notion as it is described in the recent work of Michael Jensen. This section will discuss recent efforts in the business economics literature to consider integrity as an important notion of strategy. 3. Paine contra Jensen: A virtue or a workability concept of integrity. Here the authors discuss the basic dilemmas and problems of integrating integrity, economic performance and strategy in the perspective of the two theories of about integrity of Paine and Jensen.
Matava, Matthew J
This article provides an overview of commonly used analgesics in athletes and the ethical implications of their use in athletic settings. Given the highly competitive nature of modern-day sports and the economic impact of athletic performance at elite levels, athletes feel more compelled than ever to play with injury, which has led to the widespread use of a variety of analgesic agents. An ethical dilemma often ensues for team physicians who must balance the medical implications of these drugs with pressure from players, coaches, and management. The most commonly used agents and their ethical and rational use are discussed. PMID:26832973
Full Text Available Through this study we seek to explore the concept of business ethics, in those aspects that we consider to be essential and concrete. We started from a few questions: Could the two concepts be compatible? If not, why not? If yes, could they be complementary? How real is the use of ethics in the profits of a business? How can be business ethics be exemplified and what principles are essential in doing business? How does the business environment react to the concept? These are some of the elements that will form the basis of this scientific study. Lately, business ethics has been becoming an increasingly popular topic. Set against the global economic crisis, the companies credibility could become a major concern. Business ethics also becomes a challenge for training and informing employees and employers, in order to make not only economical, but also ethical decisions regarding their profits. In the study we shall also address the ethical standards required in a business world interested in fundamental values that can make the difference in 21st century business. Also, according to a study conducted by the authors, we shall address the two most important ethical values that prove to be essential to a business.
Andrew, Jennifer; Robottom, Ian
Ethical issues concerning pain and suffering of animals are necessarily a consideration when it comes to killing pest or feral species in Australia. Within a continent where there are no large predators, many introduced animal species such as rabbits, foxes, horses, donkeys, camels, goats, and mice have been able to thrive, competing with the interests of farmers and graziers, and livestock and food production. These species, thus, gain the label of pest. Many methods now exist to kill these species and, consequently, ethical issues arise concerning the possible pain and suffering caused as a direct result of these methods. Yet within government and scientific communities, ethical issues are reduced to a secondary consideration without serious debate or contention. Ethical issues appear to be at odds with scientific agendas. How can environmental ethics be incorporated as part of science-based decision making that appeals to objectivity and scientific evidence? Within educational institutions as well, the same dilemma exists: How can ethical issues be addressed within the science curriculum and in the classroom? A greater understanding of various perspectives on the subject of environmental ethics and the value positions advocated by proponents of these perspectives may help teachers consider ways of handling such issues in the science classroom.
How does one conduct, measure and record a good ethical review of biomedical research? To what extent do ethics committees invoke professionalism in researchers and in themselves, and to what extent do they see competence as adherence to a set of standard operating procedures for ethical review? Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork with the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a capacity-building NGO that runs ethics committee trainings and reviews in the Asia Pacific region, I develop an analysis of ethical review and its effects. I focus on a second-order audit run by FERCAP, which recognises committees according to a set of standards that are designed to render local committees internationally legible. The article adds to a growing comparative literature that expands studies of audit-like measuring and disciplining activities beyond western contexts and enriches readings of ethics. I begin and end with a reflection on the ethical effects of a measurement practice that takes ethics itself as its object.
This chapter intends to lay out some essential ethics questions that might frame the next step of space exploration. In this, I undertake two sorts of tasks. The first is to respond to the core ethic question: Is it ethical to travel in space? The second, assuming for the moment that I can convince you that the first premise can be justified, is to comment on what ethical challenges will face us there. It is appropriate to have a philosopher comment on this at the fortieth anniversary celebration, since it was also in 1962 that the National Academy of Science first convened a panel of philosophers to comment on space travel. They asked at that time whether it was indeed a worthwhile pursuit to travel in space and what might be expected of such an effort. What is at stake in any such boundary crossing is how the changing of essential human perimeters changes our own moral status. Will such boundary crossing worsen our human condition, or will it enhance it? In this way, the geopolitical quest is then linked to the quest for ontology, Pisarro hunting for the fountain of youth, for gold, and for territory. What follows are a series of ethical claims that link the problem of discovery in the larger world and the attendant ethical dilemmas of our explorations, as well as how this exploration alters our concepts of life on Earth. In this, the role of the ethicist is to function as both a skeptic and a stranger, aware of the optimism of science and the pessimism of philosophy.
Research ethics has become integrated into what it means to conduct good science. This thesis is about the nature of that integration, which I argue is not neutral, carrying with it ideas of duty, moral obligations, organisational mechanisms, and processes of monitoring. For developing countries to...... participate in global research, the pre-requisite of ethical review has necessitated a growth in capacity building exercises. The chapters aim to elucidate ethnographically the activities and implications of 'capacity building' activities in biomedical research ethics, through following the trainings......, assessments and networking of the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a Non-Governmental Organisation. The work provides a critical reflection on the spread and uptake of ethics, contributing particularly to literatures in medical anthropology, organisational studies, and...
Becker, Carl B.
There are three very different concerns of communication ethics: (1) applied speech ethics, (2) ethical rules or standards, and (3) metaethical issues. In the area of applied speech ethics, communications theorists attempt to determine whether a speech act is moral or immoral by focusing on the content and effects of specific speech acts. Specific
Full Text Available Ethics has become an important part in the interaction among humans being. This paper specifically discusses applied ethics as one type of ethics. There are three applied ethics that will be reviewed in this paper, i.e. computer ethics, information ethics, and cyber ethics. There are two aspects of the three applied ethics that were reviewed, i.e. their definition and the issues associated with them. The reviewing results of the three applied ethics are then used for defining e-Government ethics and formulating the issues of e-Government ethics. The e-Government ethics position, based on the previous three applied ethics, is also described in this paper. Computer ethics, information ethics and cyber ethics are considered as the foundations of e-Government ethics and several others applied ethics could enrich the e-Government ethics.
Ethical and epidemiological dilemmas in the treatment of dogs for visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America / Dilema ético y epidemiológico sobre el tratamiento de perros para la leishmaniasis visceral en América Latina
Bruno L, Travi.
Full Text Available En las Américas hay entre 4.500 y 6.800 casos anuales de leishmaniasis visceral grave y se estima que la mortalidad varía entre 7 y 10 %. Sin embargo, el subregistro y las infecciones subclínicas enmascaran la importancia epidemiológica real de la leishmaniasis visceral. Los esfuerzos de control que [...] típicamente se han enfocado en la aspersión de insecticidas contra los flebotomíneos vectores y el sacrificio de perros, han arrojado resultados dispares. No obstante, miles de perros se sacrifican cada año en países endémicos para leishmaniasis visceral. Además, los lineamientos actuales de los programas de control de la leishmaniasis han prohibido el tratamiento de perros con medicamentos de uso humano, mientras que otras drogas resultan en altas tasas de recaída. La sociedad requiere que los programas de control tengan un manejo más humanitario enfocado a limitar el sacrificio canino. Hay una necesidad urgente de promover la tenencia responsable de los perros y apoyar la investigación en: a) terapias veterinarias novedosas, b) diagnósticos moleculares de bajo costo y c) determinación de los umbrales de capacidad infecciosa canina para el manejo adecuado del reservorio. Abstract in english In the Americas there are between 4,500 and 6,800 annual cases of severe visceral leishmaniasis, and mortality is estimated to range between 7 and 10%. However, underreporting and subclinical infections mask the real epidemiological importance of visceral leishmaniasis. Control efforts, which have t [...] ypically focused on insecticide spraying of sand fly vectors and dog culling, have yielded disparate results. Nevertheless, thousands of dogs are sacrificed each year in countries endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. Additionally, current guidelines of leishmaniasis control programs have banned dog treatment with drugs of human use while therapy with other drugs resulted in high rates of relapses. Society requires that control programs take a more humanitarian approach aimed at limiting dog culling. There is an urgent need to promote responsible dog-ownership and support research on: a) novel veterinary therapies, b) low-cost molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis, and c) determination of dog infectivity threshold for proper reservoir management.
This book offers an overview of the ethical problems posed by Information Warfare, and of the different approaches and methods used to solve them, in order to provide the reader with a better grasp of the ethical conundrums posed by this new form of warfare.The volume is divided into three parts, each comprising four chapters. The first part focuses on issues pertaining to the concept of Information Warfare and the clarifications that need to be made in order to address its ethical implications. The second part collects contributions focusing on Just War Theory and its application to the case
Tien, H Y; Zhang, T; Ping, Y; Li, J; Liang, Z
China's demographic dilemmas are discussed as the demographic surge during the 20th century, the demographic transition, the struggle to regulate fertility, population and development, and prospects for the future. Brief accounts are given of China's household registration system and the efforts in entry into the global economy. There are references, suggested readings, and discussion questions. Ample figures and tables express population growth, birth and death rates, fertility, sex ratios, population projections for these older than 65 and total population, contraception (IUDs, sterilizations, and abortions), abortion ratios, ethnic minority groups, provincial population data for 1990, schools and enrollment, health care resources, selected economic indicators, and availability of selected consumer items (sewing machines, watches, bicycles, electric fans, washers, refrigerators, televisions, radios, and cameras). Population planning has been successful in reducing the birth rate from 35/1000 in the 1950s to 20/1000 in the 1990s. 17 million persons are added annually. The projection for 2000 is 1.3 billion persons. The emphasis of the discussion is on the development and consequences of strict population planning control measures instituted in the 1970s and strengthened in the 1980s. In addition to curbing numbers, the measures have also led to a rapid aging of the population, a marriage squeeze, charges of female infanticide, and international censure. Population pressure is felt in urban areas, and in the labor force, education, and health systems. Industrialization has led to serious deterioration of natural resources. The gap between rural and urban population has widened. PMID:12286597
Solihu, Abdul Kabir Hussain; Ambali, Abdul Rauf
The goal of responsible engineers is the creation of useful and safe technological products and commitment to public health, while respecting the autonomy of the clients and the public. Because engineers often face moral dilemma to resolve such issues, different engineers have chosen different course of actions depending on their respective moral value orientations. Islam provides a value-based mechanism rooted in the Maqasid al-Shari'ah (the objectives of Islamic law). This mechanism prioritizes some values over others and could help resolve the moral dilemmas faced in engineering. This paper introduces the Islamic interpretive-evaluative maxims to two core issues in engineering ethics: genetically modified foods and whistleblowing. The study aims primarily to provide problem-solving maxims within the Maqasid al-Shari'ah matrix through which such moral dilemmas in science and engineering could be studied and resolved. PMID:19937149
Full Text Available Various dilemmas concerning modern economy and business have been in the focus of scientific discussion in recent years (Klich, 2013; Renko & Knezevic, 2013; Szarucki, 2013; Agrawal & Gugnani, 2014; Pardhasaradhi & Grace, 2015. In modern economy, not only researches but corporations face complex economic and business dilemmas in their daily routine. The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission addresses key economic challenges by stimulating innovations, sustainability policies, social and environmental responsibilities. These challenges require the mobilization of significant resources by science, innovation and regional policy makers and scientific communities across Europe (EUA, 2014. Broader scientific discussions are crucial for the success of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. According to the Global Risks Report 2015, the biggest threat to world stability in the next 10 years arise from the four most serious economic risks. These are high structural unemployment or underemployment, energy price shock, critical information infrastructure breakdown and fiscal crises. We continuously agree that innovation is critical to global prosperity (WEF, 2015. Currently, the internationalisation of family businesses is an increasingly important research area. Substantial numbers of FBs are forced to expand into foreign markets in order to survive and grow in the competitive environment (Daszkiewicz & Wach, 2014. The roles of business angels are especially important taken both decreasing the levels of formal venture capital investment and growing average amount of individual deals. Angel investors are the key players in generating high-growth companies, essential to regional economic development. As a result, they have attracted the attention of policy makers (Rostamzadeh et. al., 2014. Consequently, this issue of EBER concentrates on the current dilemmas of modern economy and business, particularly dealing with the Baltic States, Slovenia and Poland. Five out of eight articles published in this issue are research papers, two are conceptual papers, while one is a literature review.
