Ethical dilemmas in community mental health care is the focus of this article. The dilemmas are derived from a discussion of the results of a qualitative research project that took place in five countries of the European Union. The different stakeholders are confronted with the following dilemmas: community care versus hospital care (clients); a life with care versus a life without care (informal carers); stimulation of the client toward greater responsibility versus protection against such responsibility (professionals); budgetary control versus financial incentives (policy makers), and respect for the client versus particular private needs (neighbourhood residents). These dilemmas are interpreted against the background of a value based ethical model. This model offers an integral approach to the dilemmas and can be used to determine policy. The dilemmas are discussed here as the result of conflicting values-namely autonomy and privacy, support and safety, justice and participation, and trust and solidarity. PMID:16076969
Liégeois, A; Van Audenhove, C
Within the philosophy of the social sciences, the relationship between evidence, ethics, and social policy is in need of further analysis. The present paper is an attempt to argue that while important social policies can, and perhaps ought to be, grounded in ethical theory, they are seldom articulated in this fashion due to the ambiguity surrounding the "evidence condition." Using a consequentialist-utilitarian framework, and a case study of a policy dilemma, the authors analyze the d...
Over recent decades, the field of ethics has been the focus of increasing attention in teaching. This is not surprising given that teaching is a moral activity that is heavily values-laden. Because of this, teachers face ethical dilemmas in the course of their daily work. This paper presents an ethical decision-making model that helps to explain
Ehrich, Lisa Catherine; Kimber, Megan; Millwater, Jan; Cranston, Neil
Coded hospital social workers' (n=16) descriptions of ethical dilemmas according to principles in conflict. Most ethical dilemmas involved conflicts between client self-determination and client best interest. Ethical dilemmas were more likely when patient mental status was impaired and when decision making was problematic. Ethical dilemmas were
Proctor, Enola K.; And Others
Ethical dilemmas observed by students in retailing internships were the basis for a survey in which students indicated their perceptions as to whether case situations involved unethical behavior. Expanded case situations were offered to students for further exploration. The specific questions posed in this study included the following: (1) In what
Paulins, V. Ann; Lombardy, Lisa
USA Government wiretapping activities is a very controversial issue. Undoubtedly this technology can assist law enforced authority to detect / identify unlawful or hostile activities; however, this task raises severe privacy concerns. In this paper, we have discussed this complex information technology issue of governmental wiretapping and how it effects both public and private liberties. Legislation has had a major impact on the uses and the stigma of wiretapping for the war on terrorism. This paper also analyzes the ethical and legal concerns inherent when discussing the benefits and concerns of wiretapping. The analysis has concluded with the effects of wiretapping laws as they relate to future government actions in their fight against terrorists.
Mullikin, Arwen; Rahman, M
Full Text Available The article reviews the issues of in vitro fertilization and the ethical dilemmas that rise from the impact of the medical, social, moral and legal framework of this method of assisted human reproduction, starting with the origin of gametes, the status of embryos and of biological or shedding parents, the maternal age, the sexual orientation of parents, the fate of embryos, the experimentation on embryo, taking into account the legislative framework, but also the moral and religious ones.The dilemmas are all under review, seeking to highlight the positive and negative aspects of the process, considering fairly the need of these techniques and the benefits of their use and the benefit they would bring to society.
This report describes a study undertaken to assess student choices in medical ethical dilemmas. Medical ethical dilemmas are interpreted to include problems such as abortion, euthanasia, sterilization, experimentation on humans, allocation of scarce medical resources, and physician and health personnel training. The major purpose of the study was
Woloshin, Phyllis Lerman
This article identifies and discusses ethical dilemmas inherent when undertaking research with children or other vulnerable populations: power relations, risks and benefits, and informed consent and confidentiality (Maguire, 2005). Ethical dilemmas often arise when researchers attempt to merge the interests of their research and the interests of
Full Text Available Nurses are increasingly confronted with situations of moral difficulty, such as not to feed terminally ill patients, whistle blowing, or participation in termination of pregnancy. Most of these moral dilemmas are often analyzed using the principle-based approach which applies the four moral principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence, and nonmalificence. In some instances, consequentialism is considered, but these frameworks have their limitations. Their limitations has to do with a consideration for the interpersonal nature of clinical nursing practice on the one hand, and is not always clear on how to judge which consequences are best on the other hand. When principles are in conflict it is not always easy to decide which principle should dominate. Furthermore, these frameworks do not take into account the importance of the interpersonal and emotional element of human experience. On the contrary, decision making about moral issues in healthcare demands that nurses exercise rational control over emotions. This clearly focuses the attention on the nurse as moral agent and in particular their character. In this article I argue that virtue ethics as an approach, which focus of the character of a person, might provide a more holistic analysis of moral dilemmas in nursing and might facilitate more flexible and creative solutions when combined with other theories of moral decision-making. Advancing this argument, firstly, I provide the central features of virtue ethics. Secondly I describe a story in which a moral dilemma is evident. Lastly I apply virtue ethics as an approach to this moral dilemma and in particular focusing on the virtues inherent in the nurse as moral agent in the story.
Full Text Available One of the main characteristics of the new millennium is the affirmation of human rights in all aspects of human existence, with the intention of turning declarative statements into reality. Development of up-to-date assisted reproductive technologies (ART and their application in infertility treatment have raised numerous ethical, legal, religious, social and other questions. In vitro fertilization, donation of gametes, embryos and pre-embryos, cryopreservation of gametes, embryos, ovarian and testicular tissues, embryo transfer, genetic reproductive techniques, cloning and other sophisticated methods used in infertility treatment require cooperation between the medical and legal professions. Ethical aspects of human reproduction and assisted fertilization are based on full respect of the life of an individual even before conception, from pre-embryo stage, via embryo stage and fetus stage to a newborn infant. Regarding investigative and clinical projects, this standpoint implies the legalization of all ART procedures, unencumbered exchange of information and consensus about their application, and adherence to the basic ethical principles of autonomy benefit, justice and common welfare. Ethical postulates provide unequivocal directions in the creation of new life and resolve all possible ethical dilemmas, protecting the rights of doctors and participant in relevant procedures alike and reasserting the crucial principle - respect of human dignity.
Background and objectives: Today with so many so-phisticated modalities in radiology, it is very difficult, if at all possible, for radiologist to master every thing and sometimes they are put in the position of reading a study where they really don't have the expertise they ought to have. Thus there are more malpractice suits against radiologists than the past decades. It is the purpose of this review to find guidelines for deal-ing with ethical and legal dilemmas in radiology. Material...
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Today with so many so-phisticated modalities in radiology, it is very difficult, if at all possible, for radiologist to master every thing and sometimes they are put in the position of reading a study where they really don't have the expertise they ought to have. Thus there are more malpractice suits against radiologists than the past decades. It is the purpose of this review to find guidelines for deal-ing with ethical and legal dilemmas in radiology. Materials & Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed malpractice and lawsuit cases stated against radiologists in the Iran University of Medical Sciences during 2001-2004 with comparative study of mal-practice cases in France, India, and USA. Results: We found that the most prevalent causes which radiologists are sued for are, (1 deviation from standards, misdiagnoses; (2 over-charging patients; (3 poor communication; (4 refusing to seek consul-tations when necessary; (5 referral to site of self-interest and fee splitting (Dichotomy;(6 misleading and untruthful advertising; (7 other ethical negli-gences such as inadequate respect for "belief and ideas of patients, autonomy, the right to consent and refuse procedure", breech of confidentiality, etc. Conclusions: Like other health care providers, radi-ologists should have their own Code of ethics and guidelines to describe standards of profession, disci-plinary procedures for violation of ethical and legal rules. These should be preferably provided by the Iranian Society of Radiology.
Being a skillful school leader presumes the competence to judge the ethical consequences of actions. This implies a need for all school agents to discover and analyze what values are at stake and, in turn, reconcile didactic rationality with ethical rationality. This article aims to explore ethical dilemmas in daily school practice, experienced
Norberg, Katarina; Johansson, Olof
Notes that business today is concerned with the translation and application of ethical principles into everyday business life. Offers a list of Web sites on ethics and business ethics at various colleges and universities. (SR)
Worley, Rebecca B.; Dyrud, Marilyn A.
The purpose of this study is to investigate ethical dilemmas and ethical difficulties experienced by psychologists in Sweden and South Africa. The study is a replication of previous studies conducted by Colnerud (1997) and Slack and Wassenaar (1999). A sample of 295 psychologists in Sweden and 312 psychologists in South Africa were asked to describe situations that they identified as ethically difficult. 53 psychologists in Sweden described 61 incidents and 21 psychologists in South Africa de...
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research into the ethical dilemmas faced by school heads from seven independent schools in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: Data for the research were gathered by semi-structured in-depth interviews with the Heads, all of whom were experienced school leaders. All the schools had religious
Cranston, Neil; Ehrich, Lisa C.; Kimber, Megan
Personal and reflective writing assignments in psychology courses may prompt self-disclosure that presents ethical dilemmas. The literature discusses responsibilities of the psychologist in instances such as disclosure of suicidal ideation or threats of harming others within the context of the therapist-client relationship, but significantly less
Haney, Michelle R.
This article makes two contributions to the teaching of business ethics literature. First, it describes the steps involved in developing effective ethical dilemmas to incorporate into a computer-based business simulation. Second, it illustrates these steps by presenting two ethical dilemmas that an instructor can incorporate into any business
Schumann, Paul L.; Scott, Timothy W.; Anderson, Philip H.
During the last decade, the Swedish health care system has undergone fundamental changes. The changes have made health care more complex and ethics has increasingly become a required component of clinical practice. Considering this, it is not surprising that many health care professionals suffer from stress-related disorders. Stress due to ethical dilemmas is usually referred to as "moral distress". The present article derives from Andrew Jameton's development of the concept of moral distress and presents the results of a study that, using focus group method, identifies situations of ethical dilemmas and moral distress among health care providers of different categories. The study includes both hospital clinics and pharmacies. The results show that all categories of staff interviewed express experiences of moral distress; prior research has mostly focused on moral distress experienced by nurses. Second, it was made clear that moral distress does not occur only as a consequence of institutional constraints preventing the health care giver from acting on his/her moral considerations, which is the traditional definition of moral distress. There are situations when the staff members do follow their moral decisions, but in doing so they clash with, e.g. legal regulations. In these cases too, moral distress occurs. Hitherto research on moral distress has focused on the individual health care provider and her subjective moral convictions. Our results show that the study of moral distress must focus more on the context of the ethical dilemmas. Finally, the conclusion of the study is that the work organization must provide better support resources and structures to decrease moral distress. The results point to the need for further education in ethics and a forum for discussing ethically troubling situations experienced in the daily care practice for both hospital and pharmacy staff.
KÃ¤lvemark Sporrong, Sofia Beatrice; HÃ¶glund, Anna T
This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see,' and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (i) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (ii) avoiding responsibility; and (iii) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors. (Author)
This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors
This paper addresses the subject of conflict of interest: an ethical dilemma in politics and administration. Conflict of interest denotes a situation in which an employee has a private financial interest sufficient to influence, or appear to influence, the exercise of his or her public duties. A primary reason for concern about conflicts of interest is that they reduce public trust and confidence in the integrity and impartiality of public functionaries. The subject of this article is the cat...
Mafunisa, M. J.
One approach to the analysis of ethical dilemmas in medical practice uses the four principles plus scope approach. These principles are: respect for autonomy, beneficence, non?maleficence and justice, along with concern for their scope of application. However, conflicts between the different principles are commonplace in psychiatric practice, especially in forensic psychiatry, where duties to patients often conflict with duties to third parties such as the public. This article seeks t...
'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways to explore the program; for example, they can navigate the program using the 'Assist Me' option, which explains the basis of theethical arguments. Reality text provides details of real events on which the case is based, and a glossary of terminology is available for the students to explore. Selected access to a case template is also available, enabling students and teachers to create their own case studies. Evaluation of the program has been ongoing during its development.
Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina
A gerontology course on moral and ethical issues in aging must choose between advocacy or scientific objectivity, relative orientation or absolute standards, theoretical intellectual versus applied/personal orientation, and age-specific or age-irrelevant viewpoint. (SK)
Kosberg, Jordan I.; Mangum, Wiley P.
This paper discusses ethical dilemmas in early childhood education as identified by 26 kindergarten and early elementary school teachers. Ethical dilemmas are investigated in the theoretical framework of virtue epistemology. The method used in the study is a relational reading of teachers' narratives. Interpretive accounts are created to allow
Tirri, Kirsi; Husu, Jukka
Results of a survey asking public school counselors in Virginia to indicate their most common and most challenging ethical dilemmas are presented. Ninety-two school counselors reported that the most common and challenging ethical dilemmas included those involving student confidentiality, dual relationship with faculty, parental rights, and acting
The purpose of this article is to examine some obstacles and dilemmas related to methodological strategies and ethical considerations that arose during the fieldwork of research focused on family violence during the stages of pregnancy and childbirth in adolescent females in Buenos Aires during 2007. From this study, we are able to contribute some
Luxardo, Natalia; Colombo, Graciela; Iglesias, Gabriela
A case is described of a fifty year old single man who made disclosures about criminal sexual practices during a psychiatric assessment. In common practice with other professional men, a doctor is under a duty not to disclose, without the consent of his patient, information which he has gained in his professional capacity other than in exceptional circumstances. We discuss the ethical and legal considerations surrounding issues of medical confidentiality and the dilemma that sometimes face clinicians, when they feel obliged, in the public interest, to disclose information they have gained in confidence. Breach of confidences can have deleterious consequences; particularly for the doctor-patient relationship, but failure to disclose in some situations could have serious implications for the well-being of the wider society. Doctors should be aware of the basic principles of confidentiality and the ethical and legal framework around which they are built. PMID:19135004
Agyapong, V I O; Kirrane, R; Bangaru, R
A case is described of a fifty year old single man who made disclosures about criminal sexual practices during a psychiatric assessment. In common practice with other professional men, a doctor is under a duty not to disclose, without the consent of his patient, information which he has gained in his professional capacity other than in exceptional circumstances. We discuss the ethical and legal considerations surrounding issues of medical confidentiality and the dilemma that sometimes face clinicians, when they feel obliged, in the public interest, to disclose information they have gained in confidence. Breach of confidences can have deleterious consequences; particularly for the doctor-patient relationship, but failure to disclose in some situations could have serious implications for the well-being of the wider society. Doctors should be aware of the basic principles of confidentiality and the ethical and legal framework around which they are built.
Agyapong, V I O
Speech-language pathologists experience ethical dilemmas as they fulfil their professional roles and responsibilities. Previous research findings indicated that speech-language pathologists working in publicly funded settings identified ethical dilemmas when they managed complex clients, negotiated professional relationships, and addressed service delivery issues. However, little is known about ethical dilemmas experienced by speech-language pathologists working in private practice settings. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech-language pathologists working in private practice. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 10 speech-language pathologists employed in diverse private practice settings. Participants explained the nature of ethical dilemmas they experienced at work and identified their most challenging and frequently occurring ethical conflicts. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse transcribed data and generate themes. Four themes reflected the nature of speech-language pathologists' ethical dilemmas; balancing benefit and harm, fidelity of business practices, distributing funds, and personal and professional integrity. Findings support the need for professional development activities that are specifically targeted towards facilitating ethical practice for speech-language pathologists in the private sector. PMID:24735456
Flatley, Danielle R; Kenny, Belinda J; Lincoln, Michelle A
To ensure ethical employee behavior, companies often utilize several forms of mostly one-way communication such as codes of conduct. The extent to which these efforts, in addition to informing about the company stance on ethics, are able to positively influence behavior is disputed. Research on business ethics communication and behavior reveals that a good predictor of ethical conduct is open workplace dialogue about ethics.Â In this paper, I therefore address the question: What influences employee attitudes to talking openly about ethical issues? Answers are proposed on the basis of focus group interviews at the healthcare company Novo Nordisk. Â It was found that interest in discussing ethical issues was influenced by two main factors: employee conceptualizations of business ethics, and the level of inter-collegial trust, credibility, and confidence. In this paper, by examining these phenomena, I aim at providing insight that can help managers in their attempts to promote open workplace dialogue aboutethical issues.
The purpose of this study is to determine the ethical dilemmas experiencing by the counsellors who work at different conditions and what they do to solve these dilemmas as well as the obstacles they have to deal with while resolving the dilemmas. This is a qualitative study in which multi-state pattern was used. For this research, 40 counsellors
Kolay Akfert, Serpil
This book, in honor of David Messick, is about social decisions and the role cooperation plays in social life. Noted contributors who worked with Dave over the years will discuss their work in social judgment, decision making and ethics which was so important to Dave.The book offers a unique and valuable contribution to the fields of social psychology and organizational behavior. Ethical decision making, a central focus of this volume, is highly relevant to current scholarship and research in both disciplines. The volume will be suitable for graduate level courses in organizational behavior, s
Kramer, Roderick M; Bazerman, Max H
To ensure ethical employee behavior, companies often utilize several forms of mostly one-way communication such as codes of conduct. The extent to which these efforts, in addition to informing about the company stance on ethics, are able to positively influence behavior is disputed. In contrast, research on business ethics communication and behavior indicates a relatively clear, positive link between open workplace dialogue about ethical issues and ethical conduct. In this paper, I therefore address the question: What influences employee attitudes to talking openly about ethical issues? Answers are proposed on the basis of focus group interviews with staff at the Denmark and Brazil affiliates of the global healthcare company Novo Nordisk. It was found that interest in discussing ethical issues was influenced by two main factors: employee conceptualizations of business ethics, and the level of inter-collegial trust, credibility, and confidence. In this paper, by examining these phenomena, I am at providinginsight that can both inform scholars in these fields as well as help managers in their attempts to promote open workplace dialogue about ethical issues.
Most contemporary undergraduate courses in medical ethics leave a critical gap unfilled because they fail to address student-specific issues, says third-year student Joye St. Onge. In this article, which won third prize in CMAJs 1996 Dr. William Logie Medical Ethics Essay Contest, St. Onge outlines the importance of discussing student-specific ethical dilemmas and suggests ways to introduce such teaching in medical schools.
St Onge, J.
Abstract: This paper provides an analysis of the current and potential ethical implications of RFID technology for the library and information professions. These issues are analysed as a series of ethical dilemmas, or hard-to-resolve competing ethical obligations, which the librarian has in relationship to information objects, library users and the wider social and political environment or state. A process model of the library is used as a framework for the discussion to illustrate the ...
Thornley, Clare V.; Gibb, Forbes; Ferguson, Stuart; Weckert, John
Purpose: This study aimed to develop an ethical dilemma scale for nurses faced with the use of physical restraint when caring for elderly patients with dementia. Methods: We used a previously established 20-item dilemma scale. The objective and method of the study were explained to the head of nursing at 17 selected hospitals, and 121 nurses working in the general wards of 14 hospitals (excluding emergency department wards...
Miwa Yamamoto; Masako Nakamura; Shigeru Sakuraba
Objective: analyzing ethic and bioethics dilemmas experienced by nurses who take palliative care for hospitalized elderly. Method: quality study, exploring, descriptive, using the interview as technical for collecting oral history from tem nurses. The context was a geriatric palliative care unit from the city of Salvador Brazil, in the period between May and August 2005. Content was used for speech analyzing. Results: the speeches arose dilemmas like: artificially prolonging of life; feed...
Bezerra Do Amaral, Juliana; Menezes, Maria Do Rosa?rio; Martorell-poveda, Maria Antonia; Cardoso Passos, Simone
Full Text Available Digital security governance the use of digital personal data for threat analysis on the basis of (automated risk profiling enhances terrorism risk management in Europe. European security strategies emphasise that information and communication technology increasingly play a key role in preventing and anticipating threats such as terrorism and cyber-crime. It enables, for example, the sharing of personal, financial or travellers data with third countries. This article focuses on digital security governance in the context of the Passenger Name Record (PNR, the Advance Passenger Information (API and the Terrorist Finance Tracking System (TFTP programmes. Particularly, it considers the ethical dilemmas of using and sharing digital personal data as well as accountability for this type of risk management. Because there are broader socio-political, legal and technological issues connected to the use of information and communication technology for digital security governance, the concept of accountability in this article is holistic.
Two case studies are presented reflecting the ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses who were striving to improve their practice in the provision of patient care. The cases are described in the context of finding alternatives to cohesive interventions such as chemical restraints and physical restraints. A summary of the literature on ethical dilemmas that was relevant to the issues arising in these cases is included. Discussion of the use of the American Nursing Association's (ANA, 2001 ) Nursing Code of Ethics with Interpretive Statements is highlighted for its relevance and support of the nurses experiencing the ethical dilemmas. PMID:20144033
The article discusses the principle of autonomy of patientss choice in a highly sensitive area, the obstetrics, regarding two issues which arise many dilemmas and debates, the induced abortion and the elective cesarean section..It brings up many pro and cons ethical arguments, reviews the various points of view and historical, legal, religious and humanist influences.Article stresses the need to adapt the old ethic principles to the realities of the actual complex society and the necessity of...
This paper explores some ethical dilemmas faced while doing fieldwork. Ethical norms are not enough to appraise the relationship between researchers and participants; a reflexivity practice is needed to understand the dilemmas aroused during this process. Here four issues faced during fieldwork are presented. The academic social time usually defines the schedule of fieldwork; hence, the researcher may decide to follow the academic schedule or to arrange a different schedule with informants. Researchers usually decide which part of their identity will be disclosed for introducing themselves to the informants; but may also decide to hide who really he/she is. Researchers may cope with the dilemma to disclose their private life to informants during the fieldwork. Researchers also may decide to behave according to academic cultural norms of reciprocity or according to the cultural norms of participants. Finally, a reflexivity movement should be developed in Iberoamerica to define an agenda on ethical issues and to develop decolonizing strategies to debate these ethical dilemmas. PMID:22450400
This article explores the ethical tensions and dilemmas that arose for 2 U.S. social work students during an 8-month international clinical internship in northern Uganda. These students encountered cultural differences related to issues of confidentiality, autonomy, and self-determination. Student experiences were analyzed using the cultural
Examined teachers' understanding of the moral development of middle level students via prediction of student responses to the behavior of fictitious students in ethical dilemma situations. Found that teachers were able to predict characters which students admired least, but were unable to predict characters the students most admired. (Author)
Bedwell, Lance E.; Helms, Emory C.; Hunt, Gilbert H.
Democratic rule of law has been struggling with the occurring problem of pluralism of values. It is therefore still faced with the dilemma of ordering the relationship of law and ethics, namely with the question whether in the issue of legal solutions the priority is granted to ethics or to law. In the case of dominance of the positivist paradigm, it is all the more important because the ethical issue is marginalized in it. It turns out that the same authority, deciding on similar issues, at ...
This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.
Moon, Bruce L.
In ihrem Buch Fieldwork, Participation and Practice: Ethics and Dilemmas in Qualitative Research präsentiert DE LAINE theoretische Diskussionen und Fallbeispiele zur Feldarbeit, um an ihnen die Komplexität ethischer Fragen bezogen auf den ethnographischen Prozess und dessen Produkte zu diskutieren. Sie veranschaulicht, dass eine ethische Praxis des kritischen und reflexiven Denkens der Forscher(innen) bedarf. Ihr Buch ist für erfahrene Forscher(innen) ebenso hilfreich und empfehlen...
Ethical dilemmas that face heathcare team members referring patients to hospice programs include the ability of clinicians to predict accurately a patient bad prognosis. They affect day-to-day patient management in palliative care programs including healthcare team members concern over the use of morphine because possible respiratory depression in the patient, the question of providing enteral or parenteral nutritional support to patients who refuse to eat and the question of providing parent...
Beyhan Bag; Nesrin Reis
The Living Will is an ethically acceptable document that serves to convey a patient's attitude toward terminal illness and to facilitate a physician's decision not to prolong the dying process. But in a Christian context, the Christian Affirmation of Life is a superior document by which to express and aid such decision making. Because the Living Will advances the concept of negative euthanasia--an ethical, legal, and political misnomer--and abets the effort to legalize positive or direct euthanasia, it should not be given legal recognition. As a legal document, the Living Will could seriously affect both patients and physicians. PMID:1270060
Monagle, J F
Euthanasia is considered an important social issue of the 1990s. Mental health professionals should understand the differences between voluntary, involuntary, passive, and active euthanasia; mercy killing, and assisted suicide. Encourages counselors to ethically formulate client-supportive positions to help clients face life-and-death decisions.
Albright, Dianne E.; Hazler, Richard J.
The survival rate for extremely preterm infants has improved over the last two decades. Although the incidence of such births is about 2%, the impact of preterm birth on these infants, their families, health-care providers, and society is profound. The birth of an extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and early gestational age infant poses complex medical, social, and ethical challenges to the family and health-care professionals. Survivors have an increased risk of chronic medical problems and d...
Routine management of geriatric problems often raises ethical problems, particularly regarding autonomy of the old person. The carers or children may be unaware of the sensitivity of role reversal in dealing with the financial affairs; the need for a residential carer may compromise the old person's privacy. Attending a day centre confers much benefit, but one must understand the old person's resistance to change in the proposal of a new daily regimen. Similarly his or her autonomy must be th...
Rosin, A.; Dijk, Y.
Women who have experienced abuse are often offered individual and group psychotherapeutic interventions to help them overcome psychological aftereffects of abuse and avoid future abusive relationships. Clinical cases that are complicated by the existence of abuse and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) often involve ethical issues concerning patient privacy and legitimate breaches of confidentiality that can potentially harm the individual. There is little known about the experiences of abused rural women with STDs, underscoring the need for modification of existing interventions for this patient population. This paper presents the application of an ethical framework to an actual case involving an abused rural woman with an STD that utilizes the concepts of casuiStry, or case-based reasoning. A methodological tool for ethical analysis of the clinical dilemmas involving evidence-based psychotherapeutic interventions for abused rural women with STDs is used to apply the concepts of casuistry to the development of the taxonomy of cases for clinical practice. PMID:11942194
Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Artnak, Kathryn; Shain, Rochelle N; Piper, Jeanna
During the delivery of health care, ethical-legal problems are not uncommon and can be defined as situations that have potential legal consequences when equally compelling ethical reasons for and against a particular course of action are recognized and a decision must be made. Ethical-legal repercussions may occur when obtaining surgical consent from a younger teenager (defined as dependant and/or under 18 years of age). An ethical-legal dilemma arising from the case of a 14-year-old, run away girl, who had signed her own surgical consent for a cholecystectomy is analyzed. The concept of consent is discussed and related to an actual case study. The elements of a valid informed consent are identified, discussed and related to the case study. Using the MORAL model for ethical decision-making the ethical implications of this case are analysed. Possible legal repercussions are addressed and a risk management strategy (suggested policy and documentation protocols for the consent process) is proposed and evaluated. PMID:16869463
Kuz, Kelly M
Full Text Available Editors of scientific journals need to be conversant with the mechanisms by which scientific misconduct is amplified by publication practices. This paper provides definitions, ways to document the extent of the problem, and examples of editorial attempts to counter fraud. Fabrication, falsification, duplication, ghost authorship, gift authorship, lack of ethics approval, non-disclosure, 'salami' publication, conflicts of interest, auto-citation, duplicate submission, duplicate publications, and plagiarism are common problems. Editorial misconduct includes failure to observe due process, undue delay in reaching decisions and communicating these to authors, inappropriate review procedures, and confounding a journal's content with its advertising or promotional potential. Editors also can be admonished by their peers for failure to investigate suspected misconduct, failure to retract when indicated, and failure to abide voluntarily by the six main sources of relevant international guidelines on research, its reporting and editorial practice. Editors are in a good position to promulgate reasonable standards of practice, and can start by using consensus guidelines on publication ethics to state explicitly how their journals function. Reviewers, editors, authors and readers all then have a better chance to understand, and abide by, the rules of publishing.
The use of donated embryos has offered hope for infertile couples who have no other means to have children. In Iran, fertility centers use fertile couples as embryo donors. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of this procedure will be discussed. We conclude that embryo-donation should be performed with frozen embryos thus preventing healthy donors from being harmed by fertility drugs. There must be guidelines for choosing the appropriate donor families. In countries where commercial egg donation is acceptable, fertile couples can be procured as embryo donors thus fulfilling the possible shortage of good quality embryos. Using frozen embryos seems to have less ethical, religious and legal problems when compared to the use of fertile embryo donors.
Alizadeh, Leila; Omani Samani, Reza
It is obvious that every inventor should be rewarded for the intellectual effort, and at the same time be encouraged to successively improve his or her discovery and to work on subsequent innovations. Patents also ensure that patent owners are officially protected against intellectual piracy, but protection of intellectual property may be difficult to accomplish. Nevertheless, it all comes down to this basic question: Does a contradiction exist between medical ethics and the "Medical and Surgical Procedure Patents" system? It may well turn out that medical-procedure patents can have a negative influence on the standard of medical care. Medical-method patents may also interfere with the physician-patient relationship. At present, physicians do not question the usefulness of patent protection for medicines, biotechnology, equipment and devices, but they strongly oppose it for surgical procedures. PMID:15727000
It is indispensable for physicians to understand and recognize the fusion of different cultures, to deliver the best possible service to patients with different cultural backgrounds, especially when ethical-medical problems are involved. The Hindu community in Chile differs in significant ways with the western culture. This is especially true for some issues such as the belief in reincarnation or gender inequality, among others. These discrepancies can be relevant for the analysis of several bioethical problems. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the different beliefs, traditions and Hindu visions. We hereby present a review of Hinduism, its relation with medical practice and, as an example, a case of abortion in a Hindu family. Reviewing the traditions, beliefs and methods will help to understand and respect the beliefs of different cultures in contemporary and globalized bioethics. PMID:20098814
Samtani B, Suraj; Jadue Z, Mariana; Beca I, Juan Pablo
The criminalization of behaviors such as the ingestion of certain mood-altering drugs creates ethical dilemmas for researchers studying those behaviors. The Syringe Access, Use, and Discard (SAUD) project is designed to uncover microcontextual factors that influence HIV and hepatitis risk behaviors of injection drug users. The article presents seven ethical dilemmas encountered using ethnographic methods: issues involving syringe replacement at injection locales, risks of participants' arrest, potential disruptions in participants' supply routes, risks of research staff arrest, threats to the protection of confidentiality, issues surrounding informed consent in working with addicts, and the confiscation of potentially incriminating information by police. The article concludes with a discussion of the limitations of traditional ethical frameworks, such as utilitarianism, for resolving these dilemmas and recommends instead improving public health professionals' capacity for practical reasoning (phronesis) through the greater use of case studies in public health curricula. PMID:11822551
Buchanan, David; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Stopka, Tom; Shaw, Susan; Santelices, Claudia; Singer, Merrill
A sample survey of U.S. scientists who belong to the Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) was made to ascertain their observations of unethical behavior in the workplace and their opinions of the likely success of programs to prevent misconduct. SRA, an international organization with almost 1,700 U.S. members, includes toxicologists, epidemiologists, industrial hygienists, engineers, and social scientists, as well as experts in exposure assessment, statistics, and risk communications. Respondents reported relatively low rates of clearly unethical acts such as data destruction and fabrication (7%); however, 21% reported at least one observation of plagiarism. Reporting of other problematic behaviors ranged from less than 4% for human subjects violations to 51% observing deliberate overstatement of positive and deliberate understatement of negative results. SRA members did not think that government intervention would be effective in reducing misconduct. They were more supportive of formal education, seminars, videotapes, and a hotline that could be called for advice. We offer suggestions to ISEA and its members for developing a proactive approach to ethical misconduct. PMID:1483027
Greenberg, M R; Martell, J
Mankind has been using animals already for a long time for food, for transport and as companion. The use of animals in experimental research parallels the development of medicine, which had its roots in ancient Greece (Aristotle, Hippocrate). With the Cartesian philosophy in the 17th century, experiments on animals could be performed without great moral problems. The discovery of anaesthetics and Darwin's publication on the Origin of Species, defending the biological similarities between man and animal, contributed to the increase of animal experimentation. The increasing demand for high standard animal models together with a critical view on the use of animals led to the development of Laboratory Animal Science in the 1950s with Russell and Burch's three R's of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement as guiding principles, a field that can be defined as a multidisciplinary branch of science, contributing to the quality of animal experiments and to the welfare of laboratory animals. The increased interest in and concern about animal welfare issues led to legislative regulations in many countries and the establishment of animal ethics committees. PMID:15454959
Full Text Available The article discusses the principle of autonomy of patientss choice in a highly sensitive area, the obstetrics, regarding two issues which arise many dilemmas and debates, the induced abortion and the elective cesarean section..It brings up many pro and cons ethical arguments, reviews the various points of view and historical, legal, religious and humanist influences.Article stresses the need to adapt the old ethic principles to the realities of the actual complex society and the necessity of fully respect for the fundamental rights of the patient, including autonomy. Article leaves still open the problem of the influence of various factors on patients choice, and the need for the physician to assure the observance of this right.
In this paper we address an important but sadly neglected area; namely some of the ethical issues which arise for social and medical researchers in the course of their work. Our concern is for a wide spectrum of researchers using the full range of social research methods from small-scale in-depth qualitative work through to large scale quantitative studies. The unifying factor is that they all have an element of contact and hence the potential for interaction between the researcher and the subject. In our experience (with the exception of some ethnographers) few if any social researchers will have had adequate training about the interactional aspects of their work. As a result they are unprepared for the ethical dilemmas and conflict of loyalties which they might experience. To understand these issues it is important to look at the context within which such research is undertaken. PMID:7992127
Batchelor, J A; Briggs, C M
Full Text Available La eutanasia significa una muerte buena. Desde el punto de vista jurídico, es la muerte sin sufrimiento físico provocada por propia voluntad de un enfermo incurable. En la práctica consiste en administrar drogas, fármacos u otras sustancias que alivien el dolor aunque con ello se acorte la vida. La decisión de la aplicación de la eutanasia ha sido un problema persistente en la historia de la humanidad, ideologías diversas se enfrentan defendiendo sus argumentos de si debe o no practicarse. El objetivo de este trabajo, es exponer las consideraciones éticas, científicas y religiosas, sobre la práctica de la eutanasia a partir de un análisis histórico desde los tiempos de Platón hasta la actualidad. Lo verdaderamente importante es que el hombre, como ser racional, capaz de revolucionar constantemente la ciencia y la técnica y de transformar la naturaleza en beneficio de la especie, debe también morir con dignidad.Euthanasia means nice death. From the legal viewpoint, it means physical suffering-free provoked death willingly accepted by a terminally-ill patient. In practice, it means to administer drugs, pharmaceuticals or other substances that release pain even though they may reduce lifetime. The decision for euthanasia has been a persistent controversy in the history of mankind; thus various ideologies clash in support of arguments in favour or against this practice. The objective of this paper is to present ethical, scientific and religious considerations on the implementation of euthanasia, taking as a basis a historical analysis covering from Platon up to the present times. It is really important that man, as a rational being capable of permanently revolutionizing science and technique and transforming nature for the benefit of the species, should also die with dignity.
Mabel Creagh Peña
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La eutanasia significa una muerte buena. Desde el punto de vista jurídico, es la muerte sin sufrimiento físico provocada por propia voluntad de un enfermo incurable. En la práctica consiste en administrar drogas, fármacos u otras sustancias que alivien el dolor aunque con ello se acorte la vida. La [...] decisión de la aplicación de la eutanasia ha sido un problema persistente en la historia de la humanidad, ideologías diversas se enfrentan defendiendo sus argumentos de si debe o no practicarse. El objetivo de este trabajo, es exponer las consideraciones éticas, científicas y religiosas, sobre la práctica de la eutanasia a partir de un análisis histórico desde los tiempos de Platón hasta la actualidad. Lo verdaderamente importante es que el hombre, como ser racional, capaz de revolucionar constantemente la ciencia y la técnica y de transformar la naturaleza en beneficio de la especie, debe también morir con dignidad. Abstract in english Euthanasia means nice death. From the legal viewpoint, it means physical suffering-free provoked death willingly accepted by a terminally-ill patient. In practice, it means to administer drugs, pharmaceuticals or other substances that release pain even though they may reduce lifetime. The decision f [...] or euthanasia has been a persistent controversy in the history of mankind; thus various ideologies clash in support of arguments in favour or against this practice. The objective of this paper is to present ethical, scientific and religious considerations on the implementation of euthanasia, taking as a basis a historical analysis covering from Platon up to the present times. It is really important that man, as a rational being capable of permanently revolutionizing science and technique and transforming nature for the benefit of the species, should also die with dignity.
Mabel, Creagh Peña.
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La eutanasia significa una muerte buena. Desde el punto de vista jurídico, es la muerte sin sufrimiento físico provocada por propia voluntad de un enfermo incurable. En la práctica consiste en administrar drogas, fármacos u otras sustancias que alivien el dolor aunque con ello se acorte la vida. La [...] decisión de la aplicación de la eutanasia ha sido un problema persistente en la historia de la humanidad, ideologías diversas se enfrentan defendiendo sus argumentos de si debe o no practicarse. El objetivo de este trabajo, es exponer las consideraciones éticas, científicas y religiosas, sobre la práctica de la eutanasia a partir de un análisis histórico desde los tiempos de Platón hasta la actualidad. Lo verdaderamente importante es que el hombre, como ser racional, capaz de revolucionar constantemente la ciencia y la técnica y de transformar la naturaleza en beneficio de la especie, debe también morir con dignidad. Abstract in english Euthanasia means nice death. From the legal viewpoint, it means physical suffering-free provoked death willingly accepted by a terminally-ill patient. In practice, it means to administer drugs, pharmaceuticals or other substances that release pain even though they may reduce lifetime. The decision f [...] or euthanasia has been a persistent controversy in the history of mankind; thus various ideologies clash in support of arguments in favour or against this practice. The objective of this paper is to present ethical, scientific and religious considerations on the implementation of euthanasia, taking as a basis a historical analysis covering from Platon up to the present times. It is really important that man, as a rational being capable of permanently revolutionizing science and technique and transforming nature for the benefit of the species, should also die with dignity.
Mabel, Creagh Peña.
This paper reports on the results of a study conducted in 1994. The aim of the study was to gain insight into nurses' perceptions of ethical dilemmas concerning informational privacy of patients with hiv/aids. The chosen research method was descriptive, from a qualitative research perspective (Grounded Theory). The purposive sample consisted of seven nurses working in a university hospital. Data were collected by means of in-depth interviews and the critical incidents method. The description of the dilemmas led to a central theme: the nurses' choice whether or not to give information revealing the diagnosis seropositivity or aids to patient's relatives or partner. The core categories were derived from analysis of the descriptions given by the nurses. They are split up into experiences of the nurses and the way nurses cope with these dilemmas. Recommendations are given for promotion of expertise and education. PMID:9376930
Vrehen, H M; van der Bijl, J
Full Text Available Upon analysis, it appears that education is the only solution to prevail over this moral crisis; the dilemma of contemporary society, faced with this moral challenge, lies at the crossroads between philosophy and pedagogy. Moral value education cannot be reduced to civic education or to human rights education, as it lies at the crossroads between the logic of the mind and the logic of the heart, which generate values together. A new ethics is necessary, one which must reflect our historical standpoint, because the overthrow of a set of values and the inauguration of a new moral cannot be achieved by one brilliant Zarathustra.The questions of our papers are: What was and what is it now the University? And what are university professors responsibilities? Are the social-economical changes influencing the academic activity?
Full Text Available This article argues that various deviations from the basic principles of the scientific ethos primarily the appearance of pseudoscience in scientific communities can be formulated and explained using specific models of game theory, such as the prisoners dilemma and the iterated prisoners dilemma. The article indirectly tackles the deontology of scientific work as well, in which it is assumed that there is no room for moral skepticism, let alone moral anti-realism, in the ethics of scientific communities. Namely, on the basis of the generally accepted dictum of scientific endeavor as the pursuit of knowledge exclusively for knowledges sake, scientifically »right« behavior is seen to be clearly defined and distinguishable from scientifically »wrong« behavior. After elucidating the basic principles of game theory, the article illustrates by using imaginary and real cases, as well as some views from the philosophyof biology (the units of selection debate how this sort of reasoning could be applied in an analysis of the functioning of science.
All psychological and social research presents ethical dilemmas, many of which centre around the difficulties which flow from the power imbalances between those conducting the research and the research respondents or participants. Issues of power are magnified in research undertaken in contexts of poverty, and there is a burgeoning literature on ethical issues in research in developing countries. In this article, we augment the existing literature by focusing on the experiences of an assessor working in a controlled trial of a mother-infant intervention in a poor South African community. We consider issues of community expectations, the presentation to our project of physical health problems, the issue of HIV/AIDS, cultural beliefs which impact on the research, child protection issues, and the tensions between research assessment and ubuntu--a cultural norm which requires helpful engagement with others. We suggest that our experiences may assist with the development of further research. PMID:16881161
Nama, Nosisana; Swartz, Leslie
The ideas in this paper developed as a result of the discussions that we, the authors, had about the ethical dilemmas that arise when interviewing participants on sensitive topics, during the research supervision process of a grounded theory study (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967). The participants were eight adult women who grew up in a family in which they witnessed domestic violence. They were interviewed around their understanding of how these experiences have impacted their adult r...
Sammut Scerri, C.; Abela, A.; Vetere, Al
Review: Marlene de Laine (2000). Fieldwork, Participation and Practice: Ethics and Dilemmas in Qualitative Research Review: Marlene de Laine (2000). Fieldwork, Participation and Practice: Ethics and Dilemmas in Qualitative Research Reseña: Marlene de Laine (2000). Fieldwork, Participation and Practice: Ethics and Dilemmas in Qualitative Research
In ihrem Buch Fieldwork, Participation and Practice: Ethics and Dilemmas in Qualitative Research präsentiert DE LAINE theoretische Diskussionen und Fallbeispiele zur Feldarbeit, um an ihnen die Komplexität ethischer Fragen bezogen auf den ethnographischen Prozess und dessen Produkte zu diskutieren. Sie veranschaulicht, dass eine ethische Praxis des kritischen und reflexiven Denkens der Forscher(innen) bedarf. Ihr Buch ist für erfahrene Forscher(innen) ebenso hilfreich und empfehlen...
This paper examines faith-based humanitarian organizations and their multiple alliances with Karen Baptist missionary networks in the context of the Karen refugee crisis. Far from being only passive recipients of humanitarian assistance, I argue that Karen people become important agents of proselytizing, using their cultural capital to reach out to the imagined community of would-be Christians. Doing so, Karen are able to expand opportunities and to link their own self and livelihood to the mission of the Christian movement. Stabilized and supported by international humanitarian aid, the Karen National Union (KNU) resistance movement exercises a form of governance in the refugee camps by controlling their internal organization in contestation with the Thai state authorities. This biased engagement places humanitarian organizations and the Baptist church in opposition to the Burmese government and thus leaves faith-based humanitarian organizations with the ethical dilemma of whether to abandon impartiality. The article makes use of Castellsâ?? social network concept to illustrate the importance of material and non-material resources that make access to indigenous refugee networks and international humanitarian aid organizations viable for survival and reproduction in a hostile environment.
Focus group discussions (FGD) are gaining in popularity in research on HIV and tuberculosis (TB) internationally as researchers seek to understand the experiences, needs and perspectives of people living with TB and/or HIV as well as their carers within the community and health sector. Conducting FGDs in resource-poor settings with vulnerable participants who are living with diseases that are frequently stigmatised poses multiple challenges. Our approach in this discussion paper is to follow the research cycle to present the practical experience of research teams using FGDs in TB and HIV in resource-poor contexts in Africa and Asia in order to contribute to effective practice. The approach highlights dilemmas and shares effective practice for negotiating initial discussions with different communities, constructing sampling frames and samples, choosing a facilitator, encouraging discussion, ethics, translation, pitfalls and dissemination. We demonstrate the techniques and adaptations needed to ensure that FGDs provide rich, high-quality and policy-relevant data on the voices and perspectives of people living with HIV and TB, community groups and health workers within the challenges of resource-poor settings. In applying theory to develop good practice in FGDs across the research cycle, a critical and reflexive approach is needed. PMID:24038045
Theobald, Sally; Nyirenda, Lot; Tulloch, Olivia; Makwiza, Ireen; Soonthorndhada, Amara; Tolhurst, Rachel; Bongololo, Grace; Sanou, Armande; Katjire, Marjorie; Kilonzo, Nduku; Yan, Fei; Al-Aghbari, Nasher; Al-Sonboli, Najla; Cuevas, Rachel Anderson de; Fergusson, Pamela
Review: Marlene de Laine (2000. Fieldwork, Participation and Practice: Ethics and Dilemmas in Qualitative Research Review: Marlene de Laine (2000. Fieldwork, Participation and Practice: Ethics and Dilemmas in Qualitative Research Reseña: Marlene de Laine (2000. Fieldwork, Participation and Practice: Ethics and Dilemmas in Qualitative Research
Full Text Available In ihrem Buch Fieldwork, Participation and Practice: Ethics and Dilemmas in Qualitative Research präsentiert DE LAINE theoretische Diskussionen und Fallbeispiele zur Feldarbeit, um an ihnen die Komplexität ethischer Fragen bezogen auf den ethnographischen Prozess und dessen Produkte zu diskutieren. Sie veranschaulicht, dass eine ethische Praxis des kritischen und reflexiven Denkens der Forscher(innen bedarf. Ihr Buch ist für erfahrene Forscher(innen ebenso hilfreich und empfehlenswert wie für Noviz(innen. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0204185DE LAINE presents theoretical discussions and case examples of fieldwork to demonstrate the complexity of ethics that includes attention to both the ethnographic process and product. She demonstrates how ethical practice for the contemporary fieldwork researcher requires critical and reflective thinking, in addition to an understanding of codes of ethics. Her book is highly recommended for both experienced and new fieldwork researchers. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0204185El autor presenta discusiones teóricas y casos sobre trabajo de campo para discutir sobre la complejidad de planteamientos éticos (relacionados a procesos entnográficos y sus productos. Ellos ilustran el requerimiento de una práctica ética del pensamiento crítico y reflexivo del investigador. Su libro está dirigido a investigadores experimentados al mismo tiempo que es de ayuda y aconsejable para principiantes. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0204185
The ethical basis of suicide prevention is illustrated by contrasting helpline emergency rescue policies of the Samaritans and the AAS and the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline network. We contrast moralist, relativist, and libertarian ethical premises and question whether suicide can be rational. Samaritans respect a caller's right to
Mishara, Brian L.; Weisstub, David N.
Decisions regarding the extent of treatment of severely ill patients can be an ethical dilemma when life-prolonging intensive care contradicts the goal of avoiding unnecessary suffering on the part of the patient. Here we present the results of a written survey of physicians on neurological intensive care units in Germany regarding the treatment of patients with basilar artery thrombosis and locked-in syndrome. 52% of the 93 physicians who replied advocated not treating severe infections with antibiotics, 38% were in favor of stopping intensive care. In contrast, 55% recommended intubating the patient in the presence of swallowing disturbances and imminent aspiration. 58% were in favor of discussing these problems in detail with the patient, and 87% advocated discussing them with relatives. Nearly all physicians (97%) recommended using adequate amounts of opiates and benzodiazepines. In very rare cases, 99% would agree to the use of passive euthanasia and 19% to active euthanasia. These findings illustrate the current disagreement on some of the important treatment decisions among physicians on neurological intensive care units. An open exchange of views on these questions could facilitate the appropriate consideration of ethical matters in the treatment of these patients. PMID:9380211
Thiel, A; Schmidt, H; Prange, H; Nau, R
Full Text Available La información es una cuestión clave en las relaciones asistenciales. Podemos afirmar que resulta imprescindible para el desarrollo de nuestras profesiones. La información que obtenemos de la interacción con los pacientes debemos compartirla con los profesionales con los que trabajamos. Básicamente, esa información procede de la concesión que nos hacen las personas con las que tratamos, y se nos otorga en la confianza de que será utilizada para conseguir el fin concreto que la intervención profesional se propone. Entendemos, por lo tanto, que el valor nuclear que orienta esa relación profesional-paciente está en su carácter confidencial. Así mismo, la confidencialidad camina unida necesariamente a la intimidad de las personas, e implica fundamentalmente una cuestión de respecto por el paciente. También apela directamente a nuestra responsabilidad profesional. Y es en el ejercicio y en el marco de interacción cotidiana con otros profesionales donde surgen los dilemas éticos. Este artículo analiza un dilema ético mediante el método de resolución de casos utilizado en Comités de Ética. Su objetivo es pedagógico y quiere contribuir a la reflexión en la práctica del trabajo social. Information is a key issue in care relationships. It might be said that it is essential for caregivers, who need to share the information obtained from interaction with patients with the professionals they work with. Basically it is information that the patients provide because they trust caregivers, and they give it in the confidence that it will be used to achieve the specific purpose of our professional intervention. Therefore, confidentiality can be considered to be the core value that guides this professional-patient relationship. Furthermore, confidentiality necessarily goes hand-in-hand with people's privacy and primarily involves respect for the patient. It also appeals directly to professional responsibility, and it is precisely in daily interaction among professionals where ethical dilemmas arise. This article analyses an ethical dilemma by means of the method of resolution of cases used in Ethics Committees. Its aim is pedagogical and wants to contribute to reflection about the practice of Social Work.
The World Bank is committed to "work[ing] with countries to improve the health, nutrition and population outcomes of the world's poor, and to protect[ing] the population from the impoverishing effects of illness, malnutrition and high fertility".1 Ethical issues arise in the interpretation of these objectives and in helping countries formulate strategies and policies. It is these ethical issueswhich are often not acknowledged by commentatorsthat are the subject of this paper. It...
It is vital that leaders and managers focus on justice and human dignity in the workplace when faced with the possible need to downsize. First, administrators should clearly identify the goals of work force reduction, evaluate their importance, and consider whether they could be achieved through other means. Once they have made the decision to downsize, top managers must clearly communicate the reasons and the goals to those responsible for identifying the employees affected. Employees selected for layoff should be identified on the basis of the articulated goals for work force reduction, whenever possible. When this is not clear, the tough decisions can be based on a variety of factors: "across-the-board" reductions; employee abilities, qualifications, and performance; diversity goals; seniority; or multiple criteria. It is also important to respect human dignity in the layoff process. Affected employees should be informed in advance and given an honest explanation for the layoff. Ordinarily, they should be encouraged to work until the effective date. All employees need a clear and honest explanation of the reasons for and the expected effects of the layoff. There should be a stress on the free flow of information, without an effort to control it. How downsizing is handled says a lot about the nature of an organization and its leadership. Ethical downsizing is, first of all, a refusal to deny the complexity of the issues and evidence of the organization's commitment to justice and human dignity. PMID:10135164
Weber, L J
The Making Ethical Decisions about Surgical Intervention (MEDSI) tool is designed to guide health care professionals, patients, and families faced with ethically charged decisions regarding surgical interventions for pediatric patients. MEDSI is built on the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and patient autonomy and created to promote truth-telling, compassion, respect for patient cultural and religious preferences, and appropriate follow up in the clinical setting. Following an overview of the 8 steps that compose MEDSI, the tool is applied to the management of intersex infants. The birth of a child with a disorder of sexual development (DSD) and ambiguous genitalia presents an ethically challenging situation for the family and health care team. The use of the MEDSI model is demonstrated in a case study involving the decision of surgical intervention in the management of an intersex child. PMID:24251985
Lathrop, Breanna L; Cheney, Teresa B; Hayman, Annette B
Full Text Available Douglas Renwick (2003 said that the personnel function plays therole of guardian of employees wellbeing, but on the other hand, hesaid that personnel managers also tamper with the wellbeing of employees.Looking at Renwicks theory through Ulrichs model of personnelmanagers as guardians of employees wellbeing, they play therole of strategic partners, managers of the changes and the role of theemployees representatives. Gantz and Hayes (in Payne and Wayland,1999 explicated a few fields where we can talk of ethical conflict whileperforming these roles: discrimination, psychological tests, anti-unionbehaviour, design of work flow, job insecurity, discipline, confidentiality,privacy, and firing because of technological redundancy. In this paperwe explore the field of potential and real ethical conflicts of humanresource managers.What are the most important values of humanresources managers? In which areas do ethical conflicts occur?And how do they solve these conflicts on an everyday basis? We usedquestionnaires to gather data on these issues. We found out that managerswho are in leading positions suffer the most, next are those whohave had long tenure. In this situation ethical codes dont help much.
This article describes a model that aims to create a greater ability to recognize the negative aspects of making unethical decisions. To this end, the authors developed an ethical decision-making model to aid students through the process of analyzing these situations--a model that is easy to remember and apply. Through this model, the COVER model,
Mitchell, Jennifer M.; Yordy, Eric D.
Ethical issues regarding children with disabilities have long involved their treatment after they are born. These issues remain important, but children may be deliberately created with or without characteristics that are usually thought of as disabilities. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and related technologies that involve human
Kauffman, James M.; Hallahan, Daniel P.
Acting in the best interests of students is central to the moral and ethical work of schools. Yet tensions can arise between principals and school counsellors as they work from at times opposing professional paradigms. In this article we report on principals' and counsellors' responses to scenarios covering confidentiality and the law,
Kimber, Megan; Campbell, Marilyn
A large body of pedagogical research exists on developing curricula and ethics training tools to prepare college graduates for entering the workforce. However, many college students are "already" in the workforce while they attend school. Many of these jobs are entry-level or frontline employee positions in retail or service industries,
Bush, Victoria D.; Smith, Rachel Korthage; Bush, Alan J.
Discusses ethical issues concerning public Internet access in academic libraries. Highlights include intellectual freedom, censorship, technical aspects of limiting or restricting use, legal liability for public use of computers for illegal purposes such as child pornography, and the importance of priority use of terminals by the primary academic
Still, Julie; Kassabian, Vibiana
Ethical dilemmas faced by an academic fieldwork coordinator, clinical preceptor, and student illustrate the complex issues surrounding confidentiality in allied health clinical experience. Awareness of the law and professional codes of ethics should guide decision making. (SK)
Griffiths, Yolanda; Brown, Kate
National and international codes of research conduct have been established in most industrialized nations to ensure greater adherence to ethical research practices. Despite these safeguards, however, traditional research approaches often continue to stigmatize marginalized and vulnerable communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as an effective new research paradigm that attempts to make research a more inclusive and democratic process by fostering the development...
Flicker, Sarah; Travers, Robb; Guta, Adrian; Mcdonald, Sean; Meagher, Aileen
Background and setting Health care has become one of the most expansive activities in contemporary societies, and technology is one of its most influential factors. The modern medical-technological enterprise is however facing unprecedented practical, ethical and epistemic challenges. This thesis arises from a well-founded concern that medicine in general, and individually targeted preventive medicine in particular, may be about to become technified and dehumanised to an extent where its inte...
Full Text Available Stakeholder analysis is an essential part of business education as students develop awareness of the different perspectives that influence business and the difficult decisions made by business, government and communities. An important aspect of learning is to think critically about who is presenting the viewpoint and the conclusions they have drawn. We have found that the Jigsaw Method is a powerful way to learn the importance of different viewpoints in the teaching of ethical practice and sustainability.
Leigh N Wood
Stakeholder analysis is an essential part of business education as students develop awareness of the different perspectives that influence business and the difficult decisions made by business, government and communities. An important aspect of learning is to think critically about who is presenting the viewpoint and the conclusions they have drawn. We have found that the Jigsaw Method is a powerful way to learn the importance of different viewpoints in the teaching of ethical practi...
Wood, Leigh N.; Peter Dixon
To provide a basis for international discussion of ethical problems, we studied responses of medical geneticists in 18 countries to questionnaires about 14 clinical cases and five screening situations. Of 1,053 asked to participate, 677 (64%) responded. There was greater than or equal to 75% consensus on five cases involving (1) disclosure of (1) conflicting diagnostic findings, (2) disclosure of ambiguous results, (3) disclosure of controversial interpretations, (4) protection of mother's co...
Wertz, D. C.; Fletcher, J. C.; Mulvihill, J. J.
Increased awareness of the importance of fertility concerns to teenage cancer survivors is leading to growing numbers of male teenagers being offered sperm banking at the time of diagnosis. This is now extending to males diagnosed with other conditions where gonadotoxic agents are used in treatment. The storage of sperm in these circumstances is a challenging aspect of health care, given the complex issues and timescale involved. UK law has been enacted to protect legal minors from the potentially harmful effects of exposure to pornographic materials, yet there is reason to suppose that their use in this context could have therapeutic benefit in aiding successful masturbation. This paper uses material gained through consultation with the eleven largest UK sperm banks and 94 male teenage cancer survivors, to discuss the associated legal and ethical dilemmas, including those around the role of parents/carers. Findings suggest that there is variable practice in sperm banks, that almost a quarter of teenage males wanted access to soft porn when banking sperm, and half wanted to bring in their own materials. It concludes that there is an urgent need for any legal barriers to the therapeutic use of pornographic materials to be understood and examined. PMID:17786648
Crawshaw, Marilyn A; Glaser, Adam W; Pacey, Allan A
A survey was carried out in May-June 1992, in the city of Marseille (South-Eastern France), to analyze attitudes towards ethical issues associated with the care of HIV-infected patients in a random sample of general practitioners (GPs) (telephone interviews; answer rate = 78.6%; n = 313). A total of 70.6% were consulted by HIV carriers and 48.9% regularly took care of these patients over the past year. Multi-dimensional analysis showed that support for HIV mandatory screening was related to lack of knowledge and experience with HIV infection, high perception of risks associated with HIV care, and the individual characteristics of GPs, such as religious beliefs and intolerance to uncertain situations. GPs with experience of regular care of HIV carriers had the same opinions than the rest of the sample about 'creation of specialized hospitals for AIDS patients' and similar attitudes toward HIV testing 'without patients' consent' or breaching of confidentiality of HIV diagnosis. Debates on ethical issues among GPs cannot be reduced to a simplistic division of a 'liberal group' highly involved in prevention and HIV care and a 'conservative' majority more or less inclined to stigmatize HIV-infected patients. Ambiguous messages on these issues from health authorities and professional ethical bodies may have very negative impacts on the attitudes of primary care physicians regarding the acceptability of HIV-infected patients. PMID:10142616
Moatti, J P; Souville, M; Obadia, Y; Morina, M; Sebbah, R; Gamby, T; Gallais, H; Gastaut, J A
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A dimensão ética, inerente ao Cuidado de Enfermagem, inclui o ter que decidir sobre os dilemas que se apresentam em sua prática. A experiência mostra que geralmente não possuímos uma referência e depois suficiente treinamento, para julgar a qualidade ética de nossas decisões e ações, razão pela qual [...] , neste artigo se mostram alguns métodos que facilitarão esta análise ética frente a um conflito ou dilema que assim o amerite. Abstract in spanish La dimensión ética, inherente al Cuidado de Enfermería, incluye el tener que decidir sobre los dilemas que se presentan en su práctica. Generalmente, la experiencia muestra que no poseemos una referencia ni suficiente entrenamiento, para juzgar la calidad ética de nuestras decisiones y acciones, raz [...] ón por la cual, en este artículo se muestran algunos métodos que facilitarán este análisis ético frente a un conflicto o dilema que así lo amerite. Abstract in english Inherent to Nursing Care, ethical dimension includes having to decide about the dilemmas that arise in practice. Experience shows that generally we do not have a reference and then sufficient training to judge the ethical quality of our decisions and actions, reason why, in this article some methods [...] are introduced that will facilitate this ethical analysis when faced with a conflict or dilemma that warrants it.
Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged. PMID:24481888
Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO AND OBJETIVO: Com o avanço científico e tecnológico ocorrido a partir dos anos 60, surgiu um crescente aumento do número de pesquisas científicas e uma inflação de co-autorias. Ao longo do tempo, observou-se que numerosas publicações mostravam autores ou co-autores cuja participação na pesq [...] uisa publicada havia sido mínima ou até mesmo inexistente. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar, através da literatura, as situações de má-conduta em autoria: tipos, principais causas, conseqüências e normas éticas; e estabelecer propostas para que as publicações científicas apresentem um maior comprometimento ético. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Revisão narrativa realizada na Faculdade de Medicina de Itajubá, Minas Gerais, Brasil. MÉTODO: Análise de publicações sobre autoria, através das bases de dados Medline, Lilacs e SciELO. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Freqüentes tipos de má conduta são autoria "presenteada", fragmentação e duplicação em publicações. As causas que mais induzem a essas situações parecem ser a pressão exercida pela academia e o desejo de ascensão social e profissional. Esse viés na ciência, acrescido de outras formas de autoria antiética, continua até hoje, apesar dos critérios definidos pelo Comitê Internacional de Editores de Periódicos Médicos, o Grupo de Vancouver. RECOMENDAÇÕES: São propostas várias ações juntoàs instituições de ensino, agências de fomento à pesquisa, órgãos reguladores e associações de classe, para que se institua uma política de avaliação que priorize a qualidade das publicações, bem como o estabelecimento de preceitos éticos em pesquisa e produção científica. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The scientific and technological progress that has taken place since the 1960s has brought an ever-growing volume of scientific research, and inflation in co-authorship. Over this period, it has been observed that an increasing number of publications have listed authors or co- [...] authors whose participation in the published research was minimal or even nonexistent. The objective of this work was to analyze reports in the literature regarding misconduct in authorship: its types, chief causes, consequences and ethical guidelines; and to outline proposals for greater ethical commitment in scientific publication. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review undertaken at Faculdade de Medicina de Itajubá, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Analysis of publications about authorship using the Medline, Lilacs and SciELO databases. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Frequent types of misconduct were gift authorship and divided and redundant publications. The chief causes of these practices seem to be the pressure exerted by academia and the desire for social and professional development. Such factors have brought an increase in unethical behavior. This bias in science continues despite the criteria defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the Vancouver group. RECOMMENDATIONS: Various actions are proposed for educational institutions, research development agencies, regulatory agencies and professional associations. The aim is to establish an evaluation policy that gives primacy to the quality of publications and sets ethical principles for scientific research.
Grieger, Maria Christina Anna.
Applied Ethics is frequently described as a discipline of philosophy that concerns itself with the application of moral theories such as deontology and utilitarianism to real world dilemmas. However, these applications often remain restricted to the academic world. The focus of new versions ethics consulting has since the mid-1980s shifted from what the ethicist knows to what the ethicist does or enables. This shift remodelled the ethicist's role to that of a facilitator in an inherently social process of moral inquiry. Applying these developments in the Namibian context has already proved to be of great value to the local health care industry. PMID:20227344
Optometrists face ethical dilemmas daily in the practice of their profession. Students training to become optometrists also face ethical dilemmas, some of which are unique in their role as students. The focus on ethical practice has been heightened by the increasing scope of optometric practice, the greater demand of society for professional accountability, the greater diversity of membership and viewpoints, the decrease in available dollars for health care delivery, and the conflicting roles of ophthalmology and opticianry with optometry. These factors have led to the addition or expansion of professional ethics courses in optometry programs. This paper examines the difficulties inherent in defining professional ethics and designing ethics courses. Curricular issues are examined, including course objectives, instructors, content, evaluation, timetabling, teaching strategies, student assessment, and resource implications. Much of the research in this area has been done in medical education. Although the content of ethical dilemmas encountered by medical students and physicians may not be applicable to optometry, the process by which they learn to approach the dilemmas is the same. PMID:8570164
Spafford, M M; Strong, G
Full Text Available Editorial on Ethical Issues. Medical ethics is at the centre of medical practice. It isrightly gaining much needed renewed focus and attentionin the evolving scenario. The impetus for it may beattributed to the revelations that arose through Nurembergtrials, the framework elements that define research andpublications related compulsions, and indeed the contextand state of affairs of present day medical jurisprudence.The physiatrists practice cannot remain untouched bythe moral and ethical dilemmas faced in todays world.Although the pillars of the specialty are grounded in the
Full Text Available El diagnóstico de preimplantación genética (DPG es la prueba más reciente entre las técnicas de diagnóstico genético. En este trabajo se analiza su desarrollo, sus indicaciones médicas y los dilemas bioéticos que se pueden llegar a presentar con su uso indiscriminado. Se propone, además, unas preguntas que guíen la toma de decisiones para implantar o no un embrión con algún defecto genético. Por último, se analizan algunos argumentos filosóficos a favor y en contra del PDG.The diagnosis of genetic pre-implantation (PGD is the most recent test amongst the genetic diagnostic techniques. This works analyses its development, medical indications and bio-ethical dilemma that may occur with indiscriminate use. It has been proposed as well that some questions guiding the physicians in the decision making process to implant or not an embryo with some genetic defect. And last, some philosophical issues are also analyzed in pro or against PGD.
One of the ongoing debates in Canadian higher education is the dilemma of the brain drain and the seemingly conflicting goals between the strategies and intentions of various government departments. While Citizenship and Immigration Canada aims to recruit the brightest students from across the globe to study in Canada and to enable their long-term
Malaria vector studies are a very important aspect of malaria research as they assist researchers to learn more about the malaria vector. Research programmes in various African countries include studies that assess various methods of preventing malaria transmission including controlling the malaria vector. Various institutions have also established mosquito colonies that are maintained by staff from the institutions. Malaria vector research presents several dilemmas relating to the various wa...
Internação por ordem judicial: dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeiros / Internación por orden judicial: dilemas éticos vividos por enfermeros / Hospitalization by court order: ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pesquisa qualitativa, cujo objetivo foi descrever as situações vivenciadas e os dilemas éticos dos enfermeiros no percurso de encaminhamento e recebimento, por ordem judicial, de pacientes com indicação de internação em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Foi efetivada entrevista parcialmente estrut [...] urada com 10 enfermeiros, que atuam em UTI e 10 que atuam em emergência de hospitais públicos e privados da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Os dados foram submetidos à análise temática. Os resultados indicam que os enfermeiros vivenciam dilemas éticos consequentes aos problemas de superlotação das UTI e das emergências, da precária tecnologia especializada, da orientação quanto ao benefício concedido pela lei. Concluiu-se que é fundamental a participação dos enfermeiros em debates que possibilitem mapear as diferentes instâncias que têm promovido esta situação, muitas vezes caótica. Abstract in spanish Investigación cualitativa cuyo objetivo fue describir las situaciones vividas y los dilemas éticos de los enfermeros en el transcurso del envío y recibimiento por orden judicial de pacientes con indicación de internamiento en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI). Se realizó una entrevista parcialm [...] ente estructurada con 10 enfermeros que actuaban en la UCI y 10 que actuaban en Emergencias de hospitales públicos y privados de la región metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Los datos fueron analizados según el Análisis Temático. Los resultados indican que los enfermeros experimentan dilemas éticos consiguientes problemas de hacinamiento en emergencia y UCI, especialista en tecnología pobre, la orientación en cuanto a los beneficios establecidos por la ley. Se concluye que es fundamental la participación de los enfermeros en debates que posibiliten mapear las diferentes instancias que han promovido esta situación muchas veces caótica. Abstract in english A qualitative study aimed at describing the situations experienced and the ethical dilemmas of nurses in the process of referring and receiving hospitalized patients by court order who require admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). A partially structured interview was conducted with 10 nurses w [...] ho worked in the ICU and 10 who worked in the Emergency Room (ER) in public and private hospitals in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The data was analyzed following the Semantic Analysis. The results indicated that nurses experienced ethical dilemmas associated with problems of overcrowding in emergency rooms and ICUs, poor specialized technology and orientation as to the benefits provided by law. We concluded that it is essential for nurses to participate in discussions that allow the planning of the different instances that have been promoting this often chaotic situation.
Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza; Schneider, Dulcinéia Ghizoni; Schneider, Nadir; Santos, Alessandra Ceci dos; Leal, Sandra Maria Cezar.
Making ethical decision rarely involves a simple yes or no answer. Matters of confidentiality are no different. This article examines how school counselors must draw the line between protecting a student's privacy and providing information to parents and administrators. (GCP)
Full Text Available Although ethics training is one of the core components of psychiatric education, it is not sufficiently addressed in the curricula of many educational institutions. It is shown that many of the psychiatry residents received no ethics training in both residency and medical school. Predictably, over half of the psychiatry residents had faced an ethical dilemma that they felt unprepared to meet, and nearly all of them indicated ethics education would have helped them to solve this dilemma. In addition to learning about the fundamental topics of ethics like confidentiality, boundary violations, justice, benefience and nonmaleficence, psychiatrists must also learn to deal with other hidden ethical dilemmas which are mostly due to the changing world order. It is obvious that residency training should include a well developed ethics curriculum. However, some still believe that ethical principles cannot be taught and are formed in ones early moral development. Accepting the fact that teaching ethics is difficult, we believe that it is getting easier with the new methods for teaching in medicine. These methods are clinical supervisions, rol-models, case studies, role playing, small group discussions, team based learning and lets talking medicine groups which is a useful methods for discussing ethics dilemmas on daily practice and C.A.R.E (Core Beliefs, Actions, Reasons, Experience which is a special training method for teaching ethics. In this review, the need of ethics training in residency curriculum will be discussed and new methods for teaching ethics will be proposed.
The following paper is based on a Concerted Action which focused on the "Ethical aspects of deistinstutionalisation in mental health care" in 2001. It investigates the development and the ethical dilemmas posed by deinstitutionalization in Greece. This movement has recently undergone a very active phase but the transition from the traditional model of psychiatric care to the community based system unavoidably creates many ethical problems related to the professionals' attitude towards individual liberties, dignity and other fundamental rights of mentally ill persons. These problems exist not only in the level of the therapist-patient relationship but in the level of policy making as well as its implementation. Moreover, the paper deals with specific ethical problems such as stigmatisation and isolation in the community context, as well as the role of the family. PMID:22218080
Ploumpidis, D; Garanis-Papadatos, T; Economou, M
Editors of scientific journals need to be conversant with the mechanisms by which scientific misconduct is amplified by publication practices. This paper provides definitions, ways to document the extent of the problem, and examples of editorial attempts to counter fraud. Fabrication, falsification, duplication, ghost authorship, gift authorship, lack of ethics approval, non-disclosure, 'salami' publication, conflicts of interest, auto-citation, duplicate submission, duplicate publications, a...
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El diagnóstico de preimplantación genética (DPG) es la prueba más reciente entre las técnicas de diagnóstico genético. En este trabajo se analiza su desarrollo, sus indicaciones médicas y los dilemas bioéticos que se pueden llegar a presentar con su uso indiscriminado. Se propone, además, unas pregu [...] ntas que guíen la toma de decisiones para implantar o no un embrión con algún defecto genético. Por último, se analizan algunos argumentos filosóficos a favor y en contra del PDG. Abstract in english The diagnosis of genetic pre-implantation (PGD) is the most recent test amongst the genetic diagnostic techniques. This works analyses its development, medical indications and bio-ethical dilemma that may occur with indiscriminate use. It has been proposed as well that some questions guiding the phy [...] sicians in the decision making process to implant or not an embryo with some genetic defect. And last, some philosophical issues are also analyzed in pro or against PGD.