Mattila, Mika; Andersson, Linda
Abstract: In this study we have turned to the complex host-country environment of China to investigate Swedish companies doing business in a highly corrupt business context to see which dilemmas managers meet and their approaches to these dilemmas. The importance of adapting to the local culture and environment is something researchers stress in the business literature. In the beginning of our study we ask if the same statement is true when it comes to ethical decision making and from the fin...
Full Text Available This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169. Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15. 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34 and Strauss and Corbin (1990. The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990. The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985 and Morse (1994 related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based on these findings the researcher concluded that nurses are not thinking critically when making ethical decisions concerning the termination of pregnancies. Recommendations are made as a possible solution for this problem.
This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decision-making. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169). Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15). 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34) and Strauss and Corbin (1990). The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990). The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985) and Morse (1994) related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based on these findings the researcher concluded that nurses are not thinking critically when making ethical decisions concerning the termination of pregnancies. Recommendations are made as a possible solution for this problem. PMID:11949153
Rasmussen, Annette; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard
In ethnographic research the direct involvement and long-term engagement of the researcher constitute key elements. Acknowledgements of numerous publications resulting from ethnographic studies illustrate that the researchers are often deeply indebted to the research subjects for allowing the researchers to follow them around. Thus it is impossible to carry out ethnographic work without obtaining access, getting involved in, and sharing the lives of the people that are subjects to such studies. Gaining the access, which is clearly in the interest even a prerequisite of the ethnographer, might constitute a problem in itself, as it actualizes the question of the interest of the research to the participants. Why should they allow the researcher to enter and describe their circumstances of life? What kind of interest might they have or accept in sharing their experiences with a researcher? Once having gained access to participate in and describe the lives of the participants of a given context, the next ethical question facing the researcher is the one of involvement. Again, the researcher has an interest in obtaining as much confidence as possible, whereas the interest of the observed subjects might be more dubious and a matter of difficulty to handle by the researcher. The obvious dilemma of conflicting interests and difficult handling of proximity is our focus of interest in this paper: One side of this dilemma is to ask the question, how close you need to go to obtain the confidence of the participants in the research context and the necessary in-depth insight to understand their cultures and conditions of life. Another side of it is to ask, how close you can go without violating in a symbolic sense the lives of the participants and their rights of privacy. This further raises the question, how does the presence of the researcher alter the dynamics of the observed reality and the lives of the people in it? Not a new question asked in research, but still a necessary and ethical question to ask and deal with in any ethnographic work, and for the authors of the paper an important question in planning a longitudinal, ethnographic study of children labeled as talented athletes joggling school, training, competition, friends, and family. The study plan includes a vision of following the children in their daily lives in a way that is inspired by the intensive data-gathering techniques employed by Annette Lareau in her study of family patterns in the USA (Lareau, 2011). This raises preliminary questions as to how such a fieldwork can be carried out; both to ensure the necessary provision of empirical data to carry out ethnographic analyses and challenge existing theoretical frameworks, and to ensure that the subjects under scrutiny are not subject to ethical violations. With this in mind the above dilemmas of proximity will be addressed and discussed in our paper.
Nax, Heinrich H; Rigos, Alexandros
Assortative mechanisms can overcome tragedies of the commons that otherwise result in dilemma situations. Assortativity criteria include various forms of kin selection, greenbeard genes, and reciprocal behaviors, usually presuming an exogenously fixed matching mechanism. Here, we endogenize the matching process with the aim of investigating how assortativity itself, jointly with cooperation, is driven by evolution. Our main finding is that full-or-null assortativities turn out to be long-run stable in most cases, independent of the relative speeds of both processes. The exact incentive structure of the underlying social dilemma matters crucially. The resulting social loss is evaluated for general classes of dilemma games, thus quantifying to what extent the tragedy of the commons may be endogenously overcome. PMID:26854078
Prof. Ph.D. Cãtãlina Bonciu
Full Text Available In the contemporary business world ethics represents one of the most exciting challenges,precisely because there is still no universally valid modality for solving a problem of this kind. Adopting anethic personal behavior does not always ensure winning in the problems regarding the actual business, norin the organizational behavior itself. The personal values, either native or gained by an individual throughouthis socializing do not represent a support or advantage in the attitude towards the economic life. What is it that actually concerns the managers:to succeed in their activity or to have an ethic activity? A successful business is necessarily an ethic one, or one lacking ethics? In particular, should the human resources manager choose the human factor of solid moral and ethic grounds, or the one exclusively focused on money quantifiable performance?
Cavaliere, Frank J.; Mulvaney, Toni P.; Swerdlow, Marleen R.
Our country is faced with a financial crisis of mammoth proportions: a crisis rooted in ethics, or rather, the lack of ethics. Critics are increasingly complaining that business schools focus too much teaching effort on maximizing shareholder value, with only a limited understanding of ethical and social aspects of business leadership. Businessâ¦
The paper argues that recent developments in the enactive approach to social phenomena call for further expansion of an enactive ethics beyond its initial focus on face-to- face dyadic interactions. The main aim is to draw attention to the so far under- appreciated kinship between an enactive ethics and the ethics of care.
Cavaliere, Frank J.; Mulvaney, Toni P.; Swerdlow, Marleen R.
Our country is faced with a financial crisis of mammoth proportions: a crisis rooted in ethics, or rather, the lack of ethics. Critics are increasingly complaining that business schools focus too much teaching effort on maximizing shareholder value, with only a limited understanding of ethical and social aspects of business leadership. Business
Anker, Thomas Boysen; SandÃ¸e, Peter; Kamin, Tanja; Kappel, Klemens
Commercial food health branding is a challenging branch of marketing because it might, at the same time, promote healthy living and be commercially viable. However, the power to influence individualsâ health behavior and overall health status makes it crucial for marketing professionals to take...... into account the ethical dimensions of health branding: this article presents a conceptual analysis of potential ethical problems in health branding. The analysis focuses on ethical concerns related to the application of three health brand elements (functional claims, process claims, and health symbols......) as well as a number of general concerns that apply to health branding as such. Being a pioneering analysis, this article advances the academic understanding of health branding and provides practitioners with knowledge of important concerns to take into account when marketing health brands....
Full Text Available As economic stagnation continues to mark the EU in the fifth year of the euro zone crisis, political support for integration is waning. The European Parliament elections of 2014 returned a hitherto unparalleled number of Eurosceptic MEPs, with EU-critical parties becoming the largest ones in several Member States. Much of this Euroscepticism is driven by economic polarisation between core and peripheral countries. While an increasing number of voters in the northwestern creditor countries resent having to foot the bill for what they consider economic mismanagement in the periphery, voters in peripheral countries increasingly rebel against what they deem to be an economically catastrophic Diktat from Germany and its allies. Continued political support for European integration will hinge on successful income convergence in the EU but the current dilemma is that such policies might not be politically feasible. Periods of rapid convergence would seem to suggest that success depends on two main policy strategies. First, a monetary policy that promotes credit for productive purposes, leaves inflation control to other instruments, and employs selective credit rationing to prevent asset booms. Second, a vertical industrial policy prioritising selected industrial sectors. The first policy conflicts with the present framework of euro zone monetary policy, but that framework was only installed in the first place because many peripheral countries were desperately in search of an external constraint on domestic distributional conflict. Industrial policies, in turn, require a sufficient degree of state autonomy from business elites in order to be effective, but it is highly questionable whether most states in the EU possess such autonomy. Though there are, as yet hesitant, signs of a reorientation of both monetary and cohesion policy in the EU, the question of the institutional and political preconditions for their successful implementation has been largely neglected.
In Israel, the bulk of the population leads an essentially secularist, liberal, and permissive individual lifestyle. At the same time, certain cultural-religious values, institutions, practices, and injunctions are formally woven into the Israeli communal fabric. Consequently, the bioethical discourse in Israel has evolved in a sociocultural context which manifests a unique mix of orthodoxy and secularism, of communal paternalism and assertive individualism, of proscription and permissiveness, of religious norms and liberal ethical values. There can be no denying of the impact of Jewish religious tenets, and the political groups that champion them, on the shaping of Israeli biomedical jurisprudence. Yet it would be wrong to assume that such impact invariably has been prohibitive and restrictive. To illustrate the diverse influence of religious attitudes on normative postures regarding biomedical dilemmas in Israel, I will focus on end-of-life medical decision making, on the one hand and on embryonic stem cells research, on the other. PMID:17902326
Bajwa Sukhminder; Bajwa Sukhwinder; Kaur Jasbir
Background and Context: Treatment of terminally ill cancer patients always poses great challenges especially when these critical patients are admitted in intensive care unit (ICU). The severity of their diseases throws a clinical and ethical dilemma to the treating intensivist. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the benefits of intensive care treatment in terminally ill cancer patients and also to find out whether optimal utilization of critical care resources has got any positive financial, p...