Full Text Available La terapia génica tiene, de acuerdo con Anderson, cuatro niveles de aplicación: las células somáticas, las células germinales, la terapia perfectiva y la manipulación eugenésica. Se hace un análisis de los dilemas bioéticos en cada nivel de terapia y se plantea el denominado Argumento Evolutivo para cuestionar los deseos de algunos científicos de iniciar terapia génica de células germinales. De igual manera, se advierte de los peligros de iniciar terapia perfectiva y la manipulación eugénica por las implicaciones sociales y políticas de una reactivación de programas de eugenesia positiva.According to Anderson, gene therapy has four levels of application; somatic cells, germinal cells, perfective therapy and eugenic manipulation. An analysis of the bio-ethical dilemma in each therapy level is made and the so called Evolution Concept is stated to question the wish of some scientists to start gene therapy from germ cells. Likewise, there is a warning about the hazards of starting perfective therapy and eugenic manipulation due to the social and political implications of positive eugenics programs reactivation.
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La terapia génica tiene, de acuerdo con Anderson, cuatro niveles de aplicación: las células somáticas, las células germinales, la terapia perfectiva y la manipulación eugenésica. Se hace un análisis de los dilemas bioéticos en cada nivel de terapia y se plantea el denominado Argumento Evolutivo para [...] cuestionar los deseos de algunos científicos de iniciar terapia génica de células germinales. De igual manera, se advierte de los peligros de iniciar terapia perfectiva y la manipulación eugénica por las implicaciones sociales y políticas de una reactivación de programas de eugenesia positiva. Abstract in english According to Anderson, gene therapy has four levels of application; somatic cells, germinal cells, perfective therapy and eugenic manipulation. An analysis of the bio-ethical dilemma in each therapy level is made and the so called Evolution Concept is stated to question the wish of some scientists t [...] o start gene therapy from germ cells. Likewise, there is a warning about the hazards of starting perfective therapy and eugenic manipulation due to the social and political implications of positive eugenics programs reactivation.
Group psychotherapists in their everyday practice confront a series of ethical problems, some of which rise to the level of ethical dilemmas. This two-part special series will address how the group psychotherapist can address these problems and dilemmas in a way that leads to an ethical course of conduct. This article introduces the series by examining ethical principles and decision-making processes that are relevant to the wide range of issues that confront the group psychotherapist. The article also considers the person of the group psychotherapist him or herself and notes that certain personal qualities might create a foundation for ethical thinking and behavior. PMID:17040180
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Human Research Protection (OHRP) has mandated that all research sites outside the United States that participate in research funded by the U.S. Government must file documentation certifying that each research site observes the Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects and has an independent ethics committee. Sites participating in trials sponsored by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) must also undergo regular on-site audits.
Practitioners' ethical orientation and responses vary between practice settings. Yet, currently, the ethics for midwifery practice that is explicit in the literature and which provides the ideals of socialization into practice, is that of bio(medical)ethics. Traditional bioethics, developed because of World War II atrocities and increased scientific research, is based on moral philosophy, normative theory, abstract universal principles and objective problem solving, all of which focus on right and wrong 'action' for resolving dilemmas. They exclude context and relationship. Personal narratives of mothers and midwives contest the appropriateness of these accepted values and systems for childbirth because they induce conflict between workplace/service provider ethics and personal/professional midwifery ethics. In contrast to the disembedded and disembodied approach of biomedical ethics, an ethically adequate response in midwifery practice resonates more with the ethics of intimates, such as feminist virtue ethics. PMID:14650478
Thompson, Faye E
Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines
Discusses ethical dilemmas inherent in the school setting that result from conflicts in counselor responsibilities to pupils, parents, and school. An ethical dilemma involving a pregnant student who is considering an abortion is described, and some possible counselor responses are discussed. (Author)
Huey, Wayne C.
A national survey of 1,045 advertising students measured opinions about the ethical nature of advertising and ethical dilemmas in the advertising business. More than nine out of ten students agreed that working for a company with high ethical standards was important. Students rated all twelve workplace dilemmas presented as somewhat unethical. For
Fullerton, Jami A.; Kendrick, Alice; McKinnon, Lori Melton
Full Text Available It is indispensable for physicians to understand and recognize the fusion of different cultures, to deliver the best possible service to patients with different cultural backgrounds, especially when ethical-medical problems are involved. The Hindu community in Chile differs in significant ways with the western culture. This is especially true for some issues such as the belief in reincarnation or gender inequality, among others. These discrepancies can be relevant for the analysis of several bioethical problems. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the different beliefs, traditions and Hindu visions. We hereby present a review of Hinduism, its relation with medical practice and, as an example, a case of abortion in a Hindu family. Reviewing the traditions, beliefs and methods will help to understand and respect the beliefs of different cultures in contemporary and globalized bioethics.
Suraj Samtani B
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english It is indispensable for physicians to understand and recognize the fusion of different cultures, to deliver the best possible service to patients with different cultural backgrounds, especially when ethical-medical problems are involved. The Hindu community in Chile differs in significant ways with [...] the western culture. This is especially true for some issues such as the belief in reincarnation or gender inequality, among others. These discrepancies can be relevant for the analysis of several bioethical problems. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the different beliefs, traditions and Hindu visions. We hereby present a review of Hinduism, its relation with medical practice and, as an example, a case of abortion in a Hindu family. Reviewing the traditions, beliefs and methods will help to understand and respect the beliefs of different cultures in contemporary and globalized bioethics.
Suraj, Samtani B; Mariana, Jadue Z; Juan Pablo, Beca I.
The increase in migrant populations in western Europe has led to specific problems and dilemmas in the area of sexual and reproductive health and service provision. In general, these problems and dilemmas can be divided into four categories: (1) epidemiology of diseases and risk factors; (2) psychosocial and cultural aspects; (3) communication; and (4) moral and ethical dilemmas. Regarding epidemiology, there is an increased prevalence in migrant groups of unwanted pregnancy...
Rademakers, J.; Mouthaan, I.; Neef, M.
Full Text Available Abstract Psychiatric practice is often faced with complex situations that seem to pose serious moral dilemmas for practitioners. Methods for solving these dilemmas have included the development of more objective rules to guide the practitioner such as utilitarianism and deontology. A more modern variant on this objective model has been 'Principlism' where 4 mid level rules are used to help solve these complex problems. In opposition to this, there has recently been a focus on more subjective criteria for resolving complex moral dilemmas. In particular, virtue ethics has been posited as a more sensitive method for helping doctors to reason their way through difficult ethical issues. Here the focus is on the character traits of the practitioner. Bloch and Green advocated another way whereby more objective methods such as Principlism and virtue ethics are combined to produce what they considered sound moral reasoning in psychiatrists. This paper points out some difficulties with this approach and instead suggests that a better model of ethical judgment could be developed through the use of narratives or stories. This idea puts equal prima facie value on the patient's and the psychiatrist's version of the dilemma they are faced with. It has the potential to lead to a more genuine empathy and reflective decision-making.
Psychiatric practice is often faced with complex situations that seem to pose serious moral dilemmas for practitioners. Methods for solving these dilemmas have included the development of more objective rules to guide the practitioner such as utilitarianism and deontology. A more modern variant on this objective model has been 'Principlism' where 4 mid level rules are used to help solve these complex problems. In opposition to this, there has recently been a focus on more subjective criteria for resolving complex moral dilemmas. In particular, virtue ethics has been posited as a more sensitive method for helping doctors to reason their way through difficult ethical issues. Here the focus is on the character traits of the practitioner. Bloch and Green advocated another way whereby more objective methods such as Principlism and virtue ethics are combined to produce what they considered sound moral reasoning in psychiatrists. This paper points out some difficulties with this approach and instead suggests that a better model of ethical judgment could be developed through the use of narratives or stories. This idea puts equal prima facie value on the patient's and the psychiatrist's version of the dilemma they are faced with. It has the potential to lead to a more genuine empathy and reflective decision-making. PMID:19555473
Carson, Alexander M; Lepping, Peter
Psychiatric practice is often faced with complex situations that seem to pose serious moral dilemmas for practitioners. Methods for solving these dilemmas have included the development of more objective rules to guide the practitioner such as utilitarianism and deontology. A more modern variant on this objective model has been 'Principlism' where 4 mid level rules are used to help solve these complex problems. In opposition to this, there has recently been a focus on more subjective criteria for resolving complex moral dilemmas. In particular, virtue ethics has been posited as a more sensitive method for helping doctors to reason their way through difficult ethical issues. Here the focus is on the character traits of the practitioner. Bloch and Green advocated another way whereby more objective methods such as Principlism and virtue ethics are combined to produce what they considered sound moral reasoning in psychiatrists. This paper points out some difficulties with this approach and instead suggests that a better model of ethical judgment could be developed through the use of narratives or stories. This idea puts equal prima facie value on the patient's and the psychiatrist's version of the dilemma they are faced with. It has the potential to lead to a more genuine empathy and reflective decision-making.
Carson, Alexander M; Lepping, Peter
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Editores de revistas científicas precisam estar atentos aos mecanismos de disseminação de condutas inadequadas no processo de publicação. Este artigo fornece definições, formas de documentar a extensão do problema e exemplos de iniciativas para conter fraudes editorias. Fabricação, falsificação, dup [...] licação, autoria-fantasma, autoria concedida, falta de ética na aprovação de manuscritos, não-divulgação desses fatos, publicação "salami", conflitos de interesse, autocitação, submissão e publicação duplicadas, e plágio são problemas comuns. A conduta editorial inadequada inclui: falha em seguir o processo devido, atraso nas decisões e comunicação com os autores, falhas na revisão, e confundir o conteúdo de um periódico com seu potencial promocional e de propaganda. Os editores podem ser advertidos por seus pares por não investigar comportamento científico suspeito, por não se retratar quando indicado ou não obedecer as seis principais fontes internacionais de orientação em pesquisa, publicação e política editorial. Os editores estão em posição privilegiada para promover práticas adequadas, adotando orientações éticas e claras sobre os procedimentos adotados nos periódicos. Assim, revisores, editores, autores e leitores terão condições de compreender e seguir as normas de publicação. Abstract in english Editors of scientific journals need to be conversant with the mechanisms by which scientific misconduct is amplified by publication practices. This paper provides definitions, ways to document the extent of the problem, and examples of editorial attempts to counter fraud. Fabrication, falsification, [...] duplication, ghost authorship, gift authorship, lack of ethics approval, non-disclosure, 'salami' publication, conflicts of interest, auto-citation, duplicate submission, duplicate publications, and plagiarism are common problems. Editorial misconduct includes failure to observe due process, undue delay in reaching decisions and communicating these to authors, inappropriate review procedures, and confounding a journal's content with its advertising or promotional potential. Editors also can be admonished by their peers for failure to investigate suspected misconduct, failure to retract when indicated, and failure to abide voluntarily by the six main sources of relevant international guidelines on research, its reporting and editorial practice. Editors are in a good position to promulgate reasonable standards of practice, and can start by using consensus guidelines on publication ethics to state explicitly how their journals function. Reviewers, editors, authors and readers all then have a better chance to understand, and abide by, the rules of publishing.
Laragh, Gollogly; Hooman, Momen.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Editores de revistas científicas precisam estar atentos aos mecanismos de disseminação de condutas inadequadas no processo de publicação. Este artigo fornece definições, formas de documentar a extensão do problema e exemplos de iniciativas para conter fraudes editorias. Fabricação, falsificação, dup [...] licação, autoria-fantasma, autoria concedida, falta de ética na aprovação de manuscritos, não-divulgação desses fatos, publicação "salami", conflitos de interesse, autocitação, submissão e publicação duplicadas, e plágio são problemas comuns. A conduta editorial inadequada inclui: falha em seguir o processo devido, atraso nas decisões e comunicação com os autores, falhas na revisão, e confundir o conteúdo de um periódico com seu potencial promocional e de propaganda. Os editores podem ser advertidos por seus pares por não investigar comportamento científico suspeito, por não se retratar quando indicado ou não obedecer as seis principais fontes internacionais de orientação em pesquisa, publicação e política editorial. Os editores estão em posição privilegiada para promover práticas adequadas, adotando orientações éticas e claras sobre os procedimentos adotados nos periódicos. Assim, revisores, editores, autores e leitores terão condições de compreender e seguir as normas de publicação. Abstract in english Editors of scientific journals need to be conversant with the mechanisms by which scientific misconduct is amplified by publication practices. This paper provides definitions, ways to document the extent of the problem, and examples of editorial attempts to counter fraud. Fabrication, falsification, [...] duplication, ghost authorship, gift authorship, lack of ethics approval, non-disclosure, 'salami' publication, conflicts of interest, auto-citation, duplicate submission, duplicate publications, and plagiarism are common problems. Editorial misconduct includes failure to observe due process, undue delay in reaching decisions and communicating these to authors, inappropriate review procedures, and confounding a journal's content with its advertising or promotional potential. Editors also can be admonished by their peers for failure to investigate suspected misconduct, failure to retract when indicated, and failure to abide voluntarily by the six main sources of relevant international guidelines on research, its reporting and editorial practice. Editors are in a good position to promulgate reasonable standards of practice, and can start by using consensus guidelines on publication ethics to state explicitly how their journals function. Reviewers, editors, authors and readers all then have a better chance to understand, and abide by, the rules of publishing.
Laragh, Gollogly; Hooman, Momen.
With the opportunities for anonymity and free expression on the Internet it is it is not inconceivable that moral and ethical dilemmas occur. To give examples of this, we have chosen to analyse two case studies that are concerned with ethical dilemmas. The first case concerns the hacker group Anonymous which revealed personal information and accused two men of being paedophiles. The second case deals with the violation of privacy based on the famous meme Scumbag Steve. The two dim...
This article examined the attitudes of 195 school counselors in Israel regarding (a) the decision to maintain or breach confidentiality in a variety of ethical dilemmas, and (b) the reasons given for justifying their decisions. Eighteen ethical dilemmas in three domains were presented to respondents in a questionnaire. School counselors were most
Social transition causes shifts and changes in the relationship between health professionals and their patients. In their professional capacity, it is important today for nurses to handle ethical dilemmas properly, in a manner that fosters an ethical environment. This article investigates the ethical concerns and decision processes of nurses from a knowledge construction perspective, and examines such issues as patient needs, staff perceptions, organizational benefits, and professional image. The decision making methods commonly used when facing ethical dilemma explored in this study include the traditional problem solving, nursing process, MORAL model, and Murphy's methods. Although decision making for ethical dilemmas is governed by no universal rule, nurses are responsible to try to foster a trusting relationship between employee and employer, health care providers and patients, and the organization and colleagues. When decision making on ethical dilemmas is properly executed quality care will be delivered and malpractice can be reduced. PMID:16222641
Wang, Shu-Fang; Hung, Chich-Hsiu
As euthanasia has become a widely debated issue in many Western countries, hospitals and nursing homes especially are increasingly being confronted with this ethically sensitive societal issue. The focus of this paper is how healthcare institutions can deal with euthanasia requests on an organizational level by means of a written institutional ethics policy. The general aim is to make a critical analysis whether these policies can be considered as organizational-ethical instruments that support healthcare institutions to take their institutional responsibility for dealing with euthanasia requests. By means of an interpretative analysis, we conducted a process of reinterpretation of results of former Belgian empirical studies on written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia in dialogue with the existing international literature. The study findings revealed that legal regulations, ethical and care-oriented aspects strongly affected the development, the content, and the impact of written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia. Hence, these three cornerstones-law, care and ethics-constituted the basis for the empirical-based organizational-ethical framework for written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia that is presented in this paper. However, having a euthanasia policy does not automatically lead to more legal transparency, or to a more professional and ethical care practice. The study findings suggest that the development and implementation of an ethics policy on euthanasia as an organizational-ethical instrument should be considered as a dynamic process. Administrators and ethics committees must take responsibility to actively create an ethical climate supporting care providers who have to deal with ethical dilemmas in their practice. PMID:24420744
Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris
Ten new graduate speech pathologists recounted their experiences in managing workplace ethical dilemmas in semi?structured interviews. Their stories were analysed for elements that described the nature and management of the ethical dilemmas. Ethical reasoning themes were generated to reflect the participants' approaches to managing these dilemmas. Finally, a conceptual model, the Dynamic Model of Ethical Reasoning, was developed. This model incorporates the elements of awareness, independen...
Kenny, Belinda; Lincoln, Michelle; Balandin, Susan
Full Text Available
Background: The continuing evolution of medical treatments and the loss of neutrality of medicine with respect to morality of human values have represented the major tracking elements towards settings of sharing of choices between society and medicine. Several concerns have been raised upon links between pharmaceutical corporations and researchers. Moreover, being in a learning environment, we must pay even more attention to these items because students appear to be at risk for unrecognized influence by marketing efforts. The aim of this study is to focus on the activities of a local ethics committee (LEC and the characteristics of the protocols discussed in an Italian LEC during a three year period (2001-2003.
Methods: Three years of activity of a LEC were analysed by a questionnaire registering: main sponsorship, setting, technical characteristics of trials, outcome of the submission to the LEC, state of progress. Approved trials were followed-up until April 30th, 2005.
Results: A total of 345 protocols were discussed. 67.8% (n = 198 of approved protocols were submitted by a pharmaceutical corporation. 72.6% (n = 212 of studies approved in 2001 were still in progress in 2005. 91.3% (n = 73 of closed trials had a pharmaceutical corporation as their main sponsor. None of the submitted studies focused on prevention strategies.
Conclusions: These results show how important grants offered by pharmaceutical industries are, the efforts spent on therapy and the lack of investors in prevention.
Dilemas éticos em UTI: contribuições da Teoria dos Valores de Max Scheler / Ethical dilemmas in ICU: contributions of Max Scheler's Theory of Values / Dilemas éticos en UTI: contribuciones de la Teoría de Valores de Max Scheler
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo objetivou refletir, tomando como base o referencial teórico de Max Scheler, sobre os dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeiros na UTI, e sobre os valores que norteiam suas atitudes e decisões. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa, tendo sido entrevistados dez enfermeiros da UTI de um hospital [...] universitário. Identificou-se a vivência de dilemas éticos referentes à terminalidade relacionada aos limites de intervenções e de utilização dos recursos materiais, além da questão da transfusão de sangue em caso de restrição religiosa. Os valores identificados foram: respeito, dignidade do paciente, conhecimento científico, humildade, paixão pela profissão e amor a Deus. A teoria dos valores constitui importante subsídio para enfermagem por permitir a abordagem de uma ética humanizadora da práxis, especialmente nas situações de dilemas éticos. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue reflexionar, con base en el marco teórico de Max Scheler, sobre los dilemas éticos experimentados por enfermeros en la UCI, y sobre los valores que orientan sus actitudes y decisiones,. Se trata de investigación cualitativa y fueran entrevistados diez enfermeros de la UCI [...] de un hospital universitario. Identificada la experiencia de los dilemas éticos relativos a la condición terminal sobre los límites de la intervención y el uso de los recursos materiales, más allá de la cuestión de la transfusión de sangre en caso de restricciones religiosas. Los valores identificados fueron: el respeto, la dignidad del paciente, el conocimiento científico, la humildad, la pasión por la profesión y el amor de Dios. La teoría del valor constituye un instrumento importante para la enfermería, permitiendo el uso de una ética humana de la práctica en situaciones de dilemas éticos. Abstract in english The study aimed to reflect, based on the theoretical framework of Max Scheler, about the ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses in the ICU, and about the values that guide their actions and decisions,. This is qualitative research, and ten ICU nurses have been interviewed at a university hospital. I [...] t was identified the experience of ethical dilemmas related to the terminality related to the limits of intervention and use of material resources, as well as the issue of blood transfusion in case of religious restrictions. The values identified were: respect, dignity of the patient, scientific knowledge, humility, passion for the profession and love of God. The theory of values is an important tool for nursing because it allows the approach of an ethics of humanizing praxis, especially in situations of ethical dilemmas.
Medeiros, Marlise Barros de; Pereira, Eliane Ramos; Silva, Rose Mary Costa Rosa Andrade; Silva, Marcos Andrade.
Accounting graduates must be able to recognize and resolve ethical dilemmas. Ethics should be taught frequently and in short doses, using such methods as videotapes, discussions of current events, and cases of real company practices. (SK)
D'Aquila, Jill M.
Objective Recently there has been emerging clinical and research interest in the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN). To our knowledge, few studies have discussed ethical aspects associated with the increased use of neuromodulation in AN, some of which are quite specific to AN, despite the rapid development and dissemination of these new technologies. Method We provide a brief overview of three published rTMS studies for AN and discuss ethical issues involved in the use of neuromodulation for AN. Results In contrast to neurosurgery or DBS, rTMS is a less invasive technique, with less associated risk, and thus has greater potential to become a more widespread augmentation or add-on therapy for AN. New therapeutic procedures are promising, yet they raise ethical questions regarding informed consent and patient selection. Illness-specific issues surrounding authenticity and autonomy are important to consider, ensuring an ethical approach to treatment for patients with AN. Discussion We argue that ethical investigations for neuromodulation techniques are timely and important, and discussions should go beyond the immediate goals of patient safety, consent, and risk and benefit, to consider broader ethical concepts such as authenticity and autonomy.
In this research, we examine when and why organizational environments influence how employees respond to moral issues. Past research proposed that social influences in organizations affect employees' ethical decision making, but did not explain when and why some individuals are affected by the organizational environment and some disregard it. To address this problem, we drew on research on power to propose that power makes people more self-focused, which, in turn, makes them more likely to ac...
Pitesa, Marko; Thau, Stefan
Ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses presented in nursing publications Dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeros y presentados en publicaciones de enfermería Dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeiros apresentados em publicações de enfermagem
Full Text Available This systematic literature review used nursing studies about "ethics" published in the SCIELO database. The objective was to identify the ethical dilemmas of nursing, based on a literature review of nursing publications between 2002 and 2006. Forty publications were found, of which seventeen were selected. The analysis of the articles permitted the organization of the following categories: ethics, the health system and nursing practice; ethics and nursing teaching-learning; ethics and nursing care. We noticed that the authors attributed a multidimensional approach to ethical issues. However, we considered it necessary to pay closer attention to the ethical aspects involved in nursing practice. There is a clear need for further studies, showing new ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses, so that they can contribute to a change in attitude, with outcomes for professional practice.Se trata de una revisión sistemática de la literatura, realizada en artículos del área de la enfermería, contenidos en el banco de datos SCIELO, y que abordaron el tema "ética". El estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los dilemas éticos de la enfermería a partir de una revisión de la literatura en publicaciones sobre esa área, en el período de 2002 a 2006. Se localizaron cuarenta publicaciones, de las cuales fueron seleccionadas diecisiete. El análisis de los artículos permitió la organización de las categorías en: ética, el sistema de salud y la práctica de enfermería, ética y la enseñanza-aprendizaje en la enfermería y, ética y el cuidado de enfermería. Se percibió que los autores realizaron, sobre las cuestiones éticas, un abordaje multidimensional, entretanto, se consideró necesario, en este estudio, dar mayor atención a los aspectos éticos que se encuentran frecuentemente en la práctica de enfermería. Quedó clara la necesidad de realizar otros estudios que pongan en evidencia nuevos dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeros, en el sentido de contribuir para el cambio de actitud, que implicaría en mejorar la calidad de la práctica profesional.Trata-se de revisão sistemática da literatura, realizada em artigos da área da enfermagem, contidos no banco de dados SCIELO, e que abordaram o tema "ética". Teve como objetivo identificar os dilemas éticos da enfermagem a partir de revisão de literatura em publicações da área, no período de 2002 a 2006. Localizou-se quarenta publicações, das quais foram selecionadas dezessete. A análise dos artigos permitiu a organização das categorias: ética, o sistema de saúde e a prática de enfermagem, ética e o ensino-aprendizagem na enfermagem, ética e o cuidado de enfermagem. Percebeu-se que os autores atribuíram às questões éticas abordagem multidimensional, no entanto, considerou-se, aqui, necessária maior atenção a respeito dos aspectos éticos que permeiam a prática de enfermagem. Ficou clara a necessidade de mais estudos que evidenciem novos dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeiros, no sentido de contribuir para mudança de atitude, implicando na qualidade da prática profissional.
Maria Adelane Alves Monteiro
This case study explores an ethical dilemma faced by a new junior high school principal. It is appropriate for use in all preparation course work, including the internship. Studies show that novice principal decision making differs from that of experienced principals in moral dilemmas, including following policy versus best interests of the
Hightower, Bynum Blake; Klinker, JoAnn Franklin
Education in ethics among practising professionals should provide a systematic procedure for resolving moral problems. A method for such decision-making is outlined using the two classical orientations in moral philosophy, teleology and deontology. Teleological views such as utilitarianism resolve moral dilemmas by calculating the excess of good over harm expected to be produced by each feasible alternative for action. The deontological view focuses on rights, duties, and principles of justic...
Candee, D.; Puka, B.
"Ethics of Media." Nick Couldry, Mirca Madianou, Amit Pinchevski (eds). Palgrave Macillan. June 2013. --- Do digital media create new ethical dilemmas? What is our responsibility as spectators and witnesses? Bringing together philosophers and media scholars and drawing on a range of contemporary case studies, Ethics of Media aims to highlight the diversity of competing answers to the question, is there an ethics of media? Patrick Weir finds that this is thought provoking first s...
The goal of nutrigenomics is to develop nutritional interventions targeted to individual genetic make-up. Obesity is a prime candidate for nutrigenomics research. Personalized approaches to prevention of diseases associated with obesity may be available in the near future. Nevertheless, in the context of limited resources, access to a nutrigenomics personalized health service raises questions around equity. Using focus groups, the present qualitative research study provides empirical data on ethical concerns and values surrounding the nutrigenomics-guided personalized nutrition for obesity prevention. Eight focus groups were convened including 27 healthy individuals and 21 individuals who self-identified as obese or at risk of obesity. The transcripts of the focus group were analyzed according to the qualitative method of grounded theory. Responsibility, reciprocity, and solidarity emerged as the key ethical criteria perceived by the respondents to be significant in terms of how health professionals should determine access to personalized nutrition services. Still, exclusion of individuals from specific nutrigenomic services is likely to conflict with the imperatives of medical deontology and contemporary social consensus. The representation of equity in this paper is novel: it considers the intersection of nutrigenomics and personalized nutritional interventions specifically in the context of limited public resources for health services. PMID:19040373
Lévesque, Lise; Ozdemir, Vural; Godard, Béatrice
Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Future managers are faced daily with a variety of ethical dilemmas in traffic that need to be balanced by the interests of all participants. The question is whether a new innovative model of ethical principles could be developed that would increase road safety.Purpose: The a im is to raise the level of social responsibility and relationship of participants in traffic as well as warn all participants on the importance of safety. In addition, the purpose is to share suggestions to other researchers for further research studies in the area of increasing traffic safety.Method: We carried out a quantitative study (survey among first year post-graduate students studying at a higher education school focused on quality management in south-eastern Slovenia. The article presents five different ethical scenarios.Results: The participants have very similar views on judging individual ethical dilemmas. The desire to increase road safety, have led to new useful suggestions for further study of innovative new ethical principles in the field of safety, such as: no death victims annually, adequate road infrastructure, improved vehicle technology, video surveillance systems, and so on.Organization: Relevant authorities should promote models of ethical thinking and the introduction of codes of conduct at an early age. As such, the state, police, rescuers, fire departments, hospitals, and so on, would have fewer deaths due to serious traffic accidents.Society: By taking these results and further research suggestions into account, society would gain a new model that would be based on zero accidents annually.Originality: Research in the field of ethics and innovative ethical principles of traffic safety is limited. The article presents practical examples of ethical and moral decision-making that we encounter in daily traffic. But nothing much is done to make it better ("every day the same story".Limitations/Future Research: The research study was conducted on a small sample of 13 students.
Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethical dilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of
Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty
233Rapid developments in information andcommunication technologies have created newsecurity threats along with ethical dilemmas. Thesedevelopments have been so fast that appropriatesecurity precautions and ethical codes fail to keeppace with the technological developments. In thisrespect, education of both professionals andordinary citizens regarding information technologyethics carries utmost importance. Encyclopedia ofInformation Ethics and Security serves as anauthentic and comprehensive r...
Moral conflicts occur in theories that involve more than one principle. I examine basic ways of dealing with moral dilemmas in medical ethics and in ethics generally, and propose a different approach based on a principle I call the "mutuality principle". It is offered as an addition to Tom Beauchamp and James Childress' principlism. The principle calls for the mutual enhancement of basic moral values. After explaining the principle and its strengths, I test it by way of an examination...
Explores ethical issues heightened by use of technology, and examines a means for managing these ethical concerns. Argues that ethical problems are not inherent in technological advances, but rather it is how human beings choose to use these new tools that may lead to ethical dilemmas in business contexts. (SR)
Herschel, Richard T.; Andrews, Patricia Hayes
Outlines a theoretical framework of ethics, power, and communication in the workplace, which provides a backdrop for viewing ethical decisions. Explains that business managers are often caught in a dilemma between job pressures and personal ethical codes. Proposes communication as a means of fostering more ethical organizational behavior. (SG)
Pettit, John D., Jr.; And Others
Even though principles to guide practice are crucial, there are no hard-and-fast rules for resolving ethical issues--dilemmas that are not easily resolvable because they present opposing values and outcomes that may harm to certain groups of people if not properly considered. This article describes a number of ethical dilemmas faced as a workplace
As a marketing analyst, Eric is faced with several ethical dilemmas. When asked to engage in unethical and illegal behavior, Eric must decide whether to obey his boss and fudge the numbers (the counts of product purchased in order to get reimbursed more from the manufacturer during special sales) or take the ethical route. The case consists of two
Castleberry, Stephen B.
This paper suggests that design ethics can be enriched by considering ethics beyond the traditional approaches of deontology, teleology, and virtue ethics. Design practice and design ethics literature tend to frame ethics in design according to these approaches. The paper argues that a fundamental and concrete ethical understanding of design ethics can also be found in Sartrean Existentialism, a philosophy centered on the individual and his/her absolute freedom. Through the analysis of four core concepts of Sartrean Existentialism that define a specific ethics, the paper illustrates why such philosophical approach is relevant to design ethics. The paper also shows how Sartrean Existentialism and its ethics apply to critical issues of professional practice in design such as professional engagement and design decision-making. The paper finally argues that Sartre's philosophy and ethics is a perspective that offers the designer in design practice a solid ground to engage his/her ethical dilemma. PMID:19644771
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few empirical studies have been found that explore ethical challenges among persons in high public positions that are responsible for elder care. The aim of this paper was to illuminate the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care as experienced by high level decision-makers. Methods A phenomenological-hermeneutic method was used to analyse the eighteen interviews conducted with political and civil servant high level decision-makers at the municipality and county council level from two counties in Sweden. The participants worked at a planning and control as well as executive level and had both budget and quality of elder care responsibilities. Results Both ethical dilemmas and the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care were revealed. No differences were seen between the politicians and the civil servants. The ethical dilemmas mostly concerned dealings with extensive care needs and working with a limited budget. The dilemmas were associated with a lack of good care and a lack of agreement concerning care such as vulnerable patients in inappropriate care settings, weaknesses in medical support, dissimilar focuses between the caring systems, justness in the distribution of care and deficient information. Being in ethically difficult situations was challenging. Associated with them were experiences of being exposed, having to be strategic and living with feelings such as aloneness and loneliness, uncertainty, lack of confirmation, the risk of being threatened or becoming a scapegoat and difficult decision avoidance. Conclusion Our paper provides further insight into the ethical dilemmas and ethical challenges met by high level decision-makers', which is important since the overall responsibility for elder care that is also ethically defensible rests with them. They have power and their decisions affect many stakeholders in elder care. Our results can be used to stimulate discussions between high level decision-makers and health care professionals concerning ways of dealing with ethical issues and the necessity of structures that facilitate dealing with them. Even if the high level decision-makers have learned to live with the ethical challenges that confronted them, it was obvious that they were not free from feelings of uncertainty, frustration and loneliness. Vulnerability was revealed regarding themselves and others. Their feelings of failure indicated that they felt something was at stake for the older adults in elder care and for themselves as well, in that there was the risk that important needs would go unmet.
The American Anthropological Association has recently added number 23 to its series of special online publications. Edited by Joan Cassell and Sue-Ellen Jacobs, this collection of six essays is presented to "stimulate discussion and reflection on ethical issues" among anthropologists. Offerings include a background essay and annotated bibliography, two essays containing fictional ethical dilemmas and proposed solutions, an essay on introducing issues of ethical responsibility into the classroom, and guidelines on holding a workshop on ethical problems in fieldwork.
Business leaders frequently face dilemmas, circumstances where whatever course of action they choose, something of important value will be offended. How can an organisation prepare its decision makers for such situations? This article presents a pedagogical approach to dilemma training for business leaders and managers. It has evolved through ten years of experience with human resource development, where ethics has been an integral part of programs designed to help individuals to become excel...
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Trata o presente artigo de uma reflexão acerca da pesquisa e dos dilemas éticos do trabalho da enfermagem, tendo como principal objetivo fornecer subsídios para ajudar a pensar o cuidar, no cotidiano profissional, no campo do ensino, da pesquisa e, particularmente, da assistência. Recorremos a autor [...] es que tratam a respeito da ética, do trabalho e da condição humana, buscando a articulação entre esses conhecimentos e o fazer da Enfermagem, em seu cotidiano. Concluímos que diante da realidade da saúde, em meio a tantas adversidades com as quais nos deparamos, no dia-a-dia da prática profissional, seja no ensino, na pesquisa ou na assistência de Enfermagem, o pensar e agir com ética é uma condição estruturante, que enobrece e humaniza a profissão dando sentido às ações de seus profissionais. Abstract in spanish El presente artículo es una reflexión sobre la investigación y los dilemas éticos del trabajo de Enfermería, con el objetivo primordial de ofrecer subsidios para ayudar a pensar la atención, de acuerdo con la práctica profesional en el campo de la educación, la investigación, y en particular la asis [...] tencia. Recurrimos a autores que se ocupan de la ética, el trabajo y la condición humana, en la búsqueda de una relación entre este conocimiento y el quehacer de Enfermería en su vida diaria. Se concluye que, dada la realidad de salud, en medio de tantas adversidades con las que nos enfrentamos en la práctica diaria, ya sea en la docencia, la investigación o la atención de enfermería, pensar y actuar de manera ética es una condición estructurante, que humaniza y dignifica la profesión y que da sentido a las acciones de sus profesionales. Abstract in english This paper is a reflection on research and the ethical dilemmas of nursing work, with the primary objective of providing subsidies to help thinking about care, according to professional practice in the field of education, research, and particularly of assistance. We rely on authors who deal about et [...] hics, labor and human condition, finding a link between this knowledge and nursing's doing in its daily practice. We conclude that given the reality of health, amid so many adversities with which we are faced in day-to-day practice, whether in teaching, research or nursing care, to think and to act ethically is a structuring condition, which humanizes and ennobles the profession giving meaning to the actions of its professionals.