Culiberg, Barbara; Bajde, Domen
Although recycling is often experienced as a moral dilemma, studies that systematically approach this issue from an ethical perspective are scarce. Moreover, previous studies have explored recycling by mainly using single ethical constructs, such as moral norms, values or obligations, rarely...... approaching it as an ethical decision-making process. Our study takes a more holistic approach and integrates the recycling literature with business ethics theory in order to develop a conceptual model of ethical decision making involved in recycling. The model is based on Jones' issue-contingent model and...... positively influenced the formation of intentions to recycle. Moreover, moral intensity was found to be a significant predictor of moral recognition and moral judgment, while altruism was found to be a significant predictor of moral recognition. These findings hold important implications for public policy...
In today's climate and environment, the conventional relationship between caring, economic, and administrative practices no longer serves the interest of patients, clinicians, or systems. A shift toward human caring values and an ethic of authentic healing relationships is required as systems now have to value human resources and life purposes, inner meaning, and processes for providers and patients alike. The costs of unethical behavior can be even greater for followers. When we assume the benefits of leadership, we also assume ethical burdens. It is the assertion and experience of the author that the triangle of ethics and ethical behavior, followers, and patient's outcomes are closely interrelated and affect each other in a very intimate and direct way. Unethical leadership may lead to follower disappointment and distrust, leading to lack of interest and commitment, consequently negatively impacting patient outcomes and organizational effectiveness. PMID:22864295
... nutrition? What about advance directives and resuscitation orders? Abortion: When does life begin? Is it ethical to terminate a pregnancy with a birth defect? Genetic and prenatal testing: What happens if you ...
Full Text Available "nObjectives: The first part of this workshop aims to identify current ethical aspects of research publication that are relevant for authors, explain the reason for current requirements, and explain how compliance can facilitate publication. Plagiarism, good citation practices, simultaneous or secondary publication in more than one language, and good publication practices will be covered. "nThe second part will focus on relevant ethical issues with respect to clinical trials. Issues to be covered are the importance of ethics for good clinical practice (GCP, the informed consent process, and the structure of ethical committees. A practical experience with emphasis on ethical issues in conducting clinical trails in a resource-limited setting will be shared with participants. Â
Padela, Aasim I
Modern medical practice is becoming increasingly pluralistic and diverse. Hence, cultural competency and awareness are given more focus in physician training seminars and within medical school curricula. A renewed interest in describing the varied ethical constructs of specific populations has taken place within medical literature. This paper aims to provide an overview of Islamic Medical Ethics. Beginning with a definition of Islamic Medical Ethics, the reader will be introduced to the scope of Islamic Medical Ethics literature, from that aimed at developing moral character to writings grounded in Islamic law. In the latter form, there is an attempt to derive an Islamic perspective on bioethical issues such as abortion, gender relations within the patient-doctor relationship, end-of-life care and euthanasia. It is hoped that the insights gained will aid both clinicians and ethicists to better understand the Islamic paradigm of medical ethics and thereby positively affect patient care. PMID:17845488
Lien, Joelle L.
Like professionals in other disciplines, music educators are expected to observe certain behavioral standards. In addition to teaching musical skills, concepts, and context, music educators are also expected to protect the welfare of children, serve as trustworthy stewards of public property, and generally behave responsibly and professionally
Results: In Mr Green's case, the nurse chose to share the information of Mr Green's suicide attempt with other health care professionals. The nursing team followed the self-harm and suicide protocol of the hospital strictly, they maintained the effective communication with Mr Green, identified the factors which cause patient's suicide attempt, provided the appropriate nursing intervention to deal will these risk factors and collaborated with other health care professionals to prefect the further care. The patient transferred to a palliative care service with no sign of suicide attempt and other self-harm behaviors and passed away peacefully 76 days after discharged with his relatives and pastors accompany.
ANDERSON, JOHN F.
Wet West Coast winter syndrome caused Dr. John Anderson to seek a continuing medical education (CME) conference in sunnier climes, and he found one that was not quite within his field of family medicine. He offers this litany of epiphany, confession and redemption to anyone else considering sacrificing CME content on the altar of CME location.
As businesses span the globe, multinational and translational companies conduct their business operations in foreign settings, especially in developing countries and in countries in transition from Communist regimes. This poses new challenges to expatriate managers and to home-based staff in charge of foreign affiliates. They are called on to determine the right versus the wrong, the good versus the bad over international business transactions, negotiations, advertisement and supply chain man...
The searing introduction of the public to the human health effects from large doses of ionizing radiation came from the nuclear weapon explosions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan at the end of World War II. The horrors of a war using such weapons are part of the human consciousness. This introduction created fear and concern over ionizing radiation from man-made radionuclides or natural radionuclides enhanced by man's activities. This leads to a public over-emphasis on reducing exposure to man-made ionizing radiation whatever the expense might be. A study that evaluated costs of 500 life saving interventions found that radiation control activities had a median cost of $27 million (US) per life per year and were four of the top ten most expensive [up to $34 billion (US) per life per year]. [Tengs, 1994] (author)
Reynolds highlights three dimensions of environmental ethics â normative, philosophical and political â in the context of a long-standing controversial development initiative for dam constructions in the Narmada river valley in India. In discussing these three dimensions, he promotes the importance of environmental ethics in fostering responsible development intervention. A version of this reading can be found in Environment, Development and Sustainability in the 21st Century: Perspectives an...
Full Text Available This article elaborates some important trends and discussions in citizenship education. It seems that there are strong arguments from scientific scholars which express opposition to a focus on only formal facts and democratic procedures in the teaching of citizenship education. This approach is also criticized by students for its meaninglessness and irrelevance. There also seems to be relative agreement that democracies are being challenged for various reasons, that school plays an important role in citizenship education, that republicanism is the preferred framework, and that students construct their own views of the world (constructivist learning processes. Despite this rather general agreement, there remain quite a few important dilemmas and also disagreements in the field of citizenship education. Among these are: the conceptualization of democracy, the knowledge to be presented, adopting a national versus a global perspective, the maturity of young citizens regarding the question of multiculturalism, and approaches to teaching (particularly providing room for criticism. These and other dilemmas are discussed, and a summary of recommendations is put forward.
Full Text Available Ethics contain a set of principles of personal and professional conduct .The concept of Business ethics relates itself to the norms and the ideals businessman and business groups adopt in course of their activities in business .Business ethics is an assertion of âbe goodâ and âdo goodâ in business. Ethical business practices has been a blessing to the enterprises as it ensures faith in society ,government trust ,business partners trust .on the other hand unethical business practices /behavior are may be the feel good factor in the short run for earning secret profit but prove as a monster in the long run as it leave a big spot on the enterprise image by indulging in activities like Black Marketing ,False Advertisement, Tax evasion etc .Thus it is the foremost duty of each enterprise to run its business on ethical grounds so that they can attain customers retention as well as employees retention in the long run and should not have a greed for becoming prey of unethical business practices thereby ditching the society as a whole .The principles laid down by IBE (Institute of Business Ethics ,London should be followed with sincerity by all enterprise leading to a trustworthy environment all around .
Louise, Kretzschmar; Wessel, Bentley.
Full Text Available This article explores how Applied Ethics, especially Business Ethics, is taught at the University of South Africa (Unisa). This discussion refers to the content of a particular Unisa module, Theoretical and Applied Ethics, which serves as an introduction to Bio-medical Ethics, Business Ethics and En [...] vironmental Ethics. The fundamentals of this course are: defining ethics; providing methods for moral decision-making; describing the role of ethics in a particular field and addressing common dilemmas in a specific context. The intention is to empower students to identify issues they are likely to face in the workplace, and to grow in confidence in their ability to make sound moral decisions when required to do so. The aim of this article is to contribute to the ongoing discussion between tertiary institutions about how the teaching of Business Ethics can be promoted, how moral decision-making in the workplace can be encouraged and what role theological ethics can play in this regard.
Full Text Available This article explores how Applied Ethics, especially Business Ethics, is taught at the University of South Africa (Unisa. This discussion refers to the content of a particular Unisa module, Theoretical and Applied Ethics, which serves as an introduction to Bio-medical Ethics, Business Ethics and Environmental Ethics. The fundamentals of this course are: defining ethics; providing methods for moral decision-making; describing the role of ethics in a particular field and addressing common dilemmas in a specific context. The intention is to empower students to identify issues they are likely to face in the workplace, and to grow in confidence in their ability to make sound moral decisions when required to do so. The aim of this article is to contribute to the ongoing discussion between tertiary institutions about how the teaching of Business Ethics can be promoted, how moral decision-making in the workplace can be encouraged and what role theological ethics can play in this regard.
Buxton, Margaret; Phillippi, Julia C; Collins, Michelle R
The importance of ethical conduct in health care was acknowledged as early as the fifth century in the Hippocratic Oath and continues to be an essential element of clinical practice. Providers face ethical dilemmas that are complex and unfold over time, testing both practitioners' knowledge and communication skills. Students learning to be health care providers need to develop the knowledge and skills necessary to negotiate complex situations involving ethical conflict. Simulation has been shown to be an effective learning environment for students to learn and practice complex and overlapping skills sets. However, there is little guidance in the literature on constructing effective simulation environments to assist students in applying ethical concepts. This article describes realistic simulations with trained, standardized patients that present ethical problems to graduate-level nurse-midwifery students. Student interactions with the standardized patients were monitored by faculty and peers, and group debriefing was used to help explore students' emotions and reactions. Student feedback postsimulation was exceedingly positive. This simulation could be easily adapted for use by health care education programs to assist students in developing competency with ethics. PMID:25141791
This study sought to investigate the dilemmas experienced by primary school teachers in Zimbabwe as they teach HIV and AIDS Education. Fifteen (7 females and 8 males) out of twenty nine (29) teachers enrolled for an in-service Bachelor of Education programme at Great Zimbabwe University and specialising in Social Studies participated in the study. Intensive task based interviews and focus discussions in which the participants articulated dilemmas related to the content taught and the methodol...
??? Hsin-Hui Cheng
Full Text Available ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????376 ???????????????????????????18 ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? The purpose of this study is to explore the sources, disturbance, and causes of administrative dilemmas junior high school principals might face. A mixed method was adopted including questionnaire survey and interview. Data was gathered from 23 counties/cities in Taiwan areas through three stages. The results showed that the frequencies of dilemmas emerged from the dimensions of student disciplines and counsel and teaching affairs were higher than of the others while the extents of disturbance on the dimensions of student disciplines and counsel as well as public relations and politics were also higher than of the others. In terms of the specific administrative dilemmas, the permission of high-risk students transferred into schools and dealing with incompetent teachers were the maximum dilemmas and disturbance encountered by principals. While the causes of administrative dilemmas were varied in light of the specific situations, the value selection conflicts among regulations, professional ethics, interpersonal relationships and political pressure, and school benefits could be the mains reasons. Some conclusions and recommendations drawn from the study were provided as the references for principal, policy makers, and training programs for principals.