Raimunda Medeiros, Germano.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo trata da dimensão ética na pesquisa em saúde, relacionando-a mais especificamente à abordagem qualitativa, a partir das contribuições das ciências sociais e em particular da etnografia, que pressupõe a construção de uma relação de confiança e respeito entre pesquisador e pesquisado que s [...] e configura paulatinamente. Os aspectos éticos permeiam a pesquisa qualitativa desde a escolha do objeto de estudo, as delimitações metodológicas, as análises dos resultados até o compromisso de uma devolutiva das informações obtidas; pressupondo a valorização de uma relação interpessoal em que os diferentes interesses, valores e visões de mundo colocam-se como possibilidade ou não de uma construção conjunta do conhecimento. A escolha de um tema ou objeto de estudo está relacionada a uma trajetória de vida singular, em que a todo o momento o pesquisador deve se perguntar como compatibilizar a constituição da postura ética em relação aos pesquisados com seus desejos, sonhos, curiosidades e expectativas. O artigo tem o intuito de refletir sobre esses impasses vivenciados pelo pesquisador, ressaltando a importância da ética para o seu desenvolvimento pessoal, profissional e sociopolítico, valorizando o desejo pela autonomia do conhecimento, a solidariedade com os grupos sociais e com as pessoas envolvidas na pesquisa. A partir do relato de um processo de pesquisa, pretende-se contribuir para a compreensão de como os aspectos éticos são indissociáveis da pesquisa e do próprio pesquisador, trazendo elementos para a realização de pesquisas qualitativas especialmente no campo da saúde coletiva. Abstract in english This article addresses the ethical dimension in health research, relating it more specifically to the qualitative approach, based on contributions of the social sciences and ethnography in particular, as it presupposes building a relationship of trust and respect between researchers and researched s [...] ubjects that is gradually configured. The ethical aspects permeate qualitative research from the choice of the subject matter, the methodological outlines, analysis of the results, to the commitment of providing a feedback for the researched subjects regarding the obtained information. The ethical aspects presuppose the value of an interpersonal relationship in which the different interests, values and worldviews stand as a possibility or not of a joint construction of knowledge. The choice of a subject or object of study is related to a particular life trajectory in which the researcher should ask himself, at all times, how to conciliate the constitution of an ethical attitude in relation to the researched subjects with his own desires, dreams, curiosities and expectations. The article aims to discuss such dilemmas experienced by the researcher, highlighting the importance of ethics for his personal, professional and socio-political growth, and emphasizing the desire for knowledge autonomy, solidarity with social groups and with people involved in the research. Based on the report of a research process, the article intends to contribute to the understanding of how ethical aspects are inextricably linked to research, and also to the researcher, bringing elements to the conduction of qualitative research especially in public health.
Carlos Roberto de Castro e, Silva; Rosilda, Mendes; Eunice, Nakamura.
Ethical challenges associated with the relationships among members of an evaluative team/organization receive less attention. Examples of the kinds of ethical dilemmas that could occur within an evaluation team include an individual taking undeserved credit, transferring blame, making false promises, withholding information, breaching
Reanimación cardiopulmonar en el paciente oncológico terminal: Dilemas éticos y bioéticos en Enfermería / Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in terminal oncologic patient: Ethical and bioethical dilemmas in Nursing
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La vida empieza a tener sentido cuando ayudas a otro, a ponerse de pie y a andar sabiendo que su camino llega al final. Con tal propósito se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal en el contexto hospitalario del Hospital Universitario Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau de la provincia de Villa Clara [...] en el período de octubre de 2005 a abril de 2006. Con el objetivo de determinar el nivel de conocimiento teórico práctico del personal de enfermería en el manejo de la Reanimación Cardiopulmonar (RCP) en el paciente oncológico terminal en urgencias. Se tomó una muestra de 115 enfermeros, que constituyó el 65 % de los que laboran en las diferentes salas del centro hospitalario a partir de un muestreo probabilístico intencional, se incluyeron enfermeros licenciados así como técnicos que laboran en estos servicios, se excluyeron enfermeros en maestrías, licencias y certificados prolongados. Las variables estudiadas fueron nivel de actualización en RCP oncológica, conducta en la reanimación, valores en enfermería, criterio de eutanasia, manejo psicológico del paciente oncológico, principios éticos en enfermería. Se aplicaron encuestas, entrevistas a profundidad, formulario, criterio de expertos y revisión actualizada del tema. Se confeccionaron tablas y gráficos estadísticos con los resultados de los diferentes procederes en las etapas incluidas en el estudio. Se determinó que existe una relación psicoafectiva positiva paciente-enfermero, así como criterio adecuado de enfermería con respecto a la muerte digna y actualización científica sobre el manejo de la reanimación cardiopulmonar oncológica terminal Abstract in english Life starts to have sense when you help somebody else to stand up and to walk, knowing that they are going to die. A longitudinal and descriptive study was undertaken in the hospital context of "Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau" Hospital of Villa Clara Province from October 2005 to April 2006 to determ [...] ine the level of theoretical and practical knowledge of the Nursing staff in the management of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (PCR) in terminal oncologic patients in the emergency service. A sample of 115 nurses (65%) was taken from those working in different wards of the hospital, starting from an intentional probabilistic sampling. Nursing licentiates, as well as technicians working in these services were included. Nurses who were taking Master's degree courses, and those with leaves of absence and prolonged medical certificates were excluded. The studied variables were: updating level in oncologic CPR, resuscitation behaviour, Nursing values, euthanasia criterion, psychological management of the oncologic patient and Nursing ethical principles. Surveys, in-depth interviews, questionnaires, expert's criteria and updated reviews of the topic were used. Statistical tables and graphics with the results of the different procedures in the stages included in the study were made. It was concluded that there was a positive psychoaffective patient-nurse relation, as well as a Nursing proper criterion regarding a dignified death, and an adequate scientific updating on the management of terminal oncologic cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Evaldo, Sardiñas Llerenas; Vivian M, Alvarez Pérez; Armando, Núñez Machado.
Reanimación cardiopulmonar en el paciente oncológico terminal: Dilemas éticos y bioéticos en Enfermería Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in terminal oncologic patient: Ethical and bioethical dilemmas in Nursing
Full Text Available La vida empieza a tener sentido cuando ayudas a otro, a ponerse de pie y a andar sabiendo que su camino llega al final. Con tal propósito se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal en el contexto hospitalario del Hospital Universitario Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau de la provincia de Villa Clara en el período de octubre de 2005 a abril de 2006. Con el objetivo de determinar el nivel de conocimiento teórico práctico del personal de enfermería en el manejo de la Reanimación Cardiopulmonar (RCP en el paciente oncológico terminal en urgencias. Se tomó una muestra de 115 enfermeros, que constituyó el 65 % de los que laboran en las diferentes salas del centro hospitalario a partir de un muestreo probabilístico intencional, se incluyeron enfermeros licenciados así como técnicos que laboran en estos servicios, se excluyeron enfermeros en maestrías, licencias y certificados prolongados. Las variables estudiadas fueron nivel de actualización en RCP oncológica, conducta en la reanimación, valores en enfermería, criterio de eutanasia, manejo psicológico del paciente oncológico, principios éticos en enfermería. Se aplicaron encuestas, entrevistas a profundidad, formulario, criterio de expertos y revisión actualizada del tema. Se confeccionaron tablas y gráficos estadísticos con los resultados de los diferentes procederes en las etapas incluidas en el estudio. Se determinó que existe una relación psicoafectiva positiva paciente-enfermero, así como criterio adecuado de enfermería con respecto a la muerte digna y actualización científica sobre el manejo de la reanimación cardiopulmonar oncológica terminalLife starts to have sense when you help somebody else to stand up and to walk, knowing that they are going to die. A longitudinal and descriptive study was undertaken in the hospital context of "Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau" Hospital of Villa Clara Province from October 2005 to April 2006 to determine the level of theoretical and practical knowledge of the Nursing staff in the management of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (PCR in terminal oncologic patients in the emergency service. A sample of 115 nurses (65% was taken from those working in different wards of the hospital, starting from an intentional probabilistic sampling. Nursing licentiates, as well as technicians working in these services were included. Nurses who were taking Master's degree courses, and those with leaves of absence and prolonged medical certificates were excluded. The studied variables were: updating level in oncologic CPR, resuscitation behaviour, Nursing values, euthanasia criterion, psychological management of the oncologic patient and Nursing ethical principles. Surveys, in-depth interviews, questionnaires, expert's criteria and updated reviews of the topic were used. Statistical tables and graphics with the results of the different procedures in the stages included in the study were made. It was concluded that there was a positive psychoaffective patient-nurse relation, as well as a Nursing proper criterion regarding a dignified death, and an adequate scientific updating on the management of terminal oncologic cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Evaldo Sardiñas Llerenas
Abstract Combined therapy presents ethical quandaries that occur in individual psychotherapy and group psychotherapy, and dilemmas specifically associated with their integration. This paper examines two types of ethical frameworks (a classical principle-based framework and a set of context-based frameworks) for addressing the ethical hot spots of combined therapy: self-referral, transfer of information, and termination. The principle-based approach enables the practitioner to see what core values may be served or violated by different courses of action in combined therapy dilemmas. Yet, the therapist is more likely to do justice to the complexity and richness of the combined therapy situation by supplementing a principle analysis with three additional ethical frameworks. These approaches are: virtue ethics, feminist ethics, and casuistry. An analysis of three vignettes illustrates how these contrasting ethical models not only expand the range of features to which the therapist attends but also the array of solutions the therapist generates. PMID:19113976
Brabender, Virginia M; Fallon, April
A number of ethical issues and dilemmas are to be found in policing. Police officers do engage in unethical behaviour which often originates from the norms of the organisational culture. However, working in the world of policing provides officers with the ability to rationalise, excuse and justify unethical behaviour, while maintaining a moral self image. Culture, values and norms as unconscious and conscious feelings are terms which have different, though not unrelated meanings and manifest ...
Prinsloo, Johan; South African Society for Greek Philosophy and the Humanities; Kingshott, Brian
This teaching guide is for instructors who wish to include a discussion of ethical dilemmas in their regular business seminars and workshops. It discusses why it is essential to teach ethics and how to do so. It reviews the format of specially annotated ethics cases that are designed to help teach business ethics and shows how to use them. These
Collins, Denis; Page, Laura V.
The increasing social and technological complexity of health care is requiring health care providers to make many ethical decisions. This article presents a brief overview of selected ethical principles and theories, as well as several decision-making models. A 10-question model to assist the practitioner in assessing the moral aspects of an ethical dilemma is described and this model is applied to a clinical situation which involves the principles of confidentiality, autonomy, and prevention of harm. PMID:3231360
Bunting, S M; Webb, A A
Many clinicians believe that allowing costs to influence clinical decisions is unethical. They are mistaken in this belief, because it cannot be ethical to ignore the adverse consequences upon others of the decisions you make, which is what 'costs' represent. There are, however, some important ethical issues in deciding what costs to count, and how to count them. But these dilemmas are equally strong with respect to what benefits to count and how to count them, some of which expose ethically ...
Hacia el enunciado de dilemas éticos sobre la enfermedad de Alzheimer precoz, en Antioquia, Colombia Towards the enunciation of ethical dilemmas regarding early onset alzheimer's in Antioquia Colombia
Full Text Available Hemos tratado de presentar, principalmente, aspectos legales y morales que tienen que ver con la enfermedad de Alzheimer de inicio precoz, con énfasis en la situación epidemiológica de Antioquia, Colombia. Más allá de la discusión moderna sobre los aspectos moleculares, queremos enfocarnos en las condiciones objetivas de nuestros pacientes y sus familias incluídas sus condiciones socioeconómicas. Esperamos que, ojalá más temprano que tarde, nuestras reflexiones sean de importancia práctica y, eventualmente, que sean también de utilidad para otros grupos humanos en condiciones similares. This paper discusses moral and legal aspects regarding early onset Alzheimers Disease (EOAD focusing on the epidemiological situation in Antioquia, Colombia. Beyond modern discussions on molecular aspects of genetic diseases we want to try to look at the objective situation of our patients, their families and their socioeconomic environments. It is our hope that as soon as possible our thoughts could be of practical help. Eventually, some of these reflections may be applicable to other human groups under similar conditions.
Francisco Lopera Restrepo
The ethical practice underpinning self-study research has been addressed extensively in the literature of self-study of teacher education practices. Less attention has been paid to how researchers deal with ethical tensions and dilemmas when they arise unexpectedly during self-study research. In this article, we examine how the extrapolation and
Brandenburg, Robyn; Gervasoni, Ann
Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki Declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and health care research, in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research. The guidelines appear to be instrumental and over simplistic representations of the often â??messyâ? realities surrounding the research process that is often guided by relational and local negotiations of ethical solutions. Vulnerable participants, for instance, challenge both professional and research ethics, leaving both professionals and researchers in ethical and moral dilemmas. In this article, we specifically focus on the methodological challenges of obtaining informed consent from drug users and terminally ill cancer patients in our PhD research. The question is how you can illuminate the needs and problems of vulnerable patients and - at the same time - respect their integrity without exposing them unnecessarily. The article illuminates the interactional construction of roles and relationships and how they affect the contextual construction of vulnerability. In this respect, we demonstrate that both patients and researchers are at risk of being vulnerable. In conclusion, we outline and advocate for a more contextualized approach and empirically-informed ethics to informed consent in research with potentially vulnerable participants.
Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Nanna, Kappel
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research is fundamental to improving the quality of health care. The need for regulation of research is clear. However, the bureaucratic complexity of research governance has raised concerns that the regulatory mechanisms intended to protect participants now threaten to undermine or stifle the research enterprise, especially as this relates to sensitive topics and hard to reach groups. Discussion Much criticism of research governance has focused on long delays in obtaining ethical approvals, restrictions imposed on study conduct, and the inappropriateness of evaluating qualitative studies within the methodological and risk assessment frameworks applied to biomedical and clinical research. Less attention has been given to the different epistemologies underlying biomedical and qualitative investigation. The bioethical framework underpinning current regulatory structures is fundamentally at odds with the practice of emergent, negotiated micro-ethics required in qualitative research. The complex and shifting nature of real world settings delivers unanticipated ethical issues and (occasionally genuine dilemmas which go beyond easy or formulaic procedural resolution. This is not to say that qualitative studies are unethical but that their ethical nature can only be safeguarded through the practice of micro-ethics based on the judgement and integrity of researchers in the field. Summary This paper considers the implications of contrasting ethical paradigms for the conduct of qualitative research and the value of empirical ethics as a means of liberating qualitative (and other research from an outmoded and unduly restrictive research governance framework based on abstract prinicipalism, divorced from real world contexts and values.
The meaning that Justice has after a conflict in a society might vary regarding the political development and cultural and shared values of a certain society. Rawls, in his Theory of Justice gives his idea of what justice is and presents two principles of justice that he argues are required to live in a good society: a first principle that secures equal rights and liberties for all individuals and a second egalitarian principle that restrains the consequences of economic inequalities within s...
Although all teachers are expected to be "role models," discursive trajectories reaching back to the West's gay liberation pressure queer teachers to be role models in specific ways--by "coming out" and helping queer students out of their "time of difficulty." Paradoxically, discourses that construct children as innocent and queers-as-a-threat
Russell, Vanessa Tamara
In western societies where the principle of autonomy is jealously guarded, perhaps active euthanasia is more often the focus of public concern and debates rather than any other forms of euthanasia. However due to the advance in technology and its corresponding ability in prolonging life, in Malaysia passive euthanasia presents more of a dilemma. For those concerned and involved with end of life decision-making, it is generally agreed that this is an area fraught with not only medical but legal and ethical issues. In Malaysia where the society is not homogenous but is multi-cultural and multi-religious, in addition to medical, legal and ethical issues, religious principles and cultural norms further impact and play significant roles in end of life decision-making. This paper seeks to identify the issues surrounding the practice of passive euthanasia in Malaysia. It will be shown that despite applicable legal provisions, current practice of the medical profession combined with religious and cultural values together affect decision-making which involves the withholding and/or withdrawing of life-saving treatment. PMID:16229394
This article explores ethical concerns and emerging dilemmas associated with the proliferation of information resulting from the extraordinary advances in molecular genetics. It provides an overview of the ethical and legal challenges associated with predictive testing for inherited disease currently being addressed in the literature. Finally, it offers a framework of ethical principles that can be used to guide nurses and other practitioners in the appropriate application of research findings to the clinical practice setting. The ethical guidelines of self-determination, benefit-burden ratio, and justice promulgated in The Belmont Report are interpreted in the new context of predictive genetic testing. The author concludes by discussing how to balance the technical imperative to advance genetic knowledge for the sake of human health with the ethical imperative to preserve the fundamental rights and liberties of both individuals and communities who are its recipients. PMID:11885910
Carter, M A
Ethical dilemmas in blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses: a legal-bioethical analysis / Dilemas éticos en la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeová: un análisis jurídico-bioético / Dilemas éticos na hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová: uma análise jurídico-bioética
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Identificar a produção de conhecimento pelos profissionais de saúde acerca da hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová (TJ), listar as alternativas terapêuticas para a hemotransfusão nesses indivíduos e citar o ordenamento jurídico, ético e bioético no concernente a hemotransfusão em TJ. MÉT [...] ODOS: Coletaram-se dados nas bases de dados LILACS e SciELO, periódicos de Enfermagem e no http://www.google.com.br. Incluiram-se artigos enfocando hemotransfusão em TJ, e excluíram-se os que não abordassem essa temática ou estivessem repetidos. Utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: As categorias temáticas sinalizam que as TJ acatam a auto-transfusão e se contrapõem à prática médica da hemotransfusão, mesmo que ela represente a continuidade da vida. CONCLUSÃO: Os profissionais de saúde vivenciam dilemas éticos quando precisam administrar hemotransfusão em TJ devido a liberdade religiosa não ser um valor absoluto e a aparente colisão de direitos fundamentais exigir uma tomada de decisão centrada no ordenamento jurídico e nos princípios bioéticos. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Identificar la producción de conocimiento por los profesionales de salud respecto a la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeova (TJ), listar las alternativas terapéuticas de la transfusión sanguínea en esos individuos y citar la ordenanza jurídica, ética y bioética en lo que concierne a [...] la transfusión sanguínea en TJ. MÉTODOS: Se recolectaron datos en las bases de datos LILACS y SciELO, periódicos de Enfermería y en el http://www.google.com.br. Se incluyeron artículos enfocando la transfusión sanguínea en TJ, y se excluyeron a los que no abordaban esa temática o estaban repetidos. Se utilizó el análisis de contenido. RESULTADOS: Las categorías temáticas señalan que los TJ acatan la auto-transfusión y se contraponen a la práctica médica de la transfusión sanguínea, aunque ella represente la continuidad de la vida. CONCLUSIÓN: Los profesionales de salud vivencian dilemas éticos cuando precisan realizar transfusiones sanguíneas en TJ debido a que la libertad religiosa no es un valor absoluto y la aparente colisión de derechos fundamentales les exige una toma de decisión centrada en la ordenanza jurídica y en los principios bioéticos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify knowledge production by healthcare professionals about blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses (JW), listing the therapeutic alternatives for blood transfusion in these individuals and citing the legal, ethical and bioethical standards regarding blood transfusion in JWs. METH [...] ODS: Data were collected in the LILACS and SciELO databases, Nursing journals and on http://www.google.com.br. Articles focusing on blood transfusion in JWs were included, and texts that were repeated or did not approach this theme were excluded. Content analysis was used. RESULTS: The thematic categories show that the JWs accept self-transfusion and are opposed to the medical practice of blood transfusion, even if it represents the continuity of life. CONCLUSION: Healthcare professionals experience ethical dilemmas when they need to perform blood transfusion in JWs due to the fact that religious freedom is not an absolute value, and the apparent collision of fundamental rights demands that a decision be made, centered on legal standards and bioethical principles.
Inacia Sátiro Xavier de, França; Rosilene Santos, Baptista; Virgínia Rosana de Sousa, Brito.
Ethical dilemmas in blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses: a legal-bioethical analysis Dilemas éticos en la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeová: un análisis jurídico-bioético Dilemas éticos na hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová: uma análise jurídico-bioética
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify knowledge production by healthcare professionals about blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses (JW, listing the therapeutic alternatives for blood transfusion in these individuals and citing the legal, ethical and bioethical standards regarding blood transfusion in JWs. METHODS: Data were collected in the LILACS and SciELO databases, Nursing journals and on http://www.google.com.br. Articles focusing on blood transfusion in JWs were included, and texts that were repeated or did not approach this theme were excluded. Content analysis was used. RESULTS: The thematic categories show that the JWs accept self-transfusion and are opposed to the medical practice of blood transfusion, even if it represents the continuity of life. CONCLUSION: Healthcare professionals experience ethical dilemmas when they need to perform blood transfusion in JWs due to the fact that religious freedom is not an absolute value, and the apparent collision of fundamental rights demands that a decision be made, centered on legal standards and bioethical principles.OBJETIVO: Identificar la producción de conocimiento por los profesionales de salud respecto a la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeova (TJ, listar las alternativas terapéuticas de la transfusión sanguínea en esos individuos y citar la ordenanza jurídica, ética y bioética en lo que concierne a la transfusión sanguínea en TJ. MÉTODOS: Se recolectaron datos en las bases de datos LILACS y SciELO, periódicos de Enfermería y en el http://www.google.com.br. Se incluyeron artículos enfocando la transfusión sanguínea en TJ, y se excluyeron a los que no abordaban esa temática o estaban repetidos. Se utilizó el análisis de contenido. RESULTADOS: Las categorías temáticas señalan que los TJ acatan la auto-transfusión y se contraponen a la práctica médica de la transfusión sanguínea, aunque ella represente la continuidad de la vida. CONCLUSIÓN: Los profesionales de salud vivencian dilemas éticos cuando precisan realizar transfusiones sanguíneas en TJ debido a que la libertad religiosa no es un valor absoluto y la aparente colisión de derechos fundamentales les exige una toma de decisión centrada en la ordenanza jurídica y en los principios bioéticos.OBJETIVO: Identificar a produção de conhecimento pelos profissionais de saúde acerca da hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová (TJ, listar as alternativas terapêuticas para a hemotransfusão nesses indivíduos e citar o ordenamento jurídico, ético e bioético no concernente a hemotransfusão em TJ. MÉTODOS: Coletaram-se dados nas bases de dados LILACS e SciELO, periódicos de Enfermagem e no http://www.google.com.br. Incluiram-se artigos enfocando hemotransfusão em TJ, e excluíram-se os que não abordassem essa temática ou estivessem repetidos. Utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: As categorias temáticas sinalizam que as TJ acatam a auto-transfusão e se contrapõem à prática médica da hemotransfusão, mesmo que ela represente a continuidade da vida. CONCLUSÃO: Os profissionais de saúde vivenciam dilemas éticos quando precisam administrar hemotransfusão em TJ devido a liberdade religiosa não ser um valor absoluto e a aparente colisão de direitos fundamentais exigir uma tomada de decisão centrada no ordenamento jurídico e nos princípios bioéticos.
Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França
This paper raises the questions: 'What do we expect from nursing ethics?' and 'Is the literature of nursing ethics any different from that of medical ethics?' It is suggested that rather than develop nursing ethics as a separate field writers in nursing ethics should take a lead in making the patient the central focus of health care ethics. The case is made for empirical work in health care ethics and it is suggested that a good way of setting about this is to ask practising nurses about the ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been devoted to ethical issues related to randomized controlled trials for HIV treatment and prevention. However, there has been less discussion of ethical issues surrounding families involved in observational studies of HIV transmission. This paper describes the process of ethical deliberation about how best to obtain informed consent from sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs tested for HIV, within a recent HIV study in Eastern Europe. The study aimed to assess the amount of HIV serodiscordance among IDUs and their sexual partners, identify barriers to harm reduction, and explore ways to optimize intervention programs. Including IDUs, either HIV-positive or at high risk for HIV, and their sexual partners would help to gain a more complete understanding of barriers to and opportunities for intervention. Discussion This paper focuses on the ethical dilemma regarding informed recruitment: whether researchers should disclose to sexual partners of IDUs that they were recruited because their partner injects drugs (i.e., their heightened risk for HIV. Disclosing risks to partners upholds the ethical value of respect for persons through informed consent. However, disclosure compromises the IDU's confidentiality, and potentially, the scientific validity of the research. Following a brief literature review, we summarize the researchers' systematic evaluation of this issue from ethical, scientific, and logistical perspectives. While the cultural context may be somewhat unique to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the issues raised and solutions proposed here inform epidemiological research designs and their underlying ethical tensions. Summary We present ethical arguments in favor of disclosure, discuss how cultural context shapes the ethical issues, and recommend refinement of guidance for couples research of communicable diseases to assist investigators encountering these ethical issues in the future.
Gordon Elisa J
This paper examines the integration of computational complexity into game theoretic models. The example focused on is the Prisoner's Dilemma, repeated for a finite length of time. We show that a minimal bound on the players' computational ability is sufficient to enable cooperative behavior. In addition, a variant of the repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game is suggested, in which players have the choice of opting out. This modification enriches the game and suggests dominance of cooperative strategies. Competitive analysis is suggested as a tool for investigating sub-optimal (but computationally tractable) strategies and game theoretic models in general. Using competitive analysis, it is shown that for bounded players, a sub-optimal strategy might be the optimal choice, given resource limitations.
Mor, Y; Mor, Yishay; Rosenschein, Jeffrey S.
Research that includes non-human animal experimentation is fundamentally a dilemmatic enterprise. Humans use other animals in research to improve life for their own species. Ethical principles are established to deal with this dilemma. But despite this ethical apparatus, people who in one way or another work with animal experimentation have to interpret and understand the principles from their individual points of view. In interviews with members of Swedish animal ethics committees, different views on what the term ethics really means were articulated. For one member, the difficult ethical dilemma of animal experimentation is the lack of enriched cages for mice. For another, the ethical problem lies in regulations restraining research. A third member talks about animals' right not to be used for human interests. These different views on "ethics" intersect once a month in the animal ethics committee meetings. There is no consensus on what constitutes the ethical problem that the members should be discussing. Therefore, personal views on what ethics means, and hierarchies among committee members, characterise the meetings. But committee traditions and priorities of interpretation as well are important to the decisions. The author discusses how "ethics" becomes situated and what implications this may have for committees' decisions. PMID:19332584
This concluding article of a two-part special section on the ethical group psychotherapist are highlighted: (1) the importance of the cultivation of the skill and knowledge base of the group psychotherapist in terms of pertinent legal statutes and ethical guidelines; (2) the criticalness of certain personality features related to the concept of virtue; (3) a therapist's self-awareness contributes to the capacities to think and respond ethically; (4) ethical decision making is most likely to occur when the group psychotherapist attends comprehensively to all dimensions that define the setting in which a dilemma emerges; and (5) that in the service of positive ethics, attention to the ethical dimensions of group psychotherapy practice should be continuously present. In agreement with other contributions to this section, I conclude that the commitment to the ethical practice of group psychotherapy must be made not only by the individual practitioner but also by educational and training programs and professional organizations. PMID:17266427
Describes a method for helping students evaluate ethical issues in a systematic way, based on Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Recommends the case-study approach for creating social constructs in which students face ethical dilemmas, and outlines a case-study ethics unit using Kohlberg's model. (MM)
Speck, Bruce W.
When faced with a morally charged situation, individuals engage in an ethical decision-making process to resolve the ethical dilemma. This paper outlines a model that describes the steps in the ethical decision-making process and identifies situational factors, collectively termed moral intensity, which may influence this process. The use of a
Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Holmes, Elizabeth K.
Full Text Available Scientists have started with experimentation that raises difficult ethical questions. It comprises taking material from the human blueprint (DNA and inserting this in various test animals. The purpose of such research is noble, namely the alleviation of hu- man suffering. Yet the ethical ramifications of blending the hu- man and animal genome are significant, especially for Chris- tians. The creation of all living entities after their kind and the image-bearing dignity attributed to man both come under se- vere ethical stress for those who presuppose divine order in Gods ecology. For non-Christians the philosophical dilemma ought not to exist in the ethical sense if applied at the purest level. If the human is merely a kind of animal, along with and ontologically not diffe- rent from other animals, there is little logical reason to object to chimeric research apart from a concern about what such re- search and application might do to the order of life pragmati- cally. However, many non-Christian do object. Man is made in Gods image and the concept of human dignity and a universal sense of right and wrong still binds Christians and non-Chris- tians when considering ethics in the field of chimeric research. As the mixing of human stem cells with embryonic animals takes place, certain non-Christian authors protest that human dignity is being diminished and the animal essence is being vio- lated.
H. J.G. Zandman
Neither law nor religion, bioethics absorbs and applies elements of both. Its theories, principles, and methods stem from various philosophical schools. Practitioners use case-based reasoning to apply bioethics to clinical situations, usually giving most weight to patients' autonomy and values, but also incorporating other relevant bioethical principles, including those encompassed in professional oaths and codes. Emergency clinicians must be able to recognize bioethical dilemmas, have action plans based on their readings and discussions, and have a method through which to apply ethical principles in clinical settings. This article provides an overview of ethical considerations and guidelines for emergency clinicians. PMID:16877128
Iserson, Kenneth V
This study aimed to clarify the dilemma of nurses working in general wards who face the ethical dilemma of restraining older people with dementia in Midwestern Japan. The study used the questionnaire method with an independently prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to ensure privacy and anonymity. The privacy and anonymity of study participants was assured. Of the 340 survey questionnaires distributed, 291 (85.6%) completed surveys were eligible number (12 additional surveys...
This article describes and discusses team teaching and particularly guest lectures as a way of integrating ethics into the business curriculum. After a brief discussion of business school responsibilities and the teaching of ethics, the article looks at efforts to integrate the teaching of ethics across the curriculum. Then, findings from a small pilot study among business ethics and business school colleagues are summarized and discussed, with a focus on guest lecturing and team teaching, bo...
Brinkmann, Johannes; Sims, Ronald R.; Nelson, Lawrence J.
Alternrtivas de comprension y diálogo frente al dilema ético que ofrece Ia bioética. ¿Cómo enfrentar el uso de cultivos genéticamente modificados? / ALTERNATIVES OF UNDERSTANDING AND DIALOGUE IN FRONT OF THE lETHICAL DILEMMA THAT OFFERS BIOETHICS, FACING THE USE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CULTURES / ALTERNATIVAS DE COMPREENSÃO E DIÁLOGO OFERECIDAS PELA BIOÉTICA FRENTE AO DILEMA ÉTICO DERIVADO DA UTILIZAÇÃO DE CULTIVOS GENETICAMENTE MODIFICADOS
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese No primeiro lugar se examinarão de forma sistemática e reflexiva as virtudes e benefícios possíveis dos cultivos geneticamente modificados, assim como alguns dos argumentos acadêmicos e científicos que os apóiam. No segundo lugar, será abordada uma segunda posição a partir de seus próprios argumento [...] s e pesquisa, um pouco mais incisiva e informada contra o uso e a manipulação desta classe de cultivos geneticamente modificados. Por último, mesmo que a intenção deste artigo está na análise de alternativas de compreensão e diálogo do dilema ético que surge de utilizar organismos geneticamente modificados para a bioética, também está na necessidade urgente de criar uma hermenêutica bioética fundada nos princípios essenciais da precaução, da justiça e não-maleficência. Estes devem ser padrões dialógicos de encontro e discussão com o respeito e a tolerância que exige esse dilema ético e biotecnológico. Abstract in spanish En un primer momento, se hará un acercamiento sistemático y reflexivo a las posibles virtudes y beneficios de los cultivos genéticamente modificados. Así también, en un segundo momento, se abordará una postura más inquieta y prevenida con respecto al uso y manipulación de esta clase de cultivos gené [...] ticamente modificados. Finalmente, la reflexión gira en torno al análisis de las alternativas de comprensión y diálogo frente al dilema ético que ofrece el uso de cultivos genéticamente modificados para la Bioética, la reflexión también depende de la urgente necesidad de una hermenéutica bioética emplazada en los principios esenciales de precaución y justicia y no maleficencia como pautas dialógicas de encuentro y discusión solícitas del respeto y tolerancia que requiere dicho dilema ético y biotecnológico. Abstract in english At initially addressed a systematic and thoughtful approach facing possible virtues and benefits of crops genetically modified, together with some of the academic and scientific arguments employees for the benefit of the sustainability of many of their performances. As well also, and in a second tim [...] e, will be addressed from its own arguments and research, what we have chosen to draw a second position somewhat more restless and prevented regarding the use of handling of this class of crops genetically modified. Finally as well as understood that this monograph written intentionally revolves around the analysis of the understanding and dialogue with the ethical dilemma that offers the use of alternatives genetically modified for Bioethics crops, it is also the urgent need a hermeneutic located bioethics it on the essential caution, justice and not harm as dialogic principles guidelines and discussion of respect and tolerance meeting and discussion requires that ethical dilemma and biotechnological.
Santiago Eliécer, Arango Diago.
Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts virtue ethics and care ethics to determine their mutual relation. It is argued that there is one tradition within virtue ethics that emphasises that virtue is knowledge and also focuses on direct altruism. There is no opposition between that form of virtue ethics and ethics of care. Furthermore, there are principled objections to generalising the necessarily asymmetric relations of an ethic of care to the case of justice as reciprocal fairness.
In this article I discuss the ethics of synthetic biology from a broadly deontological perspective, evaluating its morality in terms of the integrity of nature, the dignity of life and the relationship between God and his creation. Most ethical analyses to date have been largely consequentialist in nature; they reveal a dual use dilemma, showing that synbio has potential for great good and great evil, possibly more so than any step humanity has taken before. A deontological analysis may help to resolve this dilemma, by evaluating whether synbio is right or wrong in itself. I also assess whether deontology alone is a sufficient methodological paradigm for the proper evaluation of synbio ethics. PMID:24010856
Insights from social science are increasingly used in the field of applied ethics. However, recent insights have shown that the empirical branch of business ethics lacks thorough theoretical grounding. This article discusses the use of the Rawlsian methods of wide reflective equilibrium and overlapping consensus in the field of applied ethics. Instead of focussing on one single comprehensive ethical doctrine to provide adequate guidance for resolving moral dilemmas, these Rawlsian methods see...
Ethical dilemmas in blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses: a legal-bioethical analysis Dilemas éticos en la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeová: un análisis jurídico-bioético Dilemas éticos na hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová: uma análise jurídico-bioética
OBJECTIVE: To identify knowledge production by healthcare professionals about blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses (JW), listing the therapeutic alternatives for blood transfusion in these individuals and citing the legal, ethical and bioethical standards regarding blood transfusion in JWs. METHODS: Data were collected in the LILACS and SciELO databases, Nursing journals and on http://www.google.com.br. Articles focusing on blood transfusion in JWs were included, and texts that were repea...
Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França; Rosilene Santos Baptista; Virgínia Rosana de Sousa Brito
In this article, I argue that agriculture and food production processes are subject to what I refer to as 'dilemmatic situations'. These dilemmatic situations are rather new, and require a new orientation in ethics to account for them. Ethics has to give up long-cherished ideals, such as: (a) the identification of ethics with a set of obligations that require people to do certain actions; (b) the idea that there is only one good solution to an ethical problem; (c) the idea that compromises ar...
Focusing on the emerging dilemmas of US defense, foreign and international economic policies, Professor Garvey calls for a realignment of military alliance strategies consistent with the new realities. He describes the nature of the US's dilemmas and posits the need for decoupling and relinking various facets of American strategic policy that will emphasize Asia and the relationship between commercial and security interests while deemphasizing Europe and the current nuclear commitment.
While environmental ethics and animal ethics have a common source of inspiration, they do not agree on the question of the status of animals. Environmental ethicists criticise the narrowness of the reason, focused on pain, given by animal ethicists and their strictly individual point of view; they maintain that their ethical concept is less emotional and more informed by science, with a broad point of view taking natural networks into account. Animal ethicists respond critically, accusing the environmental ethicists of not having any ethical foundation. There are, however, prospects for reconciling the two approaches, provided that they recognise two different ethical stances for animals: one based on the integrity of wild animals and the other based on a model contract for tame animals. PMID:23516753
Increased work complexity and financial strain in the health care sector have led to higher demands on staff to handle ethical issues. These demands can elicit stress reactions, that is, moral distress. One way to support professionals in handling ethical dilemmas is education and training in ethics. This article reports on a controlled prospective study evaluating a structured education and training program in ethics concerning its effects on moral distress. The results show that the participants were positive about the training program. Moral distress did not change significantly. This could be interpreted as competence development, with no effects on moral distress. Alternatively, the result could be attributed to shortcomings of the training program, or that it was too short, or it could be due to the evaluation instrument used. Organizational factors such as management involvement are also crucial. There is a need to design and evaluate ethics competence programs concerning their efficacy.
KÃ¤lvemark Sporrong, Sofia Beatrice; Arnetz, Bengt
What kind of a leader are you? According to Ms. Godderidge, it's important for managers to assess their own leadership style, as well as its effect on others. She analyzes the "Dilemmas of Leadership" in this article based on her presentation at the 9th World Congress of the International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technicians. PMID:10296606
The central focus of this article is on the moral dilemmas that social servants face when applying the law. These moral dilemmas result from the professionals discretionary space. Exploratory qualitative research shows that, in order to solve these dilemmas, professionals in some public organisations try to find tailormade solutions. However, this sometimes leads to a more or less denying of the discretionary space at hand, or to the creation of more rules in an effort to close the discret...
Lizet van Donkersgoed
Full Text Available Although much literature exists on health care clinical ethics, considerably less literature exists on health care organizational and administrative ethics. This situation is especially important to recognize during periods of restructuring, where too often what is good for health care business may not be ethical, causing an "ethics gap." Ethics gaps can be identified and corrected by careful analysis of an institution's organizational culture. Once the analysis is complete, the institution must focus on building a solid ethics infrastructure that permeates all aspects of the institution. A true case situation is presented to illustrate how a nurse was able to change a tainted organization into a responsible one by ethics infrastructure changes. Finally, implications for health care are addressed.
Mary Cipriano Silva
Full Text Available Today modern society pays great attention to the development of ethical guidelines for each profession and their implementation in the form of codes of ethics to individual policies. In particular, the Ministry of Health and Welfare is faced in meeting the ethical codes of the current economic and political developments in society. Optimization of standards for health and social care that are implemented through normative no systematic evaluation of the impact on each target group significantly reduces their quality of life. The paper draws attention to the dilemmas of social work and health care in relation to ethics.
This paper focuses on a one person game called Indian policeman's dilemma (IPD). It represents the internal conflict between emotion and profession of a typical Indian police officer. We have 'split' the game to be played independently by different personality modules of the same player. Each module then appears as an independent individual player of the game. None of the players knows the exact payoff values of any of the others. Only greater than or less than type of inequ...
Majumdar, Kaushik Kumar
Full Text Available Abstract While a growing body of research is uncovering the aetiology and effective treatments for allergy, research that assess the broader ethical implications of this disease is lacking significantly. This article will demonstrate both the paucity of academic research concerning ethical implications in allergy and explain why ethical analysis is integral to formulating effective health strategies for allergic disease. An exhaustive literature search of publications in French and English identified less than 35 academic articles focussed on the topic of ethics and allergy; this is a miniscule number when compared to the amount of articles published on ethical issues related to other chronic illnesses, such as obesity. It is important to demonstrate to allergy specialists the need for, and utility of, further incorporating ethical analyses in allergology; the current success of Ethical, Legal, Social Implications (ELSI research programmes in human genetics and nanotechnology will serve as notable examples. Indeed, future research and innovation in allergy will undoubtedly encounter ethical dilemmas and the allergology community should play a significant role in helping to address these issues. However, incorporating ethical analyses in allergology does not imply that the allergology community must acquire extensive knowledge in bioethics; instead, interdisciplinary research that incorporates expertise from allergology and bioethics would enable allergy specialists to advance critical knowledge development in this largely overlooked domain of study.
A 74-year-old man with multiple chronic medical problems was hospitalized for respiratory distress. He experienced recurrent aspiration and required frequent suctioning and endotracheal intubation on several occasions. The patient was deemed competent and steadfastly refused feeding tube placement. The patient demanded that he be allowed to eat a normal diet despite being told that it could lead to his death. The patient wanted to go home, but there was no one there to care for him. Additionally, neither a nursing home nor hospice would accept him in his present condition. The case is especially interesting because of the symbolic value of food and the plight of the patient who has no alternative to hospitalization. The hospital staff experienced considerable stress at having to care for him. They were uncertain whether their obligation was to respect his autonomy and continue to provide food or to protect his health by avoiding aspiration, pneumonia, and possible death by denying him food. This ethical dilemma posed by the professionals' duty to do what is in the patient's best interest versus the patient's right to decide treatment serves as the focus for this case study. Ethical, legal, and healthcare practitioners' considerations are explored. The case study concludes with specific recommendations for treatment. PMID:19935216
Badger, James M; Ladd, Rosalind Ekman; Adler, Paul
The increased use of scarce metals in combination with climate changes pave way for extensive extraction of mineral resources in Greenland. The focus of this study is on environmental ethical aspects of mining activities in a vulnerable and unspoiled arctic nature. Mining can have several economic and social benefits for Greenland. On the other hand, the environmental impacts from mining are well known. Through DPSIR (Drivers, Pressures, States, Impacts, Responses) and Stakeholder analysis, we assess how future mining in Greenland can be sustainably implemented. The analysis revealed that numerous stakeholders have to be taken into consideration with a wide range of different interests. The DPSIR analysis clarified the availability of various potential political responses that could affect the drivers, pressures, states and impacts of mining mainly focused on implementation of effective environmental regulation strategies. Our findings revealed different environmental ethical dilemmas of which the most critical is how Greenland can open up for mining, gain economical revenue while averting destruction of unspoiled regions and aesthetic impairment. We recommend strict environmental legislation involving use of the â??polluter pay principleâ?, continuous monitoring of pollution and establishment of an industry-funded catastrophe trust fund. These initiatives can ensure economic benefits while environmental impacts remain negligible.
Hansen, Sinne HjÃ¦lmsÃ¸; Pedersen, Lise Celine
Ethical dilemmas frequently occur when nurses care for patients with a history of intravenous substance abuse who are hospitalized on medical-surgical units. This article discusses the recent findings on substance abuse, including its impact on the brain, effects on society and healthcare, available treatment options, and medical complications related to substance abuse. An ethical model is introduced to analyze ethical dilemmas with an accompanying case scenario. Resources available to nursing staff in many healthcare settings are identified as well as strategies to improve nursing care for this challenging population. The purpose of this article is to reduce nurses' feelings of frustration and stress in order to improve their morale. Finally, this particular contemporary ethical issue will be viewed as if perceived by Florence Nightingale. PMID:17035888
New, and yet familiar, hypothetical cases are debated and agonized over by eminent leaders from government, business, science and academia. "Ethics in America II" follows its predecessor by exploring gripping ethical dilemmas using the time-honored Socratic Dialogue format. The programs can be used with a discussion guide to help teachers engage
Annenberg Media, 2007
The ethical tendencies of university business students from Denmark (n=297) and the United States (n=183) were examined by analyzing their responses to ethical dilemmas on issues of coercion and control, conflict of interest, physical environment, paternalism, and personal integrity. Findings indicated that students from both countries had similar
Smith, David E.; Skalnik, J. Robert; Skalnik, Patricia C.
Qualitative researchers are often confronted by ethical challenges when making research decisions because current guidelines and principles guiding research ethics do not wholly cover the concerns that can arise in complex social research situations. In this article, the authors explore this dilemma in relation to our experiences of conducting
Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.; Brijnath, Bianca; Crockett, Belinda
Archaeology is a highly interdisciplinary field. Its main goal is to construct culture histories, but it uses many scientific methods in the process. Ethical dilemmas inherent in archaeology make it a good vehicle for teaching ethics and character in the classroom (Moe 2000). The interdisciplinary nature of the field makes it possible to weave
Moe, Jeanne M.; Coleman, Carolee; Fink, Kristie; Krejs, Kirsti
The present Thesis explores the possibility of applying a virtue ethics framework, based upon the Aristotelian tradition, into business ethics. The purpose of the Thesis is twofold: to give an overview of virtue ethics through Richard Taylors portrait and to offer a specific account of virtue ethics focused on the business realm. The examination of this virtue ethics proposal is largely founded on Robert C. Solomons works, which constitute the cornerstone of this Thesis. However, the cr...
Gallego Salvador, Francisco
Pancreatic pseudocyst develops in both acute and chronic pancreatitis. It is an entity likely to either remain asymptomatic or develop devastating complications. Despite being diagnosed easily, treatment exercise is still at crossroads whether in the form of internal or external drainage or endoscopic, laparoscopic, or open intervention with a good radiological guidance. The therapeutic dilemma whether to treat a patient with a pancreatic pseudocyst, as well as when and with what technique, i...
Abstract Catatonia is a common syndrome that was first described in the literature by Karl Kahlbaum in 1874. The literature is still developing and remains unclear on many issues, especially classification, diagnosis, and pathophysiology. Clinicians caring for psychiatric patients with catatonic syndromes continue to face many dilemmas in diagnosis and treatment. We discuss many of the common problems encountered in the care of a catatonic patient, and discuss each problem with a re...
Penland Heath R; Weder Natalie; Tampi Rajesh R
This issue focuses on teaching ethics in business education programs. Exploring the teaching of ethics in both high school and college, the newsletter first presents an overview of ethics and the study of ethics and makes a case for teaching ethics in business education courses. Following a short commentary on the difficulty of teaching ethics is
Keying In, 1997
Despite a growing global commitment to the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART), its availability is still likely to be less than the need. This imbalance raises ethical dilemmas about who should be granted access to publicly-subsidized ART programmes. This paper reviews the eligibility and targeting criteria used in four case-study countries at different points in the scale-up of ART, with the aim of drawing lessons regarding ethical approaches to rationing. Mexico, Senegal, Thailand an...
Bennett, Sara; Chanfreau, Catherine
Universal health care will soon be here. This paper presents the basic models of managed care as well as a glossary of terms to allow discussion of the basic plans. Three cases are discussed to illustrate the dilemmas of managed care utilizing Dr. Fletcher's ethical model. Basic concepts are derived from these cases to assist physicians to work within the constraints of the new health care systems and enable them to respond to the sometimes unavoidable conflicts between medical benefit and cost containment. PMID:8247464
Finnerty, J J; Pinkerton, J V
Society uses animals in ever-increasing numbers and ways, providing ethical challenges. Decisions about animal use are guided by the social consensus ethic towards animals. Because there is no clear social consensus ethic, these decisions are difficult. Society's ethic is changing and a "new ethic" towards animals is emerging. This study addressed the need to better understand society's ethics towards animals. Qualitative research methodology (focus groups) was used to study 7 different anima...
Schneider, B. J.
Full Text Available Increasing the numbers of health workers and improving their skills requires that countries confront a number of ethical dilemmas. The ethical considerations in answering five important questions on enabling health workers to deal appropriately with the circumstances in which they must work are described. These include the problems of the standards of training and practice required in countries with differing levels of socioeconomic development and different priority diseases; how a society can be assured that health practitioners are properly trained; how a health system can support its workers; diversion of health workers and training institutions; and the teaching of ethical principles to student health workers. The ethics of setting standards for the skills and care provided by traditional health-care practitioners are also discussed.
Dilemas éticos da vida humana: a trajetória hospitalar de crianças portadoras de paralisia cerebral grave / The ethical dilemmas of human life: the hospital history of children with serious cerebral palsy
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo é um estudo antropológico que aborda os pressupostos éticos do tratamento médico ministrado em crianças portadoras de paralisia cerebral grave. A pesquisa foi realizada a partir de um trabalho etnográfico de oito meses, com pacientes em tratamento no Centro de Paralisia Cerebral do Hospital [...] Sarah, Salvador. A observação da terapêutica ministrada a estas crianças, que apresentam pouquíssimas mudanças do quadro clínico, levou ao questionamento já bastante sugerido em discussões relativas à deontologia médica: Qual o objetivo do tratamento médico empregado nestas crianças? Na verdade, os resultados desta pesquisa indicaram a existência de explicações sócio-humanistas que estariam além da explicação médico-científica oficial, a qual resumiria a terapêutica a um fisicalismo corporal. Abstract in english This study deals with the ethical premises of medical treatment for children with serious cerebral palsy. Eight months of ethnographic research were carried out with patients at the Cerebral Palsy Center in the Sarah Hospital in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Observation of treatment for these children, w [...] ho displayed limited clinical change, led to the following question, as suggested by discussions from medical deontology: What is the purpose of medical treatment for children with serious cerebral palsy? The results of our research point to social and humanist explanations going beyond the official medical scientific explanation, which limits treatment to corporal mechanicism.
Dilemas éticos da vida humana: a trajetória hospitalar de crianças portadoras de paralisia cerebral grave / The ethical dilemmas of human life: the hospital history of children with serious cerebral palsy
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo é um estudo antropológico que aborda os pressupostos éticos do tratamento médico ministrado em crianças portadoras de paralisia cerebral grave. A pesquisa foi realizada a partir de um trabalho etnográfico de oito meses, com pacientes em tratamento no Centro de Paralisia Cerebral do Hospital [...] Sarah, Salvador. A observação da terapêutica ministrada a estas crianças, que apresentam pouquíssimas mudanças do quadro clínico, levou ao questionamento já bastante sugerido em discussões relativas à deontologia médica: Qual o objetivo do tratamento médico empregado nestas crianças? Na verdade, os resultados desta pesquisa indicaram a existência de explicações sócio-humanistas que estariam além da explicação médico-científica oficial, a qual resumiria a terapêutica a um fisicalismo corporal. Abstract in english This study deals with the ethical premises of medical treatment for children with serious cerebral palsy. Eight months of ethnographic research were carried out with patients at the Cerebral Palsy Center in the Sarah Hospital in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Observation of treatment for these children, w [...] ho displayed limited clinical change, led to the following question, as suggested by discussions from medical deontology: What is the purpose of medical treatment for children with serious cerebral palsy? The results of our research point to social and humanist explanations going beyond the official medical scientific explanation, which limits treatment to corporal mechanicism.
Dilemas éticos da vida humana: a trajetória hospitalar de crianças portadoras de paralisia cerebral grave The ethical dilemmas of human life: the hospital history of children with serious cerebral palsy
Full Text Available O artigo é um estudo antropológico que aborda os pressupostos éticos do tratamento médico ministrado em crianças portadoras de paralisia cerebral grave. A pesquisa foi realizada a partir de um trabalho etnográfico de oito meses, com pacientes em tratamento no Centro de Paralisia Cerebral do Hospital Sarah, Salvador. A observação da terapêutica ministrada a estas crianças, que apresentam pouquíssimas mudanças do quadro clínico, levou ao questionamento já bastante sugerido em discussões relativas à deontologia médica: Qual o objetivo do tratamento médico empregado nestas crianças? Na verdade, os resultados desta pesquisa indicaram a existência de explicações sócio-humanistas que estariam além da explicação médico-científica oficial, a qual resumiria a terapêutica a um fisicalismo corporal.This study deals with the ethical premises of medical treatment for children with serious cerebral palsy. Eight months of ethnographic research were carried out with patients at the Cerebral Palsy Center in the Sarah Hospital in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Observation of treatment for these children, who displayed limited clinical change, led to the following question, as suggested by discussions from medical deontology: What is the purpose of medical treatment for children with serious cerebral palsy? The results of our research point to social and humanist explanations going beyond the official medical scientific explanation, which limits treatment to corporal mechanicism.
This book argues that the literature on leadership, especially business leadership, has neglected ethical issues by focusing on approaches and strategies that emphasize individualistic concerns. The book calls for an end to the traditional separation of personal and public morality. It also argues that ethics of leadership is consistent with the
Kanungo, Rabindra Nath; Mendonca, Manuel
Defining bioethics as the rational use of dialogue in the formulation, justification, and application of ethical principles, with the aim ofgenerating good practices in research, clinical practice, and advocacy, this paper focuses on methods for bioethical deliberation relevantto psychiatry. Stressing that bioethics fuses the two main ethical traditions in Western thought, the deontological and the teleological, thepaper emphasizes the three conditions that any intervention, ...
This article analyses decision-making processes concerning applications for family immigration to Norway by giving an account of the dilemmas and challenges faced by the employees of the Norwegian immigration administration. I argue that these civil servants negotiate two somewhat different ethical principles where the foundation for ethical conduct is either emotion or reason. The article investigates the ethical potential of bureaucracy and aims to contribute to sociological debates about e...
This article analyses decision-making processes concerning applications for family immigration to Norway by giving an account of the dilemmas and challenges faced by the employees of the Norwegian immigration administration. I argue that these civil servants negotiate two somewhat different ethical principles where the foundation for ethical conduct is either emotion or reason. The article investigates the ethical potential of bureaucracy and aims to contribute to sociological debates about e...
Competency in ethical decision making is an identified expectation of the baccalaureate degree graduate. Values, both personal and professional, do not provide a systematic foundation for ethical decision making. The nurse is a unique health care provider and as such is faced with ethical decision of practice that are derived from and are relevant to that role. An understanding of ethical principles and theories as well as application of them to the role of the professional nurse is essential to ethical decision making in nursing practice. Seventy four per cent of recent graduates stated that the ethical content in their nursing programs most influenced their ethical decision-making skills, yet, only 23% used an ethical model or framework in analyzing and resolving the ethical dilemma of practice. The usual format for presentation of this content is a course in ethics. The content of such courses should include ethical theories and principles and their application to the practice of nursing. Teaching methodologies include guided case analysis and written responses to cases and current issues. Placement of separate required ethics courses remains a problem because of the overwhelming amount of content in baccalaureate degree curricula. Research has tentatively validated the need for a separate required course in nursing ethics. Further studies are necessary. If ethics content is integrated throughout the curriculum, it should be presented early with continual reinforcement and with the use of a specific ethics textbook. Research indicates that students who have completed a nursing ethics course not only know the correct ethical action but are more likely to implement it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2726574
Gaul, A L
Full Text Available In this paper I employ Goodenough´s distinction between films that illustrate, are about and do philosophy to answer the question how we can identify the ethical content of movies. Crimes and Misdemeanors by Woody Allen is taken as an example but Mary L. Litch has argued that this movie illustrates ethical problems and is about ethics. On Litch´s reading the film reveals inherent flaws in utilitarianism and illustrates a Kantian insight as well as other ethical and religious theses. I argue, however, that Litch has relied on a too narrow method when identifying the ethics of Crimes and Misdemeanors. She focuses almost exclusively on dialogue and the general storyline. If we broaden our method to include sensitivity to filming, editing, camera angulation etc., we will not only realize a rather different ethical content in Crimes and Misdemeanors but also see how the movie stirkes close to home for most viewers of Hollywood movies.
Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed
This article looks at how managers in large infrastructure projects in The Netherlands deal with difficult choices, which are labelled as dilemmas in this article, in their managerial activities. It presents the results of a survey of 32 managers in 18 complex decision-making projects in which public-private partnerships (PPPs) play an important role. The managers were presented with a number of choices and asked to rate the amount of attention they paid to each of the choices. The article fo...
Klijn, E. H.; Edelenbos, J.; Twist, M. J. W.; Kort, M. B.
The relation is considered between ethical choices, morals and deontology in plastic surgery of the male external genitals. Ethics dictates the behavioural model applied by an individual or group in their actions. Professional ethics--deontology--is the collection of duties governing the exercise of a certain profession. Morals are the set of rules governing an individual's life in society. Ethics, deontology and morals do not always convey the same message, since environmental, racial and religious situations, custom, and even fashion can influence a patient's demands, reflecting his desire to improve his quality of life, even only from the purely hedonistic viewpoint, and the specialist's attitude. Surgeons are increasingly tending to bend to these demands or--much worse--even encourage and foster them, with a view to financial considerations. The attitude and ethical choices available are examined in relation to surgery to lengthen or enlarge the penis. PMID:9882901
Della Morte, E; Cappellano, F; Catanzaro, F
Full Text Available This summative evaluation is the result of two years of data reflecting the impact of an ethics class in terms of students ethical decision-making. The research compares aggregate responses from scenario-based pre- and post-survey open-ended survey questions designed to measure changes in ethical decision-making by comparing students cognitive and affective perceptions about ethical workplace behavior. Grounded in constructivist theory, which explains how individuals know and come to know something (Reeves, 2003, this intervention of an ethics class encourages students to make better and more informed ethical decisions in the workplace based on their understanding of their value and belief system. The findings suggest the intervention of an ethics class informed students cognitive and affective perceptions based on individual value and belief systems, strengthened students ability to remain open-minded and reconsider previous beliefs and actions from a 360 degree perspective, and increased students ability to apply new information to ethical dilemmas in the workplace.
Special education teachers who also serve as case managers for students with disabilities are in unique leadership positions in which they face complex ethical dilemmas and are called on to make decisions that involve multiple competing interests and pressures. The purpose of this study was to explore how special education leaders identify ethical
Bon, Susan C.; Bigbee, Adam J.
The marihuana dilemma poses a major challenge to commanders in the US Army today. The problem was analyzed as to the characteristics of the drug; extent of usage; effects on personnel; reasons for use; identification of users; the legalization controversy...
J. E. DiGrazia
Full Text Available This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169. Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15. 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34 and Strauss and Corbin (1990. The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990. The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985 and Morse (1994 related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based on these findings the researcher concluded that nurses are not thinking critically when making ethical decisions concerning the termination of pregnancies. Recommendations are made as a possible solution for this problem.
Commercial food health branding is a challenging branch of marketing because it might, at the same time, promote healthy living and be commercially viable. However, the power to influence individualsâ?? health behavior and overall health status makes it crucial for marketing professionals to take into account the ethical dimensions of health branding: this article presents a conceptual analysis of potential ethical problems in health branding. The analysis focuses on ethical concerns related to the application of three health brand elements (functional claims, process claims, and health symbols) as well as a number of general concerns that apply to health branding as such. Being a pioneering analysis, this article advances the academic understanding of health branding and provides practitioners with knowledge of important concerns to take into account when marketing health brands.
Anker, Thomas Boysen; SandÃ¸e, Peter
Modern medical practice is becoming increasingly pluralistic and diverse. Hence, cultural competency and awareness are given more focus in physician training seminars and within medical school curricula. A renewed interest in describing the varied ethical constructs of specific populations has taken place within medical literature. This paper aims to provide an overview of Islamic Medical Ethics. Beginning with a definition of Islamic Medical Ethics, the reader will be introduced to the scope of Islamic Medical Ethics literature, from that aimed at developing moral character to writings grounded in Islamic law. In the latter form, there is an attempt to derive an Islamic perspective on bioethical issues such as abortion, gender relations within the patient-doctor relationship, end-of-life care and euthanasia. It is hoped that the insights gained will aid both clinicians and ethicists to better understand the Islamic paradigm of medical ethics and thereby positively affect patient care. PMID:17845488
Padela, Aasim I
The ethical operation model demonstrated four different types of the ethics by ethical leadership and catalytic
mechanics. The objective of this paper was examined the different types ethical operation model but also further
explore the models antecedents and consequences. The research gap focused on the behavior side of the
practices of the ethics was included in the consequences variables in the paper. We also move further to explore
Pao-Hung Fu; Fang-Yi Lo
Ethical and epidemiological dilemmas in the treatment of dogs for visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America / Dilema ético y epidemiológico sobre el tratamiento de perros para la leishmaniasis visceral en América Latina
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish En las Américas hay entre 4.500 y 6.800 casos anuales de leishmaniasis visceral grave y se estima que la mortalidad varía entre 7 y 10 %. Sin embargo, el subregistro y las infecciones subclínicas enmascaran la importancia epidemiológica real de la leishmaniasis visceral. Los esfuerzos de control que [...] típicamente se han enfocado en la aspersión de insecticidas contra los flebotomíneos vectores y el sacrificio de perros, han arrojado resultados dispares. No obstante, miles de perros se sacrifican cada año en países endémicos para leishmaniasis visceral. Además, los lineamientos actuales de los programas de control de la leishmaniasis han prohibido el tratamiento de perros con medicamentos de uso humano, mientras que otras drogas resultan en altas tasas de recaída. La sociedad requiere que los programas de control tengan un manejo más humanitario enfocado a limitar el sacrificio canino. Hay una necesidad urgente de promover la tenencia responsable de los perros y apoyar la investigación en: a) terapias veterinarias novedosas, b) diagnósticos moleculares de bajo costo y c) determinación de los umbrales de capacidad infecciosa canina para el manejo adecuado del reservorio. Abstract in english In the Americas there are between 4,500 and 6,800 annual cases of severe visceral leishmaniasis, and mortality is estimated to range between 7 and 10%. However, underreporting and subclinical infections mask the real epidemiological importance of visceral leishmaniasis. Control efforts, which have t [...] ypically focused on insecticide spraying of sand fly vectors and dog culling, have yielded disparate results. Nevertheless, thousands of dogs are sacrificed each year in countries endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. Additionally, current guidelines of leishmaniasis control programs have banned dog treatment with drugs of human use while therapy with other drugs resulted in high rates of relapses. Society requires that control programs take a more humanitarian approach aimed at limiting dog culling. There is an urgent need to promote responsible dog-ownership and support research on: a) novel veterinary therapies, b) low-cost molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis, and c) determination of dog infectivity threshold for proper reservoir management.
Bruno L, Travi.
Full Text Available Ethics contain a set of principles of personal and professional conduct .The concept of Business ethics relates itself to the norms and the ideals businessman and business groups adopt in course of their activities in business .Business ethics is an assertion of be good and do good in business. Ethical business practices has been a blessing to the enterprises as it ensures faith in society ,government trust ,business partners trust .on the other hand unethical business practices /behavior are may be the feel good factor in the short run for earning secret profit but prove as a monster in the long run as it leave a big spot on the enterprise image by indulging in activities like Black Marketing ,False Advertisement, Tax evasion etc .Thus it is the foremost duty of each enterprise to run its business on ethical grounds so that they can attain customers retention as well as employees retention in the long run and should not have a greed for becoming prey of unethical business practices thereby ditching the society as a whole .The principles laid down by IBE (Institute of Business Ethics ,London should be followed with sincerity by all enterprise leading to a trustworthy environment all around .
Full Text Available Aim: To determine ethical issues experienced by family doctors in Düzce, the pilot province for implementation of the primary health care reform 'Transformation in Health' in Turkey in 2005.Method: We conducted this study between May and June 2007 in Düzce. A self-administered-questionnaire prepared by the researchers included 13 ethical issues inquiring about physicians' frequency of encounter, difficulty in managing the problem, and learning needs in ethical topics. Results: Fifty-seven percent of family doctors who were practicing in Düzce (56/98 took part in the study. Most of them (89.3% were in practice over a year, had more than 3000 registered patients (80.4% with homogenous distribution (67.9%. Physicians reported to encounter ethical dilemmas related to informed consent (72.7%, conflict of self-interest and altruism (44.6%, determining competency (41.8%, claims of alternative therapy (41.0%, relationship with representatives of drug companies (39.2%, truth-telling (28.6%, and resource allocation (27.3% at least once a month. Participants were experienced difficulties when solving dilemmas related to determining competency in patients, reporting incompetency of a colleague, informed consent, best interest of the child, truth-telling, conflict of self-interest and altruism, respectively. Best interest of the child, truth-telling, determining competency in patients, protecting others' interest and gaining informed consent were prioritized topics for education. Conclusion: Our results implied that family doctors experienced difficulties in ethical conduct during daily clinical practice. The most frequently mentioned ethical issues were evaluated with respect to expressed learning needs which served to develop a draft ethics curriculum.
Akp?nar A et al.
In ethnographic research the direct involvement and long-term engagement of the researcher constitute key elements. Acknowledgements of numerous publications resulting from ethnographic studies illustrate that the researchers are often deeply indebted to the research subjects for allowing the researchers to follow them around. Thus it is impossible to carry out ethnographic work without obtaining access, getting involved in, and sharing the lives of the people that are subjects to such studies. Gaining the access, which is clearly in the interest â?? even a prerequisite â?? of the ethnographer, might constitute a problem in itself, as it actualizes the question of the interest of the research to the participants. Why should they allow the researcher to enter and describe their circumstances of life? What kind of interest might they have or accept in sharing their experiences with a researcher? Once having gained access to participate in and describe the lives of the participants of a given context, the next ethical question facing the researcher is the one of involvement. Again, the researcher has an interest in obtaining as much confidence as possible, whereas the interest of the observed subjects might be more dubious and a matter of difficulty to handle by the researcher. The obvious dilemma of conflicting interests and difficult handling of proximity is our focus of interest in this paper: One side of this dilemma is to ask the question, how close you need to go to obtain the confidence of the participants in the research context and the necessary in-depth insight to understand their cultures and conditions of life. Another side of it is to ask, how close you can go without violating in a symbolic sense the lives of the participants and their rights of privacy. This further raises the question, how does the presence of the researcher alter the dynamics of the observed reality and the lives of the people in it? Not a new question asked in research, but still a necessary and ethical question to ask and deal with in any ethnographic work, and for the authors of the paper an important question in planning a longitudinal, ethnographic study of children labeled as talented athletes joggling school, training, competition, friends, and family. The study plan includes a vision of following the children in their daily lives in a way that is inspired by the intensive data-gathering techniques employed by Annette Lareau in her study of family patterns in the USA (Lareau, 2011). This raises preliminary questions as to how such a fieldwork can be carried out; both to ensure the necessary provision of empirical data to carry out ethnographic analyses and challenge existing theoretical frameworks, and to ensure that the subjects under scrutiny are not subject to ethical violations. With this in mind the above dilemmas of proximity will be addressed and discussed in our paper.
Rasmussen, Annette; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard
Following contemporary trends, the author discusses questions and dilemmas of today's medical practice in relation to the patient, society, and generally in relation to positive and well known ethical principles. He is advocating a positive influence of the society on medicine as a science and on its practice. The impact of modern technology upon the physician-patient relationship and the new ethical dilemmas posed by advances in such technology is also discussed. The author cautiously accepts randomized clinical trials, with a necessary presence of uninvolved physicians with an interest in medical ethics, but he refuses to accept euthanasia as an ethically correct act, not only for physicians but for other professionals as well. Euthanasia should be replaced with a fight against pain, both physical and mental. The advantages of physicians in medical practice should not be underestimated especially in the assessment of scientific work and ethical codes of behavior as they relate to the practice of medicine. They should know better than other health care professionals what is good for the health of their patients. PMID:2636302
Commitment of employees to their organisations has been one of the central research themes in organisational study. Though, many predictors of organisational commitment abound in the literature, much is however not known on how ethical behaviour in the organisation affects employees commitment. Considering the nature of insurance services, and high potentials for ethical dilemma in the industry, this study contributes to organisational commitment literature by providing further un...
The general framework of this thesis is that of ethical Technology Assessment (eTA). Whereas the first essay proposes an inclusive approach to technology assessment by delineating an ethical checklist, the following essays focus on two of the checklist points, i.e. privacy and control, influence and power, in relation to workspace surveillance. The core idea of Essay I (written in collaboration with Sven Ove Hansson) is that, due to its strong social impact, new technology and nov...
"nObjectives: The first part of this workshop aims to identify current ethical aspects of research publication that are relevant for authors, explain the reason for current requirements, and explain how compliance can facilitate publication. Plagiarism, good citation practices, simultaneous or secondary publication in more than one language, and good publication practices will be covered. "nThe second part will focus on relevant ethical issues with respect to clinical trials. Issues...
Karen Shashok; Farhad Handjani
Full Text Available Assessment is a powerful tool which can shape curriculum, teaching and learning. One of the major topics which has been the focus of so much debate among the scholars is the concept of ethics in educational assessment systems. The purpose of this paper is to touch upon the issue of ethics in language assessment from validity perspectives. To ensure effective planning, implementation, and evaluation of learning, certain principles and guidelines for beliefs and behaviors are adopted. These principles and guidelines are identified as ethical standards. The central question to be addressed here is whether any test can be defended as ethical, or moral. This study also examines professional ethics, specifically ethical principles as they relate to educational assessment. And finally, some suggestions and guidelines will be offered for applying ethics in educational assessment to maximize validity and fair application of language test scores.
Full Text Available Corporate scandals have led to renewed calls for ethics education for the accounting profession. One of the oldest university and trainer of accounting students in Zimbabwe for more than three decades introduced a two semester course on ethics for accounting students beginning 2012/13 academic year. Prior to this development a survey was carried out in 2011 to find the preparedness of the accounting faculty to embrace accounting ethics education. Faculty perceived ethics as extremely important in personal, business and accounting education. Respondents considered the development of abilities needed to deal with ethical dilemmas as the most important. Offering ethics as a discrete course was the popular option. Most faculty expressed an interest in teaching ethics topics.
In diesem Beitrag werden die ethischen Dilemmata untersucht, mit denen Forschende konfrontiert wurden, die sich zwischen ihren eigenen philosophischen Perspektiven und denen ihrer Kollegen und Kollegen aus dem Feld auftaten. Ethische Probleme wurden dabei auf drei verschiedenen Ebenen sichtbar: während der Durchführung des "Coteaching", im Zusammenhang mit unseren Forschungsbemühungen zum Coteaching und im Rahmen der Diskussion unserer Ergebnisse. Statt zu einer spezifischen Schlussfolgeru...
Gallo-fox, Jennifer; Wassell, Beth; Scantlebury, Kathryn; Juck, Matthew
In view of South Africas diversity, its unresolved issues of race and complex social legacy, election campaigns are highly sensitive. From a Reformed Christian perspective, a critical question is: To what extent is the political culture infused by the Biblical imperatives of brotherly love, respect and compassion? Given the growing use of adversarial political advertising the following two questions arise and are specifically addressed: Could it realistically be expected of...
Fourie, L. M.; Froneman, J. D.
La eutanasia significa una muerte buena. Desde el punto de vista jurídico, es la muerte sin sufrimiento físico provocada por propia voluntad de un enfermo incurable. En la práctica consiste en administrar drogas, fármacos u otras sustancias que alivien el dolor aunque con ello se acorte la vida. La decisión de la aplicación de la eutanasia ha sido un problema persistente en la historia de la humanidad, ideologías diversas se enfrentan defendiendo sus argumentos de si debe o no practica...
The searing introduction of the public to the human health effects from large doses of ionizing radiation came from the nuclear weapon explosions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan at the end of World War II. The horrors of a war using such weapons are part of the human consciousness. This introduction created fear and concern over ionizing radiation from man-made radionuclides or natural radionuclides enhanced by man's activities. This leads to a public over-emphasis on reducing exposure to man-made ionizing radiation whatever the expense might be. A study that evaluated costs of 500 life saving interventions found that radiation control activities had a median cost of $27 million (US) per life per year and were four of the top ten most expensive [up to $34 billion (US) per life per year]. [Tengs, 1994] (author)
Key concepts which should be recognized to understand today's medical ethics required for information management regarding clinical research are privacy protection, use limitation, individual participation, and accountability. Special attention should be paid to concepts other than privacy protection, because they are fairly new to medical professionals. Furthermore, in laboratory medicine, we have real problems, for example, how to protect privacy concerning specimens gathered from patients. Therefore, there have been many kinds of rules or guidelines established recently. Although we tend to strictly follow these guidelines, it is not always clear which guidelines should be applied to certain cases, or they do not always exactly correspond to a specific case. The full understanding of the principles of medical ethics represented by these guidelines is essential. In this paper, a clinical research document reviewed by an ethical review board is shown as an example. PMID:21626879
Full Text Available Ethics is concerned with the suffering humans cause one another and the related capacity of humans to recognize and address this suffering through the empathetic virtues of sympathy, compassion, and caring (Roberts, 1996. Much suffering throughout history can be related to the problem of "unacceptable" diversity among individuals or groups. Remembering the cruelties of the Nazi exterminations of Jews, slavery in the United States, and discrimination against homosexuals jolts us to awareness of the suffering of those who are "different." A task of ethics, then, is to include, rather than exclude (Post, 1995. One approach to an ethics of diversity for healthcare professionals is a call for intimate listening to the stories of those who are different, who may be unseen, marginalized, and excluded in our health care systems.