Water ethics has only recently emerged in academic and development arenas as an independent field of professional discussion. Concerns over water conservation and adequate access to basic needs of water and sanitation pose a difficult ethical dilemma that should be addressed based on societal and ethical frame works. Issues such as water allocation and pricing, privatization of various water services and efficient water management need to be contested within an ethical framework according to principles of equity and social justice. This paper presents the basic concepts of water ethics, as well as water ethics perspectives and applications within the framework of integrated water resources management (IWRM) in the Arab Region, which suffers from one of the fastest growing water deficits in the world. The deteriorating status of the water resources situation in Arab Region is no longer tolerable due to the high costs in terms of negative environmental consequences and deteriorating livelihoods of poor populations associated with lack of access to clean water and sanitation. Nevertheless, most of the national efforts for IWRM implementation in the Region have been dominated by neo-liberal economic policies stressing privatization of various water services; cost recovery through different pricing and tariffication schemes; as well as sectoral water (re)allocation. However, many negative impacts due to the shift to neo-liberal market-led economies have been surfaced throughout the developing world in the past decade and a half, especially with respect to the increased levels of poverty and worsening environmental degradation. It is, therefore, critical to adopt IWRM approaches in the region within an ethical framework that takes full consideration of all social implications regarding the poor, and that could be used as a means to achieve water-related international goals of poverty reduction. Finally, the paper also shows that there is no contradiction between Islamic beliefs, which constitute the chief cultural and ethical source of most Arab societies, and worldwide accepted IWRM principles and associated ethical frameworks. (author)
Akp?nar A et al.
Full Text Available Aim: To determine ethical issues experienced by family doctors in Düzce, the pilot province for implementation of the primary health care reform 'Transformation in Health' in Turkey in 2005.Method: We conducted this study between May and June 2007 in Düzce. A self-administered-questionnaire prepared by the researchers included 13 ethical issues inquiring about physicians' frequency of encounter, difficulty in managing the problem, and learning needs in ethical topics. Results: Fifty-seven percent of family doctors who were practicing in Düzce (56/98 took part in the study. Most of them (89.3% were in practice over a year, had more than 3000 registered patients (80.4% with homogenous distribution (67.9%. Physicians reported to encounter ethical dilemmas related to informed consent (72.7%, conflict of self-interest and altruism (44.6%, determining competency (41.8%, claims of alternative therapy (41.0%, relationship with representatives of drug companies (39.2%, truth-telling (28.6%, and resource allocation (27.3% at least once a month. Participants were experienced difficulties when solving dilemmas related to determining competency in patients, reporting incompetency of a colleague, informed consent, best interest of the child, truth-telling, conflict of self-interest and altruism, respectively. Best interest of the child, truth-telling, determining competency in patients, protecting others' interest and gaining informed consent were prioritized topics for education. Conclusion: Our results implied that family doctors experienced difficulties in ethical conduct during daily clinical practice. The most frequently mentioned ethical issues were evaluated with respect to expressed learning needs which served to develop a draft ethics curriculum.
? Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork with the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a capacity-building NGO that runs ethics committee trainings and reviews in the Asia Pacific region, I develop an analysis of ethical review and its effects. I focus on a second-order audit run...... by FERCAP, which recognises committees according to a set of standards that are designed to render local committees internationally legible. The article adds to a growing comparative literature that expands studies of audit-like measuring and disciplining activities beyond western contexts and...
Bloch, David Kristian
This article examines a passage from Plato's Euthyphro which puts forward the argument that has become known as the Euthyphro Dilemma. The content of this argument is described and analysed in the light of Søren Kierkegaard's edifying discourse "Every Good and Every Perfect Gift is from Above" (1843).
Søndergaard, Dorte Marie
Based on a conceptualization of bullying and relational aggression in groups as an effect of social dynamics rather than individual deficits this article reflects upon some of the intricate mechanisms and dilemmas involved in victim positioning. Victims of bullying and relational aggression often...
Musa Obalola; Kunle Aduloju; Folake Olowokudejo
Commitment of employees to their organisations has been one of the central research themes in organisational study. Though, many predictors of organisational commitment abound in the literature, much is however not known on how ethical behaviour in the organisation affects employees commitment. Considering the nature of insurance services, and high potentials for ethical dilemma in the industry, this study contributes to organisational commitment literature by providing further understanding...
Logar, Tea; Le, Phuoc; Harrison, James D; Glass, Marcia
Recent studies show that returning global health trainees often report having felt inadequately prepared to deal with ethical dilemmas they encountered during outreach clinical work. While global health training guidelines emphasize the importance of developing ethical and cultural competencies before embarking on fieldwork, their practical implementation is often lacking and consists mainly of recommendations regarding professional behavior and discussions of case studies. Evidence suggests that one of the most effective ways to teach certain skills in global health, including ethical and cultural competencies, is through service learning. This approach combines community service with experiential learning. Unfortunately, this approach to global health ethics training is often unattainable due to a lack of supervision and resources available at host locations. This often means that trainees enter global health initiatives unprepared to deal with ethical dilemmas, which has the potential for adverse consequences for patients and host institutions, thus contributing to growing concerns about exploitation and "medical tourism." From an educational perspective, exposure alone to such ethical dilemmas does not contribute to learning, due to lack of proper guidance. We propose that the tension between the benefits of service learning on the one hand and the respect for patients' rights and well-being on the other could be resolved by the application of a simulation-based approach to global health ethics education. PMID:25648122
Sharma, Om P
Ethics are a set of moral principles and values a civilized society follows. Doing science with principles of ethics is the bedrock of scientific activity. The society trusts that the results and the projected outcome of any scientific activity is based on an honest and conscientious attempt by the scientific community. However, during the last few decades, there has been an explosion of knowledge and the advent of digital age. We can access the publications of competitors with just a "click". The evaluation parameters have evolved a lot and are based on impact factors, h-index and citations. There is a general feeling that the scientific community is under a lot of pressure for fulfilling the criteria for upward growth and even retention of the positions held. The noble profession of scientific research and academics has been marred by the temptation to falsify and fabricate data, plagiarism and other unethical practices. Broadly speaking, the breach of ethics involves: plagiarism, falsification of data, redundant (duplicate) publication, drawing far-fetched conclusions without hard data, for early publicity, gift authorship (receiving as well as giving), not giving sufficient attention and consideration to scholars and post-docs as per the norms, self promotion at the cost of team-members, treating colleagues (overall all juniors) in a feudal way and Machiavellianism (cunningness and duplicity in general conduct and push to positions of power and pelf). Misconduct in Indian academics and science is also under a lot of focus. It is important and urgent that science, engineering, and health departments and institutions in our country have in place systems for education and training in pursuit of science with ethics by sound and professional courses in Responsible Conduct of Research. All research and academic institution must have the Office of Ethics for information, guidelines, training and professional oversight of conduct of research with the ethos and ethics of research. PMID:26063945
Ethics is always a social concern, an integrated part of laws and regulations. Treatment of ethics as a separate part in the decision making process is therefore always debatable. It cannot be introduced as an extraneous component to compensate for, or to improve, a morally flawed practice, and the margin for unethical practices is strongly circumscribed by regulation in the nuclear field, internationally. However, a discussion on different stakeholders and their different ethical concerns should always be welcome. One example is the implementer's views on ethics. Even if they are in complete parity with existing legal and regulatory goals, the goals may still represent the implementer's own motives and choices. Also, stakeholders may view the laws or regulations as unfair. In making the critique, the stakeholder simply formulates a separate political standpoint. Finally, an alternative discussion is to place existing regulations into an ethical perspective - adding a new dimension to the issues. Retrievability for high level waste repositories is often in focus in ethical discussions. Unfortunately, it is used in many ways and has become an unclear term. It may cover anything from planned recuperation to the property of waste being retrievable in years or tens of years, or in the distant time range of hundreds or thousands of years. The term retrievability is often proposed to cover mainly positive qualities such as the option of later changes to the repository or a new disposal concept. However, as ICRP and others have pointed out, it also implies the possibility of: i) operational exposures, ii) continuing risks of accidental releases, iii) financial provisions to cover operating costs and iv) continuing reliance on institutional control, thus imposing some burdens to future generations. In a certain sense, anything can be retrieved from any repository. There is therefore a need for a clear and operable definition of retrievability requirements, including the definition of the corresponding legal consequences. (author)
Glasa, J; Holomán, J; Klepanec, J; Soltés, L
Local ethics committees (institutional review boards, or similar bodies) were established during the last decades at (bio)medical research institutions worldwide to serve as review bodies of the proposed research projects (inclusive protocols of clinical trials), and also to monitor if the ethical principles, including the requirements of good practice (clinical, laboratory, and scientific) are respected and fulfilled during the conduct of research projects. Existing pluralism of the philosophical background on which contemporary bioethics theories are developed is questioning seriously the ancient traditions of Hippocratic, non-utilitarian medical ethics, trying to promote more utilitarian and secular approaches. Individual physicians, or researchers, as well as the ethics committee itself, are faced today with complicated ethical dilemmas, that frequently have to be solved in the atmosphere of considerable social, collegiate, economical, and time pressures, and sometimes without helpful guidance of appropriate legislation. An interesting possibility of how to overcome some of the pitfalls of the ethics review process is to express a common ethical responsibility for the research project or trial protocol in a statement of most (or all) parties involved (such as the principal investigator, sponsor, ethics committee, the patient, "society'). Such an approach has proven helpful in enhancing concrete deliberations of ethics committees-established in Slovakia since 1991 according to the requirements of the national guidelines issued by the Slovak Ministry of Health. PMID:8953810
Bertocchi, Marida; Ziemba, William T.
A straightforward guide focused on life cycle investing-namely aging, retirement, and pensions Life cycle investing and the implications of aging, retirement, and pensions continues to grow in importance. With people living longer, the relative and absolute number of retirees is growing while the number of workers contributing to pension funds is declining. This reliable resource develops a detailed economic analysis-at the micro (individual) and macro (economy wide) levels-which addresses issues regarding the economics of an aging population. Topics touched upon include retirement and the associated health care funding of the aged as well as social security and the asset classes that are considered asset-liability choices over time. The probability of achieving adequate return patterns from various investment strategies and asset classes is reviewed Shares rich insights on the aging, retirement, and pensions dilemma An assessment of the resources the real economy will be able to commit to non-workers is prov...
Full Text Available Ethics is concerned with the suffering humans cause one another and the related capacity of humans to recognize and address this suffering through the empathetic virtues of sympathy, compassion, and caring (Roberts, 1996. Much suffering throughout history can be related to the problem of "unacceptable" diversity among individuals or groups. Remembering the cruelties of the Nazi exterminations of Jews, slavery in the United States, and discrimination against homosexuals jolts us to awareness of the suffering of those who are "different." A task of ethics, then, is to include, rather than exclude (Post, 1995. One approach to an ethics of diversity for healthcare professionals is a call for intimate listening to the stories of those who are different, who may be unseen, marginalized, and excluded in our health care systems.