This article offers a discussion of the connection between technology and values and, specifically, I take a closer look at ethically sound design. In order to bring the discussion into a concrete context, the theory of Value Sensitive Design (VSD) will be the focus point. To illustrate my argument concerning design ethics, the discussion involves a case study of an augmented window, designed by the VSD Research Lab, which has turned out to be a potentially surveillance-enabling technology. I call attention to a "positivist problem" that has to do with the connection between the design context and the use context, which VSD seems to presuppose, and I argue that it is necessary to clearly distinguish between the two, since the designers' intentions do not always correspond with the users' practice; in fact, the relation between design and use is very complex and principally unpredictable. Thus, a design theory must accept that foresight is limited to anticipation rather than prediction. To overcome the positivist problem, I suggest a phenomenological approach to technology inspired by Don Ihde's concept of multistability. This argument, which is general in nature and thus applies to any theory of design ethics, is intended as a constructive criticism, which can hopefully contribute to the further development of design ethics.
Ethics in clinical research focuses largely on identifying and implementing the acceptable conditions for exposure of some individuals to risks and burdens for the benefit of society at large. Ethical guidelines for clinical research were formulated only after discovery of inhumane behaviour with participants during research experiments. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code laying ethical principles for clinical research. With increasing research all over, World Health Organiza...
Sanmukhani, J.; Tripathi, C. B.
The purpose of this study is to determine the factors impacting on ethical behaviour in organisations. More specifically the purpose of this study is to a) identify the factors impacting on ethical behaviour in organisations within a theoretical framework, specifically focusing on the South African context and b) to make certain recommendations to address the factors identified as impacting on ethical behaviour in organisations. To achieve these goals the study was designed in two phases. The...
The purpose of this study is to determine the factors impacting on ethical behaviour in organisations. More specifically the purpose of this study is to a) identify the factors impacting on ethical behaviour in organisations within a theoretical framework, specifically focusing on the South African context and b) to make certain recommendations to address the factors identified as impacting on ethical behaviour in organisations. To achieve these goals the study was designed in two phases. The...
Accordingly, it is necessary that some independent body have the authority both to review research contracts for compliance with norms of subject protection and ethical integrity, and to reject studies that fail to meet ethical standards. Such review should take place prior to the start of research, not later. Because of its expertise and authority, the institutional ethics review board (IRB or REB) is the appropriate body to undertake such review. Much recent commentary has focused on contra...
This paper investigates the ethical investment policies of leading UK charities. It is estimated that UK charities in 2004 had £79 billion in assets of which £44 billion were invested (NCVO, 2006), with further growth in both influence and size predicted (SustainAbility, 2003). Yet we know of no published academic research in the UK or Norway which focuses on charity ethical investment. Using various methods, we have investigated charity ethical investment policies and how these policies ...
Kreander, Niklas; Beattie, Vivien; Mcphail, Ken
Full Text Available Many of the bibliographical references to the forms of ethics embedded in the hospital-related practices suggest, in return, a clear reference to the biomedical ethics involved in the healthcare of patients and also to the specific activity of ethics committees. Policies regarding abortion or those in favour of the termination of treatment expressed by patients in a vegetative condition through their biological testament -the living will (acc. Williamson & Jauch,1995 , are examples which often throw the medical world in the midst of difficult ethical dilemmas. Nevertheless, besides their strong social mission of taking care of the health of a population, hospitals are equally meant to deal with all the ethical aspects that leave their mark on each organization, either internally, or externally, irrespective of their specific branch and of their field of activity the public or the private sphere. Our article highlights in a theoretical way the necessity and benefits to promote the organizational ethics within the healthcare system.
Daniela Tatiana AGHEORGHIESEI (CORODEANU
Despite the application of robust ethical principles, complex issues in child care commonly result in ethical dilemmas with no clear answers. This is especially so in those life and death decisions relating to continuing curative therapy or opting for palliative care. As with many situations in paediatrics, these decisions are complicated by difficulties in establishing clear prognostic outcomes both in terms of disease progression and timescales, the child's reliance on third parties, ...
The purpose of the research is to describe truth as ethical dilemma in youth sport, based on the frame of reference of the ethical-educational objective structure, and the essences and meaningful coherence as non-negotiable essential features thereof (Landman, Barnard, Gerber, Roos, Van der Westhuizen & Smit, 1978). Two case studies were selected. The participants were a fourteen year old female track-and-field sprinter (Athlete X) and a sixteen year old cyclist (Athlete Y) who were found gui...
Wyk, J. G. U.; Goslin, Anneliese E.; Steyn, Ben J. M.
Problem statement: Recently, the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is indispensable to life. The utilization of ICT has provided advantages for people, organizations and society as a whole. Nevertheless, the widespread and rapid use of ICT in society has exacerbated existing ethical issues or dilemmas and also led to the emergence of new ethical issues such as unauthorized access, software piracy, internet pornography, privacy protection,...
In an attempt to be rational and objective, and, possibly, to avoid the charge of moral relativism, ethicists seek to categorise and characterise ethical dilemmas. This approach is intended to minimise the effect of the confusing individuality of the context within which ethically challenging problems exist. Despite and I argue partly as a result of this attempt to be rational and objective, even when the logic of the argument is acceptedfor example, by healthcare professionalsthose sam...
Full Text Available Care ethics is a relatively recent development in ethics, originating in Carol Gilligan´s book In a Different Voice, published in 1982 and pointing out flaws in Kohlberg´s theory of moral development, specifically in choosing only boys for the experiments, in using moral dilemmas to measure moral development, and in his idea that morality only consisted in universal rules.
Guðmundur Heiðar Frímannsson
Engineering Ethics: Challenges and Opportunities aims to set a new agenda for the engineering profession by developing a key challenge: can the great technical innovation of engineering be matched by a corresponding innovation in the acceptance and expression of ethical responsibility? Central features of this stimulating text include: · An analysis of engineering as a technical and ethical practice providing great opportunities for promoting the wellbeing and agency of individuals and communities. · Elucidation of the ethical opportunities of engineering in three key areas: - Engineering for Peace, emphasising practical amelioration of the root causes of conflict rather than military solutions. - Engineering for Health, focusing on close collaboration with healthcare professionals for both the promotion and restoration of health. - Engineering for Development, providing effective solution...
Bowen, W Richard
Ethical issues at the interface between the medical profession and the pharmaceutical industry have generally been approached from the vantage point of medical professionalism, with a focus on conflict of interest as the key ethical concern. Although conflicts of interest remain important, other ethical issues may be obscured unless a wider perspective is adopted. Besides medical professionalism, the ethics of the clinical therapeutic relationship, ethics of public health, and business ethics all provide additional insights. PMID:23047778
In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity. Taking ethical decisions can often be a dilemma - one that requires recognition and proper representation of multiple pieces of complex information, as well as an intuitive judgment about potential consequences. Pressure is particularly placed on organizational leaders, who are tasked with projects, partnerships and individuals. Constraining forces - be they personal, situational or environmental - can negatively influence any decision by decreasing ethical awareness, ethical sensitivity and ethical judgment. By creating mental compensatory models, the Sensemaking* technique serves to counteract these constraining forces that narrow the search and evaluation of&nbs...
Recent increases in adolescent smoking portend upcoming public health challenges as the majority of smokers initiate long-term addiction during youth, but experience major health consequences later in life. To effectively address this important teenage and adult health issue, critical research information and early interventions are needed, yet conducting tobacco research with teen smokers poses substantial challenges, including several ethical dilemmas. This paper reviews some of the ethical issues presented in etiologic and clinical treatment research addressing adolescent smoking. Common problems and possible solutions are presented. Issues of parent/guardian involvement, decision-making ability of teens, the need to maintain confidentiality are discussed, along with the specific problems of recruitment, compensation, and ethical challenges that arise in group treatment settings. Context-specific ethical adjustments and alternative perspectives are likely to be needed if we are to overcome procedural difficulties in conducting teen smoking studies. PMID:12039510
Moolchan, Eric T; Mermelstein, Robin
We have proposed the omnibus style to teach an engineering ethics program. This paper showed the essentials to practice the class. The engineering ethics program is constituted with the factors; grade, subject, objective even if it is operated by some themes and teachers in the style of omnibus. Also, teachers have to select the cases which have dilemma of the engineer and the good effect. And they should teach how to analyze the case. Evaluation of student activity must be made up by versatile style according to objective. And student is recommended to understand the relation of activity and object.
Yasui, Mitsukuni; Fujiki, Hiroyuki; Aoyagi, Manabu; Sugata, Noriyuki; Hayasaka, Narihito
Fascination with the interworkings of the human body has permeated scientific discovery for eons. Materials for dissection proved problematic for anatomists. Andreas Vesalius solved his dilemma by visiting local gallows where criminals had been executed. Eduard Pernkopf has been alleged to have taken some of his materials from victims of the Holocaust. Even today, executed criminals have served as subjects for anatomical educational purposes. These circumstances are explored and the contemporary ethics of each are compared. PMID:23324845
Arango, Dillon; Greiffenstein, Patrick; O'Leary, James Patrick
Biogerontology is sometimes viewed as similar to other forms of biomedical research in that it seeks to understand and treat a pathological process. Yet the prospect of treating ageing is extraordinary in terms of the profound changes to the human condition that would result. Recent advances in biogerontology allow a clearer view of the ethical issues and dilemmas that confront humanity with respect to treating ageing. For example, they imply that organismal senescence is a disease process wi...
Full Text Available Any country is facing the problem of ethics of professional accountants, which also has been a focus of accounting theories for many years. Especially since the financial crisis in 2008 and the recession of world economy, business has been difficult, which makes the ethics of professional accountants more important. In perspective of business ethics, the author discusses the characteristics and the structure of ethics of professional accountants, locating the barriers for the construction of ethics of professional accountants and relevant reasons, and proposing the way for establishing the system of ethics of professional accountants.
Full Text Available EE Book 16 focuses on achievements and shortcomings of modern marine ecology. It also analysis the crux of all science: human capabilities and limitations of conducting research - of critically perceiving the world in and around us. Louis Legendre further examines the relationships between science and culture and underlines the significance of ethics, especially eco-ethics.
Full Text Available For centuries, many scientists, many disciplines focused on how people make decisions. These approaches tend to be incompatible, if not orthogonal most case. In this article we attempt to give guidelines to a modeling approach, that will allow the description of a human state vector, which can be the basis for many decision making algorithms.First we will introduce a categorization of the things that determine the decisions of the individuals, and describe their characteristics and trade. Since the trade of things in separate groups is done in different fashion, they form groups on different grounds. These groups, formed by interaction among individuals, adhere to governing ethics which serve the purpose of defining the rules of exchange where these have not been explicitly stated. And finally, we take a look how the two dominant ethics, the Commercial and the Guardian dominate the Teacher.
Dana R. Herrera
Physical therapist students often think ethics content to be less relevant than other course material. The purpose of this study was to assess whether changing from lecture to case-based method, would impact ethics awareness and integration. In focus groups, students in the case-based course reported greater perceived value of the ethics content
Venglar, Mollie; Theall, Michael
The American Physical Society (APS) Task Force on Ethics was charged with looking at the state of Ethics education in Physics. Through surveys of and discussions with the physics community, a number of concerns regarding Ethics came to light. I will focus on issues in the practice of physics which were raised particularly by junior members of the APS.
Kirby, Kate (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)
Business ethics is presently a major component of the business school curriculum. Although there has been much attention focused on the impact of such coursework on instilling ethical decision-making (Nguyen et al., 2008), there is sparse research on how business students view the major ethical principles that serve as the foundation of business
Guyette, Roger; Piotrowski, Chris
Student evaluations should "be ethical, fair, useful, feasible, and accurate" [JCSEE (2003). "The student evaluation standards." Arlen Gullickson, Chair. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin]. This study focuses on defining ethical behavior and examining educators' ethical judgments in relation to assessment. It describes the results from a web-based survey
Green, Susan K.; Johnson, Robert L.; Kim, Do-Hong; Pope, Nakia S.
Pre-service teachers and education students in three different classes (N = 53) were directed to read a short story by Mark Twain titled "Heaven or Hell?" written within a compilation of short stories late in his career. The story, "Heaven or Hell?" illustrates a koan, or an unanswerable moral or ethical dilemma. The students, after finishing the
Lennon, Sean M.
This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possibl...
Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore ethical challenges and dilemmas that exist within admissions systems at colleges and universities in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Although the issues considered herein are examined primarily from the perspective of admissions officers, this paper also considers the viewpoint of prospective
McCuddy, Michael K.; Nondorf, James G.
Full Text Available The article analyzes the moral dilemmas associated with death and carries out a reflection on the questions that arise when death is considered trivial from the perspective of the individual who dies. Additionally, the article analyzes the ethical and legal consequences of acknowledging the moral autonomy of those who, in extreme circumstances, decide when and how to die.
Alejandra Zúñiga F.
Ethical dilemmas that break the confidentiality of the client eventually test the psychologist's boundaries such that not taking action may place the patient in a position where they suffer, hurt themselves, or others. The effectiveness in obtaining a valid informed consent might depend upon the therapists training, experience, and sound judgment
Blunt, David R.
In recent decades managerial discourse and actual business practice has paid increasing attention to ethics. What was chiefly an academic discussion about business ethics has grown into a virtual 'ethics industry' (Hyatt, 2005), and has been supplanted by a growing focus on corporate social responsibility and a booming consumer demand for ethical or 'fair' goods. Critical observers, myself included, have tended to dismiss this focus on ethics as little more than a cynical response...
Arvidsson, Adam Erik
... Financial Information Bookstore Search Advanced Search Selected Issues Animal Research Ethics Children & Psychiatric Medications Clinical Trials and ... Reproduction & Technology Stem Cells Synthetic Biology Selected Issues > Animal Research Ethics Animal Research Ethics Research involving animals ...
In performing their functions, public officials have to make ethical choices. Learning about making ethical choices should therefore not be left to choice. Public officials should be equipped with ethical decision-making skills. This paper focuses on the teaching of Public Administration ethics in higher education. [In this paper the academic subject is spelt Public Administration whereas the practice is spelt public administration, (i.e. the one of activity)]. The paper covers issues such as...
Behavioral ethics is an emerging field that takes an empirical, social scientific approach to the study of business ethics. In this special issue, we include six articles that fall within the domain of behavioral ethics and that focus on three themesmoral awareness, ethical decision making, and reactions to unethical behavior. Each of the articles sheds additional light on the specific issues addressed. However, we hope this special issue will have an impact beyond that of the new insights...
Cremer, D.; Mayer, D. M.; Schminke, M.
Any country is facing the problem of ethics of professional accountants, which also has been a focus of accounting theories for many years. Especially since the financial crisis in 2008 and the recession of world economy, business has been difficult, which makes the ethics of professional accountants more important. In perspective of business ethics, the author discusses the characteristics and the structure of ethics of professional accountants, locating the barriers for the construction of ...
The conference was convened to present a role that America's schools could play in solving or coping with the energy crisis. Eleven sessions were conducted to fulfill this concern: Our Energy Crisis and Education: A Critical Assessment; The Energy Agenda at the Office of Education; Energy Resources: Scenarios for the Future; The Moral Dilemma of Energy Education; Constraints Influencing Education's Role; Energy Education: What's Been Done to Date; Practitioners Discuss Their Future Roles, Responsibilities; Politics of Energy Education; Confronting the Energy Dilemma; The Meaning of Scarcity; and The Impact of the Carter Energy Program on American Schools. Summary reports and reactions to the conference conclude the proceedings. (MCW)
In this paper, we argue that there are foundational dilemmas in theoretical physics related to the concept of reality and the nature of mathematics in physics. Physical theory is treated as a conceptual organism which develops under the weight of its internal contradictions. The paper discusses in depth the problem of objective reality in physics and its relation to scientific practice. Then, it explores the problematic relation between physical meaning and mathematics in modern physical theory, followed by a discussion of the trend of contemporary physics to replace physical principles with pure mathematical principles. Finally, it discusses the problem of logical coherence in modern physical theory. The paper emphasizes the importance of resolving these dilemmas to the proper practice of theoretical physics.
Although many studies have explored the experiences of doctors in their first postgraduate year, few have focused on the ethical issues encountered by this group. Based on an extensive literature review of research involving house officers, we argue that these doctors encounter a broad range of everyday ethical challenges, from truth-telling to working in non-ideal conditions. We propose a typology of house officers' ethical issues and advocate prioritizing these issues in undergraduate...
In research on congenital metabolic disorders, a biochemist can choose between the theoretical and the practical approach. The diagnosis of metabolic diseases relies on 1) the determination of the presence of metabolites under normal conditions that are direct substrates of the defective enzyme (e.g., the Gm2 ganglioside in the brain tissue of a patient with Tay-Sachs disease); 2) the determination of the lack or insufficiency of the direct product of the defective enzyme (e.g., aryl sulfatase A in the cells of patients with metachromatic leukodystrophy), hormone (hypothyroidism), or receptor (congenital hypercholesterolemia); 3) determination of substance whose reduction was established by experimentation, but the cause of the decrease is not known (ceruloplasmin in Wilson's disease); and 4) DNA analysis. Metabolic impairment of genetic origin is not treatable. The disease can be prevented by 1) removing the inappropriate metabolite (e.g., copper accumulation can be avoided by giving penicillamine or zinc salts); 2) limiting those substances in the critical phase of childhood that are components of the defective enzyme (e.g. gluten reduction in colic and protein in phenylketonuria); 3) supplementing the insufficient metabolite (e.g., phosphate in hypophosphatemia by sound for 12 hours a day); 4) protecting the patients (e.g. from light in porphyria); and 5) treatment by substances (giving coagulation factor VIII in hemophilia and thyroid hormones in hypothyroidism). There is a dilemma in subjecting patients to a diagnosis of progression to Huntington's chorea 20 years in advance or informing them about the high risk of hereditary disease for the next child (25% for the recessive and 50% for the dominant mode). Ethical committees have usually opted for a recommendation of selective abortion in clear-cut cases. Increasingly refined diagnostic methods have magnified the responsibility of the biochemist. PMID:2095555
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Discute-se a emergência de dilemas morais nas práticas de saúde, tendo em vista a acelerada transição demográfica nos países em desenvolvimento e os crescentes custos dos sistemas públicos de saúde. São focalizadas duas dimensões do cuidado [...] 4; saúde que têm ocupado um lugar importante na geração desses dilemas: a tensão entre as estratégias comerciais que contornam o mercado de produtos de saúde e a expansão do acesso a esses produtos, por um lado, e o aumento da importância das tecnociências nas práticas de cuidado à saúde, por outro. Em conclusão, é discutida a importância da arbitragem política, social e jurídica na codificação ética desses dilemas e o papel do Estado Democrático de Direito nessa arbitragem. Abstract in spanish El texto discute la emergencia de dilemas morales en las prácticas de salud, teniendo en cuenta la acelerada transición demográfica en los países en desarrollo y los crecientes costos de los sistemas públicos de salud. Se hace énfasis en dos dimensiones del cuidado de l [...] a salud que han ocupado un lugar importante en la generación de tales dilemas. La tensión entre las estrategias comerciales que contornan el mercado de productos de salud y la expansión del acceso a dichos productos, por un lado, y el aumento de la importancia de las tecnociencias en las prácticas de cuidado de la salud, por el otro. En conclusión, se discute la importancia del arbitraje político, social y jurídico en la codificación ética de los dilemas y el papel del Estado Democrático de Derecho en el arbitraje. Abstract in english The emergence of moral dilemmas in health care practices, in view of the rapid demographic transition in developing countries, and skyrocketing public health care costs, is discussed. The focus is on two aspects of health care that have occupied an important place in the generation of these dilemmas [...] . On the one hand, the tension between commercial strategies involving the health products market and the expansion of access to them and, on the other, the growth of techno-sciences in health care practices. In conclusion, the importance of the political, social and juridical arbitration on the ethical codifi cation of those dilemmas and the role of a Democratic State of Law in that arbitration is discussed.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Discute-se a emergência de dilemas morais nas práticas de saúde, tendo em vista a acelerada transição demográfica nos países em desenvolvimento e os crescentes custos dos sistemas públicos de saúde. São focalizadas duas dimensões do cuidado [...] 4; saúde que têm ocupado um lugar importante na geração desses dilemas: a tensão entre as estratégias comerciais que contornam o mercado de produtos de saúde e a expansão do acesso a esses produtos, por um lado, e o aumento da importância das tecnociências nas práticas de cuidado à saúde, por outro. Em conclusão, é discutida a importância da arbitragem política, social e jurídica na codificação ética desses dilemas e o papel do Estado Democrático de Direito nessa arbitragem. Abstract in spanish El texto discute la emergencia de dilemas morales en las prácticas de salud, teniendo en cuenta la acelerada transición demográfica en los países en desarrollo y los crecientes costos de los sistemas públicos de salud. Se hace énfasis en dos dimensiones del cuidado de l [...] a salud que han ocupado un lugar importante en la generación de tales dilemas. La tensión entre las estrategias comerciales que contornan el mercado de productos de salud y la expansión del acceso a dichos productos, por un lado, y el aumento de la importancia de las tecnociencias en las prácticas de cuidado de la salud, por el otro. En conclusión, se discute la importancia del arbitraje político, social y jurídico en la codificación ética de los dilemas y el papel del Estado Democrático de Derecho en el arbitraje. Abstract in english The emergence of moral dilemmas in health care practices, in view of the rapid demographic transition in developing countries, and skyrocketing public health care costs, is discussed. The focus is on two aspects of health care that have occupied an important place in the generation of these dilemmas [...] . On the one hand, the tension between commercial strategies involving the health products market and the expansion of access to them and, on the other, the growth of techno-sciences in health care practices. In conclusion, the importance of the political, social and juridical arbitration on the ethical codifi cation of those dilemmas and the role of a Democratic State of Law in that arbitration is discussed.
Full Text Available Commitment of employees to their organisations has been one of the central research themes in organisational study. Though, many predictors of organisational commitment abound in the literature, much is however not known on how ethical behaviour in the organisation affects employees commitment. Considering the nature of insurance services, and high potentials for ethical dilemma in the industry, this study contributes to organisational commitment literature by providing further understanding on the impact of corporate ethical values on organisational commitment in Nigeria. Underpinned by cognitive dissonance theory, the study proposes a significant relationship between the two constructs. While controlling for some demographic factors, corporate ethical values was hypothesized as a significant determinant of organisational commitment. With data from 415 managers, collected through Hunts et al (1989 Corporate Ethical Value and Hunts et al (1985 organisational commitment scales, the results of the multivariate analysis were presented, and discussed with managerial implications.
Medical social workers have needs for training in ethics that is specific to dilemmas that arise while providing service to patients who are very ill, mentally compromised, or in a terminal condition. A social work department developed a continuing education training to educate social workers in bioethics related to determining decisional capacity and understanding standards of ethical decision making. Case studies are used to illustrate ethical conflicts and the role of social workers in resolving them. The benefits of case study training are discussed. PMID:24717183
McCormick, Andrew J; Stowell-Weiss, Patti; Carson, Jennifer; Tebo, Gerald; Hanson, Inga; Quesada, Bianca
The objective of this review is to consider the ethics of stockmanship, particularly from the perspective of the nature and extent of the duties of stockpeople to their farm animals. It will consider what science tells us about the impact of stockmanship on the animal, particularly the welfare of the farm animal. The effects of human-animal interactions on the stockperson will also be considered, since these interactions affect the work performance and job satisfaction of the stockperson and thus indirectly affect animal welfare. Animal ethics is broader than animal welfare and includes economic as well as philosophical, social, cultural and religious aspects. This paper is predicated on the view that farm animals can suffer, and that animal suffering is a key consideration in our moral obligations to animals. Housing and husbandry practices affect farm animal welfare and thus farmers and stockpeople have a responsibility to provide, at minimum, community-acceptable animal housing and husbandry standards for their animals. The farmer's or stockperson's attitudes and behaviour can directly affect the animal's welfare and thus they also have a responsibility to provide specific standards of stockmanship for these animals. However, research suggests that the behaviour of some stockpeople is not as correct as it might be. Such situations exemplify the inevitably unequal human - domestic animal relationship, and this inequality should be considered in analysing the boundary between right and wrong behaviour of humans. Thus ethical discussion, using science and other considerations and involving stockpeople, livestock industries, government and the general public, should be used to establish and assure acceptable stockperson competencies across the livestock industries. Training programs targeting the key attitudes and behaviour of stockpeople presently offer the livestock industries good opportunities to improve human-animal interactions. PMID:17470069
Hemsworth, P H
The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the la...
Flite, Cathy A.; Harman, Laurinda B.
This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up oneâ??s mind.
Palmer, Clare; SandÃ¸e, Peter
Recently, there has been much written about professional ethics in health care, but the literature has tended to focus on the ethical care and treatment of patients and protection of their privacy and confidential information. This article focuses on the ethical behavior of health care professionals and how they treat each other in the workplace. Examples of unethical behavior are described ranging from subtle favoritism by managers and bullying to crossing the legal line. Two specific cases demonstrate serious situations where it was necessary for colleagues to "blow the whistle" even at the risk of their own careers. PMID:15457844
Huston, Janis L; Brox, Georg A
ETHICS AND HEALTH INFORMATICS: FOCUS ON LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN ÉTICA E INFORMÁTICA EN SALUD: ENFOQUE SOBRE LATINOAMÉRICA Y EL CARIBE ÉTICA E INFORMÁTICA EM SAÚDE: ENFOQUE SOBRA A AMÉRICA LATINA E O CARIBE
Expanding use of computers in medicine continues to raise interesting and important ethical issues. After a brief review of the history of work in ethics in medical informatics, this introduction to this special issue of Acta Bioethica makes the case that this work must be applied in a Latin American and Caribbean context. From the use of intelligent machines to the evolution of the World Wide Web, the region presents vital -and under addressed- challenges to clinicians and policy makers. Sus...
Goodman, Kenneth W.
Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)
To evaluate decision-making factors of pediatric surgeons when faced with ethical dilemmas in a clinical setting, questionnaires were mailed to members of the Canadian Association of Paediatric Surgeons. The surgeons were asked to respond to scenarios regarding ethical dilemmas in the treatment of children. Fifty-one responses (57%) were computer analyzed based on chosen responses to the clinical dilemma and demographic factors such as age, sex, marital status, country of citizenship, religion, and "religiousness," a determination of religious conviction as viewed by the respondent. In addition, ethical convictions were sought regarding abortion, fetal research, AIDS, HIV testing, denial of medical care due to religious beliefs (Jehovah's Witness), and limitations in health care access for indigents. In general, respondents found it difficult to separate ethical guidelines for determining aggressive treatment--absolute value of life; best interests of the child; parental authority; and ability of the child to engage in social, intellectual, or emotional attachments (quality of life)--in the face of actual patient care issues. In fact, results of this survey indicate that the operating surgeon applies his/her medical knowledge and surgical "experience" to each individual case, incorporating his or her own ethical beliefs (in a respondent's words: "In the operating room, the surgeon must satisfy his own conscience in making decisions") while cognizant of legal guidelines for "standard care" ("Decisions would be based on personal experience, and what the local society believes to be right").(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1479494
Bagwell, C E; Goodwin, S R
Full Text Available Ethics and ethical behavior are issues which are increasingly being focused on the business community today. People are becoming more concerned about what is actually happening in business organizations in the name of competition, growth, and profitability. Organizations are crossing the red zone of ethics and ethical behaviors. A growing number of organizations are constantly surveying and evaluating the unethical practice in business organizations worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of ethical practices and how to implement those ethical practices in business organizations. It is empirically proved that ethical practices in business organizations help to create favorable relationships with other organizations and can also establish long-term positive relationships with existing and potential future customers. Descriptive and analytical research methodology is applied in this research paper. The findings of this paper is that it is very essential to have a code of business ethics in every business organization and this code of business ethics must be implemented in the organization in objective and effective way.
Md. Abdul Jalil
This commentary is a reflection on Tuskegee University's National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care on the health and ethical challenges of the 21st century. The Center has dedicated the last 10 years to addressing the unresolved biomedicine and public health issues and/or the ethical dilemmas that plague the nation's health. The authors believe that health disparities continue to worsen because the approach under-appreciates the ethical dilemma that plagues health policy and health disparities. The authors discuss synergies and the paradigmatic differences between science and medicine, religion, spirituality, and faith. They also discuss the importance of considering these relationships if improvements in the health of people of African descent are expected. The concept of Optimal Health is explored. PMID:20675945
Warren, Rueben C; Tarver, Will L
Full Text Available From its beginnings as social practice, medicine has always been confronted with ethical dilemmas. Ethical issues are brought into discussion mostly when the patient lacks awareness, when he does not understand, which means that he also does not accept the disease. In order to solve these dilemmas, the physician has to combine norms, habits, customs, religious beliefs and, first of all, legal standards specific to his space of action. Psychiatric diagnosis, especially, determines multiple ethical issues, from involuntary hospitalization to therapeutic methods. As it results from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (art. 1, 3, the fundamental rights of a person are based on the acknowledgment of his human status, that all human beings are born free. Since the autonomy and responsibility of each person including of the one who needs healthcare are accepted as important values, his involvement or participation to the decision-making process regarding his own body or health must be acknowledged as a universal right.
The increased focus on ethical decision making in the accounting profession has resulted in greater attention being paid to the education of future accountants. Texas is one of the states that requires a State Board approved university course in Accounting Ethics to be on the transcript of prospective CPA candidates. This study reports on research
Rogers, Violet; Smith, Aileen
Risk propensity (RP) is a trait characterized by an increased probability of engaging in behaviors that have some potential danger or harm but also provide an opportunity for some benefit. In the present study, a new RP task with several dilemmas was explored. Each dilemma includes the initial set plus successive approximations for estimating the
Botella, Juan; Narvaez, Maria; Martinez-Molina, Agustin; Rubio, Victor J.; Santacreu, Jose
This project seeks to dissect the advent of CSR in business practice from the view of ethics. We perform this by laying out the theories of CSR, business ethics, deontology and utilitarianism. We then use the case studies of Lundbeck, The Body Shop, and British American Tobacco, to dissect some productions of CSR. These are compared to the above mentioned theories on ethics. We conclude that business ethics and CSR are only as good as the ethical base upon which they are built.
Birkvad Bernth, Camilla; Houmøller Mortensen, Kasper; Calles, Mark Benjamin; Wind, Martin; Saalfeldt, Rie
The purpose of this article is to dream of in the sense of
establishing the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there ...
The purpose of this article is to dream of in the sense of establishing the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there is no communication...
Publication of medical research is both a monitor of the researcher's ethics and an audit of the local or regional ethics committee that approved it. Selectivity of publication or of the intention to publish lessens this audit. Opinions differ about what is ethically allowable in clinical and benchtop medical research. Ethical permission and ethical monitoring of medical research are subject to a hierarchy of pyramidal controls, starting in hospital and ending with the local, institutional, o...
Wildlife researchers and managers frequently have to contend with difficult ethical questions during the course of their work, but currently lack an explicit scholarly forum to help them analyze the complicated ethical situations they encounter in the field, the laboratory, or conservation area. Since neither environmental ethics, nor animal ethics, nor research ethics currently addresses the tradeoff problems peculiar to wildlife research and management, a new field is needed. It must be the...
Full Text Available Ethical decision-making presupposes the possession of a free will. Central to a discussion on reformed ethics is the question of the bounds of freedom of the will. The reformed tradition, along with the wider Christian tradition, affirms that the will is not free in the Pelagian sense of being absolutely free, but is constrained by the effects of humanitys fall from original righteousness. This ariticle considers the nature and extent to which the will is considered free, or no longer free at all. The question posed here, within the reformed theoretic ethical framework, is whether the will is so vitiated that a person is in- capable of any effective choice of action or inaction in the face of any moral dilemma, or does fallen humanity still possess some ability to make a free choice, albeit under conditions of impaired freedom of the will?
S. P. Giles
The study's objective was to survey what and how psychiatry residents want to learn about ethics during residency. A 4-page questionnaire developed for this study was sent to 305 residents at 10 adult psychiatry programs in the United States. One-hundred and eighty-one (59%) of those surveyed responded. Seventy-six percent reported facing an ethical dilemma in residency for which they felt unprepared. Forty-six percent reported having received no ethics training during residency. More than 50% of the respondents requested that "more" curricular attention be paid to 19 specific ethics topics and more than 40% for 25 topics. Preferences with respect to learning methods are presented. This survey may provide guidance in structuring the content and process of ethics education for psychiatry residents. These findings should stimulate the efforts of faculty to commit time and attention to this important curricular area. PMID:24442690
Roberts, L W; McCarty, T; Lyketsos, C; Hardee, J T; Jacobson, J; Walker, R; Hough, P; Gramelspacher, G; Stidley, C A; Arambula, M; Heebink, D M; Zornberg, G L; Siegler, M
Engineering ethics has been focused in the field of engineering education since the introduction of accreditation system of engineering education. In this paper, contents of the subject of engineering history are examined and discussed from the viewpoints of education of engineering ethics through a practical case of civil engineering history in a college. For the first step, codes of engineering ethics regulated in various engineering organizations are analyzed and the common contents are extracted to set the requirements for the education of engineering ethics. Then contents of the subject of engineering history are examined according to the requirements. Finally, conditions of engineering history for engineering ethics are discussed.
The relationship between corporate governance and business ethics has always been ambiguous. Does corporate governance per definition have an ethical nature or is it merely self-interested? Is business ethics an integral part of corporate governance or is it marginalised or even excluded by the debate on corporate governance? Does corporate governance also include the governance of ethics? This article will focus on the relationship between corporate governance and business ethics...
Rossouw, G. J.
This paper reports from an ongoing multidisciplinary, ethnographic study that is exploring the views, values and practices (the ethical frameworks) drawn on by professional staff in assisted conception units and stem cell laboratories in relation to embryo donation for research purposes, particularly human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, in the UK. We focus here on the connection between possible incidental findings and the circumstances in which embryos are donated for hESC research, and report some of the uncertainties and dilemmas of our staff participants. We explore the views of our study participants in relation to two themes: (1) rights to information and anticipating how donors might be informed about future research findings and (2) occupational work goals and trust. PMID:21666741
Ehrich, Kathryn; Williams, Clare; Farsides, Bobbie
The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the vaccination status. PMID:23539924
Mateji?, Bojana; Kesi?, Vesna
Full Text Available O presente artigo de revisão da literatura centra-se na temática dos clientes involuntários. Analisaram-se criticamente os trabalhos de autores que: (1 propõem a sua caracterização, designadamente no que respeita ao posicionamento do cliente na situação de ajuda, concluindo-se pela complexidade da sua identificação; (2 conceptualizam o papel dos profissionais de saúde mental, bem como as singularidades da relação terapêutica, destacando a importância da aliança, dos dilemas éticos e da motivação para a intervenção; (3 apresentam os modelos terapêuticos mais utilizados nestas situações, enfatizando-se as terapias colaborativas, e particularmente as centradas nas soluções, como as que melhor promovem o envolvimento destes clientes. Ao longo da pesquisa manteve-se a preocupação de rever obras abrangentes na área do acompanhamento psicológico que simultaneamente evidenciassem ou favorecessem uma perspectiva crítica e complexa sobre o tema. Na organização do artigo procurou-se seguir uma perspectiva diacrónica que mostrasse a evolução da conceptualização e praxis sobre a problemática.The involuntary clients issue is the core of this literature review article. Critical analysis was carried out over the work of authors who: (1 propose their characterization, namely in what concerns the client's positioning in a help situation, leading to a notion of complexity in its identification; (2 conceptualize the role of mental health technicians, as well as the singularities of the therapeutic relationship, highlighting the importance of the alliance, ethical dilemmas and the motivation towards an intervention; (3 point out the therapeutic models mainly used in these situations, emphasizing collaborative therapies, particularly solution focused therapies, as those who better promote the involvement of clients. Reviewing extensive literature on psychological intervention that simultaneously underlined a critical and complex perspective on the matter was a constant concern throughout the research process. The article's structure is outlined diachronically so that the evolution of both conceptualization and praxis on the subject becomes clear.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo de revisão da literatura centra-se na temática dos clientes involuntários. Analisaram-se criticamente os trabalhos de autores que: (1) propõem a sua caracterização, designadamente no que respeita ao posicionamento do cliente na situação de ajuda, concluindo-se pela complexidade da [...] sua identificação; (2) conceptualizam o papel dos profissionais de saúde mental, bem como as singularidades da relação terapêutica, destacando a importância da aliança, dos dilemas éticos e da motivação para a intervenção; (3) apresentam os modelos terapêuticos mais utilizados nestas situações, enfatizando-se as terapias colaborativas, e particularmente as centradas nas soluções, como as que melhor promovem o envolvimento destes clientes. Ao longo da pesquisa manteve-se a preocupação de rever obras abrangentes na área do acompanhamento psicológico que simultaneamente evidenciassem ou favorecessem uma perspectiva crítica e complexa sobre o tema. Na organização do artigo procurou-se seguir uma perspectiva diacrónica que mostrasse a evolução da conceptualização e praxis sobre a problemática. Abstract in english The involuntary clients issue is the core of this literature review article. Critical analysis was carried out over the work of authors who: (1) propose their characterization, namely in what concerns the client's positioning in a help situation, leading to a notion of complexity in its identificati [...] on; (2) conceptualize the role of mental health technicians, as well as the singularities of the therapeutic relationship, highlighting the importance of the alliance, ethical dilemmas and the motivation towards an intervention; (3) point out the therapeutic models mainly used in these situations, emphasizing collaborative therapies, particularly solution focused therapies, as those who better promote the involvement of clients. Reviewing extensive literature on psychological intervention that simultaneously underlined a critical and complex perspective on the matter was a constant concern throughout the research process. The article's structure is outlined diachronically so that the evolution of both conceptualization and praxis on the subject becomes clear.
Luciana, Sotero; Ana Paula, Relvas.
This paper explores the relationships that various applied ethics bear to each other, both in particular disciplines and more generally. The introductory section lays out the challenge of coming up with such an account and, drawing a parallel with the philosophy of science, offers that applied ethics may either be unified or disunified. The second section develops one simple account through which applied ethics are unified, vis-à-vis ethical theory. However, this is not taken to be a satisfying answer, for reasons explained. In the third section, specific applied ethics are explored: biomedical ethics; business ethics; environmental ethics; and neuroethics. These are chosen not to be comprehensive, but rather for their traditions or other illustrative purposes. The final section draws together the results of the preceding analysis and defends a disunity conception of applied ethics. PMID:20333477
Over the 50 years since they were first proposed, the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) have made a tremendous impact. These principles seem to unify concerns for better science with causing less harm to animals. The ideas behind the 3Rs are so intuitively compelling that it is tempting to believe that full implementation is merely a matter of time, and once the 3Rs are widely implemented, the public will fully support any continued laboratory animal use that is deemed necessary. In this paper, we argue that these conclusions are unlikely to be correct, in part because the 3Rs are rich in ambiguities, and any implementation requires resolving the dilemma that promoting one R will sometimes directly or indirectly conflict with promoting another. For example, should Reduction be conceived in absolute or in relative numbers? Is it really possible (or desirable) to use relative Replacement (i.e., switching from a â??higherâ? to a â??lowerâ? species)? Which of the 3Rs should receive priority? Until now, some scholars have focused on identifying Replacements for the use of live animal experiments in research, while others have focused on Reduction in the number of animals used and Refinements in procedures such that animals experience less harm. Meaningful contact between these camps may be limited, however. In some cases, the goals of Reduction and Refinement actually conflict, as, for example, in the choice to re-use animals (and hence reduce total animal usage) or to avoid re-use (and hence avoid the negative effects of repeated exposure to harmful procedures). We conclude that there is now a need for a more thorough ethical discussion on how to resolve these issues.
Olsson, I. Anna S.; Franco, Nuno H.
This chapter focuses on the special obligation researchers have to consider carefully the ethical and moral aspects of their work when undertaking qualitative field research on intimate matters. The chapter argues that the term "justification" is central to a discussion of several dimensions of ethics in the various phases of research, from the conception of a research idea to the dissimination of research results.
TersbÃ¸l, Britt Pinkowski
Thinking and practising ethically requires reasoning systematically about the right thing to do. Health promotion ethics - a form of applied ethics - includes analysis of health promotion practice and how this can be ethically justified. Existing frameworks can assist in such evaluation. These acknowledge the moral value of delivering benefits. But benefits need to be weighed against burdens, harms or wrongs, and these should be minimised: they include invading privacy, breaking confidentiality, restraining liberty, undermining self-determination or people's own values, or perpetuating injustice. Thinking about the ethics of health promotion also means recognising health promotion as a normative ideal: a vision of the good society. This ideal society values health, sees citizens as active and includes them in decisions that affect them, and makes the state responsible for providing all of its citizens, no matter how advantaged or disadvantaged, with the conditions and resources they need to be healthy. Ethicists writing about health promotion have focused on this relationship between the citizen and the state. Comparing existing frameworks, theories and the expressed values of practitioners themselves, we can see common patterns. All oppose pursuing an instrumental, individualistic, health-at-all-costs vision of health promotion. And all defend the moral significance of just processes: those that engage with citizens in a transparent, inclusive and open way. In recent years, some Australian governments have sought to delegitimise health promotion, defining it as extraneous to the role of the state. Good evidence is not enough to counter this trend, because it is founded in competing visions of a good society. For this reason, the most pressing agenda for health promotion ethics is to engage with communities, in a procedurally just way, about the role and responsibilities of the citizen and the state in promoting and maintaining good health. PMID:24739775
Carter, Stacy M
The hypothesis that injunctive and descriptive norms interact positively or synergistically to promote cooperation in social dilemmas is tested in the context of a survey study focusing on environmentally responsible behaviour. Measurement error and strong and positive correlations between the two types of normative beliefs make it difficult to test the interaction hypothesis. By using structural equation modelling with residual centering these problems are overcome and the interaction hypothesis is confirmed. The result is stable across three replications spanning a two-year period. Udgivelsesdato: AUG
I start this contribution with an overview of my personal involvementas an Operations Research consultantin several engineering case-studies that may raise ethical questions; these case studies employ simulation models. Next, I present an overview of the recent literature on ethical issues in modeling, focusing on the validation of the models assumptions; the decisive role of these assumptions leads to the quest for robust models. Actually, models are meant to solve practical problem...
Kleijnen, Jack P. C.
Full Text Available In the last five years, remote selling-led by online organizations - has surged. The resulting growth has created concern among both traditional and remote sellers as they jockey for improved competitive position and governmental entities, in particular US states, over the erosion of their tax revenues as sales are diverted to remote sellers. This paper explores the issues and potential solutions surrounding the e-commerce tax dilemma. It provides a current assessment of the taxation environment for individuals and organizations impacted by the tax debate. Those individuals and organizations might include online business customers, remote sellers both traditional (mail order and online, tax equity organizations, and governmental bodies. Current tax obligations are explored based on landmark legal decisions. Potential short and long -term solutions are assessed.
Steven John Simon
Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare aggressive developmental cyst of the jaw. It most commonly occurs in middle-aged people with mandible anterior region being the most affected site. This lesion can present as a unilocular or multilocular radiolucency and has high recurrence rate. The histopathologic features of the GOC are complex and often coincide with the features of dentigerous cyst, radicular cyst, and low-grade central mucoepidermoid carcinoma (CMEC). At times, the microscopic features are so similar to central low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma that it becomes highly impossible to distinguish the two entities even with various advanced investigations. The reported case represents one such diagnostic dilemma occurring in the maxilla which is a rare site, and the lesion/s appeared as two distinct entities, that is, GOC and CMEC on either aspects of the same side of maxilla clinically, yet showing continuity on advanced imaging and demonstrating histopathological perplexity. PMID:23970979
Prabhat, M P V; Deshpande, Prasannasrinivas; Gummadapu, Sarat; Babburi, Suresh; Chintamaneni, Raja Lakshmi; Sujanamulk, Bhavana
Full text of publication follows: the present paper will be concerned with environmental risk perception, with special emphasis on those environmental risks that pertain to global change phenomena, such as climate change and ozone depletion. Two determinants of risk judgments are investigated that seem particularly relevant to environmental risks: ethical and affective evaluations. It is assumed that the focus of risk evaluation can be on one of two aspects: a) on an evaluation of potential losses, or b) on ethical considerations. We assume that both, potential loss and violation of ethical principles elicit emotional evaluations, but that these two judgmental aspects are associated with different specific emotions. Following cognitive emotion theories, we distinguish loss-based emotions, such as worry and fear, from ethical emotions, e.g., guilt and anger. A study is presented that investigates the role of ethical and affective evaluations in risk judgments. Various environmental risks were presented to subjects, e.g., air pollution, ozone depletion, climate change and destruction of ecological balance. For each environmental risk, subjects indicated in free-response format as well as on rating scales the extent to which ethical principles were violated, and the intensity of both loss-based and ethical emotions. The correlational structure of the emotion ratings confirms the distinction between loss-based and ethical emotions. Risk judgments co-vary with the strength of ethical evaluation and with the intensity of loss-based emotions, but are independent of ethical emotions. The implications of these findings for the risk appraisal process are discussed. (authors)
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to dream of in the sense of
establishing the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there is no communication and by extension, no genuine mankind nor genuine humanity. Communication and ethics therefore appear inseparable; one cannot exist without the other. The audacity of this ethical visionary lies in managing to perceive more than just technological marvels, but also to appreciate the paradigm of anthropoethics entering the realm of the concrete, that is to say, ethics for mankind and for humanity, as conceived of by Apel, Habermas and Morin.
Luiz Martins da Silva
Notes that it is essential that business organizations establish organizational systems that require satisfactory ethical business behaviors from everyone concerned, regardless of differences in personal outlooks. Outlines what needs to be done in order to effectively teach business ethics. (SG)
The current global economic crisis and its aftermath resulted of unethical practices of the companies' leaders and their financial management by improper usage of financial derivative, which turned the financial derivatives into a source of gambling, and spread to extremely large volume. Although, the unethical practices from a financial institution observing lack of ethics is made due to self interest that maximizes immediate profit putting shareholder wealth and small investor at risk rat...
This final project report describes a 3-year project designed to integrate ethics into all disciplines at Utah Valley State College to introduce students to ethical complications they may face in their careers and vocations. Fifty faculty members participated in the project, the major components of which involved a 2-week summer seminar in ethics;
Utah Valley State Coll., Orem.
Making ethics relevant to students in a business communications course continues to be a challenge. Classroom practitioners have long noted the difficulties in surmounting the contradictions students sense in business ethics instruction. Furthermore, students often perceive ethics to be largely irrelevant to the skills necessary for success in
Outlines this issue of "Social Work," which addresses ethical issues relevant to the profession, including how to prepare students for the complex task of ethical decision-making; attitudes about sexual contact with clients; legal concerns regarding sexual harassment and confidentiality; the nature of ethics violations; approaches to new and
Witkin, Stanley L.
If the goal of teaching ethics is to affect behavior and ultimately produce thoughtful, ethical people, then the best process to do this is by embedding ethical practices in student discussions. One teacher demonstrates how she has done this in her classrooms.
Full Text Available Joseph Olusesan Fadare1, Babatunde L Salako21Department of Medicine, Kogi State Specialist Hospital, Lokoja; 2Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaAbstract: Organ transplantation has become a life-saving procedure for many disease conditions hitherto considered incurable. Kidney transplantation, now the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, is the commonest solid organ transplantation carried out in the world at the moment and it is the only solid organ transplantation done in Nigeria. This procedure, in addition to prolonging lives, also provides better quality of life and is evaluated as cost-effective, because it makes more resources available to other sectors of the economy. Organ transplantation in general and kidney transplantation in particular are fraught with ethical issues and dilemmas worldwide. Some of the ethical issues arising in the setting of developing countries like Nigeria may differ from those in countries where this procedure is established. Informed consent of the donor and the recipient is a major requirement for both organ donation and transplantation. Regarding donation, the ethical issues may differ depending on the type of organ donation, ie, whether it is living-related, living-unrelated, cadaveric, or from brain-dead individuals. Commodification of organs is identified as an ethical dilemma, and arguments for and against this practice are put forward here. Confidentiality of donor information, fairness and equity in donor selection, and access to kidney transplantation when needed are also discussed. Finally, the issue of safety of organ harvesting for the donor and of the transplantation process itself, and the possible long-term consequences for both parties are investigated.Keywords: kidney transplantation, ethical issues, developing countries, Nigeria
Joseph Olusesan Fadare
Full Text Available The central focus of this article is on the moral dilemmas that social servants face when applying the law. These moral dilemmas result from the professionals discretionary space. Exploratory qualitative research shows that, in order to solve these dilemmas, professionals in some public organisations try to find tailormade solutions. However, this sometimes leads to a more or less denying of the discretionary space at hand, or to the creation of more rules in an effort to close the discretionary space. The question is, are these approaches effective? The answer may very well turn out to be negative. This article shows that applying a rule always leaves the professional some discretionary space. It is precisely in this free space that moral issues come up. Social servants will attain a stronger stance regarding moral issues by focussing on the development of their own moral sensitivity, both individually and as an organisation, as well as by their increasing awareness of the moral standards held by themselves, their organisation, and society at large. A social servants job is not inserting coins in a jukebox. He must create the music himself by interpreting the rules in a given situation. Just as it takes a person to turn a musical score into music, so it takes a person to interpret the law in order to create justice. De morele dilemmas van publieke professionals die voortkomen uit het toepassen van de wet, vormen het voornaamste onderwerp van dit artikel. Deze morele dilemmas ontstaan vanuit de discretionaire ruimte van professionals. Verkennend kwalitatief onderzoek laat zien dat in sommige publieke organisaties professionals deze dilemmas proberen op te lossen door maatwerk te leveren. In de praktijk leidt dit soms echter tot het min of meer negeren van de discretionaire ruimte, of het dichttimmeren van de discretionaire ruimte door middel van meer regels en richtlijnen. Het is de vraag of een van deze strategieën effectief is. Het antwoord hierop is waarschijnlijk ontkennend. Dit artikel laat zien dat het toepassen van een regel altijd discretionaire ruimte laat voor de professional. Juist in deze vrije ruimte spelen morele kwesties. Publieke professionals kunnen moreel gesterkt worden door de ontwikkeling van morele gevoeligheid, individueel en als organisatie, en door een groeiend bewustzijn van de morele standaarden die de samenleving en zijzelf in hun organisatie handhaven. De publieke professional kan niet als bij een jukebox door een druk op de knop de machine zijn werk laten doen. De regels en de situatie interpreterend zal hij zelf muziek moeten maken. Zoals er mensen nodig zijn om van notenschrift muziek te maken, zo kunnen alleen mensen van wet- en regelgeving in een unieke situatie recht en rechtvaardigheid maken.
Lizet van Donkersgoed
This thesis is a study formulated under the rubric of understanding ethically questionable behaviour in consumption. It is argued that ethics research in the market place has tended to focus with a perspective of business practice, leaving an understanding of the consumer perspective relatively under-researched. Developed here is a theoretical framework seeking an understanding of how and why consumers engage in ethically questionable behaviour. This is initially based upon the Theory of Plan...
Full Text Available This paper aims to focus on museum codes of ethics and discuss their provisions on museum research. Museum research is an important part of museum work; it is an ethical responsibility of museum professionals to perform this work for society and to encourage this undertaking in their institutions by other stakeholders. But how do codes of ethics in their current form encourage that? Instead of promoting a contemporary idea of research multi-faceted, complex, open to the participation of many different interested parties, such as different professionals and communities of knowledge they seem to understand research as a rather single-faceted phenomenon, object-oriented and collections-based. If codes of ethics are the epitome of museum professionalism and museum values, then these ethics should be embodied in new provisions for museum research. Notions like social inclusion, public accountability, and transparency, are central in museum research, and should be included in all codes of ethics as well, reflecting the efforts museums make to embody democratic ideals and share both research and writing of history with their audience, thus creating communities of knowledge. This paper aims to contribute to the debate on museum codes of ethics and to provide some ideas for future revisions.
Despite differences in focus, goals, and strategies between conservation biology and animal welfare, both are inextricably linked in many ways, and greater consideration of animal welfare, although important in its own right, also has considerable potential to contribute to conservation success. Nevertheless, animal welfare and animal ethics are not always considered explicitly within conservation practice. We systematically reviewed the recent scientific peer-reviewed and online gray literature on reintroductions of captive-bred and wild-caught animals (mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles) to quantify the occurrence of animal welfare issues. We considered monitoring that could be indicative of the animal's welfare status and supportive management actions that could improve animal welfare (regardless of whether the aim was explicitly animal-welfare orientated). Potential welfare issues (of variable nature and extent) were recorded in 67% of 199 projects reviewed; the most common were mortality >50%, dispersal or loss of animals, disease, and human conflict. Most (>70%) projects monitored survival, 18% assessed body condition, and 2% monitored stress levels. Animal welfare, explicitly, was referred to in 6% of projects. Supportive actions, most commonly use of on-site prerelease pens and provision of supplemental food or water, were implemented in 79% of projects, although the extent and duration of support varied. Practitioners can address animal-welfare issues in reintroductions by considering the potential implications for individual animals at all stages of the release process using the decision tree presented. We urge practitioners to report potential animal-welfare issues, describe mitigation actions, and evaluate their efficacy to facilitate transparent evaluation of common moral dilemmas and to advance communal strategies for dealing with them. Currently, comparative mortality rates, health risks, postrelease stress, effectiveness of supportive measures, and behavior of individuals warrant further research to improve animal welfare in reintroductions and to increase success of such projects. PMID:23506045
Harrington, Lauren A; Moehrenschlager, Axel; Gelling, Merryl; Atkinson, Rob P D; Hughes, Joelene; Macdonald, David W
Development ethics can be seen as comparable to business ethics, medical ethics, environmental ethics and similar areas of practical ethics. Each area of practice generates ethical questions about priorities and procedures, rights and responsibilities. So, first of all, development ethics can be seen as a field of attention, an agenda of questions about major value choices involved in processes of social and economic development. What is good or real development? ...
Gasper, D. R.
Full Text Available The allocation of financial resources in accordance with population health care needs represents a complex task, with practical and ethical dilemmas. The decisions regarding resource allocation are made at macro, mezzo and micro levels. Legislative authorities and government decide how to allocate limited resources based on cost effectiveness criteria. Managing directors of hospitals and research institutes take mezzo decisions, while doctors and researchers in healthcare area are responsible to make micro decisions. The aim of this paper is to assess the use of equity criteria for resource allocation in Romanian public hospitals. We found that resource allocation within the Romanian health system increases the inequalities among individuals and groups.
Various successes in regenerative medicine by therapeutic cloning have given rise to expectations that treatments will soon be developed for incurable diseases. But using embryonic stem cells for this purpose raises many ethical dilemmas including those about the beginning of human life. Arguments concerning stem cell research and therapeutic cloning in different countries are influenced by both the religious and bioethical traditions which dominate in these cultures. This article examines how these traditions have influenced stem cell research in Iran through an account of scientific advances and the development of regulations on embryonic stem cell research in Iran. PMID:18988380
Saniei, Mansooreh; De Vries, Raymond
We review Side Effects, a 2013 film involving bioethics, pharmaceuticals, and financial conspiracies. After the main character Emily unsuccessfully attempts suicide, she begins receiving care from a psychiatrist, Dr. Banks. Following numerous events, she is placed on a fictional antidepressant, Ablixa, which leads her to suffer from sleepwalking. During an episode of sleepwalking she commits a serious crime. The film poses an interesting dilemma: How responsible would the physician be in this instance? We analyze this question by applying numerous ethical principles. PMID:23996742
Dhiman, Gaurav J; Amber, Kyle T
The spread of digital technology, which allows anyone (in theory)
to disseminate in-formation on the Internet, is the greatest and a
dramatic new ethical question of the modern world. It is especially
true for the principles that traditionally have guided jour-nalism.
This article addresses some of the central dilemmas that journalism faces in this new context, and poses questions regarding possible limits to what should be made pub-lic, in view of ...
Full Text Available The spread of digital technology, which allows anyone (in theoryto disseminate in-formation on the Internet, is the greatest and adramatic new ethical question of the modern world. It is especiallytrue for the principles that traditionally have guided jour-nalism.This article addresses some of the central dilemmas that journalism faces in this new context, and poses questions regarding possible limits to what should be made pub-lic, in view of the loss of this control historically applied through journalism and the everpresent hypothesis of anonymity on the net.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article critically evaluated the role of Christian Ethics in response to globalisation. It showed that ethical critiques of globalisation inevitably fall short when Christianity's historical contributions to processes of globalisation are neglected or de-emphasised. A Christian Ethics that atte [...] mpts completely to wash its hands of and disavow globalisation is therefore indicated to be perched on a false premise. In this regard, the author specifically discussed the divergent stances of Max Stackhouse and Rebecca Todd Peters and opted for the former as the more helpful when considered from an interdisciplinary approach. In the final analysis, the author argued that the problem of globalisation might fruitfully be addressed with an ethics that is not averse to bring the various insights of missiology, church history and practical theology to the table, focusing particularly on rituals of reconciliation and forgiveness.
Retief, M& #252; ller.
Drawing upon Peter Ives' book, Gramsci's Politics of Language, this article examines the linguistic origins of Antonio Gramsci's theory of hegemony. This is then compared with Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the habitus, with a particular focus on how the two theories conceptualize social change. Ives shows that Gramsci understood language standardization as either democratic or repressive depending on the nature of the standardization process. Ives uses this to argue that the opposite of repress...
Friedman, P. Kerim
Both the increasing incorporation of medical technology and new social demands (including those for health care) beginning in the 1960s have brought about significant changes in medical practice. This situation has in turn sparked a growth in the philosophical debate over problems pertaining to ethical practice. These issues no longer find answers in the Hippocratic ethical model. The authors believe that the crisis in Hippocratic ethics could be described as a period of paradigm shift in which a new set of values appears to be emerging. Beginning with the bioethics movement, the authors expound on the different ethical theories applied to medical practice and conclude that principlism is the most appropriate approach for solving the new moral dilemma imposed on clinical practice. PMID:10089544
Almeida, J L; Schramm, F R
This study develops a Science-Technology-Society (STS)-based science ethics education program for high school students majoring in or planning to major in science and engineering. Our education program includes the fields of philosophy, history, sociology and ethics of science and technology, and other STS-related theories. We expected our STS-based science ethics education program to promote students' epistemological beliefs and moral judgment development. These psychological constructs are needed to properly solve complicated moral and social dilemmas in the fields of science and engineering. We applied this program to a group of Korean high school science students gifted in science and engineering. To measure the effects of this program, we used an essay-based qualitative measurement. The results indicate that there was significant development in both epistemological beliefs and moral judgment. In closing, we briefly discuss the need to develop epistemological beliefs and moral judgment using an STS-based science ethics education program. PMID:23338794
Han, Hyemin; Jeong, Changwoo
The structure of ethics work in a hospital is complex. Professional ethics, research ethics and clinical ethics committees (CECs) are important parts of this structure, in addition to laws and national and institutional codes of ethics. In Norway all hospital trusts have a CEC, most of these discuss cases by means of a method which seeks to include relevant guidelines and laws into the discussion. In recent years many committees have received more cases which have concerned questions of principle. According to Ellen Fox and co-authors the traditional CEC model suffers from a number of weaknesses. Therefore, in their organization a separate body deals with organizational matters. In this paper, we discuss what is gained and what is lost by creating two separate bodies doing ethics consultation. We do this through an analysis of detailed minutes of CEC discussions in one CEC during a 6-year period. 30 % of all referrals concerned matters of principle. Some of these discussions originated in a dilemma related to a particular patient. Most of the discussions had some consequences within the hospital organization, for clinical practice, for adjustment of guidelines, or may have influenced national policy. We conclude that a multiprofessional CEC with law and ethics competency and patient representation may be well suited also for discussion of general ethical principles. A CEC is a forum which can help bridge the gap between clinicians and management by increasing understanding for each others' perspectives. PMID:24647554
Førde, Reidun; Hansen, Thor Willy Ruud
This paper covers the main findings of the doctoral research that was concerned with seeking to extend aspects of dilemma theory. In professional practice, the Trompenaars Hampden-Turner Dilemma Reconciliation ProcessTM is a vehicle delivering dilemma theory in application. It informs a manager or leader on how to explore the dilemmas they face, how to reconcile the tensions that result, and how to structure the action steps for implementing the reconciled solutions. This vehicle forms the pr...
Burger, Marc J. C.
Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation. PMID:24870041
Dilemas éticos de periodistas y mediadores en el caso de la liberación de rehenes en febrero de 2009: entrevistas a tres periodistas colombianos / Ethical Dilemmas of Journalists and Mediators in the case of the hostage liberations on February 2009: Interviews with three Colombian Journalists
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Durante la operación humanitaria que permitió el regreso a la libertad de tres policías y un soldado secuestrados por la guerrilla de las FARC se presentaron algunos incidentes que involucraron a periodistas y suscitaron controversia en Colombia. ¿Qué implicaciones éticas trae consigo el doble papel [...] de periodista y garante en una liberación de rehenes? ¿Qué pasa por la mente de un reportero cuando informa sobre este tipo de noticias? El artículo recoge las reflexiones de dos de los protagonistas de los hechos del 1 de febrero de 2009 y también las de un experto latinoamericano en ética periodística Abstract in english During the humanitarian operation that freed three members of the Colombian Police and one soldier of the Colombian Army held as hostages by the guerrilla organization FARC, some of the journalists got involved in incidents which opened up a debate in Colombia. What ethical implications does the dou [...] ble role of journalist and guarantor in a hostage liberation situation bring? What thoughts does a reporter have when informing about this kind of news ? This article collects the reflections of two journalists who were involved in the events on February 1st, 2009, and also those of a Latin American expert in journalistic ethics
JOSÈ VICENTE, ARIZMENDI.
Campaigners on public health issues face a number of dilemmas when tactical choices in public debating involve uncomfortable mixtures of benefits and costs. Key dilemmas for campaigners are whether to acknowledge weaknesses in their own position, whether to advocate research to address claims by opponents, whether to acknowledge vested interests on their own side, whether to debate with opponents, whether to launch attacks on opposition individuals and groups and whether to criticize extreme behaviour by those on their own side. Drawing on the literature on scientific controversies, these dilemmas are outlined, with illustrations from the Australian vaccination debate. Dilemmas in health campaigning warrant attention because choices made can affect both the success of policy initiatives and the image of professions, sometimes with trade-offs between these. However, dilemmas have been neglected because most studies of health controversies give little attention to campaigning tactics. Campaigners can choose options that seem to maximize the likelihood of winning in the short term. However, options for short-term advantage may establish a precedent for approaches to campaigning that undermine commitment to free and open debate to possible long-term disadvantage. PMID:22983693
Institutional ethics committees (IECs) are part of a growing phenomenon in the American health care system. Although a major force driving hospitals to establish IECs is the desire to resolve difficult clinical dilemmas in a quick and systematic way, in this paper we argue that such a goal is naive and, to some extent, misguided. We assess the growing trend of these committees, analyse the theoretical assumptions underlying their establishment, and evaluate their strengths and shortcomings. W...
Fleetwood, J. E.; Arnold, R. M.; Baron, R. J.
Different types of clinical research are associated with different degrees of risk and with varying utility. Usually classified as therapeutic or non-therapeutic, clinical research involving children necessitates a balance between the conflicts of intrusion into a group of vulnerable subjects, and the obvious advantages which such intrusion engenders. To understand better the potential ethical dilemmas of paediatric research the author has expanded the classification of such clinical research...
This study used semi-structured interviews and content analysis to examine moral principles that street drug users apply to three hypothetical addiction research ethical dilemmas. Participants (n = 90) were ethnically diverse, economically disadvantaged drug users recruited in New York City in 2009. Participants applied a wide range of contextually sensitive moral precepts, including respect, beneficence, justice, relationality, professional obligations, rules, and pragmatic self-interest. Li...
Fisher, Celia B.
A central characteristic of people with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is an apparent insatiable appetite leading to severe overeating and the potential for marked obesity and associated serious health problems and premature death. This behaviour may be due to the effects of the genetic defect resulting from the chromosome 15 abnormalities associated with the syndrome. We examine the ethical and legal dilemmas that can arise in the care of people with PWS. A tension exists between a genetic dete...
Holland, A. J.; Wong, J.
In the last column we introduced the idea of ethical reasoning (see Paul & Elder, 2006) and discussed its importance to education, assuming the intention is to cultivate fairminded critical thinking. We also discussed the problem of intrinsic egocentric thinking as a fundamental barrier to ethical reasoning. In this column we focus on conceptual
Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda
Discusses the significance of a Wittgensteinian approach to the ethics of language for world Englishes. Focuses on the role of metaphysics in the ethics of language and on the significance of context in the moral use of language. Argues that morality lies not only in its content but also in its use. (Author/VWL)
Dhillon, Pradeep A.
Increasingly, literature from both the academic and the professional fields has focused attention on the moral dimensions of teaching and the ethical demands they place on the daily practice of teachers. On one hand, consideration of ethical intent and behaviour seems quite simple and self-evident. In teaching, as in life more generally, core
Suggestions for writing moral dilemmas for elementary school history students include presenting an analogy of the subject matter, having a central character, creating a clash of basic principles, and constructing a dilemma students can relate to in their own lives. A sample dilemma is provided. (KC)
Colwell, Bob; Diamond, Sheldon
This paper analyses the status of the embryo in Canadian law. First, a brief overview of some ethical issues raised by research with embryos, focusing on the moral status of the embryo, is presented. A survey of the regulatory framework applicable to embryo research in Canada follows, so as to delineate the legal status of the embryo in Canada and its ethical underpinnings. A summary of applicable regulation in Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States is also undertaken, illustrating the lack of consensus on this issue in Western countries. Finally, recent developments in stem cell research are considered, focusing on current alternatives to embryo destruction. PMID:19495711
Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Bordet, Sylvie; Isasi, Rosario
Full Text Available Paper focuses on the particular case of professional ethics in the context of the accounting profession. After briefly discussing recent events that made us reconsider our understanding of corporate governance, accountancy and ethics, we try to delimit the state of the art by looking at ethics from the accounting professions perspective. When aiming to clarify professional ethics, we closely analyze integrity based on the latest developments undertaken by European professional bodies. Findings are used in identifying ways to contribute to the endeavor of aligning the professions performance with societys reasonable expectations.
Carmen Giorgiana Bonaci
Recently, the National Association of State Boards of Accountancy (NASBA) has focused its attention on mandating specific ethics coursework within the 150-hr requirement for eligibility to sit for the uniform CPA examination. This push for ethics education heightened attention toward ethics in the accounting curriculum and is the basis for the
Breaux, Kevin; Chiasson, Michael; Mauldin, Shawn; Whitney, Teresa
In this literature review, the author focuses on several ethical considerations in case conceptualization and diagnosis, including diagnostic training and competence. Meeting the American Counseling Association's (1995) ethical standard for diagnostic training has several ethical implications for counselors, counselor educators, and supervisors.
Dougherty, Jennifer L.
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a complex disorder that creates a diagnostic, ethical, and treatment dilemma for mental health professionals. Psychosocial, biological, and cultural influences play a role in the development of ASPD. People with ASPD often had harsh early childhoods that impaired their ability to trust in adulthood. Research supports intriguing biological links, but it remains unclear if biological differences are the cause or the effect of ASPD. Individualism, patriarchy, and widespread media violence create the cultural context for the development of ASPD. ASPD is difficult to clinically diagnose and treat, and there is controversy concerning whether ASPD is a psychiatric or a legal-ethical problem. However, the management of ASPD often falls to mental health services. This article addresses treatment and primary prevention of ASPD in a way that is relevant to mental health practice. PMID:10633643
The increasing number of ethical issues highlighted in everyday nursing care demonstrates the connectedness between nursing ethics and nursing practice. However, what is the role of ethical theories in this context? This question will be examined in this article by analysing the contribution made by the ethics of care, in particular in understandings of gender roles, asymmetries of power, professional knowledge and experience. The adoption and criticism of an emergent nursing ethics is discussed and stated from different viewpoints. The actuality of the caring approach is affirmed by a new reading of the given situation. This article first describes the traditional perception of nurses as marginalised actors in the health sector. By making reference to the current and growing global scarcity of nursing care, it contends that nursing will no longer be marginalised, but instead at the centre of public health attention and reputation. Nevertheless, marginalisation will persist by increasingly affecting the care receivers, especially those groups that are pushed to the fringes by the consequences of the healthcare market, such as persons of extreme old age, suffering from multiple morbidities, or with poor health literacy. Whereas the "classical" understanding of the ethics of care focuses on the nurse-patient relationship and on individual care and understanding of ethics, the new understanding confirms the classical, but adds an understanding of social ethics: caring for the access to care is seen as a main ethical goal of social justice within a nursing ethic. PMID:23876663
Full Text Available Software is the core for computer-based applications became an essential part for critical control systems, health and human life guard systems, financial and banking systems, scientific and educational, entertainments and other systems. Software is the core for such applications. It requires qualified software engineers: professionally and ethically. Literature review (L.R and survey results show that software engineering professionals are facing several ethical-related problems which are costly, harmful and affected high ratio of people. Professional organizations like ACM, IEEE, ABET and CSAC have established codes of ethics to help software engineering professionals to understand and manage their ethical responsibilities. Islam considers ethics an essential factor to build individuals, communities and society. Islamic ethics are set of moral principles and guidance that recognizes what is right behavior from wrong, which are comprehensive, stable, fair, and historically prove success in building ethically great society. The estimated 1.5 billion of Muslims with tens of thousands of software engineers should have an effective role in software development and life, which requires them to understand and implement ethics, specially the Islamic ethics in their work. This paper is a frame-work or roadmap for modeling software engineering principle, which shows the main phases for solving such problem. It focuses mainly on adopting a new version of software engineering principle based on Islamic ethical values.