The hypothesis that injunctive and descriptive norms interact positively or synergistically to promote cooperation in social dilemmas is tested in the context of a survey study focusing on environmentally responsible behaviour. Measurement error and strong and positive correlations between the two types of normative beliefs make it difficult to test the interaction hypothesis. By using structural equation modelling with residual centering these problems are overcome and the interaction hypothesi...
Full Text Available The yellow light dilemma zone is widely known as an area on the high-speed intersection approach, where vehicles neither safely stop before the stop line nor proceed through the intersection during amber interval. Within such an area, a vehicle might be involved in a right-angle crash or rear-end collision. This issue has been extensively discussed over five decades in traffic engineering field, covering from theory to practice. However, few comprehensive review literatures on the amber signal dilemma zone problems can be found. The objective of this paper is to summarize the evolution of yellow light dilemma zone researches. Basic definition and boundary of dilemma zone followed by driver behavior and dilemma zone hazard measurement are depicted. At last, the future directions of yellow light dilemma zone research are discussed.
Biel, Anders; Thøgersen, John
Taking rational choice theory for granted, cooperation in social dilemmas may be seen as mysterious. In one-shot dilemmas where subjects unknown to one another interact and make their decisions anonymously, cooperation could even be regarded as lunacy. Several authors have challenged this view, though. Research has also identiWed various factors that imply why people cooperate or defect in social dilemmas and what motivations that might guide the decision in one way or the other. Here, a closer ...
The conference was convened to present a role that America's schools could play in solving or coping with the energy crisis. Eleven sessions were conducted to fulfill this concern: Our Energy Crisis and Education: A Critical Assessment; The Energy Agenda at the Office of Education; Energy Resources: Scenarios for the Future; The Moral Dilemma of Energy Education; Constraints Influencing Education's Role; Energy Education: What's Been Done to Date; Practitioners Discuss Their Future Roles, Responsibilities; Politics of Energy Education; Confronting the Energy Dilemma; The Meaning of Scarcity; and The Impact of the Carter Energy Program on American Schools. Summary reports and reactions to the conference conclude the proceedings. (MCW)
The unprecedented progress in biomedical sciences and technology during the last few decades has resulted in great transformations in the concepts of health and disease, health systems and healthcare organization and practices. Those changes have been accompanied by the emergence of a broad range of ethical dilemmas that confront the health professionals more frequently in an increasing range of problems and situations. Health care that has been practiced for centuries on the basis of a direct doctor-patient relationship has been increasingly transformed to a more complex process integrating the health-team, the patient (healthcare seeker) and the community. Systematic review of the specialized literature revealed that Healthcare Ethics Education became a basic requirement for any training program for health professionals, and should cover the different stages of undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing education. Both theoretical foundations and practical skills are required for the appropriate ethical reasoning, ethical attitude and decision-making. There is growing evidence that physicians' professional and moral development is not determined by the formal curriculum of ethics, rather more, it is determined by the moral environment of the professional practice, the "hidden curriculum" which deserves serious consideration by medical educators. PMID:17190127
Harrison, S. L.
A return to excellence and ethics can end the bashing of the press and earn it respect. H. L. Mencken was an outstanding press-basher. One problem he identified is that journalists see themselves as professionals, when they are no more than "hired hands" unable to control admission to the craft. A solution Mencken offered was to improve schools of
CJ Ng; Liew SM
In the past six months, this Journal has received several manuscripts that violated publication ethics. One paper was submitted to another journal concurrently (duplicate submission) while another reported data that overlapped substantially with a paper published by the same author previously (redundant publication).
This article explores some of the ethical and epistemological dilemmas that arose from a cross-national research project on lesbian motherhood in two European countries, Sweden and Ireland. The differing contexts for sexual citizenship presented particular challenges in relation to negotiating wider norms regarding visibility. Lesbian mothers in Sweden presented a discourse of openness that strongly advocated visibility and the importance of social research in contributing to social change. In contrast to their Swedish counterparts, lesbian mothers in Ireland were more constrained in their efforts to negotiate their claims via visibility and this led to complex choices for the researcher, particularly in relation to contact with popular media. PMID:19363766
Kreander, Niklas; Beattie, Vivien; McPhail, Ken
This paper investigates the ethical investment policies of leading UK charities. It is estimated that UK charities in 2004 had £79 billion in assets of which £44 billion were invested (NCVO, 2006), with further growth in both influence and size predicted (SustainAbility, 2003). Yet we know of no published academic research in the UK or Norway which focuses on charity ethical investment. Using various methods, we have investigated charity ethical investment policies and how these policies...
Steven John Simon
In the last five years, remote selling-led by online organizations - has surged. The resulting growth has created concern among both traditional and remote sellers as they jockey for improved competitive position and governmental entities, in particular US states, over the erosion of their tax revenues as sales are diverted to remote sellers. This paper explores the issues and potential solutions surrounding the e-commerce tax dilemma. It provides a current assessment of the taxation environm...
Søndergaard, Dorte Marie
Based on a conceptualization of bullying and relational aggression in groups as an effect of social dynamics rather than individual deficits this article reflects upon some of the intricate mechanisms and dilemmas involved in victim positioning. Victims of bullying and relational aggression often deny their vulnerability in spite of obvious marginalization. This may be understood as a reaction to the inertia embedded in the ambivalence of claiming social legitimacy, while simultaneous opposing...
Gandhi Priya; Gadit Amin Muhammad
Abstract Background A 52-year old lady presented for admission with severe depression characterised by suicidal ideation and delusional belief. Case presentation Her treatment regime was reviewed and modified. The dilemma was whether she suffered from a psychotic depression with delusion or an obsessional disorder. She responded well to change of antipsychotic medication. Conclusions Her depression went in remission and her delusional belief decreased in intensity. She also gained reasonable ...
In this paper, we argue that there are foundational dilemmas in theoretical physics related to the concept of reality and the nature of mathematics in physics. Physical theory is treated as a conceptual organism which develops under the weight of its internal contradictions. The paper discusses in depth the problem of objective reality in physics and its relation to scientific practice. Then, it explores the problematic relation between physical meaning and mathematics in mo...
Robert Cooper; Garry Frank; Cherry Shogren
With the nursing profession continuing to face an array of ethical issues, the article reports the findings of a survey of members of the American Organization of Nurse Executives conducted in 2012 to determine the extent to which nurse leaders at different organization levels perceive various factors in their personal, professional and organizational environments to be helpful in resolving ethical dilemmas. After their personal values, nurse leaders perceive factors related to their organiza...
Sommer, Christina; Boos, Margarete; Conradi, Elisabeth; Biller-Adorno, Nikola; Wiesemann, Claudia
objectives: To gather empirical data on how gender and educational level inSuence bioethical reasoning among medical students by analysing their use of care versus justice arguments for reconciling a bioethical dilemma. setting: University Departments of Medical Ethics, Social and Communication Psychology in Germany. Participants: First and Rh year medical students. Design and method: Multidisciplinary, empirical, 2-segment study of ethics in action: In intrapersonal Seg...
Howard E. McNier
Globalization of business has increasingly involved American attorneys in an ethical dilemma which is not just academic, but may result in disciplinary action against the attorney. What is counsel to do when it is discovered that overseas employment practices (legal in the foreign country) violate American law? May counsel, citing current case law, ethically advise management that discharge of a troublesome employee may be effected "legally" by simply transferring the employee overseas, then ...
A C Botes; Otto, M.
The occupational health-nursing practitioner often becomes involved in ethical dilemmas with regard to the handling of HIV-positive people in the workplace in that the interests of the HIV-positive people conflict with the interests of the employer.
Die beroepsgesondheidsverpleegkundige raak dikwels in etiese dilemmas betrokke ten opsigte van die hantering van die MIV-positiewe persoon by die werkplek deurdat die belange van die MIV-positiewe pers...
Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Christiansen, Anne Hjøllund; Petersson, Birgit
BACKGROUND: The introduction of prenatal screening for all pregnant women in Denmark in 2004 has lead to an increase in the number of late terminations of pregnancy after the 12th week of pregnancy. Midwives' experiences with late termination of pregnancy (TOP) are still poorly described in the scientific literature. AIM: To explore Danish midwives' experiences with and attitudes towards late TOP. Focus was on how midwives perceive their own role in late TOP, and how their professional identity ...
In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity. Â Taking ethical decisions can often be a dilemma - one that requires recognition and proper representation of multiple pieces of complex information, as well as an intuitive judgment about potential consequences. Pressure is particularly placed on organizational leaders, who are tasked with projects, partnerships and individuals. Constraining forces - be they personal, situational or environmental - can negatively influence any decision by decreasing ethical awareness, ethical sensitivity and ethical judgment. By creating mental compensatory models, the Sensemaking* technique serves to counteract these constraining forces that narrow theÂ search and evaluation of&nbs...
Due to the rapid advances in medical technology, medical students are now being faced with increasingly complex and unparalleled ethical and practical dilemmas during their training. The new and future challenges of high-tech medicine demand improvements in current medical education, not only by meeting the needs of students through humanized training programs, but also by involving them in finding solutions to the ethical and legal quandaries they encounter. Today's students of medical universities must acquire knowledge and understanding of the ethical and legal issues relevant to the practice of medicine, and we have to do everything possible to introduce these students to the current discussions on more or less controversial ethical and legal topics. Although final answers may not be found, the very discussion, argumentation, and awakening of students' interest should become an essential part of the core curriculum of every doctor. PMID:15727002
The mass media function both as reflector and a shaper of a society's attitudes and values and as such represent a forum within which one may understand and influence public opinion. While questions of medical ethics may be largely confined to academic and scientific spaces, their importance to society at large cannot be denied, and how issues of medical ethics play out--if at all--in the media could tell us how society understands and processes these questions. This paper uses the techniques of framing analysis and textual analysis to examine how the print media, represented by two major Indian newspapers, cover medical ethics. The study looked at all articles related to medical research over a three-month period (January-March 2007) and considered how the story was framed, what were the key threads followed, and the dominant themes focused on. The ethical frame is notable by its absence, even in articles related to controversial themes such as drug research and genetics. Discussion of ethics appears to be problematic given the adherence to traditional "news values" when covering science and medicine. The research community and the media need to pay more attention to explicitly focusing on ethics in their interactions. PMID:19241950
Hugo, Fernández de Castro-Peredo.
Full Text Available Desde el siglo XX la humanidad está asediada por violencia, crisis del estado de derecho e impunidad, circunstancias que se extendieron al profesional de la salud: crisis de la ética moral médica. Objetivo: Aparte del registro de casos clínicos y dilemas ético-morales en el siglo XIX, investigar tes [...] timonios histórico médicos y de ética, moral, etiqueta y educación médicas en la literatura decimonónica, considerándola también resguardo fidedigno de ellos. Procedimiento histórico-analítico: Casos de autonomía, beneficencia, justicia, no maleficencia y solidaridad en 122 obras literarias (84 autores, 20 países) decimonónicas, elegidas -según analistas reconocidos- porque muestran coincidencia y trascendencia de objetos de la vida real con objetos representados literariamente, tomándose para este artículo Axel Munthe y su Historia de San Michele. Hallazgos: Se identificaron -agrupándose en cuadros analítico estadísticos- fragmentos literarios sobre impronta científica técnica, ejercicio profesional, relación galeno paciente, casos clínicos, dilemas ético morales, etiqueta y educación médicas, confirmándose que la dimensión médica más valiosa tiene raíces, tronco y fronda humanistas. Conclusiones: Innovación aportada: enfocada histórica, médica y bioéticamente, la obra literaria pudiera ser otra vía analítica reflexiva para que el médico lector esteta del siglo XXI, recuperando los objetos reales representados, escogiera la senda de su superación e hiciera crecer su éthos y su contribución al bien común. Abstract in english Since the last century, humanity has been besieged by violence, crisis of the state of law and impunity, everything extended to crisis of medical ethics moral. Objective: In addition to clinic cases and ethics and moral dilemmas in the nineteenth century, to investigate for testimonies of the histor [...] y of medicine and medical ethics, moral, etiquette and education in the nineteenth century literature, considering this a trustworthy archive of them. Analytic-historical proceeding: Cases of autonomy, beneficence, justice, nonmaleficence and solidarity in 122 nineteenth century literary masterpieces (84 authors, 20 countries), selected -according to prestigious scholars-because they show coincidence and transcendence of real life objects with literary represented objects, taking for this article just Axel Munthe s Story of San Michele. Finds: Grouped in statistical analytic tables literary paragraphs about technical scientific matters, professional exercise, medical patient relation, clinic cases, moral ethics dilemmas and medical etiquette and education were identified corroborating that the more worthy medical dimension has humanistic roots. Conclusions: Innovating contribution: focused through the lens of the medicine history and bioethics, literary masterpieces might be the reflexive analytical way for the twenty-first century physician/reader, to recover the real objects represented, to choose his excelling path and to increase his éthos and contribution to the common welfare.
Lennon, Sean M.
Pre-service teachers and education students in three different classes (N = 53) were directed to read a short story by Mark Twain titled "Heaven or Hell?" written within a compilation of short stories late in his career. The story, "Heaven or Hell?" illustrates a koan, or an unanswerable moral or ethical dilemma. The students, after finishing theâ¦
Olsson, I. Anna S.; Varga, Orsolya
Animal-based research presents an ethical dilemma between harms (to animals) and benefits (mainly to humans). According to Directive 2010/63/EU, project evaluation should include a harm-benefit analysis of the project, to assess whether the harm to the animals in terms of suffering, pain and distress is justified by the expected outcome. By defining benefit and its assessment very generally, legislation opens for a variety of interpretations. In this paper, we review different approaches, consider potential disagreements and highlight the need for a wider discussion of the role of the harm-benefit analysis in ethics review.
Research Question (RQ): Future managers are faced daily with a variety of ethical dilemmas in traffic that need to be balanced by the interests of all participants. The question is whether a new innovative model of ethical principles could be developed that would increase road safety.Purpose: The a im is to raise the level of social responsibility and relationship of participants in traffic as well as warn all participants on the importance of safety. In addition, the purpose is to share sugg...
Full Text Available After almost 20 years of researching, teaching and consulting in business and organisational ethics, this emerging field seems to be facing an organisational dilemma. Who should manage the ethics and integrity systems that are slowly being adopted by Australian firms?During consulting engagements with numerous Australian businesses it has become clear that the task of managing ethics and integrity systems, i.e. creation of codes of ethics, ethics committees, information programs, conducting of audits, etc, more often than not seems to be delegated to Human Resources Managers and their Departments. This trend appears to be unique to the Australian setting and contrary to the US where Ethics Officers and Compliance Officers assume this role.The purpose of this paper is to consider the question of who is appropriate to manage the ethics function in the Australian context. A literature review will examine the concept of professionalism and what characteristics and duties qualifies an occupation as a profession. In particular it will identify the role of knowledge and the existence of an organisation or association that regulates and licences the individual to operate as a professional. It will then identify the roles, responsibilities and characteristics of ethics officers so as to determine the knowledge required to undertake this task in an organisation setting.Given the predisposition to delegate this function to Human Resources practitioners in Australian Organisations, a review of formal Postgraduate Human Resources programs at the major Australian Universities will be undertaken. The objective of this task is to determine whether such programs contain any specific ethics content, in particular the creation of codes of ethics, codes of conduct, ethics training and the conducting of ethics audits. This will establish whether Australian Human Resource professions are sufficiently equipped with the knowledge and capabilities required to undertake this function through their formal education.
Biogerontology is sometimes viewed as similar to other forms of biomedical research in that it seeks to understand and treat a pathological process. Yet the prospect of treating ageing is extraordinary in terms of the profound changes to the human condition that would result. Recent advances in biogerontology allow a clearer view of the ethical issues and dilemmas that confront humanity with respect to treating ageing. For example, they imply that organismal senescence is a disease process wi...
M. Sanjari; Zahedi, F; Larijani, B.
"nNursing is a universal health care necessity. Nursing profession, similar to the other medical professions, is responsible to maintain public health promotion, prevent diseases, and also care and rehabilitate client, family and the soci¬ety. The inher-ent nature of nursing is respect for moral values and human rights. However, clinical ethical dilem¬mas occur for nurses at all levels, not always concerning patients. Although this is the primary area of concern, it is re...
This paper presents a strong criticism of the current enthusiasm for clinical randomised prospective studies in surgery. In the process, the author probes the 'intellectualism' or lack thereof in present day surgical attitudes. The subjects are examined against a framework of ethics and inescapable dilemmas. Ways of correcting the more obvious weaknesses are suggested. The manuscript is, and is meant to be, provocative and is particularly aimed at the academic audience served by this journal.
Changing attitudes toward human experimentation along with other controversial moral issues emerged after the Second World War and, in 1963, led to the London Medical Group, organized by Ted Shotter, with similar Medical Groups emerging elsewhere from 1967. These became forums for discussion and debate arising from dilemmas encountered in medical settings. Medical ethics did not become a recognized subject in the syllabus of Britain's medical schools until 1993. This Witness Seminar transcrip...
Nuclear weapons pose a combination of political and ethical dilemmas the solution to which has not been found. On one hand, in the view of both US government leaders and US allies, nuclear deterrence continues to play an essential part in the US role as the ultimate source of military strength for the alliances among the major democratic countries. It also continues to be in demand by countries that believe themselves to be isolated and threatened. On the other hand, nuclear weapons, besides being effective deterrents, can cause unprecedented loss of life and risk the demise of civilizations. No ban or technical precaution could prevent the rebuilding of nuclear weapons in a crisis. No diplomatic arrangement to date has erased the threat of invasion and war in the world. Only the abandonment of war and the threat of war as instruments of policy can make nuclear weapons obsolete. The slow, halting, risky road to that end remains the only hope for a world in which lasting solutions to the nuclear dilemmas are possible.
Full Text Available This study aims to contribute to research in business ethics application, by studying one of the contemporary instruments of applying business ethics. The research focuses on Islamic business ethics in comparison to Christian business ethics and discusses its application using a comparative perspective. First, this chapter aims to address the Islamic understanding of what ethics means? What is the relationship between ethics, human nature and religion in Islam? While providing an introductory analysis on Islamic ethical standards, the chapter highlights first (1 the business ethical values and principles of Islamic ethics, second (2 the business ethical values and principles of Turkish Islamic ethics, third (3, the business ethical values and principles of Christian Romanian ethics.
Ilka Nicéia DAquino Oliveira Teixeira
Full Text Available Objective: To identify the most prevalent nursing ethical issues published in scientific Brazilian journals. Methods: A systematic literature review with the following inclusion criteria: (1 articles on Nursing Ethics written in Portuguese, English, French, and Spanish; (2 published in Brazilian journals; (3 in the period from January 1997 to February 2009. The search was carried out in four databases BDENF, LILACS, MEDLINE, and SCIELO. The key-words were ethics AND nursing. The selected studies were classified into categories. The content of the articles were analyzed using the Collective Subject Discourse. The categories generated discourses by organizing the main excerpts from the abstracts of the selected studies, which are the key expressions. Results: A hundred and thirty three articles that met the inclusion criteria were classified into eight categories: 1. Nursing Care; 2. Dilemmas and Controversies; 3. Education; 4. Legal Aspects; 5. Research; 6. Management; 7. Values and Beliefs; 8. Perspectives and Health Policies. The category Nursing Care prevailed in 36% of the selected articles, and it was classified into six subcategories. Dilemmas and Controversies was the second most prevalent category (15%. Conclusion: The number of theoretical papers on ethical issues is high, but there is little research on the ethical experiences in nursing practice.
Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle
The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe
Hatice Güçlü Nergiz
Full Text Available This study aims at evaluating the ethical approaches effective for managers working at hotel business when making decisions. Ethics, in the working place, refers to the rules of the workplace that an employee has to comply with, along with the rules of society. In the study, the concept of ethics has been examined within theories of ethics, followed by a conceptual framework of making ethical decisions. The scope of the study consists of interviews conducted with 60 managers working in a chain hotel. The interview consists of 5 different scenarios relating to ethical dilemmas. The scenarios are composed of three different ethics approaches (moral justice approach, subjective approach and contract -based theoretical approach. In the analysis of the data, the Manova Analysis was carried out. The results suggest that managers prefer the contract -based theoretical approach more frequently in decision making. It was also found that managers differ in their choice of ethical approaches in terms of the scenarios. This difference is caused by subjective approaches which are used when dealing with problems related to socio-cultural and institutional reputation and ecology.