Shihab A. Hameed
Many opinions and ideas about aging exist. Biological theories have taken hold of the popular and scientific imagination as potential answers to a "cure" for aging. However, it is not clear what exactly is being cured or whether aging could be classified as a disease. Some scientists are convinced that aging will be biologically alterable and that the human lifespan will be vastly extendable. Other investigators believe that aging is an elusive target that may only be "statistically" manipulatable through a better understanding of the operational principles of systems situated within complex environments. Not only is there confusion over definitions but also as to the safety of any potential intervention. Curing cell death, for example, may lead to cell cancer. The search for a cure for aging is not a clearly beneficial endeavour. This paper will first, describe contemporary ideas about aging processes and second, describe several current life extension technologies. Third, it analyses these theories and technologies, focusing on two representative and differing scientific points of view. The paper also considers the public health dilemma that arises from life extension research and examines two issues, risk/benefit ratio and informed consent, that are key to developing ethical guidelines for life extension technologies. PMID:16645801
Full Text Available The aim of this review was to investigate assessment (evaluation methods of medical information on the Internet. This study reports and compares portals and search engines, as well as criteria of information selection and website set-up. It also describes ethical principles and rules concerning websites of medical interest. Current data reveals that important legal and ethical deficit issues concerning internet services are being resolved worldwide on the basis of scientific and ethical criteria.
M. K. Kalavritinos
"It is financial crises that most clearly point to ethical problems inherent to mathematically structured financial markets. If not now, when else to question the moral grounds of finance? The approach of Critical Financial Ethics claims to illuminate the genesis and characteristics of there ethical problems. Arguments offered are based on revealing the profound connections between financial theory, acts and impacts. It can be demonstrated that the financial sciences which nowadays domina...
7 articles in this data sheet, they concern: political stakes and stakes of the industrial petroleum sector towards ethical questions; establishment of associations attending to human and environmental questions; examples of of ethical, environmental and safety policy in an industrialized country (ExxonMobil) and in a developing country (TotalFina); synthesis of the ethical problems that the petroleum industry encounter in industrialized and developing countries; considerations on the communication stakes in petroleum companies with the general public. (O.M.)
Pedagogues rarely reported that they experienced dilemmas. What seem contradictory demands for outside observers are conceptualised by pedagogues as â??problemsâ? or simply as inevitable unnoticed circumstances. The contradictory demands were especially evident in contexts involving children with special needs and seemed to be intensified by lack of space or small 22 number of staff. Conversely dilemmas seemed to be reduced by outdoor activities or more staff. A significant finding was also, that pedagogues in principle value inclusion and community but in practice seem to choose a paradoxical strategy where individual children are separated from the group in order to include them.
This article aims to explore the relationship between morality and organizational culture with reference to the process of ethical decision making and to the cooperation between philosopher and psychologist for the improvement of ethical climate within a public institution. Firstly, we introduce the notion of organizational culture emphasizing the importance of moral values and their role in building a true ethical climate. Secondly, we focus on the study of ethical decision making. The proce...
This series of case studies, developed to enhance a Trinity College Summer Research Program, raises provocative ethical questions of interest to scientists, teachers and students involved in research.
Alison J. Draper (Trinity College;); Sharon Stickley (St. Joseph College;)
In IT divisions and organizations, the need to execute in a competitive and complex technical environment while demonstrating personal integrity can be a significant personal and organizational challenge. Supplying concrete guidelines for those at an ethical crossroads, Ethics in IT Outsourcing explores the complex challenges of aligning IT outsourcing programs with ethical conduct and standards. This one-stop reference on the ethical structure and execution of IT outsourcing incorporates an easy-to-apply checklist of principles for outsourcing executives and managers. It examines certificatio
Ethics is a branch of philosophy. Its object is the study of both moral and immoral behaviour in order to make well founded judgements and to arrive at adequate recommendations. The Collins English Dictionary provides the following definitions of the word ethic: Ethic: a moral principle or set of moral values held by an individual or group; Ethics(singular): the philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct and of the rules and principles that ought to govern it; Ethics(pleural): a social, religious or civil code of behaviour considered correct, especially that of a particular group, profession or individual; Ethics(pleural): the moral fitness of a decision, course of action, etc. Ethics has a two-fold objective: Firstly it evaluates human practices by calling upon moral standards; it may give prescriptive advice on how to act morally in a specific kind of situation. This implies analysis and evaluation. Sometimes this is known as Normative ethics. The second is to provide therapeutic advice, suggesting solutions and policies. It must be based on well-informed opinions and requires a clear understanding of the vital issues. In the medical world, we are governed by the Hippocratic Oath. Essentially this requires medical practitioners (doctors) to do good, not harm. There is great interest and even furore regarding ethics in radiation protection
Enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) created a dilemma for Republican policy makers at the state level. States could maximize control over decision making and avoid federal intervention by establishing their own health insurance exchanges. Yet GOP leaders feared that creating exchanges would entrench a law they intensely opposed and undermine legal challenges to the ACA. Republicans' calculations were further complicated by uncertainty over the Supreme Court's ruling on the ACA's constitutionality and the outcome of the November 2012 elections. In the first year of operation, only seventeen states and the District of Columbia chose to design and implement their own exchanges; another six partnered with the federal government, and twenty-seven states ceded control to Washington. Out of thirty states with Republican governors in 2013, only four launched their own exchange. Why did many Republican-led states that initially appeared open to establishing exchanges ultimately reverse course? Drawing on interviews with state policy makers and secondary data, we trace the evolution of Republican responses to the exchange dilemma during 2010-13. We explore how exchanges became controversial and explain why so few Republican-led states opted for their own exchange, focusing on the intensifying resistance to Obamacare amid a rightward shift in state politics, partisan polarization, and uncertainty over the ACA's fate. PMID:24193607
Jones, David K; Bradley, Katharine W V; Oberlander, Jonathan
Full Text Available What is topical in indigenous research is to view ethical guidelines and principles from their own premises and discuss the control over research activities and research findings when it comes to various disciplines and methods. The article is based on an ethnographic study that was focused on the Sámi classroom culture in Norway. The purpose of this article is to discuss those common, special ethical viewpoints that a researcher has to take into consideration when conducting Sámi educational and schooling research. The focus is on the following questions: how to secure the Sámis position and voices in the research of Sámi pedagogy and education in a way that is just, valuable, and good-producing and does not harm members of indigenous peoples or have a malign influence on the phenomenon studied. This study encourages implementing child research and helps researchers to notice ethical challenges in the various phases of indigenous education research.
Sustainable development, by which we mean the use of the planet's resources for the common good of its present and future inhabitants, has become a concept capable of guiding every level of individual and collective action, as well as national and international policies. UNESCO today is perhaps the body of the United Nations which best embodies this principle in terms of education and culture. One of the most urgent problems humankind as a whole must face is that of the production and use of different forms of energy. After recalling various principles concerning the dependence of energy issues on space and, above all, time (Chapter 1), in Chapter 2 this report describes each energy sector, namely fossil fuels, nuclear power and the so-called renewable sources of energy of all kinds, underlining in each case their benefits, their drawbacks and the possibilities for their further development, taking into account the foreseeable advances in research and technological progress. The third section then reviews in terms of their resources and levels of energy consumption, the nine regions of the globe defined by the World Energy Council. Chapter 4 focuses on a certain number of scenarios designed to forecast potential developments in energy supply and demand throughout the 21st century, including the main risks created and incurred by producers and consumers of the various forms of energy, with particular reference to the risks which threaten health or the environment. The short- and medium-term prospects for energy as a whole are also reviewed. The report contains the ethical considerations which were guided by a number of principles. The most important of these is the principle of equity. The principle of 'precaution' (or anticipation) is equally crucial. This approach applies to all the issues surrounding the atmospheric emission of greenhouse gases produced by the fossil fuels. The principle of precaution is closely linked to that of the principle of feedback from experience. The report also underlines the importance of the research effort and stresses the dissemination of innovative technologies in the field of energy generation. Considerations of an ethical nature cannot be dictated by progress in science and technology alone. The examination of everything which conditions the acquisition and use of energies must also be done in a global manner. It would appear therefore that energy-related problems are intimately linked to a large number of other concerns, such as developments in population growth and economies the globalization of markets, the upholding of cultural diversity, and the pursuit of efforts towards peace. Finally, there can be no ethics without the organization of democratic debate, which must take place at every level, local, regional, national and international, and must be preceded by the dissemination and provision of the relevant information. UNESCO has assumed its responsibilities by proposing the creation of a World Commission on the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and Technology, which is destined to play an essential role in organizing and leading these discussions. For the energy problem implies that every country be correctly informed of the issues at stake, so that they can take the right decisions at their own level and will agree to discuss and, it is to be hoped, adopt the appropriate measures at the supranational level. As a conclusion to this report, it is suggested that UNESCO make use of the esteem every in which it is held by the community of nations to set up, organize and ultimately operate, on the most democratic and open basis possible, the institutions that are likely to help the international community make energy a factor for progress, and not a persistent cause of inequality, imbalance, tension and conflict. (author)
Do cultural values influence the manner in which people cooperate with one another? This study assessed cultural characteristics of individuals and then related these characteristics to cooperative behavior in social dilemmas. Participants were assessed for their degree of vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism, cultural values identified by Triandis (1995). They made choices in either a single-group or an intergroup social dilemma. The single-group dilemma entailed a three-person dilemma; the intergroup dilemma was identical but added subgroup competition, i.e., an opposing three-person group. The results indicated an interaction between cultural characteristics and type of dilemma for cooperation. The single-group versus intergroup effect reported by Bornstein and Ben-Yossef (1994) was replicated, but only for vertical individualists. The vertical individualists were least cooperative in the single-group dilemma but were more cooperative in the intergroup dilemma-where cooperation with the group maximized personal outcomes. The vertical collectivists were most cooperative in the single-group dilemma but were less cooperative in the intergroup dilemma- where group defection resulted in maximum group outcomes. The horizontal individualists and collectivists exhibited an intermediate level of cooperation, with no differences in cooperation between the single-group and intergroup dilemmas. Taken together, the results suggest that the relationship between cultural values and cooperation, in particular with reference to vertical and horizontal components of individualism and collectivism, is more complex than has been suggested in past research. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10080912
Probst; Carnevale; Triandis
ETHICS AND HEALTH INFORMATICS: FOCUS ON LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN ÉTICA E INFORMÁTICA EN SALUD: ENFOQUE SOBRE LATINOAMÉRICA Y EL CARIBE ÉTICA E INFORMÁTICA EM SAÚDE: ENFOQUE SOBRA A AMÉRICA LATINA E O CARIBE
Full Text Available Expanding use of computers in medicine continues to raise interesting and important ethical issues. After a brief review of the history of work in ethics in medical informatics, this introduction to this special issue of Acta Bioethica makes the case that this work must be applied in a Latin American and Caribbean context. From the use of intelligent machines to the evolution of the World Wide Web, the region presents vital -and under addressed- challenges to clinicians and policy makers. Sustained and regional debates, curriculum development and empirical and conceptual scholarship are among the means to ensure ethically optimized applications of health information technology in the regionEl creciente empleo de computadores en el área médica continúa planteando interesantes e importantes temas de salud. Después de una breve revisión de la historia de trabajos en ética de la informática en medicina, esta introducción al número especial de Acta Bioethica señala que este trabajo debe realizarse en un contexto latinoamericano y del Caribe. A partir del empleo de máquinas inteligentes hasta la evolución de la World Wide Web (WWW, la región presenta desafíos vitales -pero de muy poca atención- para los médicos y encargados de políticas públicas. Debates regionales continuos, desarrollo curricular y estudios empíricos y conceptuales figuran entre los medios que asegurarán en la región el uso éticamente óptimo de la tecnología de la información en saludO crescente emprego de computadores na área médica continua levantando interessantes e importantes temas de saúde. Após uma breve revisão da história de trabalhos em ética da informática em medicina, esta introdução ao número especial de Acta Bioethica, assinala que este trabalho deve realizar- se num contexto latino americano e do Caribe. A partir do emprego de máquinas inteligentes até a evolução da World Wide Web (WWW, a região apresenta desafios vitais, porem de muito pouca atenção, para os médicos e encarregados de políticas públicas. Debates regionais contínuos, desenvolvimento curricular e estudos empíricos e conceptuais figuram entre os médicos que asseguram na região uma utilização ótima, eticamente falando da tecnologia da informação em saúde
Kenneth W Goodman
ETHICS AND HEALTH INFORMATICS: FOCUS ON LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN / ÉTICA E INFORMÁTICA EM SAÚDE: ENFOQUE SOBRA A AMÉRICA LATINA E O CARIBE / ÉTICA E INFORMÁTICA EN SALUD: ENFOQUE SOBRE LATINOAMÉRICA Y EL CARIBE
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O crescente emprego de computadores na área médica continua levantando interessantes e importantes temas de saúde. Após uma breve revisão da história de trabalhos em ética da informática em medicina, esta introdução ao número especial de Acta Bioethica, assinala que este trabalho deve realizar- se n [...] um contexto latino americano e do Caribe. A partir do emprego de máquinas inteligentes até a evolução da World Wide Web (WWW), a região apresenta desafios vitais, porem de muito pouca atenção, para os médicos e encarregados de políticas públicas. Debates regionais contínuos, desenvolvimento curricular e estudos empíricos e conceptuais figuram entre os médicos que asseguram na região uma utilização ótima, eticamente falando da tecnologia da informação em saúde Abstract in spanish El creciente empleo de computadores en el área médica continúa planteando interesantes e importantes temas de salud. Después de una breve revisión de la historia de trabajos en ética de la informática en medicina, esta introducción al número especial de Acta Bioethica señala que este trabajo debe re [...] alizarse en un contexto latinoamericano y del Caribe. A partir del empleo de máquinas inteligentes hasta la evolución de la World Wide Web (WWW), la región presenta desafíos vitales -pero de muy poca atención- para los médicos y encargados de políticas públicas. Debates regionales continuos, desarrollo curricular y estudios empíricos y conceptuales figuran entre los medios que asegurarán en la región el uso éticamente óptimo de la tecnología de la información en salud Abstract in english Expanding use of computers in medicine continues to raise interesting and important ethical issues. After a brief review of the history of work in ethics in medical informatics, this introduction to this special issue of Acta Bioethica makes the case that this work must be applied in a Latin America [...] n and Caribbean context. From the use of intelligent machines to the evolution of the World Wide Web, the region presents vital -and under addressed- challenges to clinicians and policy makers. Sustained and regional debates, curriculum development and empirical and conceptual scholarship are among the means to ensure ethically optimized applications of health information technology in the region
Kenneth W, Goodman.
This article aims to describe the major ethical issues surrounding tobacco taxation, and to identify policy responses to minimise any ethical dilemmas. It uses the standard ethical framework for biomedicine (covering beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for autonomy and justice), in conjunction with relevant data on tobacco taxation from various developed countries. Tobacco taxation contributes substantial benefits at the population level by protecting health (i.e., by deterring the uptake of smoking by youth, by promoting quitting, and by reducing harm from exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS)). However, tobacco taxes can contribute to financial hardship among low-socioeconomic status populations where smoking persists. Such taxes can contribute to autonomy, by reducing SHS exposure to non-smokers, and by allowing freedom from nicotine-dependency for those who quit smoking or do not start regular smoking as a result of high tobacco prices. Furthermore, increases in tobacco taxation may reduce health inequalities and so contribute to justice. Nevertheless, the additional tax burden imposed on smokers who wish to continue to smoke, or are unable to quit, can be considered unjust. The autonomy of such smokers may be partly impaired. Although tobacco tax can be regarded as ethically justifiable because of its substantial overall benefit to society, there is substantial scope for policy changes to further reduce any harms and injustices for those populations who continue to smoke. PMID:15899323
Wilson, Nick; Thomson, George
Renal transplant remains the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Human organs can be harvested from 2 main sources: living and deceased donors. Preference should be given to deceased-donor transplants since they represent the only source of organs for several nonrenal solid-organ transplants and the only modality where there is no risk to the donor. Unfortunately, even the most well-developed deceased-donor program (eg, the Spanish program) can barely cover 50% of its waiting list because the demand for deceased-donor organs far exceeds supply. The success of transplant surgery has created a waiting list dilemma. Despite all efforts, deceased-donor donation cannot meet current needs and therefore, living donation demands serious consideration. This is supported by the fact that the risk to live donors is minimal, graft survival is significantly better than that of deceased-donor kidneys regardless of HLA matching, and professional ethical philosophers have fewer difficulties with voluntary living donations than with the removal of an organ from a cadaver. This is especially true in our region. Living-related donation has always been acceptable ethically. It is, however, limited by the number of willing and qualified donors, the high incidence of familial renal diseases, and donor coercion (especially in our area). Living-unrelated donation increases the availability of donors, decreases the chances of coercion, and eliminates the problem of consanguinity. It raises, however, the ethical issues of commercialism, transplant tourism, and organ trafficking. The arguments for and against living-unrelated donation are innumerable. They have been the subject of several international forums and have raised endless discussions. We have set long ago a series of rules and regulations that are in close agreement with the recent Amsterdam and Kuwait resolutions. We have been continually modifying them over the last 15 years to try to implement our ideal, which is to protect the interest of the living donor and avoid commercialism. PMID:18194113
Stephan, Antoine; Barbari, Antoine; Younan, Farida
Non-medical research involves the same issues of justice, beneficence, and respect for persons that apply to non-medical research. It also may involve risk of harm to participants, and conflicts of interest for researchers. It is therefore not possible to argue that such research should be exempt from ethical review. This paper argues that
William Galston posed two dilemmas about parental rights and education in "Liberal Purposes". The first of these arises from conflict between the proper ends of civic education in a liberal society and the values that some parents will want to honor in the way they rear their children; the second arises from conflict between how the basic
I reason here that the known folk law in biology that there is no general law in biology because of exceptions is false. The (quantitative) systems biology offers the potential to solve the Borges Dilemma, by transcending it. There have already a plenty of indications on this trend.
Because of the dilemma faced by librarians in the selection of suitable microform reading equipment for the 35 mm format, this paper is designed to analyze the problem of reader and micro-image incompatability, to provide a key for readily determining inc...
G. F. Tate
Explores the response of the CIA to public criticism when caught in the dilemma of having to put forth information to the public about its activities and yet carry out secret intelligence-gathering and covert operations. Concludes that its response, attempted cover-ups and censorship, failed due to this conflict in its position. (JC)
Gibson, Dirk C.
Purpose: To assess current education, practices, attitudes, and perceptions pertaining to ethics and professionalism in medical physics. Methods: A link to a web-based survey was distributed to the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) e-mail membership list, with a follow-up e-mail sent two weeks later. The survey included questions about ethics/professionalism education, direct personal knowledge of ethically questionable practices in clinical care, research, education (teaching and mentoring), and professionalism, respondents assessment of their ability to address ethical/professional dilemmas, and demographics. For analysis, reports of unethical or ethically questionable practices or behaviors by approximately 40% or more of respondents were classified as frequent. Results: Partial or complete responses were received from 18% (1394/7708) of AAPM members. Overall, 60% (827/1377) of the respondents stated that they had not received ethics/professionalism education during their medical physics training. Respondents currently in training were more likely to state that they received instruction in ethics/professionalism (80%, 127/159) versus respondents who were post-training (35%, 401/1159). Respondents preferred method of instruction in ethics/professionalism was structured periodic discussions involving both faculty and students/trainees. More than 90% (1271/1384) supported continuing education in ethics/professionalism and 75% (1043/1386) stated they would attend ethics/professionalism sessions at professional/scientific meetings. In the research setting, reports about ethically questionable authorship assignment were frequent (approximately 40%) whereas incidents of ethically questionable practices about human subjects protections were quite infrequent (5%). In the clinical setting, there was frequent recollection of incidents regarding lack of training, resources and skills, and error/incident reporting. In the educational setting, incidents of unethical or ethically questionable practices were only frequently recollected with respect to mentorship/guidance. With respect to professional conduct, favoritism, hostile work/learning environment, and maltreatment of subordinates and colleagues were frequently reported. A significantly larger proportion of women reported experiences with hostile work/learning environments, favoritism, poor mentorship, unfairness in educational settings, and concerns about student privacy and confidentiality. Conclusions: The survey found broad interest in ethics/professionalism topics and revealed that these topics were being integrated into the curriculum at many institutions. The incorporation of ethics and professionalism instruction into both graduate education and postgraduate training of medical physicists, and into their subsequent lifelong continuing education is important given the nontrivial number of medical physicists who had direct personal knowledge of unethical or ethically questionable incidents in clinical practice, research, education, and professionalism.
Ozturk, Naim; Armato, Samuel G.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Serago, Christopher F.; Ross, Lainie F.
Full Text Available The present work of research analyzes the evolution of ethical values among economist students during the university year. The ethical values studied have been: trust, morality, relationships, social behaviors, the immigrants as labor force, attitude towards the work place, the accepted means of social protest, environment protection, voluntary activities. Surprisingly is that certain values, attitudes didnt change at all during the analyzed period, for example the answer at the ethical dilemma, while other attitudes such as church trust, have known significant variances.
Ioana Pop Cohut
Full Text Available Freedom and responsibility in one way or another were discussed by all exorcists of non-perspective thinking, i.e., existentialists. However, the phenomenological roots of existentialist ethics still did not receive proper academic attention. In this article I explore J. P. Sartres conception of freedom and responsibility uncovering how phenomenological insights can be subordinated and sometimes guide intentions of existentialism. On the other hand, Sartres view delivers perfect opportunity to analyse conflation of phenomenological ontology and existentialist ethics. Although Sartre interprets key notions of Husserl and Heidegger primarily in phenomenological manner, the analysis leads away from classical phenomenology and opens up a new outlook at classical ethical dilemmas. Thirdly, the lack of clear ethical claims in phenomenology could be reduced by showing that the ethical potential of phenomenology was partly actualized in existentialism. Besides these primary goals the article opens up a possibility to critically compare the conception of Sartres phenomenological-existentialist ethics with other ethical and ontological perspectives, i.e., stoicism, Christianity, psychoanalysis, Marxism, Kant and etc.
Full Text Available Ethical norms for business practices differ by intensity and variety across countries so managers from multinational corporations (MNCs entering transitional economies must be able to staff subsidiaries understanding this dilemma. The aim of this article is to get a better understanding of workers behavior and attitudes with respect to business ethics in Croatia. We explored four ethics issues: (1 attitude to ethical issues in general, (2 information manipulation, (3 environmental issues and (4 law issues. The question we pose is: can workers be placed into meaningful groups by consideration of the variation in a number of economic, demographic and behavioral/attitudinal traits? Improved knowledge of ethical behavior of different groups of workers should be useful to managers and policy makers who want to encourage ethical behavior among those segments of population where it is currently rare. Results could be useful both to policy makers at the government level, and to the managers who might be worried that a low sensitivity to ethical issues could influence their firms performance.
In this presentation, I will discuss the principles of biomedical and Islamic medical ethics and an interfaith perspective on end-of-life issues. I will also discuss three cases to exemplify some of the conflicts in ethical decision-making.
Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists
Buuck, R. John
Based at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), the Ethics Education Library seeks "to connect people interested in developing new and interesting ethics training methods and programs, to disseminate best practices and tools that have already been developed, and to ultimately foster the creation of new methods and programs for teaching students about ethical issues inherent in research and practice." Visitors to the site can take advantage of the Browse feature to look for online tutorials, syllabi, teaching modules, and case studies. The case studies section has over 5,500 items, some of which are available in full and all of which have an abstract for perusal. Additionally, visitors can use the Publications area to find books, journal articles and other published materials relating to all areas of ethics education. These materials are arranged topically into sections that include bioethics, business ethics, and media ethics. Finally, visitors can scroll through the Ethics News on the right-hand side of the page for more information about current appearances of ethics in the daily news.
Discusses the need for business ethics courses in undergraduate and graduate business degree programs. Describes reasons for and objections to such programs. Explains that business ethics instruction requires varied case studies, adequate teaching materials, cooperation between philosophers and business faculty, and instructors who are forthcoming
Pamental, George L.
Comments on the original article, "Nonrational processes in ethical decision making" by M. D. Rogerson et al (see record 2011-19198-001). Among the many insightful points made by Rogerson, Gottlieb, Handelsman, Knapp, and Younggren (October 2011) regarding nonrational processes in ethical decision making, one deserves further explication: Many of
Pomerantz, Andrew M.
A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.
This discussion of the ethics of the information process provides a brief review of the process of information supply and flow, primarily in science and technology; looks at various points in the flow of information; and highlights particular ethical concerns. Facets of the process discussed in more detail include ways in which some scientists
Full Text Available This article provides an overview of cases wherein the journal Impact Factor was manipulated; and attempts explaining the possible causes thereof. The discussion is focused on the Lithuanian scientific community with some parallels drawn to a similar situation in China. The article argues that certain science administration practices may undercut the self-governance of science based on academic ethics.
The urgent messages of good business include the importance of ethical management behaviors, focus on corporate citizenship, recognition of principled leadership, moral awareness, and participation in social change. This article describes the Service Learning Metaproject (a nested set of projects required of all students) and shows what students
Full Text Available Ethics requires a critical evaluation of assumptions and arguments about norms and values; what should be done and what should not. Practitioners should practice ethically, and the professions should be at the forefront of applied ethics. There are four principles, patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice, which are guides to ethical day-to-day practice. Patient autonomy: Autonomy means self-rule by persons of their thoughts and actions. Patient autonomy requires the practitioner to realise that patients have the right to be involved in decision-making on their own behalf. Beneficence refers to the duty of the practitioner to do the best for the patient. The benefits of breast-feeding are many, and the eventual outcome on health enormous. Nevertheless, health-care workers are diffident in promoting breast-feeding, and readily accept excuses for not breast-feeding, contrary to the principle of beneficence. Non-maleficence refers to the duty of the practitioner not to do harm; it requires the practitioner to withhold harmful therapies; Vitamin E, for example, has been proven to be ineffective as an antioxidant in humans, and large doses have been proven to increase mortality. Yet these are the doses available in supermarkets and Health shops. Nutritionists should actively advise against harmful dietary supplementation. Distributive justice requires every patient to have an equal opportunity to obtain appropriate therapy. There are relatively few nutritionists and dieticians in South Africa, and indeed in the entire African continent, but proportionately even fewer in the areas of greatest need. A case illustrates the application of these ethical principles to show how they can be applied to our daily practice. Using these four principles is a practical approach to solving ethical dilemmas.
François P. R. de Villiers
Although recycling is often experienced as a moral dilemma, studies that systematically approach this issue from an ethical perspective are scarce. Moreover, previous studies have explored recycling by mainly using single ethical constructs, such as moral norms, values or obligations, rarely approaching it as an ethical decision-making process. Our study takes a more holistic approach and integrates the recycling literature with business ethics theory in order to develop a conceptual model of ethical decision making involved in recycling. The model is based on Jones' issue-contingent model and its key concept, that is, moral intensity, which we extend by adding altruism as an important personality trait that influences pro-social behaviour. The data were collected from a sample of 367 adult consumers, representative of the Slovenian population by gender and age. The hypotheses were tested using structural equation modelling. The results of our study confirmed the relationships between three key facets of ethical decision making: moral recognition, moral judgment and moral intention. Higher levels of moral recognition were found to lead to more positive moral judgments, which in turn positively influenced the formation of intentions to recycle. Moreover, moral intensity was found to be a significant predictor of moral recognition and moral judgment, while altruism was found to be a significant predictor of moral recognition. These findings hold important implications for public policy makers and social marketers who have to consider not only the consumer characteristics but also the issue characteristics in seeking to understand and influence consumer recycling. Copyright Â© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Culiberg, Barbara; Bajde, Domen
Full Text Available With the recent multiplication of traditional and electronic venues for publishing in ethnobiology, the social sciences, the life sciences, and related fields, it is increasingly important that authors practice self-diligence to ensure that the contents of their publications meet criteria of veracity and ethical soundness. Although the peer-review process encourages high standards, it is an insufficient means for verifying the ethical worthiness of most publications. The ethical merits of published research derive from a cumulative process including formulating a research design, obtaining permissions, collecting and analyzing data, and finally composing and submitting a manuscript. Unfortunately, there is no failsafe ethical gatekeeper at any stage of the process. The importance of ethical publishing is all the more important in the field of ethnobiology, as professionals in the field often cross the intellectual and methodological boundaries between disciplines, and their research often involves multiple stakeholders in widespread jurisdictions.
James R. Welch
Full Text Available The ethical operation model demonstrated four different types of the ethics by ethical leadership and catalyticmechanics. The objective of this paper was examined the different types ethical operation model but also furtherexplore the models antecedents and consequences. The research gap focused on the behavior side of thepractices of the ethics was included in the consequences variables in the paper. We also move further to explorethe antecedents of the ethical operation model. As to the research methods, in the first study, we adopted casemethod of carrying out in-depth case studies. To explore the theoretical relationship more deeply, this researchwas done by conducted survey in the second study. The author collected data from various sources, but notwanting to be limited by the data provided in case study, this paper also collected data via a survey. Efforts weremade to collect the data from multiple sources to avoid the possibility of common method biases. The empiricalresults demonstrated that the organization characteristics and leaders characteristics influence the ethicalleadership and catalytic mechanism further influence the adoptive of the different type of the ethical operationmodel. And conclude that different types of ethical operation affect the degree of school administrative ethics.
Examines reasons for the increasing demand for ethical behavior in organizations. Highlights include the organization, wholeness, and shared values; values, morals, organizational ethics, and value-based leadership; and ethical accounting, based on the Ethical Accounting Statement developed in Denmark. (LRW)
Pruzan, Peter; Thyssen, Ole
As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency and the regularity of such a phenomenon is both hard to verify and, if true, difficult to explain, it seems fair to say that since the Enlightenment, an approaching fin-de-siecle has brought an increased interest in matters concerning morality and ethics.1 The present peak has in public-political discourse and some parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What is the value of value for morality and ethics?To make things a bit more precise, we can make use of the common distinction between ethics and morality, i.e. that morality is the immediate, collective and unconscious employment of morals, whereas ethics is the systematic, individual and conscious reflections of morals and morality.2 The main question is then, what the use of `value' as the key-term in moral discourses means to morality as such. Accepting ethics as a part of morality - since one cannot be moral without sometimes reflecting on the validity of the morality employed andexperienced - I have attempted to answer this question by investigating what the use of the term `value' leads to in ethical discourses, i.e., what moral implications it has for ethics to focus on the concept of value.
This study examines the ethical dimensions of public health communication, with a focus on antismoking public service announcements (PSAs). The content analysis of 826 television ads from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Media Campaign Resource Center is an empirical testing of Baker and Martinson's (2001) TARES Test that directly examines persuasive messages for truthfulness, authenticity, respect, equity, and social responsibility. In general, the antismoking ads score highly on ethicality. There are significant relationships between ethicality and message attributes (thematic frame, emotion appeal, source, and target audience). Ads that portrayed smoking as damaging to health and socially unacceptable score lower in ethicality than ads that focus on tobacco industry manipulation, addiction, dangers of secondhand smoke, and cessation. Emotion appeals of anger and sadness are associated with higher ethicality than shame and humor appeals. Ads targeting teen/youth audiences score lower on ethicality than ads targeting adult and general audiences. There are significant differences in ethicality based on source; ads produced by the CDC rate higher in ethicality than other sources. Theoretical implications and practical recommendations are discussed. PMID:20390977
Lee, Seow Ting; Cheng, I-Huei
The observed cooperation on the level of genes, cells, tissues, and individuals has been the object of intense study by evolutionary biologists, mainly because cooperation often flourishes in biological systems in apparent contradiction to the selfish goal of survival inherent in Darwinian evolution. In order to resolve this paradox, evolutionary game theory has focused on the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), which incorporates the essence of this conflict. Here, we encode strategies for the iterated...
Iliopoulos, Dimitris; Hintze, Arend; Adami, Christoph
This article describes how ethical guidelines have been applied while interviewing psychiatric patients who were recovering from mental illness, especially from psychosis, to allow nurses to understand these patients' experiences. Because psychiatric patients are vulnerable, their participation in research involves ethical dilemmas, such as voluntary consent, legal capacity to consent, freedom of choice, and sufficient knowledge and comprehension. The first part of this article describes the most important ethical guidelines concerning human research. These have been published by different organizations, departments, committees and commissions for the purpose of protecting human rights and dignity whenever research participants are vulnerable persons or their capacity to consent is limited. At present, however, no special regulations govern research involving adults who have been diagnosed with a condition characterized by mental impairment. Furthermore, a relatively small body of research has documented the effects of various disorders (e.g. psychiatric conditions) on decision-making capacity per se. One basic moral and policy question is whether these individuals should ever be involved in research. The second part of this article concentrates on how the investigator made sure that participating patients had understood their role in this particular piece of nursing research. During the interviews the investigator noticed that some ethical dilemmas required further study and debate because of the lack of consensus on the proposed regulatory provisions on research involving institutionalized persons and their ability to make an informed and voluntary decision. PMID:16004087
Koivisto, K; Janhonen, S; Latvala, E; Väisänen, L
The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...
Hennink, Monique M
Inspired by the realistic process of taking decisions in social life, we have proposed a repeated thinking mechanism in the evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game where players are denoted by the vertices and play games with their direct neighbors. Under our mechanism, a player i will randomly select a neighbor j and then deliberate for M times before strategy updating. It will remain unchanged if not all M considerations suggest it to learn the strategy of j. We mainly focus on the evolution of cooperation in the systems. Interestingly, we find that the cooperation level fC is remarkably promoted and fC has a monotonic dependence on the caution parameter M, indicating that being cautious facilitates the emergence and persistence of cooperation. We give a simple but clear explanation for this cooperation promotion via detecting the cooperator-defector transition process. Moreover, the robustness of this mechanism is also examined on different noise levels and game models. (paper)
Full Text Available This paper represents a case study of the types of fallacies that may occur in the argumentation stage of an ethical dispute over abortion. The theoretical framework I use is the pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation (van Eemeren and Grootendorst 1992, 2004 which conceives of fallacies as violations of the rules for critical discussion. I will focus on the fallacies resulting from the violation of the relevance rule in two fragments of argumentative texts illustrating opposing positions on abortion. I claim that these fallacies function as winning strategies in the ethical dispute in case.
Ethics and ethical behavior are issues which are increasingly being focused on the business community today. People are becoming more concerned about what is actuall...
Md. Abdul Jalil; Ferdous Azam; Muhammad Khalilur Rahman
Prospective teachers are involved in a process of induction into a culture of teaching that has rules, or codes of conduct for engaging in teaching practice. This same culture of teaching exists within a larger culture of schooling that also has values and norms for behaviors, that over time have become institutionalized. Teacher educators are faced with the challenging task of preparing preservice teachers to resolve dilemmas that arise from conflicts between the pressure to adopt traditional teaching practices of schooling, or to adopt inquiry-based teaching practices from their university methods classes. One task for researchers in teacher education is to define with greater precision what factors within the culture of schooling hinder or facilitate implementation of inquiry-based methods of science teaching in schools. That task is the focus of this study. A qualitative study was undertaken using a naturalistic research paradigm introduced by Lincoln and Guba in 1985. Participant observation, interviews, discourse analysis of videotapes of lessons from the methods classroom and written artifacts produced by prospective teachers during the semester formed the basis of a grounded theory based on inductive analysis and emergent design. Unstructured interviews were used to negotiate outcomes with participants. Brief case reports of key participants were also written. This study identified three factors that facilitated or hindered the prospective teachers in this research success in implementing inquiry-based science teaching in their field placement classrooms: (a) the culture of teaching/teacher role-socialization, (b) the culture of schooling and its resistance to change, and (c) the culture of teacher education, especially in regards to grades and academic standing. Some recommendations for overcoming these persistent obstacles to best practice in elementary science teaching include: (a) preparing prospective teachers to understand and cope with change processes, (b) to understand the nature of teaching and schooling, and (c) to understand the nature of teacher education itself through explicit discourse about these topics. In addition, development of greater partnerships among university faculty and schools though Partnership School models and other community-building efforts can afford prospective teachers more opportunities to enter the discourse; perhaps even as change agents.
Sullivan, Sherry Elaine