This article extends Simpson's (2003) research on sex differences in social dilemmas. To test the hypotheses that men defect in response to greed and women to fear, Simpson created Fear and Greed Dilemmas, but experiments using these games supported the greed hypothesis only. In this article I focus on why the fear hypothesis failed and suggestâ¦
Moreno Lax, Alejandro
Three ethics exist as a condition of possibility of any possible ethics, following a material and biological foundation. This content argument (not logical-formal) supposes a refutation of the naturalistic fallacy that the analytical philosophy attributes to Hume, in three areas of the ethical human experience: body, society and nature. These are: the ethics of the species [J. Habermas], the ethics of liberation [E. Dussel] and the ethics of the responsibility [H. Jonas]. This material argument is a philosophical foundation to considering for three types of applied ethics: medical bioethics, development ethics and environmental ethics. PMID:20405971
Ethical issues at the interface between the medical profession and the pharmaceutical industry have generally been approached from the vantage point of medical professionalism, with a focus on conflict of interest as the key ethical concern. Although conflicts of interest remain important, other ethical issues may be obscured unless a wider perspective is adopted. Besides medical professionalism, the ethics of the clinical therapeutic relationship, ethics of public health, and business ethics all provide additional insights. PMID:23047778
The landlord/tenant dilemma arises when the interests of landlords and tenants misalign and is one of the greatest barriers hindering the development of sustainable renovation of residential buildings in Europe. The aim of this research is to investigate how regulatory changes and contractual solutions can help solve the landlord/tenant dilemma in relation to sustainable renovation of residential buildings, and how the general awareness of sustainable renovation can be increased. Particular focus is on whether tools like energy performance contracting and energy labeling can help solve the landlord/tenant dilemma. The research was done in relation to the specific situation in Denmark, but theory, information and experiences from other countries were included. The results show that there are plenty of opportunities to overcome the landlord/tenant dilemma, but principal/agent problems can only be overcome with a package solution. In the Danish national context the package solution must consist of legislative changes, financial incentives and better dissemination of information. Therefore, an array of different tools must be integrated and used in cooperation to overcome the dilemma. - Highlights: â¢ There are plenty of opportunities to overcome the landlord/tenant dilemma. â¢ The principal/agent problems can only be overcome with a package solution. â¢ An array of different tools must be integrated and used in cooperation. â¢ Legislative changes, financial incentives and better dissemination of information
Kotzampassi, Katerina; Shrewsbury, Anne D
The development of the intragastic balloon as a safe, noninvasive, alternative method to weight reduction raises all the ethical questions routinely faced by practitioners of other forms of cosmetic surgery. In the case of the morbidly, severely or merely obese, the surgeon is faced with a medical decision in a situation defined by medical parameters. The case of the overweight or normal may, however, create an ethical dilemma in which the doctor is forced to make decisions of a nonmedical nature, for which his training has not prepared him, and relating essentially to his personal attitudes and moral beliefs, culture and the recognition that 'if I don't, somebody else--possibly less competent--will'. PMID:18600015
Rappaport, Z H
In 16th Century Prague, Rabbi Loew created a Golem, a humanoid made of clay, to protect his community. When the Golem became too dangerous to his surroundings, he was dismantled. This Jewish theme illustrates some of the guiding principles in its approach to the moral dilemmas inherent in future technologies, such as artificial intelligence and robotics. Man is viewed as having received the power to improve upon creation and develop technologies to achieve them, with the proviso that appropriate safeguards are taken. Ethically, not-harming is viewed as taking precedence over promoting good. Jewish ethical thinking approaches these novel technological possibilities with a cautious optimism that mankind will derive their benefits without coming to harm. PMID:17009695
Lepping Peter; Carson Alexander M
Abstract Psychiatric practice is often faced with complex situations that seem to pose serious moral dilemmas for practitioners. Methods for solving these dilemmas have included the development of more objective rules to guide the practitioner such as utilitarianism and deontology. A more modern variant on this objective model has been 'Principlism' where 4 mid level rules are used to help solve these complex problems. In opposition to this, there has recently been a focus on more subjective ...
This article offers a discussion of the connection between technology and values and, specifically, I take a closer look at ethically sound design. In order to bring the discussion into a concrete context, the theory of Value Sensitive Design (VSD) will be the focus point. To illustrate my argument...... concerning design ethics, the discussion involves a case study of an augmented window, designed by the VSD Research Lab, which has turned out to be a potentially surveillance-enabling technology. I call attention to a "positivist problem" that has to do with the connection between the design context and the...... design theory must accept that foresight is limited to anticipation rather than prediction. To overcome the positivist problem, I suggest a phenomenological approach to technology inspired by Don Ihde's concept of multistability. This argument, which is general in nature and thus applies to any theory of...
Many of the decisions made by policy makers today may affect not only the people belonging to the present generation, but can have long-term effects that reach far into the future and thus significantly affect the life of future generations. The social rate of discount, which is the way that future consequences often are evaluated in present-day decision-making, unavoidably raises difficult issues of inter-generational justice. Greenhouse gas emissions caused by the use of non-renewable energy sources like oil and natural gas is an obvious example involving both economical and ethical concerns. The discussion in this paper is further motivated by the increasing demand for energy and the fact that more and more of the energy sources needed to fulfill this demand seem to be located in environmentally vulnerable areas. Norwegian authorities are faced with such a dilemma when considering whether to increase the petroleum activity in the Barents Sea. The concern is that such activity may cause irreversible environmental damages to the Barents Sea area. Furthermore, the petroleum resources are non-renewable meaning that for each unit of oil and gas produced today there will be one unit less left in the ground for future generations, leading to a debate about income distribution between generations. This paper focuses on some of the economic and philosophical arguments surrounding the debate about how social decision makers of the present generations should value the consequences their decisions may have on future generations (author) (ml)
Downie, R S
Downie comments on Sieghart's article, "Professions as the conscience of society" (Journal of Medical Ethics 1985 Sep; 11(3): 117-122). He charges that Sieghart is blurring empirical, conceptual, and moral claims when he contends that the professional relationship is unique in that "altruism is paramount and self-interest has no place." Downie holds that there is nothing to distinguish the doctor or lawyer from other occupations in terms of the criteria of self-interest and altruism. Likewise, these occupations have no nobler cause than those of the farmer or merchant. Because it is difficult, if not impossible, to provide necessary and sufficient criteria for defining a profession, the idea of a special "professional ethics" is a pernicious one that serves to protect professionals from public scrutiny. Sieghart briefly defends his earlier article, pointing out that it was addressed to practicing doctors and lawyers rather than to moral philosophers. PMID:3735360
Full Text Available Discute-se a emergência de dilemas morais nas práticas de saúde, tendo em vista a acelerada transição demográfica nos países em desenvolvimento e os crescentes custos dos sistemas públicos de saúde. São focalizadas duas dimensões do cuidado à saúde que têm ocupado um lugar importante na geração dess [...] es dilemas: a tensão entre as estratégias comerciais que contornam o mercado de produtos de saúde e a expansão do acesso a esses produtos, por um lado, e o aumento da importância das tecnociências nas práticas de cuidado à saúde, por outro. Em conclusão, é discutida a importância da arbitragem política, social e jurídica na codificação ética desses dilemas e o papel do Estado Democrático de Direito nessa arbitragem. Abstract in spanish El texto discute la emergencia de dilemas morales en las prácticas de salud, teniendo en cuenta la acelerada transición demográfica en los países en desarrollo y los crecientes costos de los sistemas públicos de salud. Se hace énfasis en dos dimensiones del cuidado de la salud que han ocupado un lug [...] ar importante en la generación de tales dilemas. La tensión entre las estrategias comerciales que contornan el mercado de productos de salud y la expansión del acceso a dichos productos, por un lado, y el aumento de la importancia de las tecnociencias en las prácticas de cuidado de la salud, por el otro. En conclusión, se discute la importancia del arbitraje político, social y jurídico en la codificación ética de los dilemas y el papel del Estado Democrático de Derecho en el arbitraje. Abstract in english The emergence of moral dilemmas in health care practices, in view of the rapid demographic transition in developing countries, and skyrocketing public health care costs, is discussed. The focus is on two aspects of health care that have occupied an important place in the generation of these dilemmas [...] . On the one hand, the tension between commercial strategies involving the health products market and the expansion of access to them and, on the other, the growth of techno-sciences in health care practices. In conclusion, the importance of the political, social and juridical arbitration on the ethical codifi cation of those dilemmas and the role of a Democratic State of Law in that arbitration is discussed.
King, Jason H.; Anderson, Shannon M.
The use of psychotropic medications (pharmacotherapy) in conjunction with psychotherapy is regarded as the standard of care for many mental health disorders. Counselors, therefore, need to be knowledgeable about psychopharmacology to monitor its impact on the therapeutic relationship and on client outcome. Discussed are potential ethical dilemmas
Israel, Howard A.
The discovery of the Nazi origins of the classic Pernkopf anatomy atlas is one example of scientific information obtained by doctors who violated the Hippocratic Oath. The ethical dilemmas that doctors and medical centers face as a result of this and other potentially tainted data is reviewed. (Author/AEF)
Martinez, Melissa A.
Inspired by real-life events, this case describes the dilemma of a novice assistant principal who must balance her role as an administrator at her high school campus where a cousin's son, Eddie, recently enrolled and is proving to be disruptive the first month of school. Troubled by questions of ethics and loyalty, the issue is complicated
Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter
This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possibl...
a series of letters. The group consisted of the project leader, the sections head, and five staff members. The staff members went through the letters that they send out to citizens in order to edit them to plain language principles. I followed the process from beginning to end by observing meetings......, interviewing central participants in the pilot project, and by carrying out a small questionnaire based survey and a series of interviews with members of the letters target group. One of the most prevalent challenges addressed by the group was how to make sure to address legal matters properly. In my...... presentation, I will focus on how the group included legal matters in the new letters, and how the pilot project group involved legal advice in their considerations. I will also discuss how and when to introduce legal advice in the letter editing process, drawing on the experiences of the group members as...
Delany, Clare M; Edwards, Ian; Jensen, Gail M; Skinner, Elizabeth
Physical therapist practice has a distinct focus that is holistic (ie, patient centered) and at the same time connected to a range of other providers within health care systems. Although there is a growing body of literature in physical therapy ethics knowledge, including clinical obligations and underlying philosophical principles, less is known about the unique ethical issues that physical therapists encounter, and how and why they make ethical decisions. As moral agents, physical therapists are required to make autonomous clinical and ethical decisions based on connections and relationships with their patients, other health care team members, and health institutions and policies. This article identifies specific ethical dimensions of physical therapist practice and highlights the development and focus of ethics knowledge in physical therapy over the last several decades. An applied ethics model, called the "active engagement model," is proposed to integrate clinical and ethical dimensions of practice with the theoretical knowledge and literature about ethics. The active engagement model has 3 practical steps: to listen actively, to think reflexively, and to reason critically. The model focuses on the underlying skills, attitudes, and actions that are required to build a sense of moral agency and purpose within physical therapist practice and to decrease gaps between the ethical dimensions of physical therapist practice and physical therapy ethics knowledge and scholarship. A clinical case study is provided to illustrate how the ethics engagement model might be used to analyze and provide insight into the ethical dimensions of physical therapist practice. PMID:20448105
Miller, Megan E; Siegler, Mark; Angelos, Peter
Innovation is responsible for most advances in the field of surgery. Innovative approaches to solving clinical problems have significantly decreased morbidity and mortality for many surgical procedures, and have led to improved patient outcomes. While innovation is motivated by the surgeon's expectation that the new approach will be beneficial to patients, not all innovations are successful or result in improved patient care. The ethical dilemma of surgical innovation lies in the uncertainty of whether a particular innovation will prove to be a "good thing." This uncertainty creates challenges for surgeons, patients, and the healthcare system. By its very nature, innovation introduces a potential risk to patient safety, a risk that may not be fully known, and it simultaneously fosters an optimism bias. These factors increase the complexity of informed consent and shared decision making for the surgeon and the patient. Innovative procedures and their associated technology raise issues of cost and resource distribution in the contemporary, financially conscious, healthcare environment. Surgeons and institutions must identify and address conflicts of interest created by the development and application of an innovation, always preserving the best interest of the patient above the academic or financial rewards of success. Potential strategies to address the challenges inherent in surgical innovation include collecting and reporting objective outcomes data, enhancing the informed consent process, and adhering to the principles of disclosure and professionalism. As surgeons, we must encourage creativity and innovation while maintaining our ethical awareness and responsibility to patients. PMID:24728580
American Psychologist, 2002
Describes the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, focusing on introduction and applicability; preamble; general principles; and ethical standards (resolving ethical issues, competence, human relations, privacy and confidentiality, advertising and other public statements, record keeping and
Guyette, Roger; Piotrowski, Chris
Business ethics is presently a major component of the business school curriculum. Although there has been much attention focused on the impact of such coursework on instilling ethical decision-making (Nguyen et al., 2008), there is sparse research on how business students view the major ethical principles that serve as the foundation of business
Contemporary stroke care is diverse, contributing to complex ethical dilemmas and controversies. In Greece, continuing austerity measures and an ageing population are expected to increase the burden of stroke on health care delivery. We sought to explore ethical views and stances of health care professionals caring for stroke patients in Greece. Forms of discrimination against elderly hospitalized patients were also addressed. A qualitative design was adopted whereby an informal focus group interview and follow-up, face-to-face individual interviews were undertaken. The sample consisted of 12 nurses working in clinical areas with stroke patients. Their mean age was 31 years with a mean work experience of 10 years. Individual discussions were audio taped after subject consent and were transcribed verbatim subsequently for keywords-in-context analysis. Analysis of the focus interview revealed several recurring themes, namely, ward destination, admission policies, the concepts of age as related to stroke. Individual interviews highlighted several other topics, such as preferences for specific types of patients, communication capacity of the patient's condition, and his or her individual characteristics as a favoring or limiting factors, and challenges to age-related criteria for treatment. There is an age-related criteria of 65 years for ward destination after stroke as set by a ministerial decree, which is still practiced. Moreover, younger stroke patients may be offered more thorough assessments and clinical tests and therapies. Discrepancies in the level of care pose an ethical concern regarding levels of care for older stroke patients in Greece. A longstanding, age-related national policy in Greece regarding hospital admission criteria is shown to be a detrimental influence on ward admission for stroke patients. This policy, coupled with prehospital care protocols, was shown to promote ageism against this patient group. The age-related agenda in the Greek health care system has suffused care delivery with pockets of discrimination. PMID:26567052
Storch, Janet; Curry, Cherie Geering; Stevenson, Lynn; Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella
Home support workers (HSWs) encounter unique safety issues in their provision of home care. These issues raise ethical concerns, affecting the care workers provide to seniors and other recipients. This paper is derived from a subproject of a larger Canada-wide study, Safety at Home: A Pan-Canadian Home Care Safety Study, released in June 2013 by the Canadian Patient Safety Institute. Semi-structured, face-to-face, audiotaped interviews were conducted with providers, clients and informal caregivers in British Columbia, Manitoba and New Brunswick to better understand their perceptions of patient safety in home care. Using the BC data only, we then compared our findings to findings of other BC studies focusing on safety in home care that were conducted over the past decade. Through our interviews and comparative analyses it became clear that HSWs experienced significant inequities in providing home care. Utilizing a model depicting concerns of and for HSWs developed by Craven and colleagues (2012), we were able to illustrate the physical, spatial, interpersonal and temporal concerns set in the context of system design that emphasized the ethical dilemmas of HSWs in home care. Our data suggested the necessity of adding a fifth domain, organizational (system design). In this paper, we issue a call for stronger advocacy for home care and improved collaboration and resource equity between institutional care and community care. PMID:24809426
Full Text Available The planners often forget fundamental, unsolved dilemmas of their profession due to the everyday request and needs, and because those huge problems have permanent nature and they are consequently rarely considered as a main issue. The dichotomy between planning on the one and (neo liberalism and market mechanisms on the other hand, together with the similar relations between economic development and spatial development and protection of space are always shaping spatial planning. The aim of this paper is to reconsider all those basic questions within the frame of current economic, social and political circumstances the trends.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A 52-year old lady presented for admission with severe depression characterised by suicidal ideation and delusional belief. Case presentation Her treatment regime was reviewed and modified. The dilemma was whether she suffered from a psychotic depression with delusion or an obsessional disorder. She responded well to change of antipsychotic medication. Conclusions Her depression went in remission and her delusional belief decreased in intensity. She also gained reasonable insight into her problem. She is currently being followed up in the psychiatric outpatient clinic.
Chin, Jacqueline Joon Lin.
?This dissertation considers the possibility of there being such a thing as ethical authority in the modern world, and seeks to give an account of its nature. It begins by expressing a critical stance toward the idea that authority is always dependent upon having a certain kind of theoretical expertise. It raises the suggestion that there are other forms of authoritativeness, based on tradition, the display of superior skill, or impressive discriminative/perceptual powers. The ...
Arvidsson, Adam Erik
In recent decades managerial discourse and actual business practice has paid increasing attention to ethics. What was chiefly an academic discussion about business ethics has grown into a virtual 'ethics industry' (Hyatt, 2005), and has been supplanted by a growing focus on corporate social responsibility and a booming consumer demand for ethical or 'fair' goods. Critical observers, myself included, have tended to dismiss this focus on ethics as little more than a cynical response...
A discussion of two contrasting views on the nature and purpose of ethics: the 'unifying' ethics of the Neoplatonic Pagan philosopher Plotinus (204/5-270 CE) as opposed to the 'relational' ethics of the Judeo-Christian tradition.......A discussion of two contrasting views on the nature and purpose of ethics: the 'unifying' ethics of the Neoplatonic Pagan philosopher Plotinus (204/5-270 CE) as opposed to the 'relational' ethics of the Judeo-Christian tradition....
This paper argues that education for engineers and technologists should focus on the ethics of technology and engineering, and not just ethics in technology and engineering projects. It argues that one's expression of their ethical position is linked closely to their identity formation, and is...... different to other "competencies" that are emphasised in engineering and technology education. Principles of sustainable development are proposed as a framework for engaging students in reflecting on their ethical positions and practices....
Cremer, David De; Mayer, David; Schminke, Marshall
Behavioral ethics is an emerging field that takes an empirical, social scientific approach to the study of business ethics. In this special issue, we include six articles that fall within the domain of behavioral ethics and that focus on three themesmoral awareness, ethical decision making, and reactions to unethical behavior. Each of the articles sheds additional light on the specific issues addressed. However, we hope this special issue will have an impact beyond that of the new insights o...
Any country is facing the problem of ethics of professional accountants, which also has been a focus of accounting theories for many years. Especially since the financial crisis in 2008 and the recession of world economy, business has been difficult, which makes the ethics of professional accountants more important. In perspective of business ethics, the author discusses the characteristics and the structure of ethics of professional accountants, locating the barriers for the construction of ...
Saif, M Ali
Emergence of cooperation in self-centered individuals has been a major puzzle in the study of evolutionary ethics. Reciprocal altruism is one of explanations put forward and prisoner's dilemma has been a paradigm in this context. Emergence of cooperation was demonstrated for prisoner's dilemma on a lattice with synchronous update [Nature, 359, 826 (1992)]. However, the cooperation disappeared for asynchronous update and the general validity of the conclusions was questioned [PNAS, 90, 7716 (1993)]. Neither synchronous nor asynchronous updates are realistic for natural systems. In this paper, we make a detailed study of more realistic system of semi-synchronous updates where pN agents are updated at every time instant. We observe a transition from all-defector state to a mixed state as a function of p. Despite being transition from absorbing state, our studies indicate that it is a first order transition. Furthermore, we used damage spreading technique to demonstrate that, the transition in this system could b...
Myser, C; Kerridge, I H; Mitchell, K R
Ethical reasoning and decision-making may be thought of as 'professional skills', and in this sense are as relevant to efficient clinical practice as the biomedical and clinical sciences are to the diagnosis of a patient's problem. Despite this, however, undergraduate medical programmes in ethics tend to focus on the teaching of bioethical theories, concepts and/or prominent ethical issues such as IVF and euthanasia, rather than the use of such ethics knowledge (theories, principles, concepts...
Dahnke, Michael D
Most modern ethicists and ethics textbooks assert that religion holds little or no place in ethics, including fields of professional ethics like medical ethics. This assertion, of course, implicitly refers to ethical reasoning, but there is much more to the ethical life and the practice of ethics-especially professional ethics-than reasoning. It is no surprise that teachers of practical ethics, myself included, often focus on reasoning to the exclusion of other aspects of the ethical life. Especially for those with a philosophical background, reasoning is the most patent and pedagogically controllable aspect of the ethical life-and the most easily testable. And whereas there may be powerful reasons for the limitation of religion in this aspect of ethics, there are other aspects of the ethical life in which recognition of religious belief may arguably be more relevant and possibly even necessary. I divide the ethical life into three areas-personal morality, interpersonal morality, and rational morality-each of which I explore in terms of its relationship to religion, normatively characterized by the qualities of devotion, diversity, and reasoning, respectively. PMID:26323531
Palmer, Clare; SandÃ¸e, Peter
This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the...... nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up oneâs mind....
Flite, Cathy A.; Harman, Laurinda B.
The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the la...
Ozar, David T.
The ethics of cheating among dental students is considered, including why cheating is wrong, the commercial model of dentistry, the guild model of dentistry, and the more desirable interactive model focusing on the dentist-patient relationship. Cheating's effects on the teacher student relationship and the need to respond appropriately